Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann
Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213
Li, Jie; Hong, Guobin; Li, Dan; Mallampati, Saradhi; Zhou, Xiuling; Zhou, Cuiling; Zhang, Hongyu; Cheng, Zhibin; Shan, Hong; Ma, Haiqing
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), accounting for the majority of liver cancer, is a highly aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis and therefore adds up the financial burden. Incidence data of HCC in three decades during 1983-2012 were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database with incidence rates of 1.9, 3.1 and 4.9 per 100,000 respectively. In addition, to evaluate the survival changes in the same period, a total of 63,640 HCC cancer cases were accessed from SEER database. The six-month relative survival rates improved each decade from 31.0% to 42.9% to 57.2% and the higher increase can be seen in the last two decades. More importantly, the disparities of survival among different racial groups and socioeconomic status (SES) were confirmed by the inferiority of survival in Black race and high-poverty group respectively. This research analyzed the incidence and survival data of HCC in the past three decades and may help predict the future trends of incidence and survival. Furthermore, this study may help better design healthcare policies and clinical management programs to balance the disparities of survival between SES groups, races, ages and sexes confirmed in this study and thereby improve the clinical management of HCC. PMID:27486977
Goovaerts, Pierre; Xiao, Hong; Gwede, Clement K.; Tan, Fei; Huang, Youjie; Adunlin, Georges; Ali, Askal
Individual-level data from the Florida Cancer Data System (1981–2007) were analysed to explore temporal trends of prostate cancer late-stage diagnosis, and how they vary based on race, income and age. Annual census-tract rates were computed for two races (white and black) and two age categories (40–65, >65) before being aggregated according to census tract median household incomes. Joinpoint regression and a new disparity statistic were applied to model temporal trends and detect potential racial and socio-economic differences. Multi-dimensional scaling was used as an innovative way to visualize similarities among temporal trends in a 2-D space. Analysis of time-series indicated that late-stage diagnosis was generally more prevalent among blacks, for age category 40–64 compared to older patients covered by Medicare, and among classes of lower socio-economic status. Joinpoint regression also showed that the rate of decline in late-stage diagnosis was similar among older patients. For younger patients, the decline occurred at a faster pace for blacks with rates becoming similar to whites in the late 90s, in particular for higher incomes. Both races displayed distinct spatial patterns with higher rates of late-stage diagnosis in the Florida Panhandle for whites whereas high rates clustered in South-eastern Florida for blacks. PMID:26644992
Goovaerts, Pierre; Xiao, Hong; Gwede, Clement K; Tan, Fei; Huang, Youjie; Adunlin, Georges; Ali, Askal
Individual-level data from the Florida Cancer Data System (1981-2007) were analysed to explore temporal trends of prostate cancer late-stage diagnosis, and how they vary based on race, income and age. Annual census-tract rates were computed for two races (white and black) and two age categories (40-65, >65) before being aggregated according to census tract median household incomes. Joinpoint regression and a new disparity statistic were applied to model temporal trends and detect potential racial and socio-economic differences. Multi-dimensional scaling was used as an innovative way to visualize similarities among temporal trends in a 2-D space. Analysis of time-series indicated that late-stage diagnosis was generally more prevalent among blacks, for age category 40-64 compared to older patients covered by Medicare, and among classes of lower socio-economic status. Joinpoint regression also showed that the rate of decline in late-stage diagnosis was similar among older patients. For younger patients, the decline occurred at a faster pace for blacks with rates becoming similar to whites in the late 90s, in particular for higher incomes. Both races displayed distinct spatial patterns with higher rates of late-stage diagnosis in the Florida Panhandle for whites whereas high rates clustered in South-eastern Florida for blacks.
Eisner, Mark D.; Blanc, Paul D.; Omachi, Theodore A.; Yelin, Edward H.; Sidney, Stephen; Katz, Patricia P.; Ackerson, Lynn M.; Sanchez, Gabriela; Tolstykh, Irina; Iribarren, Carlos
Background Although COPD is a common cause of death and disability, little is known about the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and race-ethnicity on health outcomes. Methods We aimed to determine the independent impacts of SES and race-ethnicity on COPD severity status, functional limitations, and acute exacerbations of COPD among patients with access to health care. Data were used from the FLOW cohort study of 1,202 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Care Plan members with COPD. Results Lower educational attainment and household income were consistently related to greater disease severity, poorer lung function, and greater physical functional limitations in cross-sectional analysis. Black race was associated with greater COPD severity, but these differences were no longer apparent after controlling for SES variables and other covariates (comorbidities, smoking, body mass index, and occupational exposures). Both lower education and income were independently related to a greater prospective risk of acute COPD exacerbation (HR 1.5; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.1; and HR 2.1; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4, respectively). Conclusion Low SES is a risk factor for a broad array of adverse COPD health outcomes. Clinicians and disease management programs should consider SES as a key patient-level marker of risk for poor outcomes. PMID:19854747
Grandner, Michael A.; Petrov, Megan E. Ruiter; Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Jackson, Nicholas; Platt, Alec; Patel, Nirav P.
Study Objectives: Growing evidence indicates sleep is a major public health issue. Race/ethnicity and socioeconomics may contribute to sleep problems. This study assessed whether sleep symptoms were more prevalent among minorities and/or the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Epidemiologic survey. Patients or Participants: 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 4,081). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Sociodemographics included age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and immigration. Socioeconomics included poverty, education, private insurance, and food insecurity. Sleep symptoms assessed were sleep latency > 30 min, difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, early morning awakenings, non-restorative sleep, daytime sleepiness, snorting/gasping, and snoring. Decreased reported problems for most symptoms were found among minorities, immigrants, and lower education levels. In general, in fully adjusted models, long sleep latency was associated with female gender, being black/African American, lower education attainment, no private insurance, and food insecurity. Difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, early morning awakenings, and non-restorative sleep were also associated with female gender and food insecurity. Daytime sleepiness was seen in female and divorced respondents. Snorting/gasping was more prevalent among male, other-Hispanic/Latino, and 9th- to 11th-grade-level respondents. Snoring was prevalent among male, other-Hispanic/Latino, less-educated, and food-insecure respondents. Conclusions: Sleep symptoms were associated with multiple sociodemographic and economic factors, though these relationships differed by predictor and sleep outcome. Also, reports depended on question wording. Citation: Grandner MA; Petrov MER; Rattanaumpawan P; Jackson N; Platt A; Patel NP. Sleep symptoms, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic position. J Clin Sleep Med 2013
Grandner, Michael A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Knutson, Kristen L.; Roberts, Dorothy; Jean-Louis, Girardin
Sleep represents a set of biological functions necessary for the maintenance of life. Performing these functions, though, requires that an individual engage in behaviors, which are affected by social and environmental factors. Race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position represent categories of factors that likely play a role in the experience of sleep in the community. Previous studies have suggested that racial/ethnic minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged may be more likely to experience sleep patterns that are associated with adverse health outcomes. It is possible that disparities in sleep represent a pathway by which larger disparities in health emerge. This review (1) contextualizes the concept of race/ethnicity in biomedical research, (2) summarizes previous studies that describe patterns of sleep attainment across race/ethnicity groups, (3) discusses several pathways by which race/ethnicity may be associated with sleep, (4) introduces the potential role of socioeconomic position in the patterning of sleep, and (5) proposes future research directions to address this issue. PMID:26431755
Haviland, Mark G; Morales, Leo S; Dial, Thomas H; Pincus, Harold Alan
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on consumer health care satisfaction ratings. The authors analyzed national data from the 2001 National Research Corporation Healthcare Market Guide Survey (N = 99 102). Four global and 3 composite ratings were examined. In general, satisfaction ratings were high across all global and composite measures; however, Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics gave lower ratings than did whites, and African Americans gave a mix of higher and lower ratings (vs whites). Among the lowest ratings were those given by American Indians/Alaska Natives living in poverty. Race/ethnicity effects were independent of education and income. These findings are consistent with reports of continuing racial/ethnic disparities in both coverage and care. Programs to improve quality of care must specifically address these well-documented, severe, and persistent disparities.
Patzer, Rachel E.; McClellan, William M.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) influences disease incidence and contributes to poor health outcomes throughout an individual's life course across a wide range of populations. Low SES is associated with increased incidence of chronic kidney disease, progression to end-stage renal disease, inadequate dialysis treatment, reduced access to kidney transplantation, and poor health outcomes. Similarly, racial and ethnic disparities, which in the USA are strongly associated with lower SES, are independently associated with poor health outcomes. In this Review, we discuss individual-level and group-level SES factors, and the concomitant role of race and ethnicity that are associated with and mediate the development of chronic kidney disease, progression to end-stage renal disease and access to treatment. PMID:22735764
Stepanikova, Irena; Bateman, Lori Brand; Oates, Gabriela R.
Introduction This study investigates social determinants of systemic inflammation, focusing on race, SES, and perceived discrimination. Methods Data on 884 white and 170 black participants were obtained from the Survey of Midlife in the U.S., a cross-sectional observational study combining survey measures, anthropometry, and biomarker assay. Data, collected in 2004–2009, were analyzed in 2016. Main outcome measures were fasting blood concentrations of C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, fibrinogen, and E-selectin. For each biomarker, series of multivariate linear regression models were estimated for the pooled sample and separately for blacks and whites. Full models included social determinants; psychological, lifestyle, and health factors; and demographic covariates. Results Bivariate analyses indicated higher concentrations of all inflammation markers among blacks compared with whites (p<0.001). In fully adjusted models using the pooled sample, racial differences persisted for interleukin 6 (p<0.001) and fibrinogen (p<0.01). For E-selectin and C-reactive protein, racial differences were explained after adjusting for covariates. Education was linked to lower fibrinogen concentration (p<0.05) in the fully adjusted model and C-reactive protein concentration (p<0.01) after adjusting for demographic factors and income. Lifetime perceived discrimination was related to higher concentrations of fibrinogen (p<0.05) in the fully adjusted model, and higher concentrations of E-selectin and interleukin 6 (p<0.05) after adjusting for socioeconomic status (SES) and demographic factors. Conclusions This study clarifies the contributions of race, SES, and perceived discrimination to inflammation. It suggests that inflammation-reducing interventions should focus on blacks and individuals facing socioeconomic disadvantages, especially low education. PMID:27989295
Dalton, Donald H.; Bledsoe, Joseph C.
Responses of 480 Georgia students (ages 11 to 18 years) to the Dalton Vocational Importance Questionnaire developed to test Ginzberg's theory of occupational choice were analyzed to determine effects of ability, race, and socioeconomic status on perceived importance of capacities, interests, and values. (Author)
Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Reznick, J. Steven
The authors examined the associations between socioeconomic status (SES), race, maternal sensitivity, and maternal negative-intrusive behaviors and language development in a sample selected to reduce the typical confound between race and SES (n = 146). Mother-child interactions were observed at 12 and 24 months (coded by randomly assigned African…
Carron, Theodore J.; And Others
A study was conducted to explore the relationship of race and socioeconomic status to the learning of reading skills among ninth-grade black and white students in the Tuscaloosa, Alabama, city and county schools. Each student was given diagnostic reading tests by timed, untimed, and auditory administration. Socioeconomic status was measured by…
Luepnitz, Roy R.; And Others
Studied the incidence of bias related to race and socioeconomic status which could confound the diagnosis of alcoholism. Graduate psychology students made a diagnosis based on videotapes. Results indicated lower socioeconomic class individuals were more often diagnosed correctly for alcoholism, and Blacks were diagnosed alcoholic more often than…
Crandall, Carolyn J.; Miller-Martinez, Dana; Greendale, Gail A.; Binkley, Neil; Seeman, Teresa E.; Karlamangla, Arun S.
Purpose To determine socioeconomic status (SES) and race differences in levels of bone turnover. Methods Using data from the Biomarker Substudy of the Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) study (491 men, 449 women), we examined cross-sectional associations of SES and race with serum levels of bone turnover markers (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase [BSAP], procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide [PINP], and N-telopeptide [Ntx]) separately in men and women. Linear multivariable regression was used to control for body weight, menopausal transition stage, and age. Results Among men, low family poverty-to-income ratio (FPIR) was associated with higher turnover, but neither education nor race was associated with turnover. Men with FPIR <3 had 1.808 nM BCE higher Ntx (P = 0.05), 3.366 U/L higher BSAP (P = 0.02), and 7.066 higher PINP (P = 0.02). Among women, neither education nor FPIR was associated with bone turnover, but Black women had 3.688 nM BCE higher Ntx (P = 0.001), 5.267 U/L higher BSAP (P=0.005), and 11.906 μg/L higher PINP (P=0.008) compared to non-Black women. Conclusions Economic adversity was associated with higher bone turnover in men, and minority race status was associated with higher bone turnover in women, consistent with the hypothesis that higher levels of social stresses cause increased bone turnover. The magnitude of these associations was comparable to the effects of some osteoporosis medications on levels of turnover. PMID:21811862
BACKGROUND Little information is available about the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES) to blunted nocturnal ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) dipping among Hispanics and whether this relationship differs by race. We sought to characterize ABP nondipping and its determinants in a sample of Hispanics. METHODS We enrolled 180 Hispanic participants not on antihypertensive medications. SES was defined by years of educational attainment. All participants underwent 24-hour ABP monitoring. A decrease of <10% in the ratio between average awake and average asleep systolic BP was considered nondipping. RESULTS The mean age of the cohort was 67.1 ± 8.7, mean educational level was 9.4 ± 4.4 years, and 58.9% of the cohort was female. The cohort was comprised of 78.3% Caribbean Hispanics with the rest from Mexico and Central/South America; 41.4% self-identified as white Hispanic, 34.4% self-identified as black Hispanic, and 24.4% did not racially self- identify. The percentage of nondippers was 57.8%. Educational attainment (10.5 years vs. 8.6 years; P <0.01) was significantly higher among dippers than nondippers. In multivariable analyses, each 1-year increase in education was associated with a 9% reduction in the likelihood of being a nondipper (odds ratio [OR], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84–0.98; P = 0.01). There were significantly greater odds of being a nondipper for black Hispanics than for white Hispanics (OR, 2.83, 95% CI, 1.29–6.23; P = 0.005). Higher SES was significantly protective of nondipping in white Hispanics but not black Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS These results document a substantial prevalence of nondipping in a cohort of predominantly normotensive Hispanics. Dipping status varied significantly by race. Lower SES is significantly associated with nondipping status, and race potentially impacts on this relation. PMID:23547037
Dawis, Rene V.; Sung, Yong H.
The Ball Aptitude Battery (BAB) is a multiple ability test battery of specific work skills for use in career counseling. This study reports on ability changes by gender, race, and socioeconomic status in a BAB retest of 112 young adults four years after their initial testing. The sample consisted of 68 females and 44 males; 15 Blacks, 21…
Hauser, Robert M.; Featherman, David L.
This paper focuses on changes in the occupational levels of black and white men in the decade between 1962 and 1973. For each race taken separately, and then for both in comparison, shifts are described in the mean levels and a dispersion of occupational socioeconomic status of men in the experienced civilian labor force. An attempt is made, it is…
The author examined whether mathematics instruction provided by kindergarten teachers is related to children's mathematics learning during the kindergarten year based on the children's socioeconomic status and race. Hierarchical linear modeling was employed using a large sample of kindergarten students to estimate relationships between the…
Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Neena; Bottia, Martha Cecilia
Scholars have not adequately assessed how organizational cultures in schools differentially influence students' mathematics achievement by race and socioeconomic status (SES). We focus on what we term "collective pedagogical teacher culture", highlighting the role of professional communities and teacher collaboration in influencing…
Johnson, Norman J.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Cudkowicz, Merit E.; Weisskopf, Marc G.
Objective: To determine whether race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality in the United States. Methods: The National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), a United States–representative, multistage sample, collected race/ethnicity and socioeconomic data prospectively. Mortality information was obtained by matching NLMS records to the National Death Index (1979–2011). More than 2 million persons (n = 1,145,368 women, n = 1,011,172 men) were included, with 33,024,881 person-years of follow-up (1,299 ALS deaths , response rate 96%). Race/ethnicity was by self-report in 4 categories. Hazard ratios (HRs) for ALS mortality were calculated for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status separately and in mutually adjusted models. Results: Minority vs white race/ethnicity predicted lower ALS mortality in models adjusted for socioeconomic status, type of health insurance, and birthplace (non-Hispanic black, HR 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48–0.78; Hispanic, HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46–0.88; other races, non-Hispanic, HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.31–0.86). Higher educational attainment compared with < high school was in general associated with higher rate of ALS (high school, HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.07–1.42; some college, HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04–1.48; college, HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.90–1.36; postgraduate, HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62). Income, household poverty, and home ownership were not associated with ALS after adjustment for race/ethnicity. Rates did not differ by sex. Conclusion: Higher rate of ALS among whites vs non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic other races was not accounted for by multiple measures of socioeconomic status, birthplace, or type of health insurance. Higher rate of ALS among whites likely reflects actual higher risk of ALS rather than ascertainment bias or effects of socioeconomic status on ALS risk. PMID:27742817
Danner, Fred W.; Toland, Michael D.
This study assessed how socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, and birth weight interacted to predict differential patterns of body mass index (BMI) growth among U.S. children born in the early 1990s. Three BMI growth trajectories emerged--one above the 50th percentile across the age range of 5 to 14, one in which children rapidly became…
Maloney, Nell; Koch, Martha; Erb, Dawn; Schneider, Heather; Goffman, Thomas; Elkins, David; Laronga, Christine
Lower socioeconomic status and lack of access to care are often implicated as plausible causes for African American women to present with later stage breast cancer than Caucasian women. Our objective is to determine if racial differences are present in newly diagnosed breast cancer in women of equivalent socioeconomic status. A retrospective review of prospectively gathered data from women with newly diagnosed breast cancer was performed. All women presented to the indigent (uninsured and below the poverty line) breast clinic for evaluation and treatment of their breast pathology. Data pertaining to epidemiologic factors, diagnosis, pathology, and treatment were collected. The data were analyzed by chi-squared and tailed t-tests. Between March 2002 and May 2004, 52 women (African American=36, Caucasian=16) were diagnosed with breast cancer at our clinic. The median age for both groups at presentation was 56.6 years. The staging assessment based on the pathologic size of the tumor was also equivalent between African American and Caucasian women at 2.29 cm and 2.21 cm, respectively. Metastatic lymph node involvement occurred in 14 women (African American=7, Caucasian=7), with 19.4% African American and 43.8% Caucasian being node positive (p=0.068). In fact, there were no statistically significant differences between the races for menarche, menopause, body mass index (BMI), duration of symptoms before presentation, type of diagnostic biopsy or surgery chosen, histology, receptor status, utilization of chemotherapy and radiation, and length of follow-up. The only statistical differences found were in the age of the first live birth (African American=19, Caucasian=22; p=0.028), the use of ultrasound in initial evaluation of a breast mass (less use in African American; p=0.012), and utilization of sentinel lymph node biopsy (Caucasian=75%, African American=42%; p=0.026). Breast cancer in African American women traditionally presents at a more advanced stage and with poor
Poirier, Katie; Wilkinson, Tiana; Nhean, Siphannay; Nyborn, Justin; Siegel, Michael
Objectives. We investigated the frequency of alcohol ads at all 113 subway and streetcar stations in Boston and the patterns of community exposure stratified by race, socioeconomic status, and age. Methods. We assessed the extent of alcohol advertising at each station in May 2009. We measured gross impressions and gross rating points (GRPs) for the entire Greater Boston population and for Boston public school student commuters. We compared the frequency of alcohol advertising between neighborhoods with differing demographics. Results. For the Greater Boston population, alcohol advertising at subway stations generated 109 GRPs on a typical day. For Boston public school students in grades 5 to 12, alcohol advertising at stations generated 134 GRPs. Advertising at stations in low-poverty neighborhoods generated 14.1 GRPs and at stations in high-poverty areas, 63.6 GRPs. Conclusions. Alcohol ads reach the equivalent of every adult in the Greater Boston region and the equivalent of every 5th- to 12th-grade public school student each day. More alcohol ads were displayed in stations in neighborhoods with high poverty rates than in stations in neighborhoods with low poverty rates. PMID:21852632
Williams, David R.; Mohammed, Selina A.; Leavell, Jacinta; Collins, Chiquita
This paper provides an overview of racial variations in health and shows that differences in socioeconomic status (SES) across racial groups are a major contributor to racial disparities in health. However, race reflects multiple dimensions of social inequality and individual and household indicators of SES capture relevant but limited aspects of this phenomenon. Research is needed that will comprehensively characterize the critical pathogenic features of social environments and identify how they combine with each other to affect health over the life course. Migration history and status are also important predictors of health and research is needed that will enhance understanding of the complex ways in which race, SES, and immigrant status combine to affect health. Fully capturing the role of race in health also requires rigorous examination of the conditions under which medical care and genetic factors can contribute to racial and SES differences in health. The paper identifies research priorities in all of these areas. PMID:20201869
Lawrence, William; Brown, Duane
A multiple regression procedure was used to develop a further understanding of the relationship of self-concept, intelligence, socioeconomic status, race, and sex to career maturity as measured by the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI). Results further indicated that socioeconomic status and self-concept seem to have a differential effect upon career…
Reither, Eric N.
Race/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in obesity are substantial and may widen in the future. We review seven potential mechanisms that recent research has used to explain obesity disparities. Those seven mechanisms fall into three broad groups—health behaviors, biological and developmental factors, and the social environment—which incorporate both proximate and upstream determinants of obesity disparities. Efforts to reduce the prevalence of obesity in the U.S. population and to close race/ethnic and SES disparities in obesity will likely require the use of multifaceted interventions that target multiple mechanisms simultaneously. Unfortunately, relatively few of the mechanisms reviewed herein have been tested in an intervention framework. PMID:26377742
Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael; Clancy, Margaret
Research has linked parents' educational expectations to children's educational attainment, but findings are inconsistent regarding differences in educational expectations by race and ethnicity. In addition, existing studies have focused on school-age children and their parents. In this study, we use a state representative sample to examine…
Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason
Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121
Rogers, Robert; Eagle, Taylor F.; Sheetz, Anne; Woodward, Alan; Leibowitz, Robert; Song, MinKyoung; Sylvester, Rachel; Corriveau, Nicole; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Jiang, Qingmei; Jackson, Elizabeth A.
Abstract Background: Previous studies have shown race/ethnicity, particularly African American and/or Hispanic status, to be a predictor of overweight/obese status in children. However, these studies have failed to adjust for low socioeconomic status (SES). This study assessed whether race/ethnicity remained an independent predictor of childhood obesity when accounting for variations in SES (low-income) among communities in Massachusetts. Methods: This study was based on 2009 summarized data from 68 Massachusetts school districts with 111,799 students in grades 1, 4, 7, and 10. We studied the relationship between the rate of overweight/obese students (mean = 0.32; range = 0.10–0.46), the rate of African American and Hispanic students (mean = 0.17; range = 0.00–0.90), and the rate of low-income students (mean = 0.27; range = 0.02–0.87) in two and three dimensions. The main effect of the race/ethnicity rate, the low-income rate, and their interaction on the overweight and obese rate was investigated by multiple regression modeling. Results: Low-income was highly associated with overweight/obese status (p < 0.0001), whereas the effect of race/ethnicity (p = 0.27) and its interaction (p = 0.23) with low-income were not statistically significant. For every 1% increase in low-income, there was a 1.17% increase in overweight/obese status. This pattern was observed across all African American and Hispanic rates in the communities studied. Conclusions: Overweight/obese status was highly prevalent among Massachusetts students, varying from 10% to 46% across communities. Although there were higher rates of overweight/obese status among African American and Hispanic students, the relationship disappeared when controlling for family income. Our findings suggest low SES plays a more significant role in the nation's childhood obesity epidemic than race/ethnicity. PMID:26562758
Maldonado, Camilo, III
Over the course of 12 months, I conducted an ethnographic study in an urban preschool classroom in the northeastern Unites States. Employing a sociocultural perspective of early childhood development, I investigated the various social and academic discourses related to race and ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) presented in a…
Morris, Robin D.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Wolf, Maryanne; Sevcik, Rose A.; Steinbach, Karen A.; Frijters, Jan C.; Shapiro, Marla B.
Results from a controlled evaluation of remedial reading interventions are reported: 279 young disabled readers were randomly assigned to a program according to a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design (IQ, socioeconomic status [SES], and race). The effectiveness of two multiple-component intervention programs for children with reading disabilities (PHAB +…
Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath
The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…
Saunders, Lee L.; Krause, James S.; Acuna, Joshua
Objective To assess the associations of race and socioeconomic status (SES) with pressure ulcers (PU) after accounting for health care access (HCA) among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Large specialty hospital in the southeastern United States. Participant Persons with traumatic SCI who 1) had residual effects from their injury, 2) were 18 years or older at survey, and 3) were a year or more post-injury at survey (n=2,549). Intervention None. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes were measured by mail-in survey: having a current PU (yes vs. no), having a PU in the past year with or without reduced sitting time (no PU, no reduced sitting time, month or less, 5+ weeks), and having at least 1 PU surgery since SCI onset (yes vs. no). Results Of participants, 39.3% reported a PU in the past year, 19.9% had a current PU, and 21.9% reported having had surgery for a PU since their SCI onset. While race was preliminarily associated with each PU outcome, it became non-significant after controlling for SES and HCA. In each analysis, household income was significantly associated with PU outcomes after controlling for demographic and injury factors and remained significant after accounting for the HCA factors. Persons with lower income had higher odds of each PU outcome. HCA was not consistently related to PU outcomes. Conclusions Even after accounting for HCA, household income, a measure of SES, remained significantly associated with PU outcomes after SCI; however, race became non-significant. PMID:22494948
Copping, Kristine E.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Wood, Dana
Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults’ beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children’s own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults’ race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and sixth-grade Blacks reported roughly egalitarian academic stereotypes. At every grade level, Whites reported academic stereotypes that favored Whites, and sixth and eighth grade Whites reported sports stereotypes that favored Blacks. Results support the tenets of status theory and have implications for identity development and achievement motivation in adolescents. PMID:23729837
... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...
Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Williams, David R.; Love, Gayle D.; McKinley, Paula S.; Sloan, Richard P.; Ryff, Carol D.
Objective The objective of this study was to consider race differences in age-trends of autonomic nervous system functioning, using a national dataset with a broad age range. Methods Measures of baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and HRV reactivity were derived from electrocardiograph (ECG) recordings taken at rest and during cognitive stress tasks. Age-trends in HRV and HRV reactivity were compared among 204 African Americans and 833 Whites ages 34 to 83 years (M=53.7, SD=11.4), before and after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Results For HRV-reactivity, age-trends were steeper among African Americans and lower-SES participants than Whites and higher-SES participants. For baseline HRV, age-trends varied by SES but not race. Discussion Results relating to HRV-reactivity (but not baseline HRV) were consistent with hypotheses suggesting that African Americans are exposed to higher levels of stress and experience accelerated declines in health across the life span. The relevance of the findings to research on social stress and health disparities is discussed. PMID:23781017
... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...
Hashim, Dana; Farhat, Zeinab; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Manczuk, Marta; Holcombe, Randall F; Thorpe, Lorna; Schymura, Maria J; Lucchini, Roberto G; Boffetta, Paolo
We examined the effects of race/ethnicity and neighborhood, a proxy of socioeconomic status, on cancer incidence in New York City neighborhoods: East Harlem (EH), Central Harlem (CH), and Upper East Side (UES). In this ecological study, Community Health Survey data (2002-2006) and New York State Cancer Registry incidence data (2007-2011) were stratified by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood. Logistic regression models were fitted to each cancer incidence rate with race/ethnicity, neighborhood, and Community Health Survey-derived risk factors as predictor variables. Neighborhood was significantly associated with all cancers and 14 out of 25 major cancers. EH and CH residence conferred a higher risk of all cancers compared with UES (OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.68; and OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.12-1.72, respectively). The prevalence of diabetes and tobacco smoking were the largest contributors toward high cancer rates. Despite juxtaposition and similar proximity to medical centers, cancer incidence disparities persist among EH, CH, and UES neighborhoods. Targeted, neighborhood-specific outreach may aid in reducing cancer incidence rates.
Upchurch, Dawn M.; Stein, Judith; Greendale, Gail A.; Chyu, Laura; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Huang, Mei-Hua; Lewis, Tené T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Seeman, Teresa
Objectives This research sought to assess racial and SES differences in level and change in allostatic load (AL) over time in midlife women and to test whether psychosocial factors mediate these relationships. These factors were: discrimination, perceived stress, and hostility. Methods Longitudinal data obtained from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation SWAN were used (n = 2063; mean age at baseline = 46.0). Latent growth curve (LGC) models evaluated the impact of demographic, menopausal, and psychosocial variables on level and change in AL over 8 years. Results Direct effects: High levels of discrimination and hostility significantly predicted higher AL (path coefficients 0.05, 0.05 respectively). High perceived stress significantly predicted a faster rate of increase of AL (path coefficient 0.06). Racial and socioeconomic status (SES) differentials were present, with African American race (path coefficient 0.23), low income (path coefficient −0.15), and low education (path coefficient −0.08) significantly predicted high AL level. Indirect effects: Significant indirect effects were found for African American race, less income, and lower education through higher discrimination, perceived stress, and hostility on level and rate of AL. Conclusion This was one of the first studies that investigated AL over multiple time periods and results supported AL as a cumulative phenomenon, affected by multiple psychosocial and demographic factors. The results suggest the complex ways in which race, SES, and psychosocial factors operate to influence AL. PMID:25886828
Macchi Cassia, Viola; Luo, Lizhu; Pisacane, Antonella; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang
Despite recent advances in research on race and age biases, the question of how race and age experiences combine to affect young children's face perception remains unexplored. To fill this gap, the current study tested two ethnicities of 3-year-old children using a combined cross-race/cross-age design. Caucasian children with and without older siblings and Mainland Chinese children without older siblings were tested for their ability to discriminate adult and child Caucasian faces as well as adult and child Asian faces in both upright and inverted orientations. Children of both ethnicities manifested an own-race bias, which was confined to adult faces, and an adult face bias, which was confined to own-race faces. Likewise, sibling experience affected Caucasian children's processing of own-race child faces, but this effect did not generalize to other-race faces. Results suggest that race and age information are represented at the same hierarchical level in young children's memory.
Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A
The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind.
Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.
Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688
White, Gwyne W; Stepney, Cesalie T; Hatchimonji, Danielle Ryan; Moceri, Dominic C; Linsky, Arielle V; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A; Elias, Maurice J
For students and schools, the current policy is to measure success via standardized testing. Yet the immutable factors of socioeconomic status (SES) and race have, consistently, been implicated in fostering an achievement gap. The current study explores, at the school-level, the impact of these factors on test scores. Percentage of students proficient for Language and Math was analyzed from 452 schools across the state of New Jersey. By high school, 52% of the variance in Language and 59% in Math test scores can be accounted for by SES and racial factors. At this level, a 1% increase in school minority population corresponds to a 0.19 decrease in percent Language proficient and 0.33 decrease for Math. These results have significant implications as they suggest that school-level interventions to improve academic achievement scores will be stymied by socioeconomic and racial factors and efforts to improve the achievement gap via testing have largely measured it.
Quinn, David M.; Cooc, North; McIntyre, Joe; Gomez, Celia J.
Early studies examining seasonal variation in academic achievement inequality generally concluded that socioeconomic test score gaps grew more over the summer than the school year, suggesting schools served as "equalizers." In this study, we analyze seasonal trends in socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic test score gaps using…
Featherman, David L.; Hauser, Robert M.
Comparison of black and white men in the experienced civilian labor force between 1972 and 1973 shows that race and class have become less important in the occupational hierarchy. Statistical tables are included. (ND)
Nearly fifty years ago, the American Academy organized a conference and two issues of its journal "Daedalus" on the topic of "The Negro American." The project engaged top intellectuals and policy-makers around the conflicts and limitations of mid-1960s liberalism in dealing with race. Specifically, they grappled with the persistent question of how to integrate a forced-worker population that had been needed but that was socially undesirable once its original purpose no longer existed. Today, racism has been discredited as an idea and legally sanctioned segregation belongs to the past, yet the question the conference participants explored -- in essence, how to make the unwanted wanted -- still remains. Recent political developments and anticipated demographic shifts, however, have recast the terms of the debate. Gerald Early, guest editor for the present volume, uses Barack Obama's election to the presidency as a pretext for returning to the central question of "The Negro American" project and, in turn, asking how white liberalism will fare in the context of a growing minority population in the United States. Placing his observations alongside those made by John Hope Franklin in 1965, Early positions his essay, and this issue overall, as a meditation on how far we have come in America to reach "the age of Obama" and at the same time how far we have to go before we can overcome "the two worlds of race."
Knight, P K; Thomson, P C
OBJECTIVE Compare the career profiles of a cohort of Standardbred horses that first raced as 2-year-olds with those that started their racing careers at a later age. METHOD Retrospective analysis of the racing records of all foals born in New South Wales in the 2000 foaling season. RESULTS The career records of 999 horses were analysed. Almost half (43.9%) first raced as 2-year-olds and one-third (33.9%) as 3-year-olds. The median career duration for horses that first raced as 2-year-olds was 2.93 years (interquartile range (IQR) 2.70-3.16), which was significantly greater than the median for horses that first raced at 3, 4 or ≥5 years old (P < 0.001). Males, and horses that first raced as 2-year-olds, earned significantly more prize money than females or horses that started racing aged ≥3 years (P < 0.001). The population median number of career starts was 28.0 (IQR 8-64). Males, and horses that first raced as 2-year-olds, had significantly more career starts than females or horses that started racing aged ≥3 years (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION This study found no evidence suggesting that racing as a 2-year-old had a deleterious effect on a horse's racing career.
Pearson, Jay A.
Objectives. We explored whether a White ethnic group with a history of structural disadvantage, Jewish Americans, shows evidence of continuing health impact independent of socioeconomic position (SEP), whether coethnic social ties appear health protective, and whether the strength of any protection varies by SEP. Methods. In a series of ordered logistic regressions, we analyzed data from the National Jewish Population Survey, 2000–2001, regressing self-rated health on race/ethnicity, education, and income for US Blacks, Jews, and other Whites and, for Jews alone, indicators of coethnic social ties. Results. controlling for SEP indicators, the self-rated health of Jews converged with that of Blacks and was significantly worse than that of other Whites. Access to coethnic social ties was associated with better self-rated health among Jews, with the strongest estimated association among those of lower SEP. Conclusions. The finding that a White ethnic group with a favorable socioeconomic profile reported significantly worse health than did other Whites, after controlling for SEP, calls for better understanding of the complex interplay of cultural, psychosocial, and socioeconomic resources in shaping population health. PMID:21164093
Castellaro, Mariano A.; Roselli, Néstor D.
From a socio-constructivist approach, this work aimed to analyze the characteristics of peer collaboration in dyads of children according to age (4, 8, and 12 years old), socioeconomic context (advantaged socioeconomic context and disadvantaged socioeconomic context), and task (block construction task and free drawing). Eighty-two children (41…
Krueger, Patrick M.; Rohlfsen, Leah
Objectives. We examine race/ethnic and nativity differences in objective measures of physical performance (i.e., peak expiratory flow, grip strength, and gait speed) in a nationally representative sample of older Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics. We also examine whether detailed measures of childhood and adult health and socioeconomic status (SES) mediate race/ethnic differences in physical performance. Method. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study, a population-based sample of older Americans born before 1947, and 3 measures of physical performance. Nested ordinary least squares models examine whether childhood and adult health and SES mediate race/ethnic differences in performance. Results. We find large and significant race/ethnic and nativity differences in lung function, grip strength, and gait speed. Adjusting for childhood and current adult health and SES reduces race/ethnic differences in physical performance but does not eliminate them entirely. Childhood health and SES as well as more proximal levels of SES are important determinants of race/ethnic disparities in later life physical performance. Discussion. The analysis highlights that a large proportion of race/ethnic and nativity disparities result from health and socioeconomic disadvantages in both early life and adulthood and thus suggests multiple intervention points at which disparities can be reduced. PMID:22391749
Olmos, R D; Figueiredo, R C de; Aquino, E M; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M
Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.
Wickrama, K. A. S.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker
Previous research has mainly focused on the persistent direct influence of early life contexts on young adult socioeconomic attainment, and less is known about intraindividual processes that are responsible for this persistent influence. The present study, using genetically informed longitudinal, prospective data from a nationally representative…
Ritter, Zachary S.
International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…
Pickens, Tyra W.
The purpose of the current study was to examine features of adolescent reading comprehension trajectories and make within-person and between-person analyses of growth that occurs during the high school grades. Racial and socioeconomic group differences of the adolescent reading trajectories were also investigated and compared. This examination…
Heflin, Colleen M.; Pattillo, Mary
This study used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (comprised of three subsamples taken in 1979) to characterize the siblings of middle class and poor Blacks and Whites, testing for racial differences in the probability of having a sibling on the other side of the socioeconomic divide. In support of theories in the urban poverty…
Collett, DeShana Ann
Health disparities in minorities and those of low socioeconomic status persist despite efforts to eliminate potential causes. Differences in the delivery of services can result in different healthcare outcomes and therefore, a health disparity. Some of this difference in care may attribute to discrimination resulting from clinical biases and…
Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.
This study analyzes longitudinal National Center for Education Statistics data, including individualized high school records, college entrance exams, and socioeconomic background. It looks at how admissions officers currently make decisions and trends in admissions decisions between 1979-2000. Reports findings of an Educational Testing Service…
Lever, Michael F.; Kuvlesky, William P.
The purpose of this study was to examine selected occupational status projections and the relationship between these projections and socioeconomic status (SES). Occupational status projections referred to predictive statements about the future lifetime job of the respondents. The occupational status projections included in the analysis were: (1)…
Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J
Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance.
Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David
Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)
This study compared immigrant and nonimmigrant educational achievement (i.e., the immigrant gap) in math by reexamining the explanatory power of race and socioeconomic status (SES)--two variables, perhaps, most commonly considered in educational research. Four research questions were explored through growth curve modeling, factor analysis, and…
Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas
The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student's t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1-S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5-S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1-S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5-S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race.
Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin
A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations.
Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G
For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.
Eronen, Johanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Rantakokko, Merja; Portegijs, Erja; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina
Life-space mobility describes the extent of community mobility of older persons. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and life-space mobility and to investigate whether associations might be explained by SES-related disparities in health and functioning. The participants (n = 848) were community-dwelling adults aged 75-90. Education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Life-space assessment (range 0-120) was used to indicate distance and frequency of moving and assistance needed in moving. People with low education had lower life-space mobility scores than those with intermediate or high education: marginal means 63.5, 64.8, and 70.0 (p = .003), respectively. SES-related health disparities, i.e., higher body mass index, poorer cognitive capacity, and poorer physical performance explained the association, rendering it nonsignificant (marginal means 65.2, 65.3, and 67.5, p = .390). Low SES and restricted life-space mobility often coexist with overweight, reduced cognition, and poorer physical performance.
Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen
In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…
Based on assumptions about fertility, mortality, and net immigration trends, statistical tables depict the future U.S. population by age, sex, and race. Figures are based on the July 1, 1982, population estimates and race definitions and are projected using the cohort-component method with alternative assumptions for future fertility, mortality,…
ABSTRACT The running performance of Thoroughbred racehorses has been reported to peak when they are between 4 and 5 years old. However, changes in their racing speed by month or season have not been reported. The purposes of this study were to reveal the average racing speed of Thoroughbreds, and observe changes in their average speed with age. The surveyed races were flat races on turf and dirt tracks with firm or standard track conditions held by the Japan Racing Association from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2010. The racing speed of each horse was calculated by dividing the race distance (m) by the horse’s final time (sec). Average speeds per month for each age and distance condition were calculated for each gender group when there were 30 or more starters per month for each age and distance condition for each gender group. The common characteristic change for all conditions was an average speed increase up until the first half of the age of 4 years old. The effect of increased carry weight on average speed was small, and average speed increased with the growth of the horse. After the latter half of the age of 4 years old, the horses’ average speed remained almost constant, with little variation. It is speculated that decreases in the weight carried; and the retirement of less well performing horses; are responsible for the maintenance of average speed. PMID:26170760
The running performance of Thoroughbred racehorses has been reported to peak when they are between 4 and 5 years old. However, changes in their racing speed by month or season have not been reported. The purposes of this study were to reveal the average racing speed of Thoroughbreds, and observe changes in their average speed with age. The surveyed races were flat races on turf and dirt tracks with firm or standard track conditions held by the Japan Racing Association from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2010. The racing speed of each horse was calculated by dividing the race distance (m) by the horse's final time (sec). Average speeds per month for each age and distance condition were calculated for each gender group when there were 30 or more starters per month for each age and distance condition for each gender group. The common characteristic change for all conditions was an average speed increase up until the first half of the age of 4 years old. The effect of increased carry weight on average speed was small, and average speed increased with the growth of the horse. After the latter half of the age of 4 years old, the horses' average speed remained almost constant, with little variation. It is speculated that decreases in the weight carried; and the retirement of less well performing horses; are responsible for the maintenance of average speed.
Dotson, Vonetta M; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B
Previous research has shown that reading ability is a stronger predictor of cognitive functioning than years of education, particularly for African Americans. The current study was designed to determine whether the relative influence of literacy and education on cognitive abilities varies as a function of race or socioeconomic status (SES). We examined the unique influence of education and reading scores on a range of cognitive tests in low- and higher-SES African Americans and Whites. Literacy significantly predicted scores on all but one cognitive measure in both African American groups and low-SES Whites, while education was not significantly associated with any cognitive measure. In contrast, both education and reading scores predicted performance on many cognitive measures in higher-SES Whites. These findings provide further evidence that reading ability better predicts cognitive functioning than years of education and suggest that disadvantages associated with racial minority status and low SES affect the relative influence of literacy and years of education on cognition.
Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A
An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns.
Huisman, Martijn; Read, Sanna; Towriss, Catriona A; Deeg, Dorly J H; Grundy, Emily
Socioeconomic adversity is among the foremost fundamental causes of human suffering, and this is no less true in old age. Recent reports on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rate in old age suggest that a low socioeconomic position continues to increase the risk of death even among the oldest old. We aimed to examine the evidence for socioeconomic mortality rate inequalities in old age, including information about associations with various indicators of socioeconomic position and for various geographic locations within the World Health Organization Region for Europe. The articles included in this review leave no doubt that inequalities in mortality rate by socioeconomic position persist into the oldest ages for both men and women in all countries for which information is available, although the relative risk measures observed were rarely higher than 2.00. Still, the available evidence base is heavily biased geographically, inasmuch as it is based largely on national studies from Nordic and Western European countries and local studies from urban areas in Southern Europe. This bias will hamper the design of European-wide policies to reduce inequalities in mortality rate. We call for a continuous update of the empiric evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rate.
Lee, Dohoon; Jackson, Margot
A large literature demonstrates the direct and indirect influence of health on socioeconomic attainment, and reveals the ways in which health and socioeconomic background simultaneously and dynamically affect opportunities for attainment and mobility. Despite an increasing understanding of the effects of health on social processes, research to date remains limited in its conceptualization and measurement of the temporal dimensions of health, especially in the presence of socioeconomic circumstances that covary with health over time. Guided by life course theory, we use data from the British National Child Development Study, an ongoing panel study of a cohort born in 1958, to examine the association between lifetime health trajectories and socioeconomic attainment in middle age. We apply finite mixture modeling to identify distinct trajectories of health that simultaneously account for timing, duration and stability. Moreover, we employ propensity score weighting models to account for the presence of time-varying socioeconomic factors in estimating the impact of health trajectories. We find that, when poor health is limited to the childhood years, the disadvantage in socioeconomic attainment relative to being continuously healthy is either insignificant or largely explained by time-varying socioeconomic confounders. The socioeconomic impact of continuously deteriorating health over the life course is more persistent, however. Our results suggest that accounting for the timing, duration and stability of poor health throughout both childhood and adulthood is important for understanding how health works to produce social stratification. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between confounding and mediating effects of time-varying socioeconomic circumstances.
Bachman, Jerald G; Staff, Jeremy; O'Malley, Patrick M; Freedman-Doan, Peter
High school students who spend long hours in paid employment during the school year are at increased risk of lower grades and higher substance use, although questions remain about whether these linkages reflect causation or prior differences (selection effects). Questions also remain about whether such associations vary by socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. This study examines those questions using nationally representative data from two decades (1991-2010) of annual Monitoring the Future surveys involving about 600,000 students in 10th and 12th grades. White students are consistently more likely than minority students to hold paid employment during the school year. Among White and Asian American students, paid work intensity is negatively related to parental education and grade point averages (GPA) and is positively related to substance use. Also among Whites and Asian Americans, students with the most highly educated parents show the strongest negative relations between work intensity and GPA, whereas the links are weaker for those with less educated parents (i.e., lower SES levels). All of these relations are less evident for Hispanic students and still less evident for African American students. It thus appears that any costs possibly attributable to long hours of student work are most severe for those who are most advantaged--White or Asian American students with highly educated parents. Working long hours is linked with fewer disadvantages among Hispanic students and especially among African American students. Youth employment dropped in 2008-2010, but the relations described above have shown little change over two decades.
López Contreras, M; Tovar Escobar, G; Farid Coupal, N; Landaeta Jiménez, M; Méndez Castellano, H
This is a retrospective study based on growth and development data published in Venezuela by various authors in the period 1936-1978. The data on height for males of the middle and high socioeconomic strata show growth curves which are very similar to the standards for British children. Likewise, the girls of the same socioeconomic condition follow the British standards, but only up to about 10-12 years of age. After that age, the girls studied by the Venezuelan authors, show a pattern of early maturation with a corresponding lower adult height compared with their British counterparts. There were differences in the growth curves according to the socioeconomic strata. These differences were more marked in the girls data. A secular increase for height was discerned, from the published data, in all socioeconomic strata and in both sexes. The data on sexual maturation showed a tendency for progressively early menarche in Venezuelan girls. These changes in growth in height and age of menarche were more notorious and came about at an earlier age in the upper socioeconomic strata. They were less marked, not constant, and came about later in the lower socioeconomic groups. The secular changes in height and sexual maturation apparent from these data, could be explained by an improvement in the environmental conditions, especially nutrition and hygiene of the population, and also be genetic heterosis from European immigration and with improvement in communications.
McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.
Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.
The purpose of our study was to determine differences in autism severity and symptoms as a function of IQ, age, SES, gender, and race while simultaneously controlling these variables in 777 children with autism using a comprehensive measure evaluating 30 core and associated symptoms of autism. The children were 1-17 years of age with IQs from 9 to…
Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina
This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…
Shaw, Bronwen E.; Logan, Brent R.; Kiefer, Deidre M.; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Pedersen, Tanya L.; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Abidi, Muneer H.; Akpek, Gorgun; Diaz, Miguel A.; Artz, Andrew S.; Dandoy, Christopher; Gajewski, James L.; Hematti, Peiman; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Kasow, Kimberley A.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Liesveld, Jane L.; Majhail, Navneet S.; O’Donnell, Paul V.; Olsson, Richard F.; Savani, Bipin N.; Schears, Raquel M.; Stroncek, David F.; Switzer, Galen E.; Williams, Eric P.; Wingard, John R.; Wirk, Baldeep M.; Confer, Dennis L.; Pulsipher, Michael A.
Previous studies have shown that risks of collection-related pain and symptoms are associated with sex, body mass index (BMI), and age in unrelated donors undergoing collection at National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) centers. We hypothesized that other important factors (race, socioeconomic status (SES), and number of procedures at the collection center) might affect symptoms in donors. We assessed outcomes in 2,726 bone marrow (BM) and 6,768 peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donors collected between 2004 and 2009. Pain/symptoms are reported as maximum levels over mobilization and collection (PBSC) or within 2 days of collection (BM) and at 1 week after collection. For PBSC donors, race and center volumes were not associated with differences in pain/symptoms at any time. PBSC donors with high SES levels reported higher maximum symptom levels 1 week post donation (p=0.017). For BM donors, black males reported significantly higher levels of pain (OR=1.90, CI=1.14-3.19, p=0.015). No differences were noted by SES groups. BM donors from low volume centers reported more toxicity (OR=2.09, CI=1.26-3.46, p=0.006). In conclusion, race and SES have a minimal effect on donation associated symptoms. However, donors from centers performing ≤1 BM collection every 2 months have more symptoms following BM donation. Approaches should be developed by registries and low volume centers to address this issue. PMID:26116089
Inglehart, Marita R.; Patel, Manan H.; Widmalm, Sven-Erik; Briskie, Daniel M.
Background The objectives were to determine the percentage of children in Kindergarten through Grade 5 who reported TMD symptoms, to assess whether gender, race, and socioeconomic background mattered, and to explore the relationships between TMD and children’s oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 8,302 children in Kindergarten through Grade 5 (51% female/49% male; 53% African American/42% European American). Oral health screenings were conducted with 7,439 children. Results 23.6% of the children reported pain when chewing tough food and 18.8% when opening their mouth wide; 23.2% reported to hear a sound (clicking) when opening their mouth wide. Female students were more likely than male students and African American children were more likely than European American children to report TMD symptoms. The prevalence of TMD symptoms was not correlated with whether the children had a need for oral health care services, or whether they had an abscess or carious teeth with pulpal involvement. They were significantly associated with children’s OHRQoL. Conclusions Considerable percentages of 4–12 year old children reported TMD symptoms, with girls and African American children being more likely than their counterparts to be affected. Experiencing TMD symptoms is significantly associated with poorer OHRQoL. Practical Implications Dental practitioners need to be aware that substantial percentages of Kindergarten and elementary school age children experience TMD symptoms. Taking a dental history and conducting an oral exam should therefore include assessments of the signs and symptoms of TMD; treatment recommendations should be provided for affected children. PMID:26809694
Atkins, Janice L; Ramsay, Sheena E; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya
Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on daily fruit and vegetable consumption and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), with higher scores indicating better diet quality. Adult and childhood socio-economic measures included occupation/father's occupation, education and household amenities, which combined to create composite scores. Social relationships included social contact, living arrangements and marital status. Both childhood and adult socio-economic factors were independently associated with diet quality. Compared with non-manual social class, men of childhood manual social class were less likely to consume fruit and vegetables daily (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66, 0.97), as were men of adult manual social class (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79), and less likely to be in the top EDI quartile (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61, 0.88), similar to men of adult manual social class (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.79). Diet quality decreased with increasing adverse adult socio-economic scores; however, the association with adverse childhood socio-economic scores diminished with adult social class adjustment. A combined adverse childhood and adulthood socio-economic score was associated with poor diet quality. Diet quality was most favourable in married men and those not living alone, but was not associated with social contact. Diet quality in older men is influenced by childhood and adulthood socio-economic factors, marital status and living arrangements.
Barut, Mert Ulaş; Agacayak, Elif; Bozkurt, Murat; Aksu, Tarık; Gul, Talip
Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential association between socioeconomic status and ovarian reserve, anti-Mullerian hormone level, antral follicle count, and follicle stimulating hormone level in women of reproductive age. Material/Methods A total of 101 married women between 20–35 years of age who presented to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Research System In Vitro Fertilization (HRS IVF) Center between October 2014 and November 2015 and met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. The participants were divided into three socioeconomic groups using Kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic status scale. Thirty-one participants were assigned to the low socioeconomic status group, 37 to the middle socioeconomic status group, and 33 to the high socioeconomic status group. On days 3–6 of the menstrual cycle, 10 mL of blood was collected from the participants for follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone measurements. Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed for both ovaries for the purpose of counting antral follicles measuring 2–10 mm in diameter. Results Both ovarian reserve parameters, namely anti-Mullerian hormone level and antral follicle count, exhibited a significant association with socioeconomic status (p=0.000 and p=0.000, respectively). The association between follicle stimulating hormone level and socioeconomic status was also significant (p=0.000). Conclusions A low socioeconomic status aggravated by sources of stress such as undernutrition and financial hardships affects ovarian reserve, which should be remembered in approaching infertile patients. PMID:27847382
Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian
The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski
There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…
Shaw, Benjamin A.; Liang, Jersey; Krause, Neal
The purpose of this research was to assess age- and race-based variation in within-persons changes in self-esteem over a 16-year period. We used hierarchical linear modeling with data from 3,617 adults aged 25 and older who were interviewed up to four times. Self-esteem increased, on average, over the course of the study period. At the same time, significant age variations around this trend were observed, with younger adults experiencing increases in self-esteem and older adults experiencing decreases. In general, race differences were not evident with respect to average levels or rates of change in self-esteem. However, a significant age by race interaction suggested that late life declines in self-esteem were steeper for blacks compared to whites. These findings suggest the presence of age- and race-based stratification with respect to self-esteem. Future work in this area should examine the health and well-being effects of declining self-esteem during old age. PMID:20230130
Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D
Recent research on the post-1980 widening of U.S. socioeconomic inequalities in mortality has emphasized the contribution of smoking and high-tech medicine, with some studies treating the growing inequalities as effectively inevitable. No studies, however, have analyzed long-term trends in U.S. mortality rates and inequities unrelated to smoking or due to lack of basic medical care, even as a handful have shown that U.S. socioeconomic inequalities in overall mortality shrank between the mid-1960s and 1980. The authors accordingly analyzed U.S. mortality data for 1960-2006, stratified by county income quintile and race/ethnicity, for mortality unrelated to smoking and preventable by 1960s' standards of medical care. Key findings are that relative and absolute socioeconomic inequalities in U.S. mortality unrelated to smoking and preventable by 1960s' medical care standards shrank between the 1960s and 1980 and then increased and stagnated, with absolute rates on a par with several leading causes of death, and with the burden greatest for U.S. populations of color. None of these findings can be attributed to trends in smoking-related deaths and access to high-tech medicine, and they also demonstrate that socioeconomic inequities in mortality can shrink and need not inevitably rise.
Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase on the pulmonary response to ozone exposure. Three hundred seventy-two healthy white and black young adults, between the ages of 18 and 35 y, were exposed only once to 0.0, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm ozone for 2.3 h. Prior to and after exposure, pulmonary function tests were obtained. Prior to exposure, each subject completed a personal and family-history questionnaire. The response to this questionnaire were used to investigate age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase effects on pulmonary responsiveness to ozone. We concluded that the ages of subjects, within the age range studied, had an effect on responsiveness (i.e., decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased as the subjects` ages decreased). Socioeconomic status, as reflected by education of fathers, also appeared to affect forced expiratory volume in 1-s responsiveness to ozone, with the middle socioeconomic group being the most responsive. The phase of menstrual cycle did not have an impact on individual responsiveness to ozone. 14 refs., 4 figs.
Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Markides, Kyriakos S
To explore the association between socioeconomic factors and acculturation with cancer screening methods, we analyzed data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly, on 1,272 women aged 75 and older residing in the United States in 2004-2005. We found that lower Pap smear or mammography uses were associated with older age, lower education, and having public health insurance compared with private. Other factors associated with mammography use were depressive symptoms, cognition, and functional limitations. In sum, socioeconomic factors and health insurance coverage, but not acculturation, determine cancer screening utilization in very old Mexican American women.
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of...
Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.
Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.
Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…
Lockhart-Gilroy, Annie A.
Those who are oppressed often find themselves internalizing voices that limit their ability. This article focuses on a population that falls on the non-hegemonic side of the intersection of race, class, gender, and age: Black girls from poor and working-class backgrounds. From my work with youth, I have noticed that internalizing these limiting…
Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper
This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…
Shaw, Linda R.; Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T.
A possible interaction among the characteristics of disability, race, gender, and age was examined with respect to formal allegations of disability harassment. Using data from the National Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project, the authors examined whether there was an interaction…
Haas, Jennifer S.; Hill, Deirdre A.; Wellman, Robert D; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Lee, Christoph I.; Wernli, Karen J.; Stout, Natasha K.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Henderson, Louise M.; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Onega, Tracy
Background Uptake of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coupled with breast cancer risk assessment offers the opportunity to tailor the benefits and harms of screening strategies for women with differing cancer risks. Despite the potential benefits, there is also concern for worsening population-based health disparities. Methods Among 316,172 women aged 35-69 years from five Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries (2007-2012), we examined 617,723 negative screening mammograms and 1,047 screening MRIs. We examined the relative risks (RRs) of MRI use by women with <20% lifetime breast cancer risk and RR in the absence of MRI use by women with ≥20% lifetime risk. Results Among women with <20% lifetime risk, non-Hispanic white women were 62% more likely than non-white women to receive a MRI (95% confidence interval 1.32-1.98). Of these women, those with some college or technical school were 43% more likely and those who had at least a college degree were 132% more likely to receive an MRI compared to those with a high school education or less. Among women with ≥20% lifetime risk, there was no statistically significant difference in use of screening MRI by race or ethnicity, but high-risk women with a high school education or less were less likely to receive screening MRI than women who had graduated from college (RR 0.40; 95% CI 0.25-0.63). Conclusions Uptake of screening breast MRI into clinical practice has the potential to worsen population-based health disparities. Policies, beyond health insurance coverage, should ensure that use of this screening modality reflects evidence-based guidelines. PMID:26709819
Nonnemaker, James M.; Allen, Jane A.; Davis, Kevin C.; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C.; Farrelly, Matthew C.
Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State’s antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with
Background This study investigated the role of key individual- and community-level determinants to explore persisting racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer stage at diagnosis in California during 1990 and 2000. Methods We examined socio-demographic determinants and changes in breast cancer stage at diagnosis in California during 1990 and 2000. In situ, local, regional, and distant diagnoses were examined by individual (age, race/ethnicity, and marital status) and community (income and education by zip code) characteristics. Community variables were constructed using the California Cancer Registry 1990-2000 and the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census. Results From 1990 to 2000, there was an overall increase in the percent of in situ diagnoses and a significant decrease in regional and distant diagnoses. Among white and Asian/Pacific Islander women, a significant percent increase was observed for in situ diagnoses, and significant decreases in regional and distant diagnoses. Black women had a significant decrease in distant -stage diagnoses, and Hispanic women showed no significant changes in any diagnosis during this time period. The percent increase of in situ cases diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 was observed even among zip codes with low income and education levels. We also found a significant percent decrease in distant cases for the quartiles with the most poverty and least education. Conclusions Hispanic women showed the least improvement in breast cancer stage at diagnosis from 1990 to 2000. Breast cancer screening and education programs that target under-served communities, such as the rapidly growing Hispanic population, are needed in California. PMID:24209733
Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C
Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor
Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel
Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701
Lai, Wen-Feng; Chen, Yen-Yu
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age and family socioeconomic status (SES) on the evaluative language performance of Mandarin-Chinese-speaking young children and their mothers. The participants were 65 mother-child dyads recruited in Taiwan. Thirty-four of these dyads were from middle-class families and 31 were from…
Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather
Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…
Szwed, Anita; John, Aleksandra; Czapla, Zbigniew; Kosińska, Magdalena
The aim of the study is to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors on age at menarche in Polish girls. Questionnaire data of 2016 girls were collected during the cross-sectional research. Within the socioeconomic variables parents' education, urbanization, number of children in the family and date of menarche were considered. To examine the effects of the analyzed socioeconomic factors on age at menarche, the analysis of variance and the Kaplan-Meier method were used. To estimate the mutual relations between the analyzed variables, the method of classification and regression trees (CART) was applied. The socioeconomic factors significantly affect age at menarche. The latest crossed threshold of puberty is observed in girls whose parents inhabit rural areas. Family size also affects age at menarche: girls from large families are the latest who have crossed the pubertal threshold. The method of classification and regression trees indicates that the most important predictive factor is the number of children in the family. The obtained results confirmed the complex effect of the analyzed variables. A factor that conditions occurrence of menarche most of all is the number of children in the family and then the urbanization degree of mother's place of residence. Further research is clearly required--especially research including analyses of mutual relations between variables and their complex effect.
Lin, Fu-Gong; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Tung, Ho-Jui
Depression is an important health problem in children and the onset of depression is occurring at a younger age than previously suggested. The associations of being overweight and low socioeconomic status in childhood depression have been well documented; nevertheless few studies have addressed the combined effects of socioeconomic status and body weight, with depression in school-age children. We intended to examine if the relationship between socioeconomic status and childhood depression could be modified by abnormal body weight. A cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 559 subjects from 29 elementary schools in Taiwan. A depression scale was used to determine the depression status. Children receiving governmental monetary assistance for after-school class were categorized as being in the lower socioeconomic group. Data for depression-related demographic characteristics, family and school variables were collected. Children in the lower socioeconomic status group have a higher prevalence of depression (23.5%) than those in higher socioeconomic status groups(16.4%). Being overweight demonstrates the opposite effect on depression risk in the different socioeconomic groups. In lower socioeconomic families, the risk of depression in overweight children is three times higher than that for normal weight children; whereas in higher socioeconomic families, overweight children have a lower risk for depression than normal weight children. We concluded that a qualitative interactive effect existed between being overweight and socioeconomic status with childhood depression. More attention should be paid to overweight children from lower socioeconomic status families to prevent depression in school-age children.
Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B
While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people.
Do socioeconomic differences in health status increase as people age, reflecting cumulative advantage or disadvantage in health trajectories? Life course research hypothesises that cumulative advantage/disadvantage (CAD) is an important underlying social process that shape inequalities as people age. The objective of this study is to examine whether health trajectories are diverging as people age across socioeconomic positions (education, employment status and income). In a random sample of 3,665 respondents living in Switzerland (Swiss Household Panel 2004-2011), trajectories of self-rated health, body mass index, depression and medicated functioning were examined with multilevel regression models. The results showed that employment status and income were associated with diverging health trajectories among men; however, only a few associations supported the CAD hypothesis. Education was rarely associated with diverging health trajectories. In conclusion, little evidence was found to support the CAD model.
Bugislaus, A-E; Roehe, R; Willms, F; Kalm, E
In a genetic analysis of German trotters, the performance trait racing time per km was analysed by using a random regression model on six different age classes (2-, 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-year-old and older trotters; the age class of 3-year-old trotters was additionally divided by birth months of horses into two seasons). The best-fitting random regression model for the trait racing time per km on six age classes included as fixed effects sex, race track, condition of race track (fitted as second-order polynomial on age), distance of race and each driver (fitted as first-order polynomial on age) as well as the year-season (fitted independent of age). The random additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were fitted as second-order polynomials on age. Data consisted of 138,620 performance observations from 2,373 trotters and the pedigree data contained 9,952 horses from a four-generation pedigree. Heritabilities for racing time per km increased from 0.01 to 0.18 at age classes from 2- to 4-year-old trotters, then slightly decreased for 5 year and substantially decreased for 6-year-old horses. Genetic correlations of racing time per km among the six age classes were very high (rg = 0.82-0.99). Heritability was h2 = 0.13 when using a repeatability animal model for racing time per km considering the six age classes as fixed effect. Breeding values using repeatability analysis over all and within age classes resulted in slightly different ranking of trotters than those using random regression analysis. When using random regression analysis almost no reranking of trotters over time took place. Generally, the analyses showed that using a random regression model improved the accuracy of selection of trotters over age classes.
Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.
Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923
Ma, Sheng-Xing; Lee, Paul C.; Jiang, Isabelle; Ma, Eva; Hu, Jay S.; Li, Xi-Yan
This study examined the influence of age, gender and race on nitric oxide (NO) release over acupuncture points, meridian without acupoint, and non-meridian regions of the Pericardium (PC) and Bladder (BL) meridian as well as aging on LU meridian in 61 healthy subjects. Biocapture tubes were attached to the skin surface, and total nitrite and nitrate was biocaptured and quantified using chemiluminescence. In elder ages compared to adults, NO levels over the ventral forearm were significantly decreased over LU on radial regions but not altered over PC on medial regions. Conversely, NO content was elevated over BL regions only in overweight/obesity of elder ages. NO levels over PC regions were marginally elevated in overweight/obese males compared to females but did not alter between races. These results suggest a selective reduction of NO release over LU meridian with aging, which is consistent with a progressive decline in lung function and increase in chronic respiratory disease in elder ages. Increased NO levels along the BL meridian in older obese subjects may reflect a modified NO level along somatic-bladder pathway for counteracting bladder dysfunctions with aging. Both of them support somatic-organ connections in the meridian system associated with potential pathophysiological changes with aging. PMID:26621821
Bachman, Jerald G.; Staff, Jeremy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter
High school students who spend long hours in paid employment during the school year are at increased risk of lower grades and higher substance use, although questions remain about whether these linkages reflect causation or prior differences (selection effects). Questions also remain about whether such associations vary by socioeconomic status…
Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie
Age-related changes in children’s associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5–6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10–11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African–American (n = 93), European–American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian–American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African–American and European–American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children’s associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African–American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European–American targets. Finally, children associated African–American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European–American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants’ own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children’s associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981
McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G.
Background We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. Results We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Conclusions Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status. PMID:27132985
Rhodes, Lindsay A.; Huisingh, Carrie; Johnstone, John; Fazio, Massimo; Smith, Brandon; Clark, Mark; Downs, J. Crawford; Owsley, Cynthia; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Girkin, Christopher
Purpose. To determine if laminar depth (LD) and prelaminar tissue volume (PTV) are associated with age and race in healthy human eyes. Methods. Optic nerve head images from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of 166 normal eyes from 84 subjects of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) were manually delineated to identify the principal surfaces: internal limiting membrane, Bruch's membrane (BM), anterior sclera (AS), and anterior surface of the lamina cribrosa. These four surfaces defined the LD and PTV using Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and AS for reference structures. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate whether the effect of age on each outcome was differential by race. Results. When age was analyzed as a continuous variable, the interaction term between age and race was statistically significant for mean LDBMO (P = 0.015) and mean LDAS (P = 0.0062) after adjusting for axial length and BMO area. For every 1-year increase in age, the LDAS was greater on average by 1.78 μm in AD subjects and less by 1.71 μm in ED subjects. Mean PTV was lower in the older subjects (1248 × 106 μm3 AD, 881 × 106 μm3 ED) compared to the younger subjects (1316 × 106 μm3 AD, 1102 × 106 μm3 ED) in both groups. Conclusions. With increasing age, the LD changes differently across racial groups in normal subjects. The LD in ED subjects showed a significantly decreasing slope suggesting that the lamina moves anteriorly with age in this group. PMID:25414182
Gomez, Scarlett L; Satariano, William; Le, Gem M; Weeks, Patricia; McClure, Laura; West, Dee W
Hospital data on race, ethnicity, birthplace, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important for identifying health disparities; however, little is known about the consistency across and within hospitals in the collection of these data. This study examined hospital practices and policies for the collection of these data and the variability across hospital staff and hospital characteristics. Surveys were mailed to selected hospital staff in all 59 hospitals in the San Francisco Bay Area, and completed questionnaires were received from 141 (of 367) staff from 41 hospitals. While most hospitals collect race/ethnicity (83% always collect) and birthplace (60% always or sometimes collect), few hospitals collect patient information on education (75% never collect) and income (55% never collect). There is vast variability in reported practices and policies across staff within hospitals, and variability across hospitals with regards to certain hospital characteristics. Nationally standardized policies, including standards for where, what, and when these data should be collected, are necessary for accurate and uniform data collection, and for effectively addressing health disparities.
Lebrun, Lydie A; Shi, Leiyu
We conducted cross-country comparisons of Canada and the U.S., and assessed the extent to which access to care varies by nativity status overall, as well as in conjunction with race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Data came from the Joint Canada-U.S. Survey of Health (n=6,620 non-elderly adults). Access measures included having a regular medical doctor, consultation with a health professional in the past year, dentist visit in the past year, Pap test in the past three years, and any unmet health care needs in the past year. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the relative odds of access to care, adjusting for potential confounders. Disparities in access to care based on nativity status overall, as well as nativity-by-race joint effects, were found in both countries. There was also a dose-response effect of education on access to care among the native-born but not among the foreign-born; there were few nativity-by-income joint effects.
Morgan Hughey, S; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Child, Stephanie; Moore, Justin B; Porter, Dwayne; Hibbert, James
Parks and park features are important for promoting physical activity and healthy weight, especially for low-income and racial/ethnic minority youth who have disproportionately high obesity rates. This study 1) examined associations between neighborhood park and playground availability and youth obesity, and 2) assessed whether these associations were moderated by youth race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). In 2013, objectively measured height and weight were collected for all 3rd-5th grade youth (n=13.469) in a southeastern US county to determine body mass index (BMI) percentiles. Enumeration and audits of the county's parks (n=103) were concurrently conducted. Neighborhood park and playground availability were calculated as the number of each facility within or intersecting each youth's Census block group. Multilevel linear regression models were utilized to examine study objectives. For boys, no main effects were detected; however, SES moderated associations such that higher park availability was associated with lower BMI percentile for low-SES youth but higher BMI percentile for high-SES youth. For girls, the number of parks and playgrounds were significantly associated with lower BMI (b=-2.2, b=-1.1, p<0.05, respectively) and race/ethnicity and SES moderated associations between playground availability and BMI percentile. Higher playground availability was associated with lower BMI percentile for White and high-SES girls but higher BMI percentile for African American and low-SES girls. Considerable variation was detected in associations between park and playground availability and youth obesity by SES and race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of studying the intersection of these characteristics when exploring associations between built environment features and obesity.
Huynh, Mary; Borrell, Luisa N; Chambers, Earle C
To examine the association between maternal education and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) and whether this association differs by maternal race/ethnicity and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES). A sample of 56,911 New York City births between 1999 and 2001 was used. Self-reported EGWG was defined as gaining >40 pounds. Maternal education and race/ethnicity were obtained from birth record data. Neighborhood SES was determined from 2000 US Census data. Women with a high school [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.21; 95 % CI 1.10-1.32] and some college (PR = 1.33; 95 % CI 1.21-1.47) education were more likely to gain excessive weight during pregnancy than their counterparts with less than a high school education. Having a college or more education was associated with a decreased EGWG for non-Hispanic white women (PR = 0.81; 95 % CI 0.67-0.96) but an increased EGWG for Hispanic women (PR = 1.25; 95 % CI 1.12-1.44). EGWG increased for women with a college or more education in medium and low SES neighborhoods (1.26; 95 % CI 1.04-1.53 and 1.20; 95 % CI 1.10-1.30, respectively); whereas a college or more education was not significant in the high SES neighborhoods. Our findings suggest that maternal education is associated with EGWG. However, this association depends on race/ethnicity and SES of the neighborhood of residence.
Wang, Louise; Haberland, Corinna; Thurm, Cary; Bhattacharya, Jay; Park, K. T.
Objective Over 9.6 million ED visits occur annually for abdominal pain in the US, but little is known about the medical outcomes of these patients based on demographics. We aimed to identify disparities in outcomes among children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain linked to race and SES. Methods Data from 4.2 million pediatric encounters of abdominal pain were analyzed from 43 tertiary US children’s hospitals, including 2.0 million encounters in the emergency department during 2004-2011. Abdominal pain was categorized as functional or organic abdominal pain. Appendicitis (with and without perforation) was used as a surrogate for abdominal pain requiring emergent care. Multivariate analysis estimated likelihood of hospitalizations, radiologic imaging, ICU admissions, appendicitis, appendicitis with perforation, and time to surgery and hospital discharge. Results Black and low income children had increased odds of perforated appendicitis (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.32- 1.53; aOR, 1.20, 95% CI 1.14 – 1.25). Blacks had increased odds of an ICU admission (aOR, 1.92, 95% CI 1.53 - 2.42) and longer lengths of stay (aHR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.86 – 0.96) than Whites. Minorities and low income also had lower rates of imaging for their appendicitis, including CT scans. The combined effect of race and income on perforated appendicitis, hospitalization, and time to surgery was greater than either separately. Conclusions Based on race and SES, disparity of health outcomes exists in the acute ED setting among children presenting with abdominal pain, with differences in appendicitis with perforation, length of stay, and time until surgery. PMID:26267816
Grytz, Rafael; Fazio, Massimo A.; Libertiaux, Vincent; Bruno, Luigi; Gardiner, Stuart; Girkin, Christopher A.; Downs, J. Crawford
Purpose. We tested the hypothesis that there are age- and race-related differences in posterior scleral material properties, using eyes from human donors of European (20–90 years old, n = 40 eyes) and African (23–74 years old, n = 22 eyes) descent. Methods. Inflation tests on posterior scleral shells were performed while full-field, three-dimensional displacements were recorded using laser speckle interferometry. Scleral material properties were fit to each eye using a microstructure-based constitutive formulation that incorporates the collagen fibril crimp and the local anisotropic collagen architecture. The effects of age and race were estimated using Generalized Estimating Equations, while accounting for intradonor correlations. Results. The shear modulus significantly increased (P = 0.038) and collagen fibril crimp angle significantly decreased with age (P = 0.002). Donors of African descent exhibited a significantly higher shear modulus (P = 0.019) and showed evidence of a smaller collagen fibril crimp angle (P = 0.057) compared to donors of European descent. The in-plane strains in the peripapillary sclera were significantly lower with age (P < 0.015) and African ancestry (P < 0.015). Conclusions. The age- and race-related differences in scleral material properties result in a loss of scleral compliance due to a higher shear stiffness and a lower level of stretch at which the collagen fibrils uncrimp. The loss of compliance should lead to larger high frequency IOP fluctuations and changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical response in the elderly and in persons of African ancestry, and may contribute to the higher susceptibility to glaucoma in these at-risk populations. PMID:25389203
Pittenger, D B
The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.
Vítolo, M R; Valente Soares, L M; Carvalho, E B; Cardoso, C B
Concentrations of calcium and magnesium were measured in mature milk, collected between 30 and 90 days after childbirth, from a group of 90 mothers between 14 and 39 years of age, exclusively breastfeeding. The group was divided into three sub-groups: low socioeconomic-level adolescents (LSAd), low socioeconomic-level adults (LSA), and high socioeconomic-level adults (HSA). Each mother's nutritional status was determined using the body-mass index (BMI) and her eating habits, obtained on the basis of a 24-h dietary recall. Adolescent and adult mothers in the low socioeconomic-level group had lower average calcium intake (LSAd = 618.4 +/- 555.2 mg and LSA = 679.4 +/- 411.4 mg) than adult mothers in the higher socioeconomic-level group (853.6 +/- 415.5 mg). The average concentration of calcium in the adolescent mothers' milk (LSAd) was significantly lower (5.30 +/- 1.42 mmol Ca/L, P = 0.01) than that of the two adult groups (LSA = 5.82 +/- 1.55 mmol Ca/L and HSA = 6.40 mmol Ca/L). The average magnesium concentrations for all groups did not show significant differences (LSAd = 1.06 +/- 0.18, LSA = 1.16 +/- 0.23 and HSA = 1.11 +/- 0.23 mmol Mg/L, for P= 0.16). These results indicate that magnesium concentrations in mature human milk do not seem to depend on maternal nutritional status. The condition of adolescence, however, associated with lower calcium intake by the mother, resulted in lower calcium concentrations in the milk secreted when compared to that of adult mothers.
Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin
This study estimated the associations between community-level socioeconomic conditions and survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea to determine the social structural influences on healthy aging. The indicators of socioeconomic and data of centenarians were obtained from Statistics Korea database 2014: population census and social survey. Significant positive correlations were found between SPBC and community-level socioeconomic conditions (minimum cost of living and economically active population, water supply and sewerage, pave a road with asphalt, and urbanization). SPBC male and female predictors had higher economic level and base facilities (R2)=0.578, p<.001). The study provides evidence that community-level socioeconomic conditions are important correlates of SPBC for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea. These strategies should include social structural influences on successful aging in the overall socioeconomic conditions.
Davis, Harley T; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne
The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between Anderson land cover category percentages and soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were investigated. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent.
Yan, Dongmei; McPheeters, Sheridan; Johnson, Gregory; Utzinger, Urs
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to quantify the age and race-related differences in the microstructural organization of the human posterior sclera. Such differences may contribute to the predisposition of primary open-angle glaucoma in various high-risk populations. Methods. Posterior–temporal scleras from 75 right eyes were procured at an average distance of 3.5 mm from the center of the optic nerve head (ONH). A light-scattering device was used to investigate the matrix organization of posterior scleral fibers around the ONH. In addition to the degree of alignment (via eccentricity), the percentage occurrence of fiber angles within equatorial and meridionally aligned bins was quantified as a function of depth, sex, age, and race. There were 20 African Americans, 55 Caucasians, 49 males, 26 females, in this study, all falling within three age groups (<30, n = 8; 30–60, n = 33; and >60 years, n = 34). Three scleral layers, normalized for depth, were examined. Results. For all ages and both races, fibers were preferentially oriented equatorially at all layers (P < 0.001). The African Americans had a significantly higher percentage of occurrence of meridional fibers than did the Caucasians (P < 0.001). The percentage occurrence of meridional fibers decreased significantly from the inner to the outer layers of the posterior sclera (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Statistically significant microstructural differences were found in the posterior sclera between African American and Caucasian donors. Ongoing work is focused on identifying whether such microstructural differences play a role in the higher prevalence of glaucoma in African American populations. PMID:21051726
Rhodes, Lindsay A.; Huisingh, Carrie; Johnstone, John; Fazio, Massimo A.; Smith, Brandon; Wang, Lan; Clark, Mark; Downs, J. Crawford; Owsley, Cynthia; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Girkin, Christopher A.
Purpose. This study examined the association between peripapillary choroidal thickness (PCT) with age and race in a group of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) subjects with normal eyes. Methods. Optic nerve head images from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of 166 normal eyes from 84 subjects of AD and ED were manually delineated to identify the principal surfaces of Bruch's membrane (BM), Bruch's membrane opening (BMO), and anterior sclera (AS). Peripapillary choroidal thickness was measured between BM and AS at increasing distance away from BMO. The mean PCT was compared between AD and ED subjects and generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis was used to examine the association between race and PCT overall, in each quadrant, and by distance from BMO. Models were adjusted for age, BMO area, and axial length in the regression analysis. Results. Overall, the mean PCT increased from 63.9 μm ± 18.1 at 0 to 250 μm to 170.3 μm ± 56.7 at 1500 to 2000 μm from BMO. Individuals of AD had a greater mean PCT than those of ED at all distances from BMO (P < 0.05 at each distance) and in each quadrant (P < 0.05 in each quadrant). Results from multivariate regression indicate that ED subjects had significantly lower PCT compared to AD overall and in all quadrants and distances from BMO. Increasing age was also significantly associated with a lower PCT in both ED and AD participants. Conclusions. Peripapillary choroidal thickness varies with race and age, as individuals of AD have a thicker peripapillary choroid than those of ED. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00221923.) PMID:25711640
Burford, Tanisha I.; Low, Carissa A.; Matthews, Karen A.
Background Elevated nighttime blood pressure (BP) predicts hypertension and its complications in adulthood. Purpose To assess the independent effects of race and family income on night/day BP among adolescents and to examine whether negative emotions, low positive resources, and unpleasant interactions during the day are also related. Methods Healthy African American and Caucasian high school students (N=239) wore an ambulatory BP monitor for 48 hours, recorded quality of ongoing interpersonal interactions, and completed questionnaires. Results African Americans and those with lower family income had higher night/day BP ratios. African Americans reporting greater negative emotions, lower positive resources, and more unpleasant interactions had higher night/day BP ratios. Conclusions Racial differences in night BP emerge by adolescence, independent of family income. African Americans, especially those high in negative emotions and low in positive resources, may be at higher relative risk for hypertension later in life in part due to elevated night BP. PMID:23549997
Hunter, Tracey; Yoon, Richard S; Hutzler, Lorraine; Band, Philip; Liublinksa, Victoria; Slover, James; Bosco, Joseph A
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services considers readmissions within 30 days of discharge to be a quality indicator. Hospitals' and eventually physicians' readmission rates will be used to determine payment for services. It is imperative that health care providers understand which patients are at risk for readmission so that they can apply the appropriate preventive interventions. The research team analyzed all orthopedic admissions and readmissions at their institution from September 2008 to April 2011 in this study. Preparing for the next stage in health care reform, identifying any preoperative factors that may place certain patients into a "high-risk" category for readmission following an orthopedic procedure is of paramount importance. This data analysis of more than 13 000 patients noted that race-based and income-based risk factors did not translate into significant risk factors or predictors of 30-day readmission following orthopedic admission.
Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Kornexl, Elmar; Raschner, Christian
The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group) of the same age (10-13 years) and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age disadvantages if they already present the same level of physical performance and maturational status as those born at the beginning of the year. The height and weight of ski racers born at the beginning of the year were significantly higher compared to the non-athletes, and ski racers born in relative age quarter 1 were taller and heavier compared to the ski racers of the other quarters. This indicates that the anthropometric characteristics influence the selection process in alpine ski racing, and that relatively older athletes are more likely to be selected if they exhibit advanced anthropometric characteristics.
Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.
Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…
Brown, Tyson H.; Richardson, Liana J.; Hargrove, Taylor W.; Thomas, Courtney S.
This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. PMID:27284076
Brown, Tyson H; Richardson, Liana J; Hargrove, Taylor W; Thomas, Courtney S
This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses.
Sowah, Leonard Anang; Busse, Sarah; Amoroso, Anthony
Tobacco use in the U.S. has declined significantly since the 1960s, but differentially by socioeconomic status. Current HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection rates in the United States are higher in minorities and underprivileged individuals. Effective highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has changed HIV into a chronic infection. Mortality among HIV patients is now as likely to be due to heart disease and cancers as HIV-related infections. In the current situation, one would expect public insurance plans to focus on interventions targeting lifestyle-associated behaviors such as tobacco use that have been found to be associated with increased risk for heart disease and cancers. Review of the AIDS Drug Assistance Program formularies and the Medicaid Programs of 50 states and the District of Columbia, however, revealed that coverage for smoking cessation is inadequate in most instances. To reduce health disparities, publicly funded programs that serve the nation's most vulnerable should provide coverage for effective tobacco cessation.
Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala
The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.
Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli
OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837
Collin, Simon; Karsenti, Thierry; Ndimubandi, Alexis; Saffari, Hamid
The objective of this article was to better understand the relationship between students' age and socioeconomic level, and its influence on students' digital uses. We conducted a quantitative study of 401 elementary and high school students in Quebec. Four independent variables were initially selected: two related to age (actual age and education…
Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian
The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.
Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian
The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832
Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper
This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools in the southeastern United States participated in the investigation. Results indicated high internal consistency for the six GRS-S scales: Intellectual Ability, Academic Ability, Creativity, Artistic Talent, Leadership, and Motivation. Results revealed no effect of race/ethnicity, age, or rater familiarity with the student. There was no significant effect for gender, although a trend was noted for girls rated slightly higher than boys across all scales. This trend was consistent with analyses of the standardization data and with cross-cultural findings using translated versions of the GRS-S. The present findings provided support for the GRS-S as a valid gifted screening instrument. PMID:26366036
Lepers, Romuald; Rüst, Christoph A; Stapley, Paul J; Knechtle, Beat
Despite of the growth of ultra-endurance sports events (of duration >6 h) over the previous few decades, the age-related declines in ultra-endurance performance have drawn little attention. The aim of the study was to analyse the changes in participation and performance trends of older (>40 years of age) triathletes between 1986 and 2010 at the Hawaii Ironman triathlon consisting of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42 km running. Swimming, cycling, running and total times of the best male and female triathletes between 18 and 69 years of age who competed in the Hawaii Ironman triathlon were analysed. The relative participation of master triathletes increased during the 1986-2010 period, while the participation of triathletes younger than 40 years of age decreased. Linear regression showed that males older than 44 years and females older than 40 years significantly improved their performances in the three disciplines and in the total time taken to complete the race. Gender differences in total time performance significantly decreased in the same time period for all age groups between the 40-44 and 55-59 years ones. The reasons for these relative improvements of Ironman athlete performances in older age groups remain, however, unknown. Further studies investigating training regimes, competition experience or sociodemographic factors are needed to gain better insights into the phenomenon of increasing participation and improvement of ultra-endurance performance with advancing age.
Piccolo, Luciane R; Merz, Emily C; He, Xiaofu; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Noble, Kimberly G
Recent findings indicate robust associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain structure in children, raising questions about the ways in which SES may modify structural brain development. In general, cortical thickness and surface area develop in nonlinear patterns across childhood and adolescence, with developmental patterns varying to some degree by cortical region. Here, we examined whether age-related nonlinear changes in cortical thickness and surface area varied by SES, as indexed by family income and parental education. We hypothesized that SES disparities in age-related change may be particularly evident for language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. Participants were 1148 typically-developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Results indicated that SES factors moderate patterns of age-associated change in cortical thickness but not surface area. Specifically, at lower levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were curvilinear, with relatively steep age-related decreases in cortical thickness earlier in childhood, and subsequent leveling off during adolescence. In contrast, at high levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were linear, with consistent reductions across the age range studied. Notably, this interaction was prominent in the left fusiform gyrus, a region that is critical for reading development. In a similar pattern, SES factors significantly moderated linear age-related change in left superior temporal gyrus, such that higher SES was linked with steeper age-related decreases in cortical thickness in this region. These findings suggest that SES may moderate patterns of age-related cortical thinning, especially in language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions.
He, Xiaofu; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Noble, Kimberly G.
Recent findings indicate robust associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain structure in children, raising questions about the ways in which SES may modify structural brain development. In general, cortical thickness and surface area develop in nonlinear patterns across childhood and adolescence, with developmental patterns varying to some degree by cortical region. Here, we examined whether age-related nonlinear changes in cortical thickness and surface area varied by SES, as indexed by family income and parental education. We hypothesized that SES disparities in age-related change may be particularly evident for language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. Participants were 1148 typically-developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Results indicated that SES factors moderate patterns of age-associated change in cortical thickness but not surface area. Specifically, at lower levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were curvilinear, with relatively steep age-related decreases in cortical thickness earlier in childhood, and subsequent leveling off during adolescence. In contrast, at high levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were linear, with consistent reductions across the age range studied. Notably, this interaction was prominent in the left fusiform gyrus, a region that is critical for reading development. In a similar pattern, SES factors significantly moderated linear age-related change in left superior temporal gyrus, such that higher SES was linked with steeper age-related decreases in cortical thickness in this region. These findings suggest that SES may moderate patterns of age-related cortical thinning, especially in language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. PMID:27644039
Quinlan, Jennifer J.
While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe. PMID:23955239
Quinlan, Jennifer J
While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe.
Odgers, Candice L; Caspi, Avshalom; Russell, Michael A; Sampson, Robert J; Arseneault, Louise; Moffitt, Terrie E
We report a graded relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and children's antisocial behavior that (a) can be observed at school entry, (b) widens across childhood, (c) remains after controlling for family-level SES and risk, and (d) is completely mediated by maternal warmth and parental monitoring (defined throughout as supportive parenting). The children were participants in the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study (N = 2,232), which prospectively tracked the development of children and their neighborhoods across childhood. Direct and independent effects of neighborhood-level SES on children's antisocial behavior were observed as early as age 5, and the gap between children living in deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods widened as children approached adolescence. By age 12, the effect of neighborhood SES on children's antisocial behavior was as large as the effect observed for our most robust predictor of antisocial behavior: sex (Cohen d = 0.51 when comparing children growing up in deprived vs. more affluent neighborhoods in comparison to Cohen d = 0.53 when comparing antisocial behavior among boys vs. girls). However, these relatively large differences in children's levels and rate of change in antisocial behavior across deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods were completely mediated by supportive parenting practices. The implications of our findings for studying and reducing socioeconomic disparities in antisocial behavior among children are discussed.
Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Krainski, Elias Teixeira; Autran, Roseanne; Teixeira, Hugo; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; de Pina, Maria de Fátima
Old-age survival is a good indicator of population health and regional development. We evaluated the spatial distribution of old-age survival across Porto neighbourhoods and its relation with physical (biogeophysical and built) and socioeconomic factors (deprivation). Smoothed survival rates and odds ratio (OR) were estimated using Bayesian spatial models. There were important geographical differentials in the chances of survival after 75 years of age. Socioeconomic deprivation strongly impacted old-age survival (Men: least deprived areas OR=1.31(1.05-1.63); Women OR=1.53(1.24-1.89)), explaining over 40% of the spatial variance. Walkability and biogeophysical environment were unrelated to old-age survival and also unrelated to socioeconomic deprivation, being fairly evenly distributed through the city.
Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L
Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals.
Mankus, Annette M.; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J.
The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses—controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate—demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness. PMID:26500384
Mankus, Annette M; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J
The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses-controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate-demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness.
Objectives This paper looks into the socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking and of the transitions between risk categories over time among the population aged 50 or over in England. Setting Community-dwellers across England. Participants Respondents to the English Longitudinal Survey of Ageing, waves 4 and 5. Results (Confidence level at 95% or higher, except when stated): ▸ Higher risk drinking falls with age and there is a non-linear association between age and risk for men, peaking in their mid-60s. ▸ Retirement and income are positively associated with a higher risk for women but not for men. ▸ Education and smoking are positively associated for both sexes. ▸ Loneliness and depression are not associated. ▸ Caring responsibilities reduce risk among women. ▸ Single, separated or divorced men show a greater risk of harmful drinking (at 10% confidence level). ▸ For women, being younger and having a higher income at baseline increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. ▸ For men, not eating healthily, being younger and having a higher income increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker. Furthermore, the presence of children living in the household, being lonely, being older and having a lower income are associated with ceasing to be a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. Conclusions Several socioeconomic factors found to be associated with high-risk alcohol consumption behaviour among older people would align with those promoted by the ‘successful ageing’ policy framework. PMID:26204909
Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang
Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.
Harper, Sam; Lynch, John; Meersman, Stephen C; Breen, Nancy; Davis, William W; Reichman, Marsha E
The authors provide an overview of methods for summarizing social disparities in health using the example of lung cancer. They apply four measures of relative disparity and three measures of absolute disparity to trends in US lung cancer incidence by area-socioeconomic position and race-ethnicity from 1992 to 2004. Among females, measures of absolute and relative disparity suggested that area-socioeconomic and race-ethnic disparities increased over these 12 years but differed widely with respect to the magnitude of the change. Among males, the authors found substantial disagreement among summary measures of relative disparity with respect to the magnitude and the direction of change in disparities. Among area-socioeconomic groups, the index of disparity increased by 47% and the relative concentration index decreased by 116%, while for race-ethnicity the index of disparity increased by 36% and the Theil index increased by 13%. The choice of a summary measure of disparity may affect the interpretation of changes in health disparities. Important issues to consider are the reference point from which differences are measured, whether to measure disparity on the absolute or relative scale, and whether to weight disparity measures by population size. A suite of indicators is needed to provide a clear picture of health disparity change.
Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Angulo, Ana M; Collado, Pilar S; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Lucia, Alejandro; Garatachea, Nuria
Most studies on aging and marathon have analyzed elite marathoners, yet the latter only represent a very small fraction of all marathon participants. In addition, analysis of variance or unpaired Student t tests are frequently used to compare mean performance times across age groups. In this report the authors propose an alternative methodology to determine the impact of aging on marathon performance in both nonelite and elite marathoners participating in the New York City Marathon. In all, 471,453 data points corresponding to 370,741 different runners over 13 race editions (1999-2011) were retrieved. Results showed that the effect of aging on marathon performance was overall comparable in both sexes, the effect of aging differed between the fastest and slowest runners in both sexes, and the magnitude of the sex differences was higher in the slowest runners than in the fastest ones. Current data suggest that the biological differences between sexes allow men to have better marathon performance across most of the human life span.
The aim of this study was to examine and describe the effect of gender and socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool-aged children's overall development. Two hundred fifty-five preschoolers (125 boys and 130 girls), with a mean age of 56 plus or minus 9 months, were randomly selected from day care centers and kindergartens of different areas of…
Murphy, Gwen; Devesa, Susan S; Cross, Amanda J; Inskip, Peter D; McGlynn, Katherine A; Cook, Michael B
Although incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States has declined in recent years, rates remain higher in men than in women and the male-to-female incidence rate ratio (MF IRR) increases progressively across the colon from the cecum to the rectum. Rates among races/ethnicities other than Whites or Blacks have not been frequently reported. To examine CRC rates by sex across anatomic subsite, age and racial/ethnic groups, we used the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program for cases diagnosed among residents of 13 registries during 1992-2006. Incidence rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years and age-adjusted to the 2000 US Standard Population; MF IRR and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. Among each racial/ethnic group, the MF IRR increased fairly monotonically from close to unity for cecal cancers to 1.81 (Hispanics) for rectal cancers. MF IRRs increased with age most rapidly for distal colon cancers from <1.0 at ages <50 years to 1.4-1.9 at older ages. The MF IRR for rectal cancers also rose with age from about 1.0 to 2.0. For proximal cancer, the MF IRR was consistently <1.5; among American Indian/Alaska Natives, it was <1.0 across all ages. The MF IRRs for CRC vary markedly according to subsite and age but less by racial/ethnic group. These findings may partially reflect differences in screening experiences and access to medical care but also suggest that etiologic factors may be playing a role.
Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman
This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…
Senia, Jennifer M; Neppl, Tricia K; Gudmunson, Clinton G; Donnellan, M Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O
Research has indicated that socioeconomic status (SES) is related to individual health and well-being, and may be transmitted across generations. According to the interactionist model, circumstances in the family of origin and individual characteristics both account for social, economic, and developmental outcomes associated with SES. Thus, for the present investigation, we evaluated continuities in SES across 2 generations (G1, G2) as mediated through G1 maternal positive parenting, G2 personality, and G2 age of first committed romantic partnership. Participants were 432 emerging adults from an ongoing longitudinal study. Consistent with the interactionist model, G1 SES was associated with G2 personality indirectly through G1 maternal positive parenting. G1 SES, G2 personality, and G2 first partnership directly predicted G2 SES. G1 maternal positive parenting was also indirectly associated with G2 age at first partnership through G2 personality. Findings were consistent across 2 broad personality domains-negative emotionality and constraint. However, positive emotionality was not associated with G2 age at partnership. (PsycINFO Database Record
Naughton, Deborah Trupp
This study focused on adult learners' age, race, gender, and whether they graduated from a distant-learning, master in the art of teaching program at an accredited college during the three academic semesters that comprised the 2007-2008 school year. The dependent variable used in this study consisted of whether adult learners graduated from a…
Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.
Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…
While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…
In this research article, Myosha McAfee presents findings from her grounded theory and microethnographical study of math instruction in a racially and socioeconomically diverse public school. Her analysis puts forth a new theory-the kinesiology of race-which conceptualizes race as a verb rather than a noun. It centrally considers how racial…
Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar
OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic
Background A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Methods/Findings Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49–79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p = 0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance ‘once a week or more often’ were taller than those who reported ‘none’ and ‘once to 3 times a month’. Means in inches are respectively for: White women–63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs–yes vs. no–63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given ‘a little’ strength and comfort from religion’ compared to ‘none’ and ‘a great deal’, 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health—excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor–63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. Conclusions Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated
Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.
The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.
Associations between demographic-socioeconomic characteristics and childhood obesity are complex in the United States. We examined associations between demographic-socioeconomic characteristics (age, sex, race-ethnicity, family income, household size, and birthplace) and adiposity measured by dual-e...
Craig, Leone C A; McNeill, Geraldine; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Masson, Lindsey F; Holmes, Bridget A
The Survey of Sugar Intake among Children in Scotland was carried out in May to September 2006. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in school-aged children from the survey and investigate associations with socio-economic factors, obesity and physical activity. Habitual diet was assessed using the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ. Height and weight were measured by trained fieldworkers. A total of 1233 FFQ were available for analysis. Dietary patterns were identified by age (5-11 and 12-17 years) and sex using principal components analysis. Associations between factor scores and socio-economic status, education level of the main food provider, physical activity levels and BMI category (based on UK 1990 charts) were examined. Three dietary patterns were identified in each age and sex group. 'Healthier' patterns loading highly for fruit and vegetables were significantly associated with higher socio-economic status and higher education levels of the main food provider whereas more 'unhealthy' patterns ('snacks' and 'puddings') were associated with lower socio-economic status and lower education levels of the main food provider. There was no consistent association between dietary patterns and BMI group or time spent in physical activity. However, inactivity (screen time) was inversely associated with 'healthier' patterns in all age and sex groups and positively associated with 'puddings' and 'snacks' in girls aged 5-11 years. Clear dietary patterns can be identified in school-age children in Scotland, which are consistently related to socio-economic factors and inactivity. This has implications for targeting health promotion at subgroups in terms of lifestyle changes required.
Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla
Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…
Cueto, Santiago; Guerrero, Gabriela; Leon, Juan; Zapata, Mayli; Freire, Silvana
Using Young Lives longitudinal data from Peru, this paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) measured at the age of one, opportunities to learn (OTL) and achievement in mathematics ten years later. Four variables of OTL were measured: hours of class per year, curriculum coverage, quality of teachers' feedback, and level…
Waiwaiole, Alana; Gurbani, Ajay; Motamedi, Kambiz; Seeger, Leanne; Sim, Myung Shin; Nwajuaku, Patricia; Hame, Sharon L.
Background: Posterior tibial slope (PTS) has been proposed as a potential risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury; however, studies that have examined this relationship have provided inconclusive and sometimes contradictory results. Further characterization of this relationship may enable the medical community to identify individuals at greater risk for ACL injury and possibly characterize an anatomic target during surgical reconstruction. Purpose: The primary goal was to investigate the relationship between PTS and ACL injury. The secondary goal was to determine whether there are any patient factors, such as age, race, or sex, that correlate with ACL injury and PTS. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Medical records of 221 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee between January 2003 and December 2009 were reviewed. Patients were separated into 2 groups: a study group of those subjects who had undergone surgery for ACL injury (n = 107) and a control group of patients diagnosed with patellofemoral syndrome (n = 114). Demographic data were collected, and MRI images from both groups were analyzed using imaging software to obtain medial and lateral tibial slope measurements. Data were then analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparison and a multivariable regression model to determine which, if any, patient factors were related to probability of having an ACL injury. Results: ANOVA comparison demonstrated that the study group had significantly greater values for lateral PTS (6° ± 4°; P < .001) and medial PTS (7° ± 4°; P = .002) compared with controls (5° ± 3° and 5° ± 4°, respectively). After stepwise elimination of nonsignificant variables, the final multivariable logistic regression model determined that age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; P < .001) and lateral PTS (OR, 1.12; P = .002) had statistically significant relationships with ACL injury. Medial PTS, race, and sex were not
Knechtle, Beat; Aschmann, André; Onywera, Vincent; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander
The age for the fastest marathoners is well investigated, but not the age and nationality of the fastest. We investigated the age of peak marathon performance for the annual top 100 women and men competing in four races of the "World Marathon Majors" (Boston, Berlin, Chicago and New York) and the "Stockholm Marathon" between 2000 and 2014 using mixed-effects regression analyses and one-way ANOVA. Race times of Ethiopian men decreased to 2:14 h:min, but remained unchanged for Kenyan (2:14 h:min), Moroccan (2:15 h:min) and South African (2:18 h:min) men. Race times in Ethiopian (2:34 h:min), Kenyan (2:29 h:min) and South African (2:49 h:min) women showed no changes. Age increased in Ethiopian and South African men to 29.0 ± 5.0 and 32.0 ± 1.0 years, respectively. Age for Kenyan (29.9 ± 2.0 years) and Moroccan (34.9 ± 3.9 years) men remained unchanged. Age remained unchanged for Ethiopian (26.5 ± 2.0 years), Kenyan (30.0 ± 0.8 years) and South African (36.3 ± 7.0 years) women. In summary, Ethiopian men improved marathon race times, but not Ethiopian women. Age increased in Ethiopian men, but not in Ethiopian women. For practical applications, female and male marathoners from Ethiopia were the youngest and the fastest.
Vaccaro, Joan A; Huffman, Fatma G
Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US adults ≥ 21 years were assessed from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. The participants included Black non-Hispanics, Mexican-American and White non-Hispanics who signed an informed consent form for the interview and who completed the in-person 24-h recall. Micronutrient intakes were based on the Institute of Medicines' classifications of recommended dietary allowances specific for age and gender. Likelihood of many micronutrient insufficiencies was associated with being female, over 65 years, having diabetes and minority status. Younger and female adults had a greater likelihood of iron insufficiency than male and older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the intersection of age, gender and race in setting policies for micronutrient deficiency screening, particularly in young female adults and minorities.
Background The fastest Ironman race times in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ were achieved in very recent years. This study investigated the change in sex difference in both race performance and the age of peak performance across years in the top ten athletes for split disciplines and overall race time in the ‘Ironman Hawaii’ between 1983 and 2012. Methods Changes in split times, overall race times, and age of athletes across years for the top ten overall and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners were investigated using regression analyses and analyses of variance. Results Between 1983 and 2012, the overall top ten men and women finishers improved their swimming (only men), cycling, running, and overall race times. The sex difference in overall race time decreased significantly (p = 0.01) from 15.2% to 11.3% across time. For the split disciplines, the sex difference remained unchanged (p > 0.05) for swimming (12.5 ± 3.7%) and cycling (12.5 ± 2.7%) but decreased for running from 13.5 ± 8.1% to 7.3 ± 2.9% (p = 0.03). The time performance of the top ten swimmers remained stable (p > 0.05), while those of the top ten cyclists and top ten runners improved (p < 0.01). The sex difference in performance remained unchanged (p > 0.05) in swimming (8.0 ± 2.4%), cycling (12.7 ± 1.8%), and running (15.2 ± 3.0%). Between 1983 and 2012, the age of the overall top ten finishers and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners increased across years for both women and men (p < 0.01). Conclusions To summarize, for the overall top ten finishers, the sex difference decreased across years for overall race time and running, but not for swimming and cycling. For the top ten per discipline, the sex difference in performance remained unchanged. The athletes improved their performances across years although the age of peak performance increased. PMID:23849215
Guven, Cahit; Islam, Asadul
This study estimates the causal effects of language proficiency on the economic and social integration of Australian immigrants. Identifying the effects of languages on socioeconomic outcomes is inherently difficult owing to the endogeneity of language skills. Using the phenomenon that younger children learn languages more easily than older children, we construct an instrumental variable for language proficiency. To achieve this, we consider the age at arrival of immigrants who came as children from Anglophone and non-Anglophone countries. We find a significant positive effect of English proficiency on wages and promotions among adults who immigrated to Australia as children. Higher levels of English proficiency are associated with increased risk-taking, more smoking, and more exercise for men, but have considerable health benefits for women. English language proficiency has a significant influence on partner choice and a number of social outcomes, as well as on children's outcomes, including their levels of academic achievement. The results are robust to alternative specifications, including accounting for between-sibling differences and alternative measures of English skills.
Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Daniels, Stephen R; Wang, Ping
The prevalence of Class 3 obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2)) has more than doubled in the past 25 years. In a 14-year prospective study from age 10 to 24 of a biracial schoolgirl cohort (293 black, 256 white), we assessed childhood correlates of Class 3 BMI at age 24. Of 42 girls with Class 3 BMI at age 24, 36 (86%) were black. By logistic regression, significant explanatory variables of Class 3 BMI at age 24 included top decile waist circumference at age 11 (odds ratio (OR) 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-13.9, P = 0.0002), age 10 BMI ≥ the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2000 top 15% (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.5-19.3, P = 0.0002), and a three-way interaction between race, childhood insulin, and average caloric intake from age 10 to age 19 (for each unit increase, OR 1.7 95% CI 1.3-2.2, P = 0.0003). Age 10 BMI, age 11 waist circumference, and interaction of race, childhood insulin, and childhood caloric intake predict Class 3 obesity in young adulthood, facilitating childhood identification of girls at high risk for developing Class 3 obesity.
Hirsh, Adam T; Alqudah, Ashraf F; Stutts, Lauren A; Robinson, Michael E
Pain assessment is subject to bias due to characteristics of the individual in pain and of the observing person. Few research studies have examined pain assessment biases in an experimental setting. This study employs innovative virtual human technology to achieve greater experimental control. A lens model design was used to capture decision-making policies at the idiographic and nomothetic level. Seventy-five undergraduates viewed virtual humans (VH) that varied in sex, race, age, and pain expression. Participants provided computerized ratings with Visual Analogue Scales on the VH's pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, negative mood, coping, and need for medical treatment. Idiographic analyses revealed that individuals used pain expression most frequently as a significant cue. Nomothetic analyses showed that higher pain expression VH and female VH were viewed as having higher pain intensity, higher pain unpleasantness, greater negative mood, worse coping, and a greater need to seek medical treatment than lower pain expression VH and male VH, respectively. Older VH were viewed as having worse coping and a greater need to seek medical treatment than younger VH. This innovative paradigm involving VH technology and a lens model design was shown to be highly effective and could serve as a model for future studies investigating pain-related decision making in healthcare providers.
Bosch, Virgilio; Giacopini, Maria Isabel
Abstract Objetive: To establish association between socioeconomic status and plasmatic markers of lipoperoxidation and antioxidants in Venezuelan school-age children from the middle-class and in critical poverty. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 114 school-age children (aged 7-9). The socioeconomic status, dietary intake of macro and micro-nutrients, weight, height, lipid profile, indicators of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were determined. Results: The daily average intake of energy, carbohydrates and vitamin A, and the percentage of energy obtained from carbohydrates was significantly higher in middle-class children compared to critical poverty children (p <0.05). The circulating oxidized low density lipoprotein (p <0.001) and the susceptibility of low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins to oxidation in vitro (p <0.05) were significantly higher in middle-class children, while the critical poverty children showed significantly lower levels of Vitamin C and E in plasma (p <0.05). Non-enzymatic antioxidant levels were frequently deficient in both strata. The concentrations of circulating oxidized low density lipoprotein (OR: 1.09, CI 95%: 1.016-1.179; p= 0.017) and Vitamin C (OR: 3.21, CI 95%: 1.104-9.938; p= 0.032) were associated to the socioeconomic status independently of gender, family history of premature coronary artery disease, triglicerides, Vitamin C and E dietary intake and count of white blood cells. Conclusion: The socioeconomic status was associated to circulating oxidized low density lipoprotein and Vitamin C in Venezuelan school-age children, The results suggested the need to improve the dietary intake of antioxidants in both studied socioeconomic groups. PMID:28293041
Kiregu, Joshua; Murindahabi, Nathalie K.; Tumusiime, David; Thomson, Dana R.; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L.; Ahayo, Anita
Background Disability affects approximately 15% of the world’s population, and has adverse socio-economic effects, especially for the poor. In Rwanda, there are a number of government compensation programs that support the poor, but not specifically persons with disability (PWDs). This study investigates the relationship between poverty and government compensation on disability among working-age adults in Rwanda. Methods This was a secondary analysis of 35,114 adults aged 16 to 65 interviewed in the 2010/2011 Rwanda Household Wealth and Living Conditions survey, a national cross-sectional two-stage cluster survey, stratified by district. This study estimated self-reported major disability, and used chi-square tests to estimate associations (p<0.1) with income, government compensation, occupation type, participation in public works programs, and household poverty status. Non-collinear economic variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression, along with socio-demographic confounders that modified the relationship between any economic predictor and the outcome by 10% or more. All analyses adjusted for sampling weights, stratification, and clustering of households. Results Over 4% of working-age adults reported having a major disability and the most prevalent types of disability in order were physical, mental, and then sensory disability. In bivariate analysis, annual income, occupation type, and poverty status were associated with major disability (p<0.001 for all). Occupation type was dropped because it was collinear with income. Age, education, and urban/rural residence were confounders. In the multivariate analysis, adults in all income groups had about half the odds of disability compared to adults with no income (Rwf1-120,000 OR = 0.57; Rwf120,000–250,000 OR = 0.61; Rwf250,000–1,000,000 OR = 0.59; Rwf1,000,000+ OR = 0.66; p<0.05 for all), and non-poor adults had 0.77 the odds of disability compared to poor adults (p = 0.001). Conclusion Given
The orthodontic situation in 2042 children in 4th to 8th schoolgrades was described by placing each child in one of five orthodontic categories (percentage refers to observed frequencies): I. No anomaly (25%), II. Malocclusion-under observation only (40%). III. Undergoing orthodontic treatment (20%). IV. Orthodontic treatment completed (12%) and V. Orthodontic treatment discontinued (3%). The socioeconomic status of the child's family, determined by the occupation of the father or mother, was described by one of the following five terms: A. Low, B lower middle, C. Middle, D. Upper middle and E. Upper socioeconomic group. The distribution of the orthodontic categories within the socioeconomic groups were found to be almost equal, but three trends could be noted: a slightly higher frequency of malocclusion in the low socioeconomic group; children from the middle socioeconomic group represented a relatively large part of the orthodontic treatment group and children in the two lowest socioeconomic groups showed a greater frequency of discontinued orthodontic treatment than the rest of the children.
This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics associated with prevalence and severity of elder self-neglect in an U.S. Chinese older population. The PINE study is a population-based epidemiological study in the greater Chicago area. In total, 3159 Chinese older adults were interviewed from 2011 to 2013. Elder self-neglect was assessed with systematic observations of a participant's personal and home environment across five domains: hoarding, personal hygiene, house in need of repair, unsanitary conditions, and inadequate utility. Elder self-neglect was prevalent among older adults aged 80 years or over (mild self-neglect: 34.6% 95% CI 30.9-38.4; moderate/severe: 15.6% 95% CI 12.8-18.6), men (mild: 28.6% 95% CI 26.1-31.3; moderate/severe: 13.1% 95% CI 11.2-15.1), those with 0-6 years of education (mild: 32.2% 95% CI 29.7-34.9; moderate/severe: 12.6% 95% CI 10.8-14.5), and those with an annual personal income between $5000 and $10,000 (mild: 30.8% 95% CI 28.4-33.2; moderate/severe: 11.8% 95% CI 10.2-13.5). Older age (mild self-neglect: OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03; moderate/severe self-neglect: OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.03) and lower education levels (mild self-neglect: OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.08; moderate/severe self-neglect: OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.09) were associated with significantly increased odds of elder self-neglect. Women (moderate/severe self-neglect: OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.93) had significantly decreased odds of moderate/severe elder self-neglect. No significant association was found between levels of income and overall elder-self-neglect of all severities. Future research is needed to examine risk/protective factors associated with elder self-neglect in U.S. Chinese older populations.
Caslake, Robert; Taylor, Kate; Scott, Neil; Gordon, Joanna; Harris, Clare; Wilde, Katie; Murray, Alison; Counsell, Carl
There have been few high quality incidence studies of Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured age-, gender- and socioeconomic-specific incidence rates for parkinsonism and PD in north-east Scotland, and compared our results with those of previous high quality studies. Incident patients were identified prospectively over three years by several overlapping methods from primary care practices (total population 311,357). Parkinsonism was diagnosed if patients had two or more cardinal motor signs. Drug-induced parkinsonism was excluded. Patients had yearly follow-up to improve diagnostic accuracy. Incidence rates using clinical diagnosis at latest follow-up were calculated for all parkinsonism and for PD by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis with similar studies was performed. Of 377 patients identified at baseline with possible or probable parkinsonism, 363 were confirmed as incident patients after median follow-up of 26 months (mean age 74.8 years, SD 9.8; 61% men). The crude annual incidence of parkinsonism was 28.7 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 25.7-31.8) and PD 17.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 15.5-20.4). PD was more common in men (age-adjusted male to female ratio 1.87:1, 95% CI 1.55-2.23) but there was no difference by socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis of 12 studies showed an incidence of PD (adjusted to the 1990 Scottish population) of 14.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.2-17.3) with considerable heterogeneity (I(2) 95%), partially explained by population size and recruitment duration. The incidence of PD was similar to other high quality studies. The incidence of PD was not affected by socioeconomic status.
Shim, Janet K.; Ackerman, Sara L.; Darling, Katherine Weatherford; Hiatt, Robert A.; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin
This paper examines how race and ancestry are taken up in gene-environment interaction (GEI) research on complex diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Using 54 in-depth interviews of 33 scientists and over 200 hours of observation at scientific conferences, we explore how GEI researchers use and interpret race, ethnicity, and ancestry in their work. We find that the use of self-identified race and ethnicity (SIRE) exists alongside ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to ascertain genetic ancestry. Our participants assess the utility of these two techniques in relative terms, downplaying the accuracy and value of SIRE compared to the precision and necessity of AIMs. In doing so, we argue that post-genomic scientists seeking to understand the interactions of genetic and environmental disease determinants actually undermine their ability to do so, by valorizing precise characterizations of individuals’ genetic ancestry over measurement of the social processes and relations that differentiate social groups. PMID:25378251
Background Socioeconomic status has a profound effect on the risk of having a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Information on socioeconomic inequalities in AMI incidence across age- gender-groups is lacking. Our objective was to examine socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of AMI considering both relative and absolute measures of risk differences, with a particular focus on age and gender. Methods We identified all patients with a first AMI from 1997 to 2007 through linked hospital discharge and death records covering the Dutch population. Relative risks (RR) of AMI incidence were estimated by mean equivalent household income at neighbourhood-level for strata of age and gender using Poisson regression models. Socioeconomic inequalities were also shown within the stratified age-gender groups by calculating the total number of events attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Results Between 1997 and 2007, 317,564 people had a first AMI. When comparing the most deprived socioeconomic quintile with the most affluent quintile, the overall RR for AMI was 1.34 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.32 – 1.36) in men and 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.42 – 1.47) in women. The socioeconomic gradient decreased with age. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were most apparent in men under 35 years and in women under 65 years. The largest number of events attributable to socioeconomic inequalities was found in men aged 45–74 years and in women aged 65–84 years. The total proportion of AMIs that was attributable to socioeconomic inequalities in the Dutch population of 1997 to 2007 was 14 % in men and 18 % in women. Conclusions Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities were observed in AMI incidence in the Netherlands, but the magnitude across age-gender groups depended on whether inequality was expressed in relative or absolute terms. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were high in young persons and women, where the absolute burden of AMI was low. Absolute
The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.
Curtis, Elizabeth M; van der Velde, Robert; Moon, Rebecca J; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Geusens, Piet; de Vries, Frank; van Staa, Tjeerd P; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C
Summary Rates of fracture worldwide are changing. Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), age, and gender, geographical, ethnic and socioeconomic trends in fracture rates across the United Kingdom were studied over a 24 year period 1988-2012. Previously observed patterns in fracture incidence by age and fracture site were evident. New data on the influence of geographic location, ethnic group and socioeconomic status were obtained. Introduction With secular changes in age- and sex-specific fracture incidence observed in many populations, and global shifts towards an elderly demography, it is vital for health care planners to have an accurate understanding of fracture incidence nationally. We aimed to present up to date fracture incidence data in the UK, stratified by age, sex, geographic location, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Methods The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) contains anonymised electronic health records for approximately 6.9% of the UK population. Information comes from General Practitioners, and covers 11.3 million people from 674 practices across the UK, demonstrated to be representative of the national population. The study population consisted of all permanently registered individuals aged >=18 years. Validated data on fracture incidence were obtained from their medical records, as was information on socioeconomic deprivation, ethnicity and geographic location. Age and sex-specific fracture incidence rates were calculated. Results Fracture incidence rates by age and sex were comparable to those documented in previous studies and demonstrated a bimodal distribution. Substantial geographic heterogeneity in age and sex adjusted fracture incidence was observed, with rates in Scotland almost 50% greater than those in London and South East England. Lowest rates of fracture were observed in black individuals of both sexes; rates of fragility fracture in white women were 4.7 times greater than in black women. Strong
Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Russell, Michael A.; Sampson, Robert J.; Arsenault, Louise; Moffitt, Terrie E.
In this article we report a graded relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and children’s antisocial behavior that (1) can be observed at school entry, (2) widens across childhood, (3) remains after controlling for family-level SES and risk, and (4) is completely mediated by maternal warmth and parental monitoring (defined throughout as supportive parenting). Children were participants in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study (n=2232), which prospectively tracked the development of children and their neighborhoods across childhood. Direct and independent effects of neighborhood-level SES on children’s antisocial behavior were observed as early as age 5 and the gap between children living in deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods widened as children approached adolescence. By age 12, the effect of neighborhood socioeconomic status on children’s antisocial behavior was as large as the effect observed for our most robust predictor of antisocial behavior – sex! (Cohen’s d = .51 when comparing children growing up in deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods in comparison to Cohen’s d = .53 when comparing antisocial behavior among boys versus girls). However, differences in children’s levels and rate of change in antisocial behavior across deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods were completely mediated by supportive parenting practices. Implications of our findings for studying and reducing socioeconomic disparities in antisocial behavior among children are discussed. PMID:22781850
Marshall, Patricia L.
The 2008 elections ushered in a new era in U.S. politics with implications for race relations and social justice activity. Drawing parallels between the contemporary African American community and splintering undercurrents in the National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME), the author urges cross-generational coalescence around an…
Yesil Dagli, Ummuhan; Jones, Ithel
This study was an examination of the effect of delayed, early, and on-time kindergarten enrollment on children's kindergarten mathematics achievement. Central for this study was to explore if the relationship between the kindergarten enrollment status and mathematics achievement varies by children's gender, race, and family SES status. It used a…
Hardaway, Cecily R.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility…
Siegel, Michael; Ayers, Amanda J.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.
Aim No previous national study has reported the prevalence of alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by demographic characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the alcohol brand preferences among underage drinkers in different demographic categories. Method We administered an online survey to a national sample of 1,031 underage youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. The sample was recruited from a previously established internet survey panel. The main outcome measure was the estimated 30-day consumption prevalence for each of 898 brands by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results Two beer brands—Bud Light and Budweiser—are uniformly popular among underage drinkers, regardless of age, gender, or race/ethnicity. There are several hard liquor brands whose use increases markedly with age. Two flavored alcoholic beverages sharing the names of hard liquor brands—Smirnoff and Bacardi—are more popular with older youth. Some flavored alcoholic beverages are about twice as popular among female underage drinkers. There are 12 alcohol brands that are uniquely popular among Black underage drinkers, and these brands are heavily promoted in urban music. Conclusion There are differential patterns of brand-specific alcohol use among underage drinkers. PMID:26557044
RAMSAY, S E; MORRIS, R W; WHINCUP, P H; PAPACOSTA, O; RUMLEY, A; LENNON, L; LOWE, G; WANNAMETHEE, S G
Background:Evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and their pathways in the elderly is limited. Little is also known about the contributions that novel coronary risk factors (particularly inflammatory/hemostatic markers) make to socioeconomic inequalities in CHD. Objectives:To examine the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in CHD in older age, and the contributions (relative and absolute) of established and novel coronary risk factors. Methods:A population-based cohort of 3761 British men aged 60–79 years was followed up for 6.5 years for CHD mortality and incidence (fatal and non-fatal). Social class was based on longest-held occupation recorded at 40–59 years. Results:There was a graded relationship between social class and CHD incidence. The hazard ratio for CHD incidence comparing social class V (unskilled workers) with social class I (professionals) was 2.70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37–5.35; P-value for trend = 0.008]. This was reduced to 2.14 (95% CI 1.06–4.33; P-value for trend = 0.11) after adjustment for behavioral factors (cigarette smoking, physical activity, body mass index, and alcohol consumption), which explained 38% of the relative risk gradient (41% of absolute risk). Additional adjustment for inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and von Willebrand factor) explained 55% of the relative risk gradient (59% of absolute risk). Blood pressure and lipids made little difference to these estimates; results were similar for CHD mortality. Conclusions:Socioeconomic inequalities in CHD persist in the elderly and are at least partly explained by behavioral risk factors; novel (inflammatory) coronary risk markers made some further contribution. Reducing inequalities in behavioral factors (especially cigarette smoking) could reduce these social inequalities by at least one-third. PMID:20015318
Knechtle, Beat; Valeri, Fabio; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander
Recent findings suggested that the age of peak ultra-marathon performance seemed to increase with increasing race distance. The present study investigated the age of peak ultra-marathon performance for runners competing in time-limited ultra-marathons held from 6 to 240 h (i.e. 10 days) during 1975-2013. Age and running performance in 20,238 (21%) female and 76,888 (79%) male finishes (6,863 women and 24,725 men, 22 and 78%, respectively) were analysed using mixed-effects regression analyses. The annual number of finishes increased for both women and men in all races. About one half of the finishers completed at least one race and the other half completed more than one race. Most of the finishes were achieved in the fourth decade of life. The age of the best ultra-marathon performance increased with increasing race duration, also when only one or at least five successful finishes were considered. The lowest age of peak ultra-marathon performance was in 6 h (33.7 years, 95% CI 32.5-34.9 years) and the highest in 48 h (46.8 years, 95% CI 46.1-47.5). With increasing number of finishes, the athletes improved performance. Across years, performance decreased, the age of peak performance increased, and the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased with increasing number of finishes. In summary, the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased and performance decreased in time-limited ultra-marathons. The age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased with increasing race duration and with increasing number of finishes. These athletes improved race performance with increasing number of finishes.
Al-Otaibi, Meshari; Zimmerman, Mikael; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit
The aim was to analyze prevailing oral hygiene practices among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender, and socio-economic background. Structured interviews were performed with 1155 regular patients at two centers providing dental care for university and military staff and their families, respectively, in the city of Makkah. Consecutive patients were stratified according to gender and age into 6 age categories from 10 to 60 years, with 50 male or female subjects in each group at each center. Oral hygiene habits were correlated with the subject's age and gender, and analyzed statistically using a generalized linear model. It was found that 73% used a toothbrush daily, while a miswak was used daily by 65%. Significant differences were found between genders and age groups, and between the centers. Regular miswak use was more prevalent among men (P < 0.01), while women used toothbrush more than miswak (P < 0.05). Regular miswak use was more frequent at older age (P < 0.001) and tooth brushing was less prevalent. Forty-four percent of the 51- to 60-year-old patients at the military center never used a toothbrush. Regular toothbrush use was more prevalent in the youngest age groups (P < 0.001). Among the 10- to 15-year-olds, 45% at the university center used only a toothbrush, while no adolescents at the military center used only a toothbrush. We conclude that there are large differences in current oral hygiene habits among Saudi Arabians, and that these are related mainly to age and socio-economic level, and to a lesser extent gender. This should be taken into account when planning oral health strategies for different categories.
Chlebowski, R T; Haque, R; Hedlin, H; Col, N; Paskett, E; Manson, J E; Kubo, J T; Johnson, K C; Wactawski-Wende, J; Pan, K; Anderson, G
In early adjuvant breast cancer trial reports, aromatase inhibitors more effectively reduced breast recurrence with lower risk of thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer than tamoxifen, while aromatase inhibitors had higher fracture and cardiovascular disease risk. We used data from updated patient-level meta-analyses of adjuvant trials in analyses to summarize the benefits and risks of these agents in various clinical circumstances. Baseline incidence rates for health outcomes by age and race/ethnicity, absent aromatase inhibitor, or tamoxifen use were estimated from the Women's Health Initiative. Aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen effects on distant recurrence were obtained from a meta-analysis of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) and Breast International Group (Big-1-98) clinical trials. Impact on other health outcomes were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials comparing aromatase inhibitor to tamoxifen use and from placebo-controlled chemoprevention trials. All health outcomes were given equal weight when modeling net benefit/risk for aromatase inhibitor compared to tamoxifen use by breast cancer recurrence risk, age (decade), race/ethnicity, hysterectomy (yes/no), and by prior myocardial infarction. Over a 10-year period, the benefit/risk index was more favorable for aromatase inhibitor than for tamoxifen as adjuvant breast cancer therapy in almost all circumstances regardless of patient age, race/ethnicity, breast cancer recurrence risk, or presence or absence of a uterus. Only in older women with prior myocardial infarction and low recurrence risk was an advantage for tamoxifen seen. Using a benefit/risk index for endocrine adjuvant breast cancer therapy in postmenopausal women, benefit was higher for aromatase inhibitor use in almost all circumstances.
Increasing numbers of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been placed on insulin pump therapy. Nevertheless, data are limited regarding patterns of pump use during the first year of treatment and the clinical and socioeconomic factors associated with early use of pump therapy. T...
Gagnon, Alain; Bohnert, Nora
This study examines the effects of early life socioeconomic and residential conditions on adult mortality. The family and residential details of children living in rural areas of Quebec, Canada, in 1901 were linked to their subsequent ages at death using a database compiling information from the 1901 Canadian Census and Quebec vital statistics registers. Survival analysis results suggest that males raised on a farm and in a household owned by their father had lower mortality after the age of fifty than other males from rural areas. Chances for survival at older ages were not equal, however, among males whose father was a farmer. Most notably, males raised on a larger farmstead, an indicator of a higher socioeconomic status, experienced lower risk of mortality than those raised by farmers owning fewer acres. Results were widely different for females, who did not gain an advantage from being raised on a farm, wealthy or not, regardless of homeownership, but instead from having a literate father. Accounting for selection bias and shared frailty among brothers served to enhance the significance and effect size of acreage wealth and of other early life factors in the prediction of male adult mortality risk. This study provides evidence that early life effects on later life health and mortality could often be underestimated, due to a failure to account for selection and unobserved heterogeneity.
Jenkins, PJ; Sng, S; Brooksbank, K; Brooksbank, AJ
Introduction Questionnaires are used commonly to assess functional outcome and satisfaction in surgical patients. Although these have in the past been administered through written forms, there is increasing interest in the use of new technology to improve the efficiency of collection. The aim of this study was to assess the availability of internet access for a group of orthopaedic patients and the acceptability of online survey completion. Methods A total of 497 patients attending orthopaedic outpatient clinics were surveyed to assess access to the internet and their preferred means for completing follow-up questionnaires. Results Overall, 358 patients (72%) reported having internet access. Lack of access was associated with socioeconomic deprivation and older age. Multivariable regression confirmed increased age and greater deprivation to be independently associated with lack of internet access. Out of the total group, 198 (40%) indicated a preference for assessment of outcomes via email and the internet. Conclusions Internet access was not universal among the patients in our orthopaedic clinic. Reliance on internet collection of PROMs may introduce bias by not including results from patients in older age groups and those from the more deprived socioeconomic groups. PMID:26688398
Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc.) are accessible and effectively used. PMID:22840190
Pfeiffer, Steven L; Petscher, Yaacov; Jarosewich, Tania
This study reports on an analysis of the standardization sample of a rating scale designed to assist in identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness designed for preschool and kindergarten students. Results provide support for: the internal structure of the scale; no age differences across the 3-year age span 4:0–6:11; gender differences on only one of the five scales; artistic talent; and small but statistically significant race/ethnicity differences with Asian Americans rated, on average, 1.5 scale-score points higher than whites and Native Americans and 7 points higher than African American and Hispanic students. The present findings provide support for the GRS-P as a valid screening test for giftedness. PMID:26346963
Emerson, Natacha D.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Neece, Cameron
Having a consistent source of medical care may facilitate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined predictors of age of ASD diagnosis using data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Using multiple linear regression analysis, age of diagnosis was predicted by race, ASD severity, having a consistent…
Ramezanian, Maryam; Soares, Joaquim; Khankeh, Hamid; Macassa, Gloria
Background: Socioeconomic status has been found to have a significant impact on the health as well as risk behaviors of adolescents across different contexts. This study was conducted to assess the effect of social relations adjusted by social class on physical and psychological well-being of adolescences in Teheran, Iran. Methods: This was a cross- sectional study and carried out on 1,742 adolescences living in Tehran during 2011. Adolescences were selected, using proportional stratified sampling method and a questionnaire was filled over an interview for data gathering. Data were analyzed, using SPSS18 logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of psychological symptoms was more than 24% and had a large range (24%-93%), while physical symptoms showed a lower prevalence with a smaller range (12%-33%). Furthermore, there was a significant relation between the adolescences gender and feeling the need for others’ help (p<0.001). Factors related to feeling the need for others help, anxiety, and worrying were the most prevalent among both boys and girls. In the section of family social relations, talking to the mother and talking to the father had the lowest and the highest prevalence among girls and boys, respectively. With respect to relations, the number of close friends and after school gathering time with close friends had the highest prevalence among girls, while the number of close friends and E-communication with close friends had the lowest and the highest prevalence among boys, respectively. Conclusion: The physical and psychological symptoms were common among adolescents from families with high socioeconomic status. PMID:28210612
Hong, Juhee; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook
The aim of this study was to determine whether the socioeconomic status (SES) of parents influences early childhood unintentional injury deaths for different injury mechanisms and the gender and age at death of the child. Study design is a population-based retrospective study. Death certificate data from 1995 to 2004 were linked to birth certificate data from 1995 to 1996 for each child who died when aged < or = 8 years. Parental age, birth order, marital status, residence area, educational level, and occupation were used as indices for SES. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was employed. Our results indicate that nonmetropolitan residence, low parental education level, and a father working in a nonadministrative job or as a farmer were associated with a higher risk of death from injury for both boys and girls. A mother aged younger than 20 years and parents working in manual jobs were associated with a higher risk in boys only. The risks of some socioeconomic factors (low parental education and a father working in a manual job or as a farmer) were evident for children aged 1-4 years. The risks of rural residency tended to increase in older children, and the risk of injury from having a mother aged younger than 20 years increased for younger children. The risks of childhood injury deaths from traffic accidents, falls, and fire/burns were associated with the SES of the parents. Younger parents were associated with higher risks of injury deaths from traffic accidents (hazard ratio [HR]: father, 7.9; mother, 1.9) and falls (HR: father, 2.0; mother, 2.5). A father working as a farmer was associated with a higher risk of childhood injury death from fire/burns (HR = 4.0). In conclusion, the parental SES risk profiles of childhood injury deaths varied with the age and gender of the child, and with the injury mechanism. Therefore, reducing excess injury deaths during early childhood requires preventive efforts targeted at high-risk parents, and based on injury mechanism
Davis, Harley T.; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B.; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne
The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between percentages of Anderson land cover categories with soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were examined. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent. PMID:24914533
Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.
Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51 and older from the 1998 to 2006 Health and Retirement Study. Multilevel models and a cohort-sequential design were applied to quantitatively depict the age norm of physical disability after age 50. Results: Adults with diabetes not only experience greater levels of physical disability but also faster rates of deterioration over time. This pattern is net of attrition, time-invariant sociodemographic factors, and time-varying chronic disease conditions. Differences in physical disability between adults with and without diabetes were more pronounced in women, non-White, and those of lower education. The moderating effects of gender and education remained robust even after controlling for selected covariates in the model. Implications: This study highlighted the consistently greater development of disability over time in adults with diabetes and particularly in those who are women, non-White, or adults of lower education. Future studies are recommended to examine the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of diabetes on physical disability by gender and education. PMID:20713455
DeJesus, Ramona S.; Breitkopf, Carmen R.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Rutten, Lila J. Finney; Jacobson, Robert M.; Jacobson, Debra J.; Fan, Chun; St. Sauver, Jennifer
Background: Few large studies have examined correlations between anxiety and body mass index (BMI) by gender or racial groups using clinical data. Objective: This study aimed to determine associations between diagnosed anxiety disorders and BMI, and evaluate whether observed associations varied by demographic characteristics. Method: Data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) data linkage system were analyzed to examine associations between anxiety disorders and BMI among adults ages 18-85 residing in Olmsted County, MN in 2009 (n=103,557). Height and weight data were available for 75,958 people (73%). The international classification of underweight, overweight, and obesity by BMI was used. Results: Population consisted of 56% females, 92.8% White individuals, with median age of 46 years. When adjusted for age, sex, and race, we observed a U-shaped association between anxiety and BMI group. Underweight and obese individuals were more likely to have an anxiety diagnosis compared to normal weight individuals. Stratification by sex yielded a U-shaped association between anxiety and BMI only in women. Stratification by race showed a U-shaped association between anxiety and BMI only in the White population. Anxiety was significantly associated only with obesity in the Black population. Anxiety was not associated with a BMI category in Asian or Hispanic groups. Among elderly group, there is inverse correlation between anxiety and obesity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that anxiety may have heterogeneous associations with BMI in the population. Further research on potential mechanisms contributing to these findings will help direct efforts in anxiety and obesity management across diverse population groups. PMID:27857777
Vera-Estay, Evelyn; Seni, Anne G; Champagne, Caroline; Beauchamp, Miriam H
Moral reasoning (MR) is a socio-cognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (EF), theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and affect recognition. However, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n = 76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years), explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, EF, and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral). The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, EF (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control), and social cognition (ToM and affect recognition). Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency, and third-order ToM. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills, such EF and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have relevance for both typically developing and clinical populations in which
Vera-Estay, Evelyn; Seni, Anne G.; Champagne, Caroline; Beauchamp, Miriam H.
Moral reasoning (MR) is a socio-cognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (EF), theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and affect recognition. However, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n = 76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years), explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, EF, and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral). The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, EF (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control), and social cognition (ToM and affect recognition). Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency, and third-order ToM. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills, such EF and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have relevance for both typically developing and clinical populations in which
Hardaway, Cecily R; McLoyd, Vonnie C
This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility through where African Americans live, whom they associate with, and how they are impacted by racial and class-related stigma. Of particular interest is social mobility as accomplished through academic achievement, educational attainment, employment, economic independence, and homeownership. Research on five issues is reviewed and discussed: (a) the unique vulnerabilities of newly upwardly mobile African Americans, (b) wealth as a source of inequality, (c) racism and discrimination, (d) the stigma associated with lower-class status, and (e) social and cultural capital. The article concludes with a summary and directions for future research.
Wang, Zhenjie; Chen, Gong; Guo, Chao; Pang, Lihua; Zheng, Xiaoying
Socioeconomic inequalities associated with multiple disabilities have not been explored in China. This is the first study to explore changes in multiple disabilities among persons aged 15–64 years in China. Data were derived from the 1987 and 2006 China National Sample Surveys on Disability, which are nationally representative population-based surveys. Both surveys used multistage, stratified, cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size to derive nationally representative samples. We used standard weighting procedures to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities on multiple disabilities was examined by using logistic regression. Higher prevalence rates among rural residents than urban residents were observed. Male was more vulnerable than female in the present study. Minority ethnicity did increase the risk of multiple disabilities, but this association inversed in the logistic regression model. The widening discrepancy between urban and rural areas indicates that the most important priorities of disability prevention in China are to reinforce health promotion and to improve health services in rural communities. PMID:27775678
Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…
Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Pell, Jill P.; Mitchell, Richard
Background: whether socioeconomic position over the life course influences the wellbeing of older people similarly in different societies is not known. Objective: to investigate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction among individuals in early old age and the influence of the welfare state regime on the associations. Design: comparative study using data from Wave 2 and SHARELIFE, the retrospective Wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected during 2006–07 and 2008–09, respectively. Setting: thirteen European countries representing four welfare regimes (Southern, Scandinavian, Post-communist and Bismarckian). Subjects: a total of 17,697 individuals aged 50–75 years. Methods: slope indices of inequality (SIIs) were calculated for the association between life course socioeconomic position (measured by the number of books in childhood, education level and current wealth) and life satisfaction. Single level linear regression models stratified by welfare regime and multilevel regression models, containing interaction terms between socioeconomic position and welfare regime type, were calculated. Results: socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction were present in all welfare regimes. Educational inequalities in life satisfaction were narrowest in Scandinavian and Bismarckian regimes among both genders. Post-communist and Southern countries experienced both lower life satisfaction and larger socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction, using most measures of socioeconomic position. Current wealth was associated with large inequalities in life satisfaction across all regimes. Conclusions: Scandinavian and Bismarckian countries exhibited narrower socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. This suggests that more generous welfare states help to produce a more equitable distribution of wellbeing among older people. PMID:24476800
The goal of this study is to determine the age at menarche of girls from Tanzania examined in 2005 considering their families' social and material status. For the purpose of the analysis of the age at menarche, N = 71 girls were qualified (N = 8 from Dares Salaam and N = 63 from Mafinga) out of N = 98 who took part in the anthropological study. The calendar age of the girls who qualified for the determination of the age at menarche ranged from 12.9 to 22.7 years of age (X = 15.9 +/- 1.9). The age at menarche revealed using the recall method was 14.3 +/- 1.1 years. The menarche of the girls included in the study with a parent (mother or father) residing in town was found to be earlier (14.1 and 14.0 respectively). When neither parent completed schooling or had only primary education, the age at the daughter's menarche was on average 15.0 years. The girls whose fathers completed secondary school had their first menstruation at 14.8 years, while the daughters of mothers who finished secondary school--at 14.5. The lowest age at menarche was found in the group of girls whose parents obtained higher education (13.4 years in the case of the father and 13.3 in the case of the mother). A higher age at menarche was typical of the group of girls from families in which the number of children in the household was > or = 6 (15.2). In the two-way ANOVA equation, the lowest age at menarche was found in the girls whose families lived in town and had higher education, while the highest--where the family lived in the countryside and did not finish school or had primary school only. In the two-way ANOVA equation (education*self-estimation of the family's material situation), the lowest age at menarche (13.2) was found in the group where the father had higher education and the material situation was assessed as very good or rather good. My own studies are representative for similar African environments. The results obtained allow for comparison with research findings for highly
Coker, Kendell L; Rosenheck, Robert
Cross sectional studies have addressed the incarceration of Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no studies have examined changes in incarceration as they age. This study examines patterns of incarceration among Vietnam veterans treated in specialized veterans affairs (VA) intensive PTSD programs over time. Data was drawn from admission data from the initial episode of treatment of Caucasian and African American Vietnam veterans entering VA specialized intensive PTSD programs between 1993 and 2011 (N = 31,707). Bivariate correlations and logistic regression were used to examine associations among race and incarceration over time and the potentially confounding influence of demographic and clinical covariates on this relationship. Rates of reported incarceration declined from 63 to 43%. Over time, African American veterans were 34% more likely than Caucasian veterans to have a lifetime history of incarceration while interaction analysis showed steeper declines for Caucasians than African Americans. Rates of incarceration among these Vietnam veterans declined as they aged. Furthermore, African American veterans were substantially more likely than Caucasian veterans to have been incarcerated and showed less decline as the cohort aged. While reduced, needs for clinical PTSD services remain among aging combat veterans.
Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.
Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013
Lucifora, Claudio; Cappellari, Lorenzo; Cottini, Elena
In recent decades many industrialized countries experienced a substantial decrease in the working age population as a proportion of the total population. Demographic factors, such as declining fertility and increasing life expectancy, as well as institutional factors, such as the generosity of state-funded pension, both determined a change in the age distribution and a marked anticipation in retirement age. A lively debate among researchers and policymakers is currently taking place in Europe, as there are concerns that working longer may not be healthy for workers, or that it will be hard for older workers to get a job. Conversely, if working longer leads to higher employment rates and better health conditions, policies aimed at increasing peoples' retirement age may represent a "win-win" strategy both in terms of fiscal policies as well as in terms of healthy life expectancy. Unfolding this controversy is essentially an empirical matter which is also of paramount importance for public policy. In this study we first review the main findings of the socio-economic literature. Second, we highlight the main research avenues that are currently investigated in the area of Social Science and Health Economics at the Universitá Cattolica. Finally we discuss the policy implications and the prospects for future research.
Farmer, Deborah F; Jackson, Sharon A; Camacho, Fabian; Hall, Mark A
Minority and low socioeconomic status women are under-represented in clinical research due to logistical, informational, attitudinal, and sociocultural barriers. The primary objective of this study was to explore factors associated with research participation among African American and low socioeconomic status White women using the Theory of Planned Behavior. A secondary goal was to assess differences in barriers to research participation by age and race. A combination of qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (trust scale) methodologies was employed. Ten focus groups were held, organized by age and race. Content analysis revealed three predominant themes: fear, distrust, and hope. Older women had higher trust; there was no difference in trust by race. The results suggest that women have conflicting feelings about research that cross ethnic lines and should be addressed by researchers. Effective strategies for overcoming barriers and increasing representation are those that establish ongoing relationships with relevant communities.
Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio
Study purpose Whether or not socioeconomic status (SES)-related differences in the health of hemodialysis patients differ by age, period, and birth cohort remains unclear. We examined whether SES-related gaps in physical and mental health change with age, period, and birth cohort for hemodialysis patients. Methods Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, with members of a national patients’ association as participants. We used raking adjustment to create a database which had similar characteristics to the total sample of dialysis patients in Japan. SES was assessed using family size-adjusted income levels. We divided patients into three groups based on their income levels: below the first quartile, over the second quartile and under the third quartile, and over the fourth quartile. We used the number of dialysis complications as a physical health indicator and depressive symptoms as a mental health indicator. We used a cross-classified random-effects model that estimated fixed effects of age categories and period as level-1 factors, and random effects of birth cohort as level-2 factors. Results Relative risk of dialysis complications in respondents below the first quartile compared with ones over the fourth quartile was reduced in age categories >60 years. Mean differences in depressive symptoms between respondents below the first quartile and ones over the fourth quartile peaked in the 50- to 59-year-old age group, and were reduced in age groups >60 years. In addition, mean differences varied across periods, widening from 1996 to 2006. There were no significant birth cohort effects on income differences for dialysis complications or depressive symptoms. Conclusion The number of dialysis complications and depressive symptoms in dialysis patients were affected by income differences, and the degree of these differences changed with age category and period. PMID:27471405
Scurich, Nicholas; Monahan, John
The incarceration of criminal offenders in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. One way to scale back the prison population is by using empirical risk assessment methods to apportion prison sentences based on the likelihood of the offender recidivating, so-called "evidence-based sentencing." This practice has been denounced by some legal scholars, who claim that the use of certain empirically relevant risk factors--including gender, age, and race--is plainly immoral. This study tested whether lay individuals share their sentiment. More than 600 participants weighted to be representative of the United States population were asked about the extent to which they would support imposing shorter sentences for old versus young offenders, female versus male offenders, and white versus black offenders, all else being equal. The results indicate that very few participants (<3%) had no settled opinion about using evidence-based sentencing, and approximately half were unequivocally opposed to the practice. Whereas more than 3-quarters of participants were against using race to determine prison sentences, almost half were open to the possibility of using gender and more than 3-quarters of the participants were open to the possibility of using age to determine prison sentences. Individual differences as a function of participants' own demographic characteristics, or of their belief in "just deserts" as the primary purpose of sentencing, or of their political outlook, were either inconsistently or meagerly related to these findings. The profoundly disparate views held by the general public regarding the use of specific risk factors do not bode well for the use of demographic risk factors in sentencing as a way to roll back mass incarceration.
Neupert, Shevaun D.; Miller, Lisa M. Soederberg; Lachman, Margie E.
The present study focused on age and SES differences in stress reactivity in response to cognitively challenging tasks. Specifically, we assessed within-person trajectories of cortisol, a steroid hormone released by the adrenal gland in response to stressors, before, during, and after exposure to cognitively challenging tasks. We extend the…
Krey, Karl-Friedrich; Hirsch, Christian
Orthodontic treatment is a common dental procedure in developed countries. However, the frequency and factors associated with treatment demand are different between countries. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of orthodontic treatment in German children and adolescents and to analyse the influence of age, gender, and socio-economic status (SES; education and region) on the frequency of treatment. Subjects in a random population sample of 1538 German children and adolescents, aged 11-14 years, were interviewed at home in the autumn of 2008 regarding current orthodontic treatment and associated factors. Approximately one-third (33.5 per cent) of the subjects interviewed were undergoing orthodontic treatment at that time. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the likelihood of receiving orthodontic treatment was higher for girls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.65], for high school pupils (OR = 1.19, 95 per cent CI: 1.06-1.34), and for children and adolescents living in the western part of Germany (OR = 1.45, 95 per cent CI: 1.00-2.08) and increased with age (OR = 1.13 per year, 95 per cent CI: 1.02-1.25). Subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment more often received prophylactic measures (OR = 2.06, 95 per cent CI: 1.63-2.59) compared with those not currently receiving orthodontic treatment. The frequency of orthodontic treatment in Germany largely depends on gender and SES.
Goh, Victor H H
Asia has about 60% of the world population and population aging is occurring more rapidly in Asia than in Western countries. The group aged 65 years and above will increase from 207 million in 2000 to 857 million in 2050, a staggering increase of 314%. The diversity in economic, demographic, religious, cultural and geo-political factors in Asia is unparalleled by any other continent, and is, in part, contributory to the rapid rise in population aging. By 2050, those under 15 years old will have shrunk from 30% in 2000 to 19%, while those aged 65 years and above will increase from 6% to 18%. In addition, the gender divide still persists with 100 elderly women to 70 elderly men. These projected demographic changes pose three major challenges: 1) how best to address the rising population of the group aged 65 years and above, 2) how to address the shrinking population of the young as well as the working adults, and 3) how to address the problems arising from the disproportionate increase in older women than men. From now to 2050, it will be expeditious for each country in Asia to look into ways of reversing the decline in total fertility rates (TFRs) and restore to replacement levels. If not, at least introduce measures to halt its free fall. Due to the complexity of factors that have influenced the fall in TFRs in Asia, it will be a daunting task to reverse this fall. There is no "single size fits all" solution to this complex problem. Research work in this short-term strategy in addressing the aging population is urgent. In the longer term, the East-West Centre have suggested four modalities, 1) establish policies and programmes that enhance traditional Asian systems of family support for the elderly; 2) introduce policy reform that encourages the elderly who are still capable of remaining in the work force; 3) create institutions and systems that support high levels of personal saving; and 4) formulate public programmes, including pension schemes and national
Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Jarosewich, Tania
This study analyzes the standardization sample of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. Results indicate no age or race/ethnicity differences on any of the scales and small but significant differences…
Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori
Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…
Wolfle, James D.; Williams, Mitchell R.
This research study examined the 2006 cohort of First-Time-in-College students from all 23 community colleges in Virginia. The goal was to examine fall-to-fall persistence and success in the first college-level mathematics course. Predictor variables used were developmental status, age, gender, and race and ethnicity of the student. Interaction…
Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole
A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N…
Mills, Michael Thomas
This dissertation examined the relationship between the three year academic success of transfer students and the variables of race, gender, age, number of transfer credit hours, and place of residence. The study was conducted at Midwestern State University, a public, regional four-year institution and followed the incoming transfer classes of the…
Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad
Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…
Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cécile
The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. PMID:25285410
Tyczynski, Jerzy E; Berkel, Hans J
Background There were significant changes in cancer mortality in the USA over the last several decades, in the whole country and in particular states. However, no in depth analysis has been published so far, dealing with changes in mortality time trends in the state of Ohio. Since the state of Ohio belongs to the states of relatively high level of all-sites mortality in both males and females, it is of interest to analyze recent changes in mortality rates, as well as to compare them with the situation in the rest of the USA. The main aim of this study was to analyze, describe and interpret all-sites cancer mortality time trends in the population of the State of Ohio. Methods Cancer mortality data by age, sex, race and year for the period 1970–2001 were obtained from the Surveillance Research Program of the National Cancer Institute SEER*Stat software. A joinpoint regression methodology was used to provide estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) and to detect points in time where significant changes in the trends occurred. Results In both, males and females mortality rates were higher in blacks compared with whites. The difference was bigger in males (39.9%) than in women (23.3%). Mortality rates in Ohio are generally higher than average USA rates – an overall difference was 7.5% in men in 1997–2001, and 6.1% in women. All-sites mortality trends in Ohio and in the whole USA are similar. However, in general, mortality rates in Ohio remained elevated compared with the USA rates throughout the entire analyzed period. The exceptions are the rates in young and middle-aged African Americans. Conclusion Although direction of time trends in Ohio are similar in Ohio and the whole US, Ohio still have cancer mortality rates higher than the US average. In addition, there is a significant discrepancy between white and black population of Ohio in all-sites mortality level, with disadvantage for Blacks. To diminish disparities in cancer mortality between African
Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A
The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging.
Arizmendi, Genesis D.; DiLallo, Jennifer N.
Purpose We examined the relationship between maternal level of education as an index of socioeconomic status (SES) on the narrative story retells of school-aged children who are English language learners (ELLs) to guide interpretation of results. Method Using data available from the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts database (Miller & Iglesias, 2012), we were able to compare the language samples of 907 ELL students in kindergarten and 2nd grade whose parents had different levels of education. We used a simple linear regression to see if maternal level of education was predictive of measures of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative structure in Spanish and English narrative story retells. Results There were no differences in language measures between children from different SES backgrounds for the Spanish language samples. There were differences with the English language samples in four of the five measures for the kindergarten sample and only three of five measures for the older children, with a smaller percentage of the variance explained. Conclusion Despite common knowledge that SES has a negative influence on language, the actual influence on the narrative productions of school-aged ELLs was less than anticipated for English and absent for Spanish. The implications for assessment are discussed and concluded. PMID:27420411
Slocum, Lee Ann; Simpson, Sally S.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf
The article discusses a research instrument developed and utilized by the Pittsburgh Girls Study that asked young girls (ages 7 and 8) and their caretakers to report on the girls' involvement in a variety of problem behaviors. In this article, the authors evaluate whether comprehension, prevalence, and caretaker-child concordance of problem…
Copeland, Valire Carr; Koeske, Gary; Greeno, Catherine G.
This study used the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) to examine the level of consumer satisfaction with children's (ages 8 to 17 years) outpatient mental health services. Analyses were completed using both individual satisfaction items and a summed scale score. The CSQ scale had satisfactory internal consistency reliability for both…
In the summer of 1893 financial panic struck Colorado. The price of silver, in a protracted downward spiral since the conclusion of the Civil War, finally crashed. With economic and political turmoil come angry responses, as people search for scape-goats to explain their new and unexpected poverty. And in Gilded Age Colorado, one of those angry…
Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S; Brady, Kathleen T; Blazer, Dan G; Hoyle, Rick H
There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12-34 years in the 2005-2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, "Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin" was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; "got them from a friend/relative for free" and "bought them from a friends/relative" were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18-25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations.
Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.
There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275
Allen, M T; Matthews, K A
The objectives of the present study were threefold: (a) to compare the patterns of hemodynamic responding of children and adolescents during behavioral challenges, (b) to examine whether previously reported cardiovascular reactivity differences between Black and White children are dependent on pubertal status, and (c) to assess whether gender differences in hemodynamic response reported for adults is similar in children. One hundred fifty-nine children (ages 8-10 years) and adolescents (ages 15-17 years), equally divided along gender and racial lines, participated in a laboratory protocol consisting of a reaction time task, a mirror tracing task, a cold forehead challenge, and a stress interview. Results indicated that adolescents responded with greater beta-adrenergic activation than did children and that gender differences in reactivity often reported for adults emerged more clearly in the adolescents than in the children. This study failed to replicate prior findings of greater vasoconstrictive responses in Black children as compared with White children.
Yang, Shih-Hsien; Liu, Chia-Lin; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Lee, Ching-Chih; Lin, Fu-Huang
Purpose Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global pandemic metabolic disorder. In recent years, the amount of medical resources required for the treatment of diabetes has increased as diabetes rates have gradually risen. The combined effects of individual and neighbourhood socio-economic status (SES) on DM survival rates are still not clear, especially in patients of working age. In this paper, we aim to analyze the combined effects of neighbourhood and individual SES on DM survival rates in patients of working age in Taiwan. Methods The study of 23,781 people who were diagnosed with DM by using population—based study between 2002 and 2006. Each sample was followed up for 4 years or as a sensor case. We defined Individual SES and neighbourhood SES by each patient’s job category and household income which characterized as advantaged or disadvantaged. Then we compared the survival rates by SES group used Cox proportional hazards model for adjust risk factors. Results The 4-year overall survival rates of diabetic patients were worst for those with low individual SES who living in advantaged neighbourhoods. After adjustment for patient characteristics, DM patients with high individual SES living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods had the same risk of mortality as those patients with high individual SES living in advantaged neighbourhoods (hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81–1.51). The study found that DM patients with low individual SES who live in disadvantaged areas had a greater risk of mortality than those with high SES (odds ratio: 2.57; 95% CI: 2.04–3.24). There were significant differences in survival rates between patients with high individual SES and patients with low individual SES. In contrast, the results did not statistically significant differences in survival rates between advantaged and disadvantaged neighbourhood SES groups. Conclusion DM patients with low individual SES had the worst survival rate, regardless of whether they were
Franz, Carol E.; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J.; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S.
Summary In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N = 727 men; mean age 55, SD = 2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [β = 0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478
Franz, Carol E; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P; Panizzon, Matthew S; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S
In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [β=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms.
Bullard, Kai McKeever
Background/Objectives The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Subjects/Methods Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011–2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. Results The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men’s SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40–49 (men) or 60–69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. Conclusions These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral
Alenghat, Francis J.
Systemic inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory connective tissue diseases (CTD) like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis associate with cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown whether particular groups of patients have enhanced propensity for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) associated with their CTD. Analysis of aggregate health record data at a large U.S. academic center identified CTD and ASCVD status for 287,467 African American and white adults. ASCVD prevalence in those with CTD was 29.7% for African Americans and 14.7% for white patients with prevalence ratios, compared to those without CTD, of 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. When different types of CTD were analyzed individually (rheumatoid arthritis; lupus; scleroderma; Sjögren Syndrome; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; unspecified/mixed CTD; other inflammatory arthropathy), increased ASCVD rates were found in nearly all subsets, always with higher prevalence ratios in African Americans. The prevalence ratio of ASCVD was particularly high in young African Americans. Furthermore, individuals lacking traditional cardiovascular risk factors had more ASCVD if they had CTD (prevalence ratio 2.9). Multivariate analysis confirmed a positive interaction between CTD and African-American race and a negative interaction between CTD and age. The factors driving the observed disproportionate CTD-associated ASCVD in African Americans, young adults, and those without traditional risk factors warrant further study. PMID:26842423
Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K
Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development.
Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil
Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716
Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil
Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies.
Wu, Chin-Chia; Chang, Chun-Ming; Hsu, Ta-Wen; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Jian-Han; Huang, Chih-Yuan; Lee, Ching-Chih
Abstract Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer mortality. More than 90% of patients with esophageal cancer in Taiwan have squamous cell carcinoma. Survival of such patients is related to socioeconomic status (SES). We studied the association between SES (individual and neighborhood) and the survival of working-age patients with esophageal cancer in Taiwan. A population-based study was conducted of 4097 patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer between 2002 and 2006. Each was traced for 5 years or until death. Individual SES was defined by enrollee job category. Neighborhood SES was based on household income and dichotomized into advantaged or disadvantaged. Multilevel logistic regression was used to compare the survival rates by SES group after adjustment for possible confounding and risk factors. Hospital and neighborhood SES were used as random effects in multilevel logistic regression. In patients younger than 65 years, 5-year overall survival rates were worst for those with low individual SES living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. After adjustment for patient characteristics, esophageal cancer patients with high individual SES had a 39% lower risk of mortality than those with low individual SES (odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.48–0.77). Patients living in disadvantaged areas with high individual SES were more likely to receive surgery than those with low SES (odds ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.11–1.89). Esophageal cancer patients with low individual SES have the worst 5-year survival, even with a universal healthcare system. Public health, education, and social welfare programs should address the inequality of esophageal cancer survival. PMID:27399129
Wu, Chin-Chia; Chang, Chun-Ming; Hsu, Ta-Wen; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Jian-Han; Huang, Chih-Yuan; Lee, Ching-Chih
Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer mortality. More than 90% of patients with esophageal cancer in Taiwan have squamous cell carcinoma. Survival of such patients is related to socioeconomic status (SES). We studied the association between SES (individual and neighborhood) and the survival of working-age patients with esophageal cancer in Taiwan. A population-based study was conducted of 4097 patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer between 2002 and 2006. Each was traced for 5 years or until death. Individual SES was defined by enrollee job category. Neighborhood SES was based on household income and dichotomized into advantaged or disadvantaged. Multilevel logistic regression was used to compare the survival rates by SES group after adjustment for possible confounding and risk factors. Hospital and neighborhood SES were used as random effects in multilevel logistic regression. In patients younger than 65 years, 5-year overall survival rates were worst for those with low individual SES living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. After adjustment for patient characteristics, esophageal cancer patients with high individual SES had a 39% lower risk of mortality than those with low individual SES (odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.48-0.77). Patients living in disadvantaged areas with high individual SES were more likely to receive surgery than those with low SES (odds ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.89). Esophageal cancer patients with low individual SES have the worst 5-year survival, even with a universal healthcare system. Public health, education, and social welfare programs should address the inequality of esophageal cancer survival.
The aim of this paper was to establish whether the influence of socioeconomic factors on BMI and the prevalence of underweight and overweight changes with age. The data were obtained from 1008 schoolgirls aged 16-18 years for whom earlier data on weight and height were available. Their height and body mass were measured and their BMIs calculated. Height and weight in early life were assessed by medical records review. The girls were measured by trained school nurses at 7, 9, 14 years of age. Socioeconomic differences in BMI were found to increase with age. Parents' higher education and urban environment were associated with smaller BMI gain between the ages of 7 and 18 years. Among subjects whose mother and/or father had higher education the prevalence of underweight increased with age, and in other groups it remained at a similar level. In the younger age categories (7- and 9-year-olds) underweight was less frequent in subjects from towns than those from rural areas, while in the older categories (14, 16-18 years of age) the opposite tendency was found. As subjects grew up, there was a decline in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in all groups. Parental education and place of residence seem to influence weight status in a different way in childhood than during adolescence.
Background Multimorbidity is a phenomenon with high burden and high prevalence in the elderly. Our previous research has shown that multimorbidity can be divided into the multimorbidity patterns of 1) anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders (ADS) and pain, and 2) cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known, how these patterns are influenced by patient characteristics. The objective of this paper is to analyze the association of socio-demographic variables, and especially socio-economic status with multimorbidity in general and with each multimorbidity pattern. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of 3.189 multimorbid patients aged 65+ randomly selected from 158 GP practices. Data were collected in GP interviews and comprehensive patient interviews. Missing values have been imputed by hot deck imputation based on Gower distance in morbidity and other variables. The association of patient characteristics with the number of chronic conditions is analysed by multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results Multimorbidity in general is associated with age (+0.07 chronic conditions per year), gender (-0.27 conditions for female), education (-0.26 conditions for medium and -0.29 conditions for high level vs. low level) and income (-0.27 conditions per logarithmic unit). The pattern of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders shows comparable associations with a higher coefficient for gender (-1.29 conditions for female), while multimorbidity within the pattern of ADS and pain correlates with gender (+0.79 conditions for female), but not with age or socioeconomic status. Conclusions Our study confirms that the morbidity load of multimorbid patients is associated with age, gender and the socioeconomic status of the patients, but there were no effects of living arrangements and marital status. We could also show that the influence of patient characteristics is dependent on the
Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Haapala, Eero A; Lindi, Virpi; Väistö, Juuso; Lintu, Niina; Karjalainen, Panu; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A
We studied differences in physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and the types of PA and SB between Finnish girls and boys and children from different socioeconomic backgrounds (SES). We assessed PA, SB, parental education, and household income using detailed questionnaires in a representative population sample of 486 children (238 girls, 248 boys) aged 6-8 years. Girls spent on average 1.7 h/day and boys 2.0 h/day in total PA (p = 0.002). Altogether 66% of girls and 54% of boys had less than 2 h of total PA per day (p = 0.012). Girls had lower levels of unsupervised PA (45 vs. 54 min/day, p = 0.001), supervised PA (1.5 vs. 1.9 h/week, p = 0.009), and PA during school recess (1.8 vs. 1.9 h/week, p = 0.032) than boys. Girls had higher levels of total SB (3.8 vs. 3.4 h/day, p = 0.015) but lower levels of screen-based SB (1.5 vs. 1.9 h/day, p < 0.001) than boys. Lower parental education and household income were associated with lower levels of supervised PA in girls (p = 0.011 and p = 0.008, respectively) and in boys (p = 0.006 and p = 0.003, respectively). Lower parental education and household income were also related to higher levels of screen-based SB in boys (p = 0.005 and p < 0.001, respectively) but not in girls. Girls have lower levels of total, unsupervised, and supervised PA, PA during recess, and screen-based SB but higher levels of total SB than boys. Lower parental education and household income are associated with lower levels of supervised PA in both genders and higher levels of screen-based SB in boys.
Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu; Kim, Woorim; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Tae Hyun
Abstract Femur fracture is an emerging public health concern in aging societies, owing to the substantially high morbidity and mortality. Because the recent increase in femur fracture incidence in Asian populations is comparable to that in the West, it is necessary to investigate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality after femur fracture in developed Asian societies. Data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Claims Database. During 2002 to 2013, femur fractures were newly diagnosed in 5441 patients among 1025,340 enrollees. Multiple logistic regression and the Cox proportional model were used to investigate the associations between individual SES and probability of surgery and mortality after femur fracture. Of 5441 patients, 1928 (35.4%) received surgery. Patients with low (odds ratio [OR] = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75–0.99) and middle (OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.74–0.98) income were less likely to undergo surgery than high-income patients. Patients with low (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01–1.24) and middle (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08–1.33) income had a higher HR for mortality. This difference was more prominent in patients who underwent surgery (low income: HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.94–1.21; middle income: HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04–1.33) than in patients with conservative treatment (low income: HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04–1.49; middle income: HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.08–1.56). Femur-fracture patients with low SES are less likely to receive surgery for and more likely to die after femur fracture. The difference in mortality risk remained even when only the patients who received surgery were considered, suggesting that we need to consider support measures for these deprived patients. PMID:27930508
Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships between SES and self-rated health. This study further tested whether the effects of SES and lifestyle factors differ as people age. The findings indicate that higher levels of income and education as well as not being in poverty predicted better self-rated health. Meanwhile, engaging in regular exercise and being underweight significantly mediated the relationship between education and self-rated health as well as between poverty and self-rated health. Finally, poverty and regular exercise had a greater impact on self-rated health in old age than in middle age. Implications for enhancing antipoverty policies and exercise programs are discussed.
Isingoma, Barugahara Evyline; Samuel, Mbugua; Edward, Karuri; Maina, Gakenia Wamuyu
The objective of this study was to analyze the nutritional and morbidity patterns of children aged 7-24 months in relationship to household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Structured questionnaires and repeated 24-hour recalls were used to collect data. Maternal education and age influenced timing of complementary foods, dietary diversity score, meal frequency, and diarrhea incidences (p < .05). This resulted in 53%, 59%, 48%, 43%, and 22% of the study children having inadequate intake of energy, protein, vitamin A, iron, and zinc, respectively. Households need to be empowered to utilize available resources for improving nutrient intake and health among their children.
Ellison, Christopher G.; Burdette, Amy M.; Wilcox, W. Bradford
A substantial body of research has shown that relationship quality tends to be (a) lower among racial and ethnic minorities and (b) higher among more religious persons and among couples in which partners share common religious affiliations, practices, and beliefs. However, few studies have examined the interplay of race or ethnicity and religion…
Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.
Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…
Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Estabrook, Ryne; Schupp, Jurgen; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman
Longitudinal data spanning 22 years, obtained from deceased participants of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP; N = 1,637; 70- to 100-year-olds), were used to examine if and how life satisfaction exhibits terminal decline at the end of life. Changes in life satisfaction were more strongly associated with distance to death than with…
Batty, G. David; Gale, Catharine R.; Tynelius, Per; Deary, Ian J.
The authors evaluated the little-examined association between intelligence (IQ) and injury mortality and, for the first known time, explored the extent to which IQ might explain established socioeconomic inequalities in injury mortality. A nationwide cohort of 1,116,442 Swedish men who underwent IQ testing at about 18 years of age was followed for mortality experience for an average of 22.6 years. In age-adjusted analyses in which IQ scores were classified into 4 groups, relative to the highest scoring category, the hazard ratio in the lowest was elevated for all injury types: poisonings (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.25, 7.97), fire (HR = 4.39, 95% CI: 2.51, 7.77), falls (HR = 3.17, 95% CI: 2.19, 4.59), drowning (HR = 3.16, 95% CI: 1.85, 5.39), and road injury (HR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.91, 2.47). Dose-response effects across the full IQ range were evident (P-trend < 0.001). Control for potential covariates, including socioeconomic position, had little impact on these gradients. When socioeconomic disadvantage—indexed by parental and subject's own occupational social class—was the exposure of interest, IQ explained a sizable portion (19%–86%) of the relation with injury mortality. These findings suggest that IQ may have an important role both in the etiology of injuries and in explaining socioeconomic inequalities in injury mortality. PMID:19147741
Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole
A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.
O'Dea, J A; Caputi, P
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), age, weight and gender on the body image and weight control practices of children and adolescents, and to investigate whether health education about weight issues should target low socioeconomic groups. The study participants were a randomly selected group of school children who completed a questionnaire, and had their height and weight measured. Participants (n = 1131) were aged 6-19 years from 12 schools in New South Wales. SES, age, gender, body weight, body image, skipping breakfast, physical self-esteem, attempts to lose or gain weight, and dietary and weight control advice received from others were examined. Log-linear, chi 2 and MANOVA analyses were used to determine interactions between variables. Low SES children were more likely to be overweight, to skip breakfast, to perceive themselves as 'too thin', to be trying to gain weight and less likely to receive dietary or weight control advice. Physical self-esteem was lowest among overweight girls of middle/upper SES and greatest among boys of low SES, despite the latter being more likely to be overweight. Being overweight does not appear to adversely affect the physical self-esteem of children of low SES, particularly boys. Health educators should examine these issues with young people to help make health education and nutrition education most relevant and appropriate.
Hitchens, P; Blizzard, L; Jones, G; Day, L; Fell, J
Thoroughbred jumps racing jockeys have a fall rate greater than their flat racing counterparts. Previous studies have focused on factors that contribute to falls by horses but, to date, there has not been a study of risk factors for falls to jockeys in jumps races. Data on race-day falls were extracted from stipendiary stewards reports lodged with Principal Racing Authorities following each race meeting. Denominator data were provided by Racing Information Services Australia on races conducted from August 2002 until July 2009. Univariable and multivariable analyses, estimating incidence rate ratios, were conducted using Poisson regression. In multivariable analysis in hurdle racing, important predictors of falls were higher club level, larger field size, greater prize money, provisionally licensed jockeys and older jockeys. There were significant interactions between jockey licence and prize money; jockey age and previous rides this meeting; race grade and race distance; horse age and field size; and club level and field size. In steeplechase racing, important predictors were type of jump with lowest fall rates in races over Mark III jumps compared to standard fences, provisionally licensed jockeys, jockeys having had previous rides at a meeting, and larger field size. There were significant interactions between the number of previous starts by the horse and field size; race distance and prize money; and race distance and previous rides this meeting. This study has identified factors for falls in jumps racing that could form the basis for targeted strategies to improve occupational health and safety standards.
This portion of the Energy vision 2020 draft report discusses the socioeconomic environment of the Tennessee Valley region. It describes the region and mentions geographical factors, current economy, the agricultural sector, and future trends in the economy of the region.
Whaley, Arthur L.
Ethnicity/race is a much-studied variable in epidemiology. There has been little consensus about what self-reported ethnicity/race represents, but it is a measure of some combination of genetic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. The present article will attempt to: 1.) Elucidate the limitations of contemporary discourse on ethnicity/race that emphasizes the genetic and socioeconomic dimensions as competing explanatory frameworks; 2.) Demonstrate how considerable attention to the cultural dimension facilitates understanding of race differences in health-related outcomes; and 3.) Discuss interpretations of disparities in health status of African Americans versus European Americans from an ethical perspective. A major challenge to the discourse on ethnicity/race and health being limited to socioeconomic and genetic considerations is the lack of attention to the third alternative of a cultural perspective. The combined cultural ideologies of individualism and racism undermine the utility of epidemiologic research in health promotion and disease prevention campaigns aimed at reducing the racial gaps in health status. An ethical analysis supplements the cultural perspective. Ethics converge with culture on the notion of values influencing the study of ethnicity/race in epidemiology. A cultural approach to the use of ethnicity/race in epidemiologic research addresses methodological limitations, public health traditions, and ethical imperatives. PMID:12934873
Berger, Martin D.; Yang, Dongyun; Sunakawa, Yu; Zhang, Wu; Ning, Yan; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Okazaki, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yuji; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Schirripa, Marta; Lenz, Annika Medea; Bohanes, Pierre; Barzi, Afsaneh; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Hanna, Diana L.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef
Most studies report on colon and rectal cancers collectively, even though biologic and prognostic differences exist between these disease entities. Here, we investigated the effects of sex, age, and ethnicity/race on rectal cancer (RC) mortality by stage focusing on differences before and after 2004. Using the SEER database, we identified 105,511 patients diagnosed with RC from 1988-2012. Main outcomes were disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS). In patients with stage I-III RC, women achieved a longer DSS (HR 0.87, P < 0.001) than men, independent of age, from 1988-2012. In stage IV disease, the sex disparity favoring women was limited to the age 18-44 yr cohort (DSS HR 0.79, P < 0.001). The sex difference in DSS (Pinteraction = 0.009) was significantly reduced from 2004 to 2012 across all ages. Hispanics and Native Americans with locoregional RC had inferior DSS relative to Whites from 1988-2003, but these differences were not evident from 2004-2012 (Pinteraction = 0.001). Additionally, Asians with stage I-III RC had superior DSS from 2004 on compared to Whites. Mortality in African American patients improved modestly overall and remained significantly higher than other ethnicities/races across all stages. Sex disparities have narrowed in patients with metastatic RC, but persist in patients with stage I-III disease. These differences are most evident among young patients (18-44 years), where sex disparities have even widened in stage I-III disease. While outcomes have improved for Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans with stage I-III rectal cancer, black-white disparities remain in all disease stages. PMID:27449091
Savitz, David A; Kaufman, Jay S; Dole, Nancy; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Thorp, John M; Kaczor, Diane T
Few studies have considered the differing impact of socioeconomic factors on pregnancy outcomes among racial subgroups. We assessed pregnancy outcome by race, education, and income (poverty index), using data from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, a cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina, using binomial regression. Poverty was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth only among African Americans with 12 or more years of education (RR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2). White participants with both a low level of education and an income below the poverty line were at increased risk of preterm birth (RR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7). White women with 12 or more years of education had increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth (SGA, defined as <10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age) associated with poverty status (RR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7). Socioeconomic indicators appear to have complex joint effect patterns among racial subgroups, perhaps because the material and psychological implications of education and income status differ between groups.
Teutsch, Uwe; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald
Background Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009. Methods The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed. Results Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189–220 minutes) for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211–271 minutes) for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years. Conclusion To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races. PMID:23690697
Okech, Allan P.
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in
Eisen, Colby H; Bowie, Janice V; Gaskin, Darrell J; LaVeist, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J
Dental services use is a public health issue that varies by race. African Americans are less likely than whites to make use of these services. While several explanations exist, little is known about the role of segregation in understanding this race difference. Most research does not account for the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and segregation. Using cross-sectional data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study, we examined the relationship between race and dental services use. Our primary outcome of interest was dental services use within 2 years. Our main independent variable was self-identified race. Of the 1408 study participants, 59.3% were African American. More African Americans used dental services within 2 years than whites. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, income, education, insurance, self-rated health, and number of comorbidities, African Americans had greater odds of having used services (odds ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.16, 1.89) within 2 years. Within this low-income racially integrated sample, African Americans participated in dental services more than whites. Place of living is an important factor to consider when seeking to understand race differences in dental service use.
Miller, Gregory E.; Engen, Phillip A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Shaikh, Maliha; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Keshavarzian, Ali
In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects’ zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12–18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking) confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11–22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was associated with
Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Do, Dung Van
Background Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Design Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.
Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung
Background Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Design Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence. PMID:26950567
Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Howe, Laura D; Rasmussen, Mette; Due, Pernille; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
Background Socioeconomic inequalities in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) later in childhood are in opposite directions, which raises questions about when during childhood the change in direction happens. We examined how maternal and paternal education and household income were associated with birthweight z-scores and with BMI z-scores at age 5 and 12 months and 7 years, and we examined the socioeconomic differences in the tracking of these z-scores across infancy and childhood. Methods The associations were studied in a cohort of children in the Danish National Birth Cohort, single born between 1997 and 2003, for whom information on body size from at least 1 of 4 time points (n=85 062) was recorded. We examined the associations using linear mixed-effects modelling. Results Children from families with a low maternal and paternal educational level changed their body size z-scores upwards between birth and age 7 years. At age 5 and 12 months, there were no educational gradient. A low maternal educational level was associated with lower birth weight for gestational age z-scores at birth for boys (−0.199; 95% CI −0.230 to −0.169) and girls (−0.198; 95% CI −0.229 to −0.167) and higher BMI z-scores at age 7 for boys (0.198; 95% CI 0.154 to 0.242) and girls (0.218; 95% CI 0.173 to 0.264). There was not a similarly clear pattern in the tracking between different household income groups. However, a low household income level was associated with higher z-scores of both birth weight and BMI at age 7 years, but with a much weaker gradient at 5 and 12 months. Conclusions The educational gradient shifts from positive with birth weight, to none during infancy to inverse with BMI at age 7 years. In contrast, the income gradient was positive at birth and at 7 years and much weaker during infancy. PMID:28110282
Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Bjerrum, Lars; Boel, Jonas; Jarløv, Jens Otto; Arpi, Magnus
Objective To investigate the distribution of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health care among children aged 0–6 years and its association with socioeconomic factors. Design A cross-sectional study describing antibiotic prescriptions and socioeconomic factors, using different population-based registers from Statistics Denmark. Setting Antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 from primary health care in the Capital Region of Denmark. Subjects The population of children aged 0–6 years (n = 139,398) in the Capital Region of Denmark. Main outcome measures High use of antibiotics identified by number of antibiotic prescriptions (≥ 3 prescriptions per year) and defined daily doses (DDD). A multinomial logistic regression analysis estimating the association between high antibiotic use and parents’ education, employment status, income, child’s sex, and ethnic background. Results Ten percent of children accounted for 25% of the total use DDD. There was a clear tendency that the risk for high antibiotic use increased as parental educational level decreased. The risk for high use was the highest among children of mothers and fathers with basic schooling ≤10 years (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29–1.98, and OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.34–1.91, respectively). Low income and unemployment were not associated with high antibiotic use. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors can only partially explain differences in antibiotic use. Further research is needed to clarify the unequal distribution of antibiotic prescribing and the association between high antibiotic use and low educational level. This would provide valuable information in the planning of strategies to promote rational use of antibiotics among children. Key Points The Capital Region of Denmark has the highest rate of antibiotic prescribing in Denmark.Preschool children are among the age groups with the highest use.Ten percent of the children accounted for 25% of the total antibiotic use.Low parental educational level was
Chien, Lung-Chang; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Schootman, Mario
This study identified geographic disparities in breast cancer mortality across the U.S. using kriging to overcome unavailability of data because of confidentiality and reliability concerns. A structured additive regression model was used to detect where breast cancer mortality rates were elevated across nine divisions with 3109 U.S. counties during 1982-2004. Our analysis identified at least 25.8% of counties where breast cancer mortality rates were elevated. High-risk counties compared to lower-risk counties had higher relative risks for African American women than for White women. Greater geographic disparities more likely present in African American women and younger women. To sum up, our statistical approach reduced the impact of unavailable data, and identified the number and location of counties with high breast cancer mortality risk by race and age across the U.S.
O'Toole, Thomas P; Arbelaez, Jose J; Dixon, Bruce W
The objective was to identify factors associated with financial discussions and financial disclosure of medical costs within a low-income urban community. The method used was a cross-sectional community-based survey in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The survey was conducted door-to-door and at area food pantries. Two hundred and twenty six adults were interviewed. Overall, 76.1% reported having a usual source for care and 73.0% had health insurance. Thirty nine and four tenths percent reported having been asked about their ability to pay for health services; this was more common among African Americans (OR 5.2; 95% CI 1.73-15.84), those with no health insurance (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.01-17.89), and those less than 45 years old (OR:2.9; 95% CI 1.03-8.28). Only 10.6% reported being told how much a health visit would cost. Overall, 30.1% reported their provider made payment allowances for medical bills, with white respondents 2.5 times more likely and those persons identifying an ambulatory site for care 2.6 times more likely to report this. Overall, 30.5% reported being referred to a collection agency for unpaid medical bills; this was 2.4 times more common among those individuals identifying a non-ambulatory usual site for care. Significant race and socio-economic disparities exist in discussions about and access to financial resources to pay for medical care. Expanding the availability of financial assistance is critical to improving access to health care.
Goodman, Elizabeth; Huang, Bin; Schafer-Kalkhoff, Tara; Adler, Nancy E.
Purpose The cognitive, social, and biological transitions of adolescence suggest that subjective perceptions of social position based on the socioeconomic hierarchy may undergo important changes during this period, yet how such perceptions develop is poorly understood and no studies assess if changes in such perceptions influence adolescents’ health. This study describes adolescents’ subjective perceptions of familial socioeconomic status (SSS), how SSS changes over time, and how age, race, and objective socioeconomic status (SES) indicators influence SSS. In addition, the study determines if SSS independently influences adolescents’ self-rated health, an important predictor of morbidity and health service utilization. Methods 1179 non-Hispanic black and white baseline 7–12th graders from a Midwestern public school district completed a validated, teen-specific measure of SSS annually for 4 consecutive years. A parent provided information on SES. Markov modeling assessed transitions in SSS over time. Results SSS declined with age (p=.001) and stabilized among older teens. In addition to age, SES and race, but not gender, were significant correlates of SSS, but the relationships between these factors were complex. In cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, black teens from families with low parent education had higher SSS than white teens from similarly educated families, while white teens from highly educated families had higher SSS than black teens from highly educated families. Lower SSS and changes in SSS predicted poor self rated health even when adjusting for race and objective SES measures. Conclusion Subjective evaluations of socioeconomic status predict adolescents’ global health ratings even when adjusting for the sociodemographic factors which shape them. PMID:17950168
Schöllgen, Ina; Huxhold, Oliver; Schmiedek, Florian
The importance of socioeconomic status (SES) for psychological functioning over the life span is increasingly acknowledged in psychological research. The Reserve Capacity Model by Gallo and Matthews (2003) suggests that SES is not only linked to physical health but also to the experience of positive and negative emotions. Moreover, due to differential amounts of psychosocial resources, cross-domain associations between emotions and health might differ according to SES. The present study examined age-related developments in positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and physical health, as well as dynamic associations between health and emotions in the second half of life. We looked at differences in these trajectories and their interrelationships according to education as one aspect of SES. We used data of up to three waves spanning 12 years from the nationally representative German Ageing Survey (N = 3,847, AgeT1 = 40-85 years). Applying multiple-group dual change score models, we found differential age-related change in PA and physical health, but not in NA, in two groups differing in level of education. NA did only predict change in physical health in low-educated individuals, whereas physical health was equally strongly related to change in PA in both education groups. These results indicate that SES not only affects changes in physical health and emotional functioning but also their interrelationships.
In many classrooms across America, race and ethnicity are very much on the table. Teachers dream of seeing their students discuss difference in a constructive way. Some educators actively encourage their classes to get outside their comfort zones and confront the country's racial history, but in many faculty rooms, there's little to no talk about…
Turner, Jim; Gavin, Carl; Owen, Martin
This paper outlines an innovative education project that, by using a cutting-edge racing car physics simulation, will help create the next generation of engineers. The article gives an overview of this genre of games to give a background to the non-games expert. It also identifies key educational methodologies that have helped to form the goals of…
Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Nash, Sue P.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.; Giordano, Peggy C.
Race-ethnic differences in a range of childbearing behaviors are long-standing and well-documented, and these differences are attenuated, but not eliminated, when accounting for socioeconomic disparities. The residual differences are often attributed to vague and untested variation across race-ethnic groups in knowledge, attitudes, psychological attributes, normative beliefs, and social context. We use the longitudinal Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study (TARS), which contains a rich set of such factors measured in early adolescence, to assess whether they contribute to race-ethnic differences in having a birth among men and women ages 17–24 (n=1,042). Specifically, we test whether individual attitudes, religiosity, and academic behaviors; knowledge and behaviors regarding sex and dating; peer normative context; and parental communication about sex account for variation in the risk of an early birth. We find that socioeconomic factors attenuate but do not reduce differences between Black, Hispanic, and White respondents. Including adolescent academic performance and early entry into sex reduces the Black-White difference in the odds of early fertility to nonsignificance; however, beyond socioeconomic status, none of the broad range of factors further attenuate Hispanic-White differences, which remain large and statistically significant. PMID:26195990
Arafat, Hassan A; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel
Street littering is considered an important environmental health issue in the Middle East. This problem is growing steadily and is attracting great concerns within the communities. The purpose of this paper, which focuses on Nablus district (Palestinian Territory), is to measure the perception and opinion of residents toward littering, in addition to studying prevailing attitudes and practices on littering. This was achieved using an interview survey approach. The influence of three socio-economic factors; level of education, age, and type of residence, on the littering behaviour of individuals was studied. As a result, possible remedial actions have been suggested. The data presented in this work can be considered as one piece of information, which can be compiled with other future data to design an effective litter control programrhe for Middle Eastern countries.
The Immigrant University: Assessing the Dynamics of Race, Major and Socioeconomic Characteristics at the University of California. A Student Experience in the Research University (SERU) Project Research Paper. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.19.07
Douglass, John Aubrey; Roebken, Heinke; Thomson, Gregg
The University of California has long been a major source of socioeconomic mobility in California. Data from the University of California's Undergraduate Experience Survey (UCUES) indicates that more than half the undergraduate students in the UC system have at least one parent that is an immigrant. The ratio is even higher at UC Berkeley. What do…
Background Mortality exhibits seasonal variations, which to a certain extent can be considered as mid-to long-term influences of meteorological conditions. In addition to atmospheric effects, the seasonal pattern of mortality is shaped by non-atmospheric determinants such as environmental conditions or socioeconomic status. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. The pressures of climate change make an understanding of the interdependencies between season, climate and health especially important. Methods This study investigated daily death counts collected within the Sample Vital Registration System (VSRS) established by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). The sample was stratified by location (urban vs. rural), gender and socioeconomic status. Furthermore, seasonality was analyzed for all-cause mortality, and several cause-specific mortalities. Daily deviation from average mortality was calculated and seasonal fluctuations were elaborated using non parametric spline smoothing. A seasonality index for each year of life was calculated in order to assess the age-dependency of seasonal effects. Results We found distinctive seasonal variations of mortality with generally higher levels during the cold season. To some extent, a rudimentary secondary summer maximum could be observed. The degree and shape of seasonality changed with the cause of death as well as with location, gender, and SES and was strongly age-dependent. Urban areas were seen to be facing an increased summer mortality peak, particularly in terms of cardiovascular mortality. Generally, children and the elderly faced stronger seasonal effects than youths and young adults. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrated the complex and dynamic nature of seasonal impacts on mortality. The modifying effect of spatial and population characteristics were highlighted. While tropical regions have been, and still are
Pham, Hong-Luu; Kizuki, Masashi; Takano, Takehito; Seino, Kaoruko; Watanabe, Masafumi
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of disability of school-aged children and to evaluate the association between disabilities and household socioeconomic status, as well as the economic burden of disability and household socioeconomic status in Vietnam. Materials and Methods: Nationally representative data for 9,882 children aged 6 to 17 years from the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2006 were used. Disabilities were measured in six basic functional domains, including vision, hearing, remembering or concentrating, mobility, self-care, and communication. We evaluated the association between area, household income, educational attainment, or occupation of household head, and each difficulty. The ratio of health-care expenditure to per capita household income was compared by presence of a disability as well as household socioeconomic status. Results: The prevalence of difficulty was 1.9% for vision and 2.3% for at least one of the other five domains. Difficulty in vision was more prevalent in the richer households (p=0.001), whereas difficulty in the other five domains was more prevalent in the poorer households (p=0.002). The ratio of health-care expenditure to per capita household income was greater than 0.05 in 4.6% of children. The adjusted odds ratio of children with difficulty in vision having a health-care expenditure share greater than 0.05 compared with children without difficulty was 4.78 (95% CI: 2.95, 7.73; p<0.001), and that for difficulty in the other five domains was 3.13 (95% CI: 2.04, 4.80; p<0.001). Among children with difficulty in at least one of the five domains other than vision, the proportion of children with a health-care expenditure share greater than 0.05 was higher among children from the poorer households (p=0.033). Conclusions: Children with a disability spent more on health care relative to their income than those without. Visual disability was more prevalent among children from the richer
Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae
This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.
Johnson, Sara B; Gordon, Brian J; Jennings, Jacky M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Adler, Nancy E; Okelo, Sande O
Background: Physicians' assumptions about patients' socioeconomic status (SES) have been shown to influence clinical decision making in adult patients. The goal of this study is to assess the factors associated with pediatric pulmonologists' (PPs') subjective ratings of their patients' SES, and whether these factors differ by patient race/ethnicity. Methods: Parents of children with asthma (n=171) presenting for pulmonary care reported their SES using the MacArthur Subjective SES 10-rung ladder. The PPs (n=7) also estimated each family's SES. Two-level linear regression models with random intercepts (level 1: PP's SES ratings; level 2: PPs) were used to assess the predictors of PP-estimated family SES. The analyses were then stratified by race/ethnicity. Results: Parental educational, insurance type, age, and race/ethnic background were associated with PPs' SES ratings. Black/African American families were rated lower than white families, accounting for other demographic factors (b=-0.60, p<0.01), but families of other races/ethnicities were not (b=-0.10, p=0.29). Even when comparing families with the same level of parental education, black/African American families, but not families of other backgrounds, were judged to have lower SES than white families (from 0.77 rungs lower among parents with some college, to 1.2 rungs lower among parents with high school or less; both p<0.05). Conclusions: Racial differences in PPs' ability to estimate families' subjective SES in asthma care may be a function of unconscious societal biases about race and class. Collecting subjective SES from families and PPs during the office visit could facilitate discussions about material and psychosocial needs and resources that influence treatment effectiveness.
Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse
We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre- and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility.
Carpenter, Bradley W.; Diem, Sarah
In the field of education, critical conversations focusing on race and race relations are of primary importance given the continued inequities within our society. Statistically, public schools continue to be racially and socioeconomically separate and unequal. In our continued efforts to address such inequities, this study examines the ways in…
Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan
Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice.
Background Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are a chronic lack of vitamins and minerals and constitute a huge public health problem. MNDs have severe health consequences and are particularly harmful during early childhood due to their impact on the physical and cognitive development. We estimate the costs of illness due to iron deficiency (IDA), vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and zinc deficiency (ZnD) in 2 age groups (6–23 and 24–59 months) of Filipino children by socio-economic strata in 2008. Methods We build a health economic model simulating the consequences of MNDs in childhood over the entire lifetime. The model is based on a health survey and a nutrition survey carried out in 2008. The sample populations are first structured into 10 socio-economic strata (SES) and 2 age groups. Health consequences of MNDs are modelled based on information extracted from literature. Direct medical costs, production losses and intangible costs are computed and long term costs are discounted to present value. Results Total lifetime costs of IDA, VAD and ZnD amounted to direct medical costs of 30 million dollars, production losses of 618 million dollars and intangible costs of 122,138 disability adjusted life years (DALYs). These costs can be interpreted as the lifetime costs of a 1-year cohort affected by MNDs between the age of 6–59 months. Direct medical costs are dominated by costs due to ZnD (89% of total), production losses by losses in future lifetime (90% of total) and intangible costs by premature death (47% of total DALY losses) and losses in future lifetime (43%). Costs of MNDs differ considerably between SES as costs in the poorest third of the households are 5 times higher than in the wealthiest third. Conclusions MNDs lead to substantial costs in 6-59-month-old children in the Philippines. Costs are highly concentrated in the lower SES and in children 6–23 months old. These results may have important implications for the design, evaluation and choice of the
Keough, N; L'Abbé, E N; Steyn, M
Estimating age at death from adult skeletal remains is a daunting task for human osteologists. For this reason, the evaluation of micro-structural changes in bone with advancing age has become a popular method. However, factors such as nutrition, chronic disease, population group and sex have been suggested to influence the rate of bone turnover, and thus the use of histological methods in providing an accurate age at death has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of 10 histomorphometric traits used to estimate age. The sample comprised of 146 dissection room cadavers of known sex, age and ancestry (105 males and 41 females). A 0.2cmx1.0cm sample was removed from the anterior surface of the mid-shaft of the femur (opposite the linea aspera), and slides were prepared according to standard methodology. The total osteon count (r=0.50), the percentage unremodelled bone (r=-0.50), the total number of non-Haversian canals (r=-0.50) and the average percentage of fragmental bone (r=0.55) had moderate correlations with age, while the total number of measurable osteons (r=0.43), the total number of osteonal fragments (r=0.40), the percentage of fragmentary bone (r=0.37) the average number of lamellae per osteon (r=0.29), the minimum diameter of the Haversian canals (r=0.14) and resorption spaces (r=0.11) had little to no relationship with age. Despite poor correlations with age, eight variables were shown to be highly repeatable (r=0.74-0.93). Moderate to low correlations with age may be attributed to these variables not being related to age in a progressive and predictable fashion, activity patterns or possible chronic disease in the sample. A databank needs to be compiled from larger samples from various populations in order to more holistically assess the relationship between these variables and age as well as other mitigating factors such as disease, nutrition and population group.
Jones, Deborah E; Weaver, Michael T; Grimley, Diane; Appel, Susan J; Ard, Jamy
Heart disease is the leading cause of death for African-American women in the United States. Although African-American women experience higher rates of heart disease with earlier onset and more severe consequences than White women do, they are not aware of their risk for the disease. The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been commonly used to guide preventive interventions in cardiovascular health. However, the HBM has not been evaluated for African-American women regarding its effectiveness. This study explored the perceptions of susceptibility and seriousness of heart disease, and the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES), age, and knowledge of heart disease and its risk factors among 194 educated African-American women from the southern United States. Participants did not perceive themselves to be at high risk for developing heart disease while perceiving heart disease as serious. African-American women who were older perceived heart disease to be more serious than their younger counterparts did. Older women and those with higher SES knew more about heart disease and risk factors. Neither SES nor age moderated the relationship between knowledge and perceived susceptibility or seriousness.
Vittrup, Brigitte; Holden, George W.
African-American and Anglo-American children's assessments of four disciplinary methods (spanking, reasoning, withdrawing privileges, and time-out) were investigated with 108 children ages 6-10 years old and one of their parents. Children watched videos depicting a child being disciplined and then rated each discipline method. Reasoning was rated…
Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P; Morrison, Nancy
Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while focusing on gender and racial differences. Results indicate (N = 220) that victims of rape are generally viewed more sympathetically by females than by males and by Whites than by African Americans. However, the effect of race disappears when socioeconomic variables are controlled, suggesting a more complex relationship. Also, a hierarchical regression indicates that age, sex, education, and income are significant predictors of attitudes toward victims. This study builds on existing research that examines such attitudes from a cultural perspective and extends this literature by examining the interactive effects of several demographic variables within a community sample.
Coloma, Roland Sintos
The article brings together the fields of curriculum studies, history of education, and ethnic studies to chart a transnational history of race, empire, and curriculum. Drawing from a larger study on the history of education in the Philippines under U.S. rule in the early 1900s, it argues that race played a pivotal role in the discursive…
Akinyemiju, Tomi; Ogunsina, Kemi; Sakhuja, Swati; Ogbhodo, Valentine; Braithwaite, Dejana
Objectives Socioeconomic differences in screening have been well documented in upper-income countries; however, few studies have examined socioeconomic status (SES) over the life-course in relation to cancer screening in lower-income and middle-income countries. Here, we examine individual, parental and life-course SES differences in breast and cervical cancer screening among women in India, China, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Setting Data from the WHO's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) 2007–2008 data were used for survey-weighted multivariable regression analysis. We examined the association between individual, parental and life-course SES in relation to breast and cervical cancer screening using education-based and employment-based measures of SES. Participants 22 283 women aged 18–65 years, recruited from China, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Results Having a college degree (OR 4.18; 95% CI 2.36 to 7.40) increased the odds of breast cancer screening compared with no formal education. Women with higher parental SES were almost 10 times more likely to receive breast cancer screening (OR 9.84; 95% CI 1.75 to 55.5) compared with women with low parental SES. Stable higher life-course (OR 3.07; 95% CI 1.96 to 4.79) increased breast cancer screening by threefold and increased cervical cancer screening by more than fourfold (OR 4.35; 95% CI 2.94 to 6.45); however, declining life-course SES was associated with reduced breast cancer screening (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.79) compared to low life-course SES. Conclusions Higher individual, parental and life-course SES was positively associated with breast and cervical cancer screening, although education-based SES measures were stronger predictors of screening compared with employment-based measures. Improving knowledge of the benefits of cancer screening and integrating cancer screening into routine healthcare practice for low SES women are actionable strategies that may significantly
Ramsay, S E; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Subramanian, S V; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S G
Background Evidence from longitudinal studies on the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in older age on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is limited. We aimed to investigate the prospective association of neighbourhood-level deprivation in later life with CVD mortality, and assess the underlying role of established cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A socially representative cohort of 3924 men, aged 60–79 years in 1998–2000, from 24 British towns, was followed up until 2012 for CVD mortality. Quintiles of the national Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), a composite score of neighbourhood-level factors (including income, employment, education, housing and living environment) were used. Multilevel logistic regression with discrete-time models (stratifying follow-up time into months) were used. Results Over 12 years, 1545 deaths occurred, including 580 from CVD. The risk of CVD mortality showed a graded increase from IMD quintile 1 (least deprived) to 5 (most deprived). Compared to quintile 1, the age-adjusted odds of CVD mortality in quintile 5 were 1.71 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.21), and 1.62 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.13) on further adjustment for individual social class, which was attenuated slightly to 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.89), but remained statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, body mass index, physical activity and use of alcohol. Further adjustment for blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and prevalent diabetes made little difference. Conclusions Neighbourhood-level deprivation was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality in older people independent of individual-level social class and cardiovascular risk factors. The role of other specific neighbourhood-level factors merits further research. PMID:26285580
Increasing constraints placed on race-based school diversification have shifted attention to socioeconomic desegregation. Although past research suggests that socioeconomic desegregation can produce heightened achievement, the "frog pond" perspective points to potential problems with socioeconomic desegregation in nonachievement domains.…
Hrdlicka, Michal; Vacova, Maria; Oslejskova, Hana; Gondzova, Veronika; Vadlejchova, Iveta; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri; Dudova, Iva
Background The marked increase in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence has stimulated worldwide interest in exploring broader circumstances of care of autistic children, including the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and family information on autism. Methods Our sample comprised of 160 children who participated in a diagnostic examination focused on autism, and their parents who completed a simple descriptive questionnaire focusing on the family situation as well as family self-education about autism. The diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in 120 children (75% of the sample; 94 boys, 26 girls) with mean age 6.2±2.7 years (median 5.3, range 2.2–17.2 years). In 71 autistic patients (59.2%), a diagnosis of mental retardation was also established. Results The age at diagnosis of ASD correlated negatively with maternal (P=0.014) and paternal (P=0.002) ages at the time of birth of the ASD child as well as with paternal (P=0.002) and maternal (P=0.050) education. The age at diagnosis of ASD did not correlate with family SES. Mothers were significantly more active in seeking information on autism than fathers or both parents equally (80 vs 9 vs 28 cases, respectively; P<0.001). The mean number of information sources on autism was 3.5±1.8 with a range 0–9. The mean number of resources did not differ among the three SES groups (3.50 vs 3.49 vs 4.25, respectively; P=0.704). The mean number of sources did not correlate with the age at diagnosis of ASD. The most often used sources were the Internet (81.7%), followed by psychologists (48.3%), books (46.7%), and child and adolescent psychiatrists (43.3%). Conclusion An earlier diagnosis of ASD is associated with higher parental age at birth and higher parental education but not with family SES or number of family information sources. PMID:27462156
Coles-Ritchie, Marilee; Smith, Robin Renee
Developing public education where every child has the right to learn requires that teachers pay attention to and engage in race talk--open discussion about race, social construction of race, and racism. While it is clear that children engage and reflect critically about these aspects of race even at a young age, teachers rarely engage in race talk…
Ford, Margaret C.; Gordon, Nancy P.; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R. Grant; Lo, Joan C.
Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3–5, 44.2% were 6–11, and 41.6% were 12–17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents. PMID:26885385
Van Etten, M L; Anthony, J C
Recent studies in the United States suggest that male-female differences in the prevalence of drug use may result from sex differences in opportunities to use drugs rather than from differences in the likelihood of making a transition into drug use once an opportunity has occurred. That is, men have more opportunities to try drugs, but women appear to be just as likely as men to initiate drug use when given the opportunity to do so. This paper examines whether this general observation holds for subgroups defined by age or birth cohort, race/ethnicity, geographic region, and urban status. We analyzed data from the 1991, 1992, and 1993 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. We found general consistency across the subgroups studied. Males were more likely than females to have opportunities to use drugs, but the sexes were equally likely to make a transition into drug use once an opportunity had occurred to try a drug. The implications of this evidence are discussed in relation to the epidemiology and prevention of drug use and with respect to future research on sex and gender differences in drug involvement.
The Childhood Immunization Initiative (CII), implemented in 1993, is an intensive program to increase vaccination coverage among preschool-aged children and to reduce or eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases. In 1996, national coverage goals were achieved for 2-year-old children for the most critical doses of each routinely recommended vaccine. Disparities in vaccination coverage have been documented previously among different racial/ethnic groups. This report presents findings from CDC's National Immunization Survey (NIS), which document progress toward achieving the 1996 CII vaccination coverage goals by racial/ethnic group and by level of poverty. The findings indicate that, for each of five racial/ethnic groups, most of the national CII vaccination coverage goals were met and that, based on poverty level, all the goals were met for children living at or above the poverty level, and two of the five goals were met for children living below the poverty level.
Thorpe, Roland J; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino A; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A
Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and white men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore, which was conducted in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in National Health Interview Survey had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 129-1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67). In the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental, and socioeconomic status conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and white men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men's health disparities.
Kc, Samir; Lutz, Wolfgang
This paper applies the methods of multi-dimensional mathematical demography to project national populations based on alternative assumptions on future, fertility, mortality, migration and educational transitions that correspond to the five shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP) storylines. In doing so it goes a significant step beyond past population scenarios in the IPCC context which considered only total population size. By differentiating the human population not only by age and sex-as is conventionally done in demographic projections-but also by different levels of educational attainment the most fundamental aspects of human development and social change are being explicitly addressed through modeling the changing composition of populations by these three important individual characteristics. The scenarios have been defined in a collaborative effort of the international Integrated Assessment Modeling community with the medium scenario following that of a major new effort by the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital (IIASA, OEAW, WU) involving over 550 experts from around the world. As a result, in terms of total world population size the trajectories resulting from the five SSPs stay very close to each other until around 2030 and by the middle of the century already a visible differentiation appears with the range between the highest (SSP3) and the lowest (SSP1) trajectories spanning 1.5 billion. The range opens up much more with the SSP3 reaching 12.6 billion in 2100 and SSP1 falling to 6.9 billion which is lower than today's world population.
Grassi, Tiziana; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Serio, Francesca; Piscitelli, Prisco; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Viola, Gaia C. V.; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Levorato, Sara; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Donzelli, Gabriele; Bonetta, Sara; Bonetta, Silvia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Bonetti, Alberto; Gelatti, Umberto
The prevalence of obesity among Italian children has reached such alarming levels as to require detailed studies of the causes of the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the weight status of 1164 Italian children aged 6–8 years (the Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy (MAPEC_LIFE) cohort) and to identify any associations between selected socio-economic and environmental factors and overweight/obesity. The data were obtained by means of a questionnaire given to parents, and any associations were examined by binomial logistic regression analyses. Overweight was found to be positively associated with male gender, parents of non-Italian origin, and parents who smoke, and negatively associated with the parents’ level of education and employment. In addition, the frequency of overweight varied in relation to the geographical area of residence, with a greater prevalence of overweight children in the cities of central-southern Italy. This study highlights the need to implement appropriate obesity prevention programs in Italy, which should include educational measures concerning lifestyle for parents from the earliest stages of their child’s life. PMID:27727193
Grassi, Tiziana; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Serio, Francesca; Piscitelli, Prisco; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Viola, Gaia C V; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Levorato, Sara; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Donzelli, Gabriele; Bonetta, Sara; Bonetta, Silvia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Bonetti, Alberto; Gelatti, Umberto
The prevalence of obesity among Italian children has reached such alarming levels as to require detailed studies of the causes of the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the weight status of 1164 Italian children aged 6-8 years (the Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy (MAPEC_LIFE) cohort) and to identify any associations between selected socio-economic and environmental factors and overweight/obesity. The data were obtained by means of a questionnaire given to parents, and any associations were examined by binomial logistic regression analyses. Overweight was found to be positively associated with male gender, parents of non-Italian origin, and parents who smoke, and negatively associated with the parents' level of education and employment. In addition, the frequency of overweight varied in relation to the geographical area of residence, with a greater prevalence of overweight children in the cities of central-southern Italy. This study highlights the need to implement appropriate obesity prevention programs in Italy, which should include educational measures concerning lifestyle for parents from the earliest stages of their child's life.
Throughout time, evolutionary biologists have attempted to classify human beings according to a nomenclature based on supposed patterns of biological differences that have been used to suggest hierarchical categories. Recent genetic evidence disproves the assumption that races are genetically distinct human populations. Several studies refute human categorization as a severely flawed yardstick. For many, race is a construct that must be overcome in order to eradicate racism. Personal experiences of racism, harassment and discrimination are associated with multiple indicators of poorer physical and mental health status. Additionally, socio-economic differentials are likely to be a fundamental explanation for the observed inequalities in health status among minority groups. This commentary examines the discrepancies that race, ethnicity and similar human nomenclatures present. Furthermore, the potentially harmful consequences of the "scientific" use of race, in the form of stereotyping and racism, are discussed.
Jain, Ram B
Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 19 urinary metabolites of 15 parent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Smokers were found to have statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than nonsmokers for selected urinary metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene-styrene, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Female nonsmokers were found to have lower adjusted levels of selected metabolites of acrolein, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide than male nonsmokers but female smokers had higher levels of each of these metabolites than male smokers. In addition, female smokers also had higher adjusted levels of selected metabolites of 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, and ethylbenzene-styrene. Thus, constituents other than VOCs in tobacco smoke affect excretion of certain VOC metabolites differently among males and females. Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) had higher adjusted levels than non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) for 8 metabolites. NHB had statistically significantly lower adjusted levels than Hispanics for 5 VOC metabolites and lower levels than non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) for 6 metabolites. Hispanics had statistically significantly higher levels than NHAS for 5 metabolites. Levels of 11 of the 19 metabolites analyzed increased with increase in age. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with increased levels of 9 metabolites. Increase in the number of days tobacco products were used during the last five days was associated with increased levels of 12 of the 19 VOC metabolites.
Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C
Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions.
Fruhstorfer, B H; Mousoulis, C; Uthman, O A; Robertson, W
Childhood overweight and obesity have emerged as a public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a systematic review with the aim to examine the association between socio-economic status (SES) and overweight or obesity among school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa. In March 2014 we searched five electronic databases for reports which presented cross-sectional data on prevalence levels of overweight or obesity stratified by SES groups among school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa. We used a random-effect model to pool the relative indexes of inequality of the association from the individual studies. In total, 20 reports satisfied the inclusion criteria providing results of 21 datasets. The risk of overweight or obesity in children from highest SES households was 5.28 times as high as that of children from lowest SES households (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.62 to 10.66). On subgroup analysis, this association was statistically significant for household income and composite SES measures but not for parental educational attainment and occupation type. Similarly, the risk of overweight or obesity in children attending affluent (private) schools was 15.94 times as high as that of children going to either urban or rural public schools (95% CI 5.82 to 43.68). The magnitude of the association tended to be stronger for area or school-type compared with composite measures. In summary, children from higher SES households and those attending private schools tended to be overweight and obese.
Schoenaker, Danielle AJM; Jackson, Caroline A; Rowlands, Jemma V; Mishra, Gita D
Background: Age at natural menopause (ANM) is considered a marker of biological ageing and is increasingly recognized as a sentinel for chronic disease risk in later life. Socioeconomic position (SEP) and lifestyle factors are thought to be associated with ANM. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to determine the overall mean ANM, and the effect of SEP and lifestyle factors on ANM by calculating the weighted mean difference (WMD) and pooling adjusted hazard ratios. We explored heterogeneity using meta-regression and also included unpublished findings from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Results: We identified 46 studies across 24 countries. Mean ANM was 48.8 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 48.3, 49.2], with between-study heterogeneity partly explained by geographical region. ANM was lowest among African, Latin American, Asian and Middle Eastern countries and highest in Europe and Australia, followed by the USA. Education was associated with later ANM (WMD middle vs low education 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.51; high vs low education 0.64, 95% CI 0.26, 1.02). A similar dose-response relationship was also observed for occupation. Smoking was associated with a 1-year reduction of ANM (WMD: -0.91, 95% CI: –1.34, –0.48). Being overweight and moderate/high physical activity were modestly associated with later ANM, but findings were less conclusive. Conclusions: ANM varies across populations, partly due to differences across geographical regions. SEP and some lifestyle factors are associated with ANM, but further research is needed to examine the impact of the associations between risk factors and ANM on future health outcomes. PMID:24771324
Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Mello; Leite, Maria Lea Corrêa; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de; Gouveia, Mateus H; Leal, Thiago P; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Macinko, James; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo
The study objective is to examine the role of African genome origin on baseline and 11-year blood pressure trajectories in community-based ethnoracially admixed older adults in Brazil. Data come from 1272 participants (aged ≥60 years) of the Bambui cohort study of aging during 11 years of follow-up. Outcome measures were systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and hypertension control. Potential confounding variables were demographic characteristics, socioeconomic position (schooling and household income), and health indicators (smoking, sedentary lifestyle, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases), including antihypertensive drug use. We used 370 539 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to estimate each individual's African, European, and Native American trihybrid ancestry proportions. Median African, European, and Native American ancestry were 9.6%, 84.0%, and 5.3%, respectively. Among those with African ancestry, 59.4% came from East and 40.6% from West Africa. Baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure, controlled hypertension, and their respective trajectories, were not significantly (P>0.05) associated with level (in quintiles) of African genomic ancestry. Similar results were found for West and East African subcontinental origins. Lower schooling level (<4 years versus higher) showed a significant and positive association with systolic blood pressure (Adjusted β=2.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-4.99). Lower monthly household income per capita (
Garcia, Lorena; Lee, Anne; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Neuhaus, John M; Aiello, Allison; Elfassy, Tali; Haan, Mary N
Objective To examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position (NSEP) on development of diabetes over time. Design A longitudinal cohort study. Setting The data reported were from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, a longitudinal study of the health of 1789 older Latinos. Participants Community-dwelling older Mexican Americans residing in the Sacramento Metropolitan Statistical Area. Main outcome Multistate Markov regression were used to model transitions through four possible states over time: 1=normal; 2=pre-diabetic; 3=diabetic; and 4=death without diabetes. Results At baseline, nearly 50% were non-diabetic, 17.5% were pre-diabetic and nearly 33% were diabetic. At the end of follow-up, there were a total of 824 people with type 2 diabetes. In a fully adjusted MSM regression model, among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was not associated with a transition to pre-diabetes. Among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR=1.66, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.42) and decreased risk of death without diabetes (HR: 0.56, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). Among pre-diabetics, higher NSEP was significantly associated with a transition to non-diabetic status (HR: 1.22, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.50). Adjusting for BMI, age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical insurance and nativity did not affect this relationship. Conclusions Our findings show that high NSEP poses higher risk of progression from normal to diabetes compared with a lower risk of death without diabetes. This work presents a possibility that these associations are modified by nativity or culture. PMID:27515749
Fofana, Mariam O.
Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalization of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient’s risk of certain conditions (e.g., sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today’s physicians will be better armed to discern—and correct—the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices. PMID:23988563
Martin, Roy; And Others
The visual-motor integration of preschool children who varied in terms of race, sex, and socioeconomic status was assessed using the Beery Buktenica Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI). An analysis of covariance revealed that there were significant main effects for race, sex, and socioeconomic status. (Author)
From non school-based, co-payment to school-based, free Human Papillomavirus vaccination in Flanders (Belgium): a retrospective cohort study describing vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities.
Lefevere, Eva; Theeten, Heidi; Hens, Niel; De Smet, Frank; Top, Geert; Van Damme, Pierre
School-based, free HPV vaccination for girls in the first year of secondary school was introduced in Flanders (Belgium) in 2010. Before that, non school-based, co-payment vaccination for girls aged 12-18 was in place. We compared vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities in coverage - 3 important parameters contributing to the effectiveness of the vaccination programs - under both vaccination systems. We used retrospective administrative data from different sources. Our sample consisted of all female members of the National Alliance of Christian Mutualities born in 1995, 1996, 1998 or 1999 (N=66,664). For each vaccination system we described the cumulative proportion HPV vaccination initiation and completion over time. We used life table analysis to calculate age-specific rates of HPV vaccination initiation and completion. Analyses were done separately for higher income and low income groups. Under non school-based, co-payment vaccination the proportions HPV vaccination initiation and completion slowly rose over time. By age 17, the proportion HPV vaccination initiation/completion was 0.75 (95% CI 0.74-076)/0.66 (95% CI 0.65-0.67). The median age at vaccination initiation/completion was 14.4 years (95% CI 14.4-14.5)/15.4 years (95% CI 15.3-15.4). Socio-economic inequalities in coverage widened over time and with age. Under school-based, free vaccination rates of HPV vaccination initiation were substantially higher. By age 14,the proportion HPV vaccination initiation/completion was 0.90 (95% CI 0.90-0.90)/0.87 (95% CI 0.87-0.88). The median age at vaccination initiation/completion was 12.7 years (95% CI 12.7-12.7)/13.3 years (95% CI 13.3-13.3). Socio-economic inequalities in coverage and in age-specific coverage were substantially smaller.
BECK, Ekkehard C.; BIRKETT, Michelle; ARMBRUSTER, Benjamin; MUSTANSKI, Brian
Objective Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in the U.S. have a high HIV incidence with substantial racial disparities that are poorly understood. We use a data-driven simulation model to understand the impact of network-level mechanisms and STI infections on the spread of HIV among YMSM. Methods We designed and parameterized a stochastic agent-based network simulation model using results of a longitudinal cohort study of YMSM in Chicago. Within this model, YMSM formed and dissolved partnerships over time, and partnership-types were stratified by length of partnership, sex and age of the partner. In each partnership, HIV, gonorrhea and chlamydia could be transmitted. Counterfactual scenarios were run to examine drivers of HIV. Results Over a 15 year simulation, the HIV epidemic among YMSM continued to rise with Latino/White YMSM facing a steeper increase in the HIV burden compared to Black YMSM. YMSM in partnerships with older MSM, in particular Black YMSM with older Black MSM, were at highest risk for HIV and one infection prevented with an older partner would prevent 0.8 additional infections among YMSM. Additionally, racial disparities in HIV were driven by differences in the HIV prevalence of YMSM partners. Finally, of all HIV infections among YMSM, 14.6% were attributable to NG and CT infections. Conclusion Network-level mechanisms and STI infections play a significant role in the spread of HIV, and in racial disparities among YMSM. HIV prevention efforts should target YMSM across race, and interventions focusing on YMSM partnerships with older MSM might be highly effective. PMID:26102448
Baughman, Doug M.
Background Combination chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care for treatment of non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA). This population based study evaluated disparities in receipt of radiotherapy (RT) as well as comparative survival rates for SCCA patients in the United States. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 database was used to identify patients with non-metastatic SCCA diagnosed between 1998 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the relationships between age, sex, and race and the receipt of RT, adjusting for marital status and stage of disease. Relative survival (RS) rates were compared by each factor, with added adjustment for RT status, using Cox proportional hazards model. Results A total of 3,885 patients with localized or regional SCCA as the only primary malignancy were included in the study, of which, 3,192 (82%) received RT. In our multivariate analysis, lower rates of RT were found for those 65+ years old [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.71; P<0.001], males (adjusted OR 0.65; P<0.001), and blacks (adjusted OR 0.78; P=0.049). Multivariate survival analysis showed worse survival among those 65+ years old (adjusted HR 1.65; P<0.001), males (adjusted HR 1.53; P<0.001), and blacks (adjusted HR 1.35; P=0.001). Conclusions This population based study identified older patients, males, and blacks as less likely to receive RT. Worse survival was also found in these groups. PMID:28078120
Background We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cancer screening in a Korean population aged 40 years or older. Methods This cross-sectional study included 12,303 participants (5,284 men and 7,019 women) who participated in the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported questionnaires were used to assess participant's SES (household income, occupational, and educational status) and cancer screening behavior. Results Compared to the lowest household income group, the odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for overall cancer screening of the highest income group were 2.113 (1.606–2.781) in men and 1.476 (1.157–1.883) in women; those for private cancer screening of the highest income group were 2.446 (1.800–3.324) in men and 2.630 (2.050–3.373) in women, while those for National Cancer Screening Programs (NCSP) in the highest income group were 1.076 (0.805–1.439) in men and 0.492 (0.388–0.623) in women. Compared to manual workers, ORs (95% CIs) for private cancer screening of office workers were 1.300 (1.018–1.660) in men and 0.822 (0.616–1.098) in women. In comparison to the least educated men, OR (95% CI) for private cancer screening of the most educated men was statistically significant (1.530 [1.117–2.095]). Conclusion Higher economic status was associated with higher rates of overall and private cancer screening in both sexes and a lower rate of NCSP in women. Male office workers and more educated individuals underwent private cancer screening at a higher rate than manual workers and less educated individuals, respectively. PMID:27688862
Oh, Sam S.; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Martin, Melissa; Roth, Lindsey A.; Galanter, Joshua; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Eng, Celeste; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A.; Avila, Pedro C.; Farber, Harold J.; Serebrisky, Denise; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Williams, L. Keoki; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Thyne, Shannon; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Burchard, Esteban G.
Rationale: The burden of asthma is highest among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations; however, its impact is differentially distributed among racial and ethnic groups. Objectives: To assess the collective effect of maternal educational attainment, annual household income, and insurance type on childhood asthma among minority, urban youth. Methods: We included Mexican American (n = 485), other Latino (n = 217), and African American (n = 1,141) children (aged 8–21 yr) with and without asthma from the San Francisco Bay Area. An index was derived from maternal educational attainment, annual household income, and insurance type to assess the collective effect of socioeconomic status on predicting asthma. Logistic regression stratified by racial and ethnic group was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further examined whether acculturation explained the socioeconomic-asthma association in our Latino population. Measurements and Main Results: In the adjusted analyses, African American children had 23% greater odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09–1.38). Conversely, Mexican American children have 17% reduced odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72–0.96) and this relationship was not fully explained by acculturation. This association was not observed in the other Latino group. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status plays an important role in predicting asthma, but has different effects depending on race and ethnicity. Further steps are necessary to better understand the risk factors through which socioeconomic status could operate in these populations to prevent asthma. PMID:24050698
Individual-level characteristics, including socioeconomic status, have been associated with poor metabolic and cardiovascular health; however, residential area-level characteristics may also independently contribute to health status. In the current study, we used a novel application of hierarchical clustering to aggregate 444 US Census block groups in Durham, Orange, and Wake Counties, NC, USA into six homogenous clusters of similar characteristics based on 12 demographic factors. We assigned 2254 cardiac catheterization patients to these clusters based on residence at first catheterization. After controlling for individual age, sex, smoking status, and race, there were elevated odds of patients being obese (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.39, 2.67), and having diabetes (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.57, 3.04) and hypertension (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.38, 3.11) in a cluster that was urban, impoverished, and unemployed, compared to a cluster that was urban with a low percentage of people that were impoverished or unemployed. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying hierarchical clustering to an assessment of area-level characteristics and that living in impoverished, urban residential clusters may have an adverse impact on health. This abstract does not necessarily reflect U.S. EPA policy. This is an abstract of a presentation to be presented at the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE) 2016 Conference. Reactions to this presentation will guid
Christensen, Deborah L; Schieve, Laura A; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn
Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case-control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n=198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n=253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference -21.4, 95% CI: -24.0, -18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference -5.1, 95% CI: -9.5, -0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born at both of the
Hill, T; Carmichael, D; Maylin, G; Krook, L
The incidences of fractures and soft tissue injuries during 68397 starts of thoroughbred horses at New York Racing Association tracks were analyzed concerning track condition, dirt and turf tracks, environmental conditions, length of races, location of fractures on the track, and age of horses. It was concluded that the conditions evaluated are of no importance in the occurrence of racing injuries to thoroughbred horses.
Limdi, Nita A; Brown, Todd M; Yan, Qi; Thigpen, Jonathan L; Shendre, Aditi; Liu, Nianjun; Hill, Charles E; Arnett, Donna K; Beasley, T Mark
Warfarin dosing algorithms adjust for race, assigning a fixed effect size to each predictor, thereby attenuating the differential effect by race. Attenuation likely occurs in both race groups but may be more pronounced in the less-represented race group. Therefore, we evaluated whether the effect of clinical (age, body surface area [BSA], chronic kidney disease [CKD], and amiodarone use) and genetic factors (CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *11, rs12777823, VKORC1, and CYP4F2) on warfarin dose differs by race using regression analyses among 1357 patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study and compared predictive ability of race-combined vs race-stratified models. Differential effect of predictors by race was assessed using predictor-race interactions in race-combined analyses. Warfarin dose was influenced by age, BSA, CKD, amiodarone use, and CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 variants in both races, by CYP2C9*2 and CYP4F2 variants in European Americans, and by rs12777823 in African Americans. CYP2C9*2 was associated with a lower dose only among European Americans (20.6% vs 3.0%, P < .001) and rs12777823 only among African Americans (12.3% vs 2.3%, P = .006). Although VKORC1 was associated with dose decrease in both races, the proportional decrease was higher among European Americans (28.9% vs 19.9%, P = .003) compared with African Americans. Race-stratified analysis improved dose prediction in both race groups compared with race-combined analysis. We demonstrate that the effect of predictors on warfarin dose differs by race, which may explain divergent findings reported by recent warfarin pharmacogenetic trials. We recommend that warfarin dosing algorithms should be stratified by race rather than adjusted for race.
Agutter, Paul S
Background Nutrition researchers recently recognized that deficiency of vitamin K2 (menaquinone: MK-4–MK-13) is widespread and contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The deficiency of vitamin K2 or vitamin K inhibition with warfarin leads to calcium deposition in the arterial blood vessels. Methods Using publicly available sources, we collected food commodity availability data and derived nutrient profiles including vitamin K2 for people from 168 countries. We also collected female and male cohort data on early death from CVD (ages 15–64 years), insufficient physical activity, tobacco, biometric CVD risk markers, socioeconomic risk factors for CVD, and gender. The outcome measures included (1) univariate correlations of early death from CVD with each risk factor, (2) a multiple regression-derived formula relating early death from CVD (dependent variable) to macronutrient profile, vitamin K1 and K2 and other risk factors (independent variables), (3) for each risk factor appearing in the multiple regression formula, the portion of CVD risk attributable to that factor, and (4) similar univariate and multivariate analyses of body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) (simulated from diabetes prevalence), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and cholesterol/ HDL-C ratio (simulated from serum cholesterol) (dependent variables) and dietary and other risk factors (independent variables). Results Female and male cohorts in countries that have vitamin K2 < 5µg per 2000 kcal/day per capita (n = 70) had about 2.2 times the rate of early CVD deaths as people in countries with > 24 µg/day of vitamin K2 per 2000 kcal/day (n = 72). A multiple regression-derived formula relating early death from CVD to dietary nutrients and other risk factors accounted for about 50% of the variance between cohorts in early CVD death. The attributable risks of the variables in the CVD early death formula were: too much alcohol (0.38%), too little vitamin K2 (6.95%), tobacco (6
Marengoni, Alessandra; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi
Thousand and twelve dementia-free elderly (60–98 years old) enrolled in the InChianti Study (Italy) were evaluated at baseline (1998–2000) and at 3-year follow-up (2001–2003) with the aim of analyzing the association of lifetime socioeconomic status (SES) with prevalent and incident cognitive impairment no-dementia (CIND). SES was defined from information on formal education, longest held occupation, and financial conditions through life. CIND was defined as age-adjusted Mini-Mental State Examination score one standard deviation below the baseline mean score of participants without dementia. Logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the association of SES with CIND. Demographics,occupation characteristics (i.e., job stress and physical demand), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, apolipoprotein E (APOE)genotype, smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and C-reactive protein were considered potential confounders.Prevalence of CIND was 17.7%. In the fully adjusted model, low education (OR = 2.1; 95% confidence intervals, CI = 1.4 to 3.2)was associated with prevalent CIND. Incidence rate of CIND was 66.0 per 1000 person-years. Low education (HR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.6) and manual occupation (HR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0 to 3.6) were associated with incident CIND. Among covariates,high job-related physical demand was associated with both prevalent and incident CIND (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.4 and HR= 1.5; 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.3). After stratification for education, manual occupation was still associated with CIND among participants with high education (HR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2 to 4.3 versus HR= 1.4; 95% CI = 0.2 to 10.4 among those with low education). Proxy markers of lifetime SES (low education, manual occupation and high physical demand) are cross-sectional correlates of CIND and predict incident CIND over a three-year follow-up.
Wilkins, Amy C.
Race and class differences in academic and social integration matter for educational success, social mobility, and personal well-being. In this article, I use interview data with students attending predominantly white four-year research universities to investigate the integration experiences of black and first-generation white men. I examine each…
Kaufman, Alan S.; McLean, James E.
Four typologies assessed by the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (C. Meisgeier and M. Murphy, 1987) (Extraversion-Introversion, Sensing-Intuition, Thinking-Feeling, Judging-Perceiving) were related to sex, race/ethnic group, intelligence level, and fluid/crystallized IQ discrepancy for 263 adolescents. The Thinking/Feeling index…
Chen, Weidan; Lin, Fangqin
Knowing the biological age of the neonates enables us to evaluate and better understand the health and maturity comprehensively. However, because of dearth of biomarkers, it is difficult to quantify the neonatal biological age. Here we sought to quantify and assess the variability in biological age at birth and to better understand how the aging rates before birth are influenced by exposure in intrauterine period by employing a novel epigenetic biomarker of aging (epigenetic clock). We observed that the methylation age at birth was independent of the infant's sex but was significantly influenced by race. Partial correlation analysis showed a significant negative relationship between maternal socioeconomic status and infants' methylation age (rs = −0.48, Ps = 0.005). A significant association with the risk of fast aging was observed for prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke with OR (95% CI) of 3.17 (1.05–9.56). Both estimated cell abundance measures and lymphocyte subpopulations in cord blood showed that tobacco exposed group exhibit an altered T cell compartment, specifically substantial loss of naive T cells. Present study provides the first evidence that common perinatal exposure (such as maternal smoking and lower socioeconomic status) may be important aging accelerators and substantial loss of naive T cells may play a role in the smoking-related fast aging phenomenon. PMID:28058257
Disability has been shown to be related in definite ways to social class. In modern industrial societies, disability is influenced by and has the potential to contribute to the production and reproduction of social inequality. However, markers of social stratification processes are sometimes ignored determinants of health. A Class, Race, Sex (CRS) hypothesis is presented to argue that a "low-education disadvantage"; "racial-minority disadvantage"; and "female disadvantage" will compound to affect the risks for being disable. In particular, the CRS hypothesis posits that class is more important than race and the latter more than sex when predicting presence or severity of disability. The cross-sectional study of community-dwelling adults between the ages of 45 and 64 uses data from the American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2008-2012 file. By using 3,429,523 individuals-which weighted equal to 61,726,420-the results of the study suggest the CRS hypothesis applies to both Non-Latino-Blacks and Non-Latino-Whites. There is a "male disadvantage" exception for Non-Latino-Whites. Decreasing between-group differences in health may be achieved by making the age-health association at lower socioeconomic stratum similar to that of the upper socioeconomic strata.
Yi, Li; Quinn, Paul C; Fan, Yuebo; Huang, Dan; Feng, Cong; Joseph, Lisa; Li, Jiao; Lee, Kang
It has been well documented that people recognize and scan other-race faces differently from faces of their own race. The current study examined whether this cross-racial difference in face processing found in the typical population also exists in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants included 5- to 10-year-old children with ASD (n=29), typically developing (TD) children matched on chronological age (n=29), and TD children matched on nonverbal IQ (n=29). Children completed a face recognition task in which they were asked to memorize and recognize both own- and other-race faces while their eye movements were tracked. We found no recognition advantage for own-race faces relative to other-race faces in any of the three groups. However, eye-tracking results indicated that, similar to TD children, children with ASD exhibited a cross-racial face-scanning pattern: they looked at the eyes of other-race faces longer than at those of own-race faces, whereas they looked at the mouth of own-race faces longer than at that of other-race faces. The findings suggest that although children with ASD have difficulty with processing some aspects of faces, their ability to process face race information is relatively spared.
Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael
Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…
Observer Single-handed Transatlantic Race (OSTAR) participants were aided by a French-American space-based monitoring system which reported the yacht's positions throughout the race, and also served as an emergency locator service. Originating from NASA's Nimbus 6 Satellite, use of this system, called ARGOS made the OSTAR competition the most accurately reported sea race ever conducted. Each boat carried a portable transmitter allowing 88 new sources of oceanographic data available during the race.
From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.
Gardner-Neblett, Nicole; Iruka, Iheoma U
Although children's early language skills have been found to predict literacy outcomes, little is known about the role of preschool oral narrative skills in the pathway between language and emergent literacy or how these associations differ by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The current study uses the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to explore how language at age 2 is associated with narrative skills at age 4 and emergent literacy outcomes at age 5 for a nationally representative sample of children. Findings demonstrate that early language is associated with narrative skills for most children. Oral narrative skills were found to mediate the pathway between early language and kindergarten emergent literacy for poor and nonpoor African American children. Implications for children's literacy development and future research are discussed.
Thorpe, Roland J.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M.; Bruce, Marino A.; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N.; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V.; LaVeist, Thomas A.
Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status (SES), and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and White men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB) which was conducted in a racially a racially-integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in NHIS had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 129, 1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR= 0.77, 95% CI 0.65, 0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR= 0.58, 95% CI 0.50, 0.67). In the EHDIC-SWB sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.50, 1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.60, 1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.81, 2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental and SES conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and White men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men’s health disparities. PMID:26291190
Bauermeister, José; Eaton, Lisa; Stephenson, Rob
The role of structural factors when evaluating the vulnerability of human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risks among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men is an important area of focus for HIV prevention. Using cross-sectional data from young men living in Metro Detroit (N = 319; aged 18-29 years; 50% black, 25% white, 15% Latino, 9% other race/ethnicity; 9% HIV-positive), we examined whether transactional sex with casual partners was associated with neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage and individual-level factors (race/ethnicity and sexual identity, socioeconomic status, HIV/STI diagnoses, and substance use). Youth living in greater socioeconomic disadvantage reported more transactional sex (b = 0.11; SE = 0.04; p ≤ 0.01). This relationship was mitigated once individual-level correlates were entered into the model. Multilevel efforts to counteract socioeconomic deficits through community and individual level strategies may alleviate youth's exposure to transactional sex and reduce their vulnerability to HIV/STI risks.
Durant, Thomas J., Jr.; Christian, Ollie
Studied level of alienation and associations between socioeconomic variables and alienation in 200 older senior center clients. Found group isolation and powerlessness were more prevalent than personal isolation or normlessness; health, race, education, and income were strongest predictors of alienation; and older Blacks and those with lower…
While making comparative analyses of data collected by the World Fertility Survey regarding Latin America, a group of investigators of CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) realized that the selection of economic variables for the study of fertility had serious limitations. Such limitations did not allow the elaboration of a theory which took into account the complicated process of fertility, in all its socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological manifestations. Thus, this paper intends to lay the theoretical basis for the selection of all relevant variables, distinguishing, for example, the average fertility of women according to area of residence, place of early socialization, migrant status, social status, occupation of husband, level of instruction, occupation, and all changes in occupational activities of women in fertile age.
Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Cooper-McCann, Rebecca; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Lian, Min; McClurkin, Michael; Barbash, Rachel Ballard; Das, Sandeep R.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Leonard, Tammy
Introduction Despite a proposed connection between neighborhood environment and obesity, few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, as defined by moving between neighborhoods, and change in body weight. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between moving to more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and weight gain as a cardiovascular risk factor. Methods Weight (kg) was measured in the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multiethnic cohort aged 18–65 years, at baseline (2000–2002) and 7-year follow-up (2007–2009, N=1,835). Data were analyzed in 2013–2014. Geocoded addresses were linked to Dallas County, TX census block groups. A block group-level neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created. Multilevel difference-in-difference models with random effects and a Heckman correction factor (HCF) determined weight change relative to NDI change. Results Forty-nine percent of the DHS population moved (263 to higher NDI, 586 to lower NDI, 47 within same NDI), with blacks more likely to move than whites or Hispanics (p<0.01), but similar baseline BMI and waist circumference were observed in movers vs. non-movers (p>0.05). Adjusting for HCF, sex, race, and time-varying covariates, those who moved to areas of higher NDI gained more weight compared to those remaining in the same or moving to a lower NDI (0.64 kg per 1-unit NDI increase, 95% CI=0.09, 1.19). Impact of NDI change on weight gain increased with time (p=0.03). Conclusions Moving to more–socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods was associated with weight gain among DHS participants. PMID:25960394
Kaul, Christian; Ratner, Kyle G; Van Bavel, Jay J
People perceive and evaluate others on the basis of social categories, such as race, gender and age. Initial processing of targets in terms of visually salient social categories is often characterized as inevitable. In the current study, we investigated the influence of processing goals on the representation of race in the visual processing stream. Participants were assigned to one of two mixed-race teams and categorized faces according to their group membership or skin color. To assess neural representations of race, we employed multivariate pattern analysis to examined neural activity related to the presentation of Black and White faces. As predicted, patterns of neural activity within the early visual cortex and fusiform gyri (FG) could decode the race of face stimuli above chance and were moderated by processing goals. Race decoding in early visual cortex was above chance in both categorization tasks and below chance in a prefrontal control region. More importantly, race decoding was greater in the FG during the group membership vs skin color categorization task. The results suggest that, ironically, explicit racial categorization can diminish the representation of race in the FG. These findings suggest that representations of race are dynamic, reflecting current processing goals.
Gavett, Brandon E.; John, Samantha E.; Gurnani, Ashita S.; Bussell, Cara A.; Saurman, Jessica L.
Background Dementia severity can be modeled as the construct δ, representing the “cognitive correlates of functional status.” Objective We recently validated a model for estimating δ in the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center’s Uniform Data Set; however, δ’s association with neuropathology remains untested. Methods We used data from 727 decedents evaluated at Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) Centers nationwide. Participants spoke English, had no genetic abnormalities, and were pathologically diagnosed with AD as a primary or contributing etiology. Clinical data from participants’ last visit prior to death were used to estimate dementia severity (δ). Results A structural equation model using age, education, race, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (number of ε2 and ε4 alleles) as predictors and latent AD pathology and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) pathology as mediators fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.031; CFI = .957). AD pathology mediated the effects of age and APOE genotype on dementia severity. An older age at death and more ε2 alleles were associated with less AD pathology and, in turn, with less severe dementia. In contrast, more ε4 alleles were associated with more pathology and more severe dementia. Although age and race contributed to differences in CVD pathology, CVD pathology was not related to dementia severity in this sample of decedents with pathologically confirmed AD. Conclusions Using δ as an estimate of dementia severity fits well within a structural model in which AD pathology directly affects dementia severity and mediates the relationship between age and APOE genotype on dementia severity. PMID:26444761
Patel, Nileshkumar; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Thakkar, Badal; Coffey, James O; Agnihotri, Kanishk; Patel, Achint; Ainani, Nitesh; Nalluri, Nikhil; Patel, Nilay; Patel, Nish; Patel, Neil; Badheka, Apurva O; Kowalski, Marcin; Hendel, Robert; Viles-Gonzalez, Juan; Noseworthy, Peter A; Asirvatham, Samuel; Lo, Kaming; Myerburg, Robert J; Mitrani, Raul D
Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) has emerged as a popular procedure. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there exist differences or disparities in ablation utilization across gender, socioeconomic class, insurance, or race. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2000 to 2012), we identified adults hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of AF by ICD 9 code 427.31 who had catheter ablation (ICD 9 code-37.34). We stratified patients by race, insurance status, age, gender, and hospital characteristics. A hierarchical multivariate mixed-effect model was created to identify the independent predictors of AF ablation. Among an estimated total of 3,508,122 patients (extrapolated from 20% Nationwide Inpatient Sample) hospitalized with a diagnosis of AF in the United States from the year 2000 to 2012, 102,469 patients (2.9%) underwent catheter ablations. The number of ablations was increased by 940%, from 1,439 in 2000 to 15,090 in 2012. There were significant differences according to gender, race, and health insurance status, which persisted even after adjustment for other risk factors. Female gender (0.83 [95% CI 0.79 to 0.87; p <0.001]), black (0.49 [95% CI 0.44 to 0.55; p <0.001]), and Hispanic race (0.64 [95% CI 0.56 to 0.72; p <0.001]) were associated with lower likelihoods of undergoing an AF ablation. Medicare (0.93, 0.88 to 0.98, <0.001) or Medicaid (0.67, 0.59 to 0.76, <0.001) coverage and uninsured patients (0.55, 0.49 to 0.62, <0.001) also had lower rates of AF ablation compared to patients with private insurance. In conclusion we found differences in utilization of catheter ablation for AF based on gender, race, and insurance status that persisted over time.
Hornbrook, Mark C
Background Patients are being encouraged to go online to obtain health information and interact with their health care systems. However, a 2014 survey found that less than 60% of American adults aged 65 and older use the Internet, with much lower usage among black and Latino seniors compared with non-Hispanic white seniors, and among older versus younger seniors. Objective Our aims were to (1) identify race/ethnic and age cohort disparities among seniors in use of the health plan’s patient portal, (2) determine whether race/ethnic and age cohort disparities exist in access to digital devices and preferences for using email- and Web-based modalities to interact with the health care system, (3) assess whether observed disparities in preferences and patient portal use are due simply to barriers to access and inability to use the Internet, and (4) learn whether older adults not currently using the health plan’s patient portal or website have a potential interest in doing so in the future and what kind of support might be best suited to help them. Methods We conducted two studies of seniors aged 65-79 years. First, we used administrative data about patient portal account status and utilization in 2013 for a large cohort of English-speaking non-Hispanic white (n=183,565), black (n=16,898), Latino (n=12,409), Filipino (n=11,896), and Chinese (n=6314) members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan. Second, we used data from a mailed survey conducted in 2013-2014 with a stratified random sample of this population (final sample: 849 non-Hispanic white, 567 black, 653 Latino, 219 Filipino, and 314 Chinese). These data were used to examine race/ethnic and age disparities in patient portal use and readiness and preferences for using digital communication for health-related purposes. Results Adults aged 70-74 and 75-79 were significantly less likely than 65-69 year olds to be registered to use the patient portal, and among those registered, to have used the
Templeton, Alan R.
Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745
Sheehan, Connor M.; Hummer, Robert A.; Moore, Brenda L.; Huyser, Kimberly R.; Butler, John Sibley
Given their unique occupational hazards and sizable population, military veterans are an important population for the study of health. Yet veterans are by no means homogeneous, and there are unanswered questions regarding the extent of, and explanations for, racial and ethnic differences in veterans’ health. Using the 2010 National Survey of Veterans, we first documented race/ethnic differences in self-rated health and limitations in Activities of Daily Living among male veterans aged 30–84. Second, we examined potential explanations for the disparities, including socioeconomic and behavioral differences, as well as differences in specific military experiences. We found that Black, Hispanic, and other/multiple race veterans reported much worse health than White veterans. Using progressively adjusted regression models, we uncovered that the poorer self-rated health and higher levels of activity limitations among minority veterans compared to Whites was partially explained by differences in their socioeconomic status and by their military experiences. Minority veterans are a vulnerable population for poor health; future research and policy efforts should attempt to better understand and ameliorate their health disadvantages relative to White veterans. PMID:26783376
Moilanen, Kristin L; Shen, Yuh-Ling
Mastery, or the feeling of power or control over one's life, is a vital yet understudied covariate of wellbeing in adolescence and adulthood. The goal of the current study was to explore the effects of demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES)), maternal mastery, and supportive-involved mothering on children's mastery at ages 16-17 years. 855 teens (47.6% female) and their mothers provided study data as part of the 1992 and 1998 waves of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (NLSY-79; 24.1% Hispanic, 36.6% Black). Hybrid path models indicated that only maternal parenting during middle childhood was linked directly to levels of children's mastery in middle adolescence; a small portion of the association between parenting and adolescent mastery was attributable to SES. The discussion centers on significance of these findings for future research and theory development.
Yancy, Clyde W
The issue of race in medicine is problematic. Race is not a physiologic grouping, and all persons of a given race do not necessarily share the same clinical phenotype or genetic substrate. Despite clear signals that certain risk factors and diseases vary as a function of race, translating those differences into race-based therapeutics has been awkward and has done little to change the natural history of cardiovascular disease as it affects special populations. Among the varied special populations, the African American population appears to have the most significant and adverse variances for cardiovascular disease as well as worrisome signals that drug responsiveness varies. Recent guideline statements have now acknowledged certain treatment options that are most appropriate for African Americans with cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension and heart failure. As more physiologic markers of disease and drug responsiveness become available, the need for racial designations in medicine may lessen, and therapies can be optimized for all patients without regard to race or ethnicity.
Kubota, Jennifer T; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Phelps, Elizabeth A
As the racial composition of the population changes, intergroup interactions are increasingly common. To understand how we perceive and categorize race and the attitudes that flow from it, scientists have used brain imaging techniques to examine how social categories of race and ethnicity are processed, evaluated and incorporated in decision-making. We review these findings, focusing on black and white race categories. A network of interacting brain regions is important in the unintentional, implicit expression of racial attitudes and its control. On the basis of the overlap in the neural circuitry of race, emotion and decision-making, we speculate as to how this emerging research might inform how we recognize and respond to variations in race and its influence on unintended race-based attitudes and decisions. PMID:22735516
Van Dyke, Miriam E.; Vaccarino, Viola; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Lewis, Tené T.
Rationale Research on self-reported experiences of discrimination and health has grown in recent decades, but has largely focused on racial discrimination or overall mistreatment. Less is known about reports of discrimination on the basis of socioeconomic status (SES), despite the fact that SES is one of the most powerful social determinants of health. Objective We sought to examine the cross-sectional association between self-reported SES discrimination and subjective sleep quality, an emerging risk factor for disease. We further examined whether associations differed by race or SES. Methods We used logistic and linear regression to analyze data from a population-based cohort of 425 African-American and White middle-aged adults (67.5% female) in the Southeastern United States. SES discrimination was assessed with a modified Experiences of Discrimination Scale and poor subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results In logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, and education, reports of SES discrimination were associated with poor sleep quality among African-Americans (OR=2.39, 95% CI =1.35, 4.24), but not Whites (OR=1.03, 95% CI= 0.57, 1.87), and the race × SES discrimination interaction was significant at p=0.04. After additional adjustments for reports of racial and gender discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, body mass index and depressive symptoms, SES discrimination remained a significant predictor of poor sleep among African-Americans, but not Whites. In contrast to findings by race, SES discrimination and sleep associations did not significantly differ by SES. Conclusion Findings suggest that reports of SES discrimination may be an important risk factor for subjective sleep quality among African-Americans and support the need to consider the health impact of SES-related stressors in the context of race. PMID:26896878
Graves, Joseph L., Jr.
Though modern science considers race a social concept, not a scientific truth, many still believe there are innate racial differences among people. Discusses the development of biology and race theory; basic definitions of race; genes, human variation, and race; genetic variation within and between races; modern genome studies that dismiss…
Geronimus, Arline T; Pearson, Jay A; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J; Reyes, Angela G; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H
Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multistage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured telomere length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents' TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial-ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; and poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race-ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally rooted biopsychosocial processes.
Brokamp, Cole; LeMasters, Grace K; Ryan, Patrick H
Epidemiologic studies commonly use residential locations to estimate environmental exposures or community-level characteristics. The impact of residential mobility on these characteristics, however, is rarely considered. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effect of residential mobility on estimates of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), greenspace, and community-level characteristics. All residential addresses were reported from birth through age seven for children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study. Exposure to TRAP at each address was estimated using a land use model. Greenspace was estimated using satellite imagery. Indices of neighborhood deprivation and race were created based on socioeconomic-census tract measures. Exposure estimates using the birth record address, the last known address, and the annual address history were used to determine exposure estimation error and bias in the association with asthma at age seven. Overall, 54% of the cohort moved at least once prior to age seven. Each move was separated by a median of 4 miles and associated with a median decrease of 4.4% in TRAP exposure, a 5.3% increase in greenspace, an improved deprivation index, and no change in the race index. Using the birth record address or the last known address instead of the annual address history resulted in exposure misclassification leading to a bias toward the null when associating the exposures with asthma. Using a single address to estimate environmental exposures and community-level characteristics over a time period may result in differential assessment error. PMID:26956935
Garcia, John A.; Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Sanchez-Youngman, Shannon; Vargas, Edward D.; Ybarra, Vickie D.
A growing body of social science research has sought to conceptualize race as a multidimensional concept in which context, societal relations, and institutional dynamics are key components. Utilizing a specially designed survey, we develop and use multiple measures of race (skin color, ascribed race, and discrimination experiences) to capture race as “lived experience” and assess their impact on Latinos’ self-rated health status. We model these measures of race as a lived experience to test the explanatory power of race, both independently and as an integrated scale with categorical regression, scaling, and dimensional analyses. Our analyses show that our multiple measures of race have significant and negative effects on Latinos’ self-reported health. Skin color is a dominant factor that impacts self-reported health both directly and indirectly. We then advocate for the utilization of multiple measures of race, adding to those used in our analysis, and their application to other health and social outcomes. Our analysis provides important contributions across a wide range of health, illness, social, and political outcomes for communities of color. PMID:26681972
Mack, Raymond W., Ed.
Contents of this book comprises: Introduction--A decade of change; (1) Race and its consequences: Beliefs and acts; (2) Race relations in different societies: A comparative perspective; (3) Implementing discrimination: the institutional impact of prejudice; (4) Leaders in change: A set of profiles; and (5) Options facing Americans: Pathos to…
Noblitt, Bethany A.; Buckley, Brooke E.
Teams, pit stops, clues, time limits, fast forwards, challenges, and prizes are all components of the CBS hit show "The Amazing Race." They were also elements of the Amazing Mathematical Race sponsored by the Math and Stats Club at Northern Kentucky University in April 2009. Held in recognition of Math Awareness Month, which is advocated…
Evaluation of screen time activities and their relationship with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status in children 10-12 years of age in Sanandaj, Iran: A cross-sectional study in 2015.
Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Nouri, Bijan
Background: Screen time (ST), including watching television and playing electronic games are the leading cause of a growing obesity epidemic. This study aimed to evaluate ST and its association with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status (SES) in children 10 to 12 years of age in Sanandaj. Methods: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study, which was conducted in Sanandaj in 2015. ST and physical activity data were collected using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). Overweight indices are defined based on BMI age- and gender-specific percentiles, as proposed by WHO criteria. Considering household assets data, SES was calculated using principal component analysis (PCA). The relationship between ST and different determinants was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Based on the results obtained in our study, 47.28% (95% CI: 45.33-49.24) of the participants spent more than two hours a day on television and video watching and electronic games playing. People who spend greater time on ST activities, independent of their physical activities, are more susceptible to overweight and obesity (p=0.002). People in higher socioeconomic groups spent more time on watching TV and video and playing electronic games (p=0.001). There was a direct relationship between the residential area and ST (P=0.052). ST in male was found to be greater (p=0.033). In addition, ST was also lower in school-aged children whose mothers had a greater education (p=0.56). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to increase the education level and knowledge of mothers and design interventions consistent with children gender and residential location so that to reduce ST and its associated outcomes in children.
Evaluation of screen time activities and their relationship with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status in children 10-12 years of age in Sanandaj, Iran: A cross-sectional study in 2015
Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Nouri, Bijan
Background: Screen time (ST), including watching television and playing electronic games are the leading cause of a growing obesity epidemic. This study aimed to evaluate ST and its association with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status (SES) in children 10 to 12 years of age in Sanandaj. Methods: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study, which was conducted in Sanandaj in 2015. ST and physical activity data were collected using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). Overweight indices are defined based on BMI age- and gender-specific percentiles, as proposed by WHO criteria. Considering household assets data, SES was calculated using principal component analysis (PCA). The relationship between ST and different determinants was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Based on the results obtained in our study, 47.28% (95% CI: 45.33-49.24) of the participants spent more than two hours a day on television and video watching and electronic games playing. People who spend greater time on ST activities, independent of their physical activities, are more susceptible to overweight and obesity (p=0.002). People in higher socioeconomic groups spent more time on watching TV and video and playing electronic games (p=0.001). There was a direct relationship between the residential area and ST (P=0.052). ST in male was found to be greater (p=0.033). In addition, ST was also lower in school-aged children whose mothers had a greater education (p=0.56). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to increase the education level and knowledge of mothers and design interventions consistent with children gender and residential location so that to reduce ST and its associated outcomes in children. PMID:28210613
Spengler, Marion; Brunner, Martin; Damian, Rodica I.; Lüdtke, Oliver; Martin, Romain; Roberts, Brent W.
Drawing on a 2-wave longitudinal sample spanning 40 years from childhood (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 52), the present study was designed to examine how student characteristics and behaviors in late childhood (assessed in Wave 1 in 1968) predict career success in adulthood (assessed in Wave 2 in 2008). We examined the influence of parental…
Lindberg, L; Ek, A; Nyman, J; Marcus, C; Ulijaszek, S; Nowicka, P
While the influence of parental socioeconomic status (SES) on children's weight status is well known, the impact of other family-related aspects such as parental and grandparental social support is less understood. This study investigates the importance of parents' SES and social support (functional and structural) for weight status in a clinical sample of preschoolers 4-6 years old with obesity (n = 39, 56% girls; 73% of parents were overweight/obese, 50% were of non-Swedish origin). Linear regression analyses, simple and multiple, were performed on SES and social support with child BMI SDS (body mass index standard deviation score) as the dependent variable. The results show that parents' income and low emotional support from paternal grandparents were significantly associated with more severe obesity. The association between parental income and the child's BMI SDS was stronger among parents who had low emotional support from their own parents. In conclusion, grandparental social support may be protective against childhood obesity.
Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Hou, Zeng-Guang
Faces convey a wealth of social signals, including race, expression, identity, age and gender, all of which have attracted increasing attention from multi-disciplinary research, such as psychology, neuroscience, computer science, to name a few. Gleaned from recent advances in computer vision, computer graphics, and machine learning, computational intelligence based racial face analysis has been particularly popular due to its significant potential and broader impacts in extensive real-world applications, such as security and defense, surveillance, human computer interface (HCI), biometric-based identification, among others. These studies raise an important question: How implicit, non-declarative racial category can be conceptually modeled and quantitatively inferred from the face? Nevertheless, race classification is challenging due to its ambiguity and complexity depending on context and criteria. To address this challenge, recently, significant efforts have been reported toward race detection and categorization in the community. This survey provides a comprehensive and critical review of the state-of-the-art advances in face-race perception, principles, algorithms, and applications. We first discuss race perception problem formulation and motivation, while highlighting the conceptual potentials of racial face processing. Next, taxonomy of feature representational models, algorithms, performance and racial databases are presented with systematic discussions within the unified learning scenario. Finally, in order to stimulate future research in this field, we also highlight the major opportunities and challenges, as well as potentially important cross-cutting themes and research directions for the issue of learning race from face.
Brenner, Allison B.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Roux, Ana V. Diez
Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and alcohol availability may affect alcohol consumption, but adequate longitudinal research to support these hypotheses does not exist. We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (N= 6163) to examine associations of changes in neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol outlet density, with current, weekly, and heavy daily alcohol consumption in hybrid effects models. We also examined whether these associations were moderated by gender, race/ethnicity, and income. Increases in neighborhood SES were associated with decreases in the probability of current alcohol use after adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, individual SES, marital status and time since baseline [probability ratio (PR) per SD increase in neighborhood SES = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.96,0.99)]. Increases in liquor store densities were associated with increases in weekly alcohol consumption [ratio of weekly drinks per SD increase in outlet density= 1.07, 95% CI (1.01,1.05) for men, PR = 1.11, 95% CI (1.01,1.21) for women]. Relationships between current alcohol use and neighborhood SES and between weekly beer consumption and neighborhood SES were generally stronger among those with higher incomes. Neighborhood socioeconomic context and the availability of alcohol may be important for understanding patterns of alcohol use over time, and for targeting interventions and policies to reduce harmful alcohol use. PMID:26439763
Brenner, Allison B; Borrell, Luisa N; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Diez Roux, Ana V
Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and alcohol availability may affect alcohol consumption, but adequate longitudinal research to support these hypotheses does not exist. We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (N = 6163) to examine associations of changes in neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol outlet density, with current, weekly, and heavy daily alcohol consumption in hybrid effects models. We also examined whether these associations were moderated by gender, race/ethnicity, and income. Increases in neighborhood SES were associated with decreases in the probability of current alcohol use after adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, individual SES, marital status and time since baseline [probability ratio (PR) per SD increase in neighborhood SES = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.96.0.99)]. Increases in liquor store densities were associated with increases in weekly alcohol consumption [ratio of weekly drinks per SD increase in outlet density = 1.07, 95% CI (1.01.1.05) for men, PR = 1.11, 95% CI (1.01.1.21) for women]. Relationships between current alcohol use and neighborhood SES and between weekly beer consumption and neighborhood SES were generally stronger among those with higher incomes. Neighborhood socioeconomic context and the availability of alcohol may be important for understanding patterns of alcohol use over time, and for targeting interventions and policies to reduce harmful alcohol use.
Seo, Dong-Chul; Choe, Siyoung; Torabi, Mohammad R
Between body mass index (BMI) ≥30 and waist circumference (WC) ≥102/88cm, we investigated which of the two measures is a better predictor of two of the most common chronic diseases - diabetes mellitus and hypertension while also examining differential association by gender, age group, and race/ethnicity. Meta-analysis was conducted for all longitudinal studies with at least 12months of follow-up published up to April 2015. Ratio of relative risk (rRR) and relative risk of diseases were computed and compared by baseline obesity measurement. The final sample included 23 longitudinal observation studies involving 62 study arms with 259,200 individuals. WC≥102/88cm was a better predictor than BMI≥30 for development of diabetes (rRR=0.81, 95% CI=0.68-0.96), but not for hypertension (rRR=0.92, 95% CI=0.80-1.06). Subgroup analyses showed WC≥102/88cm was a better predictor for diabetes in women than men, and for ages 60 and older than other ages. Only WC≥102/88cm, not BMI≥30, predicted development of hypertension among Hispanic/Latinos. Neither BMI≥30 nor WC≥102/88cm were significant predictors of hypertension when age group was controlled. Central obesity may be a more serious risk factor for diabetes development in women and for older ages. The predictive power of BMI≥30 or WC≥102/88cm in hypertension development should not be emphasized as either could mask the effect of age.
Shreffler, Karina M.; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; Johnson, David R.
Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4,609 women ages 25 to 45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. PMID:25592919
with radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. However, regardless of race, men of lower socioeconomic status are less likely to receive...socioeconomic status are also more likely to have treatment related complications after prostate cancer treatment. This suggests that disparities in...Patients with early stage prostate cancer have excellent cause specific survival after definitive local therapy with radiation therapy or radical
Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Hahm, Myung-Il; Park, Eun-Cheol
South Korea has the highest suicide rate among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), with a rising trend that contrasts with the trend in most other OECD countries. This study assessed differential associations of socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation in South Korea. We used five waves of data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Study subjects included 5803 men and women aged >25 years. We analysed weighted percentages with consideration of the complex survey sample design and unequal weights. Surveylogistic regressions were applied. Protective effects against suicidal ideation were found for higher household income, higher educational attainment, and being married. Functional limitations and depressive symptoms were risk factors for suicidal ideation. However, these significant factors may exert different effects on vulnerability for suicidal ideation among different genders and age groups. Thus, household income was mainly protective for women and subjects aged 25-44 years, and educational attainment was protective for individuals aged >65 years. Our findings suggest the need for extended social protection policies for the less privileged population and special strategies for different groups.
Bloche, M Gregg
Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited.
Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J
Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization.
Harper, Sam; Charters, Thomas J; Strumpf, Erin C
Motor vehicle accident (MVA) mortality has been declining overall, but little is known about trends by socioeconomic position. We examined trends in education-related inequalities in US MVA death rates from 1995 to 2010. We used mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics and population estimates from the Current Population Survey, and we calculated vehicle- and person-miles traveled using data from the National Household Travel Survey. We used negative binomial regression to estimate crude and age-, sex-, and race-adjusted mortality rates among adults aged 25 years or more. We found larger mortality decreases among the more highly educated and some evidence of mortality increases among the least educated. Adjusted death rates were 15.3 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.7, 19.9) higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top of the education distribution in 1995, increasing to 17.9 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 14.8, 21.0) by 2010. In relative terms, adjusted death rates were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.7, 3.0) times higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top in 1995, increasing to 4.3 times higher (95% CI: 3.4, 5.3) by 2010. Inequality increases were larger in terms of vehicle-miles traveled. Although overall MVA death rates declined during this period, socioeconomic differences in MVA mortality have persisted or worsened over time.
Liu, Shaoying; Xiao, Wen Sara; Xiao, Naiqi G.; Quinn, Paul C.; Zhang, Yueyan; Chen, Hui; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang
Previous research has shown that 3-month-olds prefer own- over other-race faces. The current study used eye-tracking methodology to examine how this visual preference develops with age beyond 3 months and how infants differentially scan between own- and other-race faces when presented simultaneously. We showed own- versus other-race face pairs to…
In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations.
Sankar, Pamela; Kahn, Jonathan
Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first drug with a race-specific indication has fueled the controversy over the meaning of race and ethnicity and raised questions over whether this move should be seen as an advance or a setback in the struggle to address disparities in health status associated with race. The drug, BiDil, combines two generics long recognized as benefiting patients with heart failure, irrespective of race or ethnicity. The push to bring these drugs to market as a race-specific treatment was motivated by the culiarities of U.S. patent law and willingness exploit race to gain commercial and regulatory advantage.
Akinyemiju, Tomi; Ogunsina, Kemi; Okwali, Michelle; Sakhuja, Swati; Braithwaite, Dejana
Few studies have examined cancer-related risk factors in relation to SES across the lifecourse in low to middle income countries. This analysis focuses on adult women in India, China, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, and examines the association between individual, parental and lifecourse SES with smoking, alcohol, BMI, nutrition and physical activity. Data on 22,283 women aged 18 years and older were obtained from the 2007 WHO Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (SAGE). Overall, 34% of women had no formal education, 73% had mothers with no formal education and 73% of women had low lifecourse SES. Low SES women were almost 4 times more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.23–12.10), and 68% more likely to smoke (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.01–2.80) compared with higher SES. Women with low SES mothers and fathers were more likely to have poor nutrition (Mothers OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.17–2.16; Fathers OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11–1.59) and more likely to smoke (Mothers OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15–1.87; Fathers OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.80–2.63) compared with those with high SES parents. Women with stable low lifecourse SES were more likely to smoke (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.47–4.43), while those with declining lifecourse SES were more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.63, 95% CI: 1.07–12.34). Cancer-related risk factors varied significantly by lifecourse SES, suggesting that cancer prevention strategies will need to be tailored to specific subgroups in order to be most effective. PMID:27813060
Akinyemiju, Tomi; Ogunsina, Kemi; Okwali, Michelle; Sakhuja, Swati; Braithwaite, Dejana
Few studies have examined cancer-related risk factors in relation to SES across the lifecourse in low to middle income countries. This analysis focuses on adult women in India, China, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, and examines the association between individual, parental and lifecourse SES with smoking, alcohol, BMI, nutrition and physical activity. Data on 22,283 women aged 18 years and older were obtained from the 2007 WHO Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (SAGE). Overall, 34% of women had no formal education, 73% had mothers with no formal education and 73% of women had low lifecourse SES. Low SES women were almost four times more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.23-12.10), and 68% more likely to smoke (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.01-2.80) compared with higher SES. Women with low SES mothers and fathers were more likely to have poor nutrition (Mothers OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.17-2.16; Fathers OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11-1.59) and more likely to smoke (Mothers OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15-1.87; Fathers OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.80-2.63) compared with those with high SES parents. Women with stable low lifecourse SES were more likely to smoke (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.47-4.43), while those with declining lifecourse SES were more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.63, 95% CI: 1.07-12.34). Cancer-related risk factors varied significantly by lifecourse SES, suggesting that cancer prevention strategies will need to be tailored to specific sub-groups in order to be most effective.
Bastos, João Luiz; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Barros, Aluísio J D; Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; Gonçalves, Helen; Nunes, Ana Paula
This study assessed the associations between female interviewers' self-classified 'color/race' and participants' self- and interviewer-classified 'color/race'. A cross-sectional study was carried out among adult individuals living in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Associations were examined by means of contingency tables and multinomial regression models, adjusting for interviewees' socioeconomic and demographic factors. Individuals aged > or = 40 years were 2.1 times more likely to classify themselves as brown (versus white) when interviewed by black (as compared to white) interviewers. Participants in the same age group were 2.5 times less likely to classify themselves as black (versus white), when interviewed by black interviewers. These differences were even greater among men 40 years or older. Compared to white interviewers, black female interviewers were 2.5 times less likely to classify men aged > or = 40 years as black. These results highlight the complexity of racial classification, indicating the influence of the interviewer's physical characteristics on the interviewee's 'color/race'.
The use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research is controversial-for example, in the comparison of disease risk in different groups or as a means of making use of or controlling for population structure in the mapping of genes to chromosomes. Biogeographical ancestry (BGA) has been recommended as a more accurate and appropriate category. BGA is a product of the collaboration between biological anthropologist Mark Shriver from Pennsylvania State University and molecular biologist Tony Frudakis from the now-defunct biotechnology start-up company DNAPrint genomics, Inc. Shriver and Frudakis portray BGA as a measure of the 'biological', 'genetic', 'natural', and 'objective' components of race and ethnicity, what philosophers of science would call a natural kind. This paper argues that BGA is not a natural kind that escapes social and political connotations of race and ethnicity, as Shriver and Frudakis and other proponents believe, but a construction that is built upon race-as race has been socially constructed in the European scientific and philosophical traditions. More specifically, BGA is not a global category of biological and anthropological classification but a local category shaped by the U.S. context of its production, especially the forensic aim of being able to predict the race or ethnicity of an unknown suspect based on DNA found at the crime scene. Therefore, caution needs to be exercised in the embrace of BGA as an alternative to the use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research.
Singh, Gopal K; Azuine, Romuladus E; Siahpush, Mohammad; Kogan, Michael D
We analyzed international patterns and socioeconomic and rural-urban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from homicide, suicide, unintentional injuries, and HIV/AIDS among US youth aged 15-24 years. A county-level socioeconomic deprivation index and rural-urban continuum measure were linked to the 1999-2007 US mortality data. Mortality rates were calculated for each socioeconomic and rural-urban group. Poisson regression was used to derive adjusted relative risks of youth mortality by deprivation level and rural-urban residence. The USA has the highest youth homicide rate and 6th highest overall youth mortality rate in the industrialized world. Substantial socioeconomic and rural-urban gradients in youth mortality were observed within the USA. Compared to their most affluent counterparts, youth in the most deprived group had 1.9 times higher all-cause mortality, 8.0 times higher homicide mortality, 1.5 times higher unintentional-injury mortality, and 8.8 times higher HIV/AIDS mortality. Youth in rural areas had significantly higher mortality rates than their urban counterparts regardless of deprivation levels, with suicide and unintentional-injury mortality risks being 1.8 and 2.3 times larger in rural than in urban areas. However, youth in the most urbanized areas had at least 5.6 times higher risks of homicide and HIV/AIDS mortality than their rural counterparts. Disparities in mortality differed by race and sex. Socioeconomic deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to disparities in youth mortality among all sex and racial/ethnic groups, although the impact of deprivation was considerably greater. The USA ranks poorly in all-cause mortality, youth homicide, and unintentional-injury mortality rates when compared with other industrialized countries.
Thurston, Rebecca C.; Matthews, Karen A.
Racial and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well established among adults. However, little is known about disparities in CVD risk among adolescents, particularly considering indices of subclinical CVD. Our aim was to examine socioeconomic and racial disparities in subclinical CVD indices among adolescents. We hypothesized that African American and lower SES adolescents would show greater arterial stiffness and intima media thickness compared to Caucasian and higher SES adolescents, respectively. Participants were 81 African American and 78 Caucasian adolescents (mean age = 17.8) from two schools in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Measures of subclinical CVD were pulse wave velocity and intima media thickness, as assessed by Doppler and B-mode ultrasound, respectively. SES indices included parental education, family income, family assets, subjective social status, and census-derived neighborhood SES. Hypotheses were evaluated in multiple linear regression models with the covariates age, gender, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Results indicated that African American adolescents were more often in low SES positions than Caucasians. When considered individually, racial and SES disparities in pulse wave velocity, and to a lesser extent, intima media thickness, were evident. When race and SES were considered together, high school education, low or medium income, and low neighborhood SES were associated with higher pulse wave velocity. Fewer assets were associated with higher intima media thickness. In conclusion, racial and SES disparities in indices of subclinical CVD were observed, with findings most pronounced for SES disparities in pulse wave velocity. This study extends previous findings in adults to adolescents, indicating that disparities in arterial stiffness and intima media thickness occur as early as adolescence. Efforts to reduce socioeconomic and racial disparities in CVD should target disparities early in
Manly, Jennifer J
A crucial issue for health researchers is how to measure health and health-related behaviors across racial/ethnic groups. This commentary outlines an approach that involves the deconstruction of race/ethnicity, which clarifies the independent influences of acculturation, quality of education, socioeconomic class, and racial socialization on outcomes of interest. Research on the influence of these variables on health outcomes in general, and cognitive test performance specifically, is presented. This research indicates that when variables such as quality of education, wealth, and perceived racism are taken into account, the effect of race/ethnicity on health outcomes is greatly reduced. In other words, race/ethnicity serves as a proxy for these more meaningful variables, and explicit measurement of these constructs will improve research of health within majority and minority ethnic groups.
Kudish, Kathy S.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Soto, Kristen; Hadler, James L.
Objectives. We examined socioeconomic status (SES) disparities and the influence of state Immunization Action Plan–funded vaccination coordinators located in low-SES areas of Connecticut on childhood vaccination up-to-date (UTD) status at age 24 months. Methods. We examined predictors of underimmunization among the 2006 birth cohort (n = 34 568) in the state’s Immunization Information System, including individual demographic and SES data, census tract SES data, and residence in an area with a vaccination coordinator. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results. Overall, 81% of children were UTD. Differences by race/ethnicity and census tract SES were typically under 5%. Not being UTD at age 7 months was the strongest predictor of underimmunization at age 24 months. Among children who were not UTD at age 7 months, only Medicaid enrollment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5, 0.7) and residence in an area with a vaccination coordinator (AOR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) significantly decreased the odds of subsequent underimmunization. Conclusions. SES disparities associated with underimmunization at age 24 months were limited. Efforts focused on vaccinating infants born in low SES circumstances can minimize disparities. PMID:24228642
Gayles, Travis A.; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Kwon, Soyang; Mustanski, Brian
Abstract Purpose: HIV disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men (YMSM), particularly black YMSM. Increasingly, researchers are turning to social, economic, and structural factors to explain these disproportionate rates. In this study, we explore the relationship between socioeconomic disconnection and HIV status and factors related to HIV infection, including drug use, condomless anal sex, and binge drinking. We operationalize socioeconomic disconnection in this young population as lack of engagement in educational and employment opportunities. Methods: Baseline data were analyzed from a longitudinal cohort study of YMSM aged 16–20 years recruited from the Chicago area (N = 450). Bivariate analyses of the association of socioeconomic disconnection and HIV-positive status, drug and alcohol use, and condomless anal sex were assessed using chi-square tests. The relationship of socioeconomic disconnection and HIV-positive status was then examined in multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for age and race/ethnicity and significant behavioral factors. Results: Among study participants, 112 (25%) were not in school, 310 (69%) were not currently working, and 81 (18%) were neither in school nor working. Black MSM were more likely to be socioeconomically disconnected (neither in school nor working; n = 56, 23.3%). The results revealed that disconnected YMSM were more likely to binge drink (AOR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.16, 4.74) and be HIV positive (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.04, 4.83). Subpopulation analysis for black participants revealed similar associations (AOR of binge drinking = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.07, 8.01; AOR of HIV positive = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.03, 5.51). Controlling for substance use, the association between disconnection and HIV-positive status remained significant (AOR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.08, 5.20). Conclusion: Socioeconomic disconnection is significantly and positively associated with HIV status
Karlamangla, Arun S; Miller-Martinez, Dana; Aneshensel, Carol S; Seeman, Teresa E; Wight, Richard G; Chodosh, Joshua
This study used mixed-effects modeling of data from a national sample of 6,476 US adults born before 1924, who were tested 5 times between 1993 and 2002 on word recall, serial 7's, and other mental status items to determine demographic and socioeconomic predictors of trajectories of cognitive function in older Americans. Mean decline with aging in total cognition score (range, 0-35; standard deviation, 6.00) was 4.1 (0.68 standard deviations) per decade (95% confidence interval: 3.8, 4.4) and in recall score (range, 0-20; standard deviation, 3.84) was 2.3 (0.60 standard deviations) per decade (95% confidence interval: 2.1, 2.5). Older cohorts (compared with younger cohorts), women (compared with men), widows/widowers, and those never married (both compared with married individuals) declined faster, and non-Hispanic blacks (compared with non-Hispanic whites) and those in the bottom income quintile (compared with the top quintile) declined slower. Race and income differences in rates of decline were not sufficient to offset larger differences in baseline cognition scores. Educational level was not associated with rate of decline in cognition scores. The authors concluded that ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in cognitive function in older Americans arise primarily from differences in peak cognitive performance achieved earlier in the life course and less from declines in later life.
Pitcher, Sharon M.
Research suggests that parent involvement improves academic achievement, but in the busy world in which we live it is often difficult to promote. Many researchers suggest that successful programs value parents' limited time constraints, diversity of literacy skills, and availability of materials. The Great Poetry Race provides an easy vehicle to…
British Information Service, New York, NY. Reference Div.
This pamphlet outlines activities that the British government has undertaken to provide equality of opportunity to ethnic minorities. Background information is provided through an overview of immigration trends which describes racial and regional distributions of minority groups. Legislation concerning race relations and discrimination is…
Contends that potential for violence in increasing in urban areas as American society becomes more segregated by race, class, and economic status. Notes widening racial polarization in urban American and suggests that many African Americans find themselves left out of American dream of better life. Sees racial tensions increasing as economy…
Jeynes, William H.
This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…
Smith, James E.
Investigated the connection between emotion and behavior, examining the connection between the construct of emotional intelligence and criminal behavior. Data collected from a group of men and women on probation from prison indicated that people received different socialization with regard to emotions based on gender and race. Results suggest that…
Kertzner, Robert M; Meyer, Ilan H; Frost, David M; Stirratt, Michael J
Using a social stress perspective, the authors studied the mental health effects of added burden related to socially disadvantaged status (being African American or Latino, female, young, and identifying as bisexual vs. gay or lesbian) in a community sample of 396 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Mental health outcomes were social and psychological well-being contrasted with depressive symptoms. When mental health deficiencies by disadvantaged social status were detected, the authors examined whether LGB community connectedness and positive sexual identity valence played a mediating role, reducing the social status disparity in outcome. The authors found different patterns when looking at social versus psychological well-being and positive versus negative mental health outcomes. Bisexuality and young age, but not gender and racial/ethnic minority status, were associated with decreased social well-being. In bisexuals, this relationship was mediated by community connectedness and sexual identity valence. Although no differences in social or psychological well-being were found by gender, female gender was associated with depressed mood. The authors conclude that there is limited support for an additive stress model.
Kertzner, Robert M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Frost, David M.; Stirratt, Michael J.
Using social stress perspective, we studied the mental health effects of added burden related to socially disadvantaged status (being African-American or Latino, female, young, and identifying as bisexual versus gay or lesbian) in a community sample of 396 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Mental health outcomes were social and psychological well-being contrasted with depressive symptoms. When mental health deficiencies by disadvantaged social status were detected, we examined if LGB community connectedness and positive sexual identity valence played a mediating role, reducing the social status disparity in outcome. We found different patterns when looking at social vs. psychological well-being and positive vs. negative mental health outcomes. Bisexuality and young age, but not gender and racial/ethnic minority status, were associated with decreased social well-being. In bisexuals, this relationship was mediated by community connectedness and sexual identity valence. Though no differences in social or psychological well-being were found by gender, female gender was associated with depressed mood. We conclude that there is limited support for an additive stress model. PMID:20099941
Collins, Susan E
Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the many factors influencing a person's alcohol use and related outcomes. Findings have indicated that people with higher SES may consume similar or greater amounts of alcohol compared with people with lower SES, although the latter group seems to bear a disproportionate burden of negative alcohol-related consequences. These associations are further complicated by a variety of moderating factors, such as race, ethnicity, and gender. Thus, among individuals with lower SES, members of further marginalized communities, such as racial and ethnic minorities and homeless individuals, experience greater alcohol-related consequences. Future studies are needed to more fully explore the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between SES and alcohol outcomes. This knowledge should be applied toward the development of multilevel interventions that address not only individual-level risks but also economic disparities that have precipitated and maintained a disproportionate level of alcohol-related consequences among more marginalized and vulnerable populations.
A Difference-in-Differences Approach to Assess the Effect of a Heat Action Plan on Heat-Related Mortality, and Differences in Effectiveness According to Sex, Age, and Socioeconomic Status (Montreal, Quebec)
Benmarhnia, Tarik; Bailey, Zinzi; Kaiser, David; Auger, Nathalie; King, Nicholas; Kaufman, Jay S.
Background: The impact of heat waves on mortality and health inequalities is well documented. Very few studies have assessed the effectiveness of heat action plans (HAPs) on health, and none has used quasi-experimental methods to estimate causal effects of such programs. Objectives: We developed a quasi-experimental method to estimate the causal effects associated with HAPs that allows the identification of heterogeneity across subpopulations, and to apply this method specifically to the case of the Montreal (Quebec, Canada) HAP. Methods: A difference-in-differences approach was undertaken using Montreal death registry data for the summers of 2000–2007 to assess the effectiveness of the Montreal HAP, implemented in 2004, on mortality. To study equity in the effect of HAP implementation, we assessed whether the program effects were heterogeneous across sex (male vs. female), age (≥ 65 years vs. < 65 years), and neighborhood education levels (first vs. third tertile). We conducted sensitivity analyses to assess the validity of the estimated causal effect of the HAP program. Results: We found evidence that the HAP contributed to reducing mortality on hot days, and that the mortality reduction attributable to the program was greater for elderly people and people living in low-education neighborhoods. Conclusion: These findings show promise for programs aimed at reducing the impact of extreme temperatures and health inequities. We propose a new quasi-experimental approach that can be easily applied to evaluate the impact of any program or intervention triggered when daily thresholds are reached. Citation: Benmarhnia T, Bailey Z, Kaiser D, Auger N, King N, Kaufman J. 2016. A difference-in-differences approach to assess the effect of a heat action plan on heat-related mortality, and differences in effectiveness according to sex, age, and socioeconomic status (Montreal, Quebec). Environ Health Perspect 124:1694–1699; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP203 PMID:27203433
Bailey, C J; Reid, S W; Hodgson, D R; Bourke, J M; Rose, R J
A retrospective case-control study was conducted to identify and quantify risk factors for serious musculoskeletal injury sustained at 4 Australian metropolitan racetracks. During the period of study (August 1988-July 1995) there were 196 cases from flat racing, 52 cases from hurdle racing and 53 cases from steeplechases. The incidences of fatal musculoskeletal injuries per start for flat, hurdle and steeple races were 0.06, 0.63 and 1.43% respectively. Logistic regression identified harder track surfaces, horses being older than age 3 years, one racecourse (Flemington) and jumping races as significant risk factors which increased the risk of musculoskeletal breakdown. The incidence of fatal musculoskeletal injuries for flat races at the 4 study tracks was similar to that reported in the UK but less than the USA. Death rates for hurdle and steeple races in the study population were higher than in the UK. Strategies to reduce the incidence of serious musculoskeletal injuries may include avoidance of excessively hard track surfaces through closer regulation of track moisture content; implementation of more rigorous prerace lameness examinations of horses, particularly older horses; and altering the design and number of jumps in hurdle and steeple races. The quantification of risk, as we have reported here, is the first step towards addressing the causes of musculoskeletal breakdown and should help in applying a reasoned approach to intervention measures that may be effective in reducing racing injuries.
Schwartz, Brian S; Glass, Thomas A; Bolla, Karen I; Stewart, Walter F; Glass, Gregory; Rasmussen, Meghan; Bressler, Joseph; Shi, Weiping; Bandeen-Roche, Karen
The Baltimore Memory Study is a cohort study of the multilevel determinants of cognitive decline in 50-70-year-old randomly selected residents of specific city neighborhoods. Prior studies have demonstrated that cognitive function differs by race/ethnicity, with lower scores in minorities than in whites, but the underlying basis for these differences is not understood. Studies have differed in the rigor with which they evaluated and controlled for such important confounding variables as socioeconomic status (SES), health-related behaviors, comorbid illnesses, and factors in the physical environment. The goal of this study was to describe differences in neurobehavioral test scores by race/ethnicity, before and after control for a four-dimensional measure of SES and health-related behaviors and health conditions, in a cross-sectional analysis of first visit data. Random samples of households in the study area were selected until enrollment goals were reached. Among the 2,351 persons on whom eligibility was determined, 60.8% were scheduled for an enrollment visit; of these, 1,140 (81.3%) were enrolled and tested. These study participants were 34.3% male and 65.7% female and were from 65 Baltimore, Maryland, neighborhoods. After adjustment for age, sex, and testing technician, there were large and statistically significant differences in neurobehavioral test scores by race/ethnicity, with African-American scores lower than those for whites, for both men and women. After adjustment for individual SES (educational status, household income, household assets, and occupational status), the average difference declined by 25.8%. After additional adjustment for SES, health-related behaviors and health conditions, and blood lead, the average difference declined another 10%, but large differences persisted; African Americans had test scores that averaged 0.43 standard deviation lower than those for whites across all neurobehavioral tests. These differences were present in all
Parker, Laurence, Ed.; Deyhle, Donna, Ed.; Villenas, Sofia, Ed.
Critical race theory offers a way to understand how ostensibly race-neutral structures in education--knowledge, merit, objectivity, and "good education"--in fact help form and police the boundaries of white supremacy and racism. Critical race theory can be used to deconstruct the meaning of "educational achievement," to…
Disparities in Mental Health Quality of Life Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White LGB Midlife and Older Adults and the Influence of Lifetime Discrimination, Social Connectedness, Socioeconomic Status, and Perceived Stress.
Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I
We assessed factors contributing to ethnic and racial disparities in mental health quality of life (MHQOL) among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) midlife and older adults. We utilized cross-sectional survey data from a sample of non-Hispanic White and Hispanic LGB adults aged 50 and older. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of ethnicity/race on MHQOL via explanatory factors including social connectedness, lifetime discrimination, socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived stress. Hispanics reported significantly lower levels of MHQOL, compared to non-Hispanic Whites. In the final model, the association between ethnicity/race and MHQOL was explained by higher levels of perceived stress related to lower SES, higher frequency of lifetime discrimination, and lack of social connectedness among Hispanic LGB adults. This study suggests that perceived stress related to social disadvantage and marginalization plays an important role in MHQOL disparities among Hispanic LGB midlife and older adults.
Kyle, Janet; Fox, Helen C; Whalley, Lawrence J
There is interest in age-related cognitive decline and environmental risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This interest is focused on individual differences in exposure to agents that may harm or protect cognitive function. Caffeine is used as a short acting mental stimulant and may possess longer-term properties that protect against age-related decline and, possibly, AD. The current study aimed to: 1) examine current cognitive function in a narrow age range sample (n=351) without dementia (MMSE>25) who are, by reason of age, entering the period of increased risk of AD; and 2) link cognitive function to self-reported intake of caffeine and socioeconomic status (SES). Possible confounding by gender, childhood intelligence, education, and symptoms of anxiety and depression was introduced into the statistical model. There were significant differences between SES groups in caffeine intake (p< 0.05) and cognitive performance (p< 0.001). Higher quartiles of caffeine intake were associated with slower digit symbol speed (F =3.38, p< 0.02) but this finding was removed after allowing for SES. The results are discussed in terms of the withdrawal effects of caffeine during cognitive testing and strong links between SES and cognitive performance. No evidence in support of cognitive enhancing effects of caffeine was found.
Hummer, Robert A; Hamilton, Erin R
Robert Hummer and Erin Hamilton note that the prevalence of fragile families varies substantially by race and ethnicity. African Americans and Hispanics have the highest prevalence; Asian Americans, the lowest; and whites fall somewhere in the middle. The share of unmarried births is lower among most foreign-born mothers than among their U.S.-born ethnic counterparts. Immigrant-native differences are particularly large for Asians, whites, and blacks. The authors also find racial and ethnic differences in the composition and stability of fragile families over time. Although most parents of all racial and ethnic groups are romantically involved at the time of their child's birth, African American women are less likely to be in a cohabiting relationship than are white and Hispanic mothers. Over time, these racial and ethnic differences become more pronounced, with African American mothers having the lowest rates of marriage and cohabitation and the highest breakup rates, and Mexican immigrant mothers having the highest rates of marriage and cohabitation and the lowest breakup rates. Fragile families have far fewer socioeconomic resources than married families, though resources vary within fragile families by race and ethnicity. White mothers, in general, have more socioeconomic resources than black, Mexican American, and Mexican immigrant mothers; they are more likely to have incomes above the poverty limit, more likely to own a car, less likely to have children from a prior relationship, and more likely to report living in a safe neighborhood. Access to health care and child care follows a similar pattern. The exception is education; black and white unmarried mothers are equally likely to have finished high school, and Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers are less likely to have done so. The authors argue that socioeconomic differences are by far the biggest driver of racial and ethnic differences in marriage and family stability, and they support reforms
Berger, Nathan; Archer, Jennifer
In recent years motivational researchers have spent considerable time examining race/ethnicity and gender differences in academic and social achievement goals, but little time examining the influence of socioeconomic status (SES). This lack of attention is surprising given that both student motivation and SES have been shown to predict academic…
Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.
Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…
Scanlan, James P.
Discusses increasing racial and socioeconomic disparities in mortality despite general declines in mortality, examining disparities in infant mortality and explaining that whenever two groups differ in their susceptibility to some condition, the less prevalent the condition, the greater will be the disparity in rates of experiencing the condition.…
Ranchordas, Mayur K
Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance.
This book presents a comprehensive examination of the nature of the contemporary arms race, the forces that encourage arms competition, and the means by which these forces can be controlled. The author provides analyses of such specific issues as the viability of arms control agreements; the possibilities for nuclear disarmament; the means of deterrence, detection, and defense; and the methods of destruction themselves - nuclear, conventional, chemical, and space weapons.
Ankara, Hasan Giray
This study aimed to identify the levels of, and socioeconomic variations in, income-related inequality in induced abortion among Turkish women. The study included 15,480 ever-married women of reproductive age (15-49) from the 2003 and 2008 waves of the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The measured inequalities in abortion levels and their changes over time were decomposed into the percentage contributions of selected socioeconomic factors using ordinary least square analysis and concentration indices were calculated. The inequalities and their first difference (difference in inequalities between 2003 and 2008) were decomposed using the approaches of Wagstaff et al. (2003). Higher socioeconomic characteristics (such as higher levels of wealth and education and better neighbourhood) were found to be associated with higher rates of abortion. Inequality analyses indicated that although deprived women become more familiar with abortion over time, abortion was still more concentrated among affluent women in the 2008 survey. The decomposition analyses suggested that wealth, age, education and level of regional development were the most important contributors to income-related inequality in abortion. Therefore policies that (i) increase the level of wealth and education of deprived women, (ii) develop deprived regions of Turkey, (iii) improve knowledge about family planning and, especially (iv) enhance the accessibility of family planning services for deprived and/or rural women, may be beneficial for reducing socioeconomic variations in abortion in the country.
Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran
We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats.
Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Katz, Andrew D.; Chew, Aaronson Y.; Ray, G. Christopher; Laine, Lia; Caulum, David
This study examined the influence of gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity on the career aspirations of over 22,000 8th and 10th grade youth. The top five occupations identified by youth as aspirations included artist, lawyer, musician, FBI agent, and actor/actress. Top occupations were also reported for each gender x socioeconomic…
Freijo, Tom D.; Jaeger, Richard M.
Using teachers' ratings of more than 8,000 fourth grade pupils on 21 related behavior changes, it was found that teachers' ratings of high socioeconomic status (SES) pupils exhibited less composite halo than teachers' ratings of low SES pupils, and the SES of pupils had a greater effect on composite halo in ratings than the race of pupil or…
McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.
It is known from previous research that the likelihood of dropping out is affected by a number of individual traits, including, among others, socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, and employment status. It is also known that dropping out is contingent on a variety of school characteristics. What is less known about is how dropping…
Gardner-Neblett, Nicole; Iruka, Iheoma U.
Although children's early language skills have been found to predict literacy outcomes, little is known about the role of preschool oral narrative skills in the pathway between language and emergent literacy or how these associations differ by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The current study uses the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to…
Hlebowitsh, Peter S.; Tellez, Kip
This study examined 235 predominantly white preservice teachers' early views on students' race, class, and gender. Subjects rated their respect for students from various categories. Results indicated preservice teachers had patterns of greater respect for African-American female students of low socioeconomic status, independent of the type of…
Parker, Raymond C.
1. Races of fibroblasts that are functionally distinct have been isolated from the various tissues and organs of a single chick embryo. 2. Functionally distinct races of fibroblasts have also been isolated from corresponding parts of embryos of different ages. 3. Under the conditions of the experiments, and for the particular races of fibroblasts that have been studied, it has not been possible to demonstrate a gradual decrease, or a gradual increase, in the rate of multiplication of fibroblasts obtained from corresponding parts of embryos of gradually increasing ages. 4. Experiments made on strains of fibroblasts derived from the mesonephros and metanephros of a 16 day chick embryo have indicated that the rate of multiplication of these cells in a given medium reflects the physiological state, at the moment of isolation, of the particular part of the embryo from which they are obtained. 5. The rate of multiplication of a given race of fibroblasts in a particular medium does not serve, necessarily, as an index of the age of the individual from which the race is derived. 6. The functional differences that distinguish the various races of fibroblasts are permanent; they are retained by the cells from passage to passage indefinitely, despite such attempts as have thus far been made to change them. PMID:19870205
Socioeconomic inequalities in height, leg length and trunk length among children aged 6.5 years and their parents from the Republic of Belarus: Evidence from the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT)
Patel, Rita; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kramer, Michael S.; Smith, George Davey; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Martin, Richard M.
Background Lower socioeconomic position is associated with shorter stature, in particular shorter leg length, but the magnitude of these associations in non-Western countries has received little attention. Aim To examine socioeconomic differentials in height, leg and trunk length in 6.5 year olds from the Republic of Belarus and compare these to differentials in parental height. Methods Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations in a cohort of 13 889 children. Results Children from non-manual households were 1.0 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.7–1.3 cm) taller than those from manual households. Mothers and fathers from non-manual backgrounds were 0.7 cm (0.5–0.8) and 1.8 cm (1.6–2.0) taller than those from manual backgrounds, respectively. Associations with higher parental educational attainment were similar. The magnitudes of the associations of socioeconomic position with leg length were similar to those with trunk length. Adjusting for mid-parental height and number of older siblings attenuated associations markedly. Conclusions In Belarus, similar socioeconomic differentials in height were observed in both children and their parents. Among children, height differentials were partly explained by mid-parental height and number of older siblings. Leg length was not a more sensitive indicator of childhood socioeconomic conditions than trunk length. PMID:21591995
Tham, Diana Su Yun; Bremner, J Gavin; Hay, Dennis
The role of experience with other-race faces in the development of the other-race effect was investigated through a cross-cultural comparison between 5- and 6-year-olds and 13- and 14-year-olds raised in a monoracial (British White, n=83) population and a multiracial (Malaysian Chinese, n=68) population. British White children showed an other-race effect to three other-race faces (Chinese, Malay, and African Black) that was stable across age. Malaysian Chinese children showed a recognition deficit for less experienced faces (African Black) but showed a recognition advantage for faces of which they have direct or indirect experience. Interestingly, younger (Malaysian Chinese) children showed no other-race effect for female faces such that they can recognize all female faces regardless of race. These findings point to the importance of early race and gender experiences in reorganizing the face representation to accommodate changes in experience across development.
In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.
Carlson, Lara A; Ferguson, David P; Kenefick, Robert W
Heat strain experienced by motorsport athletes competing in National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing (NASCAR) may be significant enough to impair performance or even result in a life-threatening accident. There is a need to carefully quantify heat strain during actual NASCAR race competitions in order to faithfully represent the magnitude of the problem and conceptualize future mitigation practices. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the thermoregulatory and physiological strain associated with competitive stock car driving. Eight male stock car drivers (29.0±10.0yr; 176.2±3.3cm, 80.6±15.7kg) participated in sanctioned stock car races. Physiological measurements included intestinal core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, and body mass before and after completion of the race. Pre-race Tc was 38.1±0.1°C which increased to 38.6±0.2°C post-race (p=0.001). Tsk increased from 36.1±0.2°C pre-race to 37.3±0.3°C post-race (p=0.001) whereas the core-to-skin temperature gradient decreased from a pre-race value of 2.0±0.3°C to 1.3±0.3°C post-race (p=0.005). HRs post-race were 80±0.1% of the drivers' age-predicted maximum HR. Physiological Strain Index (PSI) post-race was 4.9, which indicates moderate strain. Drivers' thermal sensation based on the ASHRAE Scale increased from 1.3±0.5 to 2.8±0.4, and their perception of exertion (RPE) responses also increased from 8.4±1.6 to 13.9±1.8 after competition. Heat strain associated with competitive stock car racing is significant. These findings suggest the need for heat mitigation practices and provide evidence that motorsport should consider strategies to become heat acclimatized to better meet the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular challenges of motorsport competition.
Reardon, Richard J M; Boden, Lisa A; Mellor, Dominic J; Love, Sandy; Newton, Richard J; Stirk, Anthony J; Parkin, Timothy D
The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with developing epistaxis in jump racing in Great Britain (GB). A retrospective analysis of records from horses running in all hurdle and steeplechase races in GB between 2001 and 2009 identified diagnoses of epistaxis whilst still at the racecourse. Data were used from 603 starts resulting in epistaxis (event) and 169,065 starts resulting in no epistaxis (non-event) in hurdle racing, and from 550 event starts and 102,344 non-event starts in steeplechase racing. Two multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate risk factors associated with epistaxis were produced. The potential effect of clustering of data (within horse, horse dam, horse sire, trainer, jockey, course, race and race meet) on the associations between risk factors and epistaxis was examined using mixed-effects models. Multiple factors associated with increased risk of epistaxis were identified. Those identified in both types of jump racing included running on firmer ground; horses with >75% of career starts in flat racing and a previous episode of epistaxis recorded during racing. Risk factors identified only in hurdle racing included racing in the spring and increased age at first race; and those identified only in steeplechase racing included running in a claiming race and more starts in the previous 3-6 months. The risk factors identified provide important information about the risk of developing epistaxis. Multiple avenues for further investigation are highlighted, including unmeasured variables at the level of the racecourse. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of interventions to minimise the risk of epistaxis in jump racing.
Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
The present study used the functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) methodology to investigate the neural correlates of elementary school children's own- and other-race face processing. An old-new paradigm was used to assess children's recognition ability of own- and other-race faces. FNIRS data revealed that other-race faces elicited significantly greater [oxy-Hb] changes than own-race faces in the right middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus regions (BA9) and the left cuneus (BA18). With increased age, the [oxy-Hb] activity differences between own- and other-race faces, or the neural other-race effect (NORE), underwent significant changes in these two cortical areas: at younger ages, the neural response to the other-race faces was modestly greater than that to the own-race faces, but with increased age, the neural response to the own-race faces became increasingly greater than that to the other-race faces. Moreover, these areas had strong regional functional connectivity with a swath of the cortical regions in terms of the neural other-race effect that also changed with increased age. We also found significant and positive correlations between the behavioral other-race effect (reaction time) and the neural other-race effect in the right middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus regions (BA9). These results taken together suggest that children, like adults, devote different amounts of neural resources to processing own- and other-race faces, but the size and direction of the neural other-race effect and associated functional regional connectivity change with increased age.
Liu, Shaoying; Quinn, Paul C.; Wheeler, Andrea; Xiao, Naiqi; Ge, Liezhong; Lee, Kang
Fixation duration for same-race (i.e., Asian) and other-race (i.e., Caucasian) female faces by Asian infant participants between 4 and 9 months of age was investigated with an eye-tracking procedure. The age range tested corresponded with prior reports of processing differences between same- and other-race faces observed in behavioral looking time…
Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education
Park, Dong Choon
Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904
Background Belief in efficacy of CAM therapies has been sparsely reported and may be different than reported use of the therapy. Purpose The aim of this study was to identify efficacy beliefs of massage for muscle recovery following a 10-km running race. Setting Finish zone of a 10-km race. Research Design Participants completed a brief survey regarding running race characteristics, prior use of massage, and belief in efficacy of massage regarding muscle recovery from the race. Participants The subject pool consisted of 745 individuals who completed a running race and were within 60 minutes of race completion. Main Outcome Measures Subjects reported demographic information (age, gender), race information (finish time, perceived exertion, muscle soreness, fatigue), prior use of massage, and belief regarding efficacy of massage for postrace muscle recovery. Results Most study participants believed that massage would benefit muscle recovery following the running race (80.0%), even though only 43.9% had received a massage previously. Those who had received at least one massage were significantly more likely to believe that massage would benefit muscle recovery (91.9% vs. 70.4%, p < .001). Females were more likely than males to have had a massage (52.3% vs. 36.0%, p < .001) and to believe it would benefit recovery (83.1% vs. 77.1%, p = .046). Conclusions Massage is well-accepted as a muscle recovery aid following a running race, but females and those who have used massage were significantly more likely to perceive it as advantageous. Belief in a therapeutic value of massage for muscle recovery exceeds its reported use. PMID:23730395
Willham, R L; Wilson, D E
Research on the racing performance of quarter horses has been used to develop genetic prediction summaries on all horses with at least one start on record at the American Quarter Horse Association. In the 1987 summary, records from a total of 212,065 horses were used to give genetic predictions on stallions, mares, geldings, fillies, and colts. A reduced animal model was used that incorporated the repeated records of individuals. The individual race was the contemporary group after the data were adjusted for distance, sex, and age. Estimates of heritability of .24 and repeatability of .32 suggest that increased racing performance can be achieved if the predictions are used by breeders. Continued research in variance component estimation includes the genetic covariances among the several distances, maternal influence, and genetic parameters for racing longevity.
Jackson, Linda A; Zhao, Yong; Kolenic, Anthony; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Harold, Rena; Von Eye, Alexander
This research examined race and gender differences in the intensity and nature of IT use and whether IT use predicted academic performance. A sample of 515 children (172 African Americans and 343 Caucasian Americans), average age 12 years old, completed surveys as part of their participation in the Children and Technology Project. Findings indicated race and gender differences in the intensity of IT use; African American males were the least intense users of computers and the Internet, and African American females were the most intense users of the Internet. Males, regardless of race, were the most intense videogame players, and females, regardless of race, were the most intense cell phone users. IT use predicted children's academic performance. Length of time using computers and the Internet was a positive predictor of academic performance, whereas amount of time spent playing videogames was a negative predictor. Implications of the findings for bringing IT to African American males and bringing African American males to IT are discussed.
White, Helene R.; Bechtold, Jordan; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin
Background Given recent changes in marijuana policy in the United States, it is important to understand the long-term effects of marijuana use on adult functioning. We examined whether men who displayed different trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence through emerging adulthood (age ~15–26) differed in terms of socioeconomic, social, and life satisfaction outcomes in their mid-30s. Methods Data came from a longitudinal sample of men who were recruited in early adolescence (N = 506) and followed into adulthood. Four trajectory groups based on patterns of marijuana use from adolescence into emerging adulthood were compared on adult outcomes (age ~36) before and after controlling for co-occurring use of other substances and several pre-existing confounding factors in early adolescence. The potential moderating effect of race was also examined. Results Although there were initially group differences across all domains, once pre-existing confounds and co-occurring other substance use were included in the model, groups only differed in terms of partner and friend marijuana use. Chronic marijuana users reported the highest proportions of both. Frequent and persistent marijuana use was associated with lower socioeconomic status (SES) for Black men only. Conclusions After statistically accounting for confounding variables, chronic marijuana users were not at a heightened risk for maladjustment in adulthood except for lower SES among Black men. Chronic users were more likely to have friends and partners who also used marijuana. Future studies should take into account pre-existing differences when examining outcomes of marijuana use. PMID:26365837
Iacovino, Juliette M.; Jackson, Joshua J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
The current study examines mechanisms of racial differences in symptoms of paranoid personality disorder (PPD) in a sample of adults ages 55–64 from the St. Louis, MO area. Socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood trauma were tested as intervening variables in the association between race and PPD symptoms using structural equation modeling. PPD symptoms were modeled as a latent variable composed of items from the PPD scales of the Multi-Source Assessment of Personality Pathology self and informant reports and the Structured Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM–IV) Personality. Childhood trauma was measured using the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, and SES was a composite of parent education, participant education, and annual household income. Blacks exhibited higher levels of PPD symptoms across the 3 personality measures, reported significantly lower SES, and reported greater childhood trauma. The proposed model was a good fit to the data, and the effect of race on PPD symptoms operated mainly through SES. The indirect effect through SES was stronger for males. Findings suggest that racial differences in PPD symptoms are partly explained by problems more commonly experienced by Black individuals. PMID:24661172
Hsia, Charlene; O’Neill, Marie S.
The existing reviews and meta-analyses addressing unequal exposure of environmental hazards on certain populations have focused on several environmental pollutants or on the siting of hazardous facilities. This review updates and contributes to the environmental inequality literature by focusing on ambient criteria air pollutants (including NOx), by evaluating studies related to inequality by socioeconomic status (as opposed to race/ethnicity) and by providing a more global perspective. Overall, most North American studies have shown that areas where low socioeconomic status (SES) communities dwell experience higher concentrations of criteria air pollutants, while European research has been mixed. Research from Asia, Africa and other parts of the world has shown a general trend similar to that of North America, but research in these parts of the world is limited. PMID:26381684
Hajat, Anjum; Hsia, Charlene; O'Neill, Marie S
The existing reviews and meta-analyses addressing unequal exposure of environmental hazards on certain populations have focused on several environmental pollutants or on the siting of hazardous facilities. This review updates and contributes to the environmental inequality literature by focusing on ambient criteria air pollutants (including NOx), by evaluating studies related to inequality by socioeconomic status (as opposed to race/ethnicity) and by providing a more global perspective. Overall, most North American studies have shown that areas where low-socioeconomic-status (SES) communities dwell experience higher concentrations of criteria air pollutants, while European research has been mixed. Research from Asia, Africa, and other parts of the world has shown a general trend similar to that of North America, but research in these parts of the world is limited.
Tran, Phoebe; Mittleman, Murray A
There are few studies that consider the association between awareness of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction (MI), socioeconomic factors (household income, sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment), and cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. It is important to understand these associations because there is evidence that suggests that disparities in the awareness of MI symptoms lead to disparities in delays in receiving treatment and outcomes of patients with MI. The study was to determine if there are disparities in the awareness of different MI symptoms among different groups with respect to self-reported race, ethnicity, education, age, and income (i.e., various SES factors) in the presence/absence of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors. We utilized the 2003-2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, a nationally representative telephone-based survey, to evaluate the relationships between five common symptoms of MI, socioeconomic factors, and four major modifiable CVD risk factors. We found that being college-educated, a higher household income, making $75,000 a year or more, being female, being non-Hispanic White, having hypertension, and exercising regularly were generally associated with a higher probability of being aware of the MI symptoms evaluated in this study. Additionally, awareness that jaw/back/neck pain and feeling weak/light-headed/faint are symptoms of MI were found to be consistently lower compared to that of other MI symptoms, ranging from 50 to 75%, across all SES factors and CVD risk factors. The findings from this study can serve as a useful guide to facilitating targeted educational efforts aimed at improving awareness of MI symptoms that may ultimately reduce disparities in the outcomes of patients at risk for MI.
Inequalities in the Education System and the Reproduction of Socioeconomic Disparities in Voting in England, Denmark and Germany: The Influence of Country Context, Tracking and Self-Efficacy on Voting Intentions of Students Age 16-18
Hoskins, Bryony; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Han, Christine; Muijs, Daniel
This article performs exploratory research using a mixed-methods approach (structural equation modelling and a thematic analysis of interview data) to analyse the ways in which socioeconomic disparities in voting patterns are reproduced through inequalities in education in different national contexts, and the role of self-efficacy in this process.…
Perez, Angel B.
Colleges and universities have a significant role to play in shaping the future of race and class relations in America. As exhibited in this year's presidential election, race and class continue to divide. Black Lives Matter movements, campus protests, and police shootings are just a few examples of the proliferation of intolerance, and higher…
Yılmaz, Nazmi; Serpengüzel, Ali
Koç University SPIE student chapter has been organizing the solar powered model vehicle race and outreaching K-12 students. The solar powered model vehicle race for car, boat, blimp, all solar panel boat, submarine, underwater rower, amphibian, and glider have been successfully organized.
Lindsay, Constance A.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.
Does having a teacher of the same race make it more or less likely that students are subject to exclusionary school discipline? In this study, the authors analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at…
Bonilla, Eduardo Seda
What North Americans term "race" is not structurally isomorphic to and, thus, not synonymous with what Latin Americans apply the term to. The social identities determined by "race", and consequently the expected behavior ascribed to these identities, are so dissimilar that meetings between persons of both cultures produce uncertainty and discord.…
Reeb, Ben T; Chan, Sut Yee Shirley; Conger, Katherine J; Martin, Monica J; Hollis, Nicole D; Serido, Joyce; Russell, Stephen T
Research increasingly finds that race/ethnicity needs to be taken into account in the modelling of associations between protective factors and adolescent drinking behaviors in order to understand family effects and promote positive youth development. The current study examined racial/ethnic variation in the prospective effects of family cohesion on adolescent alcohol-related problems using a nationally representative sample. Data were drawn from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and included 10,992 (50% female) non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and non-Hispanic White 7th-12th graders. Consistent with Hirschi's social control theory of youth delinquency, higher levels of family cohesion predicted lower levels of future adolescent alcohol-related problems, independent of race/ethnicity, sex, age, baseline alcohol-related problems, and family socioeconomic status. Findings from moderation analyses indicated that the magnitude of associations differed across groups such that the protective effect of family cohesion was strongest among White adolescents. For Latino adolescents, family cohesion was not associated with alcohol-related problems. Future longitudinal cross-racial/ethnic research is needed on common and unique mechanisms underlying differential associations between family processes and adolescent high-risk drinking. Understanding these processes could help improve preventive interventions, identify vulnerable subgroups, and inform health policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related health disparities.
Geronimus, Arline T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J.; Reyes, Angela G.; Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multi-stage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured Telomere Length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents’ TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial/ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race/ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally-rooted biopsychosocial processes. PMID:25930147
Schulman, S L; Palmer, J; Dunn, S; Kaiser, B A; Polinsky, M S; Baluarte, H J
One hundred twenty-seven children (83 males, 44 females, 86 white, 41 nonwhite; mean age 12.1 years) who received 160 renal transplants between 1980 and 1989 were retrospectively studied. Variables such as age, sex, primary diagnosis, type, HLA-DR mismatching, and repeated transplants were compared between races and found not to be significant. However, HLA-A and -B cadaveric-graft mismatching, which was equivalent between whites and nonwhites prior to 1985 (pre-cyclosporine A era), has significantly favored whites (49% with 0 to 2 HLA-A and -B mismatch vs 16% in nonwhites) since 1985 (P less than .05), and a significantly higher proportion of nonwhite patients (59%) were receiving medical assistance (P less than .0001). Graft survival was evaluated with significantly poorer results in nonwhites as compared to whites (P less than .05). Although no difference was found between white and nonwhite cadaveric-graft survival before 1985, nonwhites had significantly worse graft survival since 1985 (72% vs 59% for 1 year and 61% vs 24% for 3 years in whites and nonwhites, respectively; P less than .05). Subpopulations such as nonwhite adolescents, nonwhite females, nonwhites with repeated transplants, and all low socioeconomic patients were identified as high-risk children with poor long-term survival. It is concluded that secondary to poorer matching since 1985 there has been decreased graft survival in nonwhites despite cyclosporine A. Attempts to improve matching and attention to high-risk groups are needed for equivalent survival.
Conway, B N; May, M E; Fischl, A; Frisbee, J; Han, X; Blot, W J
Aim To investigate, with extended follow-up, cause-specific mortality among low-income Black and White Americans with Type 2 diabetes who have similar socio-economic status. Methods Black and White Americans aged 40–79 years with Type 2 diabetes (n = 12 498) were recruited from community health centres as part of the Southern Community Cohort Study. Multivariable Cox analysis was used to estimate mortality hazard ratios and 95% CIs for subsequent cause-specific mortality, based on both underlying and contributing causes of death. Results During the follow-up (median 5.9 years), 13.3% of the study population died. The leading causes of death in each race were ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disorders, cancer, renal failure and heart failure; however, Blacks were at a lower risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.91) or respiratory disorders (hazard ratio 0.70, 0.53–0.92) than Whites but had higher or similar mortality attributable to renal failure (hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI 1.02–2.40), heart failure (hazard ratio 1.47, 95% CI 0.98–2.19) and cancer (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.62–1.22). Risk factors for each cause of death were generally similar in each race. Conclusions These findings suggest that the leading causes of death and their risk factors are largely similar among Black and White Americans with diabetes. For the two leading causes of death in each race, however, ischaemic heart disease and respiratory disorders, the magnitude of risk is lower among Black Americans and contributes to their higher survival rates. PMID:25112863
Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry
Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these Animals 2015, 5 1073 data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety.
Murphy, Eleanor; Hou, Liping; Maher, Brion S; Woldehawariat, Girma; Kassem, Layla; Akula, Nirmala; Laje, Gonzalo; McMahon, Francis J
The Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) Study revealed poorer antidepressant treatment response among black compared with white participants. This racial disparity persisted even after socioeconomic and baseline clinical factors were taken into account. Some studies have suggested genetic contributions to this disparity, but none have attempted to disentangle race and genetic ancestry. Here we used genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to examine independent contributions of race and genetic ancestry to citalopram response. Secondary data analyses included 1877 STAR*D participants who completed an average of 10 weeks of citalopram treatment and provided DNA samples. Participants reported their race as White (n=1464), black (n=299) or other/mixed (n=114). Genetic ancestry was estimated by multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses of about 500 000 SNPs. Ancestry proportions were estimated by STRUCTURE. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of observed and latent predictors of response, defined as change in the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) score from baseline to exit. Socioeconomic and baseline clinical factors, race, and anxiety significantly predicted response, as previously reported. However, direct effects of race disappeared in all models that included genetic ancestry. Genetic African ancestry predicted lower treatment response in all models. Although socioeconomic and baseline clinical factors drive racial differences in antidepressant response, genetic ancestry, rather than self-reported race, explains a significant fraction of the residual differences. Larger samples would be needed to identify the specific genetic mechanisms that may be involved, but these findings underscore the importance of including more African-American patients in drug trials.
Xiao, Wen S.; Xiao, Naiqi G.; Quinn, Paul C.; Anzures, Gizelle; Lee, Kang
The present study investigated whether infants visually scan own- and other-race faces differently as well as how these differences in face scanning develop with age. A multi-method approach was used to analyze the eye-tracking data of 6- and 9-month-old Caucasian infants scanning dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that…
Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas
In 28 male Caucasian nonprofessional ultracyclists, we investigated whether anthropometry or training volume had an influence on race speed in the 600 km at the Swiss Cycling Marathon 2007. Anthropometric parameters (age, body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses) were determined before the race to calculate body mass index and percent body…
Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A
This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other.
Eight hundred and sixteen blood samples were collected from Thoroughbred racehorses at the race track, 1 to 3 h before racing, and subjected to routine haematological examination. Attempts were made to correlate the haemogram with subsequent performance. Races were classified according to age, class and distance, and performances were grouped according to distance from the winner. Intra- and interclass comparisons were made but no relationship emerged between racing performance and the haemogram. The haemograms of individual horses on different occasions were compared with subsequent performance, but no consistent or significant relationships were apparent. The extent of the rise in red and white cell parameters between horses at rest and immediately before racing were examined as indicators of performance, but no correlations found. It was concluded that under the conditions of this survey no relationship existed between the haemogram of the Thoroughbred racehorse and its racing performance.
Moorman, Marta K.; English, Kathleen A.
Adventure racing got started in the 1990s. The Eco-Challenge and Primal Quest races were multi-day events that included challenging physical activities and extreme conditions. Today, highly publicized adventure races like the Eco-Challenge and Amazing Race usually feature elite athletes or celebrities completing exotic tasks or globe-hopping to…
Distance runners spend many hours training assiduously for competition, yet on race day they can often make mistakes that sabotage their performance. This article addresses five common race-day mistakes: (1) failure to bring proper equipment to the race; (2) failure to eat an appropriate race-day meal; (3) failure to hydrate properly; (4) failure…
Wilson, Anna J.; Dehaene, Stanislas; Dubois, Ophelie; Fayol, Michel
"The Number Race" is an adaptive game designed to improve number sense. We tested its effectiveness using a cross-over design in 53 low socioeconomic status kindergarteners in France. Children showed improvements in tasks traditionally used to assess number sense (numerical comparison of digits and words). However, there was no…
Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Peres, Marco Aurelio
OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities. METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (Brazilian National School Health Survey) were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink consumption, and cigarette experimentation) and sociodemographics (age, sex, race, type of school and maternal schooling). Oral health behaviors and sociodemographic factors in the two years were compared (Rao-Scott test) and relative and absolute measures of socioeconomic inequalities in health were estimated (slope index of inequality and relative concentration index), using maternal education as a socioeconomic indicator, expressed in number of years of study (> 11; 9-11; ≤ 8). RESULTS Results from 2012, when compared with those from 2009, for all maternal education categories, showed that the proportion of people with low toothbrushing frequency increased, and that consumption of sweets and soft drinks and cigarette experimentation decreased. In private schools, positive slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption in 2012 and higher cigarette experimentation in both years among students who reported greater maternal schooling, with no significant change in inequalities. In public schools, negative slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption among students who reported lower maternal schooling in both years, with no significant change overtime. The positive relative concentration index indicated inequality in 2009 for cigarette experimentation, with a higher prevalence among students who reported greater maternal schooling. There were no inequalities for
Johnston, Marc Phillip
What's the use of race and does race matter? These two questions serve as the foundation for this dissertation comprised of three studies examining: (1) how scholars "use" race in their research and how their decisions matter for the way race is interpreted; (2) how students make meaning of race (as a social construct) during a time…
Huber, Susanne; Fieder, Martin
Socio-economic conditions during early life are known to affect later life outcomes such as health or social success. We investigated whether family socio-economic background may also affect facial attractiveness. We used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 8434) to analyze the association between an individual's parental socio-economic background (in terms of father's highest education and parental income) and that individual's facial attractiveness (estimated by rating of high school yearbook photographs when subjects were between 17 and 20 years old), controlling for subjects' sex, year of birth, and father's age at subjects' birth. Subjects' facial attractiveness increased with increasing father's highest educational attainment as well as increasing parental income, with the latter effect being stronger for female subjects as well. We conclude that early socio-economic conditions predict, to some extent, facial attractiveness in young adulthood.
Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry
Simple Summary This paper documents the dynamics of Australian thoroughbred jump racing in the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with the aim of informing debate about risks to horses and the future of this activity. We conclude that the safety of Australian jump racing has improved in recent years but that steeplechases are considerably riskier for horses than hurdle races. Abstract Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety. PMID:26506396
Valencia, Luis Iván Ortiz; Fortes, Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade
Frequently, disease incidence is mapped as area data, for example, census tracts, districts or states. Spatial disease incidence can be highly heterogeneous inside these areas. Ascariasis is a highly prevalent disease, which is associated with poor sanitation and hygiene. Geostatistics was applied to model spatial distribution of Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events in a poor community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were gathered from a coproparasitologic and a domiciliary survey in 1550 children aged 1-9. Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events were spatially estimated using Indicator Kriging. Cokriging models with a Linear Model of Coregionalization incorporating one socioeconomic variable were implemented. If a housewife attended school for less than four years, the non-use of a home water filter, a household density greater than one, and a household income lower than one Brazilian minimum wage increased the risk of Ascariasis. Cokriging improved spatial estimation of Ascariasis risk areas when compared to Indicator Kriging and detected more Ascariasis very-high risk areas than the GIS Overlay method.
Blount, Dale H.
Proposed method of attaching inner race of roller bearing to shaft prevents loosening now caused by difference between coefficients of thermal expansion of race and shaft materials. Intended for cryogenic turbopump in which race made of 440C stainless-steel alloy and shaft made of Inconel(R) 100 nickel alloy. Flanges of race replaced by tension bands that shrink faster as they are cooled. Tension band engages race on slightly sloping surface so axial forces do not dislodge it.
Steele, J; Shen, J; Tsakos, G; Fuller, E; Morris, S; Watt, R; Guarnizo-Herreño, C; Wildman, J
Oral health inequalities associated with socioeconomic status are widely observed but may depend on the way that both oral health and socioeconomic status are measured. Our aim was to investigate inequalities using diverse indicators of oral health and 4 socioeconomic determinants, in the context of age and cohort. Multiple linear or logistic regressions were estimated for 7 oral health measures representing very different outcomes (2 caries prevalence measures, decayed/missing/filled teeth, 6-mm pockets, number of teeth, anterior spaces, and excellent oral health) against 4 socioeconomic measures (income, education, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and occupational social class) for adults aged ≥21 y in the 2009 UK Adult Dental Health Survey data set. Confounders were adjusted and marginal effects calculated. The results showed highly variable relationships for the different combinations of variables and that age group was critical, with different relationships at different ages. There were significant income inequalities in caries prevalence in the youngest age group, marginal effects of 0.10 to 0.18, representing a 10- to 18-percentage point increase in the probability of caries between the wealthiest and every other quintile, but there was not a clear gradient across the quintiles. With number of teeth as an outcome, there were significant income gradients after adjustment in older groups, up to 4.5 teeth (95% confidence interval, 2.2-6.8) between richest and poorest but none for the younger groups. For periodontal disease, income inequalities were mediated by other socioeconomic variables and smoking, while for anterior spaces, the relationships were age dependent and complex. In conclusion, oral health inequalities manifest in different ways in different age groups, representing age and cohort effects. Income sometimes has an independent relationship, but education and area of residence are also contributory. Appropriate choices of measures in relation to age
Jez, Su Jin
College is increasingly essential for economic and social mobility. Current research devotes significant attention to race and socioeconomic factors in college access. Yet wealth's role, as differentiated from income, is largely unexplored. Utilizing a nationally representative dataset, this study analyzes the role of wealth among students who…
Roberts, Steven O; Gelman, Susan A
Recent research questions whether children conceptualize race as stable. We examined participants' beliefs about the relative stability of race and emotion, a temporary feature. Participants were White adults and children ages 5-6 and 9-10 (Study 1) and racial minority children ages 5-6 (Study 2). Participants were presented with target children who were happy or angry and Black or White and were asked to indicate which of 2 adults (a race but not emotion match or an emotion but not race match) each child would grow up to be. White adults, White 9- to 10-year-olds, and racial minority 5- to 6-year-olds selected race matches, whereas White 5- to 6-year-olds selected race and emotion matches equally. These data suggest that beliefs about racial stability vary by age and social group. (PsycINFO Database Record
Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana
Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood.
Roberts, Steven O.; Gelman, Susan A.
Recent research questions whether children conceptualize race as stable. We examined participants' beliefs about the relative stability of race and emotion, a temporary feature. Participants were White adults and children ages 5-6 and 9-10 (Study 1) and racial minority children ages 5-6 (Study 2). Participants were presented with target children…
... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or..., religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or participation in JTPA. (a) For the purposes of this section, prohibited ground means race, color, religion, sex,...
... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or..., religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or participation in JTPA. (a) For the purposes of this section, prohibited ground means race, color, religion, sex,...
... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or..., religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or participation in JTPA. (a) For the purposes of this section, prohibited ground means race, color, religion, sex,...
Ross, E. Wayne, Ed.; Pang, Valerie Ooka, Ed.
This book moves beyond traditional thinking and approaches to multicultural education to more accurately reflect the dramatically changing circumstances faced by North American schools in an age of globalization. The volumes address ways in which race and ethnicity affect learning across the life span, at all levels of formal education as well as…
Through the reflective process of analyzing one's own feelings and reactions to the ethnic minority patient, the white therapist develops an inner clarity that serves as a resource to cope with the unique conflicts one must confront in interracial practice. Only when the therapist has come to some resolution of his or her own feelings about the plight of ethnic minorities in this country can this acumen develop. Although the therapeutic skills applied in psychotherapy with ethnic minorities are in no way different from overall therapeutic skills, certain techniques may be especially useful in interracial practice. For instance, a discussion of the meaning of race and ethnicity in the relationship may curtail racial distortion, prevent stereotyping, and lead to the creation of a therapeutic alliance. When dealing with transference and countertransference issues, the therapist must be particularly attentive to the representation of these same distortions and stereotypes. Formulating clinical problems from dual perspectives, theoretical and sociocultural, is an arduous, but necessary task. Finally, the white therapist must be able to view ethnic minority patients as individuals. Although these patients cope with special problems which must be acknowledged and dealt with in therapy, the therapist must realize there is a common ground on which to communicate. On this common ground, therapists discover the foundation of interracial clinical practice is the ability to accept and respect their patients and themselves as individuals who may have similar anxieties, problems, experiences, and goals. It is through the recognition and sharing of the fundamental human bond that ethnic and racial differences, which may have detrimental effects on interpersonal relationships, are transcended.
Zhou, Guifei; Liu, Jiangang; Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
Numerous developmental studies have suggested that other-race effect (ORE) in face recognition emerges as early as in infancy and develops steadily throughout childhood. However, there is very limited research on the neural mechanisms underlying this developmental ORE. The present study used Granger causality analysis (GCA) to examine the development of children's cortical networks in processing own- and other-race faces. Children were between 3 and 13 years. An old-new paradigm was used to assess their own- and other-race face recognition with ETG-4000 (Hitachi Medical Co., Japan) acquiring functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data. After preprocessing, for each participant and under each face condition, we obtained the causal map by calculating the weights of causal relations between the time courses of [oxy-Hb] of each pair of channels using GCA. To investigate further the differential causal connectivity for own-race faces and other-race faces at the group level, a repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the GCA weights for each pair of channels with the face race task (own-race face vs. other-race face) as the within-subject variable and the age as a between-subject factor (continuous variable). We found an age-related increase in functional connectivity, paralleling a similar age-related improvement in behavioral face processing ability. More importantly, we found that the significant differences in neural functional connectivity between the recognition of own-race faces and that of other-race faces were modulated by age. Thus, like the behavioral ORE, the neural ORE emerges early and undergoes a protracted developmental course.
Zhou, Guifei; Liu, Jiangang; Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
Numerous developmental studies have suggested that other-race effect (ORE) in face recognition emerges as early as in infancy and develops steadily throughout childhood. However, there is very limited research on the neural mechanisms underlying this developmental ORE. The present study used Granger causality analysis (GCA) to examine the development of children's cortical networks in processing own- and other-race faces. Children were between 3 and 13 years. An old-new paradigm was used to assess their own- and other-race face recognition with ETG-4000 (Hitachi Medical Co., Japan) acquiring functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data. After preprocessing, for each participant and under each face condition, we obtained the causal map by calculating the weights of causal relations between the time courses of [oxy-Hb] of each pair of channels using GCA. To investigate further the differential causal connectivity for own-race faces and other-race faces at the group level, a repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the GCA weights for each pair of channels with the face race task (own-race face vs. other-race face) as the within-subject variable and the age as a between-subject factor (continuous variable). We found an age-related increase in functional connectivity, paralleling a similar age-related improvement in behavioral face processing ability. More importantly, we found that the significant differences in neural functional connectivity between the recognition of own-race faces and that of other-race faces were modulated by age. Thus, like the behavioral ORE, the neural ORE emerges early and undergoes a protracted developmental course. PMID:27713696
Hodge, Samuel R; Kozub, Francis M; Robinson, Leah E; Hersman, Bethany L
The purpose of this study was to determine what trends exist in the identification and description of participants used in data-based studies published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly and the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. Data were analyzed using frequency counts for journals and time periods from the 1980s to 2005 with chi-square tests on gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate, for example, that across the time span both journals published articles reporting males first over females, X2 (3) = 22.16, p < .001. Trend data also reveal that even today most data-based studies in these journals fail to report race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Findings are discussed with guiding principles for future research.
Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang
The present study examined whether 6- and 9-month-old Caucasian infants could categorize faces according to race. In Experiment 1, infants were familiarized with different female faces from a common ethnic background (i.e. either Caucasian or Asian) and then tested with female faces from a novel race category. Nine-month-olds were able to form discrete categories of Caucasian and Asian faces. However, 6-month-olds did not form discrete categories of faces based on race. In Experiment 2, a second group of 6- and 9-month-olds was tested to determine whether they could discriminate between different faces from the same race category. Results showed that both age groups could only discriminate between different faces from the own-race category of Caucasian faces. The findings of the two experiments taken together suggest that 9-month-olds formed a category of Caucasian faces that are further differentiated at the individual level. In contrast, although they could form a category of Asian faces, they could not discriminate between such other-race faces. This asymmetry in category formation at 9 months (i.e. categorization of own-race faces vs. categorical perception of other-race faces) suggests that differential experience with own- and other-race faces plays an important role in infants' acquisition of face processing abilities. PMID:20590720
Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.
Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.
Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Biere, Armin; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)
Data races are a common problem in concurrent and multi-threaded programming. They are hard to detect without proper tool support. Despite the successful application of these tools, experience shows that the notion of data race is not powerful enough to capture certain types of inconsistencies occurring in practice. In this paper we investigate data races on a higher abstraction layer. This enables us to detect inconsistent uses of shared variables, even if no classical race condition occurs. For example, a data structure representing a coordinate pair may have to be treated atomically. By lifting the meaning of a data race to a higher level, such problems can now be covered. The paper defines the concepts view and view consistency to give a notation for this novel kind of property. It describes what kinds of errors can be detected with this new definition, and where its limitations are. It also gives a formal guideline for using data structures in a multi-threading environment.
Phillips, Debby A; Drevdahl, Denise J
"Race," a construct created by scientists, is deeply ingrained in everyday discourses. Using postmodern theories to help us think through the complexities of language in relation to race, we come to understand that truths about race are changing, contingent, and contested products of cultural construction. It is impossible to understand or represent race as an object of study such that it can be known, yet untouched, by language. Health effects are one important consequence of race, particularly related to quality, access, marginalization, and privilege. Analyzing the effects of race bring it visibly into being, and makes evident how language shapes our understandings of the world and its human inhabitants.
variables, such as service, gender , race, education level, age, marital status, Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores, and area of residence.17...first-term attrition are service, gender , race, age, marital status, AFQT scores, and area of residence. Studies also reveal that service members...CS Culinary Specialist DC Damage Controlman DK Dispersing Clerk DM Draftsman DT Dental Technician EA Engineering Aid EO Equipment Operator FN
Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof; Przednowek, Krzysztof; Lassota, Lesław; Krzeszowski, Tomasz
This paper presents the use of linear and nonlinear multivariable models as tools to support training process of race walkers. These models are calculated using data collected from race walkers' training events and they are used to predict the result over a 3 km race based on training loads. The material consists of 122 training plans for 21 athletes. In order to choose the best model leave-one-out cross-validation method is used. The main contribution of the paper is to propose the nonlinear modifications for linear models in order to achieve smaller prediction error. It is shown that the best model is a modified LASSO regression with quadratic terms in the nonlinear part. This model has the smallest prediction error and simplified structure by eliminating some of the predictors. PMID:26339230
Braun, Lundy; Hammonds, Evelynn
Much of the recent debate over race, genetics, and health has focused on the extent to which typological notions of race have biological meaning. Less attention, however, has been paid to the assumptions about the nature of "populations" that both inform contemporary biological and medical research and that underlie the concept of race. Focusing specifically on Africa in the 1930s and 1940s, this paper explores the history of how fluid societies were transformed into bounded units amenable to scientific analysis. In the so-called "Golden Age of Ethnography," university-trained social anthropologists, primarily from Britain and South Africa, took to the field to systematically study, organize, and order the world's diverse peoples. Intent on creating a scientific methodology of neutral observation, they replaced amateur travelers, traders, colonial administrators, and missionaries as authoritative knowledge producers about the customs, beliefs, and languages of indigenous peoples. At the same time, linguists were engaged in unifying African languages and mapping language onto primordial "tribal" territories. We argue that the notion of populations or "tribes" as discrete units suitable for scientific sampling and classification emerged in the 1930s and 1940s with the ethnographic turn in social anthropology and the professionalization and institutionalization of linguistics in Western and South African universities. Once named and entered into international atlases and databases by anthropologists in the U.S., the existence of populations as bounded entities became self-evident, thus setting the stage for their use in large-scale population genetic studies and the contemporary reinvigoration of broad claims of difference based on population identification.
James, Sherman A.; Kaplan, George A.
Objectives. We examined associations between several life-course socioeconomic position (SEP) measures (childhood SEP, education, income, occupation) and diabetes incidence from 1965 to 1999 in a sample of 5422 diabetes-free Black and White participants in the Alameda County Study. Methods. Race-specific Cox proportional hazard models estimated diabetes risk associated with each SEP measure. Demographic confounders (age, gender, marital status) and potential pathway components (physical inactivity, body composition, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, depression, access to health care) were included as covariates. Results. Diabetes incidence was twice as high for Blacks as for Whites. Diabetes risk factors independently increased risk, but effect sizes were greater among Whites. Low childhood SEP elevated risk for both racial groups. Protective effects were suggested for low education and blue-collar occupation among Blacks, but these factors increased risk for Whites. Income was protective for Whites but not Blacks. Covariate adjustment had negligible effects on associations between each SEP measure and diabetes incidence for both racial groups. Conclusions. These findings suggest an important role for life-course SEP measures in determining risk of diabetes, regardless of race and after adjustment for factors that may confound or mediate these associations. PMID:19197084
Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Russell, Ginny
Background Children from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are at greater risk of a range of negative outcomes throughout their life course than their peers; however the specific mechanisms by which socioeconomic status relates to different health outcomes in childhood are as yet unclear. Aims The current study investigates the relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and investigates putative mediators of this association in a longitudinal population-based birth cohort in the UK. Methods Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children was used (n = 8,132) to explore the relationship between different measures of socioeconomic status at birth-3 years and their association with a diagnosis of ADHD at age 7. A multiple mediation model was utilised to examine factors occurring between these ages that may mediate the association. Results Financial difficulties, housing tenure, maternal age at birth of child and marital status were significantly associated with an outcome of ADHD, such that families either living in financial difficulty, living in council housing, with younger or single mothers’ were more likely to have a child with a research diagnosis of ADHD at age 7. Financial difficulties was the strongest predictor of ADHD (OR 2.23 95% CI 1.57-3.16). In the multiple mediation model, involvement in parenting at age 6 and presence of adversity at age 2-4 mediated 27.8% of the association. Conclusions Socioeconomic disadvantage, conceptualised as reported difficulty in affording basic necessities (e.g. heating, food) has both direct and indirect impacts on a child’s risk of ADHD. Lower levels of parent involvement mediates this association, as does presence of adversity; with children exposed to adversity and those with less involved parents being at an increased risk of having ADHD. This study highlights the importance of home and environmental factors as small but
Feldmeyer, Ben; Steffensmeier, Darrell
In this report, we assess total and race/ethnicity-disaggregated patterns and temporal trends in elderly homicide (age 55-74) compared with younger age groups for the 1985-to-2009 period. To do this, we use California arrest statistics that provide annual homicide figures by race and ethnicity (including a Hispanic identifier) and by age. Major aims of our analysis are to establish whether (a) elderly homicide rates are different/similar across race/ethnic comparisons; (b) the elderly share of homicide and age-homicide distributions more generally differ across race/ethnicity; and (c) elderly rates of homicide and the share of elderly homicide relative to younger age groups is similar or different now as compared with 20 to 30 years ago. Our analysis is important and timely because some commentators have suggested that elderly homicide levels have been rising over the past one to two decades and because there is a virtual absence of research of any sort on elderly homicide trends that involve comparisons by race and ethnicity. Key findings are that elderly shares of homicide offending relative to younger ages have not increased (or decreased), that elder homicides continue to account for a small fraction of all homicides, and that these patterns persist across race/ethnicity comparisons. PMID:25598653
Ahmad, Waqar I. U., Ed.; Atkin, Karl, Ed.
This collection offers a wide-ranging introduction to contemporary issues surrounding the health care needs of members of minority ethnic communities within the framework of community care in Britain. The following chapters consider state welfare, minority communities, family structures, and social change: (1) "'Race' and Community Care: An…
Gregory, Mark A; Cradduck, Lucy
This research seeks to identify the differing national perspectives towards security and the "gigabit race" as those nations transition to their next generation broadband networks. Its aim is to critically appraise the rationales for their existing digital security frameworks in order to determine whether (and what) Australia can learn…
Increasing constraints placed on race-based school diversification have shifted attention to socioeconomic desegregation. Although past research suggests that socioeconomic desegregation can produce heightened achievement, the “frog pond” perspective points to potential problems with socioeconomic desegregation in nonachievement domains. Such problems are important in their own right, and they may also chip away at the magnitude of potential achievement benefits. In this article, I report conducted propensity score analyses and robustness calculations on a sample of public high schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As the proportion of the student body with middle- or high-income parents increased, low-income students progressed less far in math and science. Moreover, as the proportion of the student body with middle- or high-income or college-educated parents increased, low-income students experienced more psychosocial problems. Such patterns were often more pronounced among African American and Latino students. These findings suggest curricular and social psychological mechanisms of oft-noted frog pond effects in schools and extend the frog pond framework beyond achievement itself to demographic statuses (e.g., race/ethnicity and SES) perceptually linked to achievement. In terms of policy, these findings indicate that socioeconomic desegregation plans should also attend to equity in course enrollments and the social integration of students more generally. PMID:21546987
Zong, Xin-Nan; Li, Hui; Wu, Hua-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Qin
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic development on secular trend in height among children and adolescents in China. Body height and spermarcheal/menarcheal ages were obtained from two periodic large-scale national representative surveys in China between 1975 and 2010. Chinese socioeconomic development indicators were obtained from the United Nations world population prospects. The effects of plausible determinants were assessed by partial least-squares regression. The average height of children and adolescents improved in tandem with socioeconomic development, without any tendency to plateau. The increment of height trend presented larger around puberty than earlier or later ages. The partial least-squares regressions with gross national income, life expectancy and spermarcheal/menarcheal age accounted for increment of height trend from 88.3% to 98.3% for males and from 82.9% to 97.3% for females in adolescence. Further, through the analysis of the variable importance for projection, the contributions of gross national income and life expectancy on height increment were confirmed to be significant in childhood and adolescence, and the contribution of spermarcheal/menarcheal age was superior to both of them in adolescence. We concluded that positive secular trend in height in China was significantly associated with socioeconomic status (GNI as indicator) and medical and health conditions (life expectancy as indicator). Earlier onset of spermarche and menarche proved to be an important role in larger increment of the trend over time of height at puberty for a population.
Engel, Pascale Marguerite Josiane; Santos, Flavia Heloisa; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth
Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of socioeconomic factors on children's performance on tests of working memory and vocabulary. Method: Twenty Brazilian children, aged 6 and 7 years, from low-income families, completed tests of working memory (verbal short-term memory and verbal complex span) and vocabulary (expressive and receptive). A…
... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...
Kraus, Stephen R.; Markland, Alayne; Chai, Toby C.; Stoddard, Anne; FitzGerald, Mary Pat; Leng, Wendy; Mallett, Veronica; Tennstedt, Sharon L.
Aims To determine whether race/ethnicity affects urinary incontinence (UI) severity and bother, in women undergoing surgery for stress incontinence. Methods We used baseline data from participants in the Stress Incontinence Surgical Treatment Efficacy trial. UI severity was measured by the number of leakage episodes during a 3-day urinary diary and by urodynamic evaluation. UI bother was measured using the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI). Race/ethnicity classification was based on self report. Results Of the 654 women, 72(11%) were Hispanic, 480(73%) non-Hispanic White, 44 (6.7%) non-Hispanic Black and 58 (8.9%) ‘Other’. No differences were seen in any UI severity measures. Non-Hispanic Whites had lowest UDI scores on bivariate analysis, explained by socioeconomic status, BMI and age on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Factors other than racial/ethnic differences underlie variations in UI symptoms and bother in this group of women seeking surgery for stress incontinence. PMID:17618773
Walker, Pamela M.; Hewstone, Miles
Research over the past two decades has demonstrated that individuals are better at recognizing and discriminating faces of their own race versus other races. The own-race effect has typically been investigated in relation to recognition memory; however, some evidence supports an own-race effect at the level of perceptual encoding in adults. The…
Wissow, L S; Gittelsohn, A M; Szklo, M; Starfield, B; Mussman, M
This study uses Maryland hospital discharge data for the period 1979-82 to determine whether Black children are more likely to be hospitalized for asthma and whether this difference persists after adjustment for poverty. The average annual asthma discharge rate was 1.95/1000 children aged 1-19; 3.75/1000 for Black children, and 1.25/1000 for White. Medicaid-enrolled children of both races had increased discharge rates for asthma compared to those whose care was paid for by other sources: 5.68/1000 vs 2.99/1000 for Blacks, and 3.10/1000 vs 1.11/1000 for Whites. When ecologic analyses were performed, populations of Black and White children had nearly equal asthma discharge rates after adjustment for poverty. The statewide adjusted rate was 2.70/1000 (95% CL = 1.93, 3.78) for Black children and 2.10/1000 (1.66, 2.66) for White children. Among Maryland counties and health planning districts, variation in asthma discharge rates was not associated with the supply of hospital beds or the population to primary-care physician ratio. We conclude that Black children are at increased risk of hospitalization for asthma, but that some or all of this increase is related to poverty rather than to race. PMID:3381951
Nordgren, Tara M.; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Hanson, Corrine
Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003–2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Out of 7266 eligible participants, 6478 were women of childbearing age, while 788 were identified as pregnant at the time of the survey. Mean EPA+DHA intake of the population was 89.0 mg with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. By univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for confounders, omega-3 fatty acid intake was significantly associated with poverty-to-income ratio, race, and educational attainment. Our results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acid intake is a concern in pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States, and that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are more susceptible to potential deficiencies. Strategies to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake in these populations could have the potential to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. PMID:28245632
Nordgren, Tara M; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Hanson, Corrine
Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003-2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Out of 7266 eligible participants, 6478 were women of childbearing age, while 788 were identified as pregnant at the time of the survey. Mean EPA+DHA intake of the population was 89.0 mg with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. By univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for confounders, omega-3 fatty acid intake was significantly associated with poverty-to-income ratio, race, and educational attainment. Our results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acid intake is a concern in pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States, and that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are more susceptible to potential deficiencies. Strategies to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake in these populations could have the potential to improve maternal and infant health outcomes.
Developed as part of the Seminole Bilingual Education Project, this story and coloring book presents the story of "The Terrapin Race" in both Seminole and English. Right-hand pages offer full-page illustrations for students to color; left-hand pages contain a brief narrative in the two languages in large type. The book uses the sounds…
Stroman, Carolyn A.
A content analysis was made of all issues of "Newsweek,""Time," and "U. S. News and World Report" published during 1978 to identify the picture of race relations that was presented to the public. Among the findings were the following: (1) "Newsweek" gave the most well-rounded coverage, "U. S. News"…
Small colleges are under increasing pressure to spend on upgrading technology to win a real or imagined technology race against other institutions. However, the process of making this decision should be coordinated and focus on return on investment; strategic match of technology and mission; competitive advantage; knowledge of real needs;…
Zyphur, Michael J.
Although a variety of studies have indicated that using statistical clustering techniques to examine genetic information may allow for geographically based groupings of individuals that tenuously map onto some conceptions of race, these studies have also indicated that the amount of genetic variation within these groupings is significantly larger…
Maintains that the great need in moral education is to consider general moral standards and arguments first and apply these to behavior affecting racial inequality, rather than to start from a concentration on racism, working back towards morality. Considers the consequences of confusing race with culture or viewing religion only as a…
Foster, Colin; Martin, David
We analyse the "two-dice horse race" task often used in lower secondary school, in which two ordinary dice are thrown repeatedly and each time the sum of the scores determines which horse (numbered 1 to 12) moves forwards one space.
This book seeks to develop sociological theory adequate to deal with the various uses to which racism has been put. How particular political orders apply "scientific" rationalizations, including race, to disguise their true origins in force, violence, and usurpation is demonstrated. Analysis of exploitative conditions starts with an objective…
The matter of biological differentiation among human beings has been a perennial concern of physical anthropologists, whose profession grew out of the monogenist/polygenist debates of the 18th century, and who periodically feel impelled to issue sonorous pronouncements on the subject. In spite of (or perhaps because of) the extensive and difficult cultural ramifications of the race issue, such pronouncements have usually presented the matter of race as one that requires extensive bioanthropological exegesis. In reality, however, race is the most banal of biological issues. Within any species, including Homo sapiens, two biological processes are possible: physical differentiation (as routinely occurs in small population isolates) and reintegration (should the resulting differentiated populations come together in the absence of any barrier to mating). The history of Homo sapiens reflects both of these processes: initial differentiation among small, scattered populations in the later part of the Pleistocene, and subsequent reintegration as the human population expanded and these populations came together once more. It is for this reason that, while certain modal physical types can be recognized on any urban street today (differentiation), it is impossible to recognize any clear boundaries between them (reintegration). All of this is perfectly unremarkable in evolutionary terms, and requires no special explanation. The complexities of the race issue are real, of course, and it is important that we come to terms with them; but they will not be resolved by biologists.
Presents a learning center game that will help children develop and improve skills with reference books while helping to familiarize them with the problem of endangered species. Emphasizes that saving endangered species is a race against time. Provides an alternative activity for younger learners. (CW)
Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.
This article presents replies to published comments on the authors' original article (R. L. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, and K. K. Kidd. G. Carey cited in his response to their article a study by Tang et al. (2005) showing that "of 3,636 subjects of varying race/ethnicity, only 5 (0.14%) showed genetic cluster membership different from their…
Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile
This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…