Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.
Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923
Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.
Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…
Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.
The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.
Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A
An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns.
Vaccaro, Joan A; Huffman, Fatma G
Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US adults ≥ 21 years were assessed from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. The participants included Black non-Hispanics, Mexican-American and White non-Hispanics who signed an informed consent form for the interview and who completed the in-person 24-h recall. Micronutrient intakes were based on the Institute of Medicines' classifications of recommended dietary allowances specific for age and gender. Likelihood of many micronutrient insufficiencies was associated with being female, over 65 years, having diabetes and minority status. Younger and female adults had a greater likelihood of iron insufficiency than male and older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the intersection of age, gender and race in setting policies for micronutrient deficiency screening, particularly in young female adults and minorities.
Chlebowski, R T; Haque, R; Hedlin, H; Col, N; Paskett, E; Manson, J E; Kubo, J T; Johnson, K C; Wactawski-Wende, J; Pan, K; Anderson, G
In early adjuvant breast cancer trial reports, aromatase inhibitors more effectively reduced breast recurrence with lower risk of thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer than tamoxifen, while aromatase inhibitors had higher fracture and cardiovascular disease risk. We used data from updated patient-level meta-analyses of adjuvant trials in analyses to summarize the benefits and risks of these agents in various clinical circumstances. Baseline incidence rates for health outcomes by age and race/ethnicity, absent aromatase inhibitor, or tamoxifen use were estimated from the Women's Health Initiative. Aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen effects on distant recurrence were obtained from a meta-analysis of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) and Breast International Group (Big-1-98) clinical trials. Impact on other health outcomes were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials comparing aromatase inhibitor to tamoxifen use and from placebo-controlled chemoprevention trials. All health outcomes were given equal weight when modeling net benefit/risk for aromatase inhibitor compared to tamoxifen use by breast cancer recurrence risk, age (decade), race/ethnicity, hysterectomy (yes/no), and by prior myocardial infarction. Over a 10-year period, the benefit/risk index was more favorable for aromatase inhibitor than for tamoxifen as adjuvant breast cancer therapy in almost all circumstances regardless of patient age, race/ethnicity, breast cancer recurrence risk, or presence or absence of a uterus. Only in older women with prior myocardial infarction and low recurrence risk was an advantage for tamoxifen seen. Using a benefit/risk index for endocrine adjuvant breast cancer therapy in postmenopausal women, benefit was higher for aromatase inhibitor use in almost all circumstances.
Siegel, Michael; Ayers, Amanda J.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.
Aim No previous national study has reported the prevalence of alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by demographic characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the alcohol brand preferences among underage drinkers in different demographic categories. Method We administered an online survey to a national sample of 1,031 underage youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. The sample was recruited from a previously established internet survey panel. The main outcome measure was the estimated 30-day consumption prevalence for each of 898 brands by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results Two beer brands—Bud Light and Budweiser—are uniformly popular among underage drinkers, regardless of age, gender, or race/ethnicity. There are several hard liquor brands whose use increases markedly with age. Two flavored alcoholic beverages sharing the names of hard liquor brands—Smirnoff and Bacardi—are more popular with older youth. Some flavored alcoholic beverages are about twice as popular among female underage drinkers. There are 12 alcohol brands that are uniquely popular among Black underage drinkers, and these brands are heavily promoted in urban music. Conclusion There are differential patterns of brand-specific alcohol use among underage drinkers. PMID:26557044
Ellison, Christopher G.; Burdette, Amy M.; Wilcox, W. Bradford
A substantial body of research has shown that relationship quality tends to be (a) lower among racial and ethnic minorities and (b) higher among more religious persons and among couples in which partners share common religious affiliations, practices, and beliefs. However, few studies have examined the interplay of race or ethnicity and religion…
Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.
Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…
Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil
Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716
Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil
Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies.
... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex âIncidence rateâ means how many people out ... individual years. Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex From 1999â2013, the rate of people dying ...
... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex âIncidence rateâ means how many people out ... individual years. Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex From 1999â2013, the rate of people dying ...
Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia
When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…
Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori
Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…
Wolfle, James D.; Williams, Mitchell R.
This research study examined the 2006 cohort of First-Time-in-College students from all 23 community colleges in Virginia. The goal was to examine fall-to-fall persistence and success in the first college-level mathematics course. Predictor variables used were developmental status, age, gender, and race and ethnicity of the student. Interaction…
Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole
A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N…
Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad
Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…
Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.
Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51 and older from the 1998 to 2006 Health and Retirement Study. Multilevel models and a cohort-sequential design were applied to quantitatively depict the age norm of physical disability after age 50. Results: Adults with diabetes not only experience greater levels of physical disability but also faster rates of deterioration over time. This pattern is net of attrition, time-invariant sociodemographic factors, and time-varying chronic disease conditions. Differences in physical disability between adults with and without diabetes were more pronounced in women, non-White, and those of lower education. The moderating effects of gender and education remained robust even after controlling for selected covariates in the model. Implications: This study highlighted the consistently greater development of disability over time in adults with diabetes and particularly in those who are women, non-White, or adults of lower education. Future studies are recommended to examine the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of diabetes on physical disability by gender and education. PMID:20713455
... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...
Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.
Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013
Whaley, Arthur L.
Ethnicity/race is a much-studied variable in epidemiology. There has been little consensus about what self-reported ethnicity/race represents, but it is a measure of some combination of genetic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. The present article will attempt to: 1.) Elucidate the limitations of contemporary discourse on ethnicity/race that emphasizes the genetic and socioeconomic dimensions as competing explanatory frameworks; 2.) Demonstrate how considerable attention to the cultural dimension facilitates understanding of race differences in health-related outcomes; and 3.) Discuss interpretations of disparities in health status of African Americans versus European Americans from an ethical perspective. A major challenge to the discourse on ethnicity/race and health being limited to socioeconomic and genetic considerations is the lack of attention to the third alternative of a cultural perspective. The combined cultural ideologies of individualism and racism undermine the utility of epidemiologic research in health promotion and disease prevention campaigns aimed at reducing the racial gaps in health status. An ethical analysis supplements the cultural perspective. Ethics converge with culture on the notion of values influencing the study of ethnicity/race in epidemiology. A cultural approach to the use of ethnicity/race in epidemiologic research addresses methodological limitations, public health traditions, and ethical imperatives. PMID:12934873
The Childhood Immunization Initiative (CII), implemented in 1993, is an intensive program to increase vaccination coverage among preschool-aged children and to reduce or eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases. In 1996, national coverage goals were achieved for 2-year-old children for the most critical doses of each routinely recommended vaccine. Disparities in vaccination coverage have been documented previously among different racial/ethnic groups. This report presents findings from CDC's National Immunization Survey (NIS), which document progress toward achieving the 1996 CII vaccination coverage goals by racial/ethnic group and by level of poverty. The findings indicate that, for each of five racial/ethnic groups, most of the national CII vaccination coverage goals were met and that, based on poverty level, all the goals were met for children living at or above the poverty level, and two of the five goals were met for children living below the poverty level.
Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole
A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.
Ross, E. Wayne, Ed.; Pang, Valerie Ooka, Ed.
This book moves beyond traditional thinking and approaches to multicultural education to more accurately reflect the dramatically changing circumstances faced by North American schools in an age of globalization. The volumes address ways in which race and ethnicity affect learning across the life span, at all levels of formal education as well as…
Hummer, Robert A.; Hamilton, Erin R.
Robert Hummer and Erin Hamilton note that the prevalence of fragile families varies substantially by race and ethnicity. African Americans and Hispanics have the highest prevalence; Asian Americans, the lowest; and whites fall somewhere in the middle. The share of unmarried births is lower among most foreign-born mothers than among their U.S.-born…
Berger, Martin D.; Yang, Dongyun; Sunakawa, Yu; Zhang, Wu; Ning, Yan; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Okazaki, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yuji; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Schirripa, Marta; Lenz, Annika Medea; Bohanes, Pierre; Barzi, Afsaneh; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Hanna, Diana L.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef
Most studies report on colon and rectal cancers collectively, even though biologic and prognostic differences exist between these disease entities. Here, we investigated the effects of sex, age, and ethnicity/race on rectal cancer (RC) mortality by stage focusing on differences before and after 2004. Using the SEER database, we identified 105,511 patients diagnosed with RC from 1988-2012. Main outcomes were disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS). In patients with stage I-III RC, women achieved a longer DSS (HR 0.87, P < 0.001) than men, independent of age, from 1988-2012. In stage IV disease, the sex disparity favoring women was limited to the age 18-44 yr cohort (DSS HR 0.79, P < 0.001). The sex difference in DSS (Pinteraction = 0.009) was significantly reduced from 2004 to 2012 across all ages. Hispanics and Native Americans with locoregional RC had inferior DSS relative to Whites from 1988-2003, but these differences were not evident from 2004-2012 (Pinteraction = 0.001). Additionally, Asians with stage I-III RC had superior DSS from 2004 on compared to Whites. Mortality in African American patients improved modestly overall and remained significantly higher than other ethnicities/races across all stages. Sex disparities have narrowed in patients with metastatic RC, but persist in patients with stage I-III disease. These differences are most evident among young patients (18-44 years), where sex disparities have even widened in stage I-III disease. While outcomes have improved for Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans with stage I-III rectal cancer, black-white disparities remain in all disease stages. PMID:27449091
Okech, Allan P.
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in
Filice, Clara E; Joynt, Karen E
Racial and ethnic disparities are observed in the health status and health outcomes of Medicare beneficiaries. Reducing these disparities is a national priority, and having high-quality data on individuals' race and ethnicity is critical for researchers working to do so. However, using Medicare data to identify race and ethnicity is not straightforward. Currently, Medicare largely relies on Social Security Administration data for information about Medicare beneficiary race and ethnicity. Directly self-reported race and ethnicity information is collected for subsets of Medicare beneficiaries but is not explicitly collected for the purpose of populating race/ethnicity information in the Medicare administrative record. As a consequence of historical data collection practices, the quality of Medicare's administrative data on race and ethnicity varies substantially by racial/ethnic group; the data are generally much more accurate for whites and blacks than for other racial/ethnic groups. Identification of Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander beneficiaries has improved through use of an imputation algorithm recently applied to the Medicare administrative database. To improve the accuracy of race/ethnicity data for Medicare beneficiaries, researchers have developed techniques such as geocoding and surname analysis that indirectly assign Medicare beneficiary race and ethnicity. However, these techniques are relatively new and data may not be widely available. Understanding the strengths and limitations of different approaches to identifying race and ethnicity will help researchers choose the best method for their particular purpose, and help policymakers interpret studies using these measures.
Rodgers, Allen L
Using combinations of the key words urolithiasis, kidney stones, race, ethnicity, population group in Google Scholar and Pubmed, a literature search identified 40 articles. Of these, 33 satisfied the principal inclusion criterion of studies involving comparison of at least two groups in which there is a perceived difference in stone occurrence. Studies were classified as "weak" (no attempt to account for inter-racial or inter-ethnic group differences in stone occurrence), "soft" (speculative explanations reached by default) or "hard" (explanations based on empirically measured lithogenic risk factors). Only 12 studies (36 %) fell into the latter category. Among these, a wide diversity of lithogenic factors was invoked to explain inter-group differences in stone rates. Traditional urinary physicochemical risk factors do not convincingly account for these differences. Studies have failed to yield a consolidated and unifying theory which compellingly explains racial and ethnic differences in urolithiasis.
Long Island, New York, including Nassau and Suffolk Counties, is a patchwork of small ethnically, racially, and economically segregated towns organized into 126 school districts. School funding patterns and problems conform to racial, ethnic, and class lines. Predominantly minority school districts generally have higher property tax rates, fewer…
Hummer, Robert A; Hamilton, Erin R
Robert Hummer and Erin Hamilton note that the prevalence of fragile families varies substantially by race and ethnicity. African Americans and Hispanics have the highest prevalence; Asian Americans, the lowest; and whites fall somewhere in the middle. The share of unmarried births is lower among most foreign-born mothers than among their U.S.-born ethnic counterparts. Immigrant-native differences are particularly large for Asians, whites, and blacks. The authors also find racial and ethnic differences in the composition and stability of fragile families over time. Although most parents of all racial and ethnic groups are romantically involved at the time of their child's birth, African American women are less likely to be in a cohabiting relationship than are white and Hispanic mothers. Over time, these racial and ethnic differences become more pronounced, with African American mothers having the lowest rates of marriage and cohabitation and the highest breakup rates, and Mexican immigrant mothers having the highest rates of marriage and cohabitation and the lowest breakup rates. Fragile families have far fewer socioeconomic resources than married families, though resources vary within fragile families by race and ethnicity. White mothers, in general, have more socioeconomic resources than black, Mexican American, and Mexican immigrant mothers; they are more likely to have incomes above the poverty limit, more likely to own a car, less likely to have children from a prior relationship, and more likely to report living in a safe neighborhood. Access to health care and child care follows a similar pattern. The exception is education; black and white unmarried mothers are equally likely to have finished high school, and Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers are less likely to have done so. The authors argue that socioeconomic differences are by far the biggest driver of racial and ethnic differences in marriage and family stability, and they support reforms
National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012
This "Details from the Dashboard" report examines race/ethnicity breakouts for public charter schools and traditional public schools at the state and the school district level. The data in this report indicate that in the large majority of states, the race/ethnicity student demographics of charter schools are almost identical to those of the…
Feldmeyer, Ben; Steffensmeier, Darrell
In this report, we assess total and race/ethnicity-disaggregated patterns and temporal trends in elderly homicide (age 55-74) compared with younger age groups for the 1985-to-2009 period. To do this, we use California arrest statistics that provide annual homicide figures by race and ethnicity (including a Hispanic identifier) and by age. Major aims of our analysis are to establish whether (a) elderly homicide rates are different/similar across race/ethnic comparisons; (b) the elderly share of homicide and age-homicide distributions more generally differ across race/ethnicity; and (c) elderly rates of homicide and the share of elderly homicide relative to younger age groups is similar or different now as compared with 20 to 30 years ago. Our analysis is important and timely because some commentators have suggested that elderly homicide levels have been rising over the past one to two decades and because there is a virtual absence of research of any sort on elderly homicide trends that involve comparisons by race and ethnicity. Key findings are that elderly shares of homicide offending relative to younger ages have not increased (or decreased), that elder homicides continue to account for a small fraction of all homicides, and that these patterns persist across race/ethnicity comparisons. PMID:25598653
Ford, Margaret C.; Gordon, Nancy P.; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R. Grant; Lo, Joan C.
Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3–5, 44.2% were 6–11, and 41.6% were 12–17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents. PMID:26885385
From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.
Jain, Ram B
Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 19 urinary metabolites of 15 parent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Smokers were found to have statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than nonsmokers for selected urinary metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene-styrene, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Female nonsmokers were found to have lower adjusted levels of selected metabolites of acrolein, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide than male nonsmokers but female smokers had higher levels of each of these metabolites than male smokers. In addition, female smokers also had higher adjusted levels of selected metabolites of 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, and ethylbenzene-styrene. Thus, constituents other than VOCs in tobacco smoke affect excretion of certain VOC metabolites differently among males and females. Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) had higher adjusted levels than non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) for 8 metabolites. NHB had statistically significantly lower adjusted levels than Hispanics for 5 VOC metabolites and lower levels than non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) for 6 metabolites. Hispanics had statistically significantly higher levels than NHAS for 5 metabolites. Levels of 11 of the 19 metabolites analyzed increased with increase in age. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with increased levels of 9 metabolites. Increase in the number of days tobacco products were used during the last five days was associated with increased levels of 12 of the 19 VOC metabolites.
Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Hayford, Sarah R
Despite extensive research examining the correlates of unintended fertility, it remains a puzzle as to why racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to experience an unintended birth than non-Hispanic whites. This paper focuses on sexual literacy, a potential precursor of unintended fertility. Analyses use a unique dataset of unmarried young adults aged 18-29, the 2009 Survey of Unmarried Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Practices, to examine beliefs regarding pregnancy risks, pregnancy fatalism, and contraceptive side effects. At the bivariate level, foreign-born Hispanics hold more erroneous beliefs about the risk of pregnancy than other groups, and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely to believe in contraceptive side effects than non-Hispanic whites. Both foreign-born Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to hold a fatalistic view towards pregnancy. Race-ethnic differences are attenuated for pregnancy misperceptions and fatalism in multivariate models controlling for sources of health information, sexual and fertility experiences, and sociodemographic characteristics. However, non-Hispanic blacks remain more likely than non-Hispanic whites to believe there is a high chance of reduced sexual desire and serious health consequences when using hormonal contraceptives. These differences may contribute to race-ethnic variation in contraceptive use and, ultimately, unintended fertility.
Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna
We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition, and health care referral after reading a vignette concerning a patient of different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorder across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referral by student participants were found. PMID:24044598
Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C
Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions.
Differences in micronutrient status are reported to contribute to race/ethnic differences in chronic diseases. Diseases related to vitamin K are reported to differ by race/ethnicity, but it is unclear if circulating vitamin K concentrations also differ race/ethnically. We examined race/ethnic diffe...
Grandner, Michael A.; Petrov, Megan E. Ruiter; Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Jackson, Nicholas; Platt, Alec; Patel, Nirav P.
Study Objectives: Growing evidence indicates sleep is a major public health issue. Race/ethnicity and socioeconomics may contribute to sleep problems. This study assessed whether sleep symptoms were more prevalent among minorities and/or the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Epidemiologic survey. Patients or Participants: 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 4,081). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Sociodemographics included age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and immigration. Socioeconomics included poverty, education, private insurance, and food insecurity. Sleep symptoms assessed were sleep latency > 30 min, difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, early morning awakenings, non-restorative sleep, daytime sleepiness, snorting/gasping, and snoring. Decreased reported problems for most symptoms were found among minorities, immigrants, and lower education levels. In general, in fully adjusted models, long sleep latency was associated with female gender, being black/African American, lower education attainment, no private insurance, and food insecurity. Difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, early morning awakenings, and non-restorative sleep were also associated with female gender and food insecurity. Daytime sleepiness was seen in female and divorced respondents. Snorting/gasping was more prevalent among male, other-Hispanic/Latino, and 9th- to 11th-grade-level respondents. Snoring was prevalent among male, other-Hispanic/Latino, less-educated, and food-insecure respondents. Conclusions: Sleep symptoms were associated with multiple sociodemographic and economic factors, though these relationships differed by predictor and sleep outcome. Also, reports depended on question wording. Citation: Grandner MA; Petrov MER; Rattanaumpawan P; Jackson N; Platt A; Patel NP. Sleep symptoms, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic position. J Clin Sleep Med 2013
Manly, Jennifer J
A crucial issue for health researchers is how to measure health and health-related behaviors across racial/ethnic groups. This commentary outlines an approach that involves the deconstruction of race/ethnicity, which clarifies the independent influences of acculturation, quality of education, socioeconomic class, and racial socialization on outcomes of interest. Research on the influence of these variables on health outcomes in general, and cognitive test performance specifically, is presented. This research indicates that when variables such as quality of education, wealth, and perceived racism are taken into account, the effect of race/ethnicity on health outcomes is greatly reduced. In other words, race/ethnicity serves as a proxy for these more meaningful variables, and explicit measurement of these constructs will improve research of health within majority and minority ethnic groups.
Gravlee, Clarence C; Sweet, Elizabeth
Researchers across the health sciences are engaged in a vigorous debate over the role that the concepts of "race" and "ethnicity" play in health research and clinical practice. Here we contribute to that debate by examining how the concepts of race, ethnicity, and racism are used in medical-anthropological research. We present a content analysis of Medical Anthropology and Medical Anthropology Quarterly, based on a systematic random sample of empirical research articles (n = 283) published in these journals from 1977 to 2002. We identify both differences and similarities in the use of race, ethnicity, and racism concepts in medical anthropology and neighboring disciplines, and we offer recommendations for ways that medical anthropologists can contribute to the broader debate over racial and ethnic inequalities in health.
Ford, Marvella E; Kelly, P Adam
Objectives Veterans Affairs (VA) patient populations are becoming increasingly diverse in race and ethnicity. The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the importance of using consistent standards of conceptualizing and categorizing race and ethnicity in health services research, (2) provide an overview of different methods currently used to assess race and ethnicity in health services research, and (3) suggest assessment methods that could be incorporated into health services research to ensure accurate assessment of disease prevalence and incidence, as well as accounts of appropriate health services use, in patients with different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Design A critical review of published literature was used. Principal Findings Race is a complex, multidimensional construct. For some individuals, institutionalized racism and internalized racism are intertwined in the effects of race on health outcomes and health services use. Ethnicity is most commonly used as a social–political construct and includes shared origin, shared language, and shared cultural traditions. Acculturation appears to affect the strength of the relationships among ethnicity, health outcomes, and health services use. Conclusions Improved and consistent methods of data collection need to be developed for use by VA researchers across the country. VA research sites with patients representing specific population groups could use a core set of demographic items in addition to expanded modules designed to assess the ethnic diversity within these population groups. Improved and consistent methods of data collection could result in the collection of higher-quality data, which could lead to the identification of race- and ethnic-specific health services needs. These investigations could in turn lead to the development of interventions designed to reduce or eliminate these disparities. PMID:16179001
This report discusses school fall Enrollment of Montana based on race/ethnicity for the 2003-2004 school year. Sections include: (1) Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity Overview; and (2) Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity-2003-04 School Year. Fall enrollment data are collected by school, grade, gender, and race/ethnicity…
Howes, Carollee; Guerra, Alison Wishard; Fuligni, Allison; Zucker, Eleanor; Lee, Linda; Obregon, Nora B.; Spivak, Asha
The purpose of this study was to test a model for predicting preschool-age children's behaviors with peers from dimensions of the classroom and teacher-child relationship quality when the children were from diverse race, ethnic, and home language backgrounds. Eight hundred children, (M=age 63 months, SD=8.1 months), part of the National Evaluation…
Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M; Bardone-Cone, Anna
We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition and health care referrals after subjects read a vignette concerning a patient of a different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorders across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referrals by student participants were found. [Supplemental files are available for this article. Go to the publishers's online edition of Eating Disorders for the following free supplemental resource: online appendix containing vignettes 1-3, as described in the "Methods" section].
Ellison, Christopher G; Trinitapoli, Jenny A; Anderson, Kristin L; Johnson, Byron R
The authors explored the relationship between religious involvement and intimate partner violence by analyzing data from the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households. They found that: (a) religious involvement is correlated with reduced levels of domestic violence; (b) levels of domestic violence vary by race/ethnicity; (c) the effects of religious involvement on domestic violence vary by race/ethnicity; and (d) religious involvement, specifically church attendance, protects against domestic violence, and this protective effect is stronger for African American men and women and for Hispanic men, groups that, for a variety of reasons, experience elevated risk for this type of violence.
Spanakis, Elias K.; Golden, Sherita Hill
Health disparities in diabetes and its complications and co-morbidities exist globally. A recent Endocrine Society Scientific Statement described the Health Disparities in several endocrine disorders, including type 2 diabetes. In this review we summarize that statement and provide novel updates on race/ethnic differences in children and adults with type 1 diabetes, children with type 2 diabetes and in Latino subpopulations. We also review race/ethnic differences in the epidemiology of diabetes, prediabetes, and diabetes complications and mortality in the United States and globally. Finally we discuss biological, behavioral, social, environmental, and health system contributors to diabetes disparities in order to identify areas for future preventive interventions. PMID:24037313
Blustein, David L; Murphy, Kerri A; Kenny, Maureen E; Jernigan, Maryam; Pérez-Gualdrón, Leyla; Castañeda, Tani; Koepke, Margaret; Land, Marie; Urbano, Alessandra; Davis, Ophera
This qualitative study is an exploration of 32 urban high school students' narratives about the connection between school, work, and societal expectations of their future success related to their racial and ethnic background. The sample varied along 2 contextual dimensions: participation in a psychoeducational intervention (Tools for Tomorrow) and developmental status (i.e., half the sample were 9th-grade students and the other half were 12th-grade students). Using consensual qualitative research, the narratives revealed 3 major domains: future orientation; students' perceptions of society's expectations based on race and ethnicity; and students' perception of the role of their race and ethnicity in future success. Results reveal that the majority of students endorse a connection between school and work, believe that society holds low expectations for them based on their racial and ethnic background, and cannot predict their future success based on their background.
Grandner, Michael A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Knutson, Kristen L.; Roberts, Dorothy; Jean-Louis, Girardin
Sleep represents a set of biological functions necessary for the maintenance of life. Performing these functions, though, requires that an individual engage in behaviors, which are affected by social and environmental factors. Race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position represent categories of factors that likely play a role in the experience of sleep in the community. Previous studies have suggested that racial/ethnic minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged may be more likely to experience sleep patterns that are associated with adverse health outcomes. It is possible that disparities in sleep represent a pathway by which larger disparities in health emerge. This review (1) contextualizes the concept of race/ethnicity in biomedical research, (2) summarizes previous studies that describe patterns of sleep attainment across race/ethnicity groups, (3) discusses several pathways by which race/ethnicity may be associated with sleep, (4) introduces the potential role of socioeconomic position in the patterning of sleep, and (5) proposes future research directions to address this issue. PMID:26431755
Aldana, Adriana; Byrd, Christy M.
Research has sought to understand how parents socialize their children around race and ethnicity, but few studies have considered how contexts outside the home are also important sources of socialization. In this paper we review and integrate literature on practices in school settings that have implications for ethnic-racial socialization using a…
Xanthopoulos, Melissa S; Borradaile, Kelley E; Hayes, Sharon; Sherman, Sandy; Vander Veur, Stephanie; Grundy, Karen M; Nachmani, Joan; Foster, Gary D
The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative contributions of weight status, race/ethnicity, sex, and age on body dissatisfaction in a large group of diverse children. Participants were 4th-6th graders (N=1212) in ten inner-city schools who participated in an obesity prevention study previously published. Children completed the body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), and weight status was assessed by measured weights and heights. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. Relative weight status was the strongest predictor of body dissatisfaction, followed by race/ethnicity, and sex. Body dissatisfaction was greatest in obese, Asian, and female children. Overall, results indicated that children's body dissatisfaction varies based on relative weight status, as well as race/ethnicity and sex among urban children. Results highlight the strong need for additional research so that more definitive conclusions may be drawn regarding the development of body image among diverse groups of children.
In this paper I attempt to extend the psychoanalytic conversation about race and ethnicity by discussing the intersubjectivity of race and racial difference. I present clinical material from an interracial treatment in which disclosures about race played an important role in deepening the clinical process. The resulting interactions permitted the patient to admit more of herself into the treatment space. I suggest that contemporary psychoanalytic formulations and multicultural perspectives from outside of psychoanalysis can together create more meaningful conceptualizations which take into account the lived realities of race and the ways in which these may be shaped by individual psychology.
Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael; Clancy, Margaret
Research has linked parents' educational expectations to children's educational attainment, but findings are inconsistent regarding differences in educational expectations by race and ethnicity. In addition, existing studies have focused on school-age children and their parents. In this study, we use a state representative sample to examine…
Ghorpade, Jai; Lackritz, James R.
Evaluation of peers' presentations was made by 221 students (11.68% Mexican-American, 63.55% European-American, 4.21% African-American, 13.55% Asian-American). Gender was not a factor; race/ethnicity was not a reliable predictor of ratings. Age and frequency of class participation contributed significantly to the variance in ratings. (Contains 28…
Matto, Holly C.; Naglieri, Jack A.
This study examined race and ethnic differences on the Draw A Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance (DAP:SPED; Naglieri, McNeish, & Bardos, 1991) for youths 6 though 17 years of age for 2 matched samples. Samples were drawn from the DAP:SPED nationally representative standardization sample and matched on gender, grade, and…
Hornbrook, Mark C
Background Patients are being encouraged to go online to obtain health information and interact with their health care systems. However, a 2014 survey found that less than 60% of American adults aged 65 and older use the Internet, with much lower usage among black and Latino seniors compared with non-Hispanic white seniors, and among older versus younger seniors. Objective Our aims were to (1) identify race/ethnic and age cohort disparities among seniors in use of the health plan’s patient portal, (2) determine whether race/ethnic and age cohort disparities exist in access to digital devices and preferences for using email- and Web-based modalities to interact with the health care system, (3) assess whether observed disparities in preferences and patient portal use are due simply to barriers to access and inability to use the Internet, and (4) learn whether older adults not currently using the health plan’s patient portal or website have a potential interest in doing so in the future and what kind of support might be best suited to help them. Methods We conducted two studies of seniors aged 65-79 years. First, we used administrative data about patient portal account status and utilization in 2013 for a large cohort of English-speaking non-Hispanic white (n=183,565), black (n=16,898), Latino (n=12,409), Filipino (n=11,896), and Chinese (n=6314) members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan. Second, we used data from a mailed survey conducted in 2013-2014 with a stratified random sample of this population (final sample: 849 non-Hispanic white, 567 black, 653 Latino, 219 Filipino, and 314 Chinese). These data were used to examine race/ethnic and age disparities in patient portal use and readiness and preferences for using digital communication for health-related purposes. Results Adults aged 70-74 and 75-79 were significantly less likely than 65-69 year olds to be registered to use the patient portal, and among those registered, to have used the
Arber, Ruth Eileen
New demographic patterns as well as new communication and information technologies and administrative and marketing practices have irrevocably altered schools in Australia's large cities. This study examines the ways that teachers and parents in one urban school speak about race and ethnicity in the midst of these changes. Beneath the ironic…
In this paper I suggest a technique which uses the familiar Parker Brother's game "Monopoly" to introduce core concepts of race and ethnic relations. I offer anecdotes from my classes where an abbreviated version of the game is used as an analog to highlight the sociological concepts of direct institutional discrimination, the legacy of…
Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard
Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…
Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David
The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…
Haviland, Mark G; Morales, Leo S; Dial, Thomas H; Pincus, Harold Alan
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on consumer health care satisfaction ratings. The authors analyzed national data from the 2001 National Research Corporation Healthcare Market Guide Survey (N = 99 102). Four global and 3 composite ratings were examined. In general, satisfaction ratings were high across all global and composite measures; however, Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics gave lower ratings than did whites, and African Americans gave a mix of higher and lower ratings (vs whites). Among the lowest ratings were those given by American Indians/Alaska Natives living in poverty. Race/ethnicity effects were independent of education and income. These findings are consistent with reports of continuing racial/ethnic disparities in both coverage and care. Programs to improve quality of care must specifically address these well-documented, severe, and persistent disparities.
Macchi Cassia, Viola; Luo, Lizhu; Pisacane, Antonella; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang
Despite recent advances in research on race and age biases, the question of how race and age experiences combine to affect young children's face perception remains unexplored. To fill this gap, the current study tested two ethnicities of 3-year-old children using a combined cross-race/cross-age design. Caucasian children with and without older siblings and Mainland Chinese children without older siblings were tested for their ability to discriminate adult and child Caucasian faces as well as adult and child Asian faces in both upright and inverted orientations. Children of both ethnicities manifested an own-race bias, which was confined to adult faces, and an adult face bias, which was confined to own-race faces. Likewise, sibling experience affected Caucasian children's processing of own-race child faces, but this effect did not generalize to other-race faces. Results suggest that race and age information are represented at the same hierarchical level in young children's memory.
Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.
Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390
Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.
Objective: Prior studies suggest that Black and Hispanic minority populations are exposed to greater concentrations of alcohol outlets, potentially contributing to health disparities between these populations and the White majority. We tested the alternative hypothesis that urban economic systems cause outlets to concentrate in low-income areas and, controlling for these effects, lower demand among minority populations leads to fewer outlets. Method: Market potential for alcohol sales, a surrogate for demand, was estimated from survey and census data across census block groups for 50 California cities. Hierarchical Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models then estimated relationships between observed geographic distributions of outlets and the market potential for alcohol, income, population size, and racial and ethnic composition. Results: Market potentials were significantly smaller among lower income Black, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Block groups with greater market potential and lower income had greater concentrations of outlets. When we controlled for these effects, the racial and ethnic group composition of block groups was mostly unrelated to outlet concentrations. Conclusions: Health disparities related to exposure to alcohol outlets are primarily driven by distributions of income and population density across neighborhoods. PMID:26751356
... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 1003 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION... for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and sex of the applicant on...
... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and...
... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and...
... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 1003 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION... for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and sex of the applicant on...
... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and...
... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 1003 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION... for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and sex of the applicant on...
Hernandez-Tejada, Melba Alexandra; Amstadter, Ananda; Muzzy, Wendy; Acierno, Ron
The prevalence of elder mistreatment with respect to race and ethnicity was examined in an unweighted sample of 5,777 participants (5,776 participants in weighted sample). Random Digit Dialing methodology was used to select a representative sample of community-dwelling older adults, and the survey was available in English and Spanish. Mistreatment types included emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Race and ethnicity based differences were largely absent, and the only observed increase was for physical mistreatment among Non-White older adults; however this association was not sustained in multivariate analyses controlling for income, health status, and social support. Findings are in contrast to prior reports of increased risk of mistreatment in minority populations, and point to correlated and modifiable factors of social support and poor health as targets for preventive intervention. PMID:23768412
Jackson, N; Carlisi, J; Greenway, C; Zalesnick, M
Students in four cities completed a questionnaire regarding their ethnic background and drug use patterns. From this information, comparisons in age of initial drug experimentation among ethnic groups and races were made. The results indicated significant differences in actual age of experimentation among ethnic groups, as well as differences in other general pattern relating to age of first drug use. A comparison of Whites to non-Whites showed little difference in ages of initial drug experimentation. It was concluded that ethnicity, more so than mere race, was related to age of first use of drugs.
Vanegas L, Jairo; Villalón C, Marcelo; Valenzuela Y, Carlos
Epidemiology analyzes differences in states of health and disease of populations. Public Policies are established considering inequities associated with ethnicity and race. In this context, the identification of vulnerable groups for concentration of resources is relevant. Nevertheless, the lack of a clear definition of these variables might lead to biased results and interpretations. Two problems about the use of these variables are discussed. First, lack of a measurable and objective characteristic, even considering self reference (gold standard), considering that the opinion of a person can change in time. The second problem is a consequence of the former, basing research on a poorly defined variable. Uses of ethnicity and race variables between 1920-1999 in the American Journal of Epidemiology, Health Services Research and American Journal of Public Health were reviewed. In 919 articles, 27 different names identified to describe these variables and more than half did not describe the reason to use these variables. Almost half did not describe analytical methods. Although some articles found statistically significant relationships, less than half discussed those results. It has been suggested that there is enough evidence to exclude these variables in biomedical investigations. However, others propose that they cannot be excluded, given their multidimensional condition that includes social, cultural and genetic features. Therefore, provided the lack of clear definition, the assessment of ethnicity and race effects must be done as rigorously as possible.
Wester, Kelly L.; Trepal, Heather C.
This study examined race and ethnic identity in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included freshmen at 2 universities, who were predominantly female. Final inferential statistics examined differences across Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Asian American, and Multiracial students, finding African Americans and Asian…
This paper draws on research into the teaching of "race" and ethnicity in higher education, including interviews with lecturers and students of specialist sociology of "race" options. It focuses particularly on interactional issues: the conversations conducted about "race" and ethnicity within seminar rooms were often…
Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Blood, Emily A; Milliren, Carly E; Calzo, Jerel P; Richmond, Tracy K; Gooding, Holly C; Austin, S Bryn
Obesity is a key public health issue for US youth. Previous research with primarily white samples of youth has indicated that sexual minority females have higher body mass index (BMI) and sexual minority males have lower BMI than their same-gender heterosexual counterparts, with sexual orientation differences in males increasing across adolescence. This research explored whether gender and sexual orientation differences in BMI exist in nonwhite racial/ethnic groups. Using data from Waves I-IV (1995-2009) of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,306, ages 11-34 years), we examined associations between sexual orientation and BMI (kg/m2) over time, using longitudinal linear regression models, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among males, heterosexual individuals showed greater one-year BMI gains than gay males across all race/ethnicity groups. Among females, white and Latina bisexual individuals had higher BMI than same-race/ethnicity heterosexual individuals regardless of age; there were no sexual orientation differences in black/African Americans. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI are a public health concern across race/ethnicity groups. Interventions addressing unhealthy weight gain in youth must be relevant for all sexual orientations and race/ethnicities.
Bostean, Georgiana; Roberts, Christian K.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Prelip, Michael; Peters, Anne; Belin, Thomas R.; McCarthy, William J.
Purpose This study examined how race-ethnicity, nativity, and education interact to influence disparities in cardiovascular (CV) health, a new concept defined by the American Heart Association (AHA). We assessed whether race-ethnicity and nativity disparities in CV health vary by education, and whether the foreign-born differ in CV health from their US-born race-ethnic counterparts with comparable education. Methods We used data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to determine the prevalence of optimal CV health metrics (based on selected AHA guidelines) among adults ages 25 and over (n = 42,014). We examined the interaction between education and ethnicity-nativity, comparing predicted probabilities of each CV health measure between US-born and foreign-born Whites, Asians, and Latinos. Results All groups were at high risk of suboptimal physical activity levels, fruit and vegetable and fast food consumption, and overweight/obesity. Those with higher education were generally better-off, except among Asians. Ethnicity-nativity differences were more pronounced among those with less than a college degree. The foreign-born exhibited both advantages and disadvantages in CV health compared to their US-born counterparts that varied by ethnicity-nativity. Conclusions Education influences ethnicity-nativity disparities in CV health, with most race-ethnic and nativity differences occurring among the less educated. Studies of nativity differences in CV health should stratify by education in order to adequately address SES differences. PMID:23726820
... Ethnicity, and Sex, United States, 2008â2012 The graph above shows age-adjusted incidence rates for HPV- ... were diagnosed with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. This graph was adapted from Viens LJ, Henley SJ, Watson ...
Kosoko-Lasaki, Omofolasade; Gong, Gordon; Haynatzki, Gleb; Wilson, M. Roy
BACKGROUND: Recently, some authors pooled data from studies on the Dutch, Australians and Americans of European origin in an attempt to predict the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in the United States. PURPOSE: To examine potential ethnic diversity in the prevalence of POAG among populations of the "same race." Methods: Medical literature was searched, and 11 population-based studies on populations of African origin and five on populations of European origin were identified. RESULTS: The prevalence of POAG was significantly higher in white Australians than in the Dutch (p<0.001) and was significantly lower (p<0.001) among black populations in South Africa, Nigeria, Tanzania and the United States than in Ghana, St. Lucia or Barbados. Notably, the prevalence was significantly lower in Afro Caribbeans living in London than in St. Lucia or Barbados (p<0.001). There was, however, inconsistency in the definition of POAG among the different studies. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide range in the prevalence of POAG among populations of the same "race," which might be attributed to the different methodology and definition of POAG; potential difference in social, behavioral and environmental factors; and/or genetic predisposition. Scrutiny is warranted when pooling data from different ethnic groups of the "same race" in meta-analyses. PMID:17052053
Foster, M W; Sharp, R R; Mulvihill, J J
Social categories such as race and ethnicity have long been used in interpreting patient symptoms, diagnosing disease, and predicting therapeutic response. DNA-based diagnostic tests and pharmacogenetic screens could make these uses of social categories largely irrelevant by allowing clinicians to base diagnosis and treatment decisions on the unique genetic features of individual patients. Despite this attractive vision of individualized care, however, social categories are likely to continue playing a significant role in the coming era of genetic medicine. Current uses of social categories in pharmacogenetic research, for example, illustrate how drug development and marketing will perpetuate the use of social categories such as race and ethnicity. Those uses may unintentionally blunt the precision of genetic technologies and pose new threats to socially identifiable populations. These implications suggest the need for greater caution in using social categories as indicators for specific tests or therapies and for federal legislation to protect against discriminatory uses of individuals' genetic information. In addition, more precise social classifications than those presently in use may allow us to realize the full potential of DNA-based technologies, thus minimizing social disparities in health care. Those more precise social classifications should reflect extended patient pedigrees and not the self-reported claims of racial and/or ethnic affiliation.
Rebbeck, Timothy R
Prostate cancer rates vary substantially by race, ethnicity, and geography. These disparities can be explained by variation in access to screening and treatment, variation in exposure to prostate cancer risk factors, and variation in the underlying biology of prostate carcinogenesis (including genomic propensity of some groups to develop biologically aggressive disease). It is clear that access to screening and access to treatment are critical influencing factors of prostate cancer rates; yet, even among geographically diverse populations with similar access to care (eg, low- and medium-income countries), African descent men have higher prostate cancer rates and poorer prognosis. To date, the proportion of prostate cancer that can be explained by environmental exposures is small, and the effect of these factors across different racial, ethnic, or geographical populations is poorly understood. In contrast, prostate cancer has one of the highest heritabilities of all major cancers. Numerous genetic susceptibility markers have been identified from family-based studies, candidate gene association studies, and genome-wide association studies. Some prostate cancer loci, including the risk loci found at chromosome 8q24, have consistent effects in all groups studied to date. However, replication of many susceptibility loci across race, ethnicity, and geography remains limited, and additional studies in certain populations (particularly in men of African descent) are needed to better understand the underlying genetic basis of prostate cancer.
Markus, Hazel Rose
For more than a century, hundreds of psychologists have studied race and ethnicity. Yet this scholarship, like American culture at large, has been ambivalent, viewing race and ethnicity both as sources of pride, meaning, and motivation as well as sources of prejudice, discrimination, and inequality. Underlying this ambivalence is widespread confusion about what race and ethnicity are and why they matter. To address this ambivalence and confusion, as well as to deepen the American conversation about race and ethnicity, the article first examines the field's unclear definitions and faulty assumptions. It then offers an integrated definition of race and ethnicity--dynamic sets of historically derived and institutionalized ideas and practices--while noting that race, although often used interchangeably with ethnicity, indexes an asymmetry of power and privilege between groups. Further, it shows how psychology's model of people as fundamentally independent, self-determining entities impedes the field's--and the nation's--understanding of how race and ethnicity influence experience and how the still-prevalent belief that race and ethnicity are biological categories hinders a more complete understanding of these phenomena. Five first propositions of a unified theory of race and ethnicity are offered.
Thernstrom, Abigail, Ed.; Thernstrom, Stephan, Ed.
This collection of papers includes: "The Demography of Racial and Ethnic Groups" (Stephan Thernstrom); "Immigration and Group Relations" (Reed Ueda); "What Americans Think about Race and Ethnicity" (Everett C. Ladd); "Wresting with Stigma" (Shelby Steele); "Residential Segregation Trends" (William…
Seo, Dong-Chul; Choe, Siyoung; Torabi, Mohammad R
Between body mass index (BMI) ≥30 and waist circumference (WC) ≥102/88cm, we investigated which of the two measures is a better predictor of two of the most common chronic diseases - diabetes mellitus and hypertension while also examining differential association by gender, age group, and race/ethnicity. Meta-analysis was conducted for all longitudinal studies with at least 12months of follow-up published up to April 2015. Ratio of relative risk (rRR) and relative risk of diseases were computed and compared by baseline obesity measurement. The final sample included 23 longitudinal observation studies involving 62 study arms with 259,200 individuals. WC≥102/88cm was a better predictor than BMI≥30 for development of diabetes (rRR=0.81, 95% CI=0.68-0.96), but not for hypertension (rRR=0.92, 95% CI=0.80-1.06). Subgroup analyses showed WC≥102/88cm was a better predictor for diabetes in women than men, and for ages 60 and older than other ages. Only WC≥102/88cm, not BMI≥30, predicted development of hypertension among Hispanic/Latinos. Neither BMI≥30 nor WC≥102/88cm were significant predictors of hypertension when age group was controlled. Central obesity may be a more serious risk factor for diabetes development in women and for older ages. The predictive power of BMI≥30 or WC≥102/88cm in hypertension development should not be emphasized as either could mask the effect of age.
Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Morales, Leo S; Elliott, Marc; Spritzer, Karen; Marshall, Grant; Hays, Ron D
Objective Consumer assessments of health care provide important information about how well health plans and clinicians meet the needs of the people they serve. The purpose of this study was to examine whether consumer reports and ratings of care in Medicaid managed care vary by race/ethnicity and language. Data Sources Data were derived from the National CAHPS ® Benchmarking Database (NCBD) 3.0 and consisted of 49,327 adults enrolled in Medicaid managed care plans in 14 states in 2000. Data Collection The CAHPS® data were collected by telephone and mail. Surveys were administered in Spanish and English. The response rate across plans was 38 percent. Study Design Data were analyzed using linear regression models. The dependent variables were CAHPS ® 2.0 global rating items (personal doctor, specialist, health care, health plan) and multi-item reports of care (getting needed care, timeliness of care, provider communication, staff helpfulness, plan service). The independent variables were race/ethnicity, language spoken at home (English, Spanish, Other), and survey language (English or Spanish). Survey respondents were assigned to one of nine racial/ethnic categories based on Hispanic ethnicity and race: White, Hispanic/Latino, Black/African American, Asian/Pacific Islanders, American Indian/Alaskan native, American Indian/White, Black/White, Other Multiracial, Other Race/Ethnicity. Whites, Asians, and Hispanics were further classified into language subgroups based on the survey language and based on the language primarily spoken at home. Covariates included gender, age, education, and self-rated health. Principal Findings Racial/ethnic and linguistic minorities tended to report worse care than did whites. Linguistic minorities reported worse care than did racial and ethnic minorities. Conclusions This study suggests that racial and ethnic minorities and persons with limited English proficiency face barriers to care, despite Medicaid-enabled financial access
Patzer, Rachel E.; McClellan, William M.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) influences disease incidence and contributes to poor health outcomes throughout an individual's life course across a wide range of populations. Low SES is associated with increased incidence of chronic kidney disease, progression to end-stage renal disease, inadequate dialysis treatment, reduced access to kidney transplantation, and poor health outcomes. Similarly, racial and ethnic disparities, which in the USA are strongly associated with lower SES, are independently associated with poor health outcomes. In this Review, we discuss individual-level and group-level SES factors, and the concomitant role of race and ethnicity that are associated with and mediate the development of chronic kidney disease, progression to end-stage renal disease and access to treatment. PMID:22735764
Weiner, Myron F.
There are adequate scientific, public health and ethical justifications for studying Alzheimer disease (AD) in persons of varying race and ethnicity, but to be meaningful variables, race and ethnicity must be examined in context. The complex interactions between race, ethnicity, life style, and environmental factors such as climate and diet, require that future studies of AD in specific racial or ethnic groups attend to measures of racial/ethnic homogeneity and assessment of the environment and the elements that comprise the ethnicity of groups under study. Instead of arbitrarily selecting specific racial or ethnic groups in the hope of finding important differences, it may be in the long run less costly and more efficient to recruit families with highly positive (or negative) family histories, to search within these groups for possible racial or ethnic differences and to then investigate the possible racial or ethnic reasons for those differences. PMID:18631972
Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R
This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2-18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.
Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Nash, Sue P.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.; Giordano, Peggy C.
Race-ethnic differences in a range of childbearing behaviors are long-standing and well-documented, and these differences are attenuated, but not eliminated, when accounting for socioeconomic disparities. The residual differences are often attributed to vague and untested variation across race-ethnic groups in knowledge, attitudes, psychological attributes, normative beliefs, and social context. We use the longitudinal Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study (TARS), which contains a rich set of such factors measured in early adolescence, to assess whether they contribute to race-ethnic differences in having a birth among men and women ages 17–24 (n=1,042). Specifically, we test whether individual attitudes, religiosity, and academic behaviors; knowledge and behaviors regarding sex and dating; peer normative context; and parental communication about sex account for variation in the risk of an early birth. We find that socioeconomic factors attenuate but do not reduce differences between Black, Hispanic, and White respondents. Including adolescent academic performance and early entry into sex reduces the Black-White difference in the odds of early fertility to nonsignificance; however, beyond socioeconomic status, none of the broad range of factors further attenuate Hispanic-White differences, which remain large and statistically significant. PMID:26195990
Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.
This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children. PMID:26633491
Markus, Hazel Rose
For more than a century, hundreds of psychologists have studied race and ethnicity. Yet this scholarship, like American culture at large, has been ambivalent, viewing race and ethnicity both as sources of pride, meaning, and motivation as well as sources of prejudice, discrimination, and inequality. Underlying this ambivalence is widespread…
Brown, Tony N.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Lesane-Brown, Chase L.
This study examined the link between family ethnic/race socialization and Black kindergarteners' and first graders' academic performance as measured by their general knowledge, math, and reading assessment scores. Drawing on identity theory, the authors predicted that repeated instances of family ethnic/race socialization would increase academic…
Tolma, Eleni L.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Beebe, Laura; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Race/ethnicity has been associated with the prevalence of sexual activity among youth as well as with youth assets. Research has also shown that youth assets are associated with youth abstinence. However, very few studies have examined whether the relationship between youth assets and sexual activity might differ based on race/ethnicity. The study…
Cabrera, Natasha J.; Hofferth, Sandra L.; Chae, Soo
This study examines whether levels of father engagement (e.g., verbal stimulation, caregiving, and physical play) vary by race/ethnicity using a model that controls for fathers' human capital, mental health, and family relationships. It also tests whether the models work similarly across race/ethnic groups. Its sample of N = 5089 infants and their…
Tull, Eugene S.; LaPorte, Ronald; Kriska, Andrea; Mark, Joseph; Hatcher, Ann T.
This study describes the prevalence on glucose intolerance by race and ethnicity in the United States Virgin Islands. A population-based sample of 1026 individuals 20 years of age or older was recruited on the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, where 80% of the population classify their race as African American and 20% indicate their ethnicity as Hispanic. American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria was used to classify glucose tolerance for the entire sample. Persons 40 years of age or older (405) were also administered a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Among the major race/ethnic groups, the prevalence of diabetes in patients 20 years of age or older (age-adjusted to the 1995 world population) was 14.1% for non-Hispanic blacks (n = 712), 12.1% for Hispanic blacks (n = 145), 13.5% for Hispanic whites (n = 70) and 1.2% for non-Hispanic whites (n = 37). In each group, the prevalence of diabetes increased with age and appeared higher for men. Among individuals 40 years of age or older a slightly higher prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes was found when using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria compared to ADA criteria (WHO 10.3%, ADA 7.7% for black non-Hispanic persons and WHO 10.4%, ADA 6.0% for all other groups combined). The prevalence of diabetes for African Americans residing in the U.S. Virgin Islands is similar to rates for the African-American population on the United States mainland and is double that of estimates for blacks on neighboring islands. PMID:11918382
Hovick, Shelly R; Holt, Lanier F
Within the health communication literature there has been an increased focus on the use of cultural and identity-based message tailoring to enhance the effectiveness of messages and interventions, particularly among minority and underserved populations. Although this approach may be promising, little is known about the effect of ethnic identity on health behaviors and beliefs or how the effects of ethnic identity differ from those of race or ethnicity. This study is among the first to explore relationships between ethnic identity and cancer-related risk factors, knowledge characteristics, and cognitive and affective appraisals. This study utilized a national online sample of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics (N = 1,452). Higher ethnic identity was associated with increased physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake and decreased body mass index among Whites (p < .05). Higher ethnic identity was also associated with increased cancer risk knowledge (p < .05) but not cancer risk perceptions or self-efficacy (p > .05). Hispanics and Blacks with higher ethnic identity had greater cancer worry. Our results suggest that the effect of ethnic identity is often distinct from that of race/ethnicity and that health communication interventions based solely on race/ethnicity may not be as effective as those that also take ethnic identity into account.
Shavers, Vickie L; Brown, Martin L; Potosky, Arnold L; Klabunde, Carrie N; Davis, WW; Moul, Judd W; Fahey, Angela
INTRODUCTION Several recent studies have noted that African Americans disproportionately receive “watchful waiting” for the initial management of their prostate cancer. To determine whether racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of watchful waiting are explained by differences in clinical presentation and life expectancy at the time of diagnosis, we examined Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1994 to 1996. METHODS Race/ethnicity, comorbidity, stage, grade, age, and expected lifespan and their association with the receipt of watchful waiting were examined in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Race-stratified logistic regression analyses were also used to examine racial/ethnic variation in the association of clinical and demographic factors with the receipt of watchful waiting among African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white men. RESULTS African-American (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 1.6) and Hispanic men (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.5) were significantly more likely than non-Hispanic white men to receive watchful waiting in a multivariate model adjusted for age, comorbidity, stage, grade, and life expectancy. Advanced stage and grade, lower life expectancy, older age, and high comorbidity indices were also significantly associated with an increase in the odds of receipt of watchful waiting in multivariate analyses. In general, the association between the receipt of watchful waiting and the clinical characteristics (i.e., stage, grade, and age) were similar for the three racial/ethnic groups. In race-stratified logistic regression analyses, life expectancy was associated with an increase in the odds of receiving watchful waiting but results were statistically significant for whites only. There was also a statistically significant increase in the odds of receiving watchful waiting for African-American and white men with high comorbidity indices but
In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations.
Schwartz, Brian S; Glass, Thomas A; Bolla, Karen I; Stewart, Walter F; Glass, Gregory; Rasmussen, Meghan; Bressler, Joseph; Shi, Weiping; Bandeen-Roche, Karen
The Baltimore Memory Study is a cohort study of the multilevel determinants of cognitive decline in 50-70-year-old randomly selected residents of specific city neighborhoods. Prior studies have demonstrated that cognitive function differs by race/ethnicity, with lower scores in minorities than in whites, but the underlying basis for these differences is not understood. Studies have differed in the rigor with which they evaluated and controlled for such important confounding variables as socioeconomic status (SES), health-related behaviors, comorbid illnesses, and factors in the physical environment. The goal of this study was to describe differences in neurobehavioral test scores by race/ethnicity, before and after control for a four-dimensional measure of SES and health-related behaviors and health conditions, in a cross-sectional analysis of first visit data. Random samples of households in the study area were selected until enrollment goals were reached. Among the 2,351 persons on whom eligibility was determined, 60.8% were scheduled for an enrollment visit; of these, 1,140 (81.3%) were enrolled and tested. These study participants were 34.3% male and 65.7% female and were from 65 Baltimore, Maryland, neighborhoods. After adjustment for age, sex, and testing technician, there were large and statistically significant differences in neurobehavioral test scores by race/ethnicity, with African-American scores lower than those for whites, for both men and women. After adjustment for individual SES (educational status, household income, household assets, and occupational status), the average difference declined by 25.8%. After additional adjustment for SES, health-related behaviors and health conditions, and blood lead, the average difference declined another 10%, but large differences persisted; African Americans had test scores that averaged 0.43 standard deviation lower than those for whites across all neurobehavioral tests. These differences were present in all
Geronimus, Arline T; Pearson, Jay A; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J; Reyes, Angela G; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H
Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multistage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured telomere length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents' TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial-ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; and poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race-ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally rooted biopsychosocial processes.
Au, Lauren E; Harris, Susan S; Dwyer, Johanna T; Jacques, Paul F; Sacheck, Jennifer M
The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which constitutive skin color explains racial/ethnic differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in urban schoolchildren. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine associations of 25OHD with parent-reported race/ethnicity and constitutive skin color as measured by reflectance colorimeter [individual typology angle (ITA°; higher value corresponds to lighter skin)] in 307 Greater Boston schoolchildren aged 9-15 during October-December 2011. Nearly 60% of all children were inadequate in 25OHD (<20 ng/mL). Prevalence of inadequate 25OHD differed by race/ethnicity (p<0.001): white (46.6%), black (74.5%), Hispanic (64.7%), Asian (88.9%), and multi-racial/other (52.7%). Serum 25OHD increased 0.6 ng/mL per 10° increase in ITA° value (p<0.001). The prediction of 25OHD by race/ethnicity was slightly stronger than the prediction by skin color in separate models (R2=0.19, R2=0.16, respectively). Most of the variability in 25OHD in race/ethnicity was due to constitutive skin color in this group of racially diverse US children.
Traylor, Ana H; Subramanian, Usha; Uratsu, Connie S; Mangione, Carol M; Selby, Joe V; Schmittdiel, Julie A
OBJECTIVE Patient-physician race/ethnicity concordance can improve care for minority patients. However, its effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) care and prevention is unknown. We examined associations of patient race/ethnicity and patient-physician race/ethnicity concordance on CVD risk factor levels and appropriate modification of treatment in response to high risk factor values (treatment intensification) in a large cohort of diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study population included 108,555 adult diabetic patients in Kaiser Permanente Northern California in 2005. Probit models assessed the effect of patient race/ethnicity on risk factor control and treatment intensification after adjusting for patient and physician-level characteristics. RESULTS African American patients were less likely than whites to have A1C <8.0% (64 vs. 69%, P < 0.0001), LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl (40 vs. 47%, P < 0.0001), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) <140 mmHg (70 vs. 78%, P < 0.0001). Hispanic patients were less likely than whites to have A1C <8% (62 vs. 69%, P < 0.0001). African American patients were less likely than whites to have A1C treatment intensification (73 vs. 77%, P < 0.0001; odds ratio [OR] 0.8 [95% CI 0.7-0.9]) but more likely to receive treatment intensification for SBP (78 vs. 71%, P < 0.0001; 1.5 [1.3-1.7]). Hispanic patients were more likely to have LDL cholesterol treatment intensification (47 vs. 45%, P < 0.05; 1.1 [1.0-1.2]). Patient-physician race/ethnicity concordance was not significantly associated with risk factor control or treatment intensification. CONCLUSIONS Patient race/ethnicity is associated with risk factor control and treatment intensification, but patient-physician race/ethnicity concordance was not. Further research should investigate other potential drivers of disparities in CVD care.
Reingold, Beth; Smith, Adrienne R
Welfare policy in the American states has been shaped profoundly by race, ethnicity, and representation. Does gender matter as well? Focusing on state welfare reform in the mid-1990s, we test hypotheses derived from two alternative approaches to incorporating gender into the study of representation and welfare policymaking. An additive approach, which assumes gender and race/ethnicity are distinct and independent, suggests that female state legislators—regardless of race/ethnicity—will mitigate the more restrictive and punitive aspects of welfare reform, much like their African American and Latino counterparts do. In contrast, an intersectional approach, which highlights the overlapping and interdependent nature of gender and race/ethnicity, suggests that legislative women of color will have the strongest countervailing effect on state welfare reform—stronger than that of other women or men of color. Our empirical analyses suggest an intersectional approach yields a more accurate understanding of gender, race/ethnicity, and welfare politics in the states.
A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a) a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b) an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c) a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d) failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.
DeLisi, Matt; Alcala, Justin; Kusow, Abdi; Hochstetler, Andy; Heirigs, Mark H.; Caudill, Jonathan W.; Trulson, Chad R.; Baglivio, Michael T.
Adverse childhood experiences are associated with an array of health, psychiatric, and behavioral problems including antisocial behavior. Criminologists have recently utilized adverse childhood experiences as an organizing research framework and shown that adverse childhood experiences are associated with delinquency, violence, and more chronic/severe criminal careers. However, much less is known about adverse childhood experiences vis-à-vis specific forms of crime and whether the effects vary across race and ethnicity. Using a sample of 2520 male confined juvenile delinquents, the current study used epidemiological tables of odds (both unadjusted and adjusted for onset, total adjudications, and total out of home placements) to evaluate the significance of the number of adverse childhood experiences on commitment for homicide, sexual assault, and serious persons/property offending. The effects of adverse childhood experiences vary considerably across racial and ethnic groups and across offense types. Adverse childhood experiences are strongly and positively associated with sexual offending, but negatively associated with homicide and serious person/property offending. Differential effects of adverse childhood experiences were also seen among African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. Suggestions for future research to clarify the mechanisms by which adverse childhood experiences manifest in specific forms of criminal behavior are offered. PMID:28327508
DeLisi, Matt; Alcala, Justin; Kusow, Abdi; Hochstetler, Andy; Heirigs, Mark H; Caudill, Jonathan W; Trulson, Chad R; Baglivio, Michael T
Adverse childhood experiences are associated with an array of health, psychiatric, and behavioral problems including antisocial behavior. Criminologists have recently utilized adverse childhood experiences as an organizing research framework and shown that adverse childhood experiences are associated with delinquency, violence, and more chronic/severe criminal careers. However, much less is known about adverse childhood experiences vis-à-vis specific forms of crime and whether the effects vary across race and ethnicity. Using a sample of 2520 male confined juvenile delinquents, the current study used epidemiological tables of odds (both unadjusted and adjusted for onset, total adjudications, and total out of home placements) to evaluate the significance of the number of adverse childhood experiences on commitment for homicide, sexual assault, and serious persons/property offending. The effects of adverse childhood experiences vary considerably across racial and ethnic groups and across offense types. Adverse childhood experiences are strongly and positively associated with sexual offending, but negatively associated with homicide and serious person/property offending. Differential effects of adverse childhood experiences were also seen among African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. Suggestions for future research to clarify the mechanisms by which adverse childhood experiences manifest in specific forms of criminal behavior are offered.
Lieberman, David A.; Williams, J. Lucas; Holub, Jennifer L.; Morris, Cynthia D.; Logan, Judith R.; Eisen, Glenn M.; Carney, Patricia
Background & Aims Colorectal cancer risk differs based on patient demographics. We aimed to measure the prevalence of significant colorectal polyps in average-risk individuals and to determine differences based on age, sex, race, or ethnicity. Methods In a prospective study, colonoscopy data were collected, using an endoscopic report generator, from 327,785 average-risk adults who underwent colorectal cancer screening at 84 gastrointestinal practice sites from 2000 to 2011. Demographic characteristics included age, sex, race, and ethnicity. The primary outcome was the presence of suspected malignancy or large polyp(s) >9 mm. The benchmark risk for age to initiate screening was based on white men, 50–54 years old. Results Risk of large polyps and tumors increased progressively in men and women with age. Women had lower risks than men in every age group, regardless of race. Blacks had higher risk than whites from ages 50 through 65 years and Hispanics had lower risk than whites from ages 50 through 80 years. The prevalence of large polyps was 6.2% in white men 50–54 years old. The risk was similar among the groups of white women 65–69 years old, Black women 55–59 years old, Black men 50–54 years old, Hispanic women 70–74 years old, and Hispanic men 55–59 years old. The risk of proximal large polyps increased with age, female sex, and Black race. Conclusions There are differences in the prevalence and location of large polyp and tumors in average-risk individuals based on age, sex, race, and ethnicity. These findings could be used to select ages at which specific groups should begin colorectal cancer screening. PMID:24786894
Celentano, David D; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Hylton, John; Torian, Lucia V; Guillin, Vincent; Koblin, Beryl A
The prevalence of HIV infection is disproportionately higher in both racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and in men under the age of 25, where the leading exposure category is homosexual contact. Less is known, however, about patterns of HIV prevalence in young racial/ethnic minority MSM. We analyzed data from the Young Men's Survey (YMS), an anonymous, cross-sectional survey of 351 MSM in Baltimore and 529 MSM in New York City, aged 15-22, to determine whether race/ethnicity differences exist in the prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk factors. Potential participants were selected systematically at MSM-identified public venues. Venues and associated time periods for subject selection were selected randomly on a monthly basis. Eligible and willing subjects provided informed consent and underwent an interview, HIV pretest counseling, and a blood draw for HIV antibody testing. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for city of recruitment and age, HIV seroprevalence was highest for African Americans [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 12.5], intermediate for those of "other/mixed" race/ethnicity (AOR = 8.6), and moderately elevated for Hispanics (AOR = 4.6) as compared to whites. Stratified analysis showed different risk factors for HIV prevalence in each ethnic group: for African Americans, these were history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and not being in school; for Hispanics, risk factors were being aged 20-22, greater number of male partners and use of recreational drugs; and for those of "other/mixed" race/ethnicity, risk factors included injection drug use and (marginally) STDs. These findings suggest the need for HIV prevention and testing programs which target young racial/ethnic minority MSM and highlight identified risk factors and behaviors.
Social and biomedical scientists, journal editors, and public health officials continue to debate the merits of the use of race and ethnicity in health-related research. As biomedical research focuses on issues of racial or ethnic health disparities, it remains unclear how biomedical scientists investigate race or ethnicity and health. This paper examines how biomedical researchers construct and analyze race or ethnicity in their studies and what conclusions they make about difference and health. Using content analysis of 204 biomedical research journal publications, which were supported by grants won from the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health in the USA, I demonstrate that although authors tended to see race or ethnicity as important and significant in their research, they rarely defined or operationalized the concepts adequately. Moreover, when presenting findings of racial or ethnic difference, authors generally did not provide explanations of the difference. I argue that this under-theorized and unspecified use of race or ethnicity and the biological conclusions drawn about health and difference have the potential to reify "race" and to limit our thinking about what these biomedical differences suggest about health disparities and inequalities in general.
Campos-Outcalt, D; Bay, C; Dellapena, A; Cota, M
Objective: To compare rates of motor vehicle crash (MVC) fatalities among different race/ethnic groups in urban and rural Arizona. Method: Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the National Center for Health Statistics Multiple Cause of Death file, MVC fatalities in Arizona from 1990–96 inclusive were classified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban or rural residence. Age adjusted rates of total, occupant, pedestrian, and alcohol related fatalities were calculated. The total MVC fatality rate for each race/ethnic group was then adjusted for proportion of rural residence. Results: Compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), American Indians had raised relative risks for MVC fatality in all gender and residence subgroups. Hispanic females and rural Hispanic males had lower relative risks, as did rural African-American men. Raised relative risks for American Indian men and women included all subgroups: total, occupant, pedestrian, and alcohol related. Hispanic and African-American men both had raised relative risks of pedestrian related fatalities, and Hispanic men had a slightly higher relative risk while Hispanic women had a lower relative risks, for alcohol related fatality. Hispanic men and women and African-American men had lower occupant fatality rates. Close to half (45%) of the excess MVC fatality among American Indians can be attributed to residence in rural areas, where MVC fatality rates are higher. There were 1.85 occupants in crashes involving NHW deaths compared with 2.51 for Hispanics and 2.71 for American Indians (p<0.001). The proportion of occupants not using a seatbelt was higher in Hispanics and American Indians in both urban and rural areas. Conclusion: The major disparity in MVC fatality in Arizona is among American Indians. The higher MVC fatality rates among American Indians occur in all age groups, in both urban and rural areas, and among occupants and pedestrians. Rural residence, lower rates of seatbelt use, higher rates of
Heymsfield, S B; Peterson, C M; Thomas, D M; Heo, M; Schuna, J M
Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations.
Heymsfield, S. B.; Peterson, C. M.; Thomas, D. M.; Heo, M.; Schuna, J. M.
Summary Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309
Brown, J Scott; Meadows, Sarah O; Elder, Glen H
Social inequality is well established in the mental health of race-ethnic groups, but little is known about this disparity from adolescence to young adulthood. This study examined differences in trajectories of depressive symptoms across 4 race-ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians) using 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Latent trajectory analyses showed race-ethnic variations among both females and males. Stressors were significantly related to depressive symptoms for all study members, but they accounted for symptom trajectories only among Black males and minority females. Persistent differences in trajectories for Blacks and Whites showed parallel slopes that did not converge over time. Neither background characteristics nor social resources (i.e., social support) altered this gap. However, social support represents a potential equalizer of these race-ethnic differences, owing to the ubiquitous nature of its protective effects.
Oppenheimer, G M
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently recommended that the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reevaluate its employment of "race," a concept lacking scientific or anthropological justification, in cancer surveillance and other population research. The IOM advised the NIH to use a different population classification, that of "ethnic group," instead of "race." A relatively new term, according to the IOM, "ethnic group" would turn research attention away from biological determinism and toward a focus on culture and behavior. This article examines the historically central role of racial categorization and its relationship to racism in the United States and questions whether dropping "race" from population taxonomies is either possible or, at least in the short run, preferable. In addition, a historical examination of "ethnicity" and "ethnic group" finds that these concepts, as used in the United States, derive in part from race and immigration and are not neutral terms; instead, they carry their own burden of political, social, and ideological meaning. PMID:11441730
Storey, Maureen; Anderson, Patricia
Grains, fruits, and vegetables are the primary sources of dietary fiber (DF), with the white potato contributing nearly 7% of the DF to the US food supply. The DF composition of the white potato-with or without the skin and regardless of cooking method-compares well with the DF content of other vegetables. Many health benefits, including improved gastrointestinal health, are attributed to greater DF consumption; however, less than 3% of males and females have an adequate intake of DF. Because of this population-wide shortfall, DF is considered to be a nutrient of concern. In this study, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010, we examined the mean intake of DF across sex, age, race/ethnicity, family income, and poverty threshold. This study shows that mean intake of DF is far below recommendations, with children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years consuming an average of less than 14 g of DF per day. Adults 20+ years old consume, on average, about 17 g of DF per day, and men consume significantly more DF than women. Non-Hispanic black adults consume significantly less DF compared with other race/ethnic groups. Lower family income and living at less than 131% of poverty were associated with lower DF intakes among adults. Federal and local government policies should encourage consumption of all vegetables, including the white potato, as an important source of DF.
Chapman, Benjamin P.; Khan, Ayesha; Harper, Mary; Stockman, Doug; Fiscella, Kevin; Walton, James; Duberstein, Paul; Talbot, Nancy; Lyness, Jeffrey M.; Moynihan, Jan
Gender, race/ethnicity, and personality are markers of significant psychosocial and biological variability. Each may have implications for allostatic load and resulting inflammatory processes, yet findings have been largely mixed. We investigated whether women, minorities, and those higher in Neuroticism and lower in Extraversion were at risk for elevated circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 in a sample of 103 middle aged and older urban primary care patients. Regression analyses controlling for age, education, current depression levels, and chronic medical conditions revealed that women, minorities, and individuals lower in Extraversion had higher circulating levels of IL-6. Analyses of more specific personality traits revealed that the sociability and positive emotions components of Extraversion were unassociated with IL-6, but the activity facet--reflecting dispositional vigor and energy--was robustly associated with IL-6. The difference between high (+1 Standard Deviation (SD)) and low (−1 SD) trait activity was sufficient to shift IL-6 levels beyond a previously established high risk cut-point in both white and minority women. These findings suggest that while broad group differences between genders and races/ethnicities exist, personality represents an important source of individual differences in inflammation within groups. Future work should examine to what extent IL-6 levels are linked to temperament or genetic activity levels vs. physical activity itself, and whether IL-6 levels may be reduced by boosting regular activity levels in demographic segments such as women and minorities who appear susceptible to greater inflammation. PMID:19162168
Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina
This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…
Martinson, Melissa L; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
This paper examines body mass index (BMI) trajectories among children from different race/ethnic and maternal nativity backgrounds in the United States and England from early- to middle-childhood. This study is the first to examine race/ethnic and maternal nativity differences in BMI trajectories in both countries. We use two longitudinal birth cohort studies-The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 3,285) for the United States and the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 6,700) for England to estimate trajectories in child BMI by race/ethnicity and maternal nativity status using multilevel growth models. In the United States our sample includes white, black, and Hispanic children; in England the sample includes white, black, and Asian children. We find significant race/ethnic differences in the initial BMI and BMI trajectories of children in both countries, with all non-white groups having significantly steeper BMI growth trajectories than whites. Nativity differences in BMI trajectories vary by race/ethnic group and are only statistically significantly higher for children of foreign-born blacks in England. Disparities in BMI trajectories are pervasive in the United States and England, despite lower overall BMI among English children. Future studies should consider both race/ethnicity and maternal nativity status subgroups when examining disparities in BMI in the United States and England. Differences in BMI are apparent in early childhood, which suggests that interventions targeting pre-school age children may be most effective at stemming childhood disparities in BMI.
Sankar, Pamela; Cho, Mildred K; Monahan, Keri; Nowak, Kamila
Appeals to scrutinize the use of race and ethnicity as variables in genetics research notwithstanding, these variables continue to be inadequately explained and inconsistently used in research publications. In previous research, we found that published genetic research fails to follow suggestions offered for addressing this problem, such as explaining the basis on which these labels are assigned to populations. This study, an analysis of genetic research articles using race or ethnicity terms, explores possible features of journals that are associated with improved reporting of race and ethnicity in genetic research. A journal's expressed commitment to improving how race and ethnicity are used in genetic research, demonstrated by an editorial or in its instructions to authors, was the strongest predictor of following recommendations about reporting race and ethnicity. Journal impact factor had only a limited positive effect on attention to these issues, suggesting that editorial resources associated with higher impact factor journals are not sufficient to improve practices. Our findings reiterate that race and ethnicity variables are used inconsistently in genetic research, but also shed light on how journals might improve practices by highlighting the need for scientists to carefully scrutinize the use of these variables in their work.
Gardner-Neblett, Nicole; Iruka, Iheoma U
Although children's early language skills have been found to predict literacy outcomes, little is known about the role of preschool oral narrative skills in the pathway between language and emergent literacy or how these associations differ by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The current study uses the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to explore how language at age 2 is associated with narrative skills at age 4 and emergent literacy outcomes at age 5 for a nationally representative sample of children. Findings demonstrate that early language is associated with narrative skills for most children. Oral narrative skills were found to mediate the pathway between early language and kindergarten emergent literacy for poor and nonpoor African American children. Implications for children's literacy development and future research are discussed.
Brooks, Ann K.; Clunis, Tamara
This review of research focuses on the impact of race and on learning and development in the U.S. workplace from 1980 to 2005. Specifically, we take a historical perspective on race and ethnicity in the United States; summarize and synthesize research in the areas of career development, training, promotion, performance appraisals, mentoring, and…
Love, Jeffrey; Klipple, Bramble C.
This report analyzes data from the 1982, 1985, and 1992 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA). Analysis focuses on the role of race/ethnicity in arts participation. Arts participation is defined as involvement in a listed activity at least once in the past 12 months. Race is defined along categories used by the U.S. Bureau of Census.…
Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Beebe, Laura; Fluhr, Janene
Objectives: To examine how the relationship between parental-related youth assets and youth sexual activity differed by race/ethnicity. Methods: A random sample of 976 youth and their parents living in a Midwestern city participated in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 3 major ethnic groups controlling for the…
Brown, Elinor L., Ed.; Gibbons, Pamela E., Ed.
This volume of Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice takes a resource perspective toward culture, ethnicity, and race. Its purpose is to foster global dialog about race and ethnicity, with an emphasis on sharing strategies and solutions. While one might view problems stemming from racial and ethnic differences as intractable, the book's…
Sheehan, Connor M.; Hummer, Robert A.; Moore, Brenda L.; Huyser, Kimberly R.; Butler, John Sibley
Given their unique occupational hazards and sizable population, military veterans are an important population for the study of health. Yet veterans are by no means homogeneous, and there are unanswered questions regarding the extent of, and explanations for, racial and ethnic differences in veterans’ health. Using the 2010 National Survey of Veterans, we first documented race/ethnic differences in self-rated health and limitations in Activities of Daily Living among male veterans aged 30–84. Second, we examined potential explanations for the disparities, including socioeconomic and behavioral differences, as well as differences in specific military experiences. We found that Black, Hispanic, and other/multiple race veterans reported much worse health than White veterans. Using progressively adjusted regression models, we uncovered that the poorer self-rated health and higher levels of activity limitations among minority veterans compared to Whites was partially explained by differences in their socioeconomic status and by their military experiences. Minority veterans are a vulnerable population for poor health; future research and policy efforts should attempt to better understand and ameliorate their health disadvantages relative to White veterans. PMID:26783376
Tutton, Richard; Smart, Andrew; Martin, Paul A; Ashcroft, Richard; Ellison, George T H
The ongoing debate about the FDA approval of BiDil in 2005 demonstrates how the first racially/ethnically licensed drug is entangled in both Utopian and dystopian future visions about the continued saliency of race/ethnicity in science and medicine. Drawing on the sociology of expectations, this paper analyzes how scientists in the field of pharmacogenetics are constructing certain visions of the future with respect to the use of social categories of race/ethnicity and the impact of high-throughput genotyping technologies that promise to transform scientific practices.
Kim, Yujin; Raley, R. Kelly
Research in the 1980s pointed to the lower marriage rates of blacks as an important factor contributing to race differences in non-marital fertility. Our analyses update and extend this prior work to investigate whether cohabitation has become an important contributor to this variation. We use data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and to identify the relative contribution of population composition (i.e. percent sexually active single and percent cohabiting) versus rates (pregnancy rates, post-conception marriage rates) to race-ethnic variation in non-marital fertility rates (N=7,428). We find that the pregnancy rate among single (not cohabiting) women is the biggest contributor to race-ethnic variation in the non-marital fertility rate and that contraceptive use patterns among racial minorities explains the majority of the race-ethnic differences in pregnancy rates. PMID:26504257
Holway, Giuseppina Valle
Objectives Most previous studies on sexual initiation timing have examined its effects on a variety of subsequent outcomes without first examining the correlates and predictors of these timing categories. Studies that do exist often do not utilize samples through young adulthood, leading to a misclassified set of sexual timing categories. In addition, the literature does not adequately address the issues of oral sex timing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to explore age-cutoffs that mark the “normative” and “non-normative” entry into vaginal and oral sex among young women and men in the U.S., creating sexual four sexual initiation timing categories – “early,” “normative,” “late,” and “inexperienced,” and; 2) to examine the association between race/ethnicity and sexual initiation timing by gender. Methods The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used in both descriptive and multivariate contexts to determine the net association of gender and race/ethnicity with vaginal and oral sex initiation timing. Results Age-cutoffs for vaginal sex timing were similar for women and men, yet differed by gender for oral sex timing. Women were more likely than men to initiate vaginal sex (20% vs. 18%) and oral sex (19% vs. 16%) at an early age and less likely than men to initiate these behaviors at a late age (18% vs. 19% for vaginal sex, and 15% vs. 16% for oral sex). Although most respondents initiated these two behaviors by young adulthood, a considerable proportion remained inexperienced, with men more likely than women to report inexperience with vaginal sex (7% vs. 5%), and women more likely than men to report abstaining from oral sex (8% vs. 6%). Race/ethnic differences in sexual initiation timing remained robust in the face of controls for both women and men. Conclusions Understanding the timing at which adolescents and young adults transition to first vaginal and first oral sex is critical for
Zubair, Maria; Norris, Meriel
This special issue focuses broadly upon questions and themes relating to the current conceptualisations, representations and use of 'ethnicity' (and ethnic minority experiences) within the field of social gerontology. An important aim of this special issue is to explore and address the issue of 'otherness' within the predominant existing frameworks for researching those who are ageing or considered aged, compounded by the particular constructions of their ethnicity and ethnic 'difference'. The range of theoretical, methodological and empirical papers included in this collection provide some critical insights into particular facets of the current research agendas, cultural understandings and empirical focus of ethnic minority ageing research. The main emphasis is on highlighting the ways in which ethnic cultural homogeneity and 'otherness' is often assumed in research involving older people from ethnic minority backgrounds, and how wider societal inequalities are concomitantly (re)produced, within (and through) research itself - for example, based on narrowly defined research agendas and questions; the assumed age and/or ethnic differences of researchers vis-à-vis their older research participants; the workings of the formalised ethical procedures and frameworks; and the conceptual and theoretical frameworks employed in the formulation of research questions and interpretation of data. We examine and challenge here the simplistic categorisations and distinctions often made in gerontological research based around research participants' ethnicity, age and ageing and assumed cultural differences. The papers presented in this collection reveal instead the actual complexity and fluidity of these concepts as well as the cultural dynamism and diversity of experiences within ethnic groups. Through an exploration of these issues, we address some of the gaps in existing knowledge and understandings as well as contribute to the newly emerging discussions surrounding the use of
Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper
This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…
Tang, Hua; Quertermous, Tom; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Brown, Andrew; Pankow, James S.; Province, Michael A.; Hunt, Steven C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Schork, Nicholas J.; Risch, Neil J.
We have analyzed genetic data for 326 microsatellite markers that were typed uniformly in a large multiethnic population-based sample of individuals as part of a study of the genetics of hypertension (Family Blood Pressure Program). Subjects identified themselves as belonging to one of four major racial/ethnic groups (white, African American, East Asian, and Hispanic) and were recruited from 15 different geographic locales within the United States and Taiwan. Genetic cluster analysis of the microsatellite markers produced four major clusters, which showed near-perfect correspondence with the four self-reported race/ethnicity categories. Of 3,636 subjects of varying race/ethnicity, only 5 (0.14%) showed genetic cluster membership different from their self-identified race/ethnicity. On the other hand, we detected only modest genetic differentiation between different current geographic locales within each race/ethnicity group. Thus, ancient geographic ancestry, which is highly correlated with self-identified race/ethnicity—as opposed to current residence—is the major determinant of genetic structure in the U.S. population. Implications of this genetic structure for case-control association studies are discussed. PMID:15625622
Duncan, Andrea Freeman; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Nolen, Tracy L.; Vohr, Betty R.; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Das, Abhik; Lowe, Jean
Objective To evaluate the relationship of race/ethnicity to cognitive and language scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd edition (BSID-III) in extremely preterm toddlers (<28+0 weeks’ estimated gestational age). Study design Extremely preterm toddlers at NICHD Neonatal Research Network Centers evaluated at 18–22 months adjusted age from 3 race/ethnic groups (White, Black, and Hispanic-White) were included in this cohort study. Multivariable regression modeling was used to identify race/ethnic differences adjusting for medical and psychosocial factors. Results Children included 369 Whites, 352 Blacks and 144 Hispanic-Whites. Cognitive scores differed between groups in unadjusted analysis (p=<0.001), but not after adjusting for medical and psychosocial factors (p=0.13). Language scores differed in adjusted and unadjusted analyses. Whites scored higher than Blacks or Hispanic-Whites, and Blacks scored higher than Hispanic-Whites. Conclusions A combination of medical variables and primary caretaker education accounted for differences in BSID-III cognitive scores between groups. Black and Hispanic-White toddlers had lower language scores than Whites, even after adjustment. Early intervention should be targeted to these identified risk factors. Assessment of early language development among minority groups may be warranted. PMID:22269248
Switzer, Galen E; Bruce, Jessica G; Myaskovsky, Larissa; DiMartini, Andrea; Shellmer, Diana; Confer, Dennis L; Abress, Linda K; King, Roberta J; Harnaha, Allyson G; Ohngemach, Sibylle; Dew, Mary Amanda
Large international registries of potential unrelated hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donors, including the National Marrow Donor program (NMDP), continue to face difficulties finding matched donors for racial/ethnic minorities. One reason, in addition to the generally less common HLA types among minority patients, is the much higher registry attrition rate of racial/ethnic minorities compared with whites. Reasons for the higher attrition among minority potential donors remain unexplained. The goal of our cross-sectional telephone interview study was to generate a diverse sample of potential HSC donors who have preliminarily matched a patient and to identify factors associated with race/ethnicity and with the decision to continue toward potential donation or to opt out of the registry. Multiple culturally related, psychosocial, and donation-related factors were associated both with race/ethnic group membership and attrition from the registry. The most consistent factor associated with opting out of the registry across all race/ethnic groups was ambivalence about donation: doubts and worries, feeling unsure about donation, wishing someone else would donate in one's place. Our findings suggest that universal donor recruitment and management approaches based on reducing donation-related ambivalence and tailored messages and strategies for each of the individual race/ethnic groups are important.
Smith, Michael Peter, Ed.; Feagin, Joe R., Ed.
The essays in this collection provide a background for discussions about multiculturalism, cultural politics, and urban crises by illustrating the ways in which race is still a central source of meaning, identity, and power and why it is intensifying as a category, rather than diminishing. Selections include: (1) "Putting 'Race' in Its…
Shea, M. Kyla; Booth, Sarah L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Burke, Gregory L.; Chen, Haiying; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.
Differences in micronutrient status are reported to contribute to racial and ethnic differences in chronic diseases. Diseases related to vitamin K are reported to differ by race and ethnicity, but it is unclear if circulating vitamin K concentrations similarly differ. We examined racial and ethnic differences in serum phylloquionone (K1) in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (mean ± SD age = 62 ± 10 y; 52% female; 262 white, 180 African American, 169 Hispanic, 93 Chinese American). Overall, 25% had serum K1 <0.1 nmol/L (the lower limit of detection). The prevalence of low serum K1 was 4% in Chinese Americans compared with 24% of whites, 29% of African Americans, and 33% of Hispanics. Compared with whites, Chinese Americans were significantly less likely to have serum K1 <0.1 nmol/L [OR (95% CI): 0.23 (0.09–0.23), adjusted for serum TG, K1 intake, age, sex, BMI, smoking, total cholesterol, site, season, and lipid-lowering medication use]. African Americans and Hispanics had similar odds to whites for having serum K1 <0.1 nmol/L [OR(95% CI): 1.30 (0.79–2.15) and 1.19 (0.66–2.15), respectively; fully adjusted]. In participants with detectable concentrations (n = 523), (natural log) serum K1 was higher in the Chinese Americans compared with whites, African Americans, and Hispanics (geometric mean ± SEM = 2.2 ± 0.1 nmol/L vs. 1.2 ± 0.1 nmol/L, 1.5 ± 0.1 nmol/L, and 1.1 ± 0.1 nmol/L, respectively, adjusted for serum TG, K1 intake, and additional covariates; all P < 0.001). These findings suggest circulating K1 differs by race and ethnicity in U.S. adults, especially among those of Chinese American descent, which merits consideration in the design and interpretation of future population-based and clinical studies of vitamin K and related diseases. PMID:22496402
Stein, L.A.R.; Clair, Mary; Rossi, Joseph; Martin, Rosemarie; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; Clarke, Jennifer G.
Objective While work has been conducted on gender differences to inform gender-specific programming, relatively little work has been done regarding racial and ethnic differences among incarcerated and detained girls in particular. This is an important gap, considering gender, race and ethnicity may be important factors in responding to the needs of incarcerated and detained girls within the Risk-Needs-Responsivity (RNR) model. We hypothesize girls will show relatively more pathology than boys, and that White girls will show relatively more pathology as compared to girls of other groups. Implications of findings for services delivery and policy are presented. Methods Data were collected on N=657 youth using structured interview and record review. Analyses included χ2 and t-tests. Results As compared to boys, girls were older at first arrest yet younger during most lock-up, received poorer grades, experienced more family difficulty, and more were lesbian/bisexual. As compared to minority girls, White girls began hard drugs at a younger age, had more conduct disorder symptoms, and more frequently experienced parental difficulty and abuse. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Age-appropriate programming that addresses family difficulty and sexuality is needed for girls. As compared to White girls, re-entry planning may more readily rely on family support for minority girls. Systems should consider use of actuarial methods in order to reduce bias in making placement decisions. PMID:25180525
Geronimus, Arline T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J.; Reyes, Angela G.; Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multi-stage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured Telomere Length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents’ TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial/ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race/ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally-rooted biopsychosocial processes. PMID:25930147
Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Humensky, Jennifer; Druss, Benjamin; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Gomes, Arminda P.; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos
Background The proportion of people in the United States with multiple chronic medical conditions (MCMC) is increasing. Yet, little is known about the relationship that race, ethnicity, and psychiatric disorders have on the prevalence of MCMCs in the general population. Methods This study used data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N= 33,107). Multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for socio-demographic variables, body mass index, and quality of life were used to examine differences in the 12-month prevalence of MCMC by race/ethnicity, psychiatric diagnosis, and the interactions between race/ethnicity and psychiatric diagnosis. Results Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics reported lower odds of MCMC and African Americans reported higher odds of MCMC after adjusting for covariates. People with psychiatric disorders reported higher odds of MCMC compared to people without psychiatric disorders. There were significant interactions between race and psychiatric diagnosis associated with rates of MCMC. In the presence of certain psychiatric disorders, the odds of MCMC were higher among African Americans with psychiatric disorders compared to non-Hispanic Whites with similar psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Our study results indicate that race, ethnicity, and psychiatric disorders are associated with the prevalence of MCMC. As the rates of MCMC rise, it is critical to identify which populations are at increased risk and how to best direct services to address their health care needs. PMID:23552429
Grossman, Jennifer M.; Charmaraman, Linda
This mixed-methods exploratory study examined the diverse content and situated context of White adolescents' racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 781 9th–12th grade White adolescents from three New England schools, which varied in racial and economic make-up. Open-ended responses provided a range of thematic categories regarding the importance of race-ethnicity to the adolescents' identities, representing the diverse ideologies of White adolescents' explanations, ranging from colorblind claims to ethnic pride. This study also found significant relationships between racial-ethnic identity importance (centrality) and parents' education for White adolescents. These findings highlight the diversity of White adolescents' understanding of their racial-ethnic identities and the importance of context in shaping racial-ethnic centrality. PMID:19636713
Grossman, Jennifer M; Charmaraman, Linda
This mixed-methods exploratory study examined the diverse content and situated context of White adolescents' racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 781 9th-12th grade White adolescents from three New England schools, which varied in racial and economic make-up. Open-ended responses provided a range of thematic categories regarding the importance of race-ethnicity to the adolescents' identities, representing the diverse ideologies of White adolescents' explanations, ranging from colorblind claims to ethnic pride. This study also found significant relationships between racial-ethnic identity importance (centrality) and parents' education for White adolescents. These findings highlight the diversity of White adolescents' understanding of their racial-ethnic identities and the importance of context in shaping racial-ethnic centrality.
Phillips, Gareth Carlington
The study examined international students' engagement and success using NSSE 2007 data. The sample consisted of 1996 first years and 2,158 seniors. These students were compared by race/ethnicity, gender, and institutional type. The study found that students' engagement differed by race/ethnicity as well as type of institution. The null hypotheses…
Johnson, Renee M.; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F.; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.
Background The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999-2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Methods Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally-representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, current use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). Results The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999-2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Conclusion Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. PMID:26361714
Krueger, P; Bond, H; Rogers, R; Hummer, R
Objective: To examine whether measures of neighbourhood economic deprivation, social disorganisation, and acculturation explain homicide mortality differentials between Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic black Americans, and non-Hispanic white Americans, net of individual factors. Design: Prospective study, National Health Interview Survey (1986–1994) linked to subsequent mortality in the National Death Index (1986–1997). Setting: United States of America. Participants: A nationally representative sample of non-institutionalised Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic black Amricans, and non-Hispanic white Americans, aged 18–50 at the point of interview. Analysis: Cox proportional hazard models estimate the risk of death associated with various neighbourhood and individual factors. Main results: Both individual and neighbourhood risk factors partially account for race/ethnic disparities in homicide. Homicide mortality risks are between 20% and 50% higher for residents of areas that have economic inequality of 0.50 or greater based on the coefficient of variation, or where 4% or more of the residents are Mexican American, 10% or more of the residents are non-Hispanic black, or 20% or more of the households are headed by single parents (p⩽.05). But residents of areas where 10% or more of their neighbours are foreign born have 35% lower mortality risks than people living in areas with fewer foreign born people (p⩽0.05). These differences persist even after controlling for individual level risk factors. Conclusions: The findings support economic deprivation, social disorganisation, and acculturation theories, and suggest that both neighbourhood and individual risk factors affect race/ethnic differences in homicide mortality. Public health policies must focus on both individual and neighbourhood factors to reduce homicide risks in vulnerable populations. PMID:14966236
Primack, Brian A.; Mah, Jennifer; Shensa, Ariel; Rosen, Daniel; Yonas, Michael A.; Fine, Michael J.
We surveyed a random sample of 852 students at a large university in 2010–2011 to clarify associations between waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), ethnicity, and religion. Current (30-day) WTS was reported by 116 students (14%), and 331 (39%) reported ever use. Middle Eastern ethnicity was associated with current WTS (OR=2.37, 95% CI=1.06, 5.34) and ever WTS (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.22, 5.47). South Asian ethnicity was associated with lower odds for ever WTS (OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.21, 0.86), but there was no significant association between South Asian ethnicity and current WTS. Being an Atheist and having lower religiosity were associated with both WTS outcomes. PMID:24564560
Reeb, Ben T; Chan, Sut Yee Shirley; Conger, Katherine J; Martin, Monica J; Hollis, Nicole D; Serido, Joyce; Russell, Stephen T
Research increasingly finds that race/ethnicity needs to be taken into account in the modelling of associations between protective factors and adolescent drinking behaviors in order to understand family effects and promote positive youth development. The current study examined racial/ethnic variation in the prospective effects of family cohesion on adolescent alcohol-related problems using a nationally representative sample. Data were drawn from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and included 10,992 (50% female) non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and non-Hispanic White 7th-12th graders. Consistent with Hirschi's social control theory of youth delinquency, higher levels of family cohesion predicted lower levels of future adolescent alcohol-related problems, independent of race/ethnicity, sex, age, baseline alcohol-related problems, and family socioeconomic status. Findings from moderation analyses indicated that the magnitude of associations differed across groups such that the protective effect of family cohesion was strongest among White adolescents. For Latino adolescents, family cohesion was not associated with alcohol-related problems. Future longitudinal cross-racial/ethnic research is needed on common and unique mechanisms underlying differential associations between family processes and adolescent high-risk drinking. Understanding these processes could help improve preventive interventions, identify vulnerable subgroups, and inform health policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related health disparities.
Danner, Fred W.; Toland, Michael D.
This study assessed how socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, and birth weight interacted to predict differential patterns of body mass index (BMI) growth among U.S. children born in the early 1990s. Three BMI growth trajectories emerged--one above the 50th percentile across the age range of 5 to 14, one in which children rapidly became…
This report focuses on the percentages of graduates and dropouts in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools when broken down by both ethnicity/race and gender. The percentages in outcome categories for this report are based on a four-year adjusted cohort model. For the purposes of this report, students at the end of their four-year high school…
Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Katz, Andrew D.; Chew, Aaronson Y.; Ray, G. Christopher; Laine, Lia; Caulum, David
This study examined the influence of gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity on the career aspirations of over 22,000 8th and 10th grade youth. The top five occupations identified by youth as aspirations included artist, lawyer, musician, FBI agent, and actor/actress. Top occupations were also reported for each gender x socioeconomic…
Despite the key role that women from limited income families play as family food providers and their high risk for diet-related chronic diseases, there is a paucity of data about their diet quality and how it might vary by race/ethnicity. Our objective was to compare nutrient and food intakes of mu...
Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012
Included in this addendum are the findings for the Noel-Levitz 2012 National Freshman Attitudes Report by race/ethnicity for incoming students. These data show the percentage of students within each group that agreed with each item. Also included in this paper are the demographic breakdown of the respondents and a brief explanation of the…
... Bureau of the Census Renewal of the Census Advisory Committees on the Race and Ethnic Populations AGENCY... Advisory Committee on the African American Population, Census Advisory Committee on the American Indian and Alaska Native Populations, Census Advisory Committee on the Asian Population, Census Advisory...
Stokes, Philip J.; Levine, Roger; Flessa, Karl W.
Geoscience faces dual recruiting challenges: a pending workforce shortage and a lack of diversity. Already suffering from low visibility, geoscience does not resemble the makeup of the general population in terms of either race/ethnicity or gender and is among the least diverse of all science, technology, engineering, and math fields in the U.S.…
Zuniga, Ximena; Mildred, Jane; Varghese, Rani; DeJong, Keri; Keehn, Molly
Although the importance of engaged listening in intergroup dialogue (IGD) is recognized, we know relatively little about when or why participants in IGD actually listen or what they gain from listening. Using qualitative analyses of interviews conducted with undergraduates who had recently completed a race/ethnicity or gender focused IGD course,…
Niu, Sunny X.
Using the College Board SAT registration and questionnaire data of 2010 high school graduating seniors, we found clear patterns by race/ethnicity and parental education on two outcomes: out-of-state score-sending and out-of-state college attendance. White students had the highest rates and Hispanic students had the lowest rates, and there was a…
Higginbotham, Elizabeth, Ed.; Romero, Mary, Ed.
This book contains 10 papers exploring the effects of race, ethnicity, and class on women in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Series Editors' Introduction" (Ann Stromberg, Barbara A. Gutek, Laurie Larwood); "Introduction" (Elizabeth Higginbotham). The book is organized in four parts. Part I, "Historical…
Kaufman, Joanne M.; Hall, Jeffrey E.; Zagura, Michelle
This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages…
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.
This abstract bibliography lists selected resources for addressing race and ethnicity issues with adolescents who have chronic illnesses and disabilities. References are dated from 1980 to 1991. First, 18 references provide general information about the issues of cultural competence and cultural diversity for health care professionals, educators,…
Gardner-Neblett, Nicole; Iruka, Iheoma U.
Although children's early language skills have been found to predict literacy outcomes, little is known about the role of preschool oral narrative skills in the pathway between language and emergent literacy or how these associations differ by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The current study uses the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to…
This study addresses the role that social and cultural capital play in first-to-second year persistence in higher education and examines how race and ethnicity are associated with initial levels of such capital. Using logistic regression analysis, the results show that social and cultural capital are positively significant for persistence in…
Littlefield, Andrew K.; Gottlieb, Joshua C.; Cohen, Lee M.; Trotter, David R. M.
Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine e-cigarette use and the relation of such use with gender, race/ethnicity, traditional tobacco use, and heavy drinking. Participants and Methods: A sample of…
Roberts, Jane H.; Sanders, Tom; Mann, Karen; Wass, Val
Although education about culture, race and ethnicity has increasingly been viewed as an important addition to the medical undergraduate curriculum, internationally the evidence of its effectiveness is mixed. Research to date fails to show why. We chose to explore how contrasting approaches to learning about cultural diversity impacted on medical…
Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth
In a qualitative study we examined the constructs "race" and "ethnicity" and their relative importance in the multidimensional identities of 52 Asian American undergraduates across 2 universities. Findings suggest these constructs are useful for Asian American students' identity claims and that multiple contextual influences…
Baker, Caroline A.; Bowen, Nikol V.; Butler, J. Yasmine; Shavers, Marjorie C.
Using the Dimensions of Personal Identity Model proposed by Arredondo and Glauner (as cited in Arredondo et al., 1996), the authors reviewed the last 11 years of the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling's journal, "Counseling and Values", specifically regarding the "A" dimensions of race and ethnicity. Twenty-five…
Specific constellations of lipoprotein particle features, reflected as differences in mean lipoprotein particle diameters, are associated with risk of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The associations of lipid profiles with disease risk differ by race/ethnicity, the reason f...
Dunn, Dana S.
The new core curriculum at Moravian College, in Pennsylvania, utilizes an interdisciplinary approach, integrating topics of psychology into three of the seven core courses: "Microcosm/Macrocosm"; "Quantitative Problem Solving"; and the seminar "Gender, Ethnicity, and Race." The course "Microcosm/Macrocosm"…
Constantine, Madonna G.
Discusses the importance of counselors considering the intersection of multiple cultural identities in working with clients. The article serves as an introduction to the special issue, Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Social Class in Counseling, of the "Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development." (Contains 28 references.) (GCP)
Sonnenschein, Susan; Galindo, Claudia
This study used Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort data to examine influences of the home and classroom learning environments on kindergarten mathematics achievement of Black, Latino, and White children. Regardless of race/ethnicity, children who started kindergarten proficient in mathematics earned spring scores about 7-8…
Objectives To review ethical, ethnic/ancestral, and societal issues of genetic and genomic information and technologies in the context of racial and ethnic health disparities. Data sources Research and journal articles, government reports, web sites. Conclusion As knowledge of human genetic variation and its link to diseases continues to grow, some see race and ethnicity well poised to serve as genetic surrogates in predicting disease etiology and treatment response. However, stereotyping and bias, in clinical interactions can be barriers to effective treatment for racial and ethnic minority patients. Implications for nursing practice The nursing profession has a key role in assuring that genomic healthcare does not enhance racial and ethnic health inequities. This will require utilization of new genomic knowledge and caring for each patient as an individual in a culturally and clinically appropriate manner. PMID:19000599
Johnson, Norman J.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Cudkowicz, Merit E.; Weisskopf, Marc G.
Objective: To determine whether race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality in the United States. Methods: The National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), a United States–representative, multistage sample, collected race/ethnicity and socioeconomic data prospectively. Mortality information was obtained by matching NLMS records to the National Death Index (1979–2011). More than 2 million persons (n = 1,145,368 women, n = 1,011,172 men) were included, with 33,024,881 person-years of follow-up (1,299 ALS deaths , response rate 96%). Race/ethnicity was by self-report in 4 categories. Hazard ratios (HRs) for ALS mortality were calculated for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status separately and in mutually adjusted models. Results: Minority vs white race/ethnicity predicted lower ALS mortality in models adjusted for socioeconomic status, type of health insurance, and birthplace (non-Hispanic black, HR 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48–0.78; Hispanic, HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46–0.88; other races, non-Hispanic, HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.31–0.86). Higher educational attainment compared with < high school was in general associated with higher rate of ALS (high school, HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.07–1.42; some college, HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04–1.48; college, HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.90–1.36; postgraduate, HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62). Income, household poverty, and home ownership were not associated with ALS after adjustment for race/ethnicity. Rates did not differ by sex. Conclusion: Higher rate of ALS among whites vs non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic other races was not accounted for by multiple measures of socioeconomic status, birthplace, or type of health insurance. Higher rate of ALS among whites likely reflects actual higher risk of ALS rather than ascertainment bias or effects of socioeconomic status on ALS risk. PMID:27742817
Hawkins, Darnell F.
This document critically reviews the empirical evidence and theories that have emerged to document and explain ethnic, racial, and class differences in the rate of adolescent involvement in interpersonal violence. In the first section, recent data are presented on the incidence of violence among adolescents in the United States as documented in…
Bonilla, Carlos A., Ed.; Goss, Joyce, Ed.
This book contains seven chapters, written by graduate students in teacher education, on educational strategies to promote multiculturalism and combat racial, ethnic, and gender bias in the classroom. Chapters are: (1) "Diversity and Multiculturalism: Quo Vadis? What Is Multiculturalism?" (Deborah Bradford Basey, Michelle Danner, Stacy…
Byron, Gay L.
Theological educators are now fostering dialogues, projects, and practices that are designed to acknowledge the challenges and opportunities resulting from the shifting racial and ethnic demographic climate in the U.S. and Canada. As well-intentioned as these efforts are, most of the scholarship focuses on the contemporary experiences of…
Blustein, David L.; Murphy, Kerri A.; Kenny, Maureen E.; Jernigan, Maryam; Perez-Gualdron, Leyla; Castaneda, Tani; Koepke, Margaret; Land, Marie; Urbano, Alessandra; Davis, Ophera
This qualitative study is an exploration of 32 urban high school students' narratives about the connection between school, work, and societal expectations of their future success related to their racial and ethnic background. The sample varied along 2 contextual dimensions: participation in a psychoeducational intervention (Tools for Tomorrow) and…
Chauhan, Preeti; Ahern, Jennifer; Galea, Sandro; Keyes, Katherine M
Background Neighborhood context is associated with binge drinking and has significant health, societal, and economic costs. Both binge drinking and neighborhood context vary by race and ethnicity. We examined the relations between neighborhood characteristics —neighborhood norms that are accepting of drunkeness, collective efficacy, and physical disorder — and binge drinking, with a focus on examining race and ethnic-specific relationships. Methods Respondent data were collected through 2005 random digit-dial-telephone survey for a representative sample of New York City residents; neighborhood data were based on the 2005 New York City Housing and Vacancy Survey. Participants were 1,415 past year drinkers; Whites (n = 877), Blacks (n = 292) and Hispanics (n =246). Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to estimate population average models. Results For the overall sample, neighborhood norms that were more accepting of drunkenness were associated with greater binge drinking (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.09, 1.37); collective efficacy and physical disorder were not significant. However, when examining this by race/ethnicity, greater collective efficacy (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.91) and greater physical disorder (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.93) were associated with less binge drinking for Whites only. Neighborhood norms that were more accepting of drunkenness were associated with binge drinking among Whites (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.38) and, while not significant (perhaps due to power), the associations were similar for Hispanics (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 0.83, 1.68) and slightly lower for Blacks (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.67, 1.84). Conclusions Overall, results suggest that neighborhood characteristics and binge drinking are shaped, in part, by factors that vary across race/ethnicity. Thus, disaggregating data by race/ethnicity is important in understanding binge drinking behaviors. PMID:26969558
Nandi, Vijay; Hoover, Donald R.; Lucy, Debbie; Stewart, Kiwan; Frye, Victoria; Cerda, Magdalena; Ompad, Danielle; Latkin, Carl; Koblin, Beryl A.
Abstract The United States HIV epidemic disproportionately affects black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM). This disparity might be partially explained by differences in social and sexual network structure and composition. A total of 1267 MSM in New York City completed an ACASI survey and egocentric social and sexual network inventory about their sex partners in the past 3 months, and underwent HIV testing. Social and sexual network structure and composition were compared by race/ethnicity of the egos: black, non-Hispanic (N = 365 egos), white, non-Hispanic (N = 466), and Hispanic (N = 436). 21.1% were HIV-positive by HIV testing; 17.2% reported serodiscordant and serostatus unknown unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse (SDUI) in the last 3 months. Black MSM were more likely than white and Hispanic MSM to report exclusively having partners of same race/ethnicity. Black and Hispanic MSM had more HIV-positive and unknown status partners than white MSM. White men were more likely to report overlap of social and sex partners than black and Hispanic men. No significant differences by race/ethnicity were found for network size, density, having concurrent partners, or having partners with ≥10 years age difference. Specific network composition characteristics may explain racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection rates among MSM, including HIV status of sex partners in networks and lack of social support within sexual networks. Network structural characteristics such as size and density do not appear to have such an impact. These data add to our understanding of the complexity of social factors affecting black MSM and Hispanic MSM in the U.S. PMID:26745143
Seyerle, Amanda A.; Young, Alicia M.; Jeff, Janina M.; Melton, Phillip E.; Jorgensen, Neal W.; Lin, Yi; Carty, Cara L.; Deelman, Ewa; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Martin, Lisa W.; Okin, Peter M; Perez, Marco V.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Whitsel, Eric A.; North, Kari E; Laston, Sandra; Kooperberg, Charles; Avery, Christy L.
Background QT-interval (QT) prolongation is an established risk factor for ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Previous genome-wide association studies in populations of the European descent have identified multiple genetic loci that influence QT, but few have examined these loci in ethnically diverse populations. Methods Here, we examine the direction, magnitude, and precision of effect sizes for 21 previously reported SNPs from 12 QT loci, in populations of European (n=16,398), African (n=5,437), American Indian (n=5,032), Hispanic (n=1,143), and Asian (n=932) descent as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Estimates obtained from linear regression models stratified by race/ethnicity were combined using inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test. Results Of 21 SNPs, seven showed consistent direction of effect across all five populations, and an additional nine had estimated effects that were consistent across four populations. Despite consistent direction of effect, nine of 16 SNPs had evidence (P < 0.05) of heterogeneity by race/ethnicity. For these 9 SNPs, linkage disequilibrium plots often indicated substantial variation in linkage disequilibrium patterns among the various racial/ethnic groups, as well as possible allelic heterogeneity. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of analyzing racial/ethnic groups separately in genetic studies. Furthermore, they underscore the possible utility of trans-ethnic studies to pinpoint underlying casual variants influencing heritable traits such as QT. PMID:25166880
Webster, Pamela S; Sampangi, Swathi
The Hospital Association of Rhode Island, in conjunction with the Rhode Island Cancer Registry, received funding for a special project to improve the validity and reliability of race and ethnicity data in hospital inpatient records. In the past year, five hospitals participated in a pilot to improve race/ethnicity data collection. This paper provides an overview of the design and initial implementation of the pilot, and reports on early feedback. Given that the Affordable Care Act strengthens federal data collection efforts, with a new standard issued which adds granularity, these policies can renew efforts to record more accurate and detailed race and ethnicity data. Improved race and ethnicity data will increase our understanding of the health needs of different racial and ethnic groups and health disparities between groups. Better data improves understanding, increases the likelihood of effective actions to address and monitor disparities, and ensure that every American has the opportunity to live the healthiest life possible.
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Wilson, Helen W; Allwood, Maureen; Chauhan, Preeti
Scant research has examined how children of different races or ethnic backgrounds manifest consequences of neglect. We examined multiple domains of functioning (academic/intellectual, social/behavioral, and psychiatric), three theories (racial invariance, double jeopardy, and resilience), and potential confounding variables. Children with documented cases of neglect (ages 0-11) and matched controls without such histories were followed up and interviewed in adulthood (N = 1,039). The sample was 47.3% female, 62.4% White, 34.3% Black, and 3.4% Hispanic. Black and White neglected children showed negative consequences for IQ, reading ability, and occupational status compared to controls. Compared to same race and ethnic group controls, neglected White children showed extensive mental health consequences, Black children showed more anxiety and dysthymia, and Hispanic children showed increased risk for alcohol problems. Black and White neglected children differed in risk for violence compared to same race controls: Neglected Black children were arrested for violence two times more often than Black controls, whereas neglected White children were more likely than White controls to report engaging in violence. Findings provide some support for each theory (racial invariance, double jeopardy, and resilience). Understanding the factors that account for similarities and differences in consequences requires further investigation. Implications for research and policy are discussed.
Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias
Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians.
Petrie, Michelle A; Coverdill, James E
A substantial body of research has explored the extent to which the race of offenders and victims influences who receives a death sentence for capital crimes. Little is known about how race and ethnicity might pattern death-row outcomes. Drawing upon evidence from male offenders sentenced to death in Texas during the years 1974 through 2009, we extend recent research by examining whether the race and ethnicity of offenders and victims and a number of offender, victim, and crime attributes influence the likelihood of executions and sentence relief (whereby prisoners leave death row). Cox regression analyses are used in conjunction with a multiple-imputation method for handling a modest amount of missing data. The results show that cases involving minorities—with black or Latino offenders or victims—have lower hazards of execution than cases in which both offenders and victims are white. Victim and offender race and ethnicity have little to no independent effect upon the hazard of sentence relief.
Benjamins, Maureen R; Whitman, Steven
Discrimination has been found to be detrimental to health, but less is known about the influence of discrimination in health care. To address this, the current study (1) compared levels of racial/ethnic discrimination in health care among four race/ethnic groups; (2) determined associations between this type of discrimination and health care outcomes; and (3) assessed potential mediators and moderators as suggested by previous studies. Multivariate logistic regression models were used within a population-based sample of 1,699 White, African American, Mexican, and Puerto Rican respondents. Overall, 23% of the sample reported discrimination in health care, with levels varying substantially by race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, this type of discrimination was associated with an increased likelihood of having unmet health care needs (OR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.90) and lower odds of perceiving excellent quality of care (OR = 0.43, CI = 0.28-0.66), but not with the use of a physician when not sick or use of alternative medicine. The mediating role of mental health factors was inconsistently observed and the relationships were not moderated by race/ethnicity. These findings expand the literature and provide preliminary evidence that can eventually inform the development of interventions and the training of health care providers.
Lin, Frank R; Maas, Paige; Chien, Wade; Carey, John P; Ferrucci, Luigi; Thorpe, Roland
Epidemiologic studies of hearing loss in adults have demonstrated that the odds of hearing loss are substantially lower in black than in white individuals. The basis of this association is unknown. We hypothesized that skin pigmentation as a marker of melanocytic functioning mediates this observed association and that skin pigmentation is associated with hearing loss independent of race/ethnicity. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1,258 adults (20-59 years) in the 2003-2004 cycle of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey who had assessment of Fitzpatrick skin type and pure-tone audiometric testing. Audiometric thresholds in the worse hearing ear were used to calculate speech- (0.5-4 kHz) and high-frequency (3-8 kHz) pure-tone averages (PTA). Regression models were stratified by Fitzpatrick skin type or race/ethnicity to examine the association of each factor with hearing loss independent of the other. Models were adjusted for potential confounders (demographic, medical, and noise exposure covariates). Among all participants, race/ethnicity was associated with hearing thresholds (black participants with the best hearing followed by Hispanics and then white individuals), but these associations were not significant in analyses stratified by skin color. In contrast, in race-stratified analyses, darker-skinned Hispanics had better hearing than lighter-skinned Hispanics by an average of -2.5 dB hearing level (HL; 95% CI, -4.8 to -0.2) and -3.1 dB HL (95% CI, -5.3 to -0.8) for speech and high-frequency PTA, respectively. Associations between skin color and hearing loss were not significant in white and black participants. Our results demonstrate that skin pigmentation is independently associated with hearing loss in Hispanics and suggest that skin pigmentation as a marker of melanocytic functioning may mediate the strong association observed between race/ethnicity and hearing loss.
Gracia, Amber; Cheirif, Jorge; Veliz, Juana; Reyna, Melissa; Vecchio, Mara; Aryal, Subhash
Objective: Determine any disparities in care based on race, ethnicity and language (REaL) by utilizing inpatient (IP) core measures at Texas Health Resources, a large, faith-based, non-profit health care delivery system located in a large, ethnically diverse metropolitan area in Texas. These measures, which were established by the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and The Joint Commission (TJC), help to ensure better accountability for patient outcomes throughout the U.S. health care system. Methods: Sample analysis to understand the architecture of race, ethnicity and language (REaL) variables within the Texas Health clinical database, followed by development of the logic, method and framework for isolating populations and evaluating disparities by race (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Native American/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Asian and Other); ethnicity (Hispanic and non-Hispanic); and preferred language (English and Spanish). The study is based on use of existing clinical data for four inpatient (IP) core measures: Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Pneumonia (PN) and Surgical Care (SCIP), representing 100% of the sample population. These comprise a high number of cases presenting in our acute care facilities. Findings are based on a sample of clinical data (N = 19,873 cases) for the four inpatient (IP) core measures derived from 13 of Texas Health’s wholly-owned facilities, formulating a set of baseline data. Results: Based on applied method, Texas Health facilities consistently scored high with no discernable race, ethnicity and language (REaL) disparities as evidenced by a low percentage difference to the reference point (non-Hispanic White) on IP core measures, including: AMI (0.3%–1.2%), CHF (0.7%–3.0%), PN (0.5%–3.7%), and SCIP (0–0.7%). PMID:26703665
Edmonds, Joyce K; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Cohen, Bruce B
Objective Our objective was to examine the likelihood of vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) for women in Massachusetts. Methods We used birth certificate data among term, singleton, vertex presentation births by repeat cesarean or VBAC to conduct logistic regression models to examine the likelihood of VBAC for women categorized into standard classifications of race and ethnicity and into 31 detailed ethnicities. Data were analyzed for the entire study period (1996-2010, N = 119,752) and for the last 5 years (2006-2010, N = 46,081). Results The adjusted odds of VBAC were lowest for non-Hispanic Black mothers (0.91, CI [0.85, 0.98]) and highest for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers (1.41, CI [1.31, 1.53]) relative to non-Hispanic White women. VBAC rates ranged from 5.8 % among Brazilians to 29.3 % among Cambodians. The adjusted odds of VBAC were lower for 7 of the 30 ethnic groups (range of AORs 0.40-0.89) and higher for 8 of the 30 ethnic groups (range of AORs 1.18-2.11) relative to self-identified American mothers. For the last 5 years, Asian/Pacific Islander mothers had a higher adjusted VBAC rate (1.39, CI [1.21, 1.60]), as did 9 of the 30 ethnic groups (range of 1.25-1.84). Only Brazilian mothers had lower rates (0.37, CI [0.27, 0.50]), relative to self-identified American mothers. Conclusions Detailed maternal ethnicity explains the variation in VBAC rates more precisely than broad race/ethnicity categories. Improvements in our public health data infrastructure to capture detailed ethnicity are recommended to identify and address disparities and improve the quality of maternity care.
Pitman, G E
Based on interviews conducted with eight lesbians, this paper explores how the intersection of gender, sexual identity, race, ethnicity, and class affect lesbians' feelings about their bodies. Their responses suggest that, while being female has a strong effect on lesbians' feelings about their bodies, issues of race, acculturation, and class also affect body image. Lesbian feminism and S/M politics also appear to play a significant role in lesbians' body image. These findings highlight the limitations of existing theories about body image and call for a more complex theory incorporating a more diverse range of experiences.
Schembre, Susan M; Nigg, Claudio R; Albright, Cheryl L
In accordance with the sociocultural model, race/ethnicity is considered a major influence on factors associated with body image and body dissatisfaction, and eating disorders are often characterized as problems that are primarily limited to young White women from Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences that exist by race in desired body weight; the importance placed on those ideals; and dieting strategies among White, Asian American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, and other mixed-race young women in Hawai'i. A total of 144 female college students 18-20 years of age were surveyed about body weight as well as eating and exercise habits. Results demonstrated that all the young women wanted to lose weight. However, there were no differences in desired body weight or desired weight change by race after controlling for body mass index suggesting that current weight rather than race/ethnicity is the predominant influence on weight-related concerns. Young White women placed the greatest level of importance on achieving a lower body weight, which corresponded with a greater likelihood to be attempting weight loss (dieting) and greater endorsement of behaviors consistent with weight loss compared to their counterparts. Findings imply that, for young women, race/ethnicity may not have as significant an impact on factors associated with body weight ideals as previously believed. Rather, differences in the value placed on achieving a desired body weight, as it relates to disordered eating, should be further explored among race/ethnic groups.
Fothergill, A; Maestas, E G; Darlington, J D
In this paper we synthesise past disaster research that addresses issues of race and ethnicity in the United States. Using an eight-stage typology to organise the findings, this literature review presents the results from a wide range of studies. The synthesis shows how various racial and ethnic groups perceive natural hazard risks and respond to warnings, how groups may be differentially affected, both physically and psychologically, and how disaster effects vary by race and ethnicity during the periods of emergency response, recovery and reconstruction. We show that studies have important findings, many illustrating that racial and ethnic communities in the US are more vulnerable to natural disasters, due to factors such as language, housing patterns, building construction, community isolation and cultural insensitivities. By presenting these studies together, we are able to witness patterns of racial and ethnic inequalities that may be more difficult to see or interpret in individual studies that take place in one specific time and place. We conclude the review with policy and research recommendations.
Kelley, Elizabeth A; Bowie, Janice V; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino; Hill, Sarah; Thorpe, Roland J
The prevalence of obesity in the United States has increased significantly and is a particular concern for minority men. Studies focused at the community and national levels have reported that geography can play a substantial role in contributing to obesity, but little is known about how regional influences contribute to obesity among men. The objective of this study is to examine the association between geographic region and obesity among men in the United States and to determine if there are racial/ethnic differences in obesity within these geographic regions. Data from men, aged 18 years and older, from the National Health Interview Survey were combined for the years 2000 to 2010. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) Logistic regression models were specified to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between geographic region and obesity and for race and obesity within geographic regions. Compared to men living in the Northeast, men living in the Midwest had significantly greater odds of being obese (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.02, 1.17]), and men living in the West had lower odds of being obese (OR = 0.82, 95% CI [0.76, 0.89]). Racial/ethnic differences were also observed within geographic region. Black men have greater odds of obesity than White men in the South, West, and Midwest. In the South and West, Hispanic men also have greater odds of obesity than White men. In all regions, Asian men have lower odds of obesity than White men.
Unger, Jennifer B.
This paper discusses the limitations of previous research on race, ethnicity, culture, and substance use. The study offers the following recommendations for future research in this area: (1) move beyond simple comparisons of mutually exclusive groups, (2) focus on the meaning of an ethnic label to the individual, (3) consider the complex interactions between an individual’s cultural identity and the cultural context, (4) understand and acknowledge the researcher’s inherent biases, and (5) translate research findings into practice and policy change. PMID:22217334
Brown, Tyson H; O'Rand, Angela M; Adkins, Daniel E
Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, and multilevel growth curve models to investigate racial-ethnic differences in the trajectories of serious conditions and functional limitations among blacks, Mexican Americans, and whites. We test three hypotheses on the nature of racial-ethnic disparities in health across the life course (aging-as-leveler, persistent inequality, and cumulative disadvantage). Results controlling for mortality selection reveal that support for the hypotheses varies by health outcome, racial-ethnic group, and life stage. Controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, adult social and economic resources, and health behaviors reduces but does not eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in health trajectories.
Kant, Ashima K.; Graubard, Barry I.
Recent survey data reveal persistent race/ethnic disparities in prevalence of adiposity in U.S. children and adolescents. We examined race/ethnic differentials in time trends in dietary behaviors of Americans 2–19 y of age to understand if these trends track those observed for body weight. We used dietary data from the NHANES 1988–1994, 1999–2002, and 2003–2008 (n = 24,131) to examine changes in reported energy intake, amount of foods and beverages, number of eating occasions, and percent of energy from foods and beverages, among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American 2–19 y olds. Multivariable regression analyses appropriate for complex surveys were used to examine these associations. The secular increase in mean number of eating occasions was significant (P-trend < 0.0001) in all age and race/ethnic groups; however, a corresponding increase in the amount of foods and beverages, or total energy intake was not observed. In non-Hispanic black and Mexican American 2–5 and 12–19 y olds, the secular increase in number of eating occasions, and in non-Hispanic black 12–19 y olds, the increase in percent of energy from all beverages or non-nutritive beverages were greater relative to non-Hispanic whites. In conclusion, the observed race/ethnic differences in trajectory of changes in dietary behaviors over past 20 y were modest and were not accompanied by a significant increase in energy intake. Cautious interpretation is urged due to potential underreporting of dietary intake in national surveys. There was a suggestion of convergence in some race/ethnic differentials in dietary behaviors due to greater relative changes in possibly adverse behaviors in non-Hispanic blacks, especially adolescents. PMID:21865567
Like-Haislip, Toya Z; Warren, Patricia Y
Criminological research has clearly demonstrated that the risk of violent victimization varies across gender. More complex are the differences across race and ethnicity within gender groups. Past studies have established that victimization rates among Black females exceed those of White and Latina females. Although this pattern has been established, the reason for these differences between females must continue to be explored. We draw on situational and contextual features of routine activities and lifestyle theories to examine their use in accounting for these variations across race and ethnicity among females. The results indicate that the divergent impact of routine activities and lifestyle measures on females' risks for violent victimization. For example, some situational (e.g., riding public transportation) and contextual (e.g., residential stability) measures increased the risks of violent victimization among females of color but decreased among White females. The implications of these findings and areas of consideration for further research are discussed.
Reither, Eric N.
Race/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in obesity are substantial and may widen in the future. We review seven potential mechanisms that recent research has used to explain obesity disparities. Those seven mechanisms fall into three broad groups—health behaviors, biological and developmental factors, and the social environment—which incorporate both proximate and upstream determinants of obesity disparities. Efforts to reduce the prevalence of obesity in the U.S. population and to close race/ethnic and SES disparities in obesity will likely require the use of multifaceted interventions that target multiple mechanisms simultaneously. Unfortunately, relatively few of the mechanisms reviewed herein have been tested in an intervention framework. PMID:26377742
Hodge, Samuel R; Kozub, Francis M; Robinson, Leah E; Hersman, Bethany L
The purpose of this study was to determine what trends exist in the identification and description of participants used in data-based studies published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly and the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. Data were analyzed using frequency counts for journals and time periods from the 1980s to 2005 with chi-square tests on gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate, for example, that across the time span both journals published articles reporting males first over females, X2 (3) = 22.16, p < .001. Trend data also reveal that even today most data-based studies in these journals fail to report race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Findings are discussed with guiding principles for future research.
Kapuku, G; Treiber, F; Raouane, F; Halbert, J; Davis, H; Young-Mayes, S; Robinson, V; Harshfield, G
Oxidative stress (OS) and cardiovascular (CV) reactivity are related to CV morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the relationships between these CV risk factors and their confounders. We hypothesize that higher OS is linked to higher blood pressure (BP) reactivity to acute laboratory stressors and in the natural setting. We studied 137 subjects with a family history of hypertension and early myocardial infarction. There were 63 European Americans (EAs) (38 males) and 74 African Americans (AAs) (35 males), aged 19-36 (27.6±3.1). The protocol included a competitive video game, cold stressor and ambulatory BP recording. Blood samples were drawn six times for OS markers (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-Isoprostane) assay. Repeated measures analyses of covariance were used to test for mean differences and Pearson correlations were used to test OS and BP associations. There were no significant race/ethnicity differences in BP reactivity to either stressor (both P's>0.48). 8-OHdG levels were significantly lower across all time points for AAs than for EAs (P<0.05), while levels of 8-isoprostane did not differ significantly (P>0.10). Averaged 8-OHdG levels significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity (r=0.45, <0.01) and 24-h, daytime and nighttime SBP (r range=0.37-0.42, all P's<0.02) for EAs but not for AAs, whereas 8-isoprostane levels were significantly correlated with reactive SBP and nighttime diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (both r's=0.38, P<0.01) for AAs but not for EAs. These findings suggest a link between OS and BP changes in subjects at high risk for CV disease (CVD). Further, race/ethnicity determines which OS marker will impact BP variation implying race/ethnicity differences in OS-related mechanisms of CVD.
Kent, Erin E; Alfano, Catherine M; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Bernstein, Leslie; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel
Posttraumatic growth (PTG) after cancer can minimize the emotional impact of disease and treatment; however, the facilitators of PTG, including support seeking, are unclear. The authors examined the role of support seeking on PTG among 604 breast cancer survivors ages 40 to 64 from the Health Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine predictors of support seeking (participation in support groups and confiding in health care providers) as well as the relationship between support seeking and PTG. Support program participation was moderate (61.1%) compared to the high rates of confiding in health professionals (88.6%), and African Americans were less likely to report participating than non-Hispanic Whites (odds ratio = .14, confidence intervals [0.08, 0.23]). The mean (SD) PTG score was 48.8 (27.4) (range 0-105). Support program participation (β = 10.4) and confiding in health care providers (β = 12.9) were associated (p < .001) with higher PTG. In analyses stratified by race/ethnicity, PTG was significantly higher in non-Hispanic Whites and African American support program participants (p < .01), but not significantly higher in Hispanics/Latinas. Confiding in a health care provider was only associated with PTG for non-Hispanic Whites (p = .02). Support program experiences and patient-provider encounters should be examined to determine which attributes facilitate PTG in diverse populations.
Ng, Judy H.; Bierman, Arlene S.; Elliott, Marc N.; Wilson, Rachel L.; Xia, Chengfei; Scholle, Sarah Hudson
Objectives This study examined physical and mental health, health symptoms, sensory and functional limitations, risk factors, and multimorbidity among older Medicare managed care members to assess disparities associated with race/ethnicity. Study Design and Methods We used data on 236,289 older adults from 208 Medicare plans who completed the 2012 Medicare Health Outcomes Survey to compare 14 health indicators across non-Hispanic whites, blacks, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, multiracial individuals, and Hispanics. Logistic regression models that clustered on the plan estimated the risk of indicators of adverse health and functional status. Results Even after controlling for key patient sociodemographic factors, race/ethnicity was significantly associated with most adverse health indicators. Except for Asians, all racial/ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely than whites to report poor mental health status, presence of most health symptoms, sensory limitations, and activities-of-daily-living disability. Important differences were observed across racial and ethnic groups. Conclusions Despite some exceptions, elders of racial/ethnic minority background are generally at higher risk than non-Hispanic whites for a broad range of adverse health and functional outcomes that are not routinely assessed. Limitations include bias related to self-reported data and respondent recall. Future research should consider ethnic subgroup variations; employing newer techniques to improve estimates for smaller groups; and prioritizing and identifying opportunities for care improvement of diverse enrollee groups by considering specific needs. To improve the health status of the elderly, service delivery targeting the needs of specific population groups, coupled with culturally appropriate care for racial/ethnic minorities, should also be considered. PMID:24884752
Thornton, Christina M; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli L; Gavand, Kavita A; Saelens, Brian E; Frank, Lawrence D; Geremia, Carrie M; Glanz, Karen; King, Abby C; Sallis, James F
Growing evidence suggests that microscale pedestrian environment features, such as sidewalk quality, crosswalks, and neighborhood aesthetics, may affect residents' physical activity. This study examined whether disparities in microscale pedestrian features existed between neighborhoods of differing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic composition. Using the validated Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS), pedestrian environment features were assessed by trained observers along ¼-mile routes (N = 2117) in neighborhoods in three US metropolitan regions (San Diego, Seattle, and Baltimore) during 2009 to 2010. Neighborhoods, defined as Census block groups, were selected to maximize variability in median income and macroscale walkability factors (e.g., density). Mixed-model linear regression analyses explored main and interaction effects of income and race/ethnicity separately by region. Across all three regions, low-income neighborhoods and neighborhoods with a high proportion of racial/ethnic minorities had poorer aesthetics and social elements (e.g., graffiti, broken windows, litter) than neighborhoods with higher median income or fewer racial/ethnic minorities (p<.05). However, there were also instances where neighborhoods with higher incomes and fewer racial/ethnic minorities had worse or absent pedestrian amenities such as sidewalks, crosswalks, and intersections (p<.05). Overall, disparities in microscale pedestrian features occurred more frequently in residential as compared to mixed-use routes with one or more commercial destination. However, considerable variation existed between regions as to which microscale pedestrian features were unfavorable and whether the unfavorable features were associated with neighborhood income or racial/ethnic composition. The variation in pedestrian streetscapes across cities suggests that findings from single-city studies are not generalizable. Local streetscape audits are recommended to identify disparities and
Bentley-Lewis, Rhonda; Huynh, Jennifer; Li, Sylvia; Wenger, Julia; Thadhani, Ravi
Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Additionally, gestational dysglycemia has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus but not yet associated with hypertension subsequent to pregnancy in long-term follow-up. Therefore, we set out to examine this relationship as well as the role of race/ethnicity in modifying this relationship. We analyzed a prospective observational cohort followed between 1998 and 2007. There were 17 655 women with self-reported race/ethnicity and full-term, live births. A 1-hour 50 g oral glucose-load test and a 3-hour 100 g oral glucose-tolerance test enabled third trimester stratification of women into 1 of 4 glucose-tolerance groups: (1) normal (n=15 056); (2) abnormal glucose-load test (n=1558); (3) abnormal glucose-load and -tolerance tests (n=520); and (4) gestational diabetes mellitus (n=521). Women were then followed for a mean±standard deviation of 4.1±2.9 years after delivery for the development of hypertension. Although gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with an increased risk of hypertension after pregnancy (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.58 [1.02, 2.45]; P=0.04), dysglycemia defined by an abnormal glucose-load test predicted hypertension only among black women (4.52 [1.24, 16.52]; P=0.02). The risk of hypertension after pregnancy among dysglycemia groups not meeting criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus varied based on the race/ethnicity of the population. Further research on the implications of the intersection of race/ethnicity and gestational dysglycemia on subsequent hypertension is warranted. PMID:26573715
Bentley-Lewis, Rhonda; Huynh, Jennifer; Li, Sylvia; Wenger, Julia; Thadhani, Ravi
Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Additionally, gestational dysglycemia has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus but not yet associated with hypertension subsequent to pregnancy in long-term follow-up. Therefore, we set out to examine this relationship as well as the role of race/ethnicity in modifying this relationship. We analyzed a prospective observational cohort followed between 1998 and 2007. There were 17 655 women with self-reported race/ethnicity and full-term, live births. A 1-hour 50 g oral glucose-load test and a 3-hour 100 g oral glucose-tolerance test enabled third trimester stratification of women into 1 of 4 glucose-tolerance groups: (1) normal (n=15 056); (2) abnormal glucose-load test (n=1558); (3) abnormal glucose-load and -tolerance tests (n=520); and (4) gestational diabetes mellitus (n=521). Women were then followed for a mean±standard deviation of 4.1±2.9 years after delivery for the development of hypertension. Although gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with an increased risk of hypertension after pregnancy (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.58 [1.02, 2.45]; P=0.04), dysglycemia defined by an abnormal glucose-load test predicted hypertension only among black women (4.52 [1.24, 16.52]; P=0.02). The risk of hypertension after pregnancy among dysglycemia groups not meeting criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus varied based on the race/ethnicity of the population. Further research on the implications of the intersection of race/ethnicity and gestational dysglycemia on subsequent hypertension is warranted.
Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.
This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…
Garland, Ann F; Taylor, Robin; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Liu, Yi Hui; Wong, Sarina
Race/ethnic disparities in utilization of children's mental health care have been well documented and are particularly concerning given the long-term risks of untreated mental health problems (Institute of Medicine, 2003; Kessler et al. Am J Psychiatry 152:10026-1032, 1995). Research investigating the higher rates of unmet need among race/ethnic minority youths has focused primarily on policy, fiscal, and individual child or family factors that can influence service access and use. Alternatively, this study examines provider behavior as a potential influence on race/ethnic disparities in mental health care. The goal of the study was to examine whether patient (family) race/ethnicity influences physician diagnostic and treatment decision-making for childhood disruptive behavior problems. The study utilized an internet-based video vignette with corresponding survey of 371 randomly selected physicians from across the USA representing specialties likely to treat these patients (pediatricians, family physicians, general and child psychiatrists). Participants viewed a video vignette in which only race/ethnicity of the mother randomly varied (non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and African American) and then responded to questions about diagnosis and recommended treatments. Physicians assigned diagnoses such as oppositional defiant disorder (48 %) and attention deficit disorder (63 %) to the child, but there were no differences in diagnosis based on race/ethnicity. The majority of respondents recommended psychosocial treatment (98 %) and/or psychoactive medication treatment (60 %), but there were no significant differences based on race/ethnicity. Thus, in this study using mock patient stimuli and controlling for other factors, such as insurance coverage, we did not find major differences in physician diagnostic or treatment decision-making based on patient race/ethnicity.
Kruttschnitt, Candace; Hussemann, Jeanette
Research over the past two decades has focused on the topic of race as important for understanding order and compliance in men's prisons. However, relatively little research considers how subjective understandings of imprisonment are influenced by race, particularly in the case of women prisoners. The current study analyses 139 interviews conducted with women prisoners in California and England in order to determine how race and ethnicity shape prisoners' experiences and abilities to cope with institutional confinement. Findings suggest that women's understandings of their racial identities differ substantially in these two contexts. In California, where the conditions of confinement are more extreme and white women assume a minority status, racial identity emerges as a salient factor in coping with the adversities of prison life. By contrast, in England, it is the women of colour, and particularly foreign nationals, who have a greater appreciation of the role of race and ethnicity in their daily lives. These findings have implications for our understanding of how prisoners draw on their lived experiences to make sense of their carceral worlds.
Stein, Joshua D.; Kim, Denise S.; Niziol, Leslie M.; Talwar, Nidhi; Nan, Bin; Musch, David C.; Richards, Julia E.
Purpose To determine the incidence and prevalence rates of different glaucoma types among Asian Americans, contrast glaucoma incidence and prevalence rates for Asian Americans with other races, and evaluate the hazard of developing glaucoma among different Asian ethnicities and other races. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort study Participants 2,259,061 beneficiaries aged ≥40 enrolled in a large, national managed-care network in the United States (US) in 2001–2007 Methods Incidence and prevalence rates of open-angle glaucoma (OAG), narrow-angle glaucoma (NAG), and normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) were determined for the beneficiaries and stratified by race and Asian ethnicity. Cox regression analyses determined the hazard of developing OAG, NAG, and NTG for Asian Americans compared with other races and among different Asian ethnicities, with adjustment for confounding factors. Main Outcome Measures Multivariable hazard of OAG, NAG, and NTG among different races and Asian ethnicities. Results The OAG prevalence rate for Asian Americans of 6.52% was similar to that of Latinos (6.40%) and higher than that of non-Hispanic whites (5.59%). The NAG and NTG prevalence rates (3.01% and 0.73%, respectively) were considerably higher among Asian Americans compared with each of the other races. After adjustment for confounding factors, Asian Americans had a 51% increased hazard of OAG (Hazard ratio (HR)=1.51 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42–1.60), a 123% increased hazard of NAG (HR=2.23 (95% CI 2.07–2.41), and a 159% increased hazard of NTG (HR=2.59 (95% CI 2.22–3.02) compared with non-Hispanic whites. Vietnamese Americans (HR=3.78, (95% CI 3.19–4.48), Pakistani Americans (HR=2.45, 95% CI 1.50–4.01) and Chinese Americans (HR=2.31, 95% CI 2.06–2.59) had considerably higher hazards of NAG while Japanese Americans (HR=4.37, 95% CI 3.24–5.89) had a substantially higher hazard of NTG, compared with non–Asian Americans. Conclusions Given the rapid rise in the
variables, such as service, gender , race, education level, age, marital status, Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores, and area of residence.17...first-term attrition are service, gender , race, age, marital status, AFQT scores, and area of residence. Studies also reveal that service members...CS Culinary Specialist DC Damage Controlman DK Dispersing Clerk DM Draftsman DT Dental Technician EA Engineering Aid EO Equipment Operator FN
Brown, Tyson H.; O'Rand, Angela M.; Adkins, Daniel E.
Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from…
Schleicher, Rosemary L; Sternberg, Maya R; Pfeiffer, Christine M
Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors exert important influences on nutritional status; however, information on their association with biomarkers of fat-soluble nutrients is limited, particularly in a representative sample of adults. Serum or plasma concentrations of vitamin A (VIA), vitamin E (VIE), carotenes (CAR), xanthophylls (XAN), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), saturated- (SFA), monounsaturated- (MUFA), polyunsaturated- (PUFA) and total fatty acids (tFA) were measured in adults (≥20 y) during all or part of NHANES 2003–2006. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to assess 5 sociodemographic variables (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, income) and 5 lifestyle behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, supplement use) and their relation to biomarker concentrations. Adjustment for total serum cholesterol and lipid-altering drug use was added to the full regression model. Adjustment for latitude and season was added to the full model for 25OHD. Based on simple linear regression, race-ethnicity, BMI and supplement use were significantly related to all fat-soluble biomarkers. Sociodemographic variables as a groupexplained 5–17% of biomarker variability, whereas together, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables explained 22–23% (25OHD, VIE, XAN), 17% (VIA), 15% (MUFA), 10–11% (SFA, CAR, tFA) and 6% (PUFA). Although lipid adjustment explained additional variability for all biomarkers except 25OHD, it appeared to be largely independent of sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. After adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle and lipid-related variables, major differences in biomarkers were associated with race-ethnicity (from −44% to 57%); smoking (up to −25%); supplement use (up to 21%); and BMI (up to −15%). Latitude and season attenuated some race-ethnic differences. Of the sociodemographic and lifestyle variables examined, with or without lipid-adjustment, most fat-soluble nutrient biomarkers were significantly
Rogers, Robert; Eagle, Taylor F.; Sheetz, Anne; Woodward, Alan; Leibowitz, Robert; Song, MinKyoung; Sylvester, Rachel; Corriveau, Nicole; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Jiang, Qingmei; Jackson, Elizabeth A.
Abstract Background: Previous studies have shown race/ethnicity, particularly African American and/or Hispanic status, to be a predictor of overweight/obese status in children. However, these studies have failed to adjust for low socioeconomic status (SES). This study assessed whether race/ethnicity remained an independent predictor of childhood obesity when accounting for variations in SES (low-income) among communities in Massachusetts. Methods: This study was based on 2009 summarized data from 68 Massachusetts school districts with 111,799 students in grades 1, 4, 7, and 10. We studied the relationship between the rate of overweight/obese students (mean = 0.32; range = 0.10–0.46), the rate of African American and Hispanic students (mean = 0.17; range = 0.00–0.90), and the rate of low-income students (mean = 0.27; range = 0.02–0.87) in two and three dimensions. The main effect of the race/ethnicity rate, the low-income rate, and their interaction on the overweight and obese rate was investigated by multiple regression modeling. Results: Low-income was highly associated with overweight/obese status (p < 0.0001), whereas the effect of race/ethnicity (p = 0.27) and its interaction (p = 0.23) with low-income were not statistically significant. For every 1% increase in low-income, there was a 1.17% increase in overweight/obese status. This pattern was observed across all African American and Hispanic rates in the communities studied. Conclusions: Overweight/obese status was highly prevalent among Massachusetts students, varying from 10% to 46% across communities. Although there were higher rates of overweight/obese status among African American and Hispanic students, the relationship disappeared when controlling for family income. Our findings suggest low SES plays a more significant role in the nation's childhood obesity epidemic than race/ethnicity. PMID:26562758
Johnson, Samon C.; Arbona, Consuelo
The purpose of this study was to explore to what extent ethnic identity and racial identity are related constructs among African American college students by examining (a) the association of racial identity to ethnic identity and (b) the relative and unique contribution of both constructs to race-related stress. Participants were 140 college…
As the racial and ethnic make-up of the United States (U.S.) further diversifies, the need for open dialogue around stereotypes and discrimination intensifies. Schools can provide students with the opportunity to begin to unravel the complexities of race and ethnicity. Students in bilingual classrooms inevitably bring up the issues surrounding…
Kim, Shin Y.; Saraiva, Carina; Curtis, Michael; Wilson, Hoyt G.; Troyan, Jennifer; Sharma, Andrea J.
Objectives. We calculated the racial/ethnic-specific percentages of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) attributable to overweight and obesity. Methods. We analyzed 1 228 265 records of women aged 20 years or older with a live, singleton birth in California during 2007 to 2009. Using logistic regression, we estimated the magnitude of the association between prepregnancy body mass index and GDM and calculated the percentages of GDM attributable to overweight and obesity overall and by race/ethnicity. Results. The overall estimated GDM prevalence ranged from 5.4% among White women to 11.9% among Asian/Pacific Islander women. The adjusted percentages of GDM deliveries attributable to overweight and obesity were 17.8% among Asians/Pacific Islander, 41.2% among White, 44.2% among Hispanic, 51.2% among Black, and 57.8% among American Indian women. Select Asian subgroups, such as Vietnamese (13.0%), Asian Indian (14.0%), and Filipino (14.2%), had the highest GDM prevalence, but the lowest percentage attributable to obesity. Conclusions. Elevated prepregnancy body mass index contributed to GDM in all racial/ethnic groups, which suggests that decreasing overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age could reduce GDM, associated delivery complications, and future risk of diabetes in both the mother and offspring. PMID:23947320
Outram, Simon M; Ellison, George T H
Anthropological insights into the use of race/ethnicity to explore genetic contributions to disparities in health were developed using in-depth qualitative interviews with editorial staff from nineteen genetics journals, focusing on the methodological and conceptual mechanisms required to make race/ethnicity a genetic variable. As such, these analyses explore how and why race/ethnicity comes to be used in the context of genetic research, set against the background of continuing critiques from anthropology and related human sciences that focus on the social construction, structural correlates and limited genetic validity of racial/ethnic categories. The analyses demonstrate how these critiques have failed to engage geneticists, and how geneticists use a range of essentially cultural devices to protect and separate their use of race/ethnicity as a genetic construct from its use as a societal and social science resource. Given its multidisciplinary, biosocial nature and the cultural gaze of its ethnographic methodologies, anthropology is well placed to explore the cultural separation of science and society, and of natural and social science disciplines. Anthropological insights into the use of race/ethnicity to explore disparities in health suggest that moving beyond genetic explanations of innate difference might benefit from a more even-handed critique of how both the natural and social sciences tend to essentialize selective elements of race/ethnicity. Drawing on the example of HIV/AIDS, this paper demonstrates how public health has been undermined by the use of race/ethnicity as an analytical variable, both as a cipher for innate genetic differences in susceptibility and response to treatment, and in its use to identify 'core groups' at greater risk of becoming infected and infecting others. Clearly, a tendency for biological reductionism can place many biomedical issues beyond the scope of public health interventions, while socio-cultural essentialization has
Hsu, Jack W.; Wingard, John R.; Logan, Brent R.; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Akpek, Gorgun; Anderlini, Paolo; Artz, Andrew S.; Bredeson, Chris; Goldstein, Steven; Hale, Gregory; Hematti, Pieman; Joshi, Sarita; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; O'Donnell, Paul V.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Savani, Bipin; Schears, Raquel M.; Shaw, Bronwen E.; Confer, Dennis L.
Little information exists on the effect of race and ethnicity on collection of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) for allogeneic transplantation. We studied 10776 donors from the National Marrow Donor Program who underwent PBSC collection from 2006-2012. Self-reported donor race/ethnic information included Caucasian, Hispanic, Black/African American (AA), Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and Native American (NA). All donors were mobilized with subcutaneous filgrastim (G-CSF) at an approximate dose of 10 µg/kg/d for 5 days. Overall, AA donors had the highest median yields of mononuclear cells (MNC)/L and CD34+ cells/L blood processed (3.1 × 109 and 44 × 106 respectively) while Caucasians had the lowest median yields at 2.8 × 109 and 33.7 × 106 respectively. Multivariate analysis of CD34+/L mobilization yields using Caucasians as the comparator and controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and year of apheresis revealed increased yields in overweight and obese AA and API donors. In Hispanic donors, only male obese donors had higher CD34+/L mobilization yields compared to Caucasian donors. No differences in CD34+/L yields were seen between Caucasian and NA donors. Characterization of these differences may allow optimization of mobilization regimens to allow enhancement of mobilization yields without compromising donor safety. PMID:25316111
Mojola, Sanyu A.; Everett, Bethany
CONTEXT STDs, including HIV, disproportionately affect individuals who have multiple minority identities. Understanding differences in STD risk factors across racial, ethnic and sexual minority groups, as well as genders, is important for tailoring public health interventions. METHODS Data from Waves 3 (2001–2002) and 4 (2007–2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to develop population-based estimates of STD and HIV risk factors among 11,045 young adults (mean age, 29 at Wave 4), by gender, race and ethnicity, and sexual orientation (heterosexual, mixed-oriented, gay). Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between risk factors and young adults’ characteristics. RESULTS Overall, sexual-minority women in each racial or ethnic group had a higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors—including a history of multiple partners, forced sex and incarceration—than their heterosexual counterparts. Mixed-oriented women in each racial or ethnic group were more likely than heterosexual white women to have received an STD diagnosis (odds ratios, 1.8–6.4). Black men and sexual-minority men also appeared to be at heightened risk. Gay men in all racial and ethnic groups were significantly more likely than heterosexual white men to report having received an STD diagnosis (2.3–8.3); compared with heterosexual white men, mixed-oriented black men had the highest odds of having received such a diagnosis (15.2). CONCLUSIONS Taking account of multiple minority identities should be an important part of future research and intervention efforts for STD and HIV prevention. PMID:22681428
Zhou, Anne Q; Hsueh, Loretta; Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Sotelo, Frank L; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A
Federal and state policies are based on data from surveys that examine sexual-related cognitions and behaviors through self-reports of attitudes and actions. No study has yet examined their factorial invariance--specifically, whether the relationship between items assessing sexual behavior and their underlying construct differ depending on gender, ethnicity/race, or age. This study examined the factor structure of four items from the sexual behavior questionnaire part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). As NHANES provided different versions of the survey per gender, invariance was tested across gender to determine whether subsequent tests across ethnicity/race and generation could be done across gender. Items were not invariant across gender groups so data files for women and men were not collapsed. Across ethnicity/race for both genders, and across generation for women, items were configurally invariant, and exhibited metric invariance across Latino/Latina and Black participants for both genders. Across generation for men, the configural invariance model could not be identified so the baseline models were examined. The four item one factor model fit well for the Millennial and GenerationX groups but was a poor fit for the baby boomer and silent generation groups, suggesting that gender moderated the invariance across generation. Thus, comparisons between ethnic/racial and generational groups should not be made between the genders or even within gender. Findings highlight the need for programs and interventions that promote a more inclusive definition of "having had sex."
Gill, Abegail A.; Zahm, Shelia H.; Shriver, Craig D.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Zhu, Kangmin
Background The number of lymph nodes examined during colon cancer surgery falls below nationally recommended guidelines in the general population, with blacks and Hispanics less likely to have adequate nodal evaluation in comparison to whites. The Department of Defense’s (DoD’s) Military Health System (MHS) provides equal access to medical care for its beneficiaries, regardless of racial/ethnic background. This study aimed to investigate whether racial/ethnic treatment differences exist in the MHS, an equal access medical care system. Methods Linked data from the DoD cancer registry and administrative claims databases were used and included 2,155 colon cancer cases. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association between race/ethnicity and the number of lymph nodes examined (<12 and ≥ 12) overall and for stratified analyses. Results No overall racial/ethnic difference in the number of lymph nodes examined was identified. Further stratified analyses yielded similar results, except potential racial/ethnic differences were found among persons with poorly differentiated tumors, where non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) tended to be less likely to have ≥12 lymph nodes dissected (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80, p-value: 0.01) compared to non-Hispanic whites. Conclusion Racial/ethnic disparities in the number of lymph nodes evaluated among patients with colon cancer were not apparent in an equal-access healthcare system. However, among poorly differentiated tumors, there might be racial/ethnic differences in nodal yield, suggesting the possible effects of factors other than access to healthcare. PMID:25059789
Kaufman, Joy S.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Vaughan, Ellen L.; Reynolds, Jesse S.; Di Donato, John; Bernard, Stanley N.; Hernandez-Brereton, Maria
Research supports that office referral data is useful in informing programmatic decisions and in planning interventions such as Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS). Knowledge of the different patterns of office referrals may facilitate the development of interventions that are targeted to specific groups of students. This study examines patterns in office referrals within an urban district by gender, race/ethnicity and grade. Findings reveal that there are clear differences by grade that appear to be related to developmental level, with greater numbers of referrals for aggression in younger students (grades K-8), greater numbers of referrals for disrespectful behavior in middle school students (grades 7–8), and greater numbers of referrals for attendance problems in high school students. There were also gender differences in the rate and type of referrals, with significantly more referrals for boys’ delinquent and aggressive behavior than girls, which may relate to how schools define unacceptable behavior and the method used to collect this data. Finally, there were differences by race/ethnicity, in that there were significantly more referrals for African American/black students than Hispanic students, which suggest that schools need to consider students’ racial/ethnic background in the development of behavioral expectations. PMID:25580076
Sohn, Elizabeth Kelley; Porch, Tichelle; Hill, Sarah; Thorpe, Roland J
Engaging in regular physical activity reduces one's risk of chronic disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. These preventive benefits associated with physical activity are of particular importance for men, who have shorter life expectancy and experience higher rates of chronic diseases as compared to women. Studies at the community and national levels have found that social and environmental factors are important determinants of men's physical activity, but little is known about how regional influences affect physical activity behaviors among men. The objective of this study is to examine the association between geographic region and physical activity among men in the United States, and to determine if there are racial/ethnic differences in physical activity within these geographic regions. Cross-sectional data from men who participated the 2000 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey ( N = 327,556) was used. The primary outcome in this study was whether or not men had engaged in sufficient physical activity to receive health benefits, defined as meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Race/ethnicity and geographic region were the primary independent variables. Within every region, Hispanic and Asian men had lower odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity compared to white men. Within the Northeast, South, and West, black men had lower odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity compared to white men. The key findings indicate that the odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity among men differ significantly between geographic regions and within regions by race/ethnicity.
Social justice education recognizes the discrepancies in opportunities among disadvantaged groups in society. The purpose of the articles in this special topic on social justice is to (a) provide a critical reflection on issues of social justice within health pedagogy and youth sport of Black and ethnic-minority (BME) young people; (b) provide a framework for the importance of intersectionality research (mainly the intersection of social class, race, and ethnicity) in youth sport and health pedagogy for social justice; and (c) contextualize the complex intersection and interplay of social issues (i.e., race, ethnicity, social classes) and their influence in shaping physical culture among young people with a BME background. The article argues that there are several social identities in any given pedagogical terrain that need to be heard and legitimized to avoid neglect and "othering." This article suggests that a resurgence of interest in theoretical frameworks such as intersectionality can provide an effective platform to legitimize "non-normative bodies" (diverse bodies) in health pedagogy and physical education and sport by voicing positionalities on agency and practice.
Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education
Chapman, Christina H.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland
Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.
Kaczynski, Andrew T; Stanis, Sonja A Wilhelm; Besenyi, Gina M; Child, Stephanie
We examined differences by sex and race/ethnicity in the observed moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) of youth and adults in diverse areas of 4 parks in Kansas City, Missouri, in 2009. Male youth were more active on playgrounds and pools or splashpads than female youth. White youth were less active than nonwhite youth in open spaces and on paved trails. Male adults were more active in open spaces than female adults, and white adults were more active on paved trails than nonwhite adults. Understanding variations in MVPA between user groups can inform park design efforts to foster increased activity among all visitors.
Dean, Hazel D.; Steele, C. Brooke; Satcher, Anna J.; Nakashima, Allyn K.
BACKGROUND: During June 1981 to June 1982, 37% of more than 400 cases of AIDS reported to the CDC were in minority races and ethnicities. In 2003, 72% of the estimated 43,171 cases of AIDS diagnosed in the 50 states; District of Columbia; and U.S. dependencies, possessions and free nations were in minority races and ethnicities. METHODS: We analyzed HIV/AIDS data for 2000-2003 reported by the 32 states that have had confidential name-based reporting of HIV infection since 1999. For analysis of AIDS data, we used data for 1999-2003 reported by the 50 states and the District of Columbia. HIV/AIDS and AIDS data were statistically adjusted for reporting delays and redistribution of cases initially reported without risk factors. RESULTS: For all years, the numbers of HIV/AIDS and AIDS diagnoses were consistently higher among non-Hispanic blacks than among other races and ethnicities. In the 32 states with HIV reporting, the HIV/AIDS diagnosis rate in 2003 was 74 per 100,000 for blacks, 25 per 100,000 for Hispanics, 11 per 100,000 for American Indians/Alaska Natives, nine per 100,000 for whites, and seven per 100,000 for Asians/Pacific Islanders. The rates for persons living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2003 were highest for blacks (765 per 100,000) and Hispanics (220 per 100,000). In the 50 states and the District of Columbia, AIDS diagnosis rates in 2003 were 58 per 100,000 for blacks, 20 per 100,000 for Hispanics, eight per 100,000 for American Indians/Alaska Natives, and four per 100,000 for Asians/Pacific Islanders. CONCLUSION: HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects minority races and ethnicities in the United States. To reduce rates of HIV/AIDS in these populations, effective and culturally appropriate prevention interventions must be developed and implemented. PMID:16080451
Egan, Kieren J; Knutson, Kristen L; Pereira, Alexandre C; von Schantz, Malcolm
In recent years, strong evidence has emerged suggesting that insufficient duration, quality, and/or timing of sleep are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and various mechanisms for this association have been proposed. Such associations may be related to endophenotypic features of the sleep homeostat and the circadian oscillator, or may be state-like effects of the environment. Here, we review recent literature on sleep, circadian rhythms and CVD with a specific emphasis on differences between racial/ethnic groups. We discuss the reported differences, mainly between individuals of European and African descent, in parameters related to sleep (architecture, duration, quality) and circadian rhythms (period length and phase shifting). We further review racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, and develop the hypothesis that racial/ethnic health disparities may, to a greater or smaller degree, relate to differences in parameters related to sleep and circadian rhythms. When humans left Africa some 100,000 years ago, some genetic differences between different races/ethnicities were acquired. These genetic differences have been proposed as a possible predictor of CVD disparities, but concomitant differences in culture and lifestyle between different groups may equally explain CVD disparities. We discuss the evidence for genetic and environmental causes of these differences in sleep and circadian rhythms, and their usefulness as health intervention targets.
Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.
Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688
Carnethon, Mercedes R.; De Chavez, Peter John; Zee, Phyllis C.; Kim, Kwang-Youn A.; Liu, Kiang; Goldberger, Jeffrey J.; Ng, Jason; Knutson, Kristen L.
Background Prior studies report less favorable sleep characteristics among non-Whites as compared with non-Hispanic Whites. However, few population-based studies have used objective measures of sleep duration, especially in more than two racial/ethnic groups. We tested whether objectively-estimated sleep duration and self-reported sleep quality varied by race and whether differences were at least partially accounted for by variability in clinical, psychological and behavioral covariates. Methods Adults aged 35-64 years who self- identified as White, Black, Asian or Hispanic were randomly sampled from Chicago, IL and surrounding suburbs. Our analytic sample included adults who had an apnea hypopnea index <15 after one night of screening and who completed 7 nights of wrist actigraphy for determination of sleep duration, sleep percentage, minutes of wake after sleep onset and sleep fragmentation (n=495). Daytime sleepiness was estimated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and sleep quality was estimated from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results Following statistical adjustment for age, gender, education, work schedule (i.e, day vs. night shift) smoking status, depressive symptoms, BMI, hypertension and diabetes, sleep duration (minutes) was significantly (all p<0.01) shorter in Black (mean=399.5), Hispanic (mean=411.7) and Asian (mean=409.6) participants than White participants (mean=447.4). All remaining sleep characteristics were significantly less favorable among Black participants as compared with White participants. Asian participants also reported significantly more daytime sleepiness than White participants. Conclusions Differences in sleep characteristics by race/ethnicity are apparent in a sample of adults with a low probability of sleep apnea and following adjustment for known confounders. PMID:26459680
Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie
Age-related changes in children’s associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5–6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10–11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African–American (n = 93), European–American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian–American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African–American and European–American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children’s associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African–American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European–American targets. Finally, children associated African–American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European–American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants’ own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children’s associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981
Brown, Tyson H.; O’Rand, Angela M.; Adkins, Daniel E.
Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, and multilevel growth curve models to investigate racial-ethnic differences in the trajectories of serious conditions and functional limitations among blacks, Mexican Americans, and whites. We test three hypotheses on the nature of racial-ethnic disparities in health across the life course (aging-as-leveler, persistent inequality, and cumulative disadvantage). Results controlling for mortality selection reveal that support for the hypotheses varies by health outcome, racial-ethnic group, and life stage. Controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, adult social and economic resources, and health behaviors reduces but does not eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in health trajectories. PMID:22940814
In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, social justice, race, ethnicity and identity. This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with some of the complexities. In dealing with the construct of social justice, an ethical approach calls for productive research tools to not only understand exclusion but also to change situations of injustice to marginalised groups. Further, both constructs race and ethnicity can be used to identify groups of people based on their history, culture and/or lifestyles. As social constructions they have different historical origins and are open to alternative connotations, uses and abuses. An ethical perspective is useful to manage the dilemma of essentialism that group identification may lead into. Finally, the debate around the usefulness of the construct of identity raises some ethical questions about the role of research and the lived experience of its subjects. An ethical stance demands that constructs of analysis in social inquiry should not only demonstrate their utility for knowledge generation but also should demonstrate a responsibility for the construction and reconstruction of lifeworld in which academic endeavours are conducted.
Copping, Kristine E.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Wood, Dana
Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults’ beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children’s own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults’ race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and sixth-grade Blacks reported roughly egalitarian academic stereotypes. At every grade level, Whites reported academic stereotypes that favored Whites, and sixth and eighth grade Whites reported sports stereotypes that favored Blacks. Results support the tenets of status theory and have implications for identity development and achievement motivation in adolescents. PMID:23729837
Hashim, Dana; Farhat, Zeinab; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Manczuk, Marta; Holcombe, Randall F; Thorpe, Lorna; Schymura, Maria J; Lucchini, Roberto G; Boffetta, Paolo
We examined the effects of race/ethnicity and neighborhood, a proxy of socioeconomic status, on cancer incidence in New York City neighborhoods: East Harlem (EH), Central Harlem (CH), and Upper East Side (UES). In this ecological study, Community Health Survey data (2002-2006) and New York State Cancer Registry incidence data (2007-2011) were stratified by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood. Logistic regression models were fitted to each cancer incidence rate with race/ethnicity, neighborhood, and Community Health Survey-derived risk factors as predictor variables. Neighborhood was significantly associated with all cancers and 14 out of 25 major cancers. EH and CH residence conferred a higher risk of all cancers compared with UES (OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.68; and OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.12-1.72, respectively). The prevalence of diabetes and tobacco smoking were the largest contributors toward high cancer rates. Despite juxtaposition and similar proximity to medical centers, cancer incidence disparities persist among EH, CH, and UES neighborhoods. Targeted, neighborhood-specific outreach may aid in reducing cancer incidence rates.
Siordia, Carlos; Bell, Ronny A; Haileselassie, Shalom L
In the USA, some race-ethnic minorities are unjustly relegated to the margins of society. As a consequence, these groups are more frequently found to have risk profiles associated with adverse health than individuals from the majority group (non-Hispanic Whites). Limited research has been devoted to investigating how American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) differ from other race-ethnic minorities and the majority group with regard to prevalence and risk for self-care, independent living, and ambulatory disabilities. Our investigation attempts to quantify both of these tracks by accounting for race-ethnic and poverty status. Our cross-sectional analysis used nationally representative data from the American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year (2009-2013) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) file to address this literature gap. We selected survey participants from the four states with the largest concentration of AIANs in the USA (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Oklahoma). We used information on 2,428,233 individuals to generalize prevalence of and risk for disability to 49,994,332 individuals in the Southwest US. We found disability (self-reported) prevalence differed between our six race-ethnic groups in statistically significant and complex ways. Population-weighted logistic regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, and citizenship found AIANs have a higher risk for disability than non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Asians, and Hispanics. In order to impact public health and build a more equitable society, efforts should continue to identify health disparities. Researchers should continue to advance conceptual frameworks on plausible causal mechanisms between markers of social stratification and disablement processes.
... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...
Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos
This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants.
Bhopal, R; Donaldson, L
The request for scientifically appropriate terminology in research on race, ethnicity, and health has largely bypassed the term White. This and other words, such as Caucasian, are embedded in clinical and epidemiological discourse, yet they are rarely defined. This commentary analyzes the issue from the perspective of the epidemiology of the health of minority ethnic and racial groups in Europe and the United States. Minority groups are usually compared with populations described as White, Caucasian, European, Europid, Western, Occidental, indigenous, native, and majority. Such populations are heterogeneous, the labels nonspecific, and the comparisons misleading. Terminology that reflects the research purpose-for examples, reference, control, or comparison--is better (unlike White, these terms imply no norm, allowing neither writers nor readers to make stereotyped assumptions about the comparison populations. This paper widens the debate on nomenclature for racial and ethnic groups. Many issues need exploration, including whether there is a shared understanding among the international research community of the terms discussed. PMID:9736867
Byars-Winston, Angela; Fouad, Nadya; Wen, Yao
We used census data on the civilian non-institutional adult population to analyze trends in labor force participation by race/ethnicity and sex in U.S. occupations from 1970 to 2010 in decennial periods. We examined these data for the main effects and interactions of race/ethnicity and sex across the total labor market and within 35 detailed occupations. Results from a log-linear analysis revealed that, as a whole (across race/ethnicity), more women participated in the labor force from 1970 to 2010. The proportions of working racial/ethnic minorities to both the population and the people in the labor force increased across all decades except for Black men. Although White (Caucasian) men continuously comprised the largest racial/ethnic-sex group working across five decades in absolute numbers, their percentage of the total working population declined from 1970 (54%) to 2010 (37%). In our analyses of 35 occupations, significant sex differences within racial/ethnic groups emerged. Overall, with some exceptions, Asian men and women and White women were more likely to be absorbed into occupations typically associated with professional status whereas Black, Hispanic, and American Indian men and women were more likely to be absorbed into occupations typically associated with low skill, low wages, and low status. Implications for the role of psychologists in future research, practice, and policy are discussed.
Contractor, Ateka A; Claycomb, Meredith A; Byllesby, Brianna M; Layne, Christopher M; Kaplow, Julie B; Steinberg, Alan M; Elhai, Jon D
The severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms is linked to race and ethnicity, albeit with contradictory findings (reviewed in Alcántara, Casement, & Lewis-Fernández, 2013; Pole, Gone, & Kulkarni, 2008). We systematically examined Caucasian (n = 3,767) versus non-Caucasian race (n = 2,824) and Hispanic (n = 2,395) versus non-Hispanic ethnicity (n = 3,853) as candidate moderators of PTSD's 5-factor model structural parameters (Elhai et al., 2013). The sample was drawn from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Core Data Set, currently the largest national data set of clinic-referred children and adolescents exposed to potentially traumatic events. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we tested the invariance of PTSD symptom structural parameters by race and ethnicity. Chi-square difference tests and goodness-of-fit values showed statistical equivalence across racial and ethnic groups in the factor structure of PTSD and in mean item-level indicators of PTSD symptom severity. Results support the structural invariance of PTSD's 5-factor model across the compared racial and ethnic groups. Furthermore, results indicated equivalent item-level severity across racial and ethnic groups; this supports the use of item-level comparisons across these groups.
Murphy, Gwen; Devesa, Susan S; Cross, Amanda J; Inskip, Peter D; McGlynn, Katherine A; Cook, Michael B
Although incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States has declined in recent years, rates remain higher in men than in women and the male-to-female incidence rate ratio (MF IRR) increases progressively across the colon from the cecum to the rectum. Rates among races/ethnicities other than Whites or Blacks have not been frequently reported. To examine CRC rates by sex across anatomic subsite, age and racial/ethnic groups, we used the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program for cases diagnosed among residents of 13 registries during 1992-2006. Incidence rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years and age-adjusted to the 2000 US Standard Population; MF IRR and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. Among each racial/ethnic group, the MF IRR increased fairly monotonically from close to unity for cecal cancers to 1.81 (Hispanics) for rectal cancers. MF IRRs increased with age most rapidly for distal colon cancers from <1.0 at ages <50 years to 1.4-1.9 at older ages. The MF IRR for rectal cancers also rose with age from about 1.0 to 2.0. For proximal cancer, the MF IRR was consistently <1.5; among American Indian/Alaska Natives, it was <1.0 across all ages. The MF IRRs for CRC vary markedly according to subsite and age but less by racial/ethnic group. These findings may partially reflect differences in screening experiences and access to medical care but also suggest that etiologic factors may be playing a role.
Hayward, William G; Favelle, Simone K; Oxner, Matt; Chu, Ming Hon; Lam, Sze Man
The other-race effect in face identification has been reported in many situations and by many different ethnicities, yet it remains poorly understood. One reason for this lack of clarity may be a limitation in the methodologies that have been used to test it. Experiments typically use an old-new recognition task to demonstrate the existence of the other-race effect, but such tasks are susceptible to different social and perceptual influences, particularly in terms of the extent to which all faces are equally individuated at study. In this paper we report an experiment in which we used a face learning methodology to measure the other-race effect. We obtained naturalistic photographs of Chinese and Caucasian individuals, which allowed us to test the ability of participants to generalize their learning to new ecologically valid exemplars of a face identity. We show a strong own-race advantage in face learning, such that participants required many fewer trials to learn names of own-race individuals than those of other-race individuals and were better able to identify learned own-race individuals in novel naturalistic stimuli. Since our methodology requires individuation of all faces, and generalization over large image changes, our finding of an other-race effect can be attributed to a specific deficit in the sensitivity of perceptual and memory processes to other-race faces.
Smith, Ashley Wilder; Alfano, Catherine M.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Irwin, Melinda L.; Bernstein, Leslie; Baumgartner, Kathy; Bowen, Deborah; McTiernan, Anne; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel
PURPOSE To examine associations between recreational physical activity and quality of life (QOL) in a multi-ethnic cohort of breast cancer survivors, specifically testing whether associations are consistent across racial/ethnic groups after accounting for relevant medical and demographic factors that might explain disparities in QOL outcomes. METHODS Data were collected from a population-based cohort of non-Hispanic White (n=448), Black (n=197), and Hispanic (n=84) breast cancer survivors (Stage 0-IIIa) in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study. Physical activity was assessed approximately 2.5 years breast cancer diagnosis, with QOL assessed on average 6–12 months later. We used structural equation modeling to examine relationships between meeting recommended levels of physical activity and QOL, stratifying by race/ethnicity and adjusting for other demographic, comorbidity, and treatment effects. RESULTS Structural equation modeling indicated that meeting recommended levels of physical activity had significant positive associations with QOL for Black and for non-Hispanic White women, (p<0.05). Fewer Black women reported meeting recommended physical activity levels (p<0.001); but meeting recommendations was associated with better QOL. Post-hoc tests showed that meeting physical activity recommendations was specifically associated with better vitality, social functioning, emotional roles, and global QOL (all p’s< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that meeting recommended levels of physical activity is associated with better QOL in non-Hispanic White and Black breast cancer survivors. Findings may help support future interventions among breast cancer survivors and promote supportive care that includes physical activity; although more research is needed to determine these relationships among Hispanic and other ethnic minority women. PMID:19190157
Clarke, Lisa C.; Rull, Rudolph P.; Ayanian, John Z.; Boer, Robert; Deapen, Dennis; West, Dee W.; Kahn, Katherine L.
Background Accurate information regarding race, ethnicity, and national origins is critical for identifying disparities in the cancer burden. Objectives To examine the use of a Spanish surname list to improve the quality of race-related information obtained from rapid case ascertainment (RCA) and to estimate the accuracy of race-related information obtained from cancer registry records collected by routine reporting. Subjects . Self-reported survey responses of 3,954 participants from California enrolled in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium (CanCORS). Measures Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and percent agreement. We employed logistic regression to identify predictors of under-reporting and over-reporting of a race/ethnicity. Results Use of the Spanish surname list increased the sensitivity of RCA for Latino ethnicity from 37% to 83%. Sensitivity for cancer registry records collected by routine reporting was ≥95% for Whites, Blacks, and Asians, and specificity was high for all groups (86–100%). However, patterns of misclassification by race/ethnicity were found that could lead to biased cancer statistics for specific race/ethnicities. Discordance between self- and registry-reported race/ethnicity was more likely for women, Latinos, and Asians. Conclusion Methods to improve race and ethnicity data, such as using Spanish surnames in RCA and instituting data collection guidelines for hospitals, are needed to ensure minorities are accurately represented in clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:23938598
Goldstein, Susan B.
This study seeks to expand the literature on predicting friendship diversity beyond race/ethnicity to include religion, social class, and sexual orientation. Survey packets elicited information regarding up to four close friendships developed during college. Additional measures assessed pre-college friendship diversity, participation in college…
Kwon, Soyang; Mason, Maryann; Welch, Sarah
Background: We compared moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and inactivity levels among fifth and sixth graders during school hours according to school-level race/ethnicity and income attributes to inform school-based obesity interventions in Illinois Suburban Cook County (SCC). Methods: Fifth- and sixth-grade students…
Crosnoe, Robert; Wildsmith, Elizabeth
Working from a life course perspective, this study examined the links between mothers' fertility and relationship statuses and children's early school achievement and how these links varied by race/ethnicity and immigration status. Analyses of nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed…
Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Wei, Meifen; Good, Glenn E.; Flores, Lisa Y.
Increasing trainees' multicultural counseling competence (MCC) has been a hot topic in counseling. Scholars have identified predictors (e.g., race/ethnicity, color-blindness) of MCC, and educators provide multicultural training for trainees. Using a sample of 370 psychology trainees, this study examined whether multicultural training (a) moderated…
Maldonado, Camilo, III
Over the course of 12 months, I conducted an ethnographic study in an urban preschool classroom in the northeastern Unites States. Employing a sociocultural perspective of early childhood development, I investigated the various social and academic discourses related to race and ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) presented in a…
Swartz, Patti Capel; Hardesty, Constance
This paper describes an effort to coordinate teaching in two college classes--an Introduction to Sociology class and a Writing II class--to focus on issues of entitlement, such as race, ethnicity, class, gender, and sexuality. The tandem effort was designed to encourage students to explore the subjects more deeply than would have been likely in…
Fairlie, Robert; Hoffmann, Florian; Oreopoulos, Philip
This paper uses detailed administrative data from one of the largest community colleges in the United States to quantify the extent to which academic performance depends on students being of similar race or ethnicity to their instructors. To address the concern of endogenous sorting, we use both student and classroom fixed effects and focus on…
Aluwihare-Samaranayake, Dilmi; Paul, Pauline
The paper reveals that historically various socio-political factors, including gender, class, ethnicity, race, waves of colonization, decolonization, the civil and ethnic wars, the women's and labour movements, have influenced the development of nursing in Sri Lanka. However, literature presenting the development of nursing in Sri Lanka is sparse. All relevant journals and books published in the English and Sinhalese languages on nursing in Sri Lanka between the years 1878-2011 were examined. Because there are no nursing journals currently produced in Sri Lanka, CINAHL and Medline databases were accessed and relevant literature published in the English language on Sri Lanka was examined. Government, nurses' union and association reports, other unpublished reports and websites such as Google were also searched to access information related to the influence of gender, race, class, ethnicity, women's and labour movements in Sri Lanka. Poor pay, shortages of resources, failure in recruitment and retention and limited opportunity for career progression have acted as deterrents to persons entering and remaining in the nursing profession. Being non-British was a key issue in terms of race. Further, the shift from a colonized state to a welfare state resulted in a class shift from upper middle class to middle and lower class persons entering into nursing. Although there is a paucity of information available in the nursing literature, this analysis offers an intriguing insight into an angle that may be used to examine the influence of gender, ethnicity, class, race and the women's and labour movements in other contextual situations.
This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…
Hmong American students and their struggles are largely invisible yet grossly misunderstood when seen. This study reveals how Hmong Americans negotiate the contours of race and ethnicity to construct an affirming identity on their respective university campuses. A framework of campus racial climate is employed to investigate how institutional…
Williams, Joanna L.; Deutsch, Nancy L.
In this article, we explore how researchers can more fully consider and conceptualize the role of race and ethnicity in studies of youth development programs, with an emphasis on positive youth development (PYD). Such a focus can be integrated in a more meaningful way through the application of a theoretical model that provides a framework for…
Barksdale, Crystal L.; Azur, Melissa; Daniels, Amy M.
Behavioral and emotional strengths are important to consider when understanding youth mental health and treatment. This study examined the association between youth strengths and functional impairment and whether this association is modified by race/ethnicity. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of strengths on…
Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives are underrepresented in science and engineering fields. A comparison of race-ethnic differences at key transition points was undertaken to better inform education policy. National data on high school graduation, college enrollment, choice of major, college graduation, graduate school enrollment, and doctoral degrees were used to quantify the degree of underrepresentation at each level of education and the rate of transition to the next stage. Disparities are found at every level, and their impact is cumulative. For the most part, differences in graduation rates, rather than differential matriculation rates, make the largest contribution to the underrepresentation. The size, scope, and persistence of the disparities suggest that small-scale, narrowly targeted remediation will be insufficient.
Jean-Louis, Girardin; Zizi, Ferdinand; Dweck, Monica; McKenzie, Dexter; Lazzaro, Douglass R.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have characterized ethnic variations in standard ophthalmic measures. We tested the hypothesis that nerve fiber layer thickness would show characteristic differences between white and black individuals. We also examined whether ophthalmic measures would show intraethnic differences. METHODS: Seventy participants (mean age: 68.27+/- 5.97 years; blacks: 59% and whites: 41%) were recruited from Brooklyn communities. Sociodemographic and medical data were obtained, and eligible volunteers underwent eye examinations at SUNY Downstate Medical Center. RESULTS: ANCOVA showed that blacks were characterized by significantly worse visual acuity (F=4.14, p=0.05), larger horizontal and vertical cup-to-disk ratios (F=4.53, p=0.04; F=6.08, p=0.02, respectively), and thinner nerve fiber layer than their white counterparts (F=22.61, p=0.009). Within the black ethnicity itself, Caribbean Americans showed significantly thinner nerve fiber layer than did African Americans (F=7.52, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: Findings are consistent with previous reports of racial/ethnic differences in ophthalmic measures. Moreover, they suggest that black ethnicity may not be homogeneous regarding ophthalmic variables, particularly when examining nerve fiber layer thickness. Studies investigating ethnic differences in eye diseases should examine intragroup factors that could influence interpretation of clinical data. PMID:17366950
Byars-Winston, Angela; Fouad, Nadya; Wen, Yao
We used census data on the civilian non-institutional adult population to analyze trends in labor force participation by race/ethnicity and sex in U.S. occupations from 1970 to 2010 in decennial periods. We examined these data for the main effects and interactions of race/ethnicity and sex across the total labor market and within 35 detailed occupations. Results from a log-linear analysis revealed that, as a whole (across race/ethnicity), more women participated in the labor force from 1970 to 2010. The proportions of working racial/ethnic minorities to both the population and the people in the labor force increased across all decades except for Black men. Although White (Caucasian) men continuously comprised the largest racial/ethnic–sex group working across five decades in absolute numbers, their percentage of the total working population declined from 1970 (54%) to 2010 (37%). In our analyses of 35 occupations, significant sex differences within racial/ethnic groups emerged. Overall, with some exceptions, Asian men and women and White women were more likely to be absorbed into occupations typically associated with professional status whereas Black, Hispanic, and American Indian men and women were more likely to be absorbed into occupations typically associated with low skill, low wages, and low status. Implications for the role of psychologists in future research, practice, and policy are discussed. PMID:25937638
Watkins, Daphne C; Assari, Shervin; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki
This study tested whether race and ethnic group differences exist for lifetime major depressive disorder and/or general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions. Data from the National Survey of American Life, which included 3570 African American, 1438 Caribbean Black, and 891 non-Hispanic White adults were analyzed. Outcomes included at least one and multiple chronic medical conditions, from a list of 14 medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, etc.). Logistic regressions were fitted to data to determine how the association between major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and one or more chronic medical conditions vary across race and ethnicity. Lifetime major depressive disorder (but not lifetime general anxiety disorder) was associated with at least one chronic medical condition among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks, but not non-Hispanic Whites. Lifetime major depressive disorder was similarly associated with multiple chronic medical conditions among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. For Caribbean Blacks, stronger associations were found between major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Findings suggest that race and ethnicity may shape the links between comorbid psychiatric disorders and chronic medical conditions. Mental health screening of individuals with chronic medical conditions in primary health-care settings may benefit from tailoring based on race and ethnicity. More research is needed to understand why associations between physical and mental health vary among race and ethnic groups.
Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper
This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools in the southeastern United States participated in the investigation. Results indicated high internal consistency for the six GRS-S scales: Intellectual Ability, Academic Ability, Creativity, Artistic Talent, Leadership, and Motivation. Results revealed no effect of race/ethnicity, age, or rater familiarity with the student. There was no significant effect for gender, although a trend was noted for girls rated slightly higher than boys across all scales. This trend was consistent with analyses of the standardization data and with cross-cultural findings using translated versions of the GRS-S. The present findings provided support for the GRS-S as a valid gifted screening instrument. PMID:26366036
Silverman, Michael G; Patel, Birju; Blankstein, Ron; Lima, Joao A C; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a prevalent condition with no established prevention or treatment strategies. Furthermore, the pathophysiology and predisposing risk factors for HFpEF are incompletely understood. Therefore, we sought to characterize the incidence and determinants of HFpEF in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Our study included 6,781 MESA participants (White, Black, Chinese, and Hispanic men and women age 45 to 84 years, free of baseline cardiovascular disease). The primary end point was time to diagnosis of HFpEF (left ventricular ejection fraction ≥45%). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to identify predictors of HFpEF. Over median follow-up of 11.2 years (10.6 to 11.7), 111 subjects developed HFpEF (cumulative incidence 1.7%). Incidence rates were similar across all races/ethnicities. Age (HR 2.3 [1.7 to 3.0]), hypertension (HR 1.8 [1.1 to 2.9]), diabetes (HR 2.3 [1.5 to 3.7]), body mass index (HR 1.4 [1.1 to 1.7]), left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiography (HR 4.3 [1.7 to 11.0]), interim myocardial infarction (HR 4.8 [2.7 to 8.6]), elevated N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (HR 2.4 [1.5 to 4.0]), detectable troponin T (HR 4.5 [1.9 to 10.9]), and left ventricular mass index by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 1.3 [1.0 to 1.6]) were significant predictors of incident HFpEF. Worsening renal function, inflammatory markers, and coronary artery calcium were significant univariate but not multivariate predictors of HFpEF. Gender was neither a univariate nor multivariate predictor of HFpEF. In conclusion, we demonstrate several risk factors and biomarkers associated with incident HFpEF that were consistent across different racial/ethnic groups and may represent potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of HFpEF.
Gibbons, Joseph; Yang, Tse-Chuan
Despite recent declines, racial segregation remains a detriment to minority neighborhoods. However, existing research is inconclusive as to the effects racial segregation has on health. Some argue that racial segregation is related to poor health outcomes, whereas others suspect that racial segregation may actually lead to improved health for some minority communities. Even less is known about whether minority access to white neighborhoods improves health. We address these gaps with individual data from the 2010 Public Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey and census tract data from the 2010 Decennial Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. We implement logistic multilevel models to determine whether and how a resident's self-rated health is affected by the racial/ethnic segregation of their neighborhoods. Our key finding suggests that the effects of segregation on self-rated health depend on an individual's race/ethnicity, with blacks and Latino residents most likely to experience adverse effects. Particularly, minorities living in predominantly white communities have a significantly higher likelihood to report poor/fair health than they would in segregated minority neighborhoods. These findings make clear that access to white neighborhoods is not sufficient to improve minority health; fuller neighborhood integration is necessary to ensure all have health equity.
Fletcher, Jason M.; Tienda, Marta
This paper uses 10 years of enrollment data at four Texas public universities to examine whether, to what extent, and in what ways high school attended contributes to racial and ethnic differences in college achievement. Like previous studies, we show that controlling for observable pre-college achievement variables (e.g. test scores, class rank) shrinks, but does not eliminate, sizable racial differences in college achievement. Fixed-effects models that take into account differences across high schools that minority and nonminority youth attend largely eliminate, and often reverse, black-white and Hispanic-white gaps in several measures of college achievement. Our results, which are quite robust across universities of varying selectivity, illustrate how high school quality foments race and ethnic inequality in postsecondary achievement. Leveling inequities in the quality of high schools that minority students attend is a long-run agenda, but remediation programs that compensate for instructional shortfalls at low performing high schools may help close achievement gaps in the interim. PMID:23136447
Fletcher, Jason M; Tienda, Marta
This paper uses 10 years of enrollment data at four Texas public universities to examine whether, to what extent, and in what ways high school attended contributes to racial and ethnic differences in college achievement. Like previous studies, we show that controlling for observable pre-college achievement variables (e.g. test scores, class rank) shrinks, but does not eliminate, sizable racial differences in college achievement. Fixed-effects models that take into account differences across high schools that minority and nonminority youth attend largely eliminate, and often reverse, black-white and Hispanic-white gaps in several measures of college achievement. Our results, which are quite robust across universities of varying selectivity, illustrate how high school quality foments race and ethnic inequality in postsecondary achievement. Leveling inequities in the quality of high schools that minority students attend is a long-run agenda, but remediation programs that compensate for instructional shortfalls at low performing high schools may help close achievement gaps in the interim.
Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Wei, Meifen; Good, Glenn E; Flores, Lisa Y
Increasing trainees' multicultural counseling competence (MCC) has been a hot topic in counseling. Scholars have identified predictors (e.g., race/ethnicity, color-blindness) of MCC, and educators provide multicultural training for trainees. Using a sample of 370 psychology trainees, this study examined whether multicultural training (a) moderated racial/ethnic differences on MCC and (b) changed the relationship between color-blindness and MCC. Results indicated a significant interaction effect of race/ethnicity (i.e., White vs. ethnic minority) and multicultural training on multicultural awareness, but not on multicultural knowledge. Specifically, at lower levels of training, racial/ethnic minority trainees had significantly higher multicultural awareness than their White counterparts; at higher levels of training, no significant difference was found. Described differently, more training significantly enhanced Whites' multicultural awareness, but did not enhance racial/ethnic minority trainees' awareness. Additionally, there was a significant interaction effect of color-blindness and multicultural training on multicultural knowledge, but not on multicultural awareness. The association between color-blindness and multicultural knowledge was stronger at higher levels of multicultural training than at lower levels of training. Alternatively, the effect of training on enhancing knowledge was stronger for those with lower color-blindness than for those with higher color-blindness.
Roxburgh, Susan; MacArthur, Kelly Rhea
The relationship between childhood adversity and adult depression is well-established but less is known about the association between childhood adversity and adult depression among the incarcerated. In this paper, we examine differential exposure and vulnerability to childhood adversity by race/ethnicity and gender on adult depression among the incarcerated in the United States. We address three research questions: does exposure to childhood adverse experiences vary by race/ethnicity and gender? Is there an association between these childhood adverse events and depression and does the strength of the association vary by the specific adverse experiences? And does vulnerability to childhood adversity vary by gender and race/ethnicity? Using the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities (SI-SFCF), we measure four key childhood adverse events - parental/caretaker substance abuse, physical assault, having been placed in foster care, and sexual assault. We use ordinary least squares regression and a series of interaction effect analyses to examine differential exposure and vulnerability to the four childhood adverse experiences by race/ethnicity and gender. Incarcerated women are more likely to report parental substance abuse, but all inmates/prisoners are similarly vulnerable to this experience. For the other three adverse experiences measured, we find that there are important racial/ethnic and gender differences in both exposure and vulnerability. African American men and women are more vulnerable to the effects of physical and sexual victimization than White and Hispanic men and women. Women are much more likely to be exposed to sexual victimization, but men who report this experience are significantly more depressed. Hispanic women and White men and women are more likely to report foster care, but all inmates/prisoners who report foster care experiences are significantly more depressed than other inmates/prisoners, with the exception of
Krueger, Patrick M.; Rohlfsen, Leah
Objectives. We examine race/ethnic and nativity differences in objective measures of physical performance (i.e., peak expiratory flow, grip strength, and gait speed) in a nationally representative sample of older Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics. We also examine whether detailed measures of childhood and adult health and socioeconomic status (SES) mediate race/ethnic differences in physical performance. Method. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study, a population-based sample of older Americans born before 1947, and 3 measures of physical performance. Nested ordinary least squares models examine whether childhood and adult health and SES mediate race/ethnic differences in performance. Results. We find large and significant race/ethnic and nativity differences in lung function, grip strength, and gait speed. Adjusting for childhood and current adult health and SES reduces race/ethnic differences in physical performance but does not eliminate them entirely. Childhood health and SES as well as more proximal levels of SES are important determinants of race/ethnic disparities in later life physical performance. Discussion. The analysis highlights that a large proportion of race/ethnic and nativity disparities result from health and socioeconomic disadvantages in both early life and adulthood and thus suggests multiple intervention points at which disparities can be reduced. PMID:22391749
Oliver, M. Norman; Stukenborg, George J.; Wagner, Douglas P.; Harrell, Frank E.; Kilbridge, Kerry L.; Lyman, Jason A.; Einbinder, Jonathan; Connors, Alfred F.
BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic disparities in mortality have been demonstrated in several diseases. African Americans are hospitalized at a significantly higher rate than whites for aspiration pneumonia; however, no studies have investigated racial and ethnic disparities in mortality in this population. OBJECTIVE: To assess the independent effect of race and ethnicity on in-hospital mortality among aspiration pneumonia discharges while comprehensively controlling for comorbid diseases, and to assess whether the prevalence and effects of comorbid illness differed across racial and ethnic categories. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study of 41,581 patients admitted to California hospitals for aspiration pneumonia from 1996 through 1998, using principal and secondary diagnoses present on admission. MEASUREMENT: The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The adjusted odds of in-hospital death for African-American compared with white discharges [odds ratio (OR)=1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91-1.11] was not significantly different. The odds of death for Asian compared with white discharges was significantly lower (OR=0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.91). Hispanics had a significantly lower odds of death (OR=0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.988) compared to non-Hispanics. Comorbid diseases were more prevalent among African Americans and Asians than whites, and among Hispanics compared to non-Hispanics. Differences in effects of comorbid disease on mortality risk by race and ethnicity were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Asians have a lower risk of death, and the risk of death for African Americans is not significantly different from whites in this analysis of aspiration pneumonia discharges. Hispanics have a lower risk of death than non-Hispanics. While there are differences in prevalence of comorbid disease by racial and ethnic category, the effects of comorbid disease on mortality risk do not differ meaningfully by race or
Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H
Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum.
Kraus, Stephen R.; Markland, Alayne; Chai, Toby C.; Stoddard, Anne; FitzGerald, Mary Pat; Leng, Wendy; Mallett, Veronica; Tennstedt, Sharon L.
Aims To determine whether race/ethnicity affects urinary incontinence (UI) severity and bother, in women undergoing surgery for stress incontinence. Methods We used baseline data from participants in the Stress Incontinence Surgical Treatment Efficacy trial. UI severity was measured by the number of leakage episodes during a 3-day urinary diary and by urodynamic evaluation. UI bother was measured using the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI). Race/ethnicity classification was based on self report. Results Of the 654 women, 72(11%) were Hispanic, 480(73%) non-Hispanic White, 44 (6.7%) non-Hispanic Black and 58 (8.9%) ‘Other’. No differences were seen in any UI severity measures. Non-Hispanic Whites had lowest UDI scores on bivariate analysis, explained by socioeconomic status, BMI and age on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Factors other than racial/ethnic differences underlie variations in UI symptoms and bother in this group of women seeking surgery for stress incontinence. PMID:17618773
... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...
Recently, social scientists have become increasingly interested in the nature of communications from parents to children regarding ethnicity and race. Termed racial socialization, race-related messages to children may have important consequences for children's identity development and well-being. This study examined the frequency and correlates of two dimensions of racial socialization-messages about ethnic pride, history, and heritage (Cultural Socialization) and messages about discrimination and racial bias (Preparation for Bias)--among 273 urban African American, Puerto Rican, and Dominican parents. Parents reported more frequent Cultural Socialization than Preparation for Bias. There were no significant ethnic group differences in the frequency of Cultural Socialization. However, African American parents reported more frequent Preparation for Bias than did Dominican parents who, in turn, reported more frequent messages of this sort than did Puerto Rican parents Ethnic identity was a stronger predictor of Cultural Socialization among Puerto Rican and Dominican parents than among their African American counterparts. In contrast, perceived discrimination experiences was a stronger predictor of Preparation for Bias among African American and Dominican parents than among Puerto Rican parents. Finally, race-related phenomenon accounted for more variance in both Cultural Socialization and Preparation for Bias among parents reporting on their behaviors with children 10-17 years old as compared to parents reporting on their behaviors with children 6-9 years old.
Wolff, Erin; Pal, Lubna; Altun, Tugba; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Freeman, Ruth; Amin, Hussein; Harman, Mitch; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S.
Objective To characterize skin wrinkles and rigidity in recently menopausal women. Design Baseline assessment of participants prior to randomization to study drug. Setting Multicenter trial, university medical centers. Patients Recently menopausal participants enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Interventions Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck using the Lemperle wrinkle scale. Skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek using a durometer. Outcome Skin wrinkles and rigidity were compared among race/ethnic groups. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were correlated with age, time since menopause, weight, and BMI. Results In early menopausal women, wrinkles, but not skin rigidity, vary significantly among races (p=0.0003), where Black women have the lowest wrinkle scores. In White women, chronological age was significantly correlated with worsening skin wrinkles, but not with rigidity(p<0.001). Skin rigidity correlated with increasing length of time since menopause, however only in the White subgroup (p<0.01). In the combined study group, increasing weight was associated with less skin wrinkling (p<0.05). Conclusions Skin characteristics of recently menopausal women are not well studied. Ethnic differences in skin characteristics are widely accepted, but poorly described. In recently menopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT), significant racial differences in skin wrinkling and rigidity exist. Continued study of the KEEPS population will provide evidence of the effects of HT on the skin aging process in early menopausal women. PMID:20971461
Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Jarosewich, Tania
This study analyzes the standardization sample of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. Results indicate no age or race/ethnicity differences on any of the scales and small but significant differences…
Wu, Victor J; Pang, Darren; Tang, Wendell W; Zhang, Xin; Li, Li; You, Zongbing
Approximately 36.5% of the U.S. adults (≥ 20 years old) are obese. Obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and several types of cancer. The present study included 1788 prostate cancer patients who were treated with radical prostatectomy at the Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, Louisiana, from January, 2001 to March, 2016. The patient’s medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Body mass index (BMI), age, ethnicity (Caucasians versus African Americans), clinical stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were retrieved. The relative risk of the patients was stratified into low risk and high risk groups. Associative analyses found that BMI was associated with age, clinical stage, Gleason score, but not ethnicity, PSA levels, or the relative risk in this cohort. Age was associated with ethnicity, clinical stage, Gleason score, and PSA levels, as well as the relative risk. Ethnicity was associated with Gleason score and PSA levels as well as the relative risk, but not clinical stage. These findings suggest that obesity is associated with advanced prostate cancer with stage T3 or Gleason score ≥ 7 diseases, and age and ethnicity are important factors that are associated with the clinical features of prostate cancer patients. PMID:28337464
Nonnemaker, James M.; Allen, Jane A.; Davis, Kevin C.; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C.; Farrelly, Matthew C.
Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State’s antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with
Background This study investigated the role of key individual- and community-level determinants to explore persisting racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer stage at diagnosis in California during 1990 and 2000. Methods We examined socio-demographic determinants and changes in breast cancer stage at diagnosis in California during 1990 and 2000. In situ, local, regional, and distant diagnoses were examined by individual (age, race/ethnicity, and marital status) and community (income and education by zip code) characteristics. Community variables were constructed using the California Cancer Registry 1990-2000 and the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census. Results From 1990 to 2000, there was an overall increase in the percent of in situ diagnoses and a significant decrease in regional and distant diagnoses. Among white and Asian/Pacific Islander women, a significant percent increase was observed for in situ diagnoses, and significant decreases in regional and distant diagnoses. Black women had a significant decrease in distant -stage diagnoses, and Hispanic women showed no significant changes in any diagnosis during this time period. The percent increase of in situ cases diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 was observed even among zip codes with low income and education levels. We also found a significant percent decrease in distant cases for the quartiles with the most poverty and least education. Conclusions Hispanic women showed the least improvement in breast cancer stage at diagnosis from 1990 to 2000. Breast cancer screening and education programs that target under-served communities, such as the rapidly growing Hispanic population, are needed in California. PMID:24209733
Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C
Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor
Lydecker, Janet A.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Objective This study examined racial/ethnic differences in demographic variables and the clinical presentation of treatment-seeking adults with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in treatment research at a medical-school based program. Method Participants were 775 (n=195 men, n=560 women) treatment-seeking adults with DSM-IV-defined BED who self-identified as Black (n=121), Hispanic (n=54), or White (n=580). Doctoral-level research-clinicians assessed participants for BED and for eating-disorder psychopathology using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID) and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview, and measured height and weight. Participants also completed established self-report measures. Results Black participants had a greater proportion of women than White participants and White participants had higher education than Black and Hispanic participants. Black participants had higher body mass index (BMI) and reported more frequent binge-eating episodes than White participants but eating-disorder psychopathology (EDE scales and global severity) did not significantly differ across racial/ethnic groups. Black participants had lower depression than Hispanic and White participants. These differences in clinical presentation remained unchanged after adjusting for age, education, sex, and BMI. White participants had younger ages of onset for dieting, binge eating, and obesity, but not BED, than Black and Hispanic participants. Conclusions There are some racial/ethnic differences in the developmental trajectories and clinical presentation of treatment-seeking adults with BED that remain unchanged after adjusting for demographic differences. Black participants presented for treatment with higher BMI and binge-eating frequency than White participants and with lower depression than White/Hispanic groups but associated eating-disorder psychopathology levels were similar across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:26348841
Kwan, Marilyn L; John, Esther M; Caan, Bette J; Lee, Valerie S; Bernstein, Leslie; Cheng, Iona; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Henderson, Brian E; Keegan, Theresa H M; Kurian, Allison W; Lu, Yani; Monroe, Kristine R; Roh, Janise M; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl; Wu, Anna H
We investigated body size and survival by race/ethnicity in 11,351 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2007 with follow-up through 2009 by using data from questionnaires and the California Cancer Registry. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable Cox proportional hazard model-estimated associations of body size (body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) with breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Among 2,744 ascertained deaths, 1,445 were related to breast cancer. Being underweight (BMI <18.5) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer mortality compared with being normal weight in non-Latina whites (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 3.20), whereas morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40) was suggestive of increased risk (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.84, 2.43). In Latinas, only the morbidly obese were at high risk of death (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.15). No BMI-mortality associations were apparent in African Americans and Asian Americans. High WHR (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) was associated with breast cancer mortality in Asian Americans (HR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.03; P for trend = 0.01), whereas no associations were found in African Americans, Latinas, or non-Latina whites. For all-cause mortality, even stronger BMI and WHR associations were observed. The impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer patients' risk of death may vary across racial/ethnic groups.
Boyas, Javier; Shobe, Marcia A; Hannam, Holly M
The current study employs data from the 2004 Immigration and Intergenerational Mobility in Metropolitan Los Angeles (IIMMLA) study to examine the degree to which observed differences in self-reported health status between African Americans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Hispanic Whites in the United States can be attributed to differences in various indicators of socioeconomic status. Results of the multinomial logistic regression techniques suggest that socioeconomic indicators had varying significant effects in predicting self-reported health status among all racial and ethnic groups. Among African Americans, homeownership, income, and age played a significant role. Among Asian Americans, only income and age significantly predicted health status. Among Latinos, income, having a checking account, and age significantly shaped health status, while education, age, and homeownership significantly predicted health status among non-Hispanic Whites.
Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Baker, David W
Objective To provide an overview of why health care organizations (HCOs) should collect race, ethnicity, and language data, review current practices, discuss the rationale for collecting this information directly from patients, and describe barriers and solutions. Principal Findings Hospitals and HCOs with data from their own institutions may be more likely to look at disparities in care, design targeted programs to improve quality of care, and provide patient-centered care. Yet data collection is fragmented and incomplete within and across organizations. A major factor affecting the quality of data is the lack of understanding about how best to collect this information from patients. Conclusions If HCOs make a commitment to systematically collect race/ethnicity and language data from patients, it would be a major step in enhancing the ability of HCOs to monitor health care processes and outcomes for different population groups, target quality initiatives more efficiently and effectively, and provide patient-centered care. PMID:16899021
Everett, Bethany G; Rogers, Richard G; Hummer, Robert A; Krueger, Patrick M
Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals' life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education.
Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Parikh, Punam; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Ponce, Ninez; Zingmond, David
California mandates hospitals to collect and report patient race, ethnicity, and primary spoken language (REL). A lack of specific guidelines and standardized practices on how data should be collected has contributed to inconsistent and incomplete data.General acute care hospitals in California completed a survey to elucidate practices regarding collection and auditing of patient REL. Nearly all hospitals reported collecting race and/or ethnicity (97%). The majority of hospitals used standardized forms for collection, and 75% audited patient information for completeness. Popular accepted strategies to improve the quality and completeness of REL included collecting data at the first encounter, routine staff training, incorporating REL questions into existing admissions forms, and developing and enforcing hospital policies regarding data collection.California hospitals are collecting information on patient REL as mandated, but variation in data collection exists. Hospitals endorse many reasonable approaches for standardization, and may benefit from standardized data collection and auditing practices.
Evans, Alexandra; Seth, Jennifer Greenberg; Smith, Shanna; Harris, Karol Kaye; Loyo, Jennifer; Spaulding, Carol; Van Eck, Mary; Gottlieb, Nell
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in parental feeding practices according to ethnicity/race, household income, parent education level, acculturation (for Hispanic participants only), and participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program among parents living in a southern state in the United States. For this cross-sectional study, parents of children ages 1-5 years living throughout Texas were recruited through random digit dialing with screening questions during Fall 2006. Eligible parents who agreed to participate completed the Preschooler Feeding Questionnaire (PFQ) and a demographic questionnaire over the phone in either English or Spanish. The PFQ included five subscales: child overeating concerns, child underweight concerns, difficulty with picky eating, using food to calm, and pushing child to eat. Demographic questions assessed ethnicity/race, household income, parent education level, acculturation, and WIC participation. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), with the demographic variables as predictors, was used to predict the five PFQ subscales. Complete data were obtained from 721 parents, 50% of whom were Hispanic. Significant differences for the PFQ subscales were noted for ethnicity/race, acculturation, and income level. Spanish-speaking Hispanic participants were significantly more worried about their child being underweight than English-speaking Hispanic participants. High-income non-WIC respondents were more likely to report that they have difficulty with picky eaters compared to WIC respondents. Spanish-speaking Hispanics and Black respondents were more likely than English-speaking Hispanics to use food to calm the child. Health practitioners need to be aware of differences in parental feeding practices and concerns among parents of diverse demographic backgrounds. Results from this study can be used to tailor health programs that promote healthy feeding practices among
Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; McKeown, Loreta; Melvin, Patrice; Dang, Quynh; Reed, Joan
To describe the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) homicide in Massachusetts, an IPV mortality data set developed by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health was analyzed. The rates of death were estimated by dividing the number of decedents over the aged-matched population and Poisson regression was used to estimate the contribution of race, ethnicity, and foreign-born status to the risk of dying from IPV. Out of the total 270 women whose deaths were associated with IPV, 239 (89%) were killed by a male partner. Black women had a risk of dying from IPV of 16.2 per 1,000,000 person-years. Hispanic women also had a higher risk of dying from IPV than non-Hispanic women; incidence risk ratio of 9.7 (Poisson regression 95% confidence interval 6.8-13.8). IPV femicide disproportionately affected Black and Hispanic women. Agencies must consider the importance of providing culturally appropriate services to IPV survivors and their community.
Nowotny, Kathryn M.
This study examines race/ethnic disparities in treatment for drug dependent inmates in state correctional facilities. The data come from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities. Fixed effects logistic regression is used to analyze treatment outcomes for 5,180 inmates housed within 286 prisons. The analysis accounts for differences in background characteristics (i.e., age, gender, marital status, foreign born status, veteran status), socioeconomic characteristics (i.e., education, employment prior to incarceration), mental health (i.e., diagnosis with a serious mental illness), and incarceration experiences (i.e., current conviction, previous incarceration episodes, time served, additional sentencing requirements, external social support, disciplinary violations). The findings identify a remarkable unmet need among drug dependent inmates in that less than one-half of drug dependent inmates had received any type of treatment in prison at the time of the interview with the most common treatment type being self-help groups. Compared to whites, drug dependent Latino inmates have significantly lower odds of utilizing treatment, yet there are no significant black-white disparities found. Implications for drug treatment within prisons are discussed. PMID:25270722
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming
The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found to moderate the relationship between race-related stress on well-being. Specifically, individuals in low race-related stress conditions who had low Asian values, high Conformity and low Dissonance attitudes started high on well being but decreased as race-related stress increased. These findings underscore the importance of how racial identity statuses, Asian values and ethnic identity jointly and uniquely explain and moderate the effects of race-related stress on positive well-being. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20396592
This report focuses on the percentages of graduates and dropouts in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools when broken down by both ethnicity/race and gender for years 2011-12 and 2012-13. The percentages in outcome categories for this report are based on a four-year adjusted cohort model. For the purposes of this report, students at the end of…
Walsemann, Katrina M; Goosby, Bridget J; Farr, Deeonna
We examine four life course models as they relate to adolescent SES, adult SES, and cardiovascular risk--the sensitive period, pathways, accumulation, and social mobility models. Accounting for race/ethnic and gender differences in life course processes, we analyzed Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative sample of individuals enrolled in grades 7-12 when they were first interviewed in 1994/5. We restricted our sample to whites, blacks, and Latinos who were interviewed in Waves I and IV and provided biomarker data (n = 11,397). The cardiovascular risk score at Wave IV combined waist circumference, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, and C-reactive protein. We found evidence for each of the four life course models for white women, whereas the sensitive period was indicated for white men. Upward mobility was also associated with higher CVD risk among white men as compared to those who were socio-economically advantaged at both time points. The pathway model was significant for Latino women. No life course models were significant for black men or women or Latino men. Our findings demonstrate the importance of applying an intersectional lens to understanding CVD risk over the life course.
Cobb, Ryon J.; Perry, Samuel L.; Dougherty, Kevin D.
This study examines the extent to which the racial composition of a congregation moderates explanations for Black/White inequality among White, Black, and Hispanic congregants. Using nationally representative data from General Social Surveys and National Congregations Studies, we find that religiously affiliated Blacks and Hispanics tend to hold different racial attitudes than religiously affiliated Whites, but these differences largely disappear inside multiracial congregations. Importantly, we find that attending a multiracial congregation is unassociated with Whites’ explanations for racial inequality, and Blacks who attend multiracial congregations are actually less likely to affirm structural explanations for Black/White inequality than Blacks in nonmultiracial congregations or Whites in multiracial congregations. We find little evidence that multiracial congregations promote progressive racial views among attendees of any race or ethnicity. Rather, our findings suggest that multiracial congregations (1) leave dominant White racial frames unchallenged, potentially influencing minority attendees to embrace such frames and/or (2) attract racial minorities who are more likely to embrace those frames in the first place. PMID:27429542
MacDorman, Marian F; Callaghan, William M; Mathews, T J; Hoyert, Donna L; Kochanek, Kenneth D
Trends in preterm-related causes of death were examined by maternal race and ethnicity. A grouping of preterm-related causes of infant death was created by identifying causes that were a direct cause or consequence of preterm birth. Cause-of-death categories were considered to be preterm-related when 75 percent or more of total infant deaths attributed to that cause were deaths of infants born preterm, and the cause was considered to be a direct consequence of preterm birth based on a clinical evaluation and review of the literature. In 2004, 36.5 percent of all infant deaths in the United States were preterm-related, up from 35.4 percent in 1999. The preterm-related infant mortality rate for non-Hispanic black mothers was 3.5 times higher and the rate for Puerto Rican mothers was 75 percent higher than for non-Hispanic white mothers. The preterm-related infant mortality rate for non-Hispanic black mothers was higher than the total infant mortality rate for non-Hispanic white, Mexican, and Asian or Pacific Islander mothers. The leveling off of the U.S. infant mortality decline since 2000 has been attributed in part to an increase in preterm and low-birthweight births. Continued tracking of preterm-related causes of infant death will improve our understanding of trends in infant mortality in the United States.
Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A
The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind.
Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y; Zambrana, Ruth E; Doamekpor, Lauren A; Lopez, Lenny
Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES "gets under the skin" to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education) associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs) in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years) and post high school (i.e., associates degree) educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001) compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001). These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond examining
Arce, Cristina M.; Rhee, Jinnie J.; Cheung, Katharine L.; Hedlin, Haley; Kapphahn, Kristopher; Franceschini, Nora; Kalil, Roberto S.; Martin, Lisa W.; Qi, Lihong; Shara, Nawar M.; Desai, Manisha; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.
Background Kidney disease disproportionately affects minority populations including African Americans and Hispanics; therefore, understanding the relationship of kidney function to cardiovascular (CV) outcomes within different racial/ethnic groups is of considerable interest. We investigated the relationship between kidney function and CV events and assessed effect modification by race/ethnicity in the Women’s Health Initiative. Study Design Prospective cohort study Setting & Participants Baseline serum creatinine concentrations (assay traceable to isotope-dilution mass spectrometry standard) of 19,411 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years who self-identified as either non-Hispanic white (n=8921), African American (n=7436), or Hispanic (n=3054) were used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs). Predictors Categories of eGFR (exposure); race/ethnicity (effect modifier). Outcomes The primary outcome was the composite of three physician-adjudicated CV events: myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or CV-related death. Measurements We evaluated the multivariable-adjusted associations between categories of eGFR and CV events using proportional hazards regression and formally tested for effect modification by race/ethnicity. Results Over a mean follow-up of 7.6 years, 1424 CV events (653 MI, 627 strokes, 297 CV-related deaths) were observed. The association between eGFR and CV events was curvilinear; however, the association of eGFR with CV outcomes differed by race (P=0.006). In stratified analyses, we observed that the U-shaped association was present in non-Hispanic whites, whereas African American participants had a rather curvilinear relationship with lower eGFR being associated with higher CV risk and higher eGFR with reduced CV risk. Analyses among Hispanic women were inconclusive owing to few Hispanic women having very low or high eGFR and very few events occurring in these categories. Limitations Lack of urinary albumin measurements; residual
Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Kawachi, Ichiro; Bennett, Gary G; Subramanian, S.V.
Background This study examined the relationship between race and Hispanic ethnicity, maternal and child nativity, country of origin and asthma among 2,558 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children across 65 Los Angeles neighborhoods. Methods A series of two-level multilevel models were estimated to examine the independent effects of race, ethnicity, and country of origin on childhood asthma. Results Lifetime asthma prevalence was reported among 9% of children, with no significant differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites overall. However, in fully adjusted models, Hispanic children of non-Mexican origin reported higher odds of asthma compared to non-Hispanic white children. A protective nativity effect was also observed among children of foreign born mothers compared to US born mothers. Discussion Our study provides evidence in support of the heterogeneity of childhood asthma by Hispanic ethnicity and maternal nativity. These findings suggest moving beyond solely considering racial/ethnic classifications which could mask subgroups at increased risk of childhood asthma. PMID:24380929
Glass, Joseph E; Rathouz, Paul J; Gattis, Maurice; Joo, Young Sun; Nelson, Jennifer C; Williams, Emily C
We examine whether intersectionality theory-which formalizes the notion that adverse health outcomes owing to having a marginalized social status, identity, or characteristic, may be magnified for individuals with an additional marginalized social status, identity, or characteristic-can be applied using quantitative methods to describe the differential effects of poverty on alcohol consumption across sex and race/ethnicity. Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we analyze longitudinal data from Black, Hispanic, and White drinkers (n = 21,140) to assess multiplicative interactions between poverty, as defined by the US Census Bureau, sex, and race/ethnicity, on adverse alcohol outcomes. Findings indicated that the effect of poverty on the past-year incidence of heavy episodic drinking was stronger among Black men and Black women in comparison to men and women of other racial/ethnic groups. Poverty reduction programs that are culturally informed may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in the adverse outcomes of alcohol consumption.
Rendon, Marta I; Rodriguez, David A; Kawata, Ariane K; Degboe, Arnold N; Wilcox, Teresa K; Burk, Caroline T; Daniels, Selena R; Roberts, Wendy E
Background Limited data are available on acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction in the adult female subpopulation, particularly among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective Describe acne treatment patterns and expectations in adult females of different racial/ethnic groups and analyze and explore their potential effects on medication compliance and treatment satisfaction. Methods A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to US females (25–45 years) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Data collected included sociodemographics, self-reported clinical characteristics, acne treatment use, and treatment expectations and satisfaction. Results Three hundred twelve subjects completed the survey (mean age, 35.3±5.9 years), comprising black (30.8%), Hispanic (17.6%), Asian/other (17.3%), and white (34.3%). More than half of the subjects in each racial group recently used an acne treatment or procedure (black, 63.5%; Hispanic, 54.5%; Asian/other, 66.7%; white, 66.4%). Treatment use was predominantly over-the-counter (OTC) (47.4%) versus prescription medications (16.6%). OTC use was highest in white subjects (black, 42.7%; Hispanic, 34.5%; Asian/other, 44.4%; white, 59.8%; P<0.05). The most frequently used OTC treatments in all racial/ethnic groups were salicylic acid (SA) (34.3%) and benzoyl peroxide (BP) (32.1%). Overall, compliance with acne medications was highest in white versus black (57.0±32.4 vs 42.7±33.5 days, P>0.05), Hispanic (57.0±32.4 vs 43.2±32.9 days, P>0.05), and Asian/other (57.0±32.4 vs 46.9±37.2 days, P>0.05) subjects. Most subjects expected OTC (73.7%) and prescription (74.7%) treatments to work quickly. Fewer than half of the subjects were satisfied with OTC treatment (BP, 47.0%; SA, 43.0%), often due to skin dryness (BP, 26.3%; SA, 44.3%) and flakiness (BP, 12.3%; SA, 31.1%). No statistically significant differences were observed among racial/ethnic groups in their level of satisfaction with OTC or
Aelion, C Marjorie; Davis, Harley T; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne
Lead (Pb) is a well-studied environmental contaminant that has many negative health effects, especially for children. Both racial/ethnic and income disparities have been documented with respect to exposure to Pb in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess whether soil Pb concentrations in rural and urban areas of South Carolina USA, previously identified as having clusters of intellectual disabilities (ID) in children, were positively associated with populations of minority and low-income individuals and children (≤ 6 years of age). Surface soils from two rural and two urban areas with identified clusters of ID were analyzed for Pb and concentrations were spatially interpolated using inverse distance weighted analysis. Population race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio (ITPR) from United States Census 2000 block group data were aerially interpolated by block group within each area. Urban areas had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than rural areas. Significant positive associations between black, non-Hispanic Latino, individuals and children ≤ 6 years of age and mean estimated Pb concentrations were observed in both urban (r = 0.38, p = 0.0007) and rural (r = 0.53, p = 0.04) areas. Significant positive associations also were observed between individuals and children with an ITPR < 1.00 and Pb concentrations, though primarily in urban areas. Racial/ethnic minorities and low ITPR individuals, including children, may be at elevated risk for exposure to Pb in soils.
Nearly fifty years ago, the American Academy organized a conference and two issues of its journal "Daedalus" on the topic of "The Negro American." The project engaged top intellectuals and policy-makers around the conflicts and limitations of mid-1960s liberalism in dealing with race. Specifically, they grappled with the persistent question of how to integrate a forced-worker population that had been needed but that was socially undesirable once its original purpose no longer existed. Today, racism has been discredited as an idea and legally sanctioned segregation belongs to the past, yet the question the conference participants explored -- in essence, how to make the unwanted wanted -- still remains. Recent political developments and anticipated demographic shifts, however, have recast the terms of the debate. Gerald Early, guest editor for the present volume, uses Barack Obama's election to the presidency as a pretext for returning to the central question of "The Negro American" project and, in turn, asking how white liberalism will fare in the context of a growing minority population in the United States. Placing his observations alongside those made by John Hope Franklin in 1965, Early positions his essay, and this issue overall, as a meditation on how far we have come in America to reach "the age of Obama" and at the same time how far we have to go before we can overcome "the two worlds of race."
Sánchez, Brisa N; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Uscilka, Ali; Baek, Jonggyu; Zhang, Lindy
Epidemiologic studies have observed influences of the food environment near schools on children's overweight status but have not systematically assessed the associations by race, sex, and grade. The authors examined whether the associations between franchised fast food restaurant or convenience store density near schools and overweight varied by these factors using data for 926,018 children (31.3% white, 55.1% Hispanic, 5.7% black, and 8% Asian) in fifth, seventh, or ninth grade, nested in 6,362 schools. Cross-sectional data were from the 2007 California physical fitness test (also known as "Fitnessgram"), InfoUSA, the California Department of Education, and the 2000 US Census. In adjusted models, the overweight prevalence ratio comparing children in schools with 1 or more versus 0 fast food restaurants was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.03), with a higher prevalence ratio among girls compared with boys. The association varied by student's race/ethnicity (P = 0.003): Among Hispanics, the prevalence ratio = 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.03); among blacks, the prevalence ratio = 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.06), but among Asians the prevalence ratio = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.97). For each additional convenience store, the prevalence ratio was 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.01), with a higher prevalence ratio among fifth grade children. Nuanced understanding of the impact of food environments near schools by race/ethnicity, sex, and grade may help to elucidate the etiology of childhood overweight and related race/ethnic disparities.
Recognition of social forces (racism, privilege, power) to the extent that is required by critical race theory (CRT) results in a paradigm shift in the way that we theorize and research student development, specifically self-authorship. This paradigm shift moves the center of analysis from individual, to the individual in relation to her…
Ripp, Kelsey; Braun, Lundy
Phenomenon: There is growing concern over racial/ethnic bias in clinical care, yet how best to reduce bias remains challenging, in part because the sources of bias in medical education are poorly understood. One possible source is the routinized use of race/ethnicity in lectures, assessment, and preparatory materials, including question banks for licensing examinations. Because students worldwide use question banks to prepare for the United States Medical Licensing Examination, we examined how race/ethnicity was used in one of the most commonly recommended question banks.
Bruton, Candice M; Floyd, Myron F
Known associations between the built environment and health outcomes have accelerated research examining racial/ethnic and income disparities in access to parks and other community features that support physical activity. Currently, it cannot be concluded that park characteristics are equal in quantity or condition across areas of disparate race/ethnicity and income composition. This study examined natural and built park characteristics across areas of different race/ethnicity and income composition to identify potential disparities. Twenty-one parks in Greensboro, NC (USA), located in minority or non-minority areas and in low or medium-high income areas were inventoried using a park audit tool and GIS. Parks were compared on number of activity areas, features, amenities, size, percent tree canopy, cleanliness, and condition. Independent sample t tests and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare means of outcome variables. Fisher's exact tests were applied for categorical variables. Fewer wooded areas and more trash cans were found in low-income and minority areas as compared to medium-high income and non-minority areas. Low-income areas were found to have more picnic areas than their counterparts. Sitting and resting features in non-minority areas were found to be cleaner than those in minority areas. Results showed some evidence of disparities in park characteristics. Findings can inform park policy and design as well as renovations and maintenance procedures, particularly in specific areas where existing disparities were identified.
Lee, Yin Leng; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S; Wetmur, James G; Chen, Jia
Self-reported race/ethnicity is frequently used in epidemiological studies to assess an individual's background origin. However, in admixed populations such as Hispanic, self-reported race/ethnicity may not accurately represent them genetically because they are admixed with European, African and Native American ancestry. We estimated the proportions of genetic admixture in an ethnically diverse population of 396 mothers and 188 of their children with 35 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) using the STRUCTURE version 2.2 program. The majority of the markers showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in our study population. In mothers self-identified as Black and White, the imputed ancestry proportions were 77.6% African and 75.1% European respectively, while the racial composition among self-identified Hispanics was 29.2% European, 26.0% African, and 44.8% Native American. We also investigated the utility of AIMs by showing the improved fitness of models in paraoxanase-1 genotype-phenotype associations after incorporating AIMs; however, the improvement was moderate at best. In summary, a minimal set of 35 AIMs is sufficient to detect population stratification and estimate the proportion of individual genetic admixture; however, the utility of these markers remains questionable.
Jun, Hee-Jin; Kawachi, Ichiro; Wright, Rosalind J.
Objectives. We assessed the relative contribution of Hispanic ethnicity, country of origin, and nativity to lifetime prevalence of asthma among mothers and children enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Methods. We used multilevel models to analyze data from wave 3 of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods study (2000 to 2001). Mothers reported physician-diagnosed asthma for themselves and their children. Maternal race, ethnicity, country of origin, and nativity were the predictors of interest. Results. We found substantial heterogeneity in lifetime asthma within Hispanic subgroups for mothers and children. Hispanics of non-Mexican origin had greater odds of having asthma than did non-Hispanic Whites; respondents of Mexican origin did not differ from non-Hispanic Whites. Odds of experiencing asthma were more strongly related to nativity than to race, Hispanic ethnicity, or country of origin. Only immigrant Mexicans reported asthma prevalence lower than that of native non-Hispanic Whites. Conclusions. Nativity is a strong predictor of lifetime asthma prevalence, suggesting the importance of potential interactions between genetic susceptibilities and environmental factors in both the native and the host countries. PMID:19218175
Knight, P K; Thomson, P C
OBJECTIVE Compare the career profiles of a cohort of Standardbred horses that first raced as 2-year-olds with those that started their racing careers at a later age. METHOD Retrospective analysis of the racing records of all foals born in New South Wales in the 2000 foaling season. RESULTS The career records of 999 horses were analysed. Almost half (43.9%) first raced as 2-year-olds and one-third (33.9%) as 3-year-olds. The median career duration for horses that first raced as 2-year-olds was 2.93 years (interquartile range (IQR) 2.70-3.16), which was significantly greater than the median for horses that first raced at 3, 4 or ≥5 years old (P < 0.001). Males, and horses that first raced as 2-year-olds, earned significantly more prize money than females or horses that started racing aged ≥3 years (P < 0.001). The population median number of career starts was 28.0 (IQR 8-64). Males, and horses that first raced as 2-year-olds, had significantly more career starts than females or horses that started racing aged ≥3 years (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION This study found no evidence suggesting that racing as a 2-year-old had a deleterious effect on a horse's racing career.
Stier, H; Shavit, Y
"This paper focuses on the effects of age at marriage and the sex-ratio on patterns of ethnic homogamy among Israeli women. We hypothesize that later marriages are more likely than early marriages to be heterogamous as the 'marriage market' shifts from school to the work-place. By the same token, when facing severe marriage squeezes women will be forced to out-marry. Employing data from the 1983 census, we model mate selection of women from Afro-Asian and Euro-American origin in various birth-cohorts. The results do not fully support our hypotheses: we find that in and of itself, age at marriage does not enhance ethnic heterogamy."
Albright, Cheryl L; Schembre, Susan M; Steffen, Alana D; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Yonemori, Kim M; Murphy, Suzanne P
Dietary supplement use is widespread among adults across races/ethnicities, yet reasons for use can vary across these groups. The Supplement Reporting (SURE) study quantified dietary supplement use and reasons for taking supplements in a multiethnic sample of adults who took at least one supplement. This study explored sociodemographic differences, including by race/ethnicity, associated with specific reasons/motivations for taking dietary supplements, including perceived importance of taking supplements relative to prescription medications. The study time period was March 2005 to August 2006. Participants (n=397) were older adults (ages 52 to 88 years) recruited from the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles, CA, with equal representation of males and females from six ethnic groups (ie, white, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, African American, US-born Latino, and foreign-born Latino). Subgroups of participants were compared by χ(2) tests and logistic regression. The most common reasons for taking supplements were to maintain a healthy life, because they were recommended by a health professional, and to prevent a disease/medical problem. A majority (76%) of participants reported that their dietary supplements were as important as prescription medications, with foreign-born Latinos and Japanese Americans being most likely to state this belief. The relative importance of supplements was not associated with excessive use, but 27% of participants exceeded the upper limit for a nutrient. It is crucial for health professionals to better understand why individuals take supplements and the importance that they attach to their use. This information could lead to better monitoring and education efforts to prevent overuse of supplements and possible interactions with medications.
Haas, Jennifer S.; Hill, Deirdre A.; Wellman, Robert D; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Lee, Christoph I.; Wernli, Karen J.; Stout, Natasha K.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Henderson, Louise M.; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Onega, Tracy
Background Uptake of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coupled with breast cancer risk assessment offers the opportunity to tailor the benefits and harms of screening strategies for women with differing cancer risks. Despite the potential benefits, there is also concern for worsening population-based health disparities. Methods Among 316,172 women aged 35-69 years from five Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries (2007-2012), we examined 617,723 negative screening mammograms and 1,047 screening MRIs. We examined the relative risks (RRs) of MRI use by women with <20% lifetime breast cancer risk and RR in the absence of MRI use by women with ≥20% lifetime risk. Results Among women with <20% lifetime risk, non-Hispanic white women were 62% more likely than non-white women to receive a MRI (95% confidence interval 1.32-1.98). Of these women, those with some college or technical school were 43% more likely and those who had at least a college degree were 132% more likely to receive an MRI compared to those with a high school education or less. Among women with ≥20% lifetime risk, there was no statistically significant difference in use of screening MRI by race or ethnicity, but high-risk women with a high school education or less were less likely to receive screening MRI than women who had graduated from college (RR 0.40; 95% CI 0.25-0.63). Conclusions Uptake of screening breast MRI into clinical practice has the potential to worsen population-based health disparities. Policies, beyond health insurance coverage, should ensure that use of this screening modality reflects evidence-based guidelines. PMID:26709819
Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M
This mixed-method study used a grounded theory approach to explore the meanings underlying the importance that adolescents attach to their racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 923 9th- to 12th-grade students from Black, Latino, Asian, and multiracial backgrounds. Thematic findings identified a broad range of explanations for adolescents' racial-ethnic centrality, ranging from pride and cultural connection to ambivalence and colorblind attitudes. While racial-ethnic groups differed in reported levels of racial-ethnic centrality, few group differences were identified in participants' thematic explanations, with the exception of racial-ethnic and gender differences for Positive Regard and Disengagement. These findings highlight the diversity of meanings that adolescents attribute to their racial-ethnic centrality as well as the many commonalities among adolescents across gender and racial-ethnic groups.
Houle, Brian C
Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). Data from 1999-2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups) effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.
Sixty-five eighth grade students responded to a science beliefs survey during a science-inquiry lab unit in an action research project to assess whether gender has an effect on how the students perceive their science classes. The survey was given to eighth grade students during the first week of school. Student results were categorized by gender and by race/ethnicity. The middle school where the study took place is fairly diverse with 540 total students of which 48% of them are White, 42% are Black, and 10% are Hispanic. Six female science teachers are employed at the middle school, two per grade. The first unit that is taught in science is inquiry skills, the basics of all science such as graphing, laboratory tools, safety, etc. This unit is taught in 6 th, 7th, and 8th grades, as a part of our standards. Inquiry test results for 8th graders are also given in this thesis, and are categorized again by gender and race/ethnicity. The results of the surveys and the assessment show a gap in the way students think about and complete activities in science. It was exciting to see that the female students scored better overall than male students on an inquiry-based summative assessment, while white students overall scored better than Black and Hispanic students. White males tended to rank science as the class they enjoyed the most of all core classes and thought science was easier than all the other data demographics. The conclusion found was stunning, in that the true gap in student's beliefs about science lies within the different races/ethnicities, rather than just gender alone.
Keshet, Yael; Popper-Giveon, Ariela
Increasing workforce diversity was found to contribute to the narrowing of disparities in health. However, racism toward ethnic minority health professionals has not been adequately researched. In Israel, public healthcare organizations that serve a mixed Jewish-Arab population employ Arab minority healthcare professionals. Instances of prejudice and manifestations of racism toward them, which frequently surface in public discussion and the media, have unfortunately gained little scholarly attention. We used the intergroup contact approach and the theory of the social process of everyday racism as a theoretical framework. The objective of the research was to study race-based experiences of Israeli Arab healthcare professionals.
Anderson, Pamela Bennett
Purpose. The purpose of the first study was to ascertain the extent to which differences were present in the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores by Grade 5 and Grade 8 student economic status. The purpose of the second study was to examine differences in Grade 5 STAAR Mathematics and Science test performance by gender and by ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White). Finally, with respect to the third study in this journal-ready dissertation, the purpose was to investigate the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores of Grade 8 students by gender and by ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White). Method. For this journal-ready dissertation, a non-experimental, causal-comparative research design (Creswell, 2009) was used in all three studies. Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test data were analyzed for the 2011-2012 through the 2014-2015 school years. The dependent variables were the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores for Grade 5 and Grade 8. The independent variables analyzed in these studies were student economic status, gender, and ethnicity/race. Findings. Regarding the first study, statistically significant differences were present in Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores by student economic status for each year. Moderate effect sizes (Cohen's d) were present for each year of the study for the Grade 5 STAAR Mathematics and Science exams, Grade 8 Science exams, and the 2014-2015 Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics exam. However, a small effect size was present for the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics exam. Regarding the second and third study, statistically significant differences were revealed for Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores based on gender, with trivial effect sizes. Furthermore, statistically significant differences were present in these test scores by ethnicity/race, with moderate effects for each year of the study. With regard to
Previous work on marital quality has compared average levels of marital quality by demographic characteristics, such as cohabitation, divorce, or race-ethnicity. Less work has examined whether such differences persist over time. To begin to answer this question, this paper uses multigroup latent growth curves to examine changes in marital quality over time in addition to measuring differences in levels of reported marital quality among cohabitors vs. non-cohabitors, divorced vs. stably married women, and members of different racial-ethnic groups. Although many of the differences are small and statistically insignificant, the results show that non-normative and traditionally disadvantaged groups experience not only lower levels of marital quality but that these differences also persist throughout the life course. I also show that using marital instead of relationship duration for cohabitors has substantive implications when interpreting the results. PMID:25530643
Mansion, Andre D.; Chassin, Laurie
The high rates of substance disorders in the juvenile justice system, as well as the relation between substance use and reoffending, suggest the importance of substance use treatment service and understanding the factors that influence treatment provision. The current study tested whether race/ethnicity affects the relation between substance use disorder diagnosis and the receipt of substance use treatment services among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (N=638). Findings showed that among adolescents with a substance use disorder diagnosis, there were no race/ethnicity differences in substance use treatment receipt. However, among adolescents without a substance use disorder diagnosis, non-Hispanic Caucasians were more likely to receive substance use treatment than were Hispanics or African-Americans. Additionally, findings showed that there were race/ethnicity differences in service receipt at moderate levels of substance use problems, such that non-Hispanic Caucasians were more likely to receive substance use treatment than Hispanics or African-Americans. There were no race/ethnicity differences in treatment receipt when substance use problems were either very severe or very low. Results suggest that race/ethnicity may play a role in service provision in the juvenile justice system when levels of need are less clear. PMID:26806995
Gavazzi, Stephen M; Bostic, Jennifer M; Lim, Ji-Young; Yarcheck, Courtney M
Faced with anywhere between one half and two thirds of its youth having a diagnosable mental illness, the identification and treatment of mental health concerns is a critically important endeavor for professionals working with youth who have contact with the juvenile justice system. In addition, the literature suggests that factors related to both the family and to the gender of the adolescent must be incorporated into any approach to assessment and intervention within this special population. Further, prior work that has documented the interaction of gender and family issues with adolescent race/ethnicity warrants further empirical attention, as does the intermediary role that the family may play in the development of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. The present study extends this literature by examining factors related to gender, race/ethnicity, family factors, and mental health issues in a sample of 2,549 Caucasian and African American youth coming to the attention of juvenile courts. Multivariate analysis of variance results indicated significant main effects for gender and race/ethnicity, as well as a significant gender x race/ethnicity interaction for the family and externalizing variables. A multiple group structural equation modeling procedure was employed in order to test the hypothesis that family environment mediates the relationship between gender and mental health problems, as well as to test for potential differences in these relationships as a function of race/ethnicity. Results indicated support for the mediation model in the sample of African American youth but not in the sample of Caucasian youth.
Jantz, Ian; Rolock, Nancy; Leathers, Sonya J.; Dettlaff, Alan J.; Gleeson, James P.
Objective: Past studies demonstrate a relationship between race and the likelihood of children entering state custody subsequent to a maltreatment investigation. Research also shows that community structural characteristics such as poverty and residential mobility are correlated with entry rates. The combined effect, however, of race and community…
Neri, A; Bider, D; Lidor, Y; Ovadia, J
The effects of various parameters on age at menopause have been investigated in five ethnic groups in Israel comprising East European, West European, North African, Israeli and other Middle Eastern (Mediterranean) women, respectively. The data were acquired by means of anonymous questionnaires and were programmed for 1770 women. Correlation coefficients between various variables and age at menopause revealed three variables which have a straight correlation, vis. obesity index, number of children, and years of amenorrhoea (during the reproductive years). The years-of-smoking variable has an inverse correlation with age at menopause. East Europeans have the highest age at menarche. Two-way analysis of variance has shown that the obesity index, years of amenorrhoea, number of children and years-of-smoking parameters are individually more important than ethnic origin. The finding that the age at menopause is highest in the North African group is explained by the higher incidence in this group of high parity, a greater number of amenorrhoea, obesity, and low cigarette consumption. Since many habits (such as smoking, diet, use of contraceptive pills, multiple partners and marital obligations) are subject to frequent change in the modern world, it is of the utmost importance to repeat such a study every few years.
Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J
Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance.
Shim, Janet K.; Ackerman, Sara L.; Darling, Katherine Weatherford; Hiatt, Robert A.; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin
This paper examines how race and ancestry are taken up in gene-environment interaction (GEI) research on complex diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Using 54 in-depth interviews of 33 scientists and over 200 hours of observation at scientific conferences, we explore how GEI researchers use and interpret race, ethnicity, and ancestry in their work. We find that the use of self-identified race and ethnicity (SIRE) exists alongside ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to ascertain genetic ancestry. Our participants assess the utility of these two techniques in relative terms, downplaying the accuracy and value of SIRE compared to the precision and necessity of AIMs. In doing so, we argue that post-genomic scientists seeking to understand the interactions of genetic and environmental disease determinants actually undermine their ability to do so, by valorizing precise characterizations of individuals’ genetic ancestry over measurement of the social processes and relations that differentiate social groups. PMID:25378251
Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David
Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)
Barahmani, Nadia; Dorak, M Tevfik; Forman, Michele R; Sprehe, Michael R; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L; Okcu, M Fatih; Lupo, Philip J
High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) compared with LGA non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.86) after adjusting for infant gender, year of birth, maternal age, birth order, and presence of Down syndrome. However, the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that there may be differences in the association between higher growth in utero and risk of childhood ALL among Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.
Stanfield, John H., II, Ed.; Dennis, Rutledge M., Ed.
The contributions in this volume examine the array of methods used in quantitative, qualitative, and comparative and historical research to show how research sensitive to ethnic issues can best be conducted. Rethinking and revising traditional methodologies and applying new ones can portray racial and ethnic issues as they really exist. The…
This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible for…
Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Watkins-Clay, M. Monica; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Han, Sena
Self-esteem and perceived competence have only been explored minimally in family studies with ethnically diverse samples. The current study explores self-esteem and perceived competence in a sample of adolescents, their mothers, and their fathers from three racial/ ethnic groups: African American, Hispanic/Latino/Latina, and Caucasian. Results…
Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Watkins-Clay, M. Monica; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Han, Sena
Self-esteem and perceived competence have only been explored minimally in family studies with ethnically diverse samples. The current study explores self-esteem and perceived competence in a sample of adolescents, their mothers, and their fathers from three racial/ethnic groups: African American, Hispanic/Latino/Latina, and Caucasian. Results show…
Shimahara, N. Ken, Ed.; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra, Ed.
This volume contains 12 papers originally presented at the 14th Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education in 1999. The symposium explored contemporary issues of ethnic, cultural, and national identities and their influence on the social construction of identity. Papers include: (1) "Reconceptualizing Ethnicity and Educational…
EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.
Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275
Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas
The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student's t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1-S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5-S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1-S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5-S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race.
Teranishi, Robert T.
Cross-sectional frameworks, or between-group approaches, in quantitative research in higher education have limitations that hinder what we know about the intersection of race and educational opportunities and outcomes. (Contains 5 figures.)
Tanski, Susanne E; Stoolmiller, Mike; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D
This study of youth smoking onset aims to replicate previously published media moderation effects for race/ethnicity in a national longitudinal multiethnic sample of U.S. adolescents. Previous research has demonstrated that associations between media and smoking during adolescence are greater for Whites than Hispanics or Blacks, and for youth living in non-smoking families. In this study, changes in smoking status over 24 months were assessed among 4,511 baseline never-smokers. The incidence of smoking onset was 14.3% by 24 months with no differences by race/ethnicity. Blacks had higher exposure to movie smoking and overall television viewing compared with Whites and Hispanics. Whites responded to movie smoking regardless of parent smoking but more strongly if their parents were non-smokers. In contrast, Black adolescents showed little behavioral response to any media, regardless of parent smoking. Hispanic adolescents responded only to TV viewing and only when their parents did not smoke. In an analysis assessing the influence of the race of smoking characters on smoking behavior of White and Black adolescents, Whites responded to both White and Black movie character smoking, whereas Blacks responded only to smoking by Black movie characters. Taken as a whole, the findings replicate and extend previous findings, suggesting media factors are more influential among adolescents at low to moderate overall risk for smoking. We draw analogies between these low-moderate risk adolescents and "swing voters" in national elections, suggesting that media effects are more apt to influence an adolescent in the middle of the risk spectrum, compared with his peers at either end of it.
Krause, Neal; Pargament, Kenneth I; Hill, Peter C; Ironson, Gail
A growing body of research suggests that greater exposure to spiritual struggles is associated with more physical and mental health problems. Spiritual struggles involve difficulties that a person may encounter with his or her faith, which may include having a troubled relationship with God, encountering difficulties with religious others, or being unable to find a sense of meaning in life. However, little is known about the way in which spiritual struggles may differ across racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to assess variations in spiritual struggles, health, and well-being among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics. We examined two ways in which race/ethnic variations may arise. First, the differential-exposure perspective suggests that some groups may experience more spiritual struggles than others. Findings from a recent nationwide survey suggest that Blacks experience more spiritual struggles than either Whites or Hispanics. Second, the differential-impact perspective suggests that the relationship between spiritual struggles, health, and well-being varies across racial/ethnic groups. Findings from the current study suggest that when spiritual struggles arise, Blacks experience fewer symptoms of physical illness, less anxiety, and they tend to be happier than Whites or Hispanics. The theoretical implication of these findings is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Bjornstrom, Eileen E.S.; Kaufman, Robert L.; Peterson, Ruth D.; Slater, Michael D.
Research on racial-ethnic portrayals in television crime news is limited and questions remain about the sources of representations and how these vary for perpetrators versus victims. We draw from power structure, market share, normal crimes, racial threat, and racial privileging perspectives to further this research. The reported race or ethnicity of violent crime perpetrators and victims are modeled as functions of: (1) situational characteristics of crime stories; and (2) contextual characteristics of television market areas. The primary data are from a stratified random sample of television newscasts in 2002–2003 (Long et al. 2005). An important innovation of our work is the use of a national, more generalizeable, sample of local news stories than prior researchers who tended to focus on single market areas. Results indicate that both the context of the story itself and the social structural context within which news stories are reported are relevant to ethnic and racial portrayals in crime news. We find limited support for power structure, market share, normal crimes and racial threat explanations of patterns of reporting. Racial privileging arguments receive more extensive support. PMID:20640244
Pearson, Jay A.
Objectives. We explored whether a White ethnic group with a history of structural disadvantage, Jewish Americans, shows evidence of continuing health impact independent of socioeconomic position (SEP), whether coethnic social ties appear health protective, and whether the strength of any protection varies by SEP. Methods. In a series of ordered logistic regressions, we analyzed data from the National Jewish Population Survey, 2000–2001, regressing self-rated health on race/ethnicity, education, and income for US Blacks, Jews, and other Whites and, for Jews alone, indicators of coethnic social ties. Results. controlling for SEP indicators, the self-rated health of Jews converged with that of Blacks and was significantly worse than that of other Whites. Access to coethnic social ties was associated with better self-rated health among Jews, with the strongest estimated association among those of lower SEP. Conclusions. The finding that a White ethnic group with a favorable socioeconomic profile reported significantly worse health than did other Whites, after controlling for SEP, calls for better understanding of the complex interplay of cultural, psychosocial, and socioeconomic resources in shaping population health. PMID:21164093
Klieger, David M.; Adler, Rachel; Ezzo, Chelsea
Now is an opportune time to consider new ways to ask registrants for the "GRE"® General Test about their race and ethnicity. Growth in the percentage of Americans who identify as multiracial suggests the possibility that a sizeable percentage of registrants would self-report more than one race or ethnicity if given the opportunity to do…
Pidala, J; Kim, J; Schell, M; Lee, SJ; Hillgruber, R; Nye, V; Ayala, E; Alsina, M; Betts, B; Bookout, R; Fernandez, HF; Field, T; Locke, FL; Nishihori, T; Ochoa, JL; Perez, L; Perkins, J; Shapiro, J; Tate, C; Tomblyn, M; Anasetti, C
Factors relevant to finding a suitable unrelated donor and barriers to effective transplant utilization are incompletely understood. Among a consecutive series of unrelated searches (n = 531), an 8/8 HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1-matched unrelated donor was available for 289 (54%) patients, 7/8 for 159 (30%) and no donor for 83 (16%). Patients of Caucasian race (P < 0.0001) were more likely to find a donor. Younger age (P = 0.01), Caucasian race (P = 0.03), lower CIBMTR (Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research) risk (P = 0.005), and 8/8 HLA matching (P = 0.005) were associated with higher odds of reaching hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In a univariate analysis of OS, finding a donor was associated with hazard ratio (HR) of 0.85 (95% CI 0.63–1.2), P = 0.31. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) accounted for interaction between having a donor and survival. Patients with KPS 90–100 and a donor had significantly reduced hazard for death (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38–0.90, P = 0.02). These data provide estimates of the probability to find an unrelated donor in the era of high-resolution HLA typing, and identify potentially modifiable barriers to reaching HCT. Further efforts are needed to enhance effective donor identification and transplant utilization, particularly in non-Caucasian ethnic groups. PMID:22863723
Brown, Tyson H.; Richardson, Liana J.; Hargrove, Taylor W.; Thomas, Courtney S.
This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. PMID:27284076
Brown, Tyson H; Richardson, Liana J; Hargrove, Taylor W; Thomas, Courtney S
This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses.
Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen
In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…
Based on assumptions about fertility, mortality, and net immigration trends, statistical tables depict the future U.S. population by age, sex, and race. Figures are based on the July 1, 1982, population estimates and race definitions and are projected using the cohort-component method with alternative assumptions for future fertility, mortality,…
Umezawa, Yoshiko; You, Jin; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Leake, Barbara; Maly, Rose C.
Background Belief in divine control is often assumed to be fatalistic. However, the assumption has rarely been investigated in racial/ethnic minorities. Objectives This study aims to examine the association between belief in divine control and coping and how the association was moderated by ethnicity/acculturation in a multi-ethnic sample of breast cancer patients. Methods Latina, African American, and non-Hispanic White older women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (N=257) from a population-based survey completed the scale of Belief in Divine Control and the Brief COPE. Results Belief in divine control was positively related to approach coping (i.e., positive reframing, active coping, and planning) in all ethnic groups. Belief in divine control was positively related to acceptance and negatively related to avoidance coping (i.e., denial and behavioral disengagement) among low-acculturated Latinas. Conclusions Negative presumptions about fatalistic implications of belief in divine control should be critically reappraised, especially when such skepticism is applied to racial/ethnic minority patients. PMID:22529040
Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Tartaglia, G M; Carvajal, R; Palomino, H
Race and ethnicity influence the form of the human craniofacial complex in varying ways. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the effects of ethnicity (mestizos, Aymara, non-Aymara), age (adolescents and adults), and sex on the form (size and shape) of the hard palate in normal Native American individuals. From the dental casts of 51 individuals with a complete permanent dentition, the x, y, and z coordinates of several standardized palatal landmarks were obtained with a computerized 3-dimensional digitizer. Palatal landmarks were used to derive a mathematical equation for palatal shape in the frontal and sagittal planes. Palatal width and length, frontal and sagittal heights, sagittal slope, and deviation of the raphe from the midline were also calculated. In the Aymara subjects, there was no effect of sex on palatal size, but there was an effect on palatal shape independent of size, especially with respect to male growth. Indeed, female palates apparently did not change their shape between adolescence and adulthood, while male palates increased their posterior "height." Overall, the 3 ethnic groups appeared to possess similar palatal size, with small significant differences. In the adult individuals, ethnicity did not seem to influence palatal shape. In contrast, adolescent males showed differences: non-Aymara subjects had the "highest" palatal shape, Aymara the "lowest," and mestizos an intermediate position. In conclusion, ethnicity does not seem to be a factor of major variability of human hard palate morphology, at least in the present 3 northern Chilean groups, as already found for dental arch shape. Age probably has a larger effect, particularly in the posterior part of the palate, where the eruption of the second and third molars between adolescence and young adulthood may play a role. A further development of the present investigation may involve larger samples of individuals from different ethnic groups.
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming
The present study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian…
Ojeda, Victoria D.; Bergstresser, Sara M.
Though researchers have described psychosocial barriers to mental health care-seeking, limited research has examined ways in which gender and race-ethnicity are associated with individuals' perceptions and attitudes. This study investigates correlates of psychosocial barriers to mental health care in a population of adults reporting unmet need for…
Hall, Peter M., Ed.
Chapters in this volume are based on papers presented at the First Missouri Symposium on Research and Educational Policy (Columbia, Missouri) March 24-26, 1994). Four chapters are revisions of presentations at this symposium. Taken with the others, they explore the relationship between education and race and ethnicity, with an emphasis on black…
Dodd, Allison Hedley; Briefel, Ronette; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Crepinsek, Mary Kay
Objective: Identify disparities by race/ethnicity and obesity status in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other beverages among United States schoolchildren to help tailor interventions to reduce childhood obesity. Design: Secondary data analysis using beverage intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls and measured height and…
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the number of individuals pictured on the covers of Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was reflective of their levels of participation by sport, race/ethnicity, and sex. These descriptors of the individuals pictured on each cover between 1990 and 1999 were identified and analyzed. African Americans…
Day-Vines, Norma L.; Wood, Susannah M.; Grothaus, Tim; Craigen, Laurie; Holman, Angela; Dotson-Blake, Kylie; Douglass, Marcy J.
The authors define "broaching" as the counselor's ability to consider how sociopolitical factors such as race influence the client's counseling concerns. The counselor must learn to recognize the cultural meaning clients attach to phenomena and to subsequently translate that cultural knowledge into meaningful practice that facilitates client…
Issues and knowledge gaps related to race in a pluralistic society were identified and recommendations for further social science research were made by over 200 social science specialists in a 1973 study. Conference presentations, discussions, and interviews are synthesized in this report, focusing on American society, cultural factors in human…
Formisano, Ronald P.
This study of the reaction to forced busing in Boston (Massachusetts) that emerged in 1974 illustrates the persistence of race and class discrimination and the counterproductiveness of some imposed solutions. It is focused on white antibusing groups and the complexities of opposition to busing. Racism is essential to understanding the Boston…
Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Neena; Bottia, Martha Cecilia
Scholars have not adequately assessed how organizational cultures in schools differentially influence students' mathematics achievement by race and socioeconomic status (SES). We focus on what we term "collective pedagogical teacher culture", highlighting the role of professional communities and teacher collaboration in influencing…
Teaching about "race" and racism to a diverse student group can lead to some very interesting exchanges. Some of these moments are much to do with the subject content. Learning about racism often pulls on our emotional strings: black students sometimes express their hurt and anger, while white students sometimes remain silent or express…
This paper examines how the idea of "race" is represented in high school Canadian history textbooks. It looks at textbooks authorized by the Province of Ontario between 1940 and 1960 and those authorized after 2000. It is argued in this paper that even though historical racisms have increasingly made their way into Canadian history…
Curran, F. Chris; Kellogg, Ann T.
Disparities in science achievement across race and gender have been well documented in secondary and postsecondary school; however, the science achievement gap in the early years of elementary school remains understudied. We present findings from the recently released Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 that…
Martell, Christopher C.
In this study, the researcher examined student conceptions of "Whiteness" as it relates to past and present U.S. history. Using Critical Race Theory as the lens, this study employed mixed methods, analyzing teacher observations, classroom artifacts/student work, survey, and interview data from White students and students of color at an…
Tarraf, Wassim; Jensen, Gail; González, Hector M
Access to Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) care has not been explored among older racial/ethnic minorities. We used data on adults 55-years and older from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2008-2013). We account for five features of PCMH experiences and focus on respondents self-identifying as Non-Latino White, Black, and Latino. We used regression models to examine associations between PCMH care and its domains and race/ethnicity and decomposition techniques to assess contribution to differences by predisposing, enabling and health need factors. We found low overall access and significant racial/ethnic variations in experiences of PCMH. Our results indicated strong deficiencies in access to a personal primary care physician provided healthcare. Factors contributing to differences in reported PCMH experiences relative to Whites differed by racial/ethnic grouping. Policy initiatives aimed at addressing accessibility to personal physician directed healthcare could potentially reduce racial/ethnic differences while increasing national access to PCMH care.
Kuo, Janet Chen-Lan; Raley, R. Kelly
The rise of cohabitation in family process among American young adults and declining rates of marriage among cohabitors are considered by some scholars as evidence for the importance of society-wide ideational shifts propelling recent changes in family. With data on two cohabiting cohorts from the NSFG 1995 and 2006–10, the current study finds that marriage rates among cohabitors have declined steeply among those with no college degree, resulting in growing educational disparities over time. Moreover, there are no differences in marital intentions by education (or race-ethnicity) among recent cohabitors. We discuss how findings of this study speak to the changes in the dynamics of social stratification system in the United States and suggest that institutional and material constraints are at least as important as ideational accounts in understanding family change and family behavior of contemporary young adults. PMID:27306763
Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Raggio, Greer A; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Duan, Naihua; Marcus, Sue; Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Humensky, Jennifer; Becker, Anne E; Alarcón, Renato D; Oquendo, María A; Hansen, Helena; Like, Robert C; Weiss, Mitchell; Desai, Prakash N; Jacobsen, Frederick M; Foulks, Edward F; Primm, Annelle; Lu, Francis; Kopelowicz, Alex; Hinton, Ladson; Hinton, Devon E
Growing awareness of health and health care disparities highlights the importance of including information about race, ethnicity, and culture (REC) in health research. Reporting of REC factors in research publications, however, is notoriously imprecise and unsystematic. This article describes the development of a checklist to assess the comprehensiveness and the applicability of REC factor reporting in psychiatric research publications. The 16-item GAP-REACH checklist was developed through a rigorous process of expert consensus, empirical content analysis in a sample of publications (N = 1205), and interrater reliability (IRR) assessment (N = 30). The items assess each section in the conventional structure of a health research article. Data from the assessment may be considered on an item-by-item basis or as a total score ranging from 0% to 100%. The final checklist has excellent IRR (κ = 0.91). The GAP-REACH may be used by multiple research stakeholders to assess the scope of REC reporting in a research article.
Miller, C H; Benson, J; Ellingsen, D; Driggers, J; Payne, A; Kelly, F M; Soucie, J M; Craig Hooper, W
Both genetic and treatment-related risk factors contribute to the development of inhibitors in haemophilia. An inhibitor surveillance system piloted at 12 US sites has the goal of assessing risk factors through prospective data collection. This report examines the relationship of genotype and race/ethnicity to history of inhibitor in a large cohort of US haemophilia patients. Mutation analysis was performed on 676 haemophilia A (HA) and 153 haemophilia B (HB) patients by sequencing, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification, and PCR for inversions in F8 introns 22 (inv22) and 1 (inv1). Two HB patients with deletions had history of inhibitor. In severe HA, frequency of history of inhibitor was: large deletion 57.1%, splice site 35.7%, inv22 26.8%, nonsense 24.5%, frameshift 12.9%, inv1 11.1% and missense 9.5%. In HA, 19.6% of 321 White non-Hispanics (Whites), 37.1% of 35 Black non-Hispanics (Blacks) and 46.9% of 32 Hispanics had history of inhibitor (P = 0.0003). Mutation types and novel mutation rates were similar across ethnicities. When F8 haplotypes were constructed, Whites and Hispanics showed only H1 and H2. Within H1, history of inhibitor was 12.4% in Whites, 40.0% in Blacks (P = 0.009) and 32.4% in Hispanics (P = 0.002). Inhibitor frequency is confirmed to vary by mutation type and race in a large US population. White patients with history of inhibitor did not exhibit rare F8 haplotypes. F8 gene analysis did not reveal a cause for the higher inhibitor frequencies in Black and Hispanic patients.
ABSTRACT The running performance of Thoroughbred racehorses has been reported to peak when they are between 4 and 5 years old. However, changes in their racing speed by month or season have not been reported. The purposes of this study were to reveal the average racing speed of Thoroughbreds, and observe changes in their average speed with age. The surveyed races were flat races on turf and dirt tracks with firm or standard track conditions held by the Japan Racing Association from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2010. The racing speed of each horse was calculated by dividing the race distance (m) by the horse’s final time (sec). Average speeds per month for each age and distance condition were calculated for each gender group when there were 30 or more starters per month for each age and distance condition for each gender group. The common characteristic change for all conditions was an average speed increase up until the first half of the age of 4 years old. The effect of increased carry weight on average speed was small, and average speed increased with the growth of the horse. After the latter half of the age of 4 years old, the horses’ average speed remained almost constant, with little variation. It is speculated that decreases in the weight carried; and the retirement of less well performing horses; are responsible for the maintenance of average speed. PMID:26170760
The running performance of Thoroughbred racehorses has been reported to peak when they are between 4 and 5 years old. However, changes in their racing speed by month or season have not been reported. The purposes of this study were to reveal the average racing speed of Thoroughbreds, and observe changes in their average speed with age. The surveyed races were flat races on turf and dirt tracks with firm or standard track conditions held by the Japan Racing Association from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2010. The racing speed of each horse was calculated by dividing the race distance (m) by the horse's final time (sec). Average speeds per month for each age and distance condition were calculated for each gender group when there were 30 or more starters per month for each age and distance condition for each gender group. The common characteristic change for all conditions was an average speed increase up until the first half of the age of 4 years old. The effect of increased carry weight on average speed was small, and average speed increased with the growth of the horse. After the latter half of the age of 4 years old, the horses' average speed remained almost constant, with little variation. It is speculated that decreases in the weight carried; and the retirement of less well performing horses; are responsible for the maintenance of average speed.
Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad; Altekruse, Sean F
This study examined unemployment and racial/ethnic disparities in liver cancer mortality, incidence, survival, and risk factors in the United States between 1969 and 2011. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to 1969-2009 county-level mortality and incidence data, whereas 2006-2011 National Health Interview Surveys were used to examine variations in hepatitis infection and alcohol consumption. Age-adjusted mortality rates, risk-ratios, and rate-differences were calculated by year, sex, race, and county-unemployment level. Log-linear, Poisson, and logistic regression and disparity indices were used to model trends and differentials. Although liver-cancer mortality rose markedly for all groups during 1969-2011, higher unemployment levels were associated with increased mortality and incidence rates in each time period. Both absolute and relative inequalities in liver cancer mortality according to unemployment level increased over time for both males and females and for those aged 25-64 years. Compared to the lowest-unemployment group, those aged 25-64 in the highest-unemployment group had 56 and 115 % higher liver-cancer mortality in 1969-1971 and 2005-2009, respectively. Regardless of unemployment levels, Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics had the highest mortality and incidence rates. The adjusted odds of hepatitis infection and heavy drinking were 38-39 % higher among the unemployed than employed. Liver-cancer mortality and incidence have risen steadily among all racial/ethnic, sex, and socioeconomic groups. Faster increases in mortality among the highest-unemployment group have led to a widening gap in mortality over time. Disparities in mortality and incidence are consistent with similar inequalities in hepatitis infection and alcohol consumption.
Foster, Morris W
Lost in the debate over the use of racial and ethnic categories in biomedical research is community-level analysis of how these categories function and influence health. Such analysis offers a powerful critique of national and transnational categories usually used in biomedical research such as "African-American" and "Native American." Ethnographic research on local African-American and Native American communities in Oklahoma shows the importance of community-level analysis. Local ("intra-community") health practices tend to be shared by members of an everyday interactional community without regard to racial or ethnic identity. Externally created ("extra-community") practices tend to be based on the existence of externally-imposed racial or ethnic identities, but African-American and Native American community members show similar patterns in their use of extra-community practices. Thus, membership in an interactional community seems more important than externally-imposed racial or ethnic identity in determining local health practices, while class may be as or more important in accounting for extra-community practices.
Logan, John R.; Darrah, Jennifer; Oh, Sookhee
This study uses national survey data in federal election years from 1996 through 2004 to examine voter registration and voting. It shows that racial/ethnic disparities in socio-economic resources and rootedness in the community do not explain overall group differences in electoral participation. It contradicts the expectation from an assimilation…
Bhalotra, Sarita; Ruwe, Mathilda B M; Strickler, Gail K; Ryan, Andrew M; Hurley, Clare L
Racial, ethnic, (R/E) and gender disparities in access to health services in the United States and their relationship to adverse health outcomes are well established. Despite an increase in evidence-based cardiovascular treatment, gender, racial, and ethnic disparities in coronary artery disease (CAD) treatment persist. There is neither currently a comprehensive framework for understanding why disparities occur in cardiovascular disease care, nor viable solutions for intervention. This article synthesizes the literature on disparities in coronary artery disease with a conceptual model for understanding chronic disease disparities. This article follows the natural history of disease to observe where differences arise, beginning with health risk management, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. Racial, ethnic, and gender differences were found at every step of this continuum, including a higher burden of risk factors and a less likelihood of receiving needed lifesaving cardiac procedures. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of intervention strategies to reduce racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in coronary artery disease. Comprehensive solutions will require addressing the barriers at the system, the provider, and the patient level. An early intervention approach that addresses multiple risk factors should be a high priority.
Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar
Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…
Hawley, Willis D., Ed; Jackson, Anthony W., Ed.
This book seeks to summarize what is known about sources of racial and ethnic prejudice in the United States and to identify ways that individuals and organizations can act to reduce intolerance and discrimination. The volume's 17 chapters are organized into four parts. Part I, "The Changing Policy Context," contains: (1) "Schooling and Social…
Based on data collected by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in its October 1980 Current Population Survey, this report examines school enrollment rates of 3- and 4-year-olds from three major ethnic groups (black, white, and Spanish origin) and relates this information to characteristics of the children's schools and households. Variables covered in…
Fomby, Paula; Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie A.
We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 7,686) to determine whether racial and ethnic differences in socioeconomic stress and social protection explained group differences in the association between family structure instability and three risk behaviors for White, Black, and Mexican American adolescents:…
Singer, Judith; Smith, Sally
To provide preservice teachers with opportunities for contact with people from racially and ethnically different backgrounds, one university initiated intercollegiate reader response groups using the WebCT format, which allowed students to converse with one another over distances, both within and across universities. Students from separate…
Quinn, David M.; Cooc, North; McIntyre, Joe; Gomez, Celia J.
Early studies examining seasonal variation in academic achievement inequality generally concluded that socioeconomic test score gaps grew more over the summer than the school year, suggesting schools served as "equalizers." In this study, we analyze seasonal trends in socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic test score gaps using…
Pesch, Mari Jo
This qualitative study examined how trainers perceive and manage training programs with racially and ethnically diverse participants. Five themes emerged: global perspective, learning styles and culturally diverse participants, facilitation style, preparation for training with culturally diverse groups and, culturally sensitive training materials.…
Social justice education recognizes the discrepancies in opportunities among disadvantaged groups in society. The purpose of the articles in this special topic on social justice is to (a) provide a critical reflection on issues of social justice within health pedagogy and youth sport of Black and ethnic-minority (BME) young people; (b) provide a…
Hummer, Robert A.; Biegler, Monique; De Turk, Peter B.; Forbes, Douglas; Frisbie, W. Parker; Hong, Ying; Pullum, Starling G.
Health statistics show wide variations in risk and determinants of infant death across racial and ethnic subpopulations, a within-group advantage to being an immigrant, and the same direction of effects for mortality risk factors across groups. Efforts to lower infant mortality should benefit all groups. Contains 83 references. (TD)
Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Galvan, Nallely; Maschino, Peggy; Rowland, Marcy
This article examined 796 empirical studies published in the "Journal of Counseling Psychology," the "Journal of Counseling and Development," and "The Counseling Psychologist" from 1990 to 1999 and found that only 457 (57%) reported racial and ethnic characteristics of research participants. From this data, an overall picture was generated of the…
Pfeiffer, Steven L; Petscher, Yaacov; Jarosewich, Tania
This study reports on an analysis of the standardization sample of a rating scale designed to assist in identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness designed for preschool and kindergarten students. Results provide support for: the internal structure of the scale; no age differences across the 3-year age span 4:0–6:11; gender differences on only one of the five scales; artistic talent; and small but statistically significant race/ethnicity differences with Asian Americans rated, on average, 1.5 scale-score points higher than whites and Native Americans and 7 points higher than African American and Hispanic students. The present findings provide support for the GRS-P as a valid screening test for giftedness. PMID:26346963
Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; Golden, Sherita Hill; Allison, Matthew A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Szklo, Moyses; Woodward, Mark; Young, Jeffery Hunter; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.
Background Few studies have investigated the relationship of anthropometric measurements with computed tomography (CT) body fat composition, and even fewer determined if these relationships differ by sex and race. Methods CT scans from 1,851 participants in the population based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were assessed for visceral and subcutaneous fat areas by semi-automated segmentation of body compartments. Regression models were used to investigate relationships for anthropometry with visceral and subcutaneous fat separately by sex and race/ethnicity. Results Participants were 50% female, 41% Caucasian, 13% Asian, 21% African American, and 25% Hispanic. For visceral fat, the positive relationship with weight (p = 0.028), waist circumference (p<0.001), waist to hip ratio (p<0.001), and waist to height ratio (p = 0.05) differed by sex, with a steeper slope for men. That is, across the range of these anthropometric measures the rise in visceral fat is faster for men than for women. Additionally, there were differences by race/ethnicity in the relationship with height (p<0.001), weight (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.001), hip circumference (p = 0.006), and waist to hip ratio (p = 0.001) with the Hispanic group having shallower slopes. For subcutaneous fat, interaction by sex was found for all anthropometric indices at p<0.05, but not for race/ethnicity. Conclusion The relationship between anthropometry and underlying adiposity differs by sex and race/ethnicity. When anthropometry is used as a proxy for visceral fat in research, sex-specific models should be used. PMID:26448048
Torres, Pedro; Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.; de la Rosa, Mario; Lacey, John H.
Introduction The literature presents a puzzling picture of Latinos being overrepresented in alcohol-related crashes, but not in noncrash drinking and driving. This report examines if, like other demographic variables in which some groups are at a higher crash risk than others (e.g., young drivers), different racial/ethnic groups face different crash risks Method This study compares blood-alcohol information from the 2006–2007 U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with control data from the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey. Logistic regression, including a dual interaction between BAC and race/ethnicity, was used to estimate crash risk at different BAC levels. Results It was found that, although Hispanic and African-American drivers were less likely to be involved in single-vehicle crashes than their White counterparts, all drivers face similar BAC relative crash risk regardless of their group membership. The overrepresentation of Latino drivers in alcohol-related crashes could be explained by differences in patterns of consumption, driving exposure, lack of awareness of driving rules, and/or socioeconomics. PMID:24529097
Goodkind, Sara; Wallace, John M; Shook, Jeffrey J; Bachman, Jerald; O'Malley, Patrick
Historically, girls have been less delinquent than boys. However, increased justice system involvement among girls and current portrayals of girls in the popular media and press suggest that girls' delinquency, particularly their violence and drug use, is becoming more similar to that of boys. Are girls really becoming more delinquent? To date, this question remains unresolved. Girls' increased system involvement might reflect actual changes in their behavior or changes in justice system policies and practices. Given that girls of color are overrepresented in the justice system, efforts to rigorously examine the gender convergence hypothesis must consider the role of race/ethnicity in girls' delinquency. This study uses self-report data from a large, nationally representative sample of youth to investigate the extent to which the magnitude of gender differences in violence and substance use varies across racial/ethnic groups and explore whether these differences have decreased over time. We find little support for the gender convergence hypothesis, because, with a few exceptions, the data do not show increases in girls' violence or drug use. Furthermore, even when girls' violent behavior or drug use has increased, the magnitude of the increase is not substantial enough to account for the dramatic increases in girls' arrests for violence and drug abuse violations.
Sanchez, Katherine; Chartier, Karen G.; Greer, Tracy L.; Walker, Robrina; Carmody, Thomas; Rethorst, Chad D.; Ring, Kolette M.; Dela Cruz, Adriane M.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.
Comorbid physical and mental health problems are associated with poorer substance abuse treatment outcomes; however, little is known about these conditions among stimulant abusers at treatment entry. This study compared racial and ethnic groups on baseline measures of drug use patterns, comorbid physical and mental health disorders, quality of life, and daily functioning among cocaine and stimulant abusing/dependent patients. Baseline data from a multi-site randomized clinical trial of vigorous exercise as a treatment strategy for a diverse population of stimulant abusers (N = 290) were analyzed. Significant differences between groups were found on drug use characteristics, stimulant use disorders, and comorbid mental and physical health conditions. Findings highlight the importance of integrating health and mental health services into substance abuse treatment and could help identify potential areas for intervention to improve treatment outcomes for racial and ethnic minority groups. PMID:25580933
Ortega, Victor E; Meyers, Deborah A
Pharmacogenetics is being used to develop personalized therapies specific to subjects from different ethnic or racial groups. To date, pharmacogenetic studies have been primarily performed in trial cohorts consisting of non-Hispanic white subjects of European descent. A "bottleneck" or collapse of genetic diversity associated with the first human colonization of Europe during the Upper Paleolithic period, followed by the recent mixing of African, European, and Native American ancestries, has resulted in different ethnic groups with varying degrees of genetic diversity. Differences in genetic ancestry might introduce genetic variation, which has the potential to alter the therapeutic efficacy of commonly used asthma therapies, such as β2-adrenergic receptor agonists (β-agonists). Pharmacogenetic studies of admixed ethnic groups have been limited to small candidate gene association studies, of which the best example is the gene coding for the receptor target of β-agonist therapy, the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2). Large consortium-based sequencing studies are using next-generation whole-genome sequencing to provide a diverse genome map of different admixed populations, which can be used for future pharmacogenetic studies. These studies will include candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies, and whole-genome admixture-based approaches that account for ancestral genetic structure, complex haplotypes, gene-gene interactions, and rare variants to detect and replicate novel pharmacogenetic loci.
Haug, Sarah Woodbury
Nationalism, as taught in Belize schools, is panethnic and multiethnic, but because the increasingly widespread practice of ethnic mixing is not acknowledged, there is a discrepancy between what is taught and the daily life of students. Research results from 161 elementary school children show that the ethnic self-identification of children is…
In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…
A content analysis of interviews with an ethnically diverse group of 202 children aged 6 to 10 describes what children think racism is, and examines associations between age, ethnicity, and children's thinking about racism. Children's narratives capture many dimensions of racism, including stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and ethnic…
Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E
We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children.
Carlson, Daniel L.; McNulty, Thomas L.; Bellair, Paul E.; Watts, Stephen
Understanding the determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent sexual risk behavior is important given its links to the differential risk of teen pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted infections. This article tests a contextual model that emphasizes the concentration of neighborhood disadvantage in shaping racial/ethnic disparities in sexual risk behavior. We focus on two risk behaviors that are prevalent among Black and Hispanic youth: the initiation of sexual activity in adolescence and the number of sex partners. Using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 6,985; 48% female; 57% non-Hispanic White) evidence indicates that neighborhood disadvantage – measured by concentrated poverty, unemployment rates, and the proportion of female-headed households – partially explains Black and Hispanic disparities from Whites in the odds of adolescent sexual debut, although the prevalence of female-headed households in neighborhoods appears to be the main driver in this domain. Likewise, accounting for neighborhood disadvantage reduces the Black-White and Hispanic-White disparity in the number of sexual partners, although less so relative to sexual debut. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:24214727
Tan, Ying Ying
This study seeks to answer two research questions. First, can listeners distinguish the ethnicity of the speakers on the basis of voice quality alone? Second, do demographic differences among the listeners affect discriminability? A simple but carefully designed and controlled ethnic identification test was carried out on 325 Singaporean…
This paper evaluates racial/ethnic differences in self-rated mental health for adults in the United States, while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as length of stay in the country. Using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement (NHIS-CCS), binomial logistic regression models are fit to estimate the association between race/ethnicity and poor/fair self-reported mental health among US Adults. The size of the analytical sample was 22,844 persons. Overall prevalence of poor/fair self-rated mental health was 7.72%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (6.93%). Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence (10.38%). After controls for socioeconomic characteristics are incorporated in the models, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.55–0.90]). No difference was found for other minority groups when compared to the reference group in the final model. Contrary to global self-rated health, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. No difference was found for non-Hispanic blacks when they were compared to non-Hispanic whites. Self-rated mental health is therefore one case of a self-rating of health in which evidence supporting the epidemiological paradox is found among adults in the United States. PMID:27688982
Logan, John R; Darrah, Jennifer; Oh, Sookhee
This study uses national survey data in federal election years during 1996-2004 to examine voter registration and voting. It shows that racial/ethnic disparities in socio-economic resources and rootedness in the community do not explain overall group differences in electoral participation. It contradicts the expectation from an assimilation perspective that low levels of Latino participation are partly attributable to the large share of immigrants among Latinos. In fact net differences show higher average Latino participation than previously reported. The study focuses especially on contextual factors that could affect collective responses of group members. Moving beyond past research, significant effects are found for the group's representation among office holders, voting regulations, and state policies related to treatment of immigrants.
Beutel, Ann M.; Nelson, Donna J.
This study examines the gender and racial-ethnic composition of faculty in top research departments for science and engineering "S-E - disciplines. There are critical masses of at least 15% women in top research departments in biological sciences, psychology, and social sciences but not in physical sciences and engineering. Blacks and Hispanics together make up only 4.1% of the faculty in our study. Black and Hispanic females are the most poorly represented groups; together, they make up only 1% of the faculty in top S-E research departments. For most S-E disciplines, less than 15% of full professors in top research departments are women or non-Whites.
Sweeney, Megan M.; Raley, R. Kelly
In what ways do childbearing patterns in the contemporary United States vary for white, black, and Hispanic women? Why do these differences exist? Although completed family size is currently similar for white and black women, and only modestly larger for Hispanic women, we highlight persistent differences across groups with respect to the timing of childbearing, the relationship context of childbearing, and the extent to which births are intended. We next evaluate key explanations for these differences. Guided by a “proximate determinants” approach, we focus here on patterns of sexual activity, contraceptive use, and post-conception outcomes such as abortion and changes in mothers’ relationship status. We find contraceptive use to be a particularly important contributor to racial and ethnic differences in childbearing, yet reasons for varying use of contraception itself remain insufficiently understood. We end by reflecting on promising directions for further research. PMID:26504262
Logan, John R.; Darrah, Jennifer; Oh, Sookhee
This study uses national survey data in federal election years during 1996-2004 to examine voter registration and voting. It shows that racial/ethnic disparities in socio-economic resources and rootedness in the community do not explain overall group differences in electoral participation. It contradicts the expectation from an assimilation perspective that low levels of Latino participation are partly attributable to the large share of immigrants among Latinos. In fact net differences show higher average Latino participation than previously reported. The study focuses especially on contextual factors that could affect collective responses of group members. Moving beyond past research, significant effects are found for the group's representation among office holders, voting regulations, and state policies related to treatment of immigrants. PMID:24339453
Monnat, Shannon M.; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Tsao, Hui-shien
The recent dramatic rise in U.S. income inequality has prompted a great deal of research on trends in overall family income and changes in sources of family income, especially among the highest income earners. However, less is known about changes in sources of income among the bottom 99% or about racial/ethnic differences in those trends. The present research contributes to the literatures on income trends and racial economic inequality by using family-level data from the 1988–2009 Current Population Survey to examine changes in overall family income and the proportion of income coming from employment, property/assets, and transfers across five different levels of family income for white-, black, and Hispanic-headed families. We find that at all income levels above the 25th percentile, employment income is by far the largest contributor to family income for all racial/ethnic groups. Employment income trended upward over the period in both real dollars and as a percentage of total family income. In this respect, white, black and Hispanic families are remarkably similar. The racial gap in total family income has remained fairly stable over the period, but this trend conceals a narrowing of racial differences in property income, mostly as a function of the decline in property income among whites, a widening of racial differences in transfer income among the bottom 25%, and a widening of racial differences in employment income, particularly at the top of the family income distribution. Income accrued from wealth is a very small component of overall family income for all three racial groups, even for the highest-income families (top 1%). PMID:26180265
Whisman, Mark A; Judd, Charles M; Whiteford, Natalie T; Gelhorn, Heather L
Measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) across gender, race, and ethnic groups was evaluated in a large sample of college students, using pooled data from 11 universities from diverse geographical regions in the United States (N = 7,369). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the fit of several possible factor structures, and the results from these analyses indicated that the BDI-II was most adequately represented by a hierarchical four-factor structure, composed of three first-order factors and one second-order factor. Results based on analyses of covariance structures indicated there was factorial invariance for this hierarchical four-factor structure across groups, suggesting that the BDI-II provides an assessment of severity of depressive symptoms that is equivalent across gender, race, and ethnicity in college students.
Sullivan, Tami P; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Ufner, Michelle J; Swan, Suzanne C; Snow, David L
This study examined whether relationships among women's aggression, their victimization, and substance use problems were moderated by race/ethnicity. Four hundred and twelve community women (150 African Americans, 150 Latinas, and 112 Whites) who recently were aggressive against a male partner completed a 2-hour computer-assisted interview. ANOVA and path analysis revealed that (a) for all women, victimization and aggression were strongly related; (b) race/ethnicity moderated the relationships between victimization and alcohol and drug use problems; and (c) no groups evidenced a relationship between alcohol or drug use problems and aggression. Findings suggest that it is essential to develop culturally relevant, gender-specific interventions to reduce both women's aggression and victimization, as well as related negative behaviors such as alcohol and drug use.
Monica, Dorothy; Cullen, Karen Weber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Gray, Heewon Lee; Sikorskii, Alla
Introduction The objective of this exploratory study was to determine whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by race/ethnicity, by origin and nativity among Hispanics, and by language preference (as an indicator of acculturation) among foreign-born Hispanics. Methods We recruited 723 women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and orally administered a questionnaire containing demographic items, validated measures of food security status and social desirability trait, and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System fruit and vegetable module. Differences in intakes of 100% fruit juice, fruit, cooked or canned beans, and dark green, orange-colored, and other vegetables were assessed by using analysis of covariance with Bonferroni post hoc tests. Analyses were controlled for age, pregnancy status, breastfeeding status, food security status, educational attainment, and social desirability trait. Results The frequency of vegetable intake differed by race/ethnicity (cooked or canned beans were consumed more often among Hispanic than non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white or other participants, orange-colored vegetables were consumed more often among Hispanics than non-Hispanic black participants, and other vegetables were consumed more often among non-Hispanic white or other than among non-Hispanic black and Hispanic participants), origin (other vegetables were consumed more often among Columbian and other Hispanics than Dominican participants) and nativity (orange-colored vegetables were consumed more often among foreign-born than US-born Hispanics). Fruit and vegetable intake did not differ by language preference among foreign-born Hispanics. Conclusion Differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among WIC participants by race/ethnicity and by Hispanic origin and nativity may have implications for WIC nutrition policies and nutrition education efforts. PMID:27560723
Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Young, Michael; Ridge, Alison; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Richardson, Reginald; Sivan, Abigail
This study examined the equivalence of the Child Behavior Checklist/1 1/2-5 (CBCL/1 1/2-5) in 682 parents of 2- to 4-year-old children stratified by parent race/ethnicity (African American, Latino, and non-Latino White), family income (low vs. middle-upper), and language version (Spanish vs. English). Externalizing Scale means differed by income…
Jackson, Jodi M; Crider, Krista S; Cragan, Janet D; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Olney, Richard S
The prevalence of trisomy 21 has been reported to differ by race-ethnicity, however, the results are inconsistent and the cause of the differences is unknown. Using data from 1996 to 2005 from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), we analyzed the use of prenatal cytogenetic testing and the subsequent use of elective termination among pregnancies affected with any MACDP-eligible birth defect and trisomy 21, by maternal race-ethnicity. We then examined whether these factors could explain the observed differences in the prevalence of trisomy 21 among race-ethnicity groups. Among all pregnancies with birth defects, prenatal cytogenetic testing as well as elective terminations after an abnormal prenatal cytogenetic test result were observed less frequently among Hispanic women than among non-Hispanic white women (odds ratio [OR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.78, respectively). In pregnancies affected by trisomy 21, both the Hispanic and the non-Hispanic black populations had more live births (89.5% and 77.8%, respectively) and fewer elective terminations (5.7% and 15.2%, respectively) compared to the non-Hispanic white population (63.0% live births, 32.3% elective terminations). After adjusting for elective terminations, non-Hispanic white mothers had a higher live birth prevalence of trisomy 21 compared to non-Hispanic black (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.54-0.76) or Hispanic mothers (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.86). Overall, our data suggest that factors associated with decisions made about the use of prenatal testing, and about pregnancy management after testing, might play a large role in the race-ethnicity differences observed in the live birth prevalence of trisomy 21.
Pasricha, Sarina; Li, Nan; Bulsiewicz, William J.; Rothstein, Richard I.; Infantolino, Anthony; Ertan, Atilla; Camara, Daniel S.; Dellon, Evan S.; Triadafilopoulos, George; Lightdale, Charles J.; Madanick, Ryan D.; Lyday, William D.; Muthusamy, Raman V.; Overholt, Bergein F.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.
Background Little is known about differences in Barrett’s esophagus (BE) characteristics by sex, and race/ethnicity, or these differences in response to radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Objective We compared disease-specific characteristics, treatment efficacy, and safety outcomes by sex and race/ethnicity in patients treated with RFA for BE. Design and Setting The U.S. RFA Patient Registry is a multicenter collaboration reporting processes and outcomes of care for patients treated with RFA for BE. Patients and Interventions Patients with BE treated with RFA. Main outcome measurements We assessed safety (stricture, bleeding, perforation, hospitalization), efficacy (complete eradication of intestinal-metaplasia (CEIM)), complete eradication of dysplasia, and number of treatments to CEIM by sex and race/ethnicity. Results Among 5521 patients (4052 males; 5126 Caucasian, 137 Hispanic, 82 African-American, 40 Asian, 136 not identified), females were younger (60.0 vs. 62.1 yrs.), had shorter BE (3.2 vs. 4.4 cm), and less dysplasia (37% vs. 57%) than males. Females were almost twice as likely to stricture (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2–2.3). Although Caucasians were predominantly male, about half of African-Americans and Asians with BE were females. African-Americans and Asians had less dysplasia than Caucasians. Asians and African-Americans had more strictures than Caucasians. There were no sex or race differences in efficacy. Limitations Observational study with non-mandated paradigms, no central lab for re-interpretation of pathology Conclusions In the U.S. RFA Registry, females had shorter BE and less aggressive histology. The usual male sex predilection for BE was absent in African-Americans and Asians. Post-treatment stricture was more common among females, and Asians. RFA efficacy did not differ by sex or race. PMID:25841575
Hauser, Robert M.; Pager, Devah I.; Simmons, Solon J.
This paper reviews the policy context of school retention and shows that age-grade retardation has been common and growing in American schools from the 1970s-90s. The paper focuses on the period from 1972-98 and on grade retardation at ages 6, 9, 12, 15, and 17 years. By age 9 years, the odds of grade-retardation among African American and…
Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J
Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth.
Allen, Richard B
In 1790, Marie Rozette, a freedwoman of Indian origin on Mauritius, executed a series of notarial acts which revealed that she possessed a small fortune in cash assets as well as slaves and substantial landed property in one of the island’s rural districts. The life of this former slave between 1776, when she first appears in the archival record, and her death in 1804 provides a vantage point from which to gain a subaltern perspective on aspects of Mascarene social and economic history, as well as developments in the wider Indian Ocean world during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Marie Rozette’s life history challenges the notion that free persons of color in Mauritius were little more than an “unappropriated” people, and invites us to consider how supposedly marginalized individuals were able to cross various socio-economic and cultural boundaries. More specifically, her life affords an opportunity to consider the ways in which class, ethnicity, and gender, as well as race, interacted to create a distinctive Creole society in Mauritius, the nature and dynamics of which bear directly on our knowledge and understanding of the free colored experience elsewhere in the European colonial slave plantation world.
Gee, Leslie; Peebles, Rebecka; Golden, Neville H; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Heinberg, Leslie J; Horwitz, Sarah M
Distorted weight perception (DWP), specifically overestimating weight status, is common in adolescents and may lead to eating disorders. The authors examined the role of acculturation proxies as effect modifiers of the relationship between race/ethnicity and DWP in a diverse adolescent population. Analysis of the 2005 California Health Interview Survey showed that of 2955 adolescents with underweight or healthy weight status, 10.6% reported DWP. Latino adolescents had increased odds of DWP compared with white adolescents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.00, 4.57). Latinos who spoke English and other language(s) at home (aOR = 3.38; 95% CI = 2.11, 5.41) and Latino (aOR = 5.00; 95% CI = 2.34, 10.72) and Asian (aOR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.15, 8.35) adolescents who spoke no English at home had increased odds of DWP compared with white, English-only speakers. Latino adolescents had increased odds (aOR = 3.98, 95% CI = 2.45, 6.47) of DWP if neither parent was US born. Assessing acculturation proxies may help identify adolescents at risk of DWP.
Background A challenge in human genome research is how to describe the populations being studied. The use of improper and/or imprecise terms has the potential to both generate and reinforce prejudices and to diminish the clinical value of the research. The issue of population descriptors has not attracted enough academic attention outside North America and Europe. In January 2012, we held a two-day workshop, the first of its kind in Japan, to engage in interdisciplinary dialogue between scholars in the humanities, social sciences, medical sciences, and genetics to begin an ongoing discussion of the social and ethical issues associated with population descriptors. Discussion Through the interdisciplinary dialogue, we confirmed that the issue of race, ethnicity and genetic research has not been extensively discussed in certain Asian communities and other regions. We have found, for example, the continued use of the problematic term, “Mongoloid” or continental terms such as “European,” “African,” and “Asian,” as population descriptors in genetic studies. We, therefore, introduce guidelines for reporting human genetic studies aimed at scientists and researchers in these regions. Conclusion We need to anticipate the various potential social and ethical problems entailed in population descriptors. Scientists have a social responsibility to convey their research findings outside of their communities as accurately as possible, and to consider how the public may perceive and respond to the descriptors that appear in research papers and media articles. PMID:24758583
Pine, Michael; Kowlessar, Niranjana M; Salemi, Jason L; Miyamura, Jill; Zingmond, David S; Katz, Nicole E; Schindler, Joe
Objectives Eight grant teams used Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality infrastructure development research grants to enhance the clinical content of and improve race/ethnicity identifiers in statewide all-payer hospital administrative databases. Principal Findings Grantees faced common challenges, including recruiting data partners and ensuring their continued effective participation, acquiring and validating the accuracy and utility of new data elements, and linking data from multiple sources to create internally consistent enhanced administrative databases. Successful strategies to overcome these challenges included aggressively engaging with providers of critical sources of data, emphasizing potential benefits to participants, revising requirements to lessen burdens associated with participation, maintaining continuous communication with participants, being flexible when responding to participants’ difficulties in meeting program requirements, and paying scrupulous attention to preparing data specifications and creating and implementing protocols for data auditing, validation, cleaning, editing, and linking. In addition to common challenges, grantees also had to contend with unique challenges from local environmental factors that shaped the strategies they adopted. Conclusions The creation of enhanced administrative databases to support comparative effectiveness research is difficult, particularly in the face of numerous challenges with recruiting data partners such as competing demands on information technology resources. Excellent communication, flexibility, and attention to detail are essential ingredients in accomplishing this task. Additional research is needed to develop strategies for maintaining these databases when initial funding is exhausted. PMID:26119470
Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark
Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)
McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.
Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.
The purpose of our study was to determine differences in autism severity and symptoms as a function of IQ, age, SES, gender, and race while simultaneously controlling these variables in 777 children with autism using a comprehensive measure evaluating 30 core and associated symptoms of autism. The children were 1-17 years of age with IQs from 9 to…
Lu, Degan; Qiao, Yanru; Brown, Natalie E.; Wang, Junling
vaccine coverage between whites and the minority groups were no longer significant for adults aged 50–64 years. However, the difference were still statistically significant for those aged ≥65 years. Conclusions In the United States, there are significant disparities in influenza vaccination by race and ethnicity for adults over 65 years with at least one chronic health condition. Future research is needed to help develop more targeted interventions to address these issues and improve influenza vaccination rates. PMID:28081234
In order to characterize food group purchases from grocery receipts. Food shoppers (aged >/=19 years with at least one child aged =18 years in the home, the family's primary food purchaser) were recruited in front of grocery stores to participate in two interviews, separated by 6 weeks, and to sav...
Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin
A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations.
Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Humphries, Melissa
This study explores whether gender stereotypes about math ability shape high school teachers’ assessments of the students with whom they interact daily, resulting in the presence of conditional bias. It builds on theories of intersectionality by exploring teachers’ perceptions of students in different gender and racial/ethnic subgroups, and advances the literature on the salience of gender across contexts by considering variation across levels of math course-taking in the academic hierarchy. Utilizing nationally representative data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS), analyses reveal that disparities in teachers’ perceptions of ability that favored white males over minority students of both genders are explained away by student achievement in the form of test scores and grades. However, we find evidence of a consistent bias against white females which, although relatively small in magnitude, suggests that teachers hold the belief that math is easier for white males than it is for white females. We also find some evidence of variation across course level contexts with regard to bias. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for research on the construction of gender inequality. PMID:24187437
Johansson, Patrik; Jones, Deborah E; Watkins, Crystal C; Haisfield-Wolfe, Mary Ellen; Gaston-Johansson, Fannie
This qualitative content analysis examines data from African-American and Hispanic physician and nurse focus groups conducted by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Participants discussed the influence of race and ethnicity regarding perspectives on healthcare provided to ethnic minority patients, and on the professional careers of ethnic minority physicians and nurses. A majority of responses related to Racism and Prejudice, which affected ethnic minority patients and health-care providers at three levels (health-care system to patient, provider to patient, and provider to provider). Racism and Prejudice interfered with promotions, obtaining hospital privileges, and advancement in careers. Communication and Culture was important among patients who preferred racially concordant care providers. Role Modeling was found to be important as participants entered and matured in their professional careers. Findings provide compelling evidence that racism and prejudice are shared experiences between ethnic minority physicians and nurses throughout their careers. One concerning finding was that perceived prejudice materialized at the onset of medical and nursing education and remained a predominant theme throughout the professionals' careers. Research should be directed towards providing equity in care and on the careers of ethnic minority health-care professionals.
Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian
The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski
Crane, Heidi M.; Christopoulos, Katerina; Fredericksen, Rob J.; Gaynes, Bradley N.; Heine, Amy; Mathews, W. Christopher; Moore, Richard; Napravnik, Sonia; Safren, Steven; Mugavero, Michael J.
Objective To describe disparities along the depression treatment cascade, from indication for antidepressant treatment to effective treatment, in HIV-infected individuals by gender and race/ethnicity. Methods The Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort includes 31,000 HIV-infected adults in routine clinical care at 8 sites. Individuals were included in the analysis if they had a depressive symptoms measure within one month of establishing HIV care at a CNICS site. Depressive symptoms were measured using the validated Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Indication for antidepressant treatment was defined as PHQ-9 ≥ 10 or a current antidepressant prescription. Antidepressant treatment was defined as a current antidepressant prescription. Evidence-based antidepressant treatment was considered treatment changes based on a person’s most recent PHQ-9, in accordance with clinical guidelines. We calculated the cumulative probability of moving through the depression treatment cascade within 24 months of entering CNICS HIV care. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate associations between gender, race/ethnicity, and a range of depression outcomes. Results In our cohort of HIV-infected adults in routine care, 47% had an indication for antidepressant treatment. Significant drop-offs along the depression treatment cascade were seen for the entire study sample. However, important disparities existed. Women were more likely to have an indication for antidepressant treatment (HR 1.54; 95% CI 1.34, 1.78), receive antidepressant treatment (HR 2.03; 95% CI 1.53, 2.69) and receive evidence-based antidepressant treatment (HR 1.67; 95% CI 1.03, 2.74), even after accounting for race/ethnicity. Black non-Hispanics (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.35, 0.65), Hispanics (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.44, 0.89) and other race/ethnicities (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17, 0.73) were less likely to initiate antidepressant treatment, compared to white
Shaw, Benjamin A.; Liang, Jersey; Krause, Neal
The purpose of this research was to assess age- and race-based variation in within-persons changes in self-esteem over a 16-year period. We used hierarchical linear modeling with data from 3,617 adults aged 25 and older who were interviewed up to four times. Self-esteem increased, on average, over the course of the study period. At the same time, significant age variations around this trend were observed, with younger adults experiencing increases in self-esteem and older adults experiencing decreases. In general, race differences were not evident with respect to average levels or rates of change in self-esteem. However, a significant age by race interaction suggested that late life declines in self-esteem were steeper for blacks compared to whites. These findings suggest the presence of age- and race-based stratification with respect to self-esteem. Future work in this area should examine the health and well-being effects of declining self-esteem during old age. PMID:20230130
Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S; Brady, Kathleen T; Blazer, Dan G; Hoyle, Rick H
There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12-34 years in the 2005-2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, "Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin" was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; "got them from a friend/relative for free" and "bought them from a friends/relative" were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18-25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations.
Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.
There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275
Gibbs, Kenneth D; McGready, John; Bennett, Jessica C; Griffin, Kimberly
Increasing biomedical workforce diversity remains a persistent challenge. Recent reports have shown that biomedical sciences (BMS) graduate students become less interested in faculty careers as training progresses; however, it is unclear whether or how the career preferences of women and underrepresented minority (URM) scientists change in manners distinct from their better-represented peers. We report results from a survey of 1500 recent American BMS Ph.D. graduates (including 276 URMs) that examined career preferences over the course of their graduate training experiences. On average, scientists from all social backgrounds showed significantly decreased interest in faculty careers at research universities, and significantly increased interest in non-research careers at Ph.D. completion relative to entry. However, group differences emerged in overall levels of interest (at Ph.D. entry and completion), and the magnitude of change in interest in these careers. Multiple logistic regression showed that when controlling for career pathway interest at Ph.D. entry, first-author publication rate, faculty support, research self-efficacy, and graduate training experiences, differences in career pathway interest between social identity groups persisted. All groups were less likely than men from well-represented (WR) racial/ethnic backgrounds to report high interest in faculty careers at research-intensive universities (URM men: OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98, p = 0.04; WR women: OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.89, p = 0.008; URM women: OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.71, p<0.001), and URM women were more likely than all other groups to report high interest in non-research careers (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.28-2.90, p = 0.002). The persistence of disparities in the career interests of Ph.D. recipients suggests that a supply-side (or "pipeline") framing of biomedical workforce diversity challenges may limit the effectiveness of efforts to attract and retain the best and most diverse
Luft, Janis; Grady, Deborah; Kuppermann, Miriam
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Urogenital symptoms affect up to half of women after menopause, but their impact on women’s day-to-day functioning and wellbeing is poorly understood. METHODS Postmenopausal women aged 45 to 80 years reporting urogenital dryness, soreness, itching, or pain during sex were recruited to participate in in-depth focus groups to discuss the impact of their symptoms. Focus groups were homogenous with respect to race/ethnicity and stratified by age (for White or Black women) or language (for Latina women). Transcripts of sessions were analyzed according to grounded theory. RESULTS Six focus groups were conducted, involving 44 women (16 White, 14 Black, 14 Latina). Five domains of functioning and wellbeing affected by symptoms were identified: sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations. For some participants, symptoms primarily affected their ability to have and enjoy sex, as well as be responsive to their partners. For others, symptoms interfered with everyday activities, such as exercising, toileting, or sleeping. Participants regarded their symptoms as a sign that they were getting old or their body was deteriorating; women also associated symptoms with a loss of womanhood or sexuality. Additionally, participants reported feeling depressed, embarrassed, and frustrated about their symptoms, and expressed reluctance to discuss them with friends, family, or health care providers. CONCLUSIONS Urogenital symptoms can have a marked impact on sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations after menopause. Clinicians may need to question women actively about these symptoms, as many are reluctant to seek help for this problem. PMID:19908103
This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted.
King, Christopher J; Chen, Jie; Dagher, Rada K; Holt, Cheryl L; Thomas, Stephen B
More research is needed to identify factors that explain why minority cancer survivors ages 18 to 64 are more likely to delay or forgo care when compared with whites. Data were merged from the 2000-2011 National Health Interview Survey to identify 12 125 adult survivors who delayed medical care. The Fairlie decomposition technique was applied to explore contributing factors that explain the differences. Compared with whites, Hispanics were more likely to delay care because of organizational barriers (odds ratio = 1.38; P < .05), and African Americans were more likely to delay medical care or treatment because of transportation barriers (odds ratio = 1.54; P < .001). The predicted probability of not receiving timely care because of each barrier was lowest among minorities. Age, insurance, perceived health, comorbidity, nativity, and year were significant factors that contributed to the disparities. Although expanded insurance coverage through the Affordable Care Act is expected to increase access, organizational factors and transportation play a major role.
Morgan Hughey, S; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Child, Stephanie; Moore, Justin B; Porter, Dwayne; Hibbert, James
Parks and park features are important for promoting physical activity and healthy weight, especially for low-income and racial/ethnic minority youth who have disproportionately high obesity rates. This study 1) examined associations between neighborhood park and playground availability and youth obesity, and 2) assessed whether these associations were moderated by youth race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). In 2013, objectively measured height and weight were collected for all 3rd-5th grade youth (n=13.469) in a southeastern US county to determine body mass index (BMI) percentiles. Enumeration and audits of the county's parks (n=103) were concurrently conducted. Neighborhood park and playground availability were calculated as the number of each facility within or intersecting each youth's Census block group. Multilevel linear regression models were utilized to examine study objectives. For boys, no main effects were detected; however, SES moderated associations such that higher park availability was associated with lower BMI percentile for low-SES youth but higher BMI percentile for high-SES youth. For girls, the number of parks and playgrounds were significantly associated with lower BMI (b=-2.2, b=-1.1, p<0.05, respectively) and race/ethnicity and SES moderated associations between playground availability and BMI percentile. Higher playground availability was associated with lower BMI percentile for White and high-SES girls but higher BMI percentile for African American and low-SES girls. Considerable variation was detected in associations between park and playground availability and youth obesity by SES and race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of studying the intersection of these characteristics when exploring associations between built environment features and obesity.
Romano, Eduardo; Fell, James; Voas, Robert
Objective: To determine if graduated driver licensing (GDL) law effects were the same for different racial/ethnic groups of young drivers. Methods: The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data files were analyzed using descriptive pre- and post-GDL law analyses and logistic regression. Analyses were conducted on 8,036 drivers aged 15 to 17 killed in single-vehicle crashes from 1999 to 2008. Whites, African-Americans, Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans/Others were examined. Two analyses were conducted: one of all states, and one of the 23 states that adopted a GDL law between 1999 and 2008. Results: Although GDL laws had varying degrees of success in reducing the likelihood of drinking and driving among young drivers of different racial/ethnic groups, that variation did not occur in fatal crashes where speeding was a factor, except for Hispanics. GDL laws showed similar reductions for White, African-American, and Asian young drivers in single-vehicle fatal crashes; however, young Hispanic drivers were not as affected by GDL as were Whites and African-Americans. Our analysis of states with GDL laws enacted between 2000 and 2007 showed no change for young Hispanic drivers in fatal crashes before and after a GDL law was adopted. Overall, GDL reductions were largest for young White drivers (p<.01), followed by African-Americans (p<.05), Asians (p<.05), and Hispanics (p<.10; not significant). GDL laws had no apparent effect on speeding-related fatal crashes of these novice drivers. Implications: Reasons for these findings are hypothesized and discussed: (1) differences in drinking patterns of the racial/ethnic groups; (2) differences in driving exposure among the groups; and (3) differences in the influence of parents on youthful drivers entering the GDL phases. PMID:22105383
Bachman, Jerald G; Staff, Jeremy; O'Malley, Patrick M; Freedman-Doan, Peter
High school students who spend long hours in paid employment during the school year are at increased risk of lower grades and higher substance use, although questions remain about whether these linkages reflect causation or prior differences (selection effects). Questions also remain about whether such associations vary by socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. This study examines those questions using nationally representative data from two decades (1991-2010) of annual Monitoring the Future surveys involving about 600,000 students in 10th and 12th grades. White students are consistently more likely than minority students to hold paid employment during the school year. Among White and Asian American students, paid work intensity is negatively related to parental education and grade point averages (GPA) and is positively related to substance use. Also among Whites and Asian Americans, students with the most highly educated parents show the strongest negative relations between work intensity and GPA, whereas the links are weaker for those with less educated parents (i.e., lower SES levels). All of these relations are less evident for Hispanic students and still less evident for African American students. It thus appears that any costs possibly attributable to long hours of student work are most severe for those who are most advantaged--White or Asian American students with highly educated parents. Working long hours is linked with fewer disadvantages among Hispanic students and especially among African American students. Youth employment dropped in 2008-2010, but the relations described above have shown little change over two decades.
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of...
Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.
Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.
Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…
Lockhart-Gilroy, Annie A.
Those who are oppressed often find themselves internalizing voices that limit their ability. This article focuses on a population that falls on the non-hegemonic side of the intersection of race, class, gender, and age: Black girls from poor and working-class backgrounds. From my work with youth, I have noticed that internalizing these limiting…
Shaw, Linda R.; Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T.
A possible interaction among the characteristics of disability, race, gender, and age was examined with respect to formal allegations of disability harassment. Using data from the National Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project, the authors examined whether there was an interaction…
Benner, Aprile D.; Graham, Sandra
In the current study, we examined the precursors and consequences of discrimination for 876 Latino, African American, and Asian American adolescents (M[subscript age] = 16.9 years, SD = 0.43). The race/ethnic characteristics of schools and neighborhoods influenced adolescents' perceptions of the race/ethnic climates of these contexts. In turn,…
Cluskey, Mary; Wong, Siew Sun; Richards, Rickelle; Ballejos, Miriam; Reicks, Marla; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol; Bruhn, Christine; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar
Dietary calcium sources may differ by race/ethnicity and dietary acculturation. A cross-sectional, convenience sample including 587 United States (US) Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White parent-child (10-13 years) pairs completed a calcium food frequency questionnaire. Calcium sources were ranked by mean percent contribution to total adjusted calcium intake, and compared by ethnic group and parents' location of birth. Five foods (fluid milk, cheese, milk on cereal, yogurt, and lattes) represented 49% of total calcium intake for parents. The same foods (except lattes) represented 55% of total calcium for early adolescent children. Fluid milk provided the largest mean percentage of intake for all race/ethnic groups among parents and children. Several food sources of calcium were greater for foreign-born versus US-born Asian or Hispanic parents and children. Understanding calcium food sources and changes in dietary patterns that affect calcium intake among parents and children is important to better promote adequate intake.
Asnaani, Anu; Aderka, Idan M; Marques, Luana; Simon, Naomi; Robinaugh, Donald J; Hofmann, Stefan G
We investigated feared social situations in individuals with social anxiety disorder from different racial and ethnic groups in the United States. The sample included 247 African Americans, 158 Latinos, and 533 non-Latino Whites diagnosed with social anxiety disorder within the past 12 months from the integrated Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies data set. After randomly splitting the full sample, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis with half of the sample to determine the structure of feared social situations in a more diverse sample than has been used in previous studies. We found evidence for a model consisting of three feared social domains: performance/public speaking, social interaction, and observational. We then conducted a confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining half of the sample to examine whether this factor structure varied significantly between the race-ethnic groups. Analyses revealed an adequate fit of this model across all three race-ethnic groups, suggesting invariance of the factor structure between the study groups. Broader cultural contexts within which these findings are relevant are discussed, along with important implications for comprehensive, culturally sensitive assessment of social anxiety.
Kressin, Nancy R.; Raymond, Kristal L.; Manze, Meredith
Background To assess discrimination in health care, reliable, valid, and comprehensive measures of racism/discrimination are needed. Objective To review literature on measures of perceived race/ethnicity-based discrimination and evaluate their characteristics and usefulness in assessing discrimination from health care providers. Methods Literature review of measures of perceived race/ethnicity-based discrimination (1966–2007), using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Social Science Citation Index. Results We identified 34 measures of racism/discrimination; 16 specifically assessed dynamics in the health care setting. Few measures were theoretically based; most assessed only general dimensions of racism and focused specifically on the experiences of African American patients. Acceptable psychometric properties were documented for about half of the instruments. Conclusions Additional measures are needed for detailed assessments of perceived discrimination in the health care setting; they should be relevant for a wide variety of racial/ethnic groups, and they must assess how racism/discrimination affects health care decision making and treatments offered. PMID:18677066
Asnaani, Anu; Aderka, Idan M.; Marques, Luana; Simon, Naomi; Robinaugh, Donald J.; Hofmann, Stefan G.
We investigated feared social situations in individuals with social anxiety disorder from different racial and ethnic groups in the United States. The sample included 247 African Americans, 158 Latinos, and 533 non-Latino Whites diagnosed with social anxiety disorder within the past 12 months from the integrated Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies data set. After randomly splitting the full sample, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis with half of the sample to determine the structure of feared social situations in a more diverse sample than has been used in previous studies. We found evidence for a model consisting of three feared social domains: performance/public speaking, social interaction, and observational. We then conducted a confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining half of the sample to examine whether this factor structure varied significantly between the race-ethnic groups. Analyses revealed an adequate fit of this model across all three race-ethnic groups, suggesting invariance of the factor structure between the study groups. Broader cultural contexts within which these findings are relevant are discussed, along with important implications for comprehensive, culturally sensitive assessment of social anxiety. PMID:25795220
White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles
Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels.
Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel
Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701
Lasiewski, Doreen Kovacsofsky
Lack of growth in the science talent pool raises concerns about the ability of colleges and universities to meet the demands of the nation's labor market for scientists and engineers. Previous research has focused on ways to improve the K--16 learning environment and increase retention rates of undergraduate students in the sciences. This study extends previous work by considering the next stage in the educational pipeline---the transition to graduate study. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of factors related to science, mathematics, and engineering (SME) undergraduate degree recipients' subsequent enrollment in graduate study. This research utilizes 1994 data from the first follow-up of the 1993 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study by the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES). Four groups of factors were examined---pre-college characteristics, personal characteristics, institutional characteristics, and the college experience. Analyses were conducted on the overall sample and by gender and race/ethnicity. Male and female subjects were equally likely to enroll in graduate school. White and non-White subjects were equally likely to enroll in graduate school. The best factor to predict enrollment in graduate study for all samples was cumulative grade point average. The models suggested, however, two different journeys taken by SME bachelor's degree recipients. Along one path taken by male and White students, factors associated with graduate school enrollment included having well-educated parents, at least a middle class family background, a good mathematics grade point average, being satisfied with the undergraduate curriculum, being less than twenty-three years old, and having participated in community service. Women and minority students, however, traveled a different path, where marriage negatively influenced enrollment in graduate study. In addition, having children and being over the age of twenty-three were negative factors for
Huynh, Mary; Borrell, Luisa N; Chambers, Earle C
To examine the association between maternal education and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) and whether this association differs by maternal race/ethnicity and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES). A sample of 56,911 New York City births between 1999 and 2001 was used. Self-reported EGWG was defined as gaining >40 pounds. Maternal education and race/ethnicity were obtained from birth record data. Neighborhood SES was determined from 2000 US Census data. Women with a high school [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.21; 95 % CI 1.10-1.32] and some college (PR = 1.33; 95 % CI 1.21-1.47) education were more likely to gain excessive weight during pregnancy than their counterparts with less than a high school education. Having a college or more education was associated with a decreased EGWG for non-Hispanic white women (PR = 0.81; 95 % CI 0.67-0.96) but an increased EGWG for Hispanic women (PR = 1.25; 95 % CI 1.12-1.44). EGWG increased for women with a college or more education in medium and low SES neighborhoods (1.26; 95 % CI 1.04-1.53 and 1.20; 95 % CI 1.10-1.30, respectively); whereas a college or more education was not significant in the high SES neighborhoods. Our findings suggest that maternal education is associated with EGWG. However, this association depends on race/ethnicity and SES of the neighborhood of residence.
Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B
While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people.
Coloma, Roland Sintos
The article brings together the fields of curriculum studies, history of education, and ethnic studies to chart a transnational history of race, empire, and curriculum. Drawing from a larger study on the history of education in the Philippines under U.S. rule in the early 1900s, it argues that race played a pivotal role in the discursive…
There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…
Sigelman, Carol K.
Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…
Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.
Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227
Bugislaus, A-E; Roehe, R; Willms, F; Kalm, E
In a genetic analysis of German trotters, the performance trait racing time per km was analysed by using a random regression model on six different age classes (2-, 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-year-old and older trotters; the age class of 3-year-old trotters was additionally divided by birth months of horses into two seasons). The best-fitting random regression model for the trait racing time per km on six age classes included as fixed effects sex, race track, condition of race track (fitted as second-order polynomial on age), distance of race and each driver (fitted as first-order polynomial on age) as well as the year-season (fitted independent of age). The random additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were fitted as second-order polynomials on age. Data consisted of 138,620 performance observations from 2,373 trotters and the pedigree data contained 9,952 horses from a four-generation pedigree. Heritabilities for racing time per km increased from 0.01 to 0.18 at age classes from 2- to 4-year-old trotters, then slightly decreased for 5 year and substantially decreased for 6-year-old horses. Genetic correlations of racing time per km among the six age classes were very high (rg = 0.82-0.99). Heritability was h2 = 0.13 when using a repeatability animal model for racing time per km considering the six age classes as fixed effect. Breeding values using repeatability analysis over all and within age classes resulted in slightly different ranking of trotters than those using random regression analysis. When using random regression analysis almost no reranking of trotters over time took place. Generally, the analyses showed that using a random regression model improved the accuracy of selection of trotters over age classes.
Ma, Sheng-Xing; Lee, Paul C.; Jiang, Isabelle; Ma, Eva; Hu, Jay S.; Li, Xi-Yan
This study examined the influence of age, gender and race on nitric oxide (NO) release over acupuncture points, meridian without acupoint, and non-meridian regions of the Pericardium (PC) and Bladder (BL) meridian as well as aging on LU meridian in 61 healthy subjects. Biocapture tubes were attached to the skin surface, and total nitrite and nitrate was biocaptured and quantified using chemiluminescence. In elder ages compared to adults, NO levels over the ventral forearm were significantly decreased over LU on radial regions but not altered over PC on medial regions. Conversely, NO content was elevated over BL regions only in overweight/obesity of elder ages. NO levels over PC regions were marginally elevated in overweight/obese males compared to females but did not alter between races. These results suggest a selective reduction of NO release over LU meridian with aging, which is consistent with a progressive decline in lung function and increase in chronic respiratory disease in elder ages. Increased NO levels along the BL meridian in older obese subjects may reflect a modified NO level along somatic-bladder pathway for counteracting bladder dysfunctions with aging. Both of them support somatic-organ connections in the meridian system associated with potential pathophysiological changes with aging. PMID:26621821
Gomez, Scarlett L; Satariano, William; Le, Gem M; Weeks, Patricia; McClure, Laura; West, Dee W
Hospital data on race, ethnicity, birthplace, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important for identifying health disparities; however, little is known about the consistency across and within hospitals in the collection of these data. This study examined hospital practices and policies for the collection of these data and the variability across hospital staff and hospital characteristics. Surveys were mailed to selected hospital staff in all 59 hospitals in the San Francisco Bay Area, and completed questionnaires were received from 141 (of 367) staff from 41 hospitals. While most hospitals collect race/ethnicity (83% always collect) and birthplace (60% always or sometimes collect), few hospitals collect patient information on education (75% never collect) and income (55% never collect). There is vast variability in reported practices and policies across staff within hospitals, and variability across hospitals with regards to certain hospital characteristics. Nationally standardized policies, including standards for where, what, and when these data should be collected, are necessary for accurate and uniform data collection, and for effectively addressing health disparities.
Chae, David H; Krieger, Nancy; Bennett, Gary G; Lindsey, Jane C; Stoddard, Anne M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M
This study investigated the distribution of demographic characteristics, the prevalence of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race, and relationships with psychological distress among 178 working-class sexual minorities (i.e., who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or had ever engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors) recruited to the United for Health Study (2003-2004). The results indicated considerable heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior, with a majority of sexual minority participants not identifying as LGB (74.2%). The authors found significant demographic differences in LGB identification by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, LGB participants had higher levels of psychological distress than non-LGB-identified sexual minorities. Linear regression analyses revealed that reports of racial/ethnic discrimination and sexuality discrimination were associated with higher levels of psychological distress among sexual minority participants. The results underscore the need to collect multiple measures of sexuality in conducting research on racially diverse working-class communities; to consider demographic factors in collecting sexuality data; and to disaggregate information on sexuality by LGB identification. Findings also highlight the importance of addressing discrimination in ameliorating problematic mental health outcomes among working-class sexual minorities.
Rhodes, Lindsay A.; Huisingh, Carrie; Johnstone, John; Fazio, Massimo; Smith, Brandon; Clark, Mark; Downs, J. Crawford; Owsley, Cynthia; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Girkin, Christopher
Purpose. To determine if laminar depth (LD) and prelaminar tissue volume (PTV) are associated with age and race in healthy human eyes. Methods. Optic nerve head images from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of 166 normal eyes from 84 subjects of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) were manually delineated to identify the principal surfaces: internal limiting membrane, Bruch's membrane (BM), anterior sclera (AS), and anterior surface of the lamina cribrosa. These four surfaces defined the LD and PTV using Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and AS for reference structures. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate whether the effect of age on each outcome was differential by race. Results. When age was analyzed as a continuous variable, the interaction term between age and race was statistically significant for mean LDBMO (P = 0.015) and mean LDAS (P = 0.0062) after adjusting for axial length and BMO area. For every 1-year increase in age, the LDAS was greater on average by 1.78 μm in AD subjects and less by 1.71 μm in ED subjects. Mean PTV was lower in the older subjects (1248 × 106 μm3 AD, 881 × 106 μm3 ED) compared to the younger subjects (1316 × 106 μm3 AD, 1102 × 106 μm3 ED) in both groups. Conclusions. With increasing age, the LD changes differently across racial groups in normal subjects. The LD in ED subjects showed a significantly decreasing slope suggesting that the lamina moves anteriorly with age in this group. PMID:25414182
Stoll, Michael A.
Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006-2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who…
Gilbert, Paul A.; Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Conron, Kerith J.
Background Some studies have found that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher odds of alcohol abuse and dependence than heterosexual men, but others have found no differences. We investigated whether the association between sexual orientation and hazardous drinking varied by race/ethnicity. Methods We estimated the odds of past-year heavy daily, heavy weekly, and binge drinking by sexual orientation and race/ethnicity among non-Latino White, non-Latino Black, and Latino (any race) men (n=9,689) who reported current alcohol use in the 2004-2005 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Interaction terms were included in multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate possible effect modification. Results In most comparisons, sexual minority men reported equivalent or lower levels of hazardous drinking than heterosexual peers. There was no association between sexual orientation and heavy daily drinking. Sexual minority Black men had lower odds of heavy weekly drinking and binge drinking than both heterosexual White men and heterosexual Black men. Among Latinos, the odds of heavy weekly drinking were higher for sexual minority men than heterosexuals; there was no difference by sexual orientation for binge drinking among Latinos. Conclusions With one exception, sexual minority men were at equivalent or lower risk of hazardous drinking than heterosexual men. The Black-White advantage observed in other alcohol studies was observed in our study and was heightened among sexual minority men, suggesting the presence of protective factors that curb hazardous drinking. Additional research is necessary to identify the mechanisms responsible for these patterns. PMID:25835229
In many classrooms across America, race and ethnicity are very much on the table. Teachers dream of seeing their students discuss difference in a constructive way. Some educators actively encourage their classes to get outside their comfort zones and confront the country's racial history, but in many faculty rooms, there's little to no talk about…
Liu, Cindy H; Tronick, Ed
The objective of this study was to examine racial/ethnic disparities in the diagnosis of postpartum depression (PPD) by: (1) identifying predictors that account for prevalence rate differences across groups, and (2) comparing the strength of predictors across groups. 3,732 White, African American, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander women from the New York City area completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System from 2004 to 2007, a population-based survey that assessed sociodemographic risk factors, maternal stressors, psycho-education provided regarding depression, and prenatal and postpartum depression diagnoses. Sociodemographic and maternal stressors accounted for increased rates in PPD among Blacks and Hispanics compared to Whites, whereas Asian/Pacific Islander women were still 3.2 times more likely to receive a diagnosis after controlling for these variables. Asian/Pacific Islanders were more likely to receive a diagnosis after their providers talked to them about depressed mood, but were less likely than other groups to have had this conversation. Prenatal depression diagnoses increased the likelihood for PPD diagnoses for women across groups. Gestational diabetes decreased the likelihood for a PPD diagnosis for African Americans; a trend was observed in the association between having given birth to a female infant and increased rates of PPD diagnosis for Asian/Pacific Islanders and Whites. The risk factors that account for prevalence rate differences in postpartum diagnoses depend on the race/ethnic groups being compared. Prenatal depression is confirmed to be a major predictor for postpartum depression diagnosis for all groups studied; however, the associations between other postpartum depression risk factors and diagnosis vary by race/ethnic group.
Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan
The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.
Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Williams, David R.; Love, Gayle D.; McKinley, Paula S.; Sloan, Richard P.; Ryff, Carol D.
Objective The objective of this study was to consider race differences in age-trends of autonomic nervous system functioning, using a national dataset with a broad age range. Methods Measures of baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and HRV reactivity were derived from electrocardiograph (ECG) recordings taken at rest and during cognitive stress tasks. Age-trends in HRV and HRV reactivity were compared among 204 African Americans and 833 Whites ages 34 to 83 years (M=53.7, SD=11.4), before and after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Results For HRV-reactivity, age-trends were steeper among African Americans and lower-SES participants than Whites and higher-SES participants. For baseline HRV, age-trends varied by SES but not race. Discussion Results relating to HRV-reactivity (but not baseline HRV) were consistent with hypotheses suggesting that African Americans are exposed to higher levels of stress and experience accelerated declines in health across the life span. The relevance of the findings to research on social stress and health disparities is discussed. PMID:23781017
Quinlan, Jennifer J.
While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe. PMID:23955239
Quinlan, Jennifer J
While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe.
Grytz, Rafael; Fazio, Massimo A.; Libertiaux, Vincent; Bruno, Luigi; Gardiner, Stuart; Girkin, Christopher A.; Downs, J. Crawford
Purpose. We tested the hypothesis that there are age- and race-related differences in posterior scleral material properties, using eyes from human donors of European (20–90 years old, n = 40 eyes) and African (23–74 years old, n = 22 eyes) descent. Methods. Inflation tests on posterior scleral shells were performed while full-field, three-dimensional displacements were recorded using laser speckle interferometry. Scleral material properties were fit to each eye using a microstructure-based constitutive formulation that incorporates the collagen fibril crimp and the local anisotropic collagen architecture. The effects of age and race were estimated using Generalized Estimating Equations, while accounting for intradonor correlations. Results. The shear modulus significantly increased (P = 0.038) and collagen fibril crimp angle significantly decreased with age (P = 0.002). Donors of African descent exhibited a significantly higher shear modulus (P = 0.019) and showed evidence of a smaller collagen fibril crimp angle (P = 0.057) compared to donors of European descent. The in-plane strains in the peripapillary sclera were significantly lower with age (P < 0.015) and African ancestry (P < 0.015). Conclusions. The age- and race-related differences in scleral material properties result in a loss of scleral compliance due to a higher shear stiffness and a lower level of stretch at which the collagen fibrils uncrimp. The loss of compliance should lead to larger high frequency IOP fluctuations and changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical response in the elderly and in persons of African ancestry, and may contribute to the higher susceptibility to glaucoma in these at-risk populations. PMID:25389203
Nayak, Satheesha B; Awal, Mahfuzah Binti; Han, Chang Wei; Sivaram, Ganeshram; Vigneswaran, Thimesha; Choon, Tee Lian
Introduction Tongue is mainly used for taste, chewing and in speech. In the present study, we focused on the secondary function of the tongue as to how it is used in phonetic pronunciation and linguistics and how these factors affect tongue movements. Objective To compare all possible movements of tongue among Malaysians belonging to three ethnic races and to find out if there is any link between languages spoken and ability to perform various tongue movements. Materials and Methods A total of 450 undergraduate medical students participated in the study. The students were chosen from three different races i.e. Malays, Chinese and Indians (Malaysian Indians). Data was collected from the students through a semi-structured interview following which each student was asked to demonstrate various tongue movements like protrusion, retraction, flattening, rolling, twisting, folding or any other special movements. The data obtained was first segregated and analysed according to gender, race and types and dialects of languages spoken. Results We found that most of the Malaysians were able to perform the basic movements of tongue like protrusion, flattening movements and very few were able to perform twisting and folding of the tongue. The ability to perform normal tongue movements and special movements like folding, twisting, rolling and others was higher among Indians when compared to Malay and Chinese. Conclusion Languages spoken by Indians involve detailed tongue rolling and folding in pronouncing certain words and may be the reason as to why Indians are more versatile with tongue movements as compared to the other two races amongst Malaysians. It may be a possibility that languages spoken by a person serves as a variable that increases their ability to perform special tongue movements besides influenced by the genetic makeup of a person. PMID:26894051
Ke, Fengfeng; Kwak, Dean
This mixed-method study examined whether online learning interaction participation, perception, and learning satisfaction would be consistent across varied age and ethnicity groups. Data were collected from students enrolled in 28 online courses via content analysis with online interaction transcripts, structural equation modeling with the…
Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.
The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…
Murguia, Edward, Comp.; And Others
Literature on ethnicity and aging is listed in this bibliography, which is intended to assist researchers, teachers, and policymakers. The bibliography is divided into seven categories: (1) multiethnic and general studies; (2) Black Americans; (3) Hispanic Americans; (4) Native Americans; (5) Asian and Pacific Americans; (6) European origin ethnic…
Pittenger, D B
The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.
Skorek, Małgorzata; Song, Anna V.; Dunham, Yarrow
Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18–21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian) completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five), self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship between three personality traits and body esteem: higher levels of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and extraversion were associated with higher self-esteem and consequently higher body esteem. Once self-esteem was included in the model the relationships between personality traits and body esteem were not significant, suggesting full mediation. In addition, the analyses revealed several racial/ethnic differences. In Asian American participants, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between emotional stability and body esteem. In Hispanic Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. And in Caucasian Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between emotional stability and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. The most important contribution of this study is evidence for an indirect relationship between personality traits and body esteem, with this relationship being mediated by self-esteem. This has important implications for the study of personality and eating disorders in young adults, most particularly implying a need for more emphasis on self-esteem as a predictor of body image problems. PMID:25375238
Skorek, Małgorzata; Song, Anna V; Dunham, Yarrow
Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18-21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian) completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five), self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship between three personality traits and body esteem: higher levels of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and extraversion were associated with higher self-esteem and consequently higher body esteem. Once self-esteem was included in the model the relationships between personality traits and body esteem were not significant, suggesting full mediation. In addition, the analyses revealed several racial/ethnic differences. In Asian American participants, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between emotional stability and body esteem. In Hispanic Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. And in Caucasian Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between emotional stability and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. The most important contribution of this study is evidence for an indirect relationship between personality traits and body esteem, with this relationship being mediated by self-esteem. This has important implications for the study of personality and eating disorders in young adults, most particularly implying a need for more emphasis on self-esteem as a predictor of body image problems.
Yan, Dongmei; McPheeters, Sheridan; Johnson, Gregory; Utzinger, Urs
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to quantify the age and race-related differences in the microstructural organization of the human posterior sclera. Such differences may contribute to the predisposition of primary open-angle glaucoma in various high-risk populations. Methods. Posterior–temporal scleras from 75 right eyes were procured at an average distance of 3.5 mm from the center of the optic nerve head (ONH). A light-scattering device was used to investigate the matrix organization of posterior scleral fibers around the ONH. In addition to the degree of alignment (via eccentricity), the percentage occurrence of fiber angles within equatorial and meridionally aligned bins was quantified as a function of depth, sex, age, and race. There were 20 African Americans, 55 Caucasians, 49 males, 26 females, in this study, all falling within three age groups (<30, n = 8; 30–60, n = 33; and >60 years, n = 34). Three scleral layers, normalized for depth, were examined. Results. For all ages and both races, fibers were preferentially oriented equatorially at all layers (P < 0.001). The African Americans had a significantly higher percentage of occurrence of meridional fibers than did the Caucasians (P < 0.001). The percentage occurrence of meridional fibers decreased significantly from the inner to the outer layers of the posterior sclera (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Statistically significant microstructural differences were found in the posterior sclera between African American and Caucasian donors. Ongoing work is focused on identifying whether such microstructural differences play a role in the higher prevalence of glaucoma in African American populations. PMID:21051726
Rhodes, Lindsay A.; Huisingh, Carrie; Johnstone, John; Fazio, Massimo A.; Smith, Brandon; Wang, Lan; Clark, Mark; Downs, J. Crawford; Owsley, Cynthia; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Girkin, Christopher A.
Purpose. This study examined the association between peripapillary choroidal thickness (PCT) with age and race in a group of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) subjects with normal eyes. Methods. Optic nerve head images from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of 166 normal eyes from 84 subjects of AD and ED were manually delineated to identify the principal surfaces of Bruch's membrane (BM), Bruch's membrane opening (BMO), and anterior sclera (AS). Peripapillary choroidal thickness was measured between BM and AS at increasing distance away from BMO. The mean PCT was compared between AD and ED subjects and generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis was used to examine the association between race and PCT overall, in each quadrant, and by distance from BMO. Models were adjusted for age, BMO area, and axial length in the regression analysis. Results. Overall, the mean PCT increased from 63.9 μm ± 18.1 at 0 to 250 μm to 170.3 μm ± 56.7 at 1500 to 2000 μm from BMO. Individuals of AD had a greater mean PCT than those of ED at all distances from BMO (P < 0.05 at each distance) and in each quadrant (P < 0.05 in each quadrant). Results from multivariate regression indicate that ED subjects had significantly lower PCT compared to AD overall and in all quadrants and distances from BMO. Increasing age was also significantly associated with a lower PCT in both ED and AD participants. Conclusions. Peripapillary choroidal thickness varies with race and age, as individuals of AD have a thicker peripapillary choroid than those of ED. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00221923.) PMID:25711640
Manly, Jennifer J.; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A.; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther
Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well-suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible, and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1653) were administered the Trailmaking Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportion of variance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%) and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed. PMID:21950512
Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Kornexl, Elmar; Raschner, Christian
The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group) of the same age (10-13 years) and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age disadvantages if they already present the same level of physical performance and maturational status as those born at the beginning of the year. The height and weight of ski racers born at the beginning of the year were significantly higher compared to the non-athletes, and ski racers born in relative age quarter 1 were taller and heavier compared to the ski racers of the other quarters. This indicates that the anthropometric characteristics influence the selection process in alpine ski racing, and that relatively older athletes are more likely to be selected if they exhibit advanced anthropometric characteristics.
Television Viewing and Its Associations with Overweight, Sedentary Lifestyle, and Insufficient Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables among U.S. High School Students: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender.
Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Galuska, Deborah A.; Fulton, Janet E.; Kann, Laura
Examined race, ethnic, and gender specific differences in the association between television viewing and high school students' overweight, decreased physical activity, and unhealthy dietary behaviors. Data from the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that most students' television viewing exceeded recommended levels, many students were…
The objective of this exploratory study was to determine whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by race/ethnicity, by origin and nativity among Hispanics, and by language preference (as an indicator of acculturation) among foreign-born Hispanics. We recruited 723 women enrolled in the Spec...
Martinez, Aja Y.
he critical race counterstory in this essay takes on the form of allegory to raise awareness about Arizona's anti-immigrant/Mexican climate, and pays particular attention to legislation targeted at Tucson Unified School District's Mexican American studies (also RAZA studies) program.
Bowser, Benjamin P., Ed.
This anthology offers comparative analyses of race, racism, and antiracism. An introduction, "The Global Community, Racism, and Anti-Racism," by Benjamin P. Bowser, provides an overview of global trends in this area. The following chapters explore historical and cultural racism in different world settings: (1) "Europe's Oldest…
Lee, Wei-Chen; Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Serag, Hani; Eschbach, Karl; Smith, Kenneth D
Well-designed electronic health records (EHRs) must integrate a variety of accurate information to support efforts to improve quality of care, particularly equity-in-care initiatives. This case study provides insight into the challenges those initiatives may face in collecting accurate race, ethnicity, and language (REAL) information in the EHR. We present the experience of an academic medical center strengthening its EHR for better collection of REAL data with funding from the EHR Incentive Programs for meaningful use of health information technology and the Texas Medicaid 1115 Waiver program. We also present a plan to address some of the challenges that arose during the course of the project. Our experience at an academic medical center can provide guidance about the likely challenges similar institutions may expect when they implement new initiatives to collect REAL data, particularly challenges regarding scope, personnel, and other resource needs.
Kuo, Janet Chen-Lan; Raley, R Kelly
The rise of cohabitation in family process among American young adults and declining rates of marriage among cohabitors are considered by some scholars as evidence for the importance of society-wide ideational shifts propelling recent changes in family. With data on two cohabiting cohorts from the NSFG 1995 and 2006-2010, the current study finds that marriage rates among cohabitors have declined steeply among those with no college degree, resulting in growing educational disparities over time. Moreover, there are no differences in marital intentions by education (or race/ethnicity) among recent cohabitors. We discuss how findings of this study speak to the changes in the dynamics of social stratification system in the United States and suggest that institutional and material constraints are at least as important as ideational accounts in understanding family change and family behavior of contemporary young adults.
Lee, Wei-Chen; Veeranki, Sreenivas P.; Serag, Hani; Eschbach, Karl; Smith, Kenneth D.
Well-designed electronic health records (EHRs) must integrate a variety of accurate information to support efforts to improve quality of care, particularly equity-in-care initiatives. This case study provides insight into the challenges those initiatives may face in collecting accurate race, ethnicity, and language (REAL) information in the EHR. We present the experience of an academic medical center strengthening its EHR for better collection of REAL data with funding from the EHR Incentive Programs for meaningful use of health information technology and the Texas Medicaid 1115 Waiver program. We also present a plan to address some of the challenges that arose during the course of the project. Our experience at an academic medical center can provide guidance about the likely challenges similar institutions may expect when they implement new initiatives to collect REAL data, particularly challenges regarding scope, personnel, and other resource needs. PMID:27843424
Amyx, Melissa; Xiong, Xu; Xie, Yiqiong; Buekens, Pierre
Objectives Whether racial/ethnic differences in prevalence/reporting of sleep disorders exist in pregnant women/women of child-bearing age is unknown. Study objectives were to estimate prevalence of sleep disorders and to examine racial/ethnic differences in sleep disorders, reporting of sleep issues, and amount of sleep among women of child-bearing age (15-44 years) in the US. Methods Through a secondary analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 (3175 non-pregnant, 432 pregnant women in main analysis), prevalence of sleep disorders, reporting of sleep disorders to a physician/health professional, and amount of sleep were estimated overall, by pregnancy status, and by race/ethnicity stratified by pregnancy status. Racial/ethnic differences in reporting of trouble sleeping by pregnancy status were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders among women of childbearing age was 4.9 % [3.9 % pregnant; 5.1 % non-pregnant (p < 0.01)]. Significantly fewer pregnant and non-pregnant minority women reported adequate sleep (7-8 h) than non-Hispanic white (white) women (p < 0.05). Among non-pregnant women, odds of report of trouble sleeping were significantly higher for white compared to black (aOR 0.47 [95 % CI 0.36, 0.61]) or Mexican-American women (aOR 0.29 [95 % CI 0.21, 0.41]); non-pregnant minority women were also significantly less likely to report trouble sleeping than white women when controlling for amount of sleep. Among pregnant women, these same trends were found. Discussion Compared to white women, minority women, despite reporting less adequate sleep, are less likely to report trouble sleeping, providing evidence of an important health disparity.
Holup, Joan L.; Press, Nancy; Vollmer, William M.; Harris, Emily L.; Vogt, Thomas M.; Chen, Chuhe
Objectives The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) guidelines for collecting and reporting race and ethnicity information recently divided the “Asian or Pacific Islander” category into “Asian” and “Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander”. The OMB’s decision to disaggregate the “Asian or Pacific Islander” category was the first step toward providing these communities with information to better serve their needs. However, whether individuals who formerly made up the combined group categorize themselves as the new guidelines intend is a question analyzed in this report. Methods A subset of adults participating in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study completed both the OMB-minimum and the expanded race and ethnicity measure used in the National Health Interview Survey. We compared responses on the expanded measure contained within the OMB “Asian” definition (Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese, Asian Indian, Chinese, and/or Other Asian) to “Asian” responses on the OMB-minimum measure. Results Mixed heritage Asians less often marked “Asian”. Among mixed heritage Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos, 27%, 49%, and 52% did not mark “Asian” on the OMB measure, respectively. Eleven percent of single-heritage Filipinos did not mark “Asian.” Conclusions Many individuals formerly making up the combined “Asian or Pacific Islander” group do not categorize themselves as the revised OMB guidelines intend. This is particularly evident among Filipinos and among Asians of mixed heritage. This research illuminates the reliability and utility of the broad “Asian” category and points to possible consequences of collapsing groups into a single category, i.e., missed information and/or erroneous generalization. PMID:18037976
Di Florio, A.; Putnam, K.; Altemus, M.; Apter, G.; Bergink, V.; Bilszta, J.; Brock, R.; Buist, A.; Deligiannidis, K. M.; Devouche, E.; Epperson, C. N.; Guille, C.; Kim, D.; Lichtenstein, P.; Magnusson, P. K. E.; Martinez, P.; Munk-Olsen, T.; Newport, J.; Payne, J.; Penninx, B. W.; O’Hara, M.; Robertson-Blackmore, E.; Roza, S. J.; Sharkey, K. M.; Stuart, S.; Tiemeier, H.; Viktorin, A.; Schmidt, P. J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Stowe, Z. N.; Wisner, K. L.; Jones, I.; Rubinow, D. R.; Meltzer-Brody, S.
Background Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset. Method Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA. Results Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (Δ*CFI) < 0.01]. The structure of EPDS responses significantly differed between Europe and the USA (Δ*CFI > 0.01), but not between European countries (Δ*CFI < 0.01). Conclusions Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the potential differences in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person’s experiences and the context in which the research is conducted. PMID:27866476
Liu, Lisa L; Lau, Anna S
Ethnic racial socialization (ERS) processes include cultural socialization (enculturation), preparation for bias, and promotion of mistrust. Although often conflated, these processes may variably confer psychological risk or protection. Cultural socialization has often been found to be protective, whereas promotion of mistrust has at times been associated with risk. We hypothesized that the distinctive associations between ERS processes and depression might be explained by trait optimism and pessimism as potential mediators. Results from a sample of 670 African American, Latino, and Asian American young adults indicated that cultural socialization was negatively associated with depression, whereas preparation for bias and promotion of mistrust were positively associated with depression. Participants who reported that their families engaged in cultural socialization had a more optimistic and less pessimistic outlook, which in turn explained lower levels of depression symptoms. In contrast, reported familial preparation for bias and promotion of mistrust were linked to greater pessimism and less optimism, which in turn were associated with depression symptoms. Although there were racial/ethnic differences in mean levels of ERS processes, multigroup analyses revealed that the associations with depression symptoms were robust across groups.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
This supplement to "Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (1999) documents the existence of striking disparities for minorities in mental health services and the underlying knowledge base. Racial and ethnic minorities have less access to mental health services than whites, and they are less likely to receive needed care. When they…
Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; King, Barbara
The authors analyze national data on recent college matriculants to investigate gender and racial/ethnic disparities in STEM fields, with an eye toward the role of academic preparation and attitudes in shaping such disparities. Results indicate that physical science/engineering (PS/E) majors are dominated by men, but not, however,…
Reyes, Belinda I., Ed.
This document examines differences in socioeconomic status by racial and ethnic groups in California, exploring changing patterns over time. It analyzes trends and outcomes in demography, geographic distribution, health, education, crime, labor markets, economic status, and political participation. Data on educational outcomes include: education…
Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Rosario, Maria L.
This article uses a critical sociohistorical lens to discuss and explain examples of the ways in which young people reflect, refract, and contribute to discourses of gentrification, displacement, and racial, ethnic, and geographic community identity building in a rapidly changing urban neighborhood. The article explores examples from open-ended…
Byrd, W. Carson; Dika, Sandra L.; Ramlal, Letticia T.
As the United States becomes more racially and ethnically diverse and draws more students from across the globe, more representative data are needed to understand at-risk and underrepresented populations in higher education, particularly in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. The authors argue that the current…
Perreira, Krista M.; Deeb-Sossa, Natalia; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Bollen, Kenneth
The sociological study of the mental health of racial-ethnic minorities depends on the measurement quality of the instruments used to evaluate mental health. A commonly used instrument in research on mental health disparities, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), has not been thoroughly validated for use in the…
Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2008
The 7th edition of this publication provides updated projections of high school graduates for each year and each state (plus the District of Columbia) through 2022. The profile breaks down the projections by major racial and ethnic groups: (1) American Indian/Alaska Native; (2) Asian/Pacific Islander; (3) Black, non-Hispanic; (4) Hispanic; and (5)…
Lebrun, Lydie A; Shi, Leiyu
We conducted cross-country comparisons of Canada and the U.S., and assessed the extent to which access to care varies by nativity status overall, as well as in conjunction with race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Data came from the Joint Canada-U.S. Survey of Health (n=6,620 non-elderly adults). Access measures included having a regular medical doctor, consultation with a health professional in the past year, dentist visit in the past year, Pap test in the past three years, and any unmet health care needs in the past year. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the relative odds of access to care, adjusting for potential confounders. Disparities in access to care based on nativity status overall, as well as nativity-by-race joint effects, were found in both countries. There was also a dose-response effect of education on access to care among the native-born but not among the foreign-born; there were few nativity-by-income joint effects.
Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli
OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837
... Bureau on the full spectrum of Census surveys and programs. The Committee assists the Census Bureau in... among its members, considering such factors as geography, age, gender, race, ethnicity,...
Manson, Spero M
The August 2001 issuance of Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, represents a landmark in the dialogue--political and scientific--regarding health disparities in the United States. This paper offers a critical appraisal of the process and structure of generating these reports, paying particular attention to issues that marked serious epistemological tensions among the participants. These issues revolved around the relative emphasis placed on (1) mental illness and mental health; (2) risk, etiology, and treatment versus prevention and promotion; (3) large-scale, population-based surveys and randomized clinical trials as the standard bearers of scientific evidence; (4) variation related to gender, social class, and culture; (5) ethnicity and culture as dispositional variables or individual glosses as opposed to dynamic, collective phenomena; and (6) the historical forces that shaped the contemporary context for much of this discussion. It describes the sometimes subtle, other times stark differences in assumptions and experience that sprang from disciplinary orientations, investigative methods, institutional affiliations, and personal histories and agendas.
Price, Rebecca Anhang; Haviland, Amelia M; Hambarsoomian, Katrin; Dembosky, Jacob W; Gaillot, Sarah; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Williams, Malcolm V; Elliott, Marc N
Objective To examine whether care experiences and immunization for racial/ethnic/language minority Medicare beneficiaries vary with the proportion of same-group beneficiaries in Medicare Advantage (MA) contracts. Data Sources/Study Setting Exactly 492,495 Medicare beneficiaries responding to the 2008–2009 MA Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) Survey. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Mixed-effect regression models predicted eight CAHPS patient experience measures from self-reported race/ethnicity/language preference at individual and contract levels, beneficiary-level case-mix adjustors, along with contract and geographic random effects. Principal Findings As a contract's proportion of a given minority group increased, overall and non-Hispanic, white patient experiences were poorer on average; for the minority group in question, however, high-minority plans may score as well as low-minority plans. Spanish-preferring Hispanic beneficiaries also experience smaller disparities relative to non-Hispanic whites in plans with higher Spanish-preferring proportions. Conclusions The tendency for high-minority contracts to provide less positive patient experiences for others in the contract, but similar or even more positive patient experiences for concentrated minority group beneficiaries, may reflect cultural competency, particularly language services, that partially or fully counterbalance the poorer overall quality of these contracts. For some beneficiaries, experiences may be just as positive in some high-minority plans with low overall scores as in plans with higher overall scores. PMID:25752334