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Sample records for age range considered

  1. Model Predictive Control considering Reachable Range of Wheels for Leg / Wheel Mobile Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Naito; Nonaka, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Kazuma

    2016-09-01

    Obstacle avoidance is one of the important tasks for mobile robots. In this paper, we study obstacle avoidance control for mobile robots equipped with four legs comprised of three DoF SCARA leg/wheel mechanism, which enables the robot to change its shape adapting to environments. Our previous method achieves obstacle avoidance by model predictive control (MPC) considering obstacle size and lateral wheel positions. However, this method does not ensure existence of joint angles which achieves reference wheel positions calculated by MPC. In this study, we propose a model predictive control considering reachable mobile ranges of wheels positions by combining multiple linear constraints, where each reachable mobile range is approximated as a convex trapezoid. Thus, we achieve to formulate a MPC as a quadratic problem with linear constraints for nonlinear problem of longitudinal and lateral wheel position control. By optimization of MPC, the reference wheel positions are calculated, while each joint angle is determined by inverse kinematics. Considering reachable mobile ranges explicitly, the optimal joint angles are calculated, which enables wheels to reach the reference wheel positions. We verify its advantages by comparing the proposed method with the previous method through numerical simulations.

  2. Factors Predictive of the Range of Occupations Considered by African American Juniors and Seniors in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lease, Suzanne H.

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses factors predictive of the range of possible occupations considered by 166 African American high school students. There are no differences in the number of African American representative occupations (those in which 13.5% or more employees were African American) considered compared to nonrepresentative occupations (those with…

  3. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions considering Aging and Climate Change in Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Park, C.; Park, J. H.; Jung, T. Y.; Lee, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate change, particularly that of rising temperatures, are being observed across the globe and are expected to further increase. To counter this phenomenon, numerous nations are focusing on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because energy demand management is considered as a key factor in emissions reduction, it is necessary to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in relation to climate change. Further, because South Korea is the world's fastest nation to become aged, demographics have also become instrumental in the accurate estimation of energy demands and emissions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in the residential sectors of South Korea with regard to climate change and aging to build more accurate strategies for energy demand management and emissions reduction goals. This study, which was stablished with 2010 and 2050 as the base and target years, respectively, was divided into a two-step process. The first step evaluated the effects of aging and climate change on energy demand, and the second estimated future energy use and GHG emissions through projected scenarios. First, aging characteristics and climate change factors were analyzed by using the logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis and the application of historical data. In the analysis of changes in energy use, the effects of activity, structure, and intensity were considered; the degrees of contribution were derived from each effect in addition to their relations to energy demand. Second, two types of scenarios were stablished based on this analysis. The aging scenarios are business as usual and future characteristics scenarios, and were used in combination with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and 8.5. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emissions were estimated by using a combination of scenarios. The results of these scenarios show an increase in energy consumption

  4. New radiocarbon ages from cirques in Colorado Front Range

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.T. . Dept. Natural Science); Birkeland, P.W. . Dept. Geological Science); Caine, N. . Dept. of Geography); Rodbell, D.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The authors recovered sediment cores 3.1 m long from Blue Lake ([approximately]37m water depth, [approximately]3,445m a.s.l., 40[degree]5 minutes 20 seconds N, 105[degree]37 minutes 08 seconds W) and 2.7m long from Lake Dorothy ([approximately]35m water depth, [approximately]3,675m a.s.l., 40[degree]00 minutes 46 seconds N, 105[degree]41 minutes 11 seconds W). A light-weight percussion coring system suspended from perlon ropes was used because of sediment thicknesses, water depths, and ski-backpacking requirements. Lake ice provided a stable coring platform. One purpose of the project is provision of a high-resolution record of environmental change in the subalpine/alpine ecotone during the Holocene, under the auspices of the Niwot Ridge Long-Term Ecological Research program. The sediment cores also provide minimum-limiting radiocarbon ages for deglaciation of cirques and the deposits that impound their tarns. Here the authors report on this second purpose. The Blue Lake core bottomed in sandy, gray, inorganic sediment, presumably glacial diamict. A bulk sample from 2.8--2.9m depth yielded a conventional radiocarbon age of 12,275[+-]345 yrs BP. Thus, ice retreated from the site by 12 ka. Since 12 ka both glacial and rock-glacial sediments have been deposited upvalley; some of these events may be recognized in the core. In contrast, the Lake Dorothy core did not penetrate gray inorganic diamict and is entirely organic-rich. A bulk sample from 2.65--2.7m depth yielded a conventional radiocarbon age of 10,910 [+-] 320 yrs BP. Thus, the moraines impounding the lake are 2--3 times older than suggested by a combination of relative-age methods and one radiocarbon age from surface sediments.

  5. The need to consider relative age effects in women's talent development process.

    PubMed

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2014-06-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to age differences among athletes in the same selection year. This study analyzed birth date distributions of 301,428 female athletes (aged 10-20 yr.) in Swiss Youth sports and the subgroup (n = 1,177) of the National Talent Development Program (TDP) in individual sports. Comparisons showed significant RAEs in the distribution of athletes' birth dates in alpine skiing, tennis, athletics, fencing, and snowboarding. Significant "reverse" RAEs with an overrepresentation of athletes at the end of the year were found in table tennis. In the TDP, significant RAEs were found in alpine skiing and tennis. No RAEs were detected in athletics. In table tennis, fencing, and snowboarding, "reverse" RAEs were found. Clearly, RAEs are complex and vary across individual sports for females.

  6. Electrophoretic mobility of cell nuclei (EMN index) as a biomarker of the biological aging process: Considering the association between EMN index and age.

    PubMed

    Czapla, Z; McPhail, S M

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined whether a specific property of cell microstructures may be useful as a biomarker of aging. Specifically, the association between age and changes of cellular structures reflected in electrophoretic mobility of cell nuclei index (EMN index) values across the adult lifespan was examined. This report considers findings from cross sections of females (n=1273) aged 18-98 years, and males (n=506) aged 19-93 years. A Biotest apparatus was used to perform intracellular microelectrophoresis on buccal epithelial cells collected from each individual. EMN index was calculated on the basis of the number of epithelial cells with mobile nuclei in reference to the cells with immobile nuclei per 100cells. Regression analyses indicated a significant negative association between EMN index value and age for men (r=-0.71, p<0.001) and women (r=-0.60, p<0.001); demonstrating a key requirement that must be met by a biomarker of aging. The strength of association observed between EMN index and age for both men and women was encouraging and supports the potential use of EMN index for determining a biological age of an individual (or a group). In this study, a new attempt of complex explanation of cellular mechanisms contributing to age related changes of the EMN index was made. In this study, a new attempt of complex explanation of cellular mechanisms contributing to age related changes of the EMN index was made. EMN index has demonstrated potential to meet criteria proposed for biomarkers of aging and further investigations are necessary.

  7. Discriminant factors for adolescent sexual offending: On the usefulness of considering both victim age and sibling incest.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Christian C; Carpentier, Julie; Martin, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the pathways and circumstances of juvenile sexual offending is of utmost importance. However, juvenile sexual offenders (JSO) represent an especially diverse group of individuals, and several categorizations have been proposed to obtain more homogeneous subgroups. Victim age-based and family relation-based categorizations are particularly promising because they seem theoretically and clinically relevant. Empirical results however are still inconsistent, and most studies have not considered these two dimensions jointly. The first goal of this study was to further examine the value of subgrouping JSO according to the age of their victim. A second goal was to determine the supplementary value, if any, of considering sibling incest. Based on a sample of 351 male JSO, it was first confirmed that sexual abuse of children was more strongly related to asociality (social skill deficits) than sexual abuse of peers, the latter being more closely associated with antisociality (general delinquency). The relevance of considering mixed-type JSO (with both child and peer victims) separately was also confirmed. More importantly, multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that adding sibling incest to the equation was useful. JSO of intra-familial child were significantly more likely to have been victimized during their own childhood compared to JSO with extra-familial victims. Nevertheless, adolescents who had committed sibling incest obtained middle ground results on most variables (except for crime severity), suggesting that they constitute a distinct but not extreme, subgroup. This study confirmed the utility of using both the age and the family relation with the victim in characterizing juvenile sexual offending.

  8. [Forensic age estimation in juveniles and young adults: Reducing the range of scatter in age diagnosis by combining different methods].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sven; Schramm, Danilo; Ribbecke, Sebastian; Schulz, Ronald; Wittschieber, Daniel; Olze, Andreas; Vieth, Volker; Ramsthaler, H Frank; Pfischel, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Geserick, Gunther; Schmeling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic rise in the number of refugees entering Germany means that age estimation for juveniles and young adults whose age is unclear but relevant to legal and official procedures has become more important than ever. Until now, whether and to what extent the combination of methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics has resulted in a reduction of the range of scatter of the summarized age diagnosis has been unclear. Hand skeletal age, third molar mineralization stage and ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphyses were determined for 307 individuals aged between 10 and 29 at time of death on whom autopsies were performed at the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Berlin, Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg between 2001 and 2011. To measure the range of scatter, linear regression analysis was used to calculate the standard error of estimate for each of the above methods individually and in combination. It was found that combining the above methods led to a reduction in the range of scatter. Due to various limitations of the study, the statistical parameters determined cannot, however, be used for age estimation practice. PMID:26934764

  9. Determination of Age-Dependent Reference Ranges for Coagulation Tests Performed Using Destiny Plus

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Fatma Demet; Serdar, Muhittin; Merve Ari, Elif; Onur Oztan, Mustafa; Hikmet Kozcu, Sureyya; Tarhan, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ozgur; Zeytinli, Merve; Yasar Ellidag, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    Background In order to apply the right treatment for hemostatic disorders in pediatric patients, laboratory data should be interpreted with age-appropriate reference ranges. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determining age-dependent reference range values for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen tests, and D-dimer tests. Materials and Methods A total of 320 volunteers were included in the study with the following ages: 1 month - 1 year (n = 52), 2 - 5 years (n = 50), 6 - 10 years (n = 48), 11 - 17 years (n = 38), and 18 - 65 years (n = 132). Each volunteer completed a survey to exclude hemostatic system disorder. Using a nonparametric method, the lower and upper limits, including 95% distribution and 90% confidence intervals, were calculated. Results No statistically significant differences were found between PT and aPTT values in the groups consisting of children. Thus, the reference ranges were separated into child and adult age groups. PT and aPTT values were significantly higher in the children than in the adults. Fibrinogen values in the 6 - 10 age group and the adult age group were significantly higher than in the other groups. D-dimer levels were significantly lower in those aged 2 - 17; thus, a separate reference range was established. Conclusions These results support other findings related to developmental hemostasis, confirming that adult and pediatric age groups should be evaluated using different reference ranges. PMID:27617078

  10. K-Ar ages of allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes and their metamorphic aureoles, Western Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, J.L.; Turner, D.L.; Wallace, W.K.; Moore, T.E.

    1985-04-01

    New K-Ar ages from allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes of the western Brooks Range (Brooks Range ophiolite) show that igneous rocks yielded ages nearly identical to those of underlying metamorphic aureole rocks. Dated rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence from Tumit Creek consist of (1) hornblende gabbro with minor greenschist and lower grade alteration, hornblende age 147.2 +/- 4.4 Ma; and (2) hornblende-bearing diorite, also slightly altered, age 155.8 +/- 4.7 Ma. Both samples come from presumed higher levels of the Misheguk sequence. Dated samples of metamorphic aureole rocks come from outcrops near Kismilot Creek and lie structurally beneath the Iyikrok Mountain peridotite body. The rocks consist of amphibolite and garnet-bearing biotite-hornblende gneiss considered to be metamorphosed Copter igneous sequence and related sedimentary rocks. Hornblende ages are 154.2 +/- 4.6 Ma and 153.2 +/- 4.6 Ma. metamorphism is clearly related to the structurally overlying perioditite, as the degree of alteration decreases downward. The authors suggest that the K-Ar ages of these rocks represent the effects of thermal metamorphism post-dating igneous crystallization, and are related to tectonic emplacement of the complex. Earlier K-Ar data on igneous rocks give similar ages and have been interpreted as reflecting tectonothermal events. The age of igneous crystallization of the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence remains uncertain.

  11. Differential Range Use between Age Classes of Southern African Bearded Vultures Gypaetus barbatus

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Sonja; Reid, Timothy; Amar, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus movements were investigated in southern Africa to determine whether an individual's age, sex or breeding status influenced its ranging behaviour and to provide the information required to guide conservation activities. Data from satellite transmitters fitted to 18 individuals of four age classes were used to determine range size and use. Because of the nature of the movements of marked individuals, these data could be used to determine the overall foraging range of the entire population, which was estimated to be 51 767 km2. Although juvenile, immature and sub-adult birds used different parts of the overall range, their combined foraging range was 65% (33 636 km2) of the overall range. Average adult home ranges (286 km2) were only around 1% the size of the average foraging ranges of non-adults (10 540 –25 985 km2), with those of breeding adults being even smaller (95 km2). Home ranges of breeding adults did not vary in size between seasons but adults utilized their home range more intensively whilst breeding, moving greater distances during the incubation and chick hatching period. Range size and use increased as non-adults aged. Immatures and sub-adults had larger range sizes during winter, but range use of non-adults did not vary seasonally. Range size and use did not differ between the sexes in any of the age classes. Information on home range size and use enables specific areas within the species' range to be targeted for management planning, education and conservation action. PMID:25551614

  12. Differential range use between age classes of southern African Bearded Vultures Gypaetus barbatus.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Sonja; Reid, Timothy; Amar, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus movements were investigated in southern Africa to determine whether an individual's age, sex or breeding status influenced its ranging behaviour and to provide the information required to guide conservation activities. Data from satellite transmitters fitted to 18 individuals of four age classes were used to determine range size and use. Because of the nature of the movements of marked individuals, these data could be used to determine the overall foraging range of the entire population, which was estimated to be 51 767 km(2). Although juvenile, immature and sub-adult birds used different parts of the overall range, their combined foraging range was 65% (33 636 km(2)) of the overall range. Average adult home ranges (286 km(2)) were only around 1% the size of the average foraging ranges of non-adults (10 540 -25 985 km(2)), with those of breeding adults being even smaller (95 km(2)). Home ranges of breeding adults did not vary in size between seasons but adults utilized their home range more intensively whilst breeding, moving greater distances during the incubation and chick hatching period. Range size and use increased as non-adults aged. Immatures and sub-adults had larger range sizes during winter, but range use of non-adults did not vary seasonally. Range size and use did not differ between the sexes in any of the age classes. Information on home range size and use enables specific areas within the species' range to be targeted for management planning, education and conservation action. PMID:25551614

  13. Differential range use between age classes of southern African Bearded Vultures Gypaetus barbatus.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Sonja; Reid, Timothy; Amar, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus movements were investigated in southern Africa to determine whether an individual's age, sex or breeding status influenced its ranging behaviour and to provide the information required to guide conservation activities. Data from satellite transmitters fitted to 18 individuals of four age classes were used to determine range size and use. Because of the nature of the movements of marked individuals, these data could be used to determine the overall foraging range of the entire population, which was estimated to be 51 767 km(2). Although juvenile, immature and sub-adult birds used different parts of the overall range, their combined foraging range was 65% (33 636 km(2)) of the overall range. Average adult home ranges (286 km(2)) were only around 1% the size of the average foraging ranges of non-adults (10 540 -25 985 km(2)), with those of breeding adults being even smaller (95 km(2)). Home ranges of breeding adults did not vary in size between seasons but adults utilized their home range more intensively whilst breeding, moving greater distances during the incubation and chick hatching period. Range size and use increased as non-adults aged. Immatures and sub-adults had larger range sizes during winter, but range use of non-adults did not vary seasonally. Range size and use did not differ between the sexes in any of the age classes. Information on home range size and use enables specific areas within the species' range to be targeted for management planning, education and conservation action.

  14. 40Ar 39Ar Ages and tectonic setting of ophiolite from the Neyriz area, southeast Zagros Range, Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Pamic, J.

    1983-01-01

    An ophiolite, considered to be an allochthonous fragment of Tethyan oceanic crust and mantle, crops out near Neyriz in the Zagros Range, Iran. 40Ar 39Ar ages ranging from 76.8 ?? 23.8 Ma to 105 ?? 23.3 Ma were measured on hornblende from five samples of plagiogranite and diabase from the ophiolite. The most precise ages are 85.9 ?? 3.8 Ma for a diabase and 83.6 ?? 8.4 Ma for a plagiogranite. The weighted mean age of hornblende from the five samples is 87.5 ?? 7.2 Ma which indicates that the igneous part of the Neyriz ophiolite formed during the early part of the Late Cretaceous. Pargasite from amphibolite below peridotite of the Neyriz ophiolite has a 40Ar 39Ar age of 94.9 ?? 7.6 Ma. The pargasite age agrees within analytical uncertainty with the ages measured on diabase and plagiogranite. Comparable ages have been measured on igneous rocks from the Samail ophiolite of Oman and on amphibolite below peridotite of the Samail ophiolite. ?? 1983.

  15. Age and growth of mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its cool-water-range limits.

    PubMed

    Piddocke, T P; Butler, G L; Butcher, P A; Stewart, J; Bucher, D J; Christidis, L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the age and growth of Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its southern (cooler) range limits in eastern Australia. Specimens were collected from New South Wales and southern Queensland between November 2011 and December 2013. Fork lengths (LF ) ranged from 190 to 1019 mm, and ages ranged from 2+ to 57+ years. Growth was described by the von Bertalanffy growth function with coefficients L∞ = 874·92 mm, K = 0·087 year(-1) and t0 = -2·76 years. Estimates of the instantaneous natural mortality rate (M) ranged from 0·072 to 0·25. The LF (mm) and mass (W; g) relationship was represented by the equation: W=2·647×10-5LF2·92. The maximum age of 57+ years is the oldest reported for any lutjanid and comparisons with tropical studies suggest that the age-based demography of L. argentimaculatus follows a latitudinal gradient. High maximum ages and low natural mortality rates indicate considerable vulnerability to overexploitation at the species' cool-water-range limits. These results demonstrate the need to identify underlying processes driving latitudinal gradients in fish demography.

  16. Potassium-Argon Age from a Granite at Mount Wilbur, Queen Maud Range, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Minshew, V H

    1965-11-01

    The basement complex of the Robert Scott Glacier area, Queen Maud Range, Antarctica, consists of a complex suite of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks intruded by light gray biotite granite. Brown biotite from a granite at Mount Wilbur was dated by the potassium-argon method at 470 +/- 14 million years; this age coincides closely with many other ages from granitic rocks in the Transantarctic Mountains.

  17. Refined analysis of the critical age ranges of childhood overweight: implications for primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sascha W; Ulrich, Rolf; Simon, Perikles

    2012-10-01

    Prevention-interventions would certainly benefit from a precise knowledge of the age range when the most pronounced increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity occur in the general population. Data of 15,662 subjects aged 2-18 years were obtained from a national representative health survey (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)) conducted in Germany. Weight, height, and BMI z-scores were calculated relative to the UK 1990 reference, and prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined according to the IOTF (International Obesity Task Force) age- and sex-specific cut-offs. Univariate ANOVAs for overweight, obesity, weight, height, and BMI z-scores as dependent variables were employed to assess significant differences for these measures across various age levels. Significant analysis was followed by post-hoc comparisons using Bonferroni adjustments. The main effect of age was estimated using a multinomial logistic regression model, and by defining the first derivative of a polynomial spline function. Different eclectic slopes over the entire age range from 2 to 18 years have been observed. Prevalence of overweight substantially increases between the 5th and the 8th year (12.5-21.4%; P ≤ 0.001). Maximum increase of the polynomial fit was detected at 7.2 years. Our findings suggest a relatively narrow age range at the first school year when overweight in German children especially increases. We therefore propose that psychosocial correlates may be related to the general life-time event around the age of entering school.

  18. Towards a method for determining age ranges from faces of juveniles on photographs.

    PubMed

    Cummaudo, M; Guerzoni, M; Gibelli, D; Cigada, A; Obertovà, Z; Ratnayake, M; Poppa, P; Gabriel, P; Ritz-Timme, S; Cattaneo, C

    2014-06-01

    The steady increase in the distribution of juvenile pornographic material in recent years strongly required valid methods for estimating the age of the victims. At the present in fact forensic experts still commonly use the assessment of sexual characteristics by Tanner staging, although they have proven to be too subjective and deceiving for age estimation. The objective of this study, inspired by a previous EU project involving Italy, Germany and Lithuania, is to verify the applicability of certain anthropometric indices of faces in order to determine age and to create a database of facial measurements on a population of children in order to improve face ageing techniques. In this study, 1924 standardized facial images in frontal view and 1921 in lateral view of individuals from 7 age groups (3-5 years, 6-8 years, 9-11 years, 12-14 years, 15-17 years, 18-20 years, 21-24 years) underwent metric analysis. Individuals were all of Caucasoid ancestry and Italian nationality. Eighteen anthropometric indices in the frontal view and five in the lateral view were then calculated from the obtained measurements. Indices showing a correlation with age were ch-ch/ex-ex, ch-ch/pu-pu, en-en/ch-ch and se-sto/ex-ex in the frontal view, se-prn/se-sn, se-prn/se-sto and se-sn/se-sto in the lateral view. All the indices increased with age except for en-en/ch-ch, without relevant differences between males and females. These results provide an interesting starting point not only for placing a photographed face in an age range but also for refining the techniques of face ageing and personal identification. PMID:24726662

  19. Towards a method for determining age ranges from faces of juveniles on photographs.

    PubMed

    Cummaudo, M; Guerzoni, M; Gibelli, D; Cigada, A; Obertovà, Z; Ratnayake, M; Poppa, P; Gabriel, P; Ritz-Timme, S; Cattaneo, C

    2014-06-01

    The steady increase in the distribution of juvenile pornographic material in recent years strongly required valid methods for estimating the age of the victims. At the present in fact forensic experts still commonly use the assessment of sexual characteristics by Tanner staging, although they have proven to be too subjective and deceiving for age estimation. The objective of this study, inspired by a previous EU project involving Italy, Germany and Lithuania, is to verify the applicability of certain anthropometric indices of faces in order to determine age and to create a database of facial measurements on a population of children in order to improve face ageing techniques. In this study, 1924 standardized facial images in frontal view and 1921 in lateral view of individuals from 7 age groups (3-5 years, 6-8 years, 9-11 years, 12-14 years, 15-17 years, 18-20 years, 21-24 years) underwent metric analysis. Individuals were all of Caucasoid ancestry and Italian nationality. Eighteen anthropometric indices in the frontal view and five in the lateral view were then calculated from the obtained measurements. Indices showing a correlation with age were ch-ch/ex-ex, ch-ch/pu-pu, en-en/ch-ch and se-sto/ex-ex in the frontal view, se-prn/se-sn, se-prn/se-sto and se-sn/se-sto in the lateral view. All the indices increased with age except for en-en/ch-ch, without relevant differences between males and females. These results provide an interesting starting point not only for placing a photographed face in an age range but also for refining the techniques of face ageing and personal identification.

  20. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Neven, Lisa G.

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species. PMID:26106089

  1. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species.

  2. Middle Jurassic U-Pb crystallization age for Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.E. ); Aleinikoff, J.N.; Walter, M. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors report here a U-Pb age for the Siniktanneyak Mountain Ophiolite klippe in the west-central Brooks Range, the first U-Pb ophiolite age in northern Alaska. Like klippen of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Brooks Range, the Siniktanneyak Mountain klippe is composed of a lower allochthon of Devonian and younger( ) diabase and metabasalt with trace-element characteristics of seamount basalts and an upper allochthon of ophiolite. The ophiolite is partial, consisting of (1) abundant dunite and subordinate harzburgite and wehrlite; (2) cumulate clinopyroxene gabbro, and (3) minor noncumulate clinopyroxene gabbro and subordinate plagiogranite; no sheeted dikes or volcanic rocks are known in the ophilitic allochthon. The plagiogranite forms small dikes and stocks that intrude the noncumulate gabbro and consists of zoned Na-rich plagioclase + clinopyroxene with interstial quartz and biotite. Five fractions of subhedral, tan zircon from the plagiogranite yield slightly discordant U-Pb data with an upper intercept age of 170 [+-] 3 Ma. The U-Pb data indicate that the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite crystallized in the Middle Jurassic and was emplaced by thrusting onto mafic accretionary prism rocks within about 10 m.y. of crystallization. The U-Pb data provide an upper limit to the age of initiation of the Brookian orogeny.

  3. User Preferences for Web-Based Module Design Layout and Design Impact on Information Recall Considering Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomales-García, Cristina; Rivera-Nivar, Mericia

    2015-01-01

    Research in design of Web-based modules should incorporate aging as an important factor given the diversity of the current workforce. This work aims to understand how Web-Based Learning modules can be designed to accommodate young (25-35 years) as well as older (55-65 years) users by: (1) identifying how information sources (instructor video,…

  4. Mechanical properties of bulk polydimethylsiloxane for microfluidics over a large range of frequencies and aging times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placet, V.; Delobelle, P.

    2015-03-01

    The dynamic mechanical characterization of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) over a large range of frequencies (10-2 < f < 105 Hz) and long aging times at room temperature (4 h < tv < ~60 000 h) has been presented. Three samples with different curing conditions have been studied and three different techniques, dynamic mechanical analysis at different temperatures, nano-indentation and scanning micro-deformation microscopy, have been used. Although the three techniques work at different scales and at different frequencies all the results match the same master curve. As expected, the storage and the loss moduli greatly increase with the frequency. Moreover, these moduli moderately increase with the aging time tv depending on the curing temperature. A simple model which takes the frequency and the aging time into account, and which is based on the Havriliak-Negami model, has been presented and identified. Hence, values of the relaxed and instantaneous moduli at tv = 0 and tv = ∞ are proposed. Only the relaxed moduli depend on the curing conditions and moreover it has been shown that the tangent of the phase lag is independent of the aging time and thus of the curing process.

  5. Zircon fission-track ages from the Gasherbrum Diorite, Karakoram Range, northern Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Cerveny, P.F. ); Naeser, C.W. ); Kelemen, P.B. ); Lieberman, J.E. ); Zeitler, P.K. )

    1989-11-01

    The Gasherbrum Peaks, in the Himalaya of Pakistan, reach elevations of >8000 m. The relief between the peaks and the adjacent valley (Baltoro Glacier) is in excess of 3000 m. Eight samples of the Early Cretaceous Gasherbrum Diorite at elevations between 4880 and 7165 m on Gasherbrum IV were collected for fission-track dating. Zircon fission-track ages from the Gasherbrum Diorite vary from Early Cretaceous to middle Tertiary in age. There is no consistent pattern between age and elevation. The Cretaceous ages indicate that these rocks were never deeply buried, i.e., heated to temperatures in excess of 175 C, to reset the zircons during Cenozoic time. These results also indicate that the uplift of this part of the Himalaya has been either very rapid and recent, or very slow since Early Cretaceous time. This latter possibility is not consistent with the high relief at Gasherbrum and what is known about regional tectonics. Gasherbrum IV zircons, currently at {approximately}4880 m, have never been at depths greater than 6 km, and less than 3 km of material has been removed from the top of the range by erosion since the Early Cretaceous. Rapid uplift has occurred very recently, and erosion rates have not been able to keep pace with this uplift.

  6. Assessment Of Noise-induced Sleep Fragility In Two Age Ranges By Means Of Polysomnographic Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzano, M. G.; Parrino, L.; Spaggiari, M. C.; Buccino, G. P.; Fioriti, G.; Depoortere, H.

    1993-04-01

    The microstructure of sleep, which translates the short-lived fluctuations of the arousal level, is a commonly neglected feature in polysomnographic studies. Specifically arranged microstructural EEG events may provide important information on the dynamic characteristics of the sleep process. CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) and non-CAP are complementary modalities in which arousal-related "phasic" EEG phenomena are organized in non-REM sleep, and they correspond to opposite conditions of unstable and stable sleep depth, respectively. Thus, arousal instability can be measured by the CAP rate, the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total non-REM sleep time. The CAP rate, an age-related physiological variable that increases in several pathological conditions, is highly sensitive to acoustic perturbation. In the present study, two groups of healthy subjects without complaints about sleep, belonging to different age ranges (six young adults, three males and three females, between 20 and 30 years, and six middle-aged individuals, three males and three females, between 40 and 55 years) slept, after adaptation to the sleep laboratory, in a random sequence for two non-consecutive nights either under silent baseline (27·3 dB(A) Lcq) or noise-disturbed (continuous 55 dB(A) white noise) conditions. Age-related and noise-related effects on traditional sleep parameters and on the CAP rate were statistically evaluated by a split-plot test. Compared to young adults, the middle-aged individuals showed a significant reduction of total sleep time, stage 2 and REM sleep and significantly higher values of nocturnal awakenings and the CAP rate. The noisy nights were characterized by similar alterations. The disruptive effects of acoustic perturbation were greater on the more fragile sleep architecture of the older group. The increased fragility of sleep associated with aging probably reflects the decreased capacity of the sleeping brain to maintain steady states of vigilance. Total

  7. Theoretical constraints on the precision and age range of rehydroxylation dating

    PubMed Central

    Hare, V. J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and precise dating methods are of central importance to archaeology, palaeontology and earth science. This paper investigates the expected precision and age range of rehydroxylation dating, a recently proposed technique for fired clays. An expression for combined measurement uncertainty is presented, which takes into account all significant sources of experimental uncertainty. Numerical simulations are performed for comparison. Combined measurement uncertainties of approximately 5% with respect to the age of the ceramic should be possible given well-designed experiments. In this case, the most significant contribution to combined measurement uncertainty is from effective lifetime temperature. In addition, it is shown that precision should be acceptable for recently fired material (less than 1 year). Mismatch of balance resolution to sample mass results in large variation in combined relative uncertainties, which vary by four orders of magnitude (approx. 1–1160%) across recent experimental studies, rendering some recently reported dates meaningless. It is recommended that this ratio be less than 10−6 for a combined relative uncertainty of less than 1%. The age limits of the technique are set by the value of the rate constant and individual sample mineralogy. This theoretical framework should help future interlaboratory comparison as well as optimizing instrument design. PMID:26064631

  8. Theoretical constraints on the precision and age range of rehydroxylation dating.

    PubMed

    Hare, V J

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and precise dating methods are of central importance to archaeology, palaeontology and earth science. This paper investigates the expected precision and age range of rehydroxylation dating, a recently proposed technique for fired clays. An expression for combined measurement uncertainty is presented, which takes into account all significant sources of experimental uncertainty. Numerical simulations are performed for comparison. Combined measurement uncertainties of approximately 5% with respect to the age of the ceramic should be possible given well-designed experiments. In this case, the most significant contribution to combined measurement uncertainty is from effective lifetime temperature. In addition, it is shown that precision should be acceptable for recently fired material (less than 1 year). Mismatch of balance resolution to sample mass results in large variation in combined relative uncertainties, which vary by four orders of magnitude (approx. 1-1160%) across recent experimental studies, rendering some recently reported dates meaningless. It is recommended that this ratio be less than 10(-6) for a combined relative uncertainty of less than 1%. The age limits of the technique are set by the value of the rate constant and individual sample mineralogy. This theoretical framework should help future interlaboratory comparison as well as optimizing instrument design.

  9. Surface-exposure ages of Front Range moraines that may have formed during the Younger Dryas, 8.2 cal ka, and Little Ice Age events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Madole, R.; Kubik, P.; McDonald, R.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-exposure (10Be) ages have been obtained on boulders from three post-Pinedale end-moraine complexes in the Front Range, Colorado. Boulder rounding appears related to the cirque-to-moraine transport distance at each site with subrounded boulders being typical of the 2-km-long Chicago Lakes Glacier, subangular boulders being typical of the 1-km-long Butler Gulch Glacier, and angular boulders being typical of the few-hundred-m-long Isabelle Glacier. Surface-exposure ages of angular boulders from the Isabelle Glacier moraine, which formed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) according to previous lichenometric dating, indicate cosmogenic inheritance values ranging from 0 to ???3.0 10Be ka.11Surface-exposure ages in this paper are labeled 10Be; radiocarbon ages are labeled 14C ka, calendar and calibrated radiocarbon ages are labeled cal ka, and layer-based ice-core ages are labeled ka. 14C ages, calibrated 14C ages, and ice core ages are given relative to AD 1950, whereas 10Be ages are given relative to the sampling date. Radiocarbon ages were calibrated using CALIB 5.01 and the INTCAL04 data base Stuiver et al. (2005). Ages estimated using CALIB 5.01 are shown in terms of their 1-sigma range. Subangular boulders from the Butler Gulch end moraine yielded surface-exposure ages ranging from 5 to 10.2 10Be ka. We suggest that this moraine was deposited during the 8.2 cal ka event, which has been associated with outburst floods from Lake Agassiz and Lake Ojibway, and that the large age range associated with the Butler Gulch end moraine is caused by cosmogenic shielding of and(or) spalling from boulders that have ages in the younger part of the range and by cosmogenic inheritance in boulders that have ages in the older part of the range. The surface-exposure ages of eight of nine subrounded boulders from the Chicago Lakes area fall within the 13.0-11.7 10Be ka age range, and appear to have been deposited during the Younger Dryas interval. The general lack of inheritance in

  10. Age, Stratigraphy, and Correlations of the Late Neogene Purisima Formation, Central California Coast Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Barron, John A.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Clark, Joseph C.; Perry, Frank A.; Brabb, Earl E.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The Purisima Formation is an important upper Miocene and Pliocene stratigraphic unit in central California, cropping out from the coast at Point Reyes north of San Francisco to more extensive exposures in the Santa Cruz Mountains to the south. The fine-grained rocks in the lower parts of the Purisima Formation record a latest Miocene transgressive event, whereas the middle and upper parts of the formation consist of increasingly clastic-rich siltstones and sandstones resulting from uplift of adjacent coastal regions and the Sierra Nevada during Pliocene transgressive and regressive sea-level events. Exposures of the Purisima occur in three different, fault-bounded, structural blocks - the Santa Cruz, Pigeon Point, and Point Reyes tectonic blocks - that complicate correlations and regional age assignments. We summarize and compare published and new biostratigraphic and geochronologic data for various exposures of the Purisima Formation on the basis of mollusks, diatoms, radiometric dating, magnetostratigraphy, tephrochronology, and strontium isotope dating. On the basis of these data, we conclude that the Purisima Formation ranges in age from the latest Miocene (about 7 Ma) to the late Pliocene (about 2.6 Ma). The Purisima Formation of Santa Cruz County, exposed in the sea cliffs from Santa Cruz to Rio del Mar, is here designated a supplementary reference section because it is the most complete and well studied Purisima section in central California.

  11. Plutonic rocks of Jurassic age in the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith: chemical variation and polarity.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, B.I.; Miesch, A.T.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Plutonic rocks of Jurassic age exposed on the Pacific side of this batholith form a compositionally continuous calc-alkaline suite that ranges from hornblende gabbro to quartz monzonite. Tonalite and quartz diorite are the dominant rock types. Trend-surface analysis of 102 samples indicates that the direction of slope of the trend is approximately normal to the Jurassic magmatic arc. K2O and SiO2 increase towards the E-SE and the other oxides towards the W-NW. If the chemical trends reflect the approximate geometry of a palaeo-subduction zone, the polarity of the Jurassic magmatic arc is to the NW, i.e. subduction was directed towards the SE. Thus the palaeo-subduction zone is on the opposite side of the arc from the position that has generally been assumed, indicating that the Jurassic plutonic rocks were not generated in response to classical Andean-type convergent plate margins. The magmatic arc may have been formed in an intra-ocean environment and subsequently has been rafted northwards and accreted to this part of the N Pacific rim during the late Mesozoic. Middle and Upper Jurassic clastics underlying Cook Inlet to the SE and derived from the magmatic arc are classified as back-arc deposits, rather than as an arc-trench gap sequence.-L.C.H.

  12. Depositional settings, correlation, and age carboniferous rocks in the western Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.; Blome, C.D.; Young, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Kuna Formation (Lisburne Group) in northwest Alaska hosts the Red Dog and other Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulfide deposits in the Red Dog district. New studies of the sedimentology and paleontology of the Lisburne Group constrain the setting, age, and thermal history of these deposits. In the western and west-central Brooks Range, the Lisburne Group includes both deep- and shallow-water sedimentary facies and local volcanic rocks that are exposed in a series of thrust sheets or allochthons. Deep-water facies in the Red Dog area (i.e., the Kuna Formation and related rocks) are found chiefly in the Endicott Mountains and structurally higher Picnic Creek allochthons. In the Red Dog plate of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, the Kuna consists of at least 122 m of thinly interbedded calcareous shale, calcareous spiculite, and bioclastic supportstone (Kivalina unit) overlain by 30 to 240 m of siliceous shale, mudstone, calcareous radiolarite, and calcareous lithic turbidite (Ikalukrok unit). The Ikalukrok unit in the Red Dog plate hosts all massive sulfide deposits in the area. It is notably carbonaceous, is generally finely laminated, and contains siliceous sponge spicules and radiolarians. The Kuna Formation in the Key Creek plate of the Endicott Mountains allochthon (60-110 m) resembles the Ikalukrok unit but is unmineralized and has thinner carbonate layers that are mainly organic-rich dolostone. Correlative strata in the Picnic Creek allochthon include less shale and mudstone and more carbonate (mostly calcareous spiculite). Conodonts and radiolarians indicate an age range of Osagean to early Chesterian (late Early to Late Mississippian) for the Kuna in the Red Dog area. Sedimentologic, faunal, and geochemical data imply that most of the Kuna formed in slope and basin settings characterized by anoxic or dysoxic bottom water and by local high productivity. Shallow-water facies of th e Lisburne Group in the Red Dog area are present locally in the Endicott Mountains

  13. New U/Pb ages from granite and granite gneiss in the Ruby geanticline and southern Brooks Range, Alaska ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, W.W.; Stern, T.W.; Arth, Joseph G.; Carlson, C.

    1987-01-01

    New U/Pb zircon ages from the Ray Mountains of central Alaska clarify the plutonic history of the Ruby geanticline and support earlier suggestions that the Ruby geanticline and S Brooks Range were once parts of the same tectonostratigraphic terrane. U/Pb zircon ages of 109 to 112 Ma from the Ray Mountains pluton confirm previously reported mid-Cretaceous K/Ar ages and rule out the possibility that the earliest intrusive phase of the pluton is older than mid-Cretaceous K/Ar ages and rule out the possibility that the earliest intrusive phase of the pluton is older than mid- Cretaceous. New U/Pb zircon ages from 4 granite gneiss samples in the Ray Mountains indicate a Devonian protolith age of 390+ or -12 Ma and suggest that the Ruby geanticline, like the S Brooks Range, underwent a major plutonic event in mid-Paleozoic time.-Authors

  14. Mobile Applications for Diabetics: A Systematic Review and Expert-Based Usability Evaluation Considering the Special Requirements of Diabetes Patients Age 50 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Quade, Mandy; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Background A multitude of mhealth (mobile health) apps have been developed in recent years to support effective self-management of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2. Objective We carried out a systematic review of all currently available diabetes apps for the operating systems iOS and Android. We considered the number of newly released diabetes apps, range of functions, target user groups, languages, acquisition costs, user ratings, available interfaces, and the connection between acquisition costs and user ratings. Additionally, we examined whether the available applications serve the special needs of diabetes patients aged 50 or older by performing an expert-based usability evaluation. Methods We identified relevant keywords, comparative categories, and their specifications. Subsequently, we performed the app review based on the information given in the Google Play Store, the Apple App Store, and the apps themselves. In addition, we carried out an expert-based usability evaluation based on a representative 10% sample of diabetes apps. Results In total, we analyzed 656 apps finding that 355 (54.1%) offered just one function and 348 (53.0%) provided a documentation function. The dominating app language was English (85.4%, 560/656), patients represented the main user group (96.0%, 630/656), and the analysis of the costs revealed a trend toward free apps (53.7%, 352/656). The median price of paid apps was €1.90. The average user rating was 3.6 stars (maximum 5). Our analyses indicated no clear differences in the user rating between free and paid apps. Only 30 (4.6%) of the 656 available diabetes apps offered an interface to a measurement device. We evaluated 66 apps within the usability evaluation. On average, apps were rated best regarding the criterion “comprehensibility” (4.0 out of 5.0), while showing a lack of “fault tolerance” (2.8 out of 5.0). Of the 66 apps, 48 (72.7%) offered the ability to read the screen content aloud. The number of

  15. Re-Considering the Range of Reciprocity in Community-Based Research and Service Learning: You Don't Have to Be an Activist to Give Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    This essay presents perspectives on the range of potential reciprocity in literacy research and service learning, focusing attention on opportunities for individualized and institutional reciprocation, as observed by Takayoshi and Powell (2003). Researchers and students involved in community-based research or service programs have several…

  16. Effects of age, replicative lifespan and growth rate of human nucleus pulposus cells on selecting age range for cell-based biological therapies for degenerative disc diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Lee, S M; Jeong, S W; Sung, Y G; Lee, J H; Kim, K W

    2016-07-01

    Autologous disc cell implantation, growth factors and gene therapy appear to be promising therapies for disc regeneration. Unfortunately, the replicative lifespan and growth kinetics of human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells related to host age are unclear. We investigated the potential relations among age, replicative lifespan and growth rate of NP cells, and determined the age range that is suitable for cell-based biological therapies for degenerative disc diseases. We used NP tissues classified by decade into five age groups: 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s and 70s. The mean cumulative population doubling level (PDL) and population doubling rate (PDR) of NP cells were assessed by decade. We also investigated correlations between cumulative PDL and age, and between PDR and age. The mean cumulative PDL and PDR decreased significantly in patients in their 60s. The mean cumulative PDL and PDR in the younger groups (30s, 40s and 50s) were significantly higher than those in the older groups (60s and 70s). There also were significant negative correlations between cumulative PDL and age, and between PDR and age. We found that the replicative lifespan and growth rate of human NP cells decreased with age. The replicative potential of NP cells decreased significantly in patients 60 years old and older. Young individuals less than 60 years old may be suitable candidates for NP cell-based biological therapies for treating degenerative disc diseases.

  17. Predicting Young’s Modulus of Glass/Ceramic Sealant for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Considering the Combined Effects of Aging, Micro-Voids and Self-Healing

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-12-01

    We study the temperature dependent Young’s modulus for the glass/ceramic seal material used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs). With longer heat treatment or aging time during operation, further devitrification may reduce the residual glass content in the seal material while boosting the ceramic crystalline content. In the meantime, micro-voids induced by the cooling process from the high operating temperature to room temperature can potentially degrade the mechanical properties of the glass/ceramic sealant. Upon reheating to the SOFC operating temperature, possible self-healing phenomenon may occur in the glass/ceramic sealant which can potentially restore some of its mechanical properties. A phenomenological model is developed to model the temperature dependent Young’s modulus of glass/ceramic seal considering the combined effects of aging, micro-voids, and possible self-healing. An aging-time-dependent crystalline content model is first developed to describe the increase of the crystalline content due to the continuing devitrification under high operating temperature. A continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model is then adapted to model the effects of both cooling induced micro-voids and reheating induced self-healing. This model is applied to model the glass-ceramic G18, a candidate SOFC seal material previously developed at PNNL. Experimentally determined temperature dependent Young’s modulus is used to validate the model predictions

  18. Considering risk.

    PubMed

    Reichman, G

    1999-01-01

    Medical device manufacturers have to go to a lot of effort before they can bring a new product to market. Even when the product is on the market there are many things to consider to keep it there. These efforts are deemed worth making, because they believe that there will be a "return on investment." In many cases this expectation proves to be right, sometimes it does not. They must be prepared to take some risk. This article discusses the regulated environment in which research into (new) medical devices takes place and the management of regulatory risk. PMID:10623346

  19. The exclusion of a significant range of ages in a massive star cluster.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai

    2014-12-18

    Stars spend most of their lifetimes on the main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The extended main-sequence turn-off regions--containing stars leaving the main sequence after having spent all of the hydrogen in their cores--found in massive (more than a few tens of thousands of solar masses), intermediate-age (about one to three billion years old) star clusters are usually interpreted as evidence of internal age spreads of more than 300 million years, although young clusters are thought to quickly lose any remaining star-forming fuel following a period of rapid gas expulsion on timescales of order 10(7) years. Here we report, on the basis of a combination of high-resolution imaging observations and theoretical modelling, that the stars beyond the main sequence in the two-billion-year-old cluster NGC 1651, characterized by a mass of about 1.7 × 10(5) solar masses, can be explained only by a single-age stellar population, even though the cluster has a clearly extended main-sequence turn-off region. The most plausible explanation for the existence of such extended regions invokes a population of rapidly rotating stars, although the secondary effects of the prolonged stellar lifetimes associated with such a stellar population mixture are as yet poorly understood. From preliminary analysis of previously obtained data, we find that similar morphologies are apparent in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams of at least five additional intermediate-age star clusters, suggesting that an extended main-sequence turn-off region does not necessarily imply the presence of a significant internal age dispersion. PMID:25519133

  20. The exclusion of a significant range of ages in a massive star cluster.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai

    2014-12-18

    Stars spend most of their lifetimes on the main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The extended main-sequence turn-off regions--containing stars leaving the main sequence after having spent all of the hydrogen in their cores--found in massive (more than a few tens of thousands of solar masses), intermediate-age (about one to three billion years old) star clusters are usually interpreted as evidence of internal age spreads of more than 300 million years, although young clusters are thought to quickly lose any remaining star-forming fuel following a period of rapid gas expulsion on timescales of order 10(7) years. Here we report, on the basis of a combination of high-resolution imaging observations and theoretical modelling, that the stars beyond the main sequence in the two-billion-year-old cluster NGC 1651, characterized by a mass of about 1.7 × 10(5) solar masses, can be explained only by a single-age stellar population, even though the cluster has a clearly extended main-sequence turn-off region. The most plausible explanation for the existence of such extended regions invokes a population of rapidly rotating stars, although the secondary effects of the prolonged stellar lifetimes associated with such a stellar population mixture are as yet poorly understood. From preliminary analysis of previously obtained data, we find that similar morphologies are apparent in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams of at least five additional intermediate-age star clusters, suggesting that an extended main-sequence turn-off region does not necessarily imply the presence of a significant internal age dispersion.

  1. Cosmogenic exposure-age chronologies of Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations in greater Yellowstone and the Teton Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Licciardi, J.M.; Pierce, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained 69 new cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages from boulders on moraines deposited by glaciers of the greater Yellowstone glacial system and Teton Range during the middle and late Pleistocene. These new data, combined with 43 previously obtained 3He and 10Be ages from deposits of the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier, establish a high-resolution chronology for the Yellowstone-Teton mountain glacier complexes. Boulders deposited at the southern limit of the penultimate ice advance of the Yellowstone glacial system yield a mean age of 136??13 10Be ka and oldest ages of ???151-157 10Be ka. These ages support a correlation with the Bull Lake of West Yellowstone, with the type Bull Lake of the Wind River Range, and with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. End moraines marking the maximum Pinedale positions of outlet glaciers around the periphery of the Yellowstone glacial system range in age from 18.8??0.9 to 16.5??1.4 10Be ka, and possibly as young as 14.6??0.7 10Be ka, suggesting differences in response times of the various ice-cap source regions. Moreover, all dated Pinedale terminal moraines in the greater Yellowstone glacial system post-date the Pinedale maximum in the Wind River Range by ???4-6 kyr, indicating a significant phase relationship between glacial maxima in these adjacent ranges. Boulders on the outermost set and an inner set of Pinedale end moraines enclosing Jenny Lake on the eastern Teton front yield mean ages of 14.6??0.7 and 13.5??1.1 10Be ka, respectively. The outer Jenny Lake moraines are partially buried by outwash from ice on the Yellowstone Plateau, hence their age indicates a major standstill of an expanded valley glacier in the Teton Range prior to the Younger Dryas, followed closely by deglaciation of the Yellowstone Plateau. These new glacial chronologies are indicative of spatially variable regional climate forcing and temporally complex patterns of glacier responses in this region of the Rocky Mountains during the Pleistocene

  2. Thermoluminescence dating of sediments: a re-extension of age range for loess

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.J.; Stipp, J.J.; Wintle, A.G.; Tamers, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of wind blown minerals provides a technique whereby non-carbonaceous sediments could be dated to several hundred thousand years. Two recent reports, however, indicate age underestimates on feldspar in some European loesses older than 50 ka, the effect increasing in severity with age. Suggested causes include decay of luminescence centers, or does dependent sensitivity changes. Data presented in this paper do not support these limitations or explanations. TL provides 3 separate techniques of dating sediments, which, when used together, prove to be efficient internal cross checks for mineralogical anomalies or inconsistencies created by any of the individual methods. In the authors studies each sample was dated by all 3 methods whereas the Europeans analyses employed only the Regeneration technique. This work presents results from loess sections in Mississippi, Illinois and Alaska. These show excellent internal consistency, and consistency with both independent dating methods and stratigraphy, with 2 exceptions. Both exceptions were by the Regen technique giving age underestimates up to 30%. The underestimates were found to be caused by a change in mineral sensitivity resulting from the Regen requirements of strong laboratory light-bleaching followed by irradiations. A simple method to test and correct for this condition is presented. TL thus appears to remain a powerful and increasingly flexible method of sediment dating.

  3. Fission track ages of detrital zircons from sandstones of the Umpqua Group and Tyee Formation, Oregon coast range

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, J.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Brandon, M.T. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Detrital zircons from Paleogene sandstones of the Umpqua Group (UG) and the Tyee Fm (TF) yield contrasting FT age patterns which distinguish these two units and cast new light on their regional extent, correlation and provenance. In the Roseburg (Rg) area of the southern Oregon Coast Range, where most widely exposed, the UG consists of continental and marine clastic beds which overlie submarine lavas of the Coast Range Basalt. K-Ar And Ar-Ar dating of the basement basalts shows a younging trend from about 62 Ma at Rg at the south to 56 Ma at Siletz River and 53 Ma at Tillamook to the north. Detrital zircons from the Rg area are characterized by old FT ages. Of 192 grains dated, 90% are older than 90 Ma; the median age is 129 Ma. A diorite cobble from an UG conglomerate gave a zircon FT age of 105 Ma. These ages point to a source in the Jurassic plutons in the Klamath Mountains nearby to the south. The authors have determined FT cooling ages of 110 and 120 Ma for zircons from the Mt. Ashland and Grants Pass plutons. Continental and shallow marine clastic strata of the TF overly the UG beds west of Rg. The UG is not widely exposed north of Rg where it thins and pinches out above the Coast Range Basalt and is overlain by a northern turbidite facies of the TF. Three TF sandstones from the latitude of Rg and three others from west and south of Corvallis yielded distinctive and identical zircon FT age patterns characterized by young ages. Of 335 zircons dated, 80% are younger than 90 Ma; the median age is 61 Ma. This maximum age is very close to that of the overlying Tillamook and Fisher Fms. The flood of detrital zircons with young FT ages in the TF marks the abrupt change from a nearby Klamath source for the UG beds to a distant, easterly TF source in a recently uplifted plutonic-metamorphic terrane.

  4. Isotopes and ages in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kistler, Ronald W.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Morton, Douglas M.

    2003-01-01

    Strontium, oxygen and lead isotopic and rubidium-strontium geochronologic studies have been completed on Cretaceous and Jurassic (?) granitic rock samples from the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith in southern California. Many of these samples were collected systematically and studied chemically by A. K. Baird and colleagues (Baird and others, 1979). The distribution of these granitic rocks is shown in the Santa Ana, Perris, and San Jacinto Blocks, bounded by the Malibu Coast-Cucamonga, Banning, and San Andreas fault zones, and the Pacific Ocean on the map of the Peninsular Ranges batholith and surrounding area, southern California. The granitic rock names are by Baird and Miesch (1984) who used a modal mineral classification that Bateman and others (1963) used for granitic rocks in the Sierra Nevada batholith. In this classification, granitic rocks have at least 10% quartz. Boundaries between rock types are in terms of the ratio of alkali-feldspar to total feldspar: quartz diorite, 0-10%; granodiorite, 10-35%; quartz monzonite 35-65%; granite >65%. Gabbros have 0-10% quartz. Data for samples investigated are giv in three tables: samples, longitude, latitude, specific gravity and rock type (Table 1); rubidium and strontium data for granitic rocks of the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern California (Table 2); U, Th, Pb concentrations, Pb and Sr initial isotopic compositions, and δ18O permil values for granitic rocks of the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith (table 3).

  5. Gondwanian age dextral transpression and spatial kinematic partitioning within the Heritage Range, Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Michael L.

    1997-02-01

    The Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica, consist of two mountain ranges; the Sentinel, and Heritage ranges. The more southerly Heritage Range is composed of a lower Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rock sequence, deformed during a single major deformation event in the early Mesozoic. This Gondwanian Orogeny possibly resulted from Andean-style convergence along the southern margin of Gondwana, prior to break-up of the super-continent, and the subsequent translation of the Ellsworth Mountains from a position close to the Natal embayment of southern Africa to that of the present day. Rocks of the Heritage Range are intensely folded, with close to tight, upright to inclined folds, plunging gently about a horizontal axis trending NNW-SSE. Locally, folds plunge moderately to subvertical toward the NNW, possessing asymmetries consistent with a dextral sense of shear. Cleavage is generally axial planar displaying downdip and strike-parallel stretching lineations that are frequently associated with domains of reverse, and dextral shear striking parallel to the regional structural grain. The spatial and temporal relationship of fractures developed within these domains as a result of noncoaxial shear, in addition to the progressive incremental strain histories derived from mineral fibres in strain shadows, indicate the contemporaneous nature of these shear domains. Strain analysis of deformed tuffaceous diamictites and oncolithic limestones reveal k-values <1 (mean 0.59) throughout the Heritage Range. The coexistence of strike-parallel dextral, oblique and reverse-shear domains, abrupt reorientation of progressive strain axes, steep cleavage dips, and k-values <1 are all consistent with a dextral transpressive deformation regime, previously unrecognized in the Ellsworth Mountains. A model of highly oblique (pure-shear dominated) transpression, associated with efficient spatial partitioning of the strike-slip component of shear is proposed to describe the structural

  6. Characterization of polymers in the glass transition range: Time-temperature and time-aging time superposition in polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Pesce, J.J.; Niemiec, J.M.; Chiang, M.Y.

    1995-12-31

    Here we present time-temperature and time-aging time superposition data for a commercial grade polycarbonate. The data reduction is performed for dynamic-mechanical data obtained in torsion over a range of temperatures from 103.6 to 144.5{degrees}C and aging times to 16 h. For time-temperature superposition the results show the deviation of the sub-T{sub g} response from the WTF equation. Two response regimes are observed: at temperatures far below T{sub g} the log(a{sub T}) is linear in T, followed by a transition towards the WLF behavior as T{sub g} is approached. The temperature at which the behavior changes from a linear dependence of log(aT) on T to the transition-type behavior is found to depend on the aging time. This temperature decreases as aging time increases. The time-aging time response is found to behave in a normal way. At temperatures far below T{sub g} the log(a{sub te}) vs log(t{sub e}) is constant and has a slope somewhat less than unity. However, nearer to T{sub g} the slope decreases and there is a second regime in which the aging virtually ceases. In this polycarbonate, above 136.9{degrees}C, no aging is observed.

  7. Procrastination, Distress and Life Satisfaction across the Age Range - A German Representative Community Study.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Manfred E; Klein, Eva M; Aufenanger, Stefan; Brähler, Elmar; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W; Quiring, Oliver; Reinecke, Leonard; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Stark, Birgit; Wölfling, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the lack of population-based data the purpose of this representative study was to assess procrastination and its associations with distress and life satisfaction across the life span. A representative German community sample (1,350 women; 1,177 men) between the ages of 14 and 95 years was examined by the short form of the General Procrastination Scale (GPS-K; 1) and standardized scales of perceived stress, depression, anxiety, fatigue and life satisfaction. As hypothesized, procrastination was highest in the youngest cohort (14-29 years). Only in the youngest and most procrastinating cohort (aged 14 to 29 years), men procrastinated more than women. As we had further hypothesized, procrastination was consistently associated with higher stress, more depression, anxiety, fatigue and reduced satisfaction across life domains, especially regarding work and income. Associations were also found with lack of a partnership and unemployment. Findings are discussed with regard to potential developmental and cohort effects. While procrastination appears to be a pervasive indicator for maladjustment, longitudinal analyses in high-risk samples (e.g. late adolescence, unemployment) are needed to identify means and mechanisms of procrastinating.

  8. Procrastination, Distress and Life Satisfaction across the Age Range – A German Representative Community Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the lack of population-based data the purpose of this representative study was to assess procrastination and its associations with distress and life satisfaction across the life span. A representative German community sample (1,350 women; 1,177 men) between the ages of 14 and 95 years was examined by the short form of the General Procrastination Scale (GPS-K; 1) and standardized scales of perceived stress, depression, anxiety, fatigue and life satisfaction. As hypothesized, procrastination was highest in the youngest cohort (14–29 years). Only in the youngest and most procrastinating cohort (aged 14 to 29 years), men procrastinated more than women. As we had further hypothesized, procrastination was consistently associated with higher stress, more depression, anxiety, fatigue and reduced satisfaction across life domains, especially regarding work and income. Associations were also found with lack of a partnership and unemployment. Findings are discussed with regard to potential developmental and cohort effects. While procrastination appears to be a pervasive indicator for maladjustment, longitudinal analyses in high-risk samples (e.g. late adolescence, unemployment) are needed to identify means and mechanisms of procrastinating. PMID:26871572

  9. Procrastination, Distress and Life Satisfaction across the Age Range - A German Representative Community Study.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Manfred E; Klein, Eva M; Aufenanger, Stefan; Brähler, Elmar; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W; Quiring, Oliver; Reinecke, Leonard; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Stark, Birgit; Wölfling, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the lack of population-based data the purpose of this representative study was to assess procrastination and its associations with distress and life satisfaction across the life span. A representative German community sample (1,350 women; 1,177 men) between the ages of 14 and 95 years was examined by the short form of the General Procrastination Scale (GPS-K; 1) and standardized scales of perceived stress, depression, anxiety, fatigue and life satisfaction. As hypothesized, procrastination was highest in the youngest cohort (14-29 years). Only in the youngest and most procrastinating cohort (aged 14 to 29 years), men procrastinated more than women. As we had further hypothesized, procrastination was consistently associated with higher stress, more depression, anxiety, fatigue and reduced satisfaction across life domains, especially regarding work and income. Associations were also found with lack of a partnership and unemployment. Findings are discussed with regard to potential developmental and cohort effects. While procrastination appears to be a pervasive indicator for maladjustment, longitudinal analyses in high-risk samples (e.g. late adolescence, unemployment) are needed to identify means and mechanisms of procrastinating. PMID:26871572

  10. OASDI (Old-Age and Survivors Insurance): fiscal basis and long-range cost projections.

    PubMed

    Robertson, A H

    1977-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the financing structure of social security is a prerequisite to serious discussion of the financial condition of the program. In examining this structure, it becomes clear that the most important test of the program's financial soundness is whether expected future income to the funds equals expected future expenditures. Short-range and long-range cost estimates indicate that this condition does not exist and that an actual deficit of 7.96 percent of taxable payroll, equivalent to $4.3 trillion, needs to be eliminated--half of it perhaps by stabilizing benefits at current levels in relation to preretirement earnings. In addition, an unfunded accrued liability of $3.1 trillion exists, although there is no indication that this liability needs to be funded. PMID:847590

  11. Effects of age on cerebrospinal fluid oxytocin levels in free-ranging adult female and infant rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Karen J.; Hoffman, Christy L.; Hyde, Shellie A.; Cummings, Carl S.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in studying oxytocin biology in the context of social functioning in human and non-human primates. Studies of human subjects are typically restricted to peripheral oxytocin assessments because opportunities to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are rare. A few studies have examined CSF oxytocin levels in captive adult primates, but none to our knowledge have been conducted under free-ranging conditions and inclusive of young infants. The main goal of the present study was to establish feasibility of quantifying CSF oxytocin levels in free-ranging adult female and infant rhesus monkeys living on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. CSF oxytocin levels were examined in relation to individuals’ demographic and reproductive characteristics, as well as in relation to plasma cortisol levels. CSF oxytocin concentrations ranged from 36.02 to 134.41 pg/ml in adult females (ages 7–26 years; N = 31) and 35.94 to 77.3 pg/ml in infants (ages 38–134 days; N = 17). CSF oxytocin levels were positively correlated with adult female age and negatively correlated with infant age. The former correlation was driven by reproductive status. CSF oxytocin levels were unrelated to dominance rank or plasma cortisol levels. In contrast to a previous study of plasma oxytocin concentrations in this population, CSF oxytocin levels did not differ significantly between lactating and non-lactating females. In summary, these findings: 1) provide feasibility data for examining CSF oxytocin biology in free-ranging nonhuman primates and 2) indicate that CSF oxytocin levels may be a biomarker of age-related central nervous system changes across lifespan development. Although our study did not report significant associations between CSF oxytocin levels and socially-relevant demographic variables, the relationships between CSF oxytocin levels and assessments of social functioning warrant future investigation. PMID:20528088

  12. Age constraints for Paleoproterozoic glaciation in the Lake Superior Region: Detrital zircon and hydrothermal xenotime ages for the Chocolay Group, Marquette Range Supergroup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallini, D.A.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A geochronological study of the Chocolay Group at the base of the Paleoproterozoic Marquette Range Supergroup in Michigan, Lake Superior Region, is attempted for the first time, Age data from detrital zircon grains and hydrothermal xenotime from the basal glaciogenic formation, the Enchantment Lake Formation, and the stratigraphically higher Sturgeon Quartzite and its equivalent, the Sunday Quartzite, provide maximum and minimum age constraints for the Chocolay Group. The youngest detrital zircon population in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2317 ?? 6 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2306 ?? 9 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2647 ?? 5 Ma. The oldest hydrothermal xenotime age in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2133 ?? 11 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2115 ?? 5 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2207 ?? 5 Ma. The radiometric age data in this study implies the depositional age of the Chocolay Group is constrained to ???2.3-2.2 Ga, which proves its correlation with part of the Huronian Supergroup in the Lake Huron Region, Ontario, and reveals the unconformity that separates the Chocolay Group from the overlying Menominee Group is up to 325 million years in duration. The source(s) of the ??? 2.3 Ga detrital zircon populations in the Enchantment Lake Formation and Sturgeon Quartzite remains an enigma because no known rock units of this age are known in the Michigan area. It is speculated that once widespread volcano-sedimentary cover sequences in Michigan were removed or concealed prior to Chocolay Group deposition. The hydrothermal xenotime ages probably reflect basinal hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the period of extension involving rifting and major dyke formation, that affected the North American provinces between 2.2 and 2.1 Ga. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  13. Reference Ranges of Age-Related Prostate-Specific Antigen in Men without Cancer from Beijing Area

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Shun-Xin; Lin, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine the normal ranges of serum age-related prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in men from Beijing area without cancer. Methods In this cross sectional study, form April 2010 to October 2011, 1611 healthy men undergoing a routine health check-up in our hospital and all men received three examinations including serum PSA test, digital rectal ex-amination and transrectal ultrasound. Men with any two abnormal results of the three examinations were undergone a prostate biopsy. Men with any two normal results of the three examinations or with negative biopsy were defined as men without cancer. Men with a prior history of prostate cancer/surgery or with urinary tract infection/obstruction were excluded. 1572 men without cancer were recruited into the study finally and were stratified into 10-year age groups: 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and older than 80. Results The median PSA value (95th percentile range) was 0.506(1.565), 1.04(2.920), 1.16(4.113), 1.34(5.561)and 2.975 (7.285) for each age group respectively, and the 25th percentile to 75 percentile was 0.343 to 0.923, 0.663 to 1.580, 0.693 to 2.203, 0.789 to 2.368 and 1.188 to 4.295 respectively. The serum PSA value is directly correlated with age (r=0.314, P<0.001). Conclusions Use the age-related range for PSA increases the sensitivity in younger men and decreases the biopsy rate in older patients. PMID:26171333

  14. Haematological profile on non-lactating Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) ranging in age from 24 months to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, P; Corona, M; Ambrosio, R; Consalvo, F; Persechino, A

    2005-08-01

    Haematological studies were performed on 100 clinically normal non-lactating Mediterranean buffalo species ranging in age from 24 months to 14 years, to determinate the range of normal haematological values for this ruminant species. The animals were divided in 5 groups according to age: Group I, 2-3 years old which had never calved, Group II, 3-4 years old (primipara buffaloes), Group III, 5-7 years old, Group IV 8-10 years old and Group V over 10 years of age. All the haematological values obtained were comparable with the normal values found in adult cattle, and similar to those reported in Indian water buffalo species. The heifer buffalo showed an higher values for packed cell volume (PCV) compared with the older animals, but lower values for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) (P 0.01). In animals above 8 years of age, the white cell count was lower with a significant reduction in absolute values of lymphocytes (P 0.01). Higher absolute values of eosinophils levels was found in the group V (P 0.01). PMID:15894028

  15. The child's conception of food: differentiation of categories of rejected substances in the 16 months to 5 year age range.

    PubMed

    Rozin, P; Hammer, L; Oster, H; Horowitz, T; Marmora, V

    1986-06-01

    Children (N = 54) ranging in age from one year four months to five years were offered over 30 items to eat. The items included normal adult foods and exemplars of different adult rejection categories: disgust (e.g. grasshopper, hair), danger (liquid dish soap), inappropriate (e.g. paper, leaf) and unacceptable combinations (e.g. ketchup and cookie). We report a high to moderate level of acceptance (item put into mouth) of substances from all of these categories in the youngest children. Acceptance of disgusting and dangerous substances decreases with increasing age, while acceptance of inappropriate substances remains at moderate levels across the age range studied. Although the youngest children accepted more disgust items, the majority rejected most of the disgust choices. Almost all children at all ages tested accept combinations of foods which, although individually accepted by adults, are rejected in combination. No significant differences were observed between 'normal' children and those with a history of toxin ingestion, although there was a tendency of ingesters to accept more inedible items. In general, the results suggest that a major feature of the development of food selection is learning what not to eat. PMID:3740830

  16. Haematological profile on non-lactating Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) ranging in age from 24 months to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, P; Corona, M; Ambrosio, R; Consalvo, F; Persechino, A

    2005-08-01

    Haematological studies were performed on 100 clinically normal non-lactating Mediterranean buffalo species ranging in age from 24 months to 14 years, to determinate the range of normal haematological values for this ruminant species. The animals were divided in 5 groups according to age: Group I, 2-3 years old which had never calved, Group II, 3-4 years old (primipara buffaloes), Group III, 5-7 years old, Group IV 8-10 years old and Group V over 10 years of age. All the haematological values obtained were comparable with the normal values found in adult cattle, and similar to those reported in Indian water buffalo species. The heifer buffalo showed an higher values for packed cell volume (PCV) compared with the older animals, but lower values for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) (P 0.01). In animals above 8 years of age, the white cell count was lower with a significant reduction in absolute values of lymphocytes (P 0.01). Higher absolute values of eosinophils levels was found in the group V (P 0.01).

  17. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  18. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    PubMed

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling was found

  19. The prevalence of Campylobacter amongst a free-range broiler breeder flock was primarily affected by flock age.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter successfully colonizes broiler chickens, but little is known about the longer term natural history of colonization, since most flocks are slaughtered at an immature age. In this study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter colonizing a single free-range broiler breeder flock was investigated over the course of a year. The age of the flock was the most important factor in determining both the prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter over time. There was no correlation with season, temperature, the amount of rain and sunshine, or the dynamics of colonization amongst geographically and temporally matched broiler flocks. The higher prevalence rates coincided with the age at which broiler chickens are typically slaughtered, but then in the absence of bio-security or other intervention methods, and despite changes in flock management, the prevalence fell to significantly lower levels for the remainder of the study. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter increased as the flock aged, implying that genotypes were accumulated within the flock and may persist for a long time. A better understanding of the ecology of Campylobacter within commercial chicken flocks will allow the design of more effective farm-based interventions.

  20. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players

    PubMed Central

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78±0.41 for youth players aka “schools”, “elite juniors” 15.99±0.81 and “elite adults” 24.46±2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation’s parameters between “schools” and “juniors” players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between “juniors” and “adults” players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between “schools” and “juniors” and, in total work only, between “juniors” and “seniors”. The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17±1.83 sec to 31.23±2.34 sec respectively from “seniors” to “schools”. The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation

  1. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    PubMed

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling was found

  2. The Mount Evans batholith in the Colorado Front Range: revision of its age and reinterpretation of its structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Reed, J.C.; Dewitt, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Mount Evans batholith is composed of a main phase of massive to conspicuously foliated monzogranite and granodiorite and undeformed aplite and pegmatite. The Mount Evans batholith was previously considered to be part of the 1.7 Ga Routt Plutonic Suite. New U-Pb zircon ages on four samples (granodiorite, monzogranite, and granite), however, indicate that the batholith was emplaced at 1442 ?? 2 Ma and belongs to the Berthoud Plutonic Suite. Most of the batholith has igneous textures and structures, except in the vicinity of the Idaho Springs-Ralston shear zone where those features are tectonically recrystallized and foliated. The Mount Evans batholith is anomalous in composition and structure compared to most other 1.4 Ga plutons of the southwestern US. The differences probably reflect different sources of partial melting; the specific tectonic setting where rocks of such disparate origin are temporally and spatially juxtaposed is not understood. -from Authors

  3. Age of the Dawson Arkose, southwestern Air Force Academy, Colorado, and implications for the uplift history of the Front Range

    SciTech Connect

    Kluth, C.F.; Nelson, S.N. )

    1988-01-01

    An angular unconformity within the synorogenic Dawson Arkose (Late Cretaceous-Eocene) is preserved and exposed in areas south of Denver, Colorado, along the eastern side of the Front Range uplift. In the southwestern part of the Air Force Academy, the basal Dawson is concordant with the underlying Laramie and Fox Hills formations and dips 72-84{degree} eastward. Above an intraformational angular unconformity, younger units of the Dawson dip 24{degree}-46{degree} eastward. Smaller angular unconformities (10{degree}{plus minus}), and beds with gradually decreasing dip occur higher in the Dawson section. Rocks above the largest unconformity contain a rich palynomorph assemblage of Late Maestrichtain age. These data indicate that approximately 30{degree}-40{degree}, and possibly as much as approximately 70{degree}, of tilting of the underlying rocks occurred during the Late Maestrichtian (66-70 Ma). It is also possible that approximately 30{degree}-40{degree} of the tilting of the Late Cretaceous rocks occurred between latest Maestrichtian and Eocene (approximately 45 Ma). These results suggest that the transition from a tectonically quiet marine environment to a non-marine, tectonically active condition took place rapidly, probably within a few million years. When combined with published data, the authors study indicates that the Front Range has different tectonic histories on its eastern and its western side, and that the deformation is diachronous along the strike of the eastern side of the Front Range.

  4. Geomagnetic Investigation of Sandstone Dikes of the Colorado Front Range, for Determination of Age and Mode of Emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, D.; Petronis, M. S.; Siddoway, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    In the Colorado Front Range, an array of sandstone dikes has intrigued geologists for over a century (Cross 1894,GSAB, 5, 525). Within their crystalline host, the dikes reach widths >7m and have a lateral extent of 70km along the Ute Pass Fault (UPF). The essential questions of sediment source, emplacement mode, and age of the dikes are unanswered. We present new paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) results used to determine the age and emplacement behavior of the dikes. The eleven dikes selected for magnetic studies have sharp, planar margins, and share the systematic geometry of the NW striking subvertical dike array. They exhibit little or no overprint by brittle fracturing/shear associated with the UPF. Our approach involved the use of paleomagnetic techniques to isolate the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), which we used to limit the age of the dikes' magnetization. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS),arising from alignment of detrital magnetite, serves as a proxy for the orientation of flow during dike emplacement. U-Pb detrital zircon ages, obtained previously, did not provide a useful constraint on emplacement age because the dominant age matches that of the prevalent host,1.03Ga Pikes Peak Granite. IRM acquisition experiments were performed to identify the principal magnetic phases as a mixture of Fe-Ti oxide phases, likely to be low-Ti magnetite and hematite. The sandstone consists of sub-rounded to rounded sand-sized quartz, angular feldspar (<5%), and detrital magnetite; selected samples have uniform grain size and uniform color arising from hematite cement. Although direct cover relationships are not preserved, a portion of the study sites are proximal to in situ near-horizontal sedimentary cover rocks that offer evidence against large tectonic rotation. Cores were collected using a gas-powered drill with a diamond bit and oriented using a sun compass. Where possible, cores were obtained on

  5. Measurement of vortex velocities over a wide range of vortex age, downstream distance and free stream velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorke, J. B.; Moffett, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to obtain vortex velocity signatures over a wide parameter range encompassing the data conditions of several previous researchers while maintaining a common instrumentation and test facility. The generating wing panel was configured with both a revolved airfoil tip shape and a square tip shape and had a semispan aspect of 4.05/1.0 with a 121.9 cm span. Free stream velocity was varied from 6.1 m/sec to 76.2 m/sec and the vortex core velocities were measured at locations 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 chordlengths downstream of the wing trailing edge, yielding vortex ages up to 2.0 seconds. Wing pitch angles of 6, 8, 9 and 12 deg were investigated. Detailed surface pressure distributions and wing force measurements were obtained for each wing tip configuration. Correlation with vortex velocity data taken in previous experiments is good. During the rollup process, vortex core parameters appear to be dependent primarily on vortex age. Trending in the plateau and decay regions is more complex and the machanisms appear to be more unstable.

  6. The impact of BCG vaccination on tuberculin skin test responses in children is age dependent: evidence to be considered when screening children for tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, James A; Paton, James; Nademi, Zohreh; Keane, Denis; Williams, Bhanu; Williams, Amanda; Welch, Steven B; Liebeschutz, Sue; Riddell, Anna; Bernatoniene, Jolanta; Patel, Sanjay; Martinez-Alier, Nuria; McMaster, Paddy; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Background Following exposure to TB, contacts are screened to target preventive treatment at those at high risk of developing TB. The UK has recently revised its recommendations for screening and now advises a 5 mm tuberculin skin test (TST) cut-off irrespective of age or BCG status. We sought to evaluate the impact of BCG on TST responses in UK children exposed to TB and the performance of different TST cut-offs to predict interferon γ release assay (IGRA) positivity. Methods Children <15 years old were recruited from 11 sites in the UK between January 2011 and December 2014 if exposed in their home to a source case with sputum smear or culture positive TB. Demographic details were collected and TST and IGRA undertaken. The impact of BCG vaccination on TST positivity was evaluated in IGRA-negative children, as was the performance of different TST cut-offs to predict IGRA positivity. Results Of 422 children recruited (median age 69 months; IQR: 32–113 months), 300 (71%) had been vaccinated with BCG. BCG vaccination affected the TST response in IGRA-negative children less than 5 years old but not in older children. A 5 mm TST cut-off demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity in BCG-unvaccinated children, and an excellent negative predictive value but was associated with low specificity (62.7%; 95% CI 56.1% to 69.0%) in BCG-vaccinated children. For BCG-vaccinated children, a 10 mm cut-off provided a high negative predictive value (97.7%; 95% CI 94.2% to 99.4%) with the positive predictive value increasing with increasing age of the child. Discussion BCG vaccination had little impact on TST size in children over 5 years of age. The revised TST cut-off recommended in the recent revision to the UK TB guidelines demonstrates good sensitivity but is associated with impaired specificity in BCG-vaccinated children. PMID:27335104

  7. Age- and sex-related reference ranges for eight plasma constituents derived from randomly selected adults in a Scottish new town.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M D; Scott, R

    1980-01-01

    The results of analysis of blood specimens from randomly selected adults aged 19-88 years in the new town of Cumbernauld were used to establish age- and sex-related reference ranges by the centile method (central 95%) for plasma calcium, phosphate, total protein, albumin, globulins, urea, creatinine, and urate. The possible existence of a subpopulation with a higher reference range for urea is mooted. PMID:7400337

  8. Childlessness and Psychological Well-Being in Midlife and Old Age: An Examination of Parental Status Effects across a Range of Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas; Slagsvold, Britt; Moum, Torbjorn

    2009-01-01

    The study explores and distinguishes links between parental status (childless persons, parents with residential children, and empty nest parents) and a range of psychological well-being outcomes in midlife and old age. Data are from the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG) study (n = 5,189). We separate outcomes…

  9. Lithofacies, Age, and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group in the Skimo Creek Area, Central Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Whalen, Michael T.; Harris, Anita G.

    2008-01-01

    The Lisburne Group, a mainly Carboniferous carbonate succession that is widely distributed across northern Alaska, contains notable amounts of oil and gas at Prudhoe Bay. Detailed studies of the Lisburne in the Skimo Creek area, central Brooks Range, delineate its lithofacies, age, conodont biofacies, depositional environments, and sequence stratigraphy and provide new data on its hydrocarbon source-rock and reservoir potential, as well as its thermal history, in this area. We have studied the Lisburne Group in two thrust sheets of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, herein called the Skimo and Tiglukpuk thrust sheets. The southern, Skimo Creek section, which is >900 m thick, is composed largely of even-bedded to nodular lime mudstone and wackestone intercalated with intervals of thin- to thick-bedded bioclastic packstone and grainstone. Some parts of the section are partially to completely dolomitized and (or) replaced by chert. A distinctive, 30-m-thick zone of black, organic-rich shale, lime mudstone, and phosphorite is exposed 170 m below the top of the Lisburne. The uppermost 40 m of section is also distinctive and made up of dark shale, lime mudstone, spiculite, and glauconitic grainstone. The northern, Tiglukpuk Creek section, which is similar to the Skimo Creek section but only ~760 m thick, includes more packstone and grainstone and less organic-rich shale. Analyses of conodonts and foraminifers indicate that both sections range in age from late Early Mississippian (Osagean) through Early Pennsylvanian (early Morrowan) and document a hiatus of at least 15 m.y. at the contact between the Lisburne and the overlying Siksikpuk Formation. No evidence of subaerial exposure was observed along this contact, which may represent a submarine erosional surface. Lithofacies and biofacies imply that the Lisburne Group in the study area was deposited mainly in midramp to outer-ramp settings. Deepest water strata are mud rich and formed below storm or fair-weather wave

  10. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

  11. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb <10g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb <8g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb >10g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb >10g/dL. The Pb levels <100μg/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had >10μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200μg/L, whereas 47% had >200μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r=-0.514 and r=-0.685) and Fe contents (r=-0.522, r=-0.762, p<0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r=0.69, p<0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia. PMID:20801490

  12. Short versus Long Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Suppression Protocols in IVF/ICSI Cycles in Patients of Various Age Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yubin; Xu, Yanwen; Zhou, Canquan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the two GnRH-a protocols (long GnRH-a protocol and short GnRH-a protocol) for ovarian stimulation in IVF/ICSI cycles in patients of various age ranges. Methods A total of 5662 IVF-ET/ICSI cycles from 2010 to 2013 were retrospectively identified. The cycles were divided into two groups: a long protocol group and short protocol group. In each group, the patients were divided into four age ranges: <31 years, 31 to 35 years, 36 to 40 years, and >40 years. The duration of stimulation, total dose of Gn, implantation rate and pregnancy rate were compared. Results The total dose of Gn was significantly higher, and the duration of stimulation was significantly longer, in the long protocol group than in the short protocol group for all age ranges (P<0.05). If the patients were of the same age range, the number of oocytes retrieved, MII oocytes, and high-quality embryos in the long protocol group were all significantly greater than those in the short protocol group (P<0.05). In the long protocol group, the clinical pregnancy rates of the four age ranges were 52.76%, 44.33%, 36.15% and 13.33%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the short protocol group (33.33%, 24.58%, 22.49% and 8.72%, respectively; P<0.05). The same trend was also found in the implantation rates of the four age ranges. As the age increased, the clinical pregnancy and implantation rates, as well as the number of oocytes retrieved, MII oocytes, and high-quality embryos, of the long protocol group significantly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that regardless of patient age, the long protocol was superior to the short protocol in terms of the number of retrieved oocytes, as well as the implantation and pregnancy rates. PMID:26208150

  13. Long-range transport of black carbon to the Pacific Ocean and its dependence on aging timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Tao, S.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the ability of global models to predict concentrations of black carbon (BC) over the Pacific Ocean is essential to evaluate the impact of BC on marine climate. In this study, we tag BC tracers from 13 source regions around the globe in a global chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). Numerous sensitivity simulations are carried out varying the aging timescale of BC emitted from each source region. The aging timescale for each source region is optimized by minimizing errors in vertical profiles of BC mass mixing ratios between simulations and HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO). For most HIPPO deployments, in the Northern Hemisphere, optimized aging timescales are less than half a day for BC emitted from tropical and midlatitude source regions and about 1 week for BC emitted from high-latitude regions in all seasons except summer. We find that East Asian emissions contribute most to the BC loading over the North Pacific, while South American, African and Australian emissions dominate BC loadings over the South Pacific. Dominant source regions contributing to BC loadings in other parts of the globe are also assessed. The lifetime of BC originating from East Asia (i.e., the world's largest BC emitter) is found to be only 2.2 days, much shorter than the global average lifetime of 4.9 days, making the contribution from East Asia to the global BC burden only 36 % of that from the second largest emitter, Africa. Thus, evaluating only relative emission rates without accounting for differences in aging timescales and deposition rates is not predictive of the contribution of a given source region to climate impacts. Our simulations indicate that the lifetime of BC increases nearly linearly with aging timescale for all source regions. When the aging rate is fast, the lifetime of BC is largely determined by factors that control local deposition rates (e.g., precipitation). The sensitivity of lifetime to aging

  14. Long-range transport of black carbon to the Pacific Ocean and its dependence on aging timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Tao, S.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Improving the ability of global models to predict concentrations of black carbon (BC) over the Pacific Ocean is essential to evaluate the impact of BC on marine climate. In this study, we tag BC tracers from 13 source regions around the globe in a global chemical transport model MOZART-4. Numerous sensitivity simulations are carried out varying the aging timescale of BC emitted from each source region. The aging timescale for each source region is optimized by minimizing errors in vertical profiles of BC mass mixing ratios between simulations and HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO). For most HIPPO deployments, in the Northern Hemisphere, optimized aging timescales are less than half a day for BC emitted from tropical and mid-latitude source regions, and about 1 week for BC emitted from high latitude regions in all seasons except summer. We find that East Asian emissions contribute most to the BC loading over the North Pacific, while South American, African and Australian emissions dominate BC loadings over the South Pacific. Dominant source regions contributing to BC loadings in other parts of the globe are also assessed. The lifetime of BC originating from East Asia (i.e., the world's largest BC emitter) is found to be only 2.2 days, much shorter than the global average lifetime of 4.9 days, making East Asia's contribution to global burden only 36 % of BC from the second largest emitter, Africa. Thus, evaluating only relative emission rates without accounting for differences in aging timescales and deposition rates is not predictive of the contribution of a given source region to climate impacts. Our simulations indicate that lifetime of BC increases nearly linearly with aging timescale for all source regions. When aging rate is fast, the lifetime of BC is largely determined by factors that control local deposition rates (e.g. precipitation). The sensitivity of lifetime to aging timescale depends strongly on the initial hygroscopicity of freshly emitted BC

  15. Age group estimation in free-ranging African elephants based on acoustic cues of low-frequency rumbles

    PubMed Central

    Stoeger, Angela S.; Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Baotic, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Animal vocal signals are increasingly used to monitor wildlife populations and to obtain estimates of species occurrence and abundance. In the future, acoustic monitoring should function not only to detect animals, but also to extract detailed information about populations by discriminating sexes, age groups, social or kin groups, and potentially individuals. Here we show that it is possible to estimate age groups of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) based on acoustic parameters extracted from rumbles recorded under field conditions in a National Park in South Africa. Statistical models reached up to 70 % correct classification to four age groups (infants, calves, juveniles, adults) and 95 % correct classification when categorising into two groups (infants/calves lumped into one group versus adults). The models revealed that parameters representing absolute frequency values have the most discriminative power. Comparable classification results were obtained by fully automated classification of rumbles by high-dimensional features that represent the entire spectral envelope, such as MFCC (75 % correct classification) and GFCC (74 % correct classification). The reported results and methods provide the scientific foundation for a future system that could potentially automatically estimate the demography of an acoustically monitored elephant group or population. PMID:25821348

  16. [Guide values for heart rate and blood pressure with reference to 20, 40, 60 und 80% of maximum exertion considering age, sex and body mass in non-trained individuals].

    PubMed

    Strasser, Barbara; Schwarz, Joachim; Haber, Paul; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate reliable guide values for heart rate (HF) and blood pressure (RR) with reference to defined sub maximum exertion considering age, gender and body mass. One hundred and eighteen healthy but non-trained subjects (38 women, 80 men) were included in the study. For interpretation, finally facts of 28 women and 59 men were used. We found gender differences for HF and RR. Further, we noted significant correlations between HF and age as well as between RR and body mass at all exercise levels. We established formulas for gender-specific calculation of reliable guide values for HF and RR on sub maximum exercise levels. PMID:21870141

  17. Normal reference ranges for and variability in the levels of blood manganese and selenium by gender, age, and race/ethnicity for general U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B; Choi, Y Sammy

    2015-04-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2011-2012 were used to determine normal reference ranges and percentile distributions for manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) in blood by gender, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status as determined by annual family income, and smoking status. The effect of gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, and smoking status on the levels of Mn and Se was also determined by fitting regression models. Males had lower adjusted levels of Mn and higher adjusted levels of Se than females. Adjusted levels of Mn decreased with increase in age but adjusted levels of Se were lower in adolescents aged 12-19 years than adults aged 20-64 years. Non-Hispanic black (NHB) had the lowest levels of both Mn and Se and non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) had the highest levels of both Mn and Se. Non-Hispanic white (NHW) and NHB had lower levels of Mn than Hispanics (HISP) and NHAS. NHB and HISP had lower levels of Se than NHW and NHAS. Low annual income (<$20,000) was associated with lower levels of Se than high annual income (≥$55,000). Smoking negatively affected the adjusted levels of Se among seniors aged ≥65 years but this was not observed in other age groups. Mn levels were not affected by smoking.

  18. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous

  19. Basin and range-age reactivation of the ancestral Rocky Mountains in Texas Panhandle: evidence from Ogallala Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, R.T.

    1984-04-01

    The Ogallala Formation (Neogene) is a widespread syntectonic alluvial apron that was shed eastward from the Rio Grande rift and related uplifts in Colorado and New Mexico during Basin and Range extension. In the Texas Panhandle, the Ogallala completely buried Ancestral Rocky Mountain (Pennsylvanian) structures. Renewed movement on these older structures during the Neogene influenced the thickness and facies distribution of the Ogallala. The Ogallala thickens into the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko basins. Major distributary channels on Ogallala alluvial fans coincide with the axes of these basins, whereas major interchannel areas overlie intervening uplifts. Second-order structures subtly influenced the unit as well. For example, the Carson basin, a Pennsylvanian rhomb graben along the Amarillo uplift, the Ogallala is over 250 m (820 ft) thick compared with 90 m (275 ft) in adjacent areas. Within the Palo Duro basin, local highs controlled the distribution of thin, interchannel flood-basin and lacustrine deposits. Thicker, braided-stream channel deposits follow local lows. Later movement on the Amarillo uplift broadly folded the Ogallala. The southern high plains surface subtly reflects basement structure, with topographic highs overlying basement highs, suggesting post-Ogallala deformation within the Palo Duro basin. The Amarillo uplift is approximately perpendicular to the Rio Grande rift and parallel to the direction of Basin and Range extension. Thus, the stress field that produced the rift may have caused strike-slip movement and reactivation of the Carson basin along the Amarillo uplift.

  20. Hydrological evidence for a North Atlantic oscillation during the Little Ice Age outside its range observed since 1850

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Puertas, C.; Dorado-Liñán, I.; Brauer, A.; Zorita, E.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Gutierrez, E.

    2011-12-01

    An annual-resolved precipitation reconstruction for the last 800 yr in Southern Spain has been performed using stable carbon isotope (δ13C) of Pinus nigra tree rings. The reconstruction exhibits high- to low-frequency variability and distinguishes a Little Ice Age (LIA, AD 1350-1850) characterized by lower averaged rainfall than both in the transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the LIA and in the 20th century. The driest conditions are recorded during the Maunder solar Minimum (mid 17th-early 18th centuries), in good agreement with the Spanish documentary archive. Similar linkage between solar activity (maximum/minimum) and precipitation (increase/decrease) is observed throughout the entire LIA. Additionally, the relationship between the hydrological pattern in the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco during the LIA suggests different spatial distribution of precipitation in the south-eastern sector of the North Atlantic region such as it is known currently. Whereas in the instrumental record the precipitation evolves similarly in both regions and opposite to the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) index, the coldest periods of the LIA shows a contrasting pattern with drier conditions in the South of Spain and wetter in Northern Africa. We suggest an extreme negative NAO conditions, accompanied by a southward excursion of the winter rainfall band beyond that observed in the last century, can explain this contrast. The sustained NAO conditions could have been triggered by solar minima and higher volcanic activity during the LIA.

  1. Aerosol transport from Chiang Mai, Thailand to Mt. Lulin, Taiwan - Implication of aerosol aging during long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Engling, Guenter; Chang, Shih-Yu; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Chang, You-Jia; Hong, Guo-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The transport of biomass burning (BB) aerosol from Indochina may cause a potential effect on climate change in Southeast Asia, East Asia, and the Western Pacific. Up to now, the understanding of BB aerosol composition modification during long-range transport (LRT) is still very limited due to the lack of observational data. In this study, atmospheric aerosols were collected at the Suthep/Doi Ang Khang (DAK) mountain sites in Chiang Mai, Thailand and the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (Mt. Lulin) in central Taiwan from March to April 2010 and from February to April 2013, respectively. During the study period, an upwind and downwind relationship between the Suthep/DAK and Lulin sites (2400 km apart) was validated by backward trajectories. Comprehensive aerosol properties were resolved for PM2.5 water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous content, water-soluble/insoluble organic carbon (WSOC/WIOC), dicarboxylic acids and their salts (DCAS), and anhydrosugars. A Modification Factor (MF) is proposed by employing non-sea-salt potassium ion (nss-K+) or fractionalized elemental carbon evolved at 580 °C after pyrolized OC correction (EC1-OP) as a BB aerosol tracer to evaluate the mass fraction changes of aerosol components from source to receptor regions during LRT. The MF values of nss-SO42-, NH4+, NO3-, OC1 (fractionalized organic carbon evolved from room temperature to 140 °C), OP (pyrolized OC fraction), DCAS, and WSOC were above unity, which indicated that these aerosol components were enhanced during LRT as compared with those in the near-source region. In contrast, the MF values of anhydrosugars ranged from 0.1 to 0.3, indicating anhydrosugars have degraded during LRT.

  2. Ovarian cycle activity varies with respect to age and social status in free-ranging elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Elizabeth W.; Meyer, Jordana M.; Putman, Sarah B.; Schulte, Bruce A.; Brown, Janine L.

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging African elephants live in a fission–fusion society, at the centre of which is the matriarch. Matriarchs are generally older females that guide their families to resources and co-ordinate group defense. While much is known about elephant society, knowledge is generally lacking about how age affects the physiology of wild elephants. Investigation of the ovarian activity of free-ranging elephants could provide insight into the reproductive ageing process, with implications for population management. Faecal samples were collected from 46 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 60 years for a 2-year period, and progestagen metabolite analyses were used to examine relationships between social status, age, season, and ovarian activity in female elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Social status was the strongest predictor of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in non-pregnant elephants, with grand matriarchs (n = 6) having the lowest values compared with matriarchs (n = 21) and non-matriarch females (n = 19). Likewise, social status and age were the strongest predictors of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in pregnant elephants (n = 27). The number of years since a non-pregnant female gave birth to her last calf (post-partum duration) was longer for older females with a higher social status, as well as during the dry season. Our results indicate that social standing and age of elephants are related to reproductive function, and that older females exhibit reductions in ovarian capacity. These results expand our understanding of reproduction and fertility throughout an elephant's lifespan, and the factors that impact gonadal function in free-ranging females. Given that possible over-abundance of elephants in areas such as Addo Elephant National Park is fuelling the debate over how best to manage these populations, knowledge about the reproductive potential of high-ranking females can provide managers with

  3. Using the accumulation of CBD-extractable iron and clay content to estimate soil age on stable surfaces and nearby slopes, Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethier, David P.; Birkeland, Peter W.; McCarthy, James A.

    2012-11-01

    In many transport-limited environments, morphology, pedogenic iron and clay content provide a basis for estimating the exposure age of soils and associated landforms. We measured citrate-buffered dithionite (CBD)-extractable Fe (Fed) and clay concentration in fresh rock, saprolite, morainal and colluvial materials, and soil horizons from stable surfaces and hillslopes in the Colorado Front Range. Fresh igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks contain < 1% Fed and 1 to 5% clay. As bedrock and surficial deposits age, Fed and clay accumulate from weathering and dustfall. Late Holocene regolith at warm, dry sites contains small amounts of Fed and clay, but relatively moist soils developed on early Holocene cirque deposits contain as much as 1.5% Fed and 8% clay. Concentrations and total profile accumulation of Fed and clay increase with age in soils developed on stable surfaces of glacial deposits as old as ~ 130 kyr. On stable sites, Fed and clay accumulation from weathering and dust is ~ 0.02 g cm- 2 kyr- 1 and ~ 0.2 g cm- 2 kyr- 1, respectively. We used the Fed and clay inventory in soil profiles at dated, stable Front Range surfaces to calculate accumulation functions, which allowed us to estimate soil age at hillslope sites. Heterogeneous parent material, particularly on hillslopes, and climate-related effects add to variability in measured relations. Mobile regolith in Gordon Gulch, one of the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) catchments, yields profile ages from about 0.5 to 5 × 104 yr, comparable to values measured using other techniques. Calculated profile ages are older on a north- vs. south-facing slope and increase from the drainage divide to the footslope. Ages calculated for stabilized colluvium and well-developed buried profiles at nearby hillslope sites (Lefthand, Ward and Rollinsville) suggest that these soils have stabilized over periods > 105 yr. In the absence of radiometric ages, the accumulation of Fed and clay in soils on stable

  4. Reference Ranges and Association of Age and Lifestyle Characteristics with Testosterone, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, and Luteinizing Hormone among 1166 Western Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xubo; Wang, Ruifeng; Yu, Na; Shi, Yongjun; Li, Honggang; Xiong, Chengliang; Li, Yan; Zhou, Yuanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Decreased total testosterone (TT) is the recommended metric to identify age-related hypogonadism. However, average TT and the extent to which it varies by age, can vary substantially among different populations. Population-specific reference ranges are needed to understand normal versus abnormal TT levels. Therefore, the goal for this study was to describe androgen concentrations and their correlates among Western Chinese men. We completed a population-based, cross-sectional study including 227 young adults (YA) (20–39 years) and 939 older adults (OA) (40–89 years). We measured TT, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone secreting index (TSI), and calculated free testosterone (cFT). Reference ranges for this population were determined using average YA concentrations. Multivariable regression models were used to predict hormone concentrations adjusting for age, waist-to-height ratio (WHR), marital status, education, occupation, smoking, alcohol, blood glucose, and blood pressure. Among OA, 3.8% had low TT, 15.2% had low cFT, 26.3% had low TSI, 21.6% had high SHBG, and 6.1% had high LH. Average cFT was significantly lower in OA (0.30 nmol/L; standard deviation (SD): 0.09) versus YA (0.37; SD: 0.11) but TT was not different in OA (16.82 nmol/L; SD: 4.80) versus YA (16.88; SD: 5.29). In adjusted models increasing age was significantly associated with increased SHBG or LH, and decreased cFT or TSI; however, TT was not significantly associated with age (β = 0.02 nmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.01, 0.04). Higher WHR was associated with significantly decreased TT, SHBG, TSI, and LH. The only variable significantly related to cFT was age (β = -0.0033; 95% CI:-0.0037, -0.0028); suggesting that cFT measurements would not be confounded by other lifestyle factors. In conclusion, cFT, but not TT, varies with age in this population, suggesting cFT may be a better potential marker for age-related androgen deficiency than TT among

  5. Molecular distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in aerosols from Sapporo, Japan: Implications for photochemical aging during long-range atmospheric transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Shankar G.; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2008-07-01

    Molecular and stable carbon isotopic (δ13C value) compositions of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, and dicarbonyls in aerosol samples (i.e., total suspended particles) collected in Sapporo, northern Japan during spring and summer were determined to better understand the photochemical aging of organic aerosols during long-range transport from East Asia and Siberia. Their molecular distributions were characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) or occasionally succinic (C4) acids. Concentrations of total diacids ranged from 106-787 ng m-3 with ketoacids (13-81 ng m-3) and dicarbonyls (2.6-28 ng m-3) being less abundant. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) comprised 23-69% of aerosol organic carbon (OC). OC to elemental carbon (EC) ratios were high (3.6-19, mean: 8.7). The ratios of C3/C4 and WSOC/OC did not show significant diurnal changes, suggesting that the Sapporo aerosols were not seriously affected by local photochemical processes and instead they were already aged. δ13C values of the dominant diacids (C2 - C4) ranged from -14.0 to -25.3‰. Largest δ13C values (-14.0 to -22.4‰, mean: -18.8‰) were obtained for C2, whereas smallest values (-25.1 to -31.4‰, mean: -28.1‰) were for azelaic acid (C9). In general, δ13C values of C2 - C4 diacids became less negative with aerosol aging (i.e., WSOC/OC), presumably due to isotopic fractionation during photochemical degradation of diacids. By comparing the δ13C values of diacids in the Sapporo aerosols with different air mass source regions, we suggest that although initial δ13C values of diacids depend on their precursor sources, the enrichment in 13C can be ascribed to aerosol photochemical aging.

  6. Stratigraphic and structural implications of conodont and detrital zircon U-Pb ages from metamorphic rocks of the Coldfoot terrane, Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.E.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Harris, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    New paleontologic and isotopic data from the Emma Creek and Marion Creek schists of the Coldfoot terrane, Arctic Alaska superterrane, central Brooks Range, suggest Devonian and possibly younger ages of deposition for their sedimentary protoliths. Conodonts from marble of the Emma Creek schist, intruded by a roughly 392 Ma orthogneiss, are late Lochkovian (early Early Devonian, between about 408 and 396 Ma) and Silurian to Devonian at two other locations. Spherical to oblong detrital zircons from quartz-mica schist of the overlying Marion Creek schist yield mostly discordant U-Pb data suggestive of provenance ages of 3.0, 2.0-1.8, and 1.5-1.4 Ga; however, several euhedral grains of zircon from Marion Creek quartz-mica schist have concordant U-Pb ages from 370 to 360 Ma. The Marion Creek schist in our study area therefore is at least 26 m.y. younger than the Emma Creek schist. The age data imply that the protolith of the Emma Creek schist is age correlative with Devonian carbonate rocks in the Hammond and North Slope terranes, whereas the Marion Creek schist is age correlative with Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian clastic sedimentary rocks of the Endicott Group in the Endicott Mountains terrane and shale and carbonate units in the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes. Consequently, tectonic models restoring the entire Coldfoot terrane beneath partly or wholly coeval rocks of the Hammond, Endicott Mountains, De Long Mountains, and Sheenjek River terranes of the Arctic Alaska superterrane require revision. Alternative reconstructions, including restoration of the Coldfoot terrane inboard of the Endicott Mountains terrane or outboard of the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes are plausible but require either larger amounts of shortening than previously suggested or indicate problematic facies relations. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. The Ar-Ar age and petrology of Miller Range 05029: Evidence for a large impact in the very early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, J. R.; Wittmann, A.; Isachsen, C. E.; Rumble, D.; Swindle, T. D.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Miller Range (MIL) 05029 is a slowly cooled melt rock with metal/sulfide depletion and an Ar-Ar age of 4517 ± 11 Ma. Oxygen isotopes and mineral composition indicate that it is an L chondrite impact melt, and a well-equilibrated igneous rock texture with a lack of clasts favors a melt pool over a melt dike as its probable depositional setting. A metallographic cooling rate of approximately 14 °C Ma-1 indicates that the impact occurred at least approximately 20 Ma before the Ar-Ar closure age of 4517 Ma, possibly even shortly after accretion of its parent body. A metal grain with a Widmanstätten-like pattern further substantiates slow cooling. The formation age of MIL 05029 is at least as old as the Ar-Ar age of unshocked L and H chondrites, indicating that endogenous metamorphism on the parent asteroid was still ongoing at the time of impact. Its metallographic cooling rate of approximately 14 °C Ma-1 is similar to that typical for L6 chondrites, suggesting a collisional event on the L chondrite asteroid that produced impact melt at a minimum depth of 5-12 km. The inferred minimum crater diameter of 25-60 km may have shattered the 100-200 km diameter L chondrite asteroid. Therefore, MIL 05029 could record the timing and petrogenetic setting for the observed lack of correlation of cooling rates with metamorphic grades in many L chondrites.

  8. Ar/Ar and U/Pb Ages and Geochemistry of the Benton Range Dike Swarm, SE California: New Evidence for an Independence Poly-phased Dike Swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, F.; Renne, P. R.; Mundil, R.

    2005-12-01

    The Independence dike swarm (IDS) is a locally profuse, mostly NNW striking and ~700 km-long dike swarm occurring throughout southeastern California and possibly extending into northern Mexico. Dike compositions range from mafic to silicic (though strongly bimodal) and span the composition range of the coeval Sierran calc-alkaline arc plutons. Recent geochronological and structural investigations had cast some doubt on the accurate definition of the Independence dike swarm as the swarm more likely represents a poly-phase dike assemblage including at least two generation of dikes (i.e. 90 and 150 Ma; Chen and Moore, 1979; Coleman et al., 2000). To date, most of the geochronological and geochemical investigations available are strongly localized and part of the swarm lacks basic data. Here, we present new 40Ar39Ar (n=4) and U/Pb (n=1) ages and detailed major, trace and REE geochemical data on mafic (E-W to N-S) and more abundant silicic (NW-SE to N-S) dikes from the Benton Range dike swarm (BRDS), north-easternmost IDS. Two of the silicic dikes yielded concordant biotite 40Ar39Ar mini-plateau and weighted mean ages of 153 ± 2 and 152 ± 3 Ma (2 sigma), in agreement with previous K-Ar biotite ages of 150-155 Ma (Renne et al., 1987) and similar to the "accepted" age for the Independence swarm (~150 Ma). These biotite ages, however, may record a cooling age that significantly post-dates dike intrusion. One silicic dike yields a significantly older, preliminary 206Pb238U zircon age of 164.6 ± 0.8 Ma from single-crystal analyses. Two E-W striking mafic dikes which cross-cut NNW-striking silicic dikes yield hornblende plateau and mini-plateau ages of 171 ± 2 and 166 ± 2 Ma. BRDS chemical compositions are typical of mafic (SiO2 = 47-57 wt%; La/Ybn = 3-14) and granitic (SiO2 =67-77 wt%; La/Ybn = 5-31) arc magmas (e.g. Nb anomaly) and typify the known end-member compositions of the IDS. These results, together with compilated published and unpublished geochronological and

  9. A simple dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine based on arm span- or age range for childhood falciparum malaria: a preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sowunmi, Akintunde; Akinrinola, Ibukun A; Gbotosho, Grace O; Okuboyejo, Titilope M; Happi, Christian T

    2012-08-01

    A dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine based on arm span- or age range (DRAAAS), derived from a study of 1674 children, was compared with standard dose regimen of the same drugs calculated according to body weight (SDRAA) in 68 malarious children. Children on DRAAAS received 0.8-1.0 of artesunate/kg and 0.9-1.2 times amodiaquine/kg compared with those receiving SDRAA. Parasite and fever clearance and fall in hematocrit in the first 3 days were similar; both regimens were well tolerated. DRAAAS is simple and is efficacious.

  10. Population Parameters of Intermediate-age Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. III. Dynamical Evidence for a Range of Ages Being Responsible for Extended Main-sequence Turnoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Puzia, Thomas H.; Chandar, Rupali; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera

    2011-08-01

    We present a new analysis of 11 intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. Seven of the clusters feature main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions that are wider than can be accounted for by a simple stellar population, whereas their red giant branches (RGBs) indicate a single value of [Fe/H]. The star clusters cover a range in present-day mass from about 1 × 104 M sun to 2 × 105 M sun. We compare radial distributions of stars in the upper and lower parts of the MSTO region, and calculate cluster masses and escape velocities from the present time back to a cluster age of 10 Myr. Our main result is that for all clusters in our sample with estimated escape velocities v esc >~ 15 km s-1 at an age of 10 Myr, the stars in the brightest half of the MSTO region are significantly more centrally concentrated than the stars in the faintest half and more massive RGB and asymptotic giant branch stars. This is not the case for clusters with v esc <~ 10 km s-1 at an age of 10 Myr. We argue that the wide MSTO region of such clusters is caused mainly by a ~200-500 Myr range in the ages of cluster stars due to extended star formation within the cluster from material shed by first-generation stars featuring slow stellar winds. Dilution of this enriched material by accretion of ambient interstellar matter is deemed plausible if the spread of [Fe/H] in this ambient gas was very small when the second-generation stars were formed in the cluster. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  11. Luminescence chronology of the loess record from the Tönchesberg section - a comparison of using quartz and feldspar as dosimeter to extend the age range beyond the Eemian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorothe Schmidt, Esther; Frechen, Manfred; Murray, Andrew S.; Tsukamoto, Sumiko

    2010-05-01

    The loess-paleosol sequences of the Tönchesberg section, located in the East Eifel Volcanic field (Germany) provide an excellent climate archive of the late Middle and the Upper Pleistocene in the Middle Rhine area. Loess deposits from the last Glacial (Würmian) and the penultimate Glacial (Rissian) are up to 12 m and 15 m thick, respectively, and intercalated by palaeosols. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) measurements were carried out on 14 samples from the Tönchesberg section to determine the deposition age and to set up a more reliable chronological framework for the penultimate and last interglacial-glacial cycle. The fine-grained quartz OSL and polymineral IRSL ages are in good agreement with each other and also with the geologically estimated age, but the quartz TT-OSL ages are overestimated. The OSL and IRSL ages range from 16.8 ± 1.2 to 189 ± 16 ka indicating that the youngest loess and the weakly developed soils were deposited during marine isotope stage (MIS) 2 and 3 and that the two marker loess were most likely accumulated in the transition MIS 4/5. Loess and reworked loess postdating the Eemian soil yield ages of 110-115 ka indicating that these deposits very likely correlate to MIS 5d. Loess deposits taken below the Eemian soil are attributed to the transition MIS 6/7. A weakly developed soil above the Tönchesberg scoria yield an age of 189 ± 16 ka indicating an interstadial soil formation during MIS 7. This is in good agreement with preliminary 40Ar/39Ar-ages for the Tönchesberg scoria and the intercalated tephra layers. Reliable age estimates up to ~70 ka could be obtained using quartz OSL and up to ~190 ka using the pulsed post-IR IR signal from feldspar. Hence the infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) is considered as the best approach to date the loess from the Middle Rhine area > 70 ka.

  12. Considering the Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Joan M.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental quality is essential for all human activities. The relationship of environmental issues to other societal concerns such as the economy, agricultural productivity, and human health must be considered or human populations will perish. (WB)

  13. An acoustical assessment of pitch-matching accuracy in relation to speech frequency, speech frequency range, age and gender in preschool children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollinger, Valerie L.

    This study investigated the relationship between acoustical measurement of singing accuracy in relationship to speech fundamental frequency, speech fundamental frequency range, age and gender in preschool-aged children. Seventy subjects from Southeastern Pennsylvania; the San Francisco Bay Area, California; and Terre Haute, Indiana, participated in the study. Speech frequency was measured by having the subjects participate in spontaneous and guided speech activities with the researcher, with 18 diverse samples extracted from each subject's recording for acoustical analysis for fundamental frequency in Hz with the CSpeech computer program. The fundamental frequencies were averaged together to derive a mean speech frequency score for each subject. Speech range was calculated by subtracting the lowest fundamental frequency produced from the highest fundamental frequency produced, resulting in a speech range measured in increments of Hz. Singing accuracy was measured by having the subjects each echo-sing six randomized patterns using the pitches Middle C, D, E, F♯, G and A (440), using the solfege syllables of Do and Re, which were recorded by a 5-year-old female model. For each subject, 18 samples of singing were recorded. All samples were analyzed by the CSpeech for fundamental frequency. For each subject, deviation scores in Hz were derived by calculating the difference between what the model sang in Hz and what the subject sang in response in Hz. Individual scores for each child consisted of an overall mean total deviation frequency, mean frequency deviations for each pattern, and mean frequency deviation for each pitch. Pearson correlations, MANOVA and ANOVA analyses, Multiple Regressions and Discriminant Analysis revealed the following findings: (1) moderate but significant (p < .001) relationships emerged between mean speech frequency and the ability to sing the pitches E, F♯, G and A in the study; (2) mean speech frequency also emerged as the strongest

  14. Carbonaceous and inorganic composition in long-range transported aerosols over northern Japan: Implication for aging of water-soluble organic fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Shankar Gopala; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    To better understand the influence of sources and atmospheric processing on aerosol chemical composition, we collected atmospheric particles in Sapporo, northern Japan during spring and early summer 2005 under the air mass transport conditions from Siberia, China and surrounding seas. The aerosols were analyzed for inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and the major water-soluble organic compound classes (i.e., dicarboxylic acids and sugars). SO 42- is the most abundant inorganic constituent (average 44% of the identified inorganic ion mass) followed by NH 4+ (21%) and NO 3- (13%). Concentrations of OC, EC, and WSOC ranged from 2.0-16, 0.24-2.9, and 0.80-7.9 μg m -3 with a mean of 7.4, 1.0, and 3.1 μg m -3, respectively. High OC/EC ratios (range: 3.6-19, mean: 8.7) were obtained, however WSOC/OC ratios (0.23-0.69, 0.44) do not show any significant diurnal changes. These results suggest that the Sapporo aerosols were already aged, but were not seriously affected by local photochemical processes. Identified water-soluble organic compounds (diacids + sugars) account for <10% of WSOC. Based on some marker species and air mass back trajectory analyses, and using stable carbon isotopic compositions of shorter-chain diacids (i.e., C 2-C 4) as photochemical aging factor of organic aerosols, the present study suggests that a fraction of WSOC in OC is most likely influenced by aerosol aging, although the OC loading in aerosols may be more influenced by their sources and source regions.

  15. [Primary age-related tauopathy (PART): a novel term to describe age-related tangle pathology encompassing a wide range from cognitively normal condition to senile dementia of the neurofibrillary tangle type].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masahito

    2016-03-01

    It has been reported that neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are commonly observed in older people, and that some of older individuals with dementia have a large amount of NFTs in the medial temporal lobe without amyloid(Aβ) plaques, which have been referred to as senile dementia of the NFT type (SD-NFT), tangle-predominant senile dementia (TPSD), or tangle-only dementia. In 2014, our international collaborative group proposed a new term, "primary age-related tauopathy(PART)", to describe such age-related tangle pathology, clinically encompassing a wide range from normal to cognitive impairment/ dementia (SD-NFT). This nomenclature would provide a conceptual foundation for future studies leading to development of clinical diagnosis for this condition. PMID:27025089

  16. Ingestions considered nontoxic.

    PubMed

    Mofenson, H C; Greensher, J; Caraccio, T R

    1984-09-01

    The authors have compiled a list of common household products and drugs that are frequently ingested by children and may be considered nontoxic unless taken deliberately or in large amounts. An understanding of the nontoxic ingestion should prevent overtreatment and decrease emergency room visits. PMID:6148171

  17. Considering Student Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, James P.

    2014-01-01

    What does student coaching involve and what considerations make sense in deciding to engage an outside contractor to provide personal coaching? The author explores coaching in light of his own professional experience and uses this reflection as a platform from which to consider the pros and cons of student coaching when deciding whether to choose…

  18. Ingestions considered nontoxic.

    PubMed

    Mofenson, H C; Greensher, J; Caraccio, T R

    1984-09-01

    The authors have compiled a list of common household products and drugs that are frequently ingested by children and may be considered nontoxic unless taken deliberately or in large amounts. An understanding of the nontoxic ingestion should prevent overtreatment and decrease emergency room visits.

  19. Style and age of late Oligocene-early Miocene deformation in the southern Stillwater Range, west central Nevada: Paleomagnetism, geochronology, and field relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Mark R.; John, David A.; Conrad, James E.; McKee, Edwin H.

    2000-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geochronologic data combined with geologic mapping tightly restrict the timing and character of a late Oligocene to early Miocene episode of large magnitude extension in the southern Stillwater Range and adjacent regions of west central Nevada. The southern Stillwater Range was the site of an Oligocene to early Miocene volcanic center comprising (1) 28.3 to 24.3 Ma intracaldera ash flow tuffs, lava flows, and subjacent plutons associated with three calderas, (2) 24.8 to 20.7 Ma postcaldera silicic dikes and domes, and (3) unconformably overlying 15.3 to 13.0 Ma dacite to basalt lava flows, plugs, and dikes. The caldera-related tuffs, lava flows, and plutons were tilted 60°-70° either west or east during the initial period of Cenozoic deformation that accommodated over 100% extension. Directions of remanent magnetization obtained from these extrusive and intrusive, caldera-related rocks are strongly deflected from an expected Miocene direction in senses appropriate for their tilt. A mean direction for these rocks after tilt correction, however, suggests that they were also affected by a moderate (33.4° ± 11.8°) component of counterclockwise vertical axis rotation. Paleomagnetic data indicate that the episode of large tilting occurred during emplacement of 24.8 to 20.7 Ma postcaldera dikes and domes. In detail, an apparent decrease in rotation with decreasing age of individual, isotopically dated bodies of the postcaldera group indicates that most tilting occurred between 24.4 and 24.2 Ma. The onset of tilting immediately following after the final caldera eruptions suggests that the magmatism and deformation were linked. Deformation was not driven by magma buoyancy, however, because tilting equally affected the caldera systems of different ages, including their plutonic roots. It is more likely that regional extension was focused in the southern Stillwater Range due to magmatic warming and reduction of tensile strength of the brittle crust

  20. MULTI-ETHNIC REFERENCE VALUES FOR SPIROMETRY FOR THE 3–95 YEAR AGE RANGE: THE GLOBAL LUNG FUNCTION 2012 EQUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Quanjer, Philip H.; Stanojevic, Sanja; Cole, Tim J.; Baur, Xaver; Hall, Graham L.; Culver, Bruce H.; Enright, Paul L.; Hankinson, John L.; Ip, Mary S.M.; Zheng, Jinping; Stocks, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Objective Derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Material Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5–95 years. Methods Lung function data were collated, and prediction equations derived using the LMS (λ, µ, σ) method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. Results After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals from 3–95 years for Caucasians (N=57,395), African Americans (N=3,545), and North (N=4,992) and South East Asians (N=8,255). FEV1 and FVC between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV1/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Conclusion Spirometric prediction equations for the 3–95 age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent, Arab, Polynesian, Latin American countries, and Africa will further improve these equations in the future. PMID:22743675

  1. Gender, Age and Season as Modifiers of the Effects of Diurnal Temperature Range on Emergency Room Admissions for Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Disease among the Elderly in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shan; Wang, Minzhen; Li, Bei; Wang, Shigong; He, Shilin; Yin, Ling; Shang, Kezheng; Li, Tanshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important index of climate change and variability. It is also a risk factor affecting human health. However, limited evidence is available to illustrate the effect of DTR modification on cause-specific cardiovascular disease among the elderly. Methods: A semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the exposure-effect relationship between DTR and daily emergency room (ER) admissions for cause-specific cardiovascular diseases among the elderly from 2009 to 2011 in Beijing. We examined the effects of DTR for stratified groups by gender and age, and examined the effects of DTR in the warm season and cold season for cause-specific cardiovascular diseases. Results: Significant associations were found between DTR and ER admissions for all cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease among elderly males, while DTR was significantly associated with ER admissions for all cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease among elderly females. People aged 75 years and older were more vulnerable to DTR. DTR caused greater adverse effects on both genders in the warm season, whereas the effect estimates on females were higher in cold season than in warm season. Conclusions: A short-term increase of DTR was significantly associated with ER admissions for cause-specific cardiovascular disease among the elderly in Beijing. Gender, age and season may modify the acute health effect of DTR. Some prevention programs that target the high risk subgroups in the elderly for impending large temperature changes may reduce the impact of DTR on people’s health. PMID:27128931

  2. Social relationships of nulliparous young adult females beyond the ordinary age of the first birth in a free-ranging troop of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Katsu, Noriko; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We describe the social relationships of young adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging troop in Arashiyama, Kyoto, Japan, who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth because of contraceptive administration. We observed 12 young nulliparous adult females (6-9 years old) for 270 h and 10 min from 2 February to 5 October 2010. The majority maintained close relationships with their mothers through proximity and grooming, whereas a few had very infrequent social interactions with their mothers. Most had asymmetrical grooming relationships; the grooming they received from unrelated adult females was less than the grooming they gave. Young adult females who had less frequent interactions with their mothers by either proximity or grooming received more grooming from a larger number of unrelated adult females than did those who had more frequent social interactions with their mothers. These results indicate that most young adult females who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth tended to maintain close relationships with their mothers, and their grooming relationships with unrelated adult females were inversely related to the degree of closeness with their mothers.

  3. Investigation of dielectric behavior of water and thermally aged of XLPE/BaTiO3 composites in the low-frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Lakhdar; Belkhiat, Saad; Berrag, Amine; Nemdili, Saad

    2015-10-01

    Cross-Linked Polyethylene (XLPE) is widely used as insulation in electrical engineering, especially as cable insulation sheaths. In order to improve the dielectric properties susceptible to be modified under the effects of thermal aging and water in an absorption environment, polymers are mixed with ceramics. In this paper, the influence of barium titanate (BaTiO3), on the dielectric properties of XLPE has been studied. Dielectric parameters have been measured using an impedance analyzer RLC (WAYNE KERR 6420 type). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used as characterization techniques. The study has been carried out on two samples of XLPE. A pure sample of each were studied as a unloaded samples to be compared with samples of 5%wt, 10%wt, 15%wt and 20%wt. BaTiO3 loaded XLPE. Afterwards, the composites were subject to humidity and to thermal aging. The incorporation of BaTiO3 1∘C does not modify the crystallinity and morphology of the XLPE and 2∘C reduces the space charges therefore the dielectric losses. tgδ, ɛr and loss index are measured. Frequency response analysis has been followed in the frequency range (20-300 Hz). Experimental results show well that BaTiO3 as nano-filler improves the dielectric properties of XLPE but in excessive content can drive to the cracking and therefore to absorption of water.

  4. Sweden considers wind power

    SciTech Connect

    Baurrau, P.

    1989-09-01

    During 1988, Sweden increased its number of wind generating facilities from 13 to 22, reflecting a new attitude toward wind power developing in the country. Last fall, a 750 kW wind turbine installed in the archipelago of Gothenburg was connected to the grid. The turbine is the biggest in use in Sweden, operated and maintained by the local energy authority of Gothenburg. Most turbines being manufactured have a capacity of 20 to 200 kW. The Maglarp turbine in the south of Sweden has a capacity of 3,000 kW, and the Naesudden turbine on an island in the Baltic Sea has 2,000 kW. The two projects are considered experimental by the owner, Vattenfall, the State Power Board. On the basis of energy production, Maglarp may be the largest in the world. Its highest production, 4,400 MWh, was achieved in 1988. In January 1989, the production was 900 MWh, the third highest monthly production so far since September 1983. The State Power Board, the members of the Swedish Power Association, Sydkraft, together with a number of municipal power companies and stations, have formed the Swedish Energy Development Corporation, SWEDCO. One goal for the new corporation is to include wind power in the Swedish energy system. SWEDCO will provide economic and operation data to pursue wind technology.

  5. Age of the most recent event and range of slip rate on the central Maacama fault, near Ukiah, Mendocino County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sickler, R. R.; Prentice, C. S.; Dengler, L. A.

    2005-12-01

    The 180-km-long Maacama fault zone (MFZ) is the northern extension of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek fault zones, which together comprise a major element of the San Andreas fault system in California. Previous studies indicate that the MFZ has been active in the Holocene and that it continues to produce numerous small-magnitude earthquakes. Fault creep has been reported and measured at several locations, also. However, little slip-rate or earthquake-chronology data are available for the MFZ. Our investigation combined fault trenching, cone penetrometer, and shallow seismic refraction studies on the active trace of the MFZ at a site approximately 3 km northeast of the town of Ukiah. Radiocarbon analyses of detrital charcoal collected from sediments associated with a strath-terrace riser yield a calibrated radiocarbon age range of 4840 to 4550 years BP. Our studies show that this terrace riser is right-laterally offset between 42 and 61 m, giving a slip rate of 8.7 to 13.4 mm/yr. We also determined that the most recent earthquake to cause surface rupture on this section of the Maacama fault, occurred sometime after 1410 AD, but before 1660 AD. If this earthquake is the same earthquake interpreted from evidence exposed in trenches excavated approximately 7 km southeast of this site, then it occurred between 1520 AD and 1660 AD. Thus, the minimum and maximum slip rate values of 8.7 and 13.4 mm/yr, when combined with the minimum and maximum years of elapsed time since the most recent earthquake, yield a strain accumulation of 3.0 to 6.5 m. However, the creep rate of the MFZ approximately 7 km southeast of our site is about 4.5 mm/yr. If this creep rate is representative of the long-term creep rate on this section of the MFZ, then the strain accumulation at our site may be between 1.4 to 4.3 m. If this slip is released in a single earthquake it would correspond to a magnitude ranging between Mw 7.0 to 7.6. These data suggest that the MFZ is a significant seismic hazard

  6. Age and composition of Archean crystalline rocks from the southern Madison Range, Montana. Implications for crustal evolution in the Wyoming craton

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.A.; Shuster, R.D. ); Wooden, J.L. ); Erslev, E.A. ); Bowes, D.R. )

    1993-04-01

    The southern Madison Range of southwestern Montana contains two distinct Precambrian lithologic assemblages: (1) a complex of tonalitic to granitic gneisses that has been thrust over (2) a medium-grade metasupracrustal sequence dominated by pelitic schist. Crystallization ages for the protolith of a granodioritic gneiss that intruded the metasupracrustal sequence ([approximately]2.6 Ga)-along with an intercalated meta-andesite ([approximately]2.7 Ga) confirm the sequence as Archean. Chemical (major and trace element), isotopic (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb), and geochronologic (U-Pb zircon) data for selected components of the gneiss complex indicate two groups of gneisses: an older, tonalitic to trondhjemitic group ([approximately]3.3 Ga) and a younger, mostly granitic group ([approximately]2.7 Ga). Both groups of gneisses exhibit the radiogenic Pb and nonradiogenic Nd isotopic signature characteristic of Middle and Late Archean rocks from throughout the Wyoming province. The older gneisses, in particular, appear to be compositionally, isotopically, and chronologically comparable to other Middle Archean gneisses from the northern part of the province (for example, Beartooth Mountains). The Late Archean gneisses, however, exhibit some distinct differences relative to their temporal counterparts, including (1) trace-element patterns that are more suggestive of crustal melts than subduction activity and (2) higher initial Sr isotopic ratios that suggest more involvement of older crust in their petrogenesis. These comparisons suggest that the juxtaposition of Late Archean terranes in the northern Wyoming province was the result, at least in part, of intracratonic processes. 41 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Predicting borderline personality disorder features from personality traits, identity orientation, and attachment styles in Italian nonclinical adults: issues of consistency across age ranges.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Feeney, Judith; Maffei, Cesare

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features could be predicted by Big Five traits, impulsivity, identity orientation, and adult attachment patterns in a sample of 1,192 adult nonclinical participants, and to evaluate the consistency of these regression models across four age groups (<30 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, and >50 years, respectively). In the full sample, measures of neuroticism (N), impulsivity, and anxious insecure attachment were substantial predictors of BPD features (adjusted R(2) = .38, p < .001). Attachment scales were significant predictors of BPD features across all age groups, but different scales were relevant in different age groups. Our results suggest that in nonclinical populations, BPD may represent a complex constellation of personality traits and disturbed attachment patterns.

  8. Designing Playful Learning by Using Educational Board Game for Children in the Age Range of 7-12: (A Case Study: Recycling and Waste Separation Education Board Game)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostowfi, Sara; Mamaghani, Nasser Koleini; Khorramar, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Due to a progressive deterioration of our planet and its resources, environmental education has become important and children are required to understand environmental issues at an early ages. So, they can cultivate the positive changes in the future. Over the past decade, many new evaluation methods have developed for evaluating user experience…

  9. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Rigi, Mohammed; Feldman, Robert M.; Bell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Methods Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18–35, 36–45, 46–55, 56–65, and 66–79 years). ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL), length of scleral spur landmark (SSL) to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM), iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM), pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe), and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter. Results Mean (±SD) values were 2.24 mm (±0.46), 4.06 mm (±0.27), 3.65 mm (±0.48), 4.16 mm (±0.47), 1.14 (±0.04), 1.51 mm2 (±0.23), and 38.42 μL (±4.91) for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002) and RICe (P = 0.027) decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002) and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001). ICR (P = 0.54) and iris volume (P = 0.49) were not affected by age. Conclusion This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states. PMID:26815917

  10. Programs for Parents and Their Children in the Prenatal-Through-Three Age Range: A Child and Family Resource Program Guidance Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingle Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This paper presents guidelines for family support programs prepared for the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP) and other child development programs. Section I contains a brief description of the CFRP philosophy, a listing of CFRP's long range goals, detailed objectives/minimum performance standards for implementing each of these goals, and…

  11. The dynamic range of biologic functions and variation of many environmental cues may be declining in the modern age: implications for diseases and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yun, Anthony J; Bazar, Kimberly A; Gerber, Anthony; Lee, Patrick Y; Daniel, Stephanie M

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesize that declining dynamic range and variation of environmental cues may contribute to health dysfunctions, and that judicious expansion of biologic dynamic ranges may be beneficial. Three disparate examples involving the endocrine, autonomic, and musculoskeletal systems are discussed. Daytime sheltering, optical shading, and nighttime use of artificial light may reduce circadian luminal variation. The resulting melatonin alterations may contribute to systemic dysfunctions. Loss of temporal variation of other hormones may contribute to biologic dysfunctions, especially those involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Reduced variation of physical exertion, environmental stressors, and thermal gradients that characterize modern lifestyles may reduce the autonomic dynamic range resulting in lowered heart rate variability and a myriad of systemic dysfunctions. The health benefits of activities such as exercise, meditation, acupuncture, coitus, and laughter may operate through increasing autonomic variability. Reduced physical exertion also accounts for declining dynamic range of musculoskeletal function. The resulting muscle atrophy, fat infiltration, and sarcomere shortening may not only have deleterious local effects, but may also be involved in systemic metabolic dysfunctions such as insulin resistance. The extent to which our endogenous systems rely on environmental variation for self-tuning and the impact that under-utilization of compensatory mechanisms has on biologic function are not well understood. Modern therapeutic approaches generally result in reversion to the mean of physiologic functions and may buffer against variation. For example, beta-blockers are given to reduce adrenergic excess, insulin to treat insulin insufficiency, serotonin-reuptake inhibitors for depression, and refractive lenses for myopia. By undermining the demand for native compensatory functions, such therapeutic strategies may actually impair future ability to respond to

  12. Zircon age range and sources of alkaline rocks from the Kurgusul intrusion, Kuznetsk Alatau: The first U-Pb (SHRIMP II) and Sm-Nd isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.; Gertner, I. F.; Tishin, P. A.; Bayanova, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    U-Pb isotope analysis of basic feldspathoid rocks (juvites) of the Kurgusul intrusion, NE Kuznetsk Alatau, revealed three generations of zircons of various ages (˜1.3-1.5 Ga; 484.3 ± 5.5 and 393.6 ± 9.2Ma). This suggests several stages of regional alkaline basic magmatism in the Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician and Early-Middle Devonian and melting of the Mesoproterozoic continental crust, which form part of the basement of the Kuznetsk Alatau terrane. The trace element geochemical data indicate a continental margin setting characterized by the complex interaction of a plume-related, supra-subduction zone and crustal materials. A possible model of the magmatic evolution assumes that the ascent of a plume at the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary induced generation of the initial alkaline basaltic magmas and metasomatism and erosion of the lower lithosphere. Repeated partial melting of the lower crust after a 100 Myr period produced new magma batches of alkaline composition, which inherited zircons from the preceding episode of magma generation. The inherited juvenile magmatic source (PREMA + E-type MORB + EM) is confirmed by similarities in the Sm-Nd isotopic signatures (ɛNd( T) ≈ +4.5 to +5.7, T(Nd)DM ≈ 0.8-0.9 Ga) of derivatives of regional alkaline basic complexes of different ages.

  13. A specimen of Paralycoptera Chang & Chou 1977 (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei) from Hong Kong (China) with a potential Late Jurassic age that extends the temporal and geographical range of the genus.

    PubMed

    Tse, Tze-Kei; Pittman, Michael; Chang, Mee-Mann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a Mesozoic fish Paralycoptera sp. (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei), on the basis of a postcranial skeleton collected from the volcaniclastic mudstones of the Lai Chi Chong Formation of Hong Kong, China. The new finding-representing the city's first Mesozoic fish-extends the geographical distribution of Paralycoptera from eastern mainland China into Hong Kong, demonstrating a wider distribution than previously appreciated for this genus. A radiometric age for the Lai Chi Chong Formation of 146.6 ± 0.2 Ma implies a temporal range expansion for Paralycoptera of approximately 40 million years back from the Early Cretaceous (∼110 Ma). However, spores found in the Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age that is consistent with the existing age assignment to Paralycoptera. We argue that the proposed temporal range extension is genuine because it is based on recent high precision radiometric age data, but given the discrepancies with the biostratigraphic ages further investigation is needed to confirm this. This study provides an important step towards revealing Hong Kong's Mesozoic vertebrate fauna and understanding its relationship to well-studied mainland Chinese ones.

  14. A specimen of Paralycoptera Chang & Chou 1977 (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei) from Hong Kong (China) with a potential Late Jurassic age that extends the temporal and geographical range of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Tze-Kei; Chang, Mee-mann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a Mesozoic fish Paralycoptera sp. (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei), on the basis of a postcranial skeleton collected from the volcaniclastic mudstones of the Lai Chi Chong Formation of Hong Kong, China. The new finding—representing the city’s first Mesozoic fish—extends the geographical distribution of Paralycoptera from eastern mainland China into Hong Kong, demonstrating a wider distribution than previously appreciated for this genus. A radiometric age for the Lai Chi Chong Formation of 146.6 ± 0.2 Ma implies a temporal range expansion for Paralycoptera of approximately 40 million years back from the Early Cretaceous (∼110 Ma). However, spores found in the Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age that is consistent with the existing age assignment to Paralycoptera. We argue that the proposed temporal range extension is genuine because it is based on recent high precision radiometric age data, but given the discrepancies with the biostratigraphic ages further investigation is needed to confirm this. This study provides an important step towards revealing Hong Kong’s Mesozoic vertebrate fauna and understanding its relationship to well-studied mainland Chinese ones. PMID:25834774

  15. Use of cosmogenic 35S for comparing ages of water from three alpine-subalpine basins in the Colorado Front Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sueker, J.K.; Turk, J.T.; Michel, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    High-elevation basins in Colorado are a major source of water for the central and western United States; however, acidic deposition may affect the quality of this water. Water that is retained in a basin for a longer period of time may be less impacted by acidic deposition. Sulfur-35 (35S), a short-lived isotope of sulfur (t( 1/2 ) = 87 days), is useful for studying short-time scale hydrologic processes in basins where biological influences and water/rock interactions are minimal. When sulfate response in a basin is conservative, the age of water may be assumed to be that of the dissolved sulfate in it. Three alpine-subalpine basins on granitic terrain in Colorado were investigated to determine the influence of basin morphology on the residence time of water in the basins. Fern and Spruce Creek basins are glaciated and accumulate deep snowpacks during the winter. These basins have hydrologic and chemical characteristics typical of systems with rapid hydrologic response times. The age of sulfate leaving these basins, determined from the activity of 35S, averages around 200 days. In contrast, Boulder Brook basin has broad, gentle slopes and an extensive cover of surficial debris. Its area above treeline, about one-half of the basin, is blown free of snow during the winter. Variations in flow and solute concentrations in Boulder Brook are quite small compared to Fern and Spruce Creeks. After peak snowmelt, sulfate in Boulder Brook is about 200 days older than sulfate in Fern and Spruce Creeks. This indicates a substantial source of older sulfate (lacking 35S) that is probably provided from water stored in pore spaces of surficial debris in Boulder Brook basin.

  16. How do cold-sensitive species endure ice ages? Phylogeographic and paleodistribution models of postglacial range expansion of the mesothermic drought-tolerant conifer Austrocedrus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Souto, Cintia P; Kitzberger, Thomas; Arbetman, Marina P; Premoli, Andrea C

    2015-11-01

    In view of global climate change, it is important to understand the responses of tree species to climate changes in the past. Combinations of phylogeographic analysis of genetic evidence, coupled with species distribution models (SDMs), are improving our understanding on this subject. We combined SDMs and microsatellite data from populations of the entire range of Austrocedrus chilensis, a dominant mesotherm (cold-sensitive) conifer of dryland forests of the southern Andes, to test the hypothesis of long-distance postglacial migration from northern and warmer refugia at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The SDM indicated suitable conditions for Austrocedrus in northern Chile (western) at the LGM and largely unsuitable conditions in Argentina (eastern). Population genetic diversity and effective population sizes within populations decreased southward along the Andes, consistent with the hypothesis of long-distance dispersal from a northern refugium. Results support the hypothesis of one (or a few) warmer (low latitude) refugia in Chile for Austrocedrus. On balance, the evidence suggests that in contrast to cold-tolerant tree taxa with the capacity to fast-track postglacial warming thanks to local refugia, cold-sensitive species might have undergone long-distance range expansion, lagging behind progressive climate change throughout the Holocene.

  17. Zirconolite, zircon and monazite-(Ce) U-Th-Pb age constraints on the emplacement, deformation and alteration history of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex, Halls Creek Orogen, Kimberley region, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, Peter J.; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Fletcher, Ian R.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Rasmussen, Birger; Jaques, A. Lynton; Verrall, Michael; Sweetapple, Marcus T.

    2016-04-01

    In situ SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zirconolite in clinopyroxenite from the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex, situated in the southern Halls Creek Orogen, Kimberley region, Western Australia, has provided a reliable 207Pb/206Pb age of emplacement of 1009 ± 16 Ma. Variably metamict and recrystallised zircons from co-magmatic carbonatites, including a megacryst ~1.5 cm long, gave a range of ages from ~1043-998 Ma, reflecting partial isotopic resetting during post-emplacement deformation and alteration. Monazite-(Ce) in a strongly foliated dolomite carbonatite produced U-Th-Pb dates ranging from ~900-590 Ma. Although the monazite-(Ce) data cannot give any definitive ages, they clearly reflect a long history of hydrothermal alteration/recrystallisation, over at least 300 million years. This is consistent with the apparent resetting of the Rb-Sr and K-Ar isotopic systems by a post-emplacement thermal event at ~900 Ma during the intracratonic Yampi Orogeny. The emplacement of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex probably resulted from the reactivation of a deep crustal structure within the Halls Creek Orogen during the amalgamation of Proterozoic Australia with Rodinia over the period ~1000-950 Ma. This may have allowed an alkaline carbonated silicate magma that was parental to the Cummins Range carbonatites, and generated by redox and/or decompression partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle, to ascend from the base of the continental lithosphere along the lithospheric discontinuity constituted by the southern edge of the Halls Creek Orogen. There is no evidence of a link between the emplacement of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex and mafic large igneous province magmatism indicative of mantle plume activity. Rather, patterns of Proterozoic alkaline magmatism in the Kimberley Craton may have been controlled by changing plate motions during the Nuna-Rodinia supercontinent cycles (~1200-800 Ma).

  18. Three-micron extinction of the Titan haze in the 250-700 km altitude range: Possible evidence of a particle-aging process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtin, Régis; Kim, Sang Joon; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    2015-01-01

    Context. The chemical nature of the Titan haze is poorly understood. The investigation carried out by the Cassini-Huygens suite of instruments is bringing new insights into this question. Aims: This work aims at deriving the vertical variation of the spectral structure of the 3.3-3.4 μm absorption feature of the Titan haze from Cassini VIMS solar occultation data recorded between 250 and 700 km altitude. Methods: We computed the transmittance of Titan's atmosphere using a spherical shell model and a radiative transfer code including the influence of CH4, CH3D, and C2H6, as well as the effects of absorption and scattering by the haze particles. We derived the haze extinction from a comparison of the synthetic spectra with the VIMS solar occultation spectra. Results: We find a marked change in the relative amplitudes of the 3.33 and 3.38 μm features, which are characteristic of aromatic (double C=C chains or rings) or aliphatic (single C-C chains) structural groups, respectively. The pseudo-ratio of aromatics to aliphatics (uncorrected for the absolute band strengths) varies from 3.3 ± 1.9 at 580-700 km to 0.9 ± 0.1 at 350-450 km, and is 0.5 ± 0.1 around 250 km. The structural change from the aromatic to the aliphatic type between 580 and 480 km appears to correspond to a spontaneous aging of the particles - a transition between unannealed and hardened particles - while the further decrease of the pseudo-ratio of aromatics to aliphatics below 480 km may be related to the coating of the core particles by condensates such as heavy alkanes. VIMS transmission spectra data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A21

  19. Considering syphilis in aseptic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Tayal, Sarup; Chadwick, David; Chawla, Girish

    2009-12-01

    Clinicians need to consider syphilis in the differential diagnosis of macular or papular rashes with neurological conditions, particularly aseptic meningitis, as early diagnosis and treatment lead to a better prognosis. PMID:20095316

  20. A simple dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine based on age or body weight range for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children: comparison of therapeutic efficacy with standard dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine.

    PubMed

    Gbotosho, Grace O; Sowunmi, Akintunde; Okuboyejo, Titilope M; Happi, Christian T; Folarin, Onikepe O; Adewoye, Elsie O

    2012-07-01

    A new dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine (NDRAA) based on age or body weight range was compared with standard dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine (SDRAA) calculated according to body weight and with fixed-dose artesunate-amodiaquine (FDAA) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in 304 children afflicted by malaria aged 15 years or younger. In initial comparison (n = 208), children on NDRAA received 1-3 times amodiaquine per kilogram of body weight and 1-1.5 times of artesunate per kilogram of body weight compared with those receiving SDRAA. Parasite but not fever clearance was significantly faster in children who received NDRAA (19.4 ± 8.4 hours vs. 24.6 ± 15.5 hours, P = 0.003). Polymerase chain reaction-uncorrected cure rates on days 28-42 were also significantly higher in children who received NDRAA (P < 0.02 in all cases). Therapeutic responses in children younger than 5 years (n = 96) treated with NDRAA, FDAA, and AL were similar. Changes in hematocrit values and reported adverse events after commencing therapy were similar in those who received NDRAA and SDRAA. All drug regimens were well tolerated. NDRAA based on age or body weight range is simple, is therapeutically superior to SDRAA calculated according to body weight, and is as efficacious as AL in children younger than 5 years.

  1. A Framework for Considering Comprehensibility in Modeling.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Comprehensibility in modeling is the ability of stakeholders to understand relevant aspects of the modeling process. In this article, we provide a framework to help guide exploration of the space of comprehensibility challenges. We consider facets organized around key questions: Who is comprehending? Why are they trying to comprehend? Where in the process are they trying to comprehend? How can we help them comprehend? How do we measure their comprehension? With each facet we consider the broad range of options. We discuss why taking a broad view of comprehensibility in modeling is useful in identifying challenges and opportunities for solutions.

  2. A Framework for Considering Comprehensibility in Modeling.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Comprehensibility in modeling is the ability of stakeholders to understand relevant aspects of the modeling process. In this article, we provide a framework to help guide exploration of the space of comprehensibility challenges. We consider facets organized around key questions: Who is comprehending? Why are they trying to comprehend? Where in the process are they trying to comprehend? How can we help them comprehend? How do we measure their comprehension? With each facet we consider the broad range of options. We discuss why taking a broad view of comprehensibility in modeling is useful in identifying challenges and opportunities for solutions. PMID:27441712

  3. Considering High-Tech Exhibits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routman, Emily

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a variety of high-tech exhibit media used in The Living World, an educational facility operated by The Saint Louis Zoo. Considers the strengths and weaknesses of holograms, video, animatronics, video-equipped microscopes, and computer interactives. Computer interactives are treated with special attention. (LZ)

  4. Weak value amplification considered harmful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrie, Christopher; Combes, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    We show using statistically rigorous arguments that the technique of weak value amplification does not perform better than standard statistical techniques for the tasks of parameter estimation and signal detection. We show that using all data and considering the joint distribution of all measurement outcomes yields the optimal estimator. Moreover, we show estimation using the maximum likelihood technique with weak values as small as possible produces better performance for quantum metrology. In doing so, we identify the optimal experimental arrangement to be the one which reveals the maximal eigenvalue of the square of system observables. We also show these conclusions do not change in the presence of technical noise.

  5. Consider nanofiltration for membrane separations

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, L.P. ); Cheryna, M.; Rajagopalan, N. )

    1994-03-01

    The best known liquid-phase membrane processes are reverse osmosis (RO), ultrafiltration (UF), microfiltration (MF), dialysis, and electrodialysis (ED). However, over the past few years, a new membrane process called nanofiltration (NF) has emerged that promises to significantly widen the application of membranes in liquid-phase separations. This paper discusses the following: NF operating range, membrane properties, and the following applications: demineralizing water, cleaning up contaminated groundwater, ultrapure water, effluents containing heavy metals, offshore oil platforms, yeast production, pulp and paper mills, textile production, electroless copper plating, and cheese whey production.

  6. Seeking Contact: Issues to Consider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, M.

    Seeking contact with extraterrestrial intelligence is a species enterprise that should be conducted with our shared interests in mind. We must reflect on the full range of possible outcomes; we cannot opt out of the potential consequences of actions taken by small numbers of our fellow humans. Until we have empirical evidence about alien technological civilizations, we can reason about them only by analogy with our own history and behaviour. Given that record, some degree of prudence is in order. To conduct this debate more rationally, we must free our thinking of excessively binary stereotypes.

  7. Consider topped crude for FCC

    SciTech Connect

    Louder, K.E.; Juno, E.J.; Kulapaditharom, L.

    1985-09-01

    A case study is presented that illustrates the mechanics for evaluating use of topped crude to load the FCC for more profit. Declining product demands combined with high crude costs has shut down many refineries and left others operting well below design capacity. The study illustrates the step-by-step requirements to debottleneck an existing Kellogg Orthoflow Model B FCC to process topped crude mixed with gas oils. This study was limited to the catalytic converter defined as the reactor, regenerator, air blower, and wet gas compressor. The scope was to examine the ability to process topped crude and to consider modernizing the FCC to employ riser cracking and complete CO combustion regeneration.

  8. Killing Range

    PubMed Central

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  9. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  10. The Scientometric Bubble Considered Harmful.

    PubMed

    Génova, Gonzalo; Astudillo, Hernán; Fraga, Anabel

    2016-02-01

    This article deals with a modern disease of academic science that consists of an enormous increase in the number of scientific publications without a corresponding advance of knowledge. Findings are sliced as thin as salami and submitted to different journals to produce more papers. If we consider academic papers as a kind of scientific 'currency' that is backed by gold bullion in the central bank of 'true' science, then we are witnessing an article-inflation phenomenon, a scientometric bubble that is most harmful for science and promotes an unethical and antiscientific culture among researchers. The main problem behind the scenes is that the impact factor is used as a proxy for quality. Therefore, not only for convenience, but also based on ethical principles of scientific research, we adhere to the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment when it emphasizes "the need to eliminate the use of journal-based metrics in funding, appointment and promotion considerations; and the need to assess research on its own merits rather on the journal in which the research is published". Our message is mainly addressed to the funding agencies and universities that award tenures or grants and manage research programmes, especially in developing countries. The message is also addressed to well-established scientists who have the power to change things when they participate in committees for grants and jobs.

  11. The Scientometric Bubble Considered Harmful.

    PubMed

    Génova, Gonzalo; Astudillo, Hernán; Fraga, Anabel

    2016-02-01

    This article deals with a modern disease of academic science that consists of an enormous increase in the number of scientific publications without a corresponding advance of knowledge. Findings are sliced as thin as salami and submitted to different journals to produce more papers. If we consider academic papers as a kind of scientific 'currency' that is backed by gold bullion in the central bank of 'true' science, then we are witnessing an article-inflation phenomenon, a scientometric bubble that is most harmful for science and promotes an unethical and antiscientific culture among researchers. The main problem behind the scenes is that the impact factor is used as a proxy for quality. Therefore, not only for convenience, but also based on ethical principles of scientific research, we adhere to the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment when it emphasizes "the need to eliminate the use of journal-based metrics in funding, appointment and promotion considerations; and the need to assess research on its own merits rather on the journal in which the research is published". Our message is mainly addressed to the funding agencies and universities that award tenures or grants and manage research programmes, especially in developing countries. The message is also addressed to well-established scientists who have the power to change things when they participate in committees for grants and jobs. PMID:25689931

  12. Considering the pedophile subculture online.

    PubMed

    Holt, Thomas J; Blevins, Kristie R; Burkert, Natasha

    2010-03-01

    The development of the Internet and computer-mediated communications has fostered the growth of a wide range of deviant sexual behaviors along with deviant subcultures that support and approve of these behaviors. Some of these practices pose little risk to public safety, though acts such as pedophilia and the creation and distribution of child pornography have significant negative ramifications for victims. A growing literature has examined the function of the Internet for child pornography distribution, social networks of pedophiles, and tactics of child solicitation. Few, however, have explored the utility of the Internet to develop a subculture of pedophiles and its role in fostering attitudes and justifications for relationships with children. This study will explore the subcultural norms and enculturation of the pedophile community using a qualitative analysis of five Web forums run by and for pedophiles. The findings suggest that the values of the pedophile culture support and encourage emotional and, in some cases, sexual relationships with boys and girls in virtual and real settings. Implications for the study of pedophiles and the role of the Internet are explored.

  13. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  14. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  15. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations and paleomagnetic results bearing on the tectonic and magmatic history of the northern Madison Range and Madison Valley region, southwestern Montana, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.; Harlan, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed 40Ar/39Ar dating and paleomagnetic analysis of dacite porphyry sills and dikes that intrude Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the northern Madison Range in southwestern Montana show that Laramide shortening was essentially complete by ???69 Ma. A negative paleomagnetic fold test indicates that Laramide folding occurred before cooling of the dacite sills and dikes at ???69 Ma. Laramide deformation began synchronous with deposition of the Livingston Formation rocks at ???79 Ma. These results are consistent with previous observations in the region that show the onset of Laramide deformation in the northern Rocky Mountains becoming progressively younger toward the east. 40Ar/39Ar dating of additional igneous rocks in the northern Madison Valley and around Norris, Montana better define post-Laramide tectonomagmatic events in the region, including Eocene-Oligocene volcanism and Basin and Range crustal extension. Dates from three rhyolitic intrusions near Red Mountain are between 48.71 ?? 0.18 Ma and 49.42 ?? 0.18 Ma, similar to the dates from basal silicic flows of the Virginia City volcanic field (part of the southwest Montana volcanic province), suggesting that the Red Mountain intrusions may have been the sources for some of the early extrusive rocks. Magmatism in the Virginia City volcanic field became generally more mafic with time, and a ???30-Ma basalt flow near Norris is considered a late, outlying member of the volcanic field. A tuff along the east side of the Madison Valley half graben yielded a early middle Miocene date (16.2 ?? 0.19 Ma), suggesting that accelerated crustal extension and associated rapid basin sedimentation probably began in the early Miocene, slightly earlier than previous estimates.

  16. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  17. Splenomegaly should not be considered a contraindication for laparoscopic splenectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Targarona, E M; Espert, J J; Balagué, C; Piulachs, J; Artigas, V; Trias, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of spleen size on operative and immediate clinical outcome in a series of 74 laparoscopic splenectomies (LS). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: LS is gaining acceptance as an alternative to open splenectomy. However, splenomegaly hinders LS, and massive splenomegaly has been considered a contraindication. METHODS: Between February 1993 and September 1997, 74 patients with a wide range of splenic disorders were treated by laparoscopy and prospectively recorded. They were classified into three groups according to spleen weight: group I, <400 g (n = 52); group II, 400 to 1000 g (n = 9); and group III, >1000 g (n = 13). Age, operative time, number of trocars required, need for perioperative transfusion, spleen weight, conversion rate, mode of spleen retrieval (bag or accessory incision), postoperative analgesia requirements, length of hospital stay, and morbidity rates were recorded. RESULTS: LS was completed in 69 patients, and the conversion rate was thus 6.7%. Operative time was significantly longer in patients with larger spleens, and an accessory incision was more frequently required. However, there were no significant differences in transfusion rate, length of stay, severe morbidity, or conversion rate. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary evaluation of LS for patients with large spleens suggests that it requires a longer operative time, but it is feasible and may potentially offer the same advantages (shorter stay and faster recovery) as it does to those with smaller spleens. PMID:9671064

  18. 5 CFR 300.704 - Considering individuals for appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 300.704 Section 300.704 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Service Law § 300.704 Considering individuals for appointment. (a) An executive agency must request a... Status If you are a male born after December 31, 1959, and are at least 18 years of age, civil...

  19. 5 CFR 300.704 - Considering individuals for appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 300.704 Section 300.704 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Service Law § 300.704 Considering individuals for appointment. (a) An executive agency must request a... Status If you are a male born after December 31, 1959, and are at least 18 years of age, civil...

  20. School Readiness for Gifted Children: Considering the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porath, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses issues relevant to gifted children's readiness for school. It raises a number of questions that challenge thinking about what is meant by school readiness. Gifted children can often be ready for school entrance before the age traditionally considered appropriate. Their complex developmental profiles challenge accepted notions…

  1. 20 CFR 404.1520b - How we consider evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How we consider evidence. 404.1520b Section 404.1520b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 404.1520b How we...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1520b - How we consider evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How we consider evidence. 404.1520b Section 404.1520b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 404.1520b How we...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1520b - How we consider evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How we consider evidence. 404.1520b Section 404.1520b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 404.1520b How we...

  4. Alternative wavelengths for laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamal, Karel

    1993-01-01

    The following are considered to be necessary to accomplish multicolor laser ranging: the nature of the atmospheric dispersion and absorption, the satellite/lunar/ground retro-array characteristics, and ground/satellite ranging machine performance. The energy balance and jitter budget have to be considered as well. It is concluded that the existing satellite/laser retroreflectors seem inadequate for future experiments. The Raman Stokes/Anti-Stokes (0.68/0.43 micron) plus solid state detector appear to be promising instrumentation that satisfy the ground/satellite and satellite/ground ranging machine requirements on the precision, compactness, and data processing.

  5. Dosimetric implications of age related glandular changes in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, J. R.; Kotre, C. J.

    2000-03-01

    The UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme is currently organized to routinely screen women between the ages of 50 and 64, with screening for older women available on request. The lower end of this age range closely matches the median age for the menopause (51 years), during which significant changes in the composition of the breast are known to occur. In order to quantify the dosimetric effect of these changes, radiographic factors and compressed breast thickness data for a cohort of 1258 women aged between 35 and 79 undergoing breast screening mammography have been used to derive estimates of breast glandularity and mean glandular dose (MGD), and examine their variation with age. The variation of mean radiographic exposure factors with age is also investigated. The presence of a significant number of age trial women within the cohort allowed an extended age range to be studied. Estimates of MGD including corrections for breast glandularity based on compressed breast thickness only, compressed breast thickness and age and for each individual woman are compared with the MGD based on the conventional assumption of a 50:50 adipose/glandular composition. It has been found that the use of the conventional 50:50 assumption leads to overestimates of MGD of up to 13% over the age range considered. By using compressed breast thickness to estimate breast glandularity, this error range can be reduced to 8%, whilst age and compressed breast thickness based glandularity estimates result in an error range of 1%.

  6. Physical and economic vulnerability considering alpine hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totschnig, Reinhold; Keiler, Margreth; Glade, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The obvious increase in natural disasters in the last decades, evoked by different circumstances, emphasises the necessity of dealing with these natural hazards and correlated risks. Independent of the scientific discipline, vulnerability assessment is thereby seen as a central part within risk assessment. However, the ways in which vulnerability is understood, are manifold. Based on a theoretical framework developed within the MOVE-project (Methods for the Improvement of Vulnerability Assessment in Europe), vulnerability comprises of three factors: exposure, susceptibility or fragility, and lack of resilience. To follow a multidisciplinary approach, different dimensions of susceptibility and fragility such as the physical, the social and the ecological dimensions (among others) should be considered in vulnerability assessment. Comprehensive methods and corresponding indicators (qualitative as well as quantitative) have not yet been fully developed. The aim of the MOVE-project is to close this gap, dealing with a wide range of natural hazards. The individual partner institutions within this project work in different scientific fields, dealing with different natural hazards and different vulnerability factors. The present study has its focus on alpine hazards, using data from several test sites in South Tyrol, Italy. Alpine hazards such as avalanches, landslides as well as permafrost hazards are covered. Different methods and indicators related to exposure and the physical and economic dimensions of susceptibility were studied and enhanced. Applied GIS data were improved through field studies and tools such as simulation models and data mining methods. The aim of this study was to develop vulnerability curves on a local scale and vulnerability maps on a regional scale with a high utility value for possible end users. First results, methods and indicators as well as their application will critically be discussed.

  7. Recursive Implementations of the Consider Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; DSouza, Chris

    2012-01-01

    One method to account for parameters errors in the Kalman filter is to consider their effect in the so-called Schmidt-Kalman filter. This work addresses issues that arise when implementing a consider Kalman filter as a real-time, recursive algorithm. A favorite implementation of the Kalman filter as an onboard navigation subsystem is the UDU formulation. A new way to implement a UDU consider filter is proposed. The non-optimality of the recursive consider filter is also analyzed, and a modified algorithm is proposed to overcome this limitation.

  8. 20 CFR 416.1851 - Effects of being considered a child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416.1851 Effects of being considered... student, we will not count all of your earned income when we determine your SSI eligibility and...

  9. Aging Wiener-Khinchin Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibovich, N.; Barkai, E.

    2015-08-01

    The Wiener-Khinchin theorem shows how the power spectrum of a stationary random signal I (t ) is related to its correlation function ⟨I (t )I (t +τ )⟩ . We consider nonstationary processes with the widely observed aging correlation function ⟨I (t )I (t +τ )⟩˜tγϕEA(τ /t ) and relate it to the sample spectrum. We formulate two aging Wiener-Khinchin theorems relating the power spectrum to the time- and ensemble-averaged correlation functions, discussing briefly the advantages of each. When the scaling function ϕEA(x ) exhibits a nonanalytical behavior in the vicinity of its small argument we obtain the aging 1 /f -type of spectrum. We demonstrate our results with three examples: blinking quantum dots, single-file diffusion, and Brownian motion in a logarithmic potential, showing that our approach is valid for a wide range of physical mechanisms.

  10. 28 CFR 51.53 - Information considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information considered. 51.53 Section 51... Information considered. The Attorney General shall base a determination on a review of material presented by the submitting authority, relevant information provided by individuals or groups, and the results...

  11. 28 CFR 51.53 - Information considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information considered. 51.53 Section 51... Information considered. The Attorney General shall base a determination on a review of material presented by the submitting authority, relevant information provided by individuals or groups, and the results...

  12. 28 CFR 2.19 - Information considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS... considered. (a) In making a parole or reparole determination the Commission shall consider, if available and... record of earlier probation and parole experiences; (3) Pre-sentence investigation reports;...

  13. A generic Approach for Reliability Predictions considering non-uniformly Deterioration Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Jakob; Kabitzsch, Klaus

    2012-05-01

    Predictive maintenance offers the possibility to prognosticate the remaining time until a maintenance action of a machine has to be scheduled. Unfortunately, current predictive maintenance solutions are only suitable for very specific use cases like reliability predictions based on vibration monitoring. Furthermore, they do not consider the fact that machines may deteriorate non-uniformly, depending on external influences (e.g., the work piece material in a milling machine or the changing fruit acid concentration in a bottling plant). In this paper two concepts for a generic predictive maintenance solution which also considers non-uniformly aging behaviour are introduced. The first concept is based on system models representing the health state of a technical system. As these models are usually statically (viz. without a timely dimension) their coefficients are determined periodically and the resulting time series is used as aging indicator. The second concept focuses on external influences (contexts) which change the behaviour of the previous mentioned aging indicators in order to increase the accuracy of reliability predictions. Therefore, context-depended time series models are determined and used to predict machine reliability. Both concepts were evaluated on data of an air ventilation system. Thereby, it could be shown that they are suitable to determine aging indicators in a generic way and to incorporate external influences in the reliability prediction. Through this, the quality of reliability predictions can be significantly increased. In reality this leads to a more accurate scheduling of maintenance actions. Furthermore, the generic character of the solutions makes the concepts suitable for a wide range of aging processes.

  14. Age models and their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marwan, N.; Rehfeld, K.; Goswami, B.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Kurths, J.

    2012-04-01

    The usefulness of a proxy record is largely dictated by accuracy and precision of its age model, i.e., its depth-age relationship. Only if age model uncertainties are minimized correlations or lead-lag relations can be reliably studied. Moreover, due to different dating strategies (14C, U-series, OSL dating, or counting of varves), dating errors or diverging age models lead to difficulties in comparing different palaeo proxy records. Uncertainties in the age model are even more important if an exact dating is necessary in order to calculate, e.g., data series of flux or rates (like dust flux records, pollen deposition rates). Several statistical approaches exist to handle the dating uncertainties themselves and to estimate the age-depth relationship. Nevertheless, linear interpolation is still the most commonly used method for age modeling. The uncertainties of a certain event at a given time due to the dating errors are often even completely neglected. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering dating errors and implications for the interpretation of variations in palaeo-climate proxy records from stalagmites (U-series dated). We present a simple approach for estimating age models and their confidence levels based on Monte Carlo methods and non-linear interpolation. This novel algorithm also allows for removing age reversals. Our approach delivers a time series of a proxy record with a value range for each age depth also, if desired, on an equidistant time axis. The algorithm is implemented in interactive scripts for use with MATLAB®, Octave, and FreeMat.

  15. 20 CFR 416.1870 - Effect of being considered a student.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Student for Purposes of the Student Earned Income Exclusion § 416.1870 Effect of being considered a student. If we consider you to be a... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of being considered a student....

  16. 20 CFR 416.1870 - Effect of being considered a student.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Student for Purposes of the Student Earned Income Exclusion § 416.1870 Effect of being considered a student. If we consider you to be a... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of being considered a student....

  17. 20 CFR 416.1851 - Effects of being considered a child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416.1851 Effects of being considered a child. If we consider you to be a child for SSI purposes, the rules in this section apply when we... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effects of being considered a child....

  18. 20 CFR 416.1851 - Effects of being considered a child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416.1851 Effects of being considered a child. If we consider you to be a child for SSI purposes, the rules in this section apply when we... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effects of being considered a child....

  19. 20 CFR 416.1832 - When we consider your marriage ended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When we consider your marriage ended. 416... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered Your Spouse § 416.1832 When we consider your marriage ended. We consider your marriage ended when— (a) Your spouse dies; (b) Your...

  20. School age child development (image)

    MedlinePlus

    School age child development is a range from 6 to 12 years of age. During this time period observable differences in height, ... peers. As always, safety is important in school age children and proper safety rules should be enforced ...

  1. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  2. [Old age workers].

    PubMed

    Izmerov, N F

    2012-01-01

    The author demonstrates that in conditions of demographic aging an important contribution in solving the task set in "Strategy 2020" on more efficient usage of working resources could be involvement of occupational potential of old age workers, e.g. through changeable working schedules, outwork and distance work. With that, employment level at old age should consider performance level, health state and psycho-physiologic potential of the certain age group.

  3. Laser Ranging Experiment on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Clocks and Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, D.; Rowlands, D. D.; McGarry, J.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Torrence, M. H.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Sun, X.; Zagwodzki, T. W.; Cavanaugh, J. F.; Ramos-Izquierdo, L.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate ranges from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft Laser Ranging (LR) system supplement the precision orbit determination (POD) of LRO. LRO is tracked by ten LR stations from the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), using H-maser, GPS steered Rb, and Cs standard oscillators as reference clocks. The LR system routinely makes one-way range measurements via laser time-of-flight from Earth to LRO. Uplink photons are received by a telescope mounted on the high-gain antenna on LRO , transferred through a fiber optic cable to the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and timed-tagged by the spacecraft clock. The range from the LR Earth station to LRO is derived from paired outgoing and received times. Accurate ranges can only be obtained after solving for both the spacecraft and ground station clock errors. The drift rate and aging rate of the LRO clock are calculated from data provided by the primary LR station, NASA's Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging System (NGSLR) in Greenbelt, Maryland. The results confirm the LRO clock oscillator mid to long term stability measured during ground testing. These rates also agree well with those determined through POD. Simultaneous and near-simultaneous ranging to LRO from multiple LR stations in America, Europe, and Australia has been successfully achieved within a 10 hour window. Data analysis of these ranging experiments allows for precision modeling of the clock behaviors of each LR ground station and characterization of the station ground fire times.

  4. Comparing Consider-Covariance Analysis with Sigma-Point Consider Filter and Linear-Theory Consider Filter Formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent literature in applied estimation theory reflects growing interest in the sigma-point (also called unscented ) formulation for optimal sequential state estimation, often describing performance comparisons with extended Kalman filters as applied to specific dynamical problems [c.f. 1, 2, 3]. Favorable attributes of sigma-point filters are described as including a lower expected error for nonlinear even non-differentiable dynamical systems, and a straightforward formulation not requiring derivation or implementation of any partial derivative Jacobian matrices. These attributes are particularly attractive, e.g. in terms of enabling simplified code architecture and streamlined testing, in the formulation of estimators for nonlinear spaceflight mechanics systems, such as filter software onboard deep-space robotic spacecraft. As presented in [4], the Sigma-Point Consider Filter (SPCF) algorithm extends the sigma-point filter algorithm to the problem of consider covariance analysis. Considering parameters in a dynamical system, while estimating its state, provides an upper bound on the estimated state covariance, which is viewed as a conservative approach to designing estimators for problems of general guidance, navigation and control. This is because, whether a parameter in the system model is observable or not, error in the knowledge of the value of a non-estimated parameter will increase the actual uncertainty of the estimated state of the system beyond the level formally indicated by the covariance of an estimator that neglects errors or uncertainty in that parameter. The equations for SPCF covariance evolution are obtained in a fashion similar to the derivation approach taken with standard (i.e. linearized or extended) consider parameterized Kalman filters (c.f. [5]). While in [4] the SPCF and linear-theory consider filter (LTCF) were applied to an illustrative linear dynamics/linear measurement problem, in the present work examines the SPCF as applied to

  5. 28 CFR 2.19 - Information considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proceedings. (4) The Commission will normally consider only verbal and written evidence at hearings. Recorded... and probability. If the Commission is given evidence of criminal behavior that has been the subject of.... Offense behavior in Category 5 or above shall presumptively support a finding under paragraph (c)(1)...

  6. 28 CFR 2.19 - Information considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information considered. 2.19 Section 2.19..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.19 Information... information concerning the prisoner (including information submitted by the prisoner) as may be...

  7. Access, Consider, Teach: ACT in Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Pokey; Reeves, Stacy

    2007-01-01

    University teachers who are teacher educators cannot connect to "The Millennial Generation" of today's preservice learners by using chalk and dull outdated textbooks. When university professionals access the technology available, consider the curriculum, and teach with technology (ACT) undergraduate teacher candidates acquire the vision of…

  8. 20 CFR 220.12 - Evidence considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence considered. 220.12 Section 220.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Under the Railroad Retirement Act for Work in an Employee's Regular Railroad...

  9. 20 CFR 220.12 - Evidence considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence considered. 220.12 Section 220.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Under the Railroad Retirement Act for Work in an Employee's Regular Railroad...

  10. 40 CFR 227.18 - Factors considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.18 Factors considered. The assessment of the potential for... assessment: (a) Nature and extent of present and potential recreational and commercial use of areas which might be affected by the proposed dumping; (b) Existing water quality, and nature and extent of...

  11. 40 CFR 227.18 - Factors considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.18 Factors considered. The assessment of the potential for... assessment: (a) Nature and extent of present and potential recreational and commercial use of areas which might be affected by the proposed dumping; (b) Existing water quality, and nature and extent of...

  12. 40 CFR 227.18 - Factors considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Factors considered. 227.18 Section 227.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR... biochemical degradation during movement of the materials from a disposal site to an area of...

  13. 40 CFR 227.18 - Factors considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Factors considered. 227.18 Section 227.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR... biochemical degradation during movement of the materials from a disposal site to an area of...

  14. Considering Teacher Empowerment: Why It Is Moral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucey, Thomas A.; Hill-Clarke, Kantaylieniere

    2008-01-01

    Hierarchical educational structures employ a standards-driven decision-making atmosphere that challenges teachers' autonomy. This situation represents a critical issue for teacher educators who must consider how they will teach candidates to respond to these settings. We argue that teacher empowerment represents a moral issue that teacher…

  15. Consider Workplace Needs When Purchasing Office Furniture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Examines furniture-buying tips, involving workplace-needs assessment, that can help make the organization's workplace more effective. Stresses the importance of planning, tying the furniture purchasing into the strategic business, considering alternatives to furniture ownership, evaluating employee health and safety, and understanding any added…

  16. Considering Indigenous Knowledges and Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterenberg, Gladys

    2013-01-01

    Across Canada, significant program changes in school mathematics have been made that encourage teachers to consider Aboriginal perspectives. In this article, I investigate one Aboriginal teacher's approaches to integrating Indigenous knowledges and the mandated mathematics curriculum in a Blackfoot First Nation school. Using a framework that…

  17. 28 CFR 2.19 - Information considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information considered. 2.19 Section 2.19 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.19...

  18. Adult Age, Gender, and Race Group Differences in Images of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foos, Paul W.; Clark, M. Cherie; Terrell, Debra F.

    2006-01-01

    Younger and older African American and Caucasian American adults, who were matched by age ("M" age = 40.63 years), completed a survey on perceptions of aging and subjective age. The 2 groups did not differ in the age they considered someone to be old ("M" age = 74.5 years). However, when asked which age was the happiest age, African Americans…

  19. Consider the Connections. Global Issues Education Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Amy E.

    The old ways of doing things are no longer suitable to some of the current conditions faced by the world, such as overpopulation, environmental degradation, unstable economic development, and wasteful consumption of natural resources. In order to achieve a sustainable future, nations must develop better long range planning through combining…

  20. Stop Aging Disease! ICAD 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ilia, Stambler

    2015-01-01

    On November 1–2, 2014, there took place in Beijing, China, the first International Conference on Aging and Disease (ICAD 2014) of the International Society on Aging and Disease (ISOAD). The conference participants presented a wide and exciting front of work dedicated to amelioration of aging-related conditions, ranging from regenerative medicine through developing geroprotective substances, elucidating a wide range of mechanisms of aging and aging-related diseases, from energy metabolism through genetics and immunomodulation to systems biology. The conference further emphasized the need to intensify and support research on aging and aging-related diseases to provide solutions for the urgent health challenges of the aging society. PMID:25821637

  1. Gratitude From Early Adulthood to Old Age.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Mathias; Hill, Patrick L

    2016-02-01

    Are there age differences in gratitude from early adulthood to old age? The current studies tested several ways by which an association between age and dispositional gratitude may present, by considering multiple measures on both fronts. We used data from three cross-sectional studies (total N = 1,736; total age range: 19-94). The results indicated that (a) age effects in gratitude are more likely to occur for subjective age in terms of future time perspective (i.e., people's perceptions of their remaining opportunities and time) than chronological age; (b) chronological age effects are more domain specific than general in nature; and (c) they are more likely to occur for the instrumental domain as compared to the interpersonal domain. Finally, the results indicated that (d) perceived future time, particularly with respect to remaining opportunities, mediates the relation between chronological age and general gratitude. Overall, the findings suggest that gratitude is subject to a variety of developmental influences across adulthood.

  2. 20 CFR 416.960 - When we will consider your vocational background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When we will consider your vocational... § 416.960 When we will consider your vocational background. (a) General. If you are age 18 or older and... will consider your residual functional capacity together with your vocational background, as...

  3. Aging according to biography.

    PubMed

    Weiland, S

    1989-04-01

    Aging can no longer be considered an afterthought in biographies. How scholarly biographers treat their subjects is considered in the context of the work of Erik H. Erikson. Readers of biographies can discover in accounts of the subject's last years the same interest in developmental values typical of biographical attention to youth. Developmental theorists can observe in biography representations of the life cycle that add meaning to aging.

  4. Aging according to biography.

    PubMed

    Weiland, S

    1989-04-01

    Aging can no longer be considered an afterthought in biographies. How scholarly biographers treat their subjects is considered in the context of the work of Erik H. Erikson. Readers of biographies can discover in accounts of the subject's last years the same interest in developmental values typical of biographical attention to youth. Developmental theorists can observe in biography representations of the life cycle that add meaning to aging. PMID:2753379

  5. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  6. Multidisciplinary Treatment Options of Tooth Avulsion Considering Different Therapy Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Kostka, Eckehard; Meissner, Simon; Finke, Christian H; Mandirola, Manlio; Preissner, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Avulsion of permanent front teeth is a rare accident, mostly affecting children between seven and nine years of age. Replanted and splinted, these teeth often develop inflammation, severe resorption or ankylosis affecting alveolar bone development and have to be extracted sooner or later. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate different therapy concepts to create a structured concept for the treatment of avulsions. Results: Based on existing therapy concepts, a concept for different initial conditions (dry time, age, growth, tooth, hard and soft tissues) was developed and is presented here. Conclusion: A great deal of research has been performed during recent years and guidelines for the management of avulsions have been published. With the help of this literature it is possible to identify the best treatment procedure for each tooth. Clinical Relevance: The prognosis of avulsed teeth can be improved by considering evidence-based therapy concepts. Resorption, ankylosis and tooth loss could be minimized. PMID:25352922

  7. Growing Fixed With Age: Lay Theories of Malleability Are Target Age-Specific.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Lassetter, Bethany

    2015-11-01

    Beliefs about whether people can change ("lay theories" of malleability) are known to have wide-ranging effects on social motivation, cognition, and judgment. Yet rather than holding an overarching belief that people can or cannot change, perceivers may hold independent beliefs about whether different people are malleable-that is, lay theories may be target-specific. Seven studies demonstrate that lay theories are target-specific with respect to age: Perceivers hold distinct, uncorrelated lay theories of people at different ages, and younger targets are considered to be more malleable than older targets. Both forms of target-specificity are consequential, as target age-specific lay theories predict policy support for learning-based senior services and the rehabilitation of old and young drug users. The implications of target age-specific lay theories for a number of psychological processes, the social psychology of aging, and theoretical frameworks of malleability beliefs are discussed.

  8. Simulation-Based Rule Generation Considering Readability

    PubMed Central

    Yahagi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, T.; Hara, T.; Ota, J.

    2015-01-01

    Rule generation method is proposed for an aircraft control problem in an airport. Designing appropriate rules for motion coordination of taxiing aircraft in the airport is important, which is conducted by ground control. However, previous studies did not consider readability of rules, which is important because it should be operated and maintained by humans. Therefore, in this study, using the indicator of readability, we propose a method of rule generation based on parallel algorithm discovery and orchestration (PADO). By applying our proposed method to the aircraft control problem, the proposed algorithm can generate more readable and more robust rules and is found to be superior to previous methods. PMID:27347501

  9. Practical Power System Aggregation Considering Dynamic Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Yoshio; Komami, Shintaro

    This paper presents a practical method for creating power system equivalents that can be used in power system stability analysis. The proposed method uses three branches to connect the boundary bus, generator, and load. The method is suitable to consider reactance from the boundary bus to the load for power system stability studies using a dynamic load model. Furthermore, this paper presents a practical procedure to determine the parameters of the aggregated generator, including control devices such as excitation systems, PSS (power system stabilizer), and speed governors. The quality of the various aggregation models is verified using power system stability simulations.

  10. Consider vortex flowmeters for gas custody transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Ostling, H.

    1995-07-01

    Much natural gas measurement falls under the category of custody transfer, where inaccurate metering could mean financial disaster (or windfall) for one of the parties. Modern vortex flowmeters eliminate the inaccuracies of DP/orifice plate installations and provide the added security of reduced fugitive emissions. What follows are seven reasons why you should consider vortex flow measurement technology for custody transfer or any other measurement of natural gas. Vortex flowmeters offer higher accuracy; vortex flowmeters have no density/viscosity distortion; vortex flowmeters feature low installation costs; vortex flowmeters mean low cost of ownership; vortex flowmeters reduce pressure drop; vortex flowmeters allow accurate billing; nd vortex flowmeters have fewer fugitive emission sources.

  11. Brain surgery breathes new life into aging plants

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    2006-04-15

    Unlike managing the human aging process, extending the life of a power plant often includes brain surgery, modernizing its control and automation system. Lately, such retrofits range from wholesale replacing of existing controls to the addition of specific control elements that help optimize performance. Pending revisions to safety codes and cybersecurity issues also need to be considered. 4 figs.

  12. Rapid changes in night eating: considering mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stunkard, A; Lu, X-Y

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers possible mechanisms for the Night Eating Syndrome (NES). NES is a disorder characterized by a delay in the circadian rhythm of meals and of several neuroendocrine factors. The disorder occurs in genetically vulnerable people when exposed to stress. No convincing mechanism of the NES has been reported until now. To search for the mechanisms of NES, the long term treatment of two highly perceptive patients with rapid onset of the disorder are described. Disruption of three neuroendocrine systems compatible with these histories are discussed: the glucocorticoid system, the melanocortin [corrected] system, and the serotonergic system. Current evidence favors the serotonergic system and this view is strongly supported by the great effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of NES.

  13. Considering social work assessment of families

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s the way in which social workers respond to referrals of children to Children's Social Care departments has evolved. It has moved through a process that ‘screens families out’ of child protection assessment to a system aiming to ‘screen families in’ where necessary, and now uses a holistic assessment aiming to screen for both risk and need. The assessment framework developed to assess children in need and their families is the modern social work response to all referrals. Little research has been carried out to assess its suitability as a widespread social work response. This article considers the debates that have emerged in relation to its use and concludes that insufficient consideration has been given to evaluating assessment as an appropriate measure of need and risk. Wider provision of non-assessed universal services would reduce the need for assessment. PMID:25866453

  14. Considering Object Oriented Technology in Aviation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Few developers of commercial aviation software products are using object-oriented technology (OOT), despite its popularity in some other industries. Safety concerns about using OOT in critical applications, uncertainty about how to comply with regulatory requirements, and basic conservatism within the aviation community have been factors behind this caution. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have sponsored research to investigate and workshops to discuss safety and certification concerns about OOT and to develop recommendations for safe use. Two Object Oriented Technology in Aviation (OOTiA) workshops have been held and numerous issues and comments about the effect of OOT features and languages have been collected. This paper gives a high level overview of the OOTiA project, and discusses selected specific results from the March 2003 workshop. In particular, results in the form of questions to consider before making the decision to use OOT are presented.

  15. Rapid changes in night eating: considering mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stunkard, A; Lu, X-Y

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers possible mechanisms for the Night Eating Syndrome (NES). NES is a disorder characterized by a delay in the circadian rhythm of meals and of several neuroendocrine factors. The disorder occurs in genetically vulnerable people when exposed to stress. No convincing mechanism of the NES has been reported until now. To search for the mechanisms of NES, the long term treatment of two highly perceptive patients with rapid onset of the disorder are described. Disruption of three neuroendocrine systems compatible with these histories are discussed: the glucocorticoid system, the melanocortin [corrected] system, and the serotonergic system. Current evidence favors the serotonergic system and this view is strongly supported by the great effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of NES. PMID:20571317

  16. Considering Subcontractors in Distributed Scrum Teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudzki, Jakub; Hammouda, Imed; Mikkola, Tuomas; Mustonen, Karri; Systä, Tarja

    In this chapter we present our experiences with working with subcontractors in distributed Scrum teams. The context of our experiences is a medium size software service provider company. We present the way the subcontractors are selected and how Scrum practices can be used in real-life projects. We discuss team arrangements and tools used in distributed development teams highlighting aspects that are important when working with subcontractors. We also present an illustrative example where different phases of a project working with subcontractors are described. The example also provides practical tips on work in such projects. Finally, we present a summary of our data that was collected from Scrum and non-Scrum projects implemented over a few years. This chapter should provide a practical point of view on working with subcontractors in Scrum teams for those who are considering such cooperation.

  17. Telemetry Ranging: Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Telemetry ranging is a proposed alternative to conventional two-way ranging for determining the two-way time delay between a Deep Space Station (DSS) and a spacecraft. The advantage of telemetry ranging is that the ranging signal on the uplink is not echoed to the downlink, so that telemetry alone modulates the downlink carrier. The timing information needed on the downlink, in order to determine the two-way time delay, is obtained from telemetry frames. This article describes the phase and timing estimates required for telemetry ranging, and how two-way range is calculated from these estimates. It explains why the telemetry ranging architecture does not require the spacecraft transponder to have a high-frequency or high-quality oscillator, and it describes how a telemetry ranging system can be infused in the Deep Space Network.

  18. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Stawarz, L.; Lawrence, A.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  19. Microgrid management architecture considering optimal battery dispatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Tim George

    Energy management and economic operation of microgrids with energy storage systems at the distribution level have attracted significant research interest in recent years. One of the challenges in this area has been the coordination of energy management functions with decentralized and centralized dispatch. In this thesis a distributed dispatch algorithm for a microgrid consisting of a photovoltaic source with energy storage which can work with a centralized dispatch algorithm that ensure stability of the microgrid is proposed. To this end, first a rule based dispatch algorithm is formulated which is based on maximum resource utilization and can work in both off grid and grid connected mode. Then a fixed horizon optimization algorithm which minimizes the cost of power taken from the grid is developed. In order to schedule the battery based on changes in the PV farm a predictive horizon methodology based optimization is designed. Further, the rule based and optimization based dispatch methodologies is linked to optimize the voltage deviations at the microgrid Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The main advantage of the proposed method is that, an optimal active power dispatch considering the nominal voltage bandwidth can be initiated for the microgrid in both grid connected or off grid mode of operation. Also, the method allows the grid operator to consider cost based optimal renewable generation scheduling and/or the maximum power extraction based modes of operation simultaneously or separately based on grid operating conditions and topologies. Further, the methods allows maintaining PCC voltage within the limits during these modes of operation and at the same time ensure that the battery dispatch is optimal.

  20. Epigenetic predictor of age.

    PubMed

    Bocklandt, Sven; Lin, Wen; Sehl, Mary E; Sánchez, Francisco J; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Horvath, Steve; Vilain, Eric

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of conception, we begin to age. A decay of cellular structures, gene regulation, and DNA sequence ages cells and organisms. DNA methylation patterns change with increasing age and contribute to age related disease. Here we identify 88 sites in or near 80 genes for which the degree of cytosine methylation is significantly correlated with age in saliva of 34 male identical twin pairs between 21 and 55 years of age. Furthermore, we validated sites in the promoters of three genes and replicated our results in a general population sample of 31 males and 29 females between 18 and 70 years of age. The methylation of three sites--in the promoters of the EDARADD, TOM1L1, and NPTX2 genes--is linear with age over a range of five decades. Using just two cytosines from these loci, we built a regression model that explained 73% of the variance in age, and is able to predict the age of an individual with an average accuracy of 5.2 years. In forensic science, such a model could estimate the age of a person, based on a biological sample alone. Furthermore, a measurement of relevant sites in the genome could be a tool in routine medical screening to predict the risk of age-related diseases and to tailor interventions based on the epigenetic bio-age instead of the chronological age. PMID:21731603

  1. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Nieset, R.T.

    1961-05-16

    A radio ranging device is described. It utilizes a super regenerative detector-oscillator in which echoes of transmitted pulses are received in proper phase to reduce noise energy at a selected range and also at multiples of the selected range.

  2. SAR ambiguous range suppression.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Pulsed Radar systems suffer range ambiguities, that is, echoes from pulses transmitted at different times arrive at the receiver simultaneously. Conventional mitigation techniques are not always adequate. However, pulse modulation schemes exist that allow separation of ambiguous ranges in Doppler space, allowing easy filtering of problematic ambiguous ranges.

  3. How reliable is apparent age at death on cadavers?

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Merusi, Nicolò; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of age at death for identification purposes is a frequent and tough challenge for forensic pathologists and anthropologists. Too frequently, visual assessment of age is performed on well-preserved corpses, a method considered subjective and full of pitfalls, but whose level of inadequacy no one has yet tested or proven. This study consisted in the visual estimation of the age of 100 cadavers performed by a total of 37 observers among those usually attending the dissection room. Cadavers were of Caucasian ethnicity, well preserved, belonging to individuals who died of natural death. All the evaluations were performed prior to autopsy. Observers assessed the age with ranges of 5 and 10 years, indicating also the body part they mainly observed for each case. Globally, the 5-year range had an accuracy of 35%, increasing to 69% with the 10-year range. The highest accuracy was in the 31-60 age category (74.7% with the 10-year range), and the skin seemed to be the most reliable age parameter (71.5% of accuracy when observed), while the face was considered most frequently, in 92.4% of cases. A simple formula with the general "mean of averages" in the range given by the observers and related standard deviations was then developed; the average values with standard deviations of 4.62 lead to age estimation with ranges of some 20 years that seem to be fairly reliable and suitable, sometimes in alignment with classic anthropological methods, in the age estimation of well-preserved corpses. PMID:24989440

  4. How reliable is apparent age at death on cadavers?

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Merusi, Nicolò; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of age at death for identification purposes is a frequent and tough challenge for forensic pathologists and anthropologists. Too frequently, visual assessment of age is performed on well-preserved corpses, a method considered subjective and full of pitfalls, but whose level of inadequacy no one has yet tested or proven. This study consisted in the visual estimation of the age of 100 cadavers performed by a total of 37 observers among those usually attending the dissection room. Cadavers were of Caucasian ethnicity, well preserved, belonging to individuals who died of natural death. All the evaluations were performed prior to autopsy. Observers assessed the age with ranges of 5 and 10 years, indicating also the body part they mainly observed for each case. Globally, the 5-year range had an accuracy of 35%, increasing to 69% with the 10-year range. The highest accuracy was in the 31-60 age category (74.7% with the 10-year range), and the skin seemed to be the most reliable age parameter (71.5% of accuracy when observed), while the face was considered most frequently, in 92.4% of cases. A simple formula with the general "mean of averages" in the range given by the observers and related standard deviations was then developed; the average values with standard deviations of 4.62 lead to age estimation with ranges of some 20 years that seem to be fairly reliable and suitable, sometimes in alignment with classic anthropological methods, in the age estimation of well-preserved corpses.

  5. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  6. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  7. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  8. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  9. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  10. Considering alternative calculations of weight suppression.

    PubMed

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Gorrell, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A; Earleywine, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    Weight suppression (WS)--the difference between an individual's highest adult weight and current weight-relates to eating pathology and weight gain; however, there are several methodological issues associated with its calculation. The current study presents four alternative methods of calculating WS and tests whether these methods differentially relate to maladaptive outcomes. Alternative methods of calculation included: (1) change in BMI units; (2) BMI category change; (3) percent change in weight; and (4) two different uses of regression residuals. A sample of undergraduate students (N=631) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, current and past weight, and teasing. Measures included the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Perceptions of Teasing Scale. Results indicated that components of WS, current weight and highest weight, were strongly related in the present sample. The traditional method of calculating WS was related to eating pathology, binge eating and teasing for both males and females. However, WS indices orthogonal to the highest weight did not correlate with eating pathology and teasing in both males and females; for females, WS indices orthogonal to current weight were also unrelated to eating pathology. Findings suggest that the link between WS and eating pathology is mitigated after accounting for an individual's highest weight. Future research should continue to assess the reliability and clinical utility of this construct and consider using alternative WS calculations. PMID:26643591

  11. Considering optogenetic stimulation for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marcus; Moser, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Electrical cochlear implants are by far the most successful neuroprostheses and have been implanted in over 300,000 people worldwide. Cochlear implants enable open speech comprehension in most patients but are limited in providing music appreciation and speech understanding in noisy environments. This is generally considered to be due to low frequency resolution as a consequence of wide current spread from stimulation contacts. Accordingly, the number of independently usable stimulation channels is limited to less than a dozen. As light can be conveniently focused, optical stimulation might provide an alternative approach to cochlear implants with increased number of independent stimulation channels. Here, we focus on summarizing recent work on optogenetic stimulation as one way to develop optical cochlear implants. We conclude that proof of principle has been presented for optogenetic stimulation of the cochlea and central auditory neurons in rodents as well as for the technical realization of flexible μLED-based multichannel cochlear implants. Still, much remains to be done in order to advance the technique for auditory research and even more for eventual clinical translation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25601298

  12. Spirituality and hearing voices: considering the relation

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Waegeli, Amanda; Watkins, John

    2013-01-01

    For millennia, some people have heard voices that others cannot hear. These have been variously understood as medical, psychological and spiritual phenomena. In this article we consider the specific role of spirituality in voice-hearing in two ways. First, we examine how spirituality may help or hinder people who hear voices. Benefits are suggested to include offering an alternative meaning to the experience which can give more control and comfort, enabling the development of specific coping strategies, increasing social support, and encouraging forgiveness. Potential drawbacks are noted to include increased distress and reduced control resulting from placing frightening or coercive constructions on voices, social isolation, the development of dysfunctional beliefs, and missed/delayed opportunities for successful mental health interventions. After examining problems surrounding classifying voices as either spiritual or psychotic, we move beyond an essentialist position to examine how such a classification is likely to be fluid, and how a given voice may move between these designations. We also highlight tensions between modernist and postmodernist approaches to voice-hearing. PMID:24273597

  13. A novel classification system for evolutionary aging theories.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Lucas S; Aigaki, Toshiro; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Balduino, Alex; Mânica da Cruz, Ivana B; Heddle, Jonathan G

    2013-01-01

    Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial), maladaptive (neutral), assisted death (detrimental), and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental). We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.

  14. Heterogeneity in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowsky, David J.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For a surprisingly large segment of the older population, chronological age is not a relevant marker for understanding, measuring, or experiencing healthy aging. Using the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study to examine the proportion of Americans exhibiting five markers of health and the variation in health-related quality of life across each of eight age groups, we find that a significant proportion of older Americans is healthy within every age group beginning at age 51, including among those aged 85+. For example, 48% of those aged 51–54 and 28% of those aged 85+ have excellent or very good self-reported health status; similarly, 89% of those aged 51–54 and 56% of those aged 85+ report no health-based limitations in work or housework. Also, health-related quality of life ranges widely within every age group, yet there is only a comparatively small variation in median quality of life across age groups, suggesting that older Americans today may be experiencing substantially different age-health trajectories than their predecessors. Patterns are similar for medical expenditures. Several policy implications are explored. PMID:24249734

  15. "Aging bull'.

    PubMed

    Geelhoed, G W

    1996-12-01

    An old bull, it is said by those who know, can have his troubles. Included among these are vertebral osteosclerosis and ankylosing spondylosis; this stiffening up limits, rather than accentuates, the value and reproductive potential of a stud bull past his prime. Associated with these abnormalities, however-and not seen in age-matched cows of comparable breeds-are fascinating endocrine neoplasms suggestive of a pattern that could be productive as a model of human hereditary endocrine abnormalities. Adjacent to the thyroid gland in other vertebrates are ultimobranchial bodies that are incorporated into the lateral thyroid lobes in primates as the parafollicular "C cells' of the thyroid. These are the cells in man that give rise to medullary thyroid cancer and are associated with calcitonin secretion, useful as a tumor marker. In aging bulls of whatever breed, nearly half exhibit abnormality of these ultimobranchial bodies: 20% show hyperplasia, and 30% have frank neoplasia. These ultimobranchial tumors appear in bulls passing 6 1/2 years in age, and are absent in young bulls and all cows of any age. Calcitonin can be demonstrated in the ultimobranchial tumors from bulls, and secretion is stimulated by calcium infusion, though serum calcium remains normal. The ultimobranchial tumors themselves can range from hyperplasia through adenoma to metastasizing carcinoma-in fact, representing one of the commoner cattle cancers. Parathyroid glands taken from bulls with these ultimobranchial tumors initially show evidence of inhibited secretory activity and morphologic atrophy, but later go on to develop hyperplasia and, eventually, autonomy. Cattle forage on calcium-rich diets. Bulls appear to respond to this calcium excess from the positive balance, but breeding cows have the unique calcium deficits of the high net loss of calcium through lactation and the large requirements of calcifying a fetal skeleton. Chronic stimulation of the APUD-derived ultimobranchial bodies by high

  16. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  17. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  18. Salvage Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases: Prognostic Factors to Consider in Patient Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Goldie; Zadeh, Gelareh; Gingras-Hill, Geneviève; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Laperriere, Normand J.; Bernstein, Mark; Jiang, Haiyan; Ménard, Cynthia; Chung, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is offered to patients for recurrent brain metastases after prior brain radiation therapy (RT), but few studies have evaluated the efficacy of salvage SRS or factors to consider in selecting patients for this treatment. This study reports overall survival (OS), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) after salvage SRS, and factors associated with outcomes. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective review of patients treated from 2009 to 2011 with salvage SRS after prior brain RT for brain metastases. Survival from salvage SRS and from initial brain metastases diagnosis (IBMD) was calculated. Univariate and multivariable (MVA) analyses included age, performance status, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, extracranial disease control, and time from initial RT to salvage SRS. Results: There were 106 patients included in the analysis with a median age of 56.9 years (range 32.5-82 years). A median of 2 metastases were treated per patient (range, 1-12) with a median dose of 21 Gy (range, 12-24) prescribed to the 50% isodose. With a median follow-up of 10.5 months (range, 0.1-68.2), LC was 82.8%, 60.1%, and 46.8% at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively. Median PFS was 6.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.9-7.6). Median OS was 11.7 months (95% CI = 8.1-13) from salvage SRS, and 22.1 months from IBMD (95% CI = 18.4-26.8). On MVA, age (P=.01; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07), extracranial disease control (P=.004; HR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.27-0.78), and interval from initial RT to salvage SRS of at least 265 days (P=.001; HR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.47-4.09) were predictive of OS. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that patients can have durable local control and survival after salvage SRS for recurrent brain metastases. In particular, younger patients with controlled extracranial disease and a durable response to initial brain RT are likely to benefit from salvage SRS.

  19. Geographic range limits: achieving synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the determinants of species' geographic range limits remains poorly integrated. In part, this is because of the diversity of perspectives on the issue, and because empirical studies have lagged substantially behind developments in theory. Here, I provide a broad overview, drawing together many of the disparate threads, considering, in turn, how influences on the terms of a simple single-population equation can determine range limits. There is theoretical and empirical evidence for systematic changes towards range limits under some circumstances in each of the demographic parameters. However, under other circumstances, no such changes may take place in particular parameters, or they may occur in a different direction, with limitation still occurring. This suggests that (i) little about range limitation can categorically be inferred from many empirical studies, which document change in only one demographic parameter, (ii) there is a need for studies that document variation in all of the parameters, and (iii) in agreement with theoretical evidence that range limits can be formed in the presence or absence of hard boundaries, environmental gradients or biotic interactions, there may be few general patterns as to the determinants of these limits, with most claimed generalities at least having many exceptions. PMID:19324809

  20. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  1. How Risky Is Marijuana Possession? Considering the Role of Age, Race, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Holly; Reuter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Arrest rates per capita for possession of marijuana have increased threefold over the last 20 years and now constitute the largest single arrest offense category. Despite the increase in arrest numbers, rates of use have remained stable during much of the same period. This article presents the first estimates of the arrest probabilities for…

  2. Flaw Stability Considering Residual Stress for Aging Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel Multiple-Purpose Canisters

    DOE PAGES

    Lam, Poh-Sang; Sindelar, Robert L.

    2016-04-28

    A typical multipurpose canister (MPC) is made of austenitic stainless steel and is loaded with spent nuclear fuel assemblies. Because heat treatment for stress relief is not required for the construction of the MPC, the canister is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in the weld or heat affected zone regions under long-term storage conditions. Logic for flaw acceptance is developed should crack-like flaws be detected by Inservice Inspection. The procedure recommended by API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, Fitness-for-Service, is used to calculate the instability crack length or depth by failure assessment diagram. It is demonstrated that the welding residual stress has amore » strong influence on the results.« less

  3. Considering "Robinson Crusoe's Liberty of Conscience" in an Age of Terror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Brian C.

    2007-01-01

    This essay explores a reading of "Robinson Crusoe" that suggests the novel has taken on new gravity after the first "preemptive" war in U.S. history, a war justified by the attempt to "spread freedom" to Iraq. It examines how Crusoe comes to understand the relationship between the state and the individual. Robinson Crusoe demonstrates that John…

  4. [Pneumoparotitis or pneumoparotid: a differential diagnosis to consider].

    PubMed

    Moënne, Karla B; Cordero, Jaime T; Poli, Cecilia H

    2009-12-01

    Childhood parotid swelling has a number of differential diagnosis mostly of inflammatory origin. Pneumoparotitis is an uncommon cause of parotid inflammation. It is caused by an excessive increase of intraoral pressure and secondary passage of air into the Stensen or Stenon duct and its glandular branches. Diagnostic clues can usually be obtained by a directed anamnesis. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography are essential diagnostic tools for this condition that has a benign course with spontaneous resolution in most cases. We present four cases of pneumoparotitis diagnosed by US in children 5 to 13 years of age. One of the cases occurred after the child chewed gum and made bubbles for a prolonged time-period and the other three after inflating baloons, making bubbles inside a pool and after playing the flute. All cases resolved spontaneously after two days. We suggest to consider pneumoparotitis in the differential diagnosis of parotid swelling in children. PMID:20098792

  5. [Should an odontoma be considered as a developing tumor?].

    PubMed

    Pouyat, X; Ballon, G; Jobard, P

    1985-01-01

    The authors review the classification of these odontogenic epithelial tumours and propose the hypothesis of a direct relationship between the ameloblastic odontoma and the complex odontoma, which represents the advanced stage of the first tumour. Thus, the odontoma can be considered to be an evolutive tumour. This hypothesis is illustrated by a case report which was associated with confusion concerning the histology. Similar cases in the literature show that the same lesion is described by a variety of names. Ameloblastic odontoma is the most logical terminology and should be the only one used. The appearance of differentiation towards the production of dental tissue in an ameloblastic type of tumour is therefore a good prognostic factor. These tumours predominantly occur in the posterior zones of the bony bases and are usually discovered between the ages of 10 and 30 years.

  6. Long range planning at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1987-01-01

    NASA's current plans for the U.S. space program are described. Consideration is given to the debate between manned or unmanned exploration of space, missions to the moon versus missions to Mars, and the exploration of space applications or science. NASA has created the Office of Policy and Planning and the Office of Exploration in order to improve the planning of future space activities. Long-range trends such as second-generation Shuttles, cargo launch vehicles with large capacity systems, an advanced Space Station, the use of robotics, closed cycle life support, health maintenance techniques, and the processing of extraterrestrial materials are considered.

  7. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  8. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  9. Mu-2 ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    The Mu-II Dual-Channel Sequential Ranging System designed as a model for future Deep Space Network ranging equipment is described. A list of design objectives is followed by a theoretical explanation of the digital demodulation techniques first employed in this machine. Hardware and software implementation are discussed, together with the details relating to the construction of the device. Two appendixes are included relating to the programming and operation of this equipment to yield the maximum scientific data.

  10. Reproductive ageing in women.

    PubMed

    Djahanbakhch, O; Ezzati, M; Zosmer, A

    2007-01-01

    The traditional view in respect to female reproduction is that the number of oocytes at birth is fixed and continuously declines towards the point when no more oocytes are available after menopause. In this review we briefly discuss the embryonic development of female germ cells and ovarian follicles. The ontogeny of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is then discussed, with a focus on pubertal transition and normal ovulatory menstrual cycles during female adult life. Biochemical markers of menopausal transition are briefly examined. We also examine the effects of age on female fertility, the contribution of chromosomal abnormalities of the oocyte to the observed decline in female fertility with age and the possible biological basis for the occurrence of such abnormalities. Finally, we consider the effects of maternal age on obstetric complications and perinatal outcome. New data that have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of mammalian oogenesis and follicular formation, and of the female reproductive ageing process, are also briefly considered.

  11. Aging and functional brain networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi D.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-07-11

    Aging is associated with changes in human brain anatomy and function and cognitive decline. Recent studies suggest the aging decline of major functional connectivity hubs in the 'default-mode' network (DMN). Aging effects on other networks, however, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that aging would be associated with a decline of short- and long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) hubs in the DMN. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated resting-state data sets corresponding to 913 healthy subjects from a public magnetic resonance imaging database using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM), a voxelwise and data-driven approach, together with parallel computing. Aging was associated with pronounced long-range FCD decreases in DMN and dorsal attention network (DAN) and with increases in somatosensory and subcortical networks. Aging effects in these networks were stronger for long-range than for short-range FCD and were also detected at the level of the main functional hubs. Females had higher short- and long-range FCD in DMN and lower FCD in the somatosensory network than males, but the gender by age interaction effects were not significant for any of the networks or hubs. These findings suggest that long-range connections may be more vulnerable to aging effects than short-range connections and that, in addition to the DMN, the DAN is also sensitive to aging effects, which could underlie the deterioration of attention processes that occurs with aging.

  12. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  13. Laser Ranging Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazolla, Sabino; Hemmati, Hamid; Tratt, David

    2003-01-01

    Laser Ranging Simulation Program (LRSP) is a computer program that predicts selected aspects of the performances of a laser altimeter or other laser ranging or remote-sensing systems and is especially applicable to a laser-based system used to map terrain from a distance of several kilometers. Designed to run in a more recent version (5 or higher) of the MATLAB programming language, LRSP exploits the numerical and graphical capabilities of MATLAB. LRSP generates a graphical user interface that includes a pop-up menu that prompts the user for the input of data that determine the performance of a laser ranging system. Examples of input data include duration and energy of the laser pulse, the laser wavelength, the width of the laser beam, and several parameters that characterize the transmitting and receiving optics, the receiving electronic circuitry, and the optical properties of the atmosphere and the terrain. When the input data have been entered, LRSP computes the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of range, signal and noise currents, and ranging and pointing errors.

  14. [Sexuality in aging].

    PubMed

    Berner, Yitshal N

    2002-07-01

    During aging, impairment in many physiological functions is manifested. This is exhibited in sexual functioning, which is an intricate interaction involving a number of systems: endocrinal, motor, sensor, physical and sensual. Sexual activity is a component of the well-being of the individual, while sexuality is part of self-identity at any age. Sexual activity is a primary base to human relations, and it is a basic right of every person in society. Sexuality and sexual activity are considered to be part of youth, hence, the combination of sexuality and aging is considered strange. In many instances, sexual activity in the elderly is considered exceptional and possibly requiring certain intervention of the society establishment. Recent technological advances enable sexual activity, despite physiological and even anatomical shortcomings. Knowledge of the changes in sexual activity with aging, as well as having open communication on the subject, are the best tools for maintaining sexual activity with appropriate limitation during aging. The purpose of this short review is to present the different aspects of sexuality and sexual activity in aging.

  15. Reconfigurable laser ranging instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneiter, John

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a fast, flexible, non-contact, eye-safe laser ranging instrument useful in a variety of industrial metrology situations, such as in-process machining control and part inspection. The system has variable computer-controlled standoff and depth of field, and can obtain 3-D images of surfaces within a range of from 1.5 ft to almost 10 ft from the final optical element. The minimum depth of field is about 3.5 in. at 1.5 ft and about 26 in. at the far range. The largest depth of field for which useful data are available is about 41 in. Resolution, with appropriate averaging, is about one part in 4000 of the depth of field, which implies a best case resolution for this prototype of 0.00075 in. System flexibility is achieved by computer controlled relative positioning of optical components.

  16. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  17. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  18. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  19. Satellite Laser Ranging operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is currently providing precision orbit determination for measurements of: 1) Ocean surface topography from satellite borne radar altimetry, 2) Spatial and temporal variations of the gravity field, 3) Earth and ocean tides, 4) Plate tectonic and regional deformation, 5) Post-glacial uplift and subsidence, 6) Variations in the Earth's center-of-mass, and 7) Variations in Earth rotation. SLR also supports specialized programs in time transfer and classical geodetic positioning, and will soon provide precision ranging to support experiments in relativity.

  20. Satellite laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, J. P.

    1992-03-01

    Laser ranging to satellites is one of the most precise methods for positio ning on the surface of the Earth. Reference is made to the need for precise posi tioning and to the improvement brought by the use of space techniques. Satellite Laser Ranging system is then described and in view of the high precision of the results derived from its measurements comments are made to some of the more important applications: high precision networks tectonic plate motion polar motion and earth''s rotation. Finally plans for system improvement in the near future are also presented.

  1. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  2. Relativity in Satellite Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, John C.

    2009-05-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) is the measurement of the round-trip light time of ultra-short laser pulses to satellites deploying specifically designed retroreflectors. The ranging data are used to determine cm-precision satellite orbits, temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field, mm/yr accuracy determinations of station motion on a global scale, and fundamental physical constants. The SLR stations form an important part of the international network of space geodetic observatories that define and maintain the International Terrestrial Reference System. Starting in 1964, the precision of satellite laser ranging has improved from a few meters to a few mm for the better stations. With a measurement accuracy better than the part-per-billion level, the effects General Relativity must be considered. These include additional perturbations to the orbit dynamics, corrections to the round-trip light-time computation, and fundamental aspects of space-time in the definition of the geocentric reference frame. While these effects are significant, they are generally not large enough to provide useful tests of General Relativity. An important exception, however, is the relativistic prediction of the Lense-Thirring orbit precession, i.e the effect of `frame-dragging’ on the satellite orbit due to the spinning Earth's mass. While the signal is large enough to be easily observed with satellite laser ranging, the Lense-Thirring measurement uncertainty is limited by the knowledge of the even zonal harmonics of the Earth's gravity field that also produce Newtonian secular orbit precessions. However, this problem has been overcome with the dramatically improved models resulting from the joint NASA-DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Using laser ranging to the LAGEOS satellites, it is possible to confirm the General Relativity prediction of the Lense-Thirring precession with an uncertainty better than 15%. This research was supported by the National

  3. Ageing changes in the eye

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, S M; Akhtar, S; Currie, Z

    2006-01-01

    Ageing changes occur in all the structures of the eye causing varied effects. This article attempts to review the parameters of what is considered within the “normal limits” of ageing so as to be able to distinguish those conditions from true disease processes. Improving understanding of the ageing changes will help understand some of the problems that the ageing population faces. PMID:16954455

  4. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Bogle, R.W.

    1960-11-22

    A description is given of a super-regenerative oscillator ranging device provided with radiating and receiving means and being capable of indicating the occurrence of that distance between itself and a reflecting object which so phases the received echo of energy of a preceding emitted oscillation that the intervals between oscillations become uniform.

  5. Agriculture, forest, and range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  6. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    In the area of crop specie identification, it has been found that temporal data analysis, preliminary stratification, and unequal probability analysis were several of the factors that contributed to high identification accuracies. Single data set accuracies on fields of greater than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) are in the 70- to 90-percent range; however, with the use of temporal data, accuracies of 95 percent have been reported. Identification accuracy drops off significantly on areas of less than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) as does measurement accuracy. Forest stratification into coniferous and deciduous areas has been accomplished to a 90- to 95-percent accuracy level. Using multistage sampling techniques, the timber volume of a national forest district has been estimated to a confidence level and standard deviation acceptable to the Forest Service at a very favorable cost-benefit time ratio. Range specie/plant community vegetation mapping has been accomplished at various levels of success (69- to 90-percent accuracy). However, several investigators have obtained encouraging initial results in range biomass (forage production) estimation and range readiness predictions. Soil association map correction and soil association mapping in new area appear to have been proven feasible on large areas; however, testing in a complex soil area should be undertaken.

  7. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  8. Institutional Long Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell Community Coll. and Technical Inst., Lenoir, NC.

    Long-range institutional planning has been in effect at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute since 1973. The first step in the process was the identification of planning areas: administration, organization, educational programs, learning resources, student services, faculty, facilities, maintenance/operation, and finances. The major…

  9. STDN ranging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

  10. Laser ranging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Center for Space Research efforts have focused on the near real-time analysis of Lageos laser ranging data and on the production of predictive ephemerides. The data are analyzed in terms of range bias, time bias, and internal precision, and estimates for the Earth orientation parameters X(sub p), Y(sub p) and UT1 are obtained. The results of these analyses are reported in a variety of formats. In addition several additional stations began sending not only quick-look observations but also normal points created on-site with new software. These normal points are transmitted in a new standard format different from either current quick-look or MERIT-II full-rate formats. Thus new preprocessing software was written and successfully tested on these data. Inspection of the Bendix produced Lageos full-rate normal points continued, with detailed analyses and filtering of all 1991 A and B release normal points for Lageos through the beginning of 1992. A summary of the combined full-rate and quick-look normal point data set created for 1991 is provided. New long-term ephemerides for Lageos satellite, as well as for Etalon-1 and Etalon-2 (the so-called high satellites used for laser ranging) were produced and distributed to the network stations in cooperation with the Crustal Dynamics Project and Eurolas. These predictions are used by essentially every laser ranging site obtaining regular returns from any of these three satellites.

  11. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  12. Fact Sheet: Range Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelson, C.; Fretter, E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Ames has a long tradition in leadership with the use of ballistic ranges and shock tubes for the purpose of studying the physics and phenomena associated with hypervelocity flight. Cutting-edge areas of research run the gamut from aerodynamics, to impact physics, to flow-field structure and chemistry. This legacy of testing began in the NACA era of the 1940's with the Supersonic Free Flight Tunnel, and evolved dramatically up through the late 1950s with the pioneering work in the Ames Hypersonic Ballistic Range. The tradition continued in the mid-60s with the commissioning of the three newest facilities: the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) in 1964, the Hypervelocity Free Flight Facility (HFFF) in 1965 and the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) in 1966. Today the Range Complex continues to provide unique and critical testing in support of the Nation's programs for planetary geology and geophysics; exobiology; solar system origins; earth atmospheric entry, planetary entry, and aerobraking vehicles; and various configurations for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft.

  13. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  14. Mobile satellite ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review of the constraints which have limited satellite ranging hardware and an outline of the steps which are underway to improve the status of the equipment in this area are given. In addition, some suggestions are presented for the utilization of newer instruments and for possible future research and development work in this area.

  15. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  16. A new target reconstruction method considering atmospheric refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhengrong; Yu, Lijuan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a new target reconstruction method considering the atmospheric refraction is presented to improve 3D reconstruction accuracy in long rang surveillance system. The basic idea of the method is that the atmosphere between the camera and the target is partitioned into several thin layers radially in which the density is regarded as uniform; Then the reverse tracking of the light propagation path from sensor to target was carried by applying Snell's law at the interface between layers; and finally the average of the tracked target's positions from different cameras is regarded as the reconstructed position. The reconstruction experiments were carried, and the experiment results showed that the new method have much better reconstruction accuracy than the traditional stereoscopic reconstruction method.

  17. Voltage Control in Distribution Systems Considered Reactive Power Output Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Masato; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    In recent years, distributed generation (DG) and renewable energy source (RES) are attracting special attention to distribution systems. Renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) system and wind turbine generator are used as a source of clean energy. However, the large amount of distributed generation causes voltage deviation beyond a statutory range in distribution systems. This paper proposes a methodology for voltage control by using inverters interfaced with DG and tap changing transformers. In the proposed method a one-day schedule of voltage references for the control devices are determined by an optimization technique based on predicted values of load demand and PV power generation. Furthermore, decided reactive power output according to the locally measurable voltage based on droop characteristic. Slope and base value on droop characteristic are selected by fuzzy control. The proposed method accomplishes improvement against voltage distribution considered the reactive power output sharing and reduction of distribution loss. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by using MATLAB®.

  18. Aging: overview.

    PubMed

    Harman, D

    2001-04-01

    Aging is a universal process that began with the origination of life about 3.5 billion years ago. Accumulation of the diverse deleterious changes produced by aging throughout the cells and tissues progressively impairs function and can eventually cause death. Aging changes can be attributed to development, genetic defects, the environment, disease, and an inborn process--the aging process. The chance of death at a given age serves as a measure of the average number of aging changes accumulated by persons of that age, that is, of physiologic age, and the rate of change of this measure as the rate of aging. Chances for death are decreased by improvements in general living conditions. As a result, during the past two millennia average life expectancy at birth (ALE-B), determined by the chances for death, of humans has risen from 30 years, in ancient Rome, to almost 80 years today in the developed countries. Chances for death in the developed countries are now near limiting values and ALE-Bs are approaching plateau values that are 6-9 years less than the potential maximum of about 85 years. Chances for death are now largely determined by the inherent aging process after age 28. Only 1.1% of female cohorts in Sweden die before this age; the remainder die off at an exponentially increasing rate with advancing age. The inherent aging process limits ALE-B to around 85 years, and the maximum life span (MLS) to about 122 years. Past efforts to increase ALE-B did not require an understanding of aging. Such knowledge will be necessary in the future to significantly increase ALE-B and MLS, and to satisfactorily ameliorate the medical, economic, and social problems associated with advancing age. The many theories advanced to account for aging should be used, to the extent it is feasible, to help with these important practical problems, including applications of the free radical theory of aging. Past measures evolved by societies to ensure adequate care for older individuals are

  19. Age, Intelligence, and Inspection Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettelbeck, T.; Lally, M.

    1979-01-01

    Ten young males (aged 16-to-22 years) whose IQ scores ranged from 51 to 77 were compared on a simple discrimination task with ten male university students (aged 18-to-23 years) and 28 nonretarded male children (aged 7-to-11 years) in order to determine if reaction time is a consequence of mental retardation.

  20. Importance Has Been Considered in Satisfaction Evaluation: An Experimental Examination of Locke's Range-of-Affect Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-huei; Yao, Grace

    2007-01-01

    Importance weighting is a common practice in quality of life (QOL) measurement research. Based on the widespread idea that important domains should make a greater contribution to individuals' QOL total score, the weighting procedure of multiplying item satisfaction by an item's importance has been adopted in many QOL instruments. Locke's [1969,…

  1. Aging studies of Kevlar 49 fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.J.; Pruneda, C.O.; Kong, F.M.

    1983-11-01

    The aging mechanisms in service environment of Kevlar 49 fibers, E.I. duPont, (poly(p-phenylene)terephthalamide) are reviewed. The principal aging mechanisms considered are (i) u.v.-, (ii) hydrolytic- and (iii) stress-induced macromolecular chain scission and microvoid growth. U.V.-induced strength degradation can be significant as a result of photo-oxidative and photodegradative radical formation but in Kevlar 49-epoxy composites only the exterior yarn layer is deteriorated. Hydrolytic chain scission of the amide linkage and corresponding fiber strength deterioration is considered in terms of R.H., time, temperature and stress level. The rates of hydrolytic degradation at 100% R.H. in the 100 to 200/sup 0/C range are reported. The estimated rates of fiber degradation in various service environment conditions are also reported and shown not to be serious. The stress-induced aging of Kevlar 49 fibers is considered in terms of the growth and coalescence of inherent microvoids along the fiber axis together with the generation of new microvoids. (These growth processes involve no detectable macromolecular chain scission or deterioration in fiber strength.) At a critical microvoid volume fraction catastrophic failure occurs by interconnection of such voids.

  2. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A ``laser tape measure`` for measuring distance is disclosed which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%. 7 figs.

  3. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A "laser tape measure" for measuring distance which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%.

  4. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  5. Gas cooking range

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, R.K.; Narang, K.

    1984-02-14

    An energy-efficient gas cooking range features an oven section with improved heat circulation and air preheat, a compact oven/broiler burner, a smoke-free drip pan, an efficient piloted ignition, flame-containing rangetop burner rings, and a small, portable oven that can be supported on the burner rings. Panels spaced away from the oven walls and circulation fans provide very effective air flow within the oven. A gas shutoff valve automatically controls the discharge of heated gases from the oven so that they are discharged only when combustion is occurring.

  6. [Salutogenesis in old age].

    PubMed

    Wiesmann, U; Rölker, S; Hannich, H-J

    2004-10-01

    In this contribution, the significance of the salutogenic model (Antonovsky) and its core concept-the sense of coherence-for research into "successful aging" is explicated on the background of a gerodynamic perspective (Schroots). Common to both approaches is the idea that the basic principle of life is based on imbalance, disease, and suffering (heterostasis). According to this pessimistic view, aging is considered as the individual time dimension on which these inevitable impairments in biological, behavioral, and social respects take place. The continuous increase in entropy (disorder) will finally result in the death of the organism. In the face of gerontological research showing variability and individual plasticity in aging processes-especially for the third age-, the salutogenic question is why some people generally become (very) old and stay healthy. According to the salutogenic model, the sense of coherence determines the (re-)production of order over the life span and mediates the relationship between resources/stressors and health outcome. Considering activity/disengagement theory and the selective optimization with compensation model as an example, the integrative potential of the salutogenic model is shown. Finally, the value of the salutogenic model for the fourth age is discussed. Healthy aging is one chance of human existence, but in no way a collective duty that should be imposed on the individual.

  7. Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on aging parents. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include adult children, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…

  8. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

  9. Monocular visual ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary; Hunt, Shawn

    2008-04-01

    The vision system of a mobile robot for checkpoint and perimeter security inspection performs multiple functions: providing surveillance video, providing high resolution still images, and providing video for semi-autonomous visual navigation. Mid-priced commercial digital cameras support the primary inspection functions. Semi-autonomous visual navigation is a tertiary function whose purpose is to reduce the burden of teleoperation and free the security personnel for their primary functions. Approaches to robot visual navigation require some form of depth perception for speed control to prevent the robot from colliding with objects. In this paper present the initial results of an exploration of the capabilities and limitations of using a single monocular commercial digital camera for depth perception. Our approach combines complementary methods in alternating stationary and moving behaviors. When the platform is stationary, it computes a range image from differential blur in the image stack collected at multiple focus settings. When the robot is moving, it extracts an estimate of range from the camera auto-focus function, and combines this with an estimate derived from angular expansion of a constellation of visual tracking points.

  10. Range Process Simulation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  11. [How the Congolese young people consider their elderly].

    PubMed

    Bikouta, Firmin; Bileckot, Richard; Cauli, Marie; Massamba, Honorine; Puisieux, François

    2015-12-01

    The traditional image of the African family that has long grant a place of choice to the elderly does match maybe any more the reality of today. The WHO report on violence and health 2002 and some studies carried out in other African countries suggest that elder abuse also exists in sub-Saharan Africa. To describe how the young Congolese adults consider their elderly and mistreatments that can result. A cross sectional study was realized between January and April, 2008 with 300 youth and adults aged 15 to 55 years (203 ≤ 25 years old), living in Brazzaville or in Pointe-Noire. The sample of 300 people was constituted according to the method of non-probability sampling. The data collection was made on the ground by state employees of the Ministry of Health, social affairs and family by means of a pre-established questionnaire containing open and closed questions. Youth and adults have contrasted and contradictory representations of the elderly. In 70% of the cases they said have good relationships with the elderly and qualified them as wise persons and as models but, conversely, more than 50% of them found them unwanted and disturbing. Witchcraft accusations are frequent with often serious consequences. Social transformations dispossess little by little the elderly people of their status and their prerogatives in Congo-Brazzaville. They come along with a change of look and behavior of the young adults towards them. Elder abuse in Congo-Brazzaville is an underestimated problem insufficiently denounced and fought.

  12. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typically sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream. 2 figs.

  13. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Marion W.

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  14. Long-range connectomics.

    PubMed

    Jbabdi, Saad; Behrens, Timothy E

    2013-12-01

    Decoding neural algorithms is one of the major goals of neuroscience. It is generally accepted that brain computations rely on the orchestration of neural activity at local scales, as well as across the brain through long-range connections. Understanding the relationship between brain activity and connectivity is therefore a prerequisite to cracking the neural code. In the past few decades, tremendous technological advances have been achieved in connectivity measurement techniques. We now possess a battery of tools to measure brain activity and connections at all available scales. A great source of excitement are the new in vivo tools that allow us to measure structural and functional connections noninvasively. Here, we discuss how these new technologies may contribute to deciphering the neural code.

  15. Premature Aging in Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Afton L; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is highly prevalent in older adults, and until recently, was considered to be common but relatively "benign." Mounting evidence, however, suggests that some of the 116 million US adults who suffer from chronic pain are also at an increased risk for developing age-related diseases prematurely, suffering earlier cognitive and physical decline, and experiencing earlier mortality. Given the aging US population and the prevalence of chronic pain along with related healthcare consequences, there is a critical need to better understand the relationship between aging and chronic pain. Herein, we focus on one chronic pain state, fibromyalgia, and provide an overview of the evidence suggesting that individuals with this chronic pain condition show signs of premature aging.

  16. 40 CFR 146.34 - Information to be considered by the Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... well the Director shall consider the following: (1) Information required in 40 CFR 144.31 and 144.31(g... injected; (ii) Average and maximum injection pressure; and (iii) Qualitative analysis and ranges in... specified in 40 CFR part 2. If the information is proprietary an applicant may, in lieu of the ranges...

  17. Preferred listening levels of mobile phone programs when considering subway interior noise

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jyaehyoung; Lee, Donguk; Han, Woojae

    2016-01-01

    Today, people listen to music loud using personal listening devices. Although a majority of studies have reported that the high volume played on these listening devices produces a latent risk of hearing problems, there is a lack of studies on “double noise exposures” such as environmental noise plus recreational noise. The present study measures the preferred listening levels of a mobile phone program with subway interior noise for 74 normal-hearing participants in five age groups (ranging from 20s to 60s). The speakers presented the subway interior noise at 73.45 dB, while each subject listened to three application programs [Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB), music, game] for 30 min using a tablet personal computer with an earphone. The participants’ earphone volume levels were analyzed using a sound level meter and a 2cc coupler. Overall, the results showed that those in their 20s listened to the three programs significantly louder with DMB set at significantly higher volume levels than for the other programs. Higher volume levels were needed for middle frequency compared to the lower and higher frequencies. We concluded that any potential risk of noise-induced hearing loss for mobile phone users should be communicated when users listen regularly, although the volume level was not high enough that the users felt uncomfortable. When considering individual listening habits on mobile phones, further study to predict total accumulated environmental noise is still needed. PMID:26780960

  18. Preferred listening levels of mobile phone programs when considering subway interior noise.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jyaehyoung; Lee, Donguk; Han, Woojae

    2016-01-01

    Today, people listen to music loud using personal listening devices. Although a majority of studies have reported that the high volume played on these listening devices produces a latent risk of hearing problems, there is a lack of studies on "double noise exposures" such as environmental noise plus recreational noise. The present study measures the preferred listening levels of a mobile phone program with subway interior noise for 74 normal-hearing participants in five age groups (ranging from 20s to 60s). The speakers presented the subway interior noise at 73.45 dB, while each subject listened to three application programs [Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB), music, game] for 30 min using a tablet personal computer with an earphone. The participants' earphone volume levels were analyzed using a sound level meter and a 2cc coupler. Overall, the results showed that those in their 20s listened to the three programs significantly louder with DMB set at significantly higher volume levels than for the other programs. Higher volume levels were needed for middle frequency compared to the lower and higher frequencies. We concluded that any potential risk of noise-induced hearing loss for mobile phone users should be communicated when users listen regularly, although the volume level was not high enough that the users felt uncomfortable. When considering individual listening habits on mobile phones, further study to predict total accumulated environmental noise is still needed. PMID:26780960

  19. 20 CFR 416.1872 - Who is considered a student.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who is considered a student. 416.1872 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Student for Purposes of the Student Earned Income Exclusion § 416.1872 Who is considered a student. We consider you to be a student if you are under 22...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1872 - Who is considered a student.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is considered a student. 416.1872 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Student for Purposes of the Student Earned Income Exclusion § 416.1872 Who is considered a student. We consider you to be a student if you are under 22...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1872 - Who is considered a student.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who is considered a student. 416.1872 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Student for Purposes of the Student Earned Income Exclusion § 416.1872 Who is considered a student. We consider you to be a student if you are under 22...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1872 - Who is considered a student.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who is considered a student. 416.1872 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Student for Purposes of the Student Earned Income Exclusion § 416.1872 Who is considered a student. We consider you to be a student if you are under 22...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1872 - Who is considered a student.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who is considered a student. 416.1872 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Student for Purposes of the Student Earned Income Exclusion § 416.1872 Who is considered a student. We consider you to be a student if you are under 22...

  4. Altered Proteins in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Elobeid, Adila; Libard, Sylwia; Leino, Marina; Popova, Svetlana N.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of common altered brain proteins in 296 cognitively unimpaired subjects ranging from age 50 to 102 years. The incidence and the stage of hyperphosphorylated-τ (HPτ), β-amyloid, α-synuclein (αS), and transactive response DNA (TDP) binding protein 43 (TDP43)-immunoreactivity (-IR) increased with age. HPτ-IR was observed in 98% of the subjects; the locus coeruleus was solely affected in 46%, and 79% of the subjects were in Braak stages a to II. β-Amyloid was seen in 47% of subjects and the Thal phase correlated with the HPτ Braak stage and age. Intermediate Alzheimer disease-related pathology (ADRP) was seen in 12%; 52% of the subjects with HPτ-IR fulfilled criteria for definite primary age-related tauopathy (PART). The incidence of concomitant pathology (αS, TDP43) did not differ between those with PART and those with ADRP but the former were younger. TDP43-IR was observed in 36%; the most frequently affected region was the medulla; αS-IR was observed in 19% of subjects. In 41% of the subjects from 80 to 89 years at death, 3 altered proteins were seen in the brain. Thus, altered proteins are common in the brains of cognitively unimpaired aged subjects; this should be considered while developing diagnostic biomarkers, particularly for identifying subjects at early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26979082

  5. Altered Proteins in the Aging Brain.

    PubMed

    Elobeid, Adila; Libard, Sylwia; Leino, Marina; Popova, Svetlana N; Alafuzoff, Irina

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence of common altered brain proteins in 296 cognitively unimpaired subjects ranging from age 50 to 102 years. The incidence and the stage of hyperphosphorylated-τ (HPτ), β-amyloid, α-synuclein (αS), and transactive response DNA (TDP) binding protein 43 (TDP43)-immunoreactivity (-IR) increased with age. HPτ-IR was observed in 98% of the subjects; the locus coeruleus was solely affected in 46%, and 79% of the subjects were in Braak stages a to II. β-Amyloid was seen in 47% of subjects and the Thal phase correlated with the HPτ Braak stage and age. Intermediate Alzheimer disease-related pathology (ADRP) was seen in 12%; 52% of the subjects with HPτ-IR fulfilled criteria for definite primary age-related tauopathy (PART). The incidence of concomitant pathology (αS, TDP43) did not differ between those with PART and those with ADRP but the former were younger. TDP43-IR was observed in 36%; the most frequently affected region was the medulla; αS-IR was observed in 19% of subjects. In 41% of the subjects from 80 to 89 years at death, 3 altered proteins were seen in the brain. Thus, altered proteins are common in the brains of cognitively unimpaired aged subjects; this should be considered while developing diagnostic biomarkers, particularly for identifying subjects at early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26979082

  6. Curcumin and aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curcumin has been used commonly as a spice, food additive, and an herbal medicine worldwide. Known as a bioactive polyphenolic, curcumin has a broad range of beneficial properties to human health. Recently, active research on curcumin with respect to aging and related traits in model organisms has d...

  7. Is extinction age dependent?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, N.A.; Arnold, A.J.; Parker, W.C.; Huffer, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    Age-dependent extinction is an observation with important biological implications. Van Valen's Red Queen hypothesis triggered three decades of research testing its primary implication: that age is independent of extinction. In contrast to this, later studies with species-level data have indicated the possible presence of age dependence. Since the formulation of the Red Queen hypothesis, more powerful tests of survivorship models have been developed. This is the first report of the application of the Cox Proportional Hazards model to paleontological data. Planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies allow the taxonomic and precise stratigraphic resolution necessary for the Cox model. As a whole, planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies clearly show age-dependent extinction. In particular, the effect is attributable to the presence of shorter-ranged species (range < 4 myr) following extinction events. These shorter-ranged species also possess tests with unique morphological architecture. The morphological differences are probably epiphenomena of underlying developmental and heterochronic processes of shorter-ranged species that survived various extinction events. Extinction survivors carry developmental and morphological characteristics into postextinction recovery times, and this sets them apart from species populations established independently of extinction events. Copyright ?? 2006, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  8. Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1982-03-01

    The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm.

  9. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  10. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  11. Kidney ageing and renal excretion of amylase.

    PubMed

    Brohée, D; Rondelez, L; Bain, H; de Maertelaer, V

    1982-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) was determined in 180 patients, age range 18-93 years. An inverse correlation was found between ACCR and creatinine clearance (r = -0.40, p less than 0.001) in keeping with the known inverse relationship between the sieving fraction of macromolecules and the glomerular filtration rate. The fractional clearance of amylase was not significantly affected by amylasemia nor by age when the creatinine clearance was also considered in a multiple regression analysis. No increase in ACCR was observed in patients with low molecular weight proteinuria or with induced urine dilution. The authors assume that the tubular reabsorption of amylase is minimal and that the enhancement of ACCR in the elderly mainly reflects modifications in the glomerular filtration dynamics.

  12. Kidney ageing and renal excretion of amylase.

    PubMed

    Brohée, D; Rondelez, L; Bain, H; de Maertelaer, V

    1982-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) was determined in 180 patients, age range 18-93 years. An inverse correlation was found between ACCR and creatinine clearance (r = -0.40, p less than 0.001) in keeping with the known inverse relationship between the sieving fraction of macromolecules and the glomerular filtration rate. The fractional clearance of amylase was not significantly affected by amylasemia nor by age when the creatinine clearance was also considered in a multiple regression analysis. No increase in ACCR was observed in patients with low molecular weight proteinuria or with induced urine dilution. The authors assume that the tubular reabsorption of amylase is minimal and that the enhancement of ACCR in the elderly mainly reflects modifications in the glomerular filtration dynamics. PMID:6186575

  13. Birthdate and Performance: The Relative Age Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, Roger H.

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the concept of "relative age" and to review recent research findings that have demonstrated that relative age is related to a variety of academic and athletic performance measures. The paper is divided into six parts: (1) the relative age concept; (2) relative age and achievement in sports; (3) relative age…

  14. Wisdom-Related Knowledge: Age/Cohort Differences in Response to Life-Planning Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jacqui; Baltes, Paul B.

    1990-01-01

    Verbal think-aloud protocols were collected from 60 subjects in 3 age groups ranging from 25 through 81 years. Only 5 percent of the responses were considered wise when rated on the criteria of rich factual and procedural knowledge, lifespan contextualism, relativism, and the recognition and management of uncertainty. Wise responses were equally…

  15. Comparison of optical and electrical investigations of meat ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopyeva, Elena; Tománek, Pavel; Kocová, Lucie; Palai-Dany, Tomáš; Balík, Zdeněk.; Škarvada, Pavel; Grmela, Lubomír.

    2013-05-01

    Different ultrasonic, electromagnetic, electrical and optical methods are used for meat ageing detection. Muscles are turbid anisotropic media, they exhibit changes in electrical and optical properties according to the direction of the electrical and optical fields in the sample. The work assesses the feasibility of impedance measurements for meat ageing detection and their comparison with optical measurement of scattered light. The pork chop slices were used for their relative homogeneity. An investigation was carried out for the detection of the ageing of unpacked slices exposed directly to the air, and other packed in polyethylene bags. The electrical method is a promising method due to the possibility of getting much information and realizing cheap and fast enough measurement systems. The optical method allows measure the rotation of polarization plane in the range of 95 degrees within considered period. Nevertheless, further work has to be provided to determine closer relationships between optical scattering characteristics, electrical anisotropy in ageing-related tissue structural properties.

  16. Chemical Mixtures: Considering the Evolution of Toxicology and Chemical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Monosson, Emily

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of chemical mixtures is a complex topic for toxicologists, regulators, and the public. In this article the linkage between the science of toxicology and the needs of governmental regulatory agencies in the United States is explored through an overview of environmental regulations enacted over the past century and a brief history of modern toxicology. One of the goals of this overview is to encourage both regulators and scientists to consider the benefits and limitations of this science–regulatory relationship as they tackle existing issues such as chemical mixtures. It is clear that a) over the past 100 years chemical regulation and toxicologic research, have in large part, shared a common emphasis on characterization and regulation of individual chemicals. But chemical mixtures have been, and continue to be, evaluated at hazardous waste sites around the United States. For this reason the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for chemical mixtures assessment are also reviewed. These guidelines highlight the current practice of mixtures assessment, which relies primarily on the existing single-chemical database. It is also clear that b) the science and assessment of chemical mixtures are moving forward through the combined efforts of regulatory agencies and scientists from a broad range of disciplines, including toxicology. Because toxicology is at this exciting crossroads, particular attention should be paid to the forces (e.g., public demands, regulatory needs, funding, academic interests) that both promote and limit the growth of this expanding discipline. PMID:15811826

  17. The adhesion model considering capillarity for gecko attachment system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Wan; Bhushan, Bharat

    2008-03-01

    Geckos make use of approximately a million microscale hairs (setae) that branch off into hundreds of nanoscale spatulae to cling to different smooth and rough surfaces and detach at will. This hierarchical surface construction gives the gecko the adaptability to create a large real area of contact with surfaces. It is known that van der Waals force is the primary mechanism used to adhere to surfaces, and capillary force is a secondary effect that can further increase adhesive force. To investigate the effects of capillarity on gecko adhesion, we considered the capillary force as well as the solid-to-solid interaction. The capillary force expressed in terms of elliptical integral is calculated by numerical method to cope with surfaces with a wide range of contact angles. The adhesion forces exerted by a single gecko spatula in contact with planes with different contact angles for various relative humidities are calculated, and the contributions of capillary force to total adhesion force are evaluated. The simulation results are compared with experimental data. Finally, using the three-level hierarchical model recently developed to simulate a gecko seta contacting with random rough surface, the effect of the relative humidity and the hydrophobicity of surface on the gecko adhesion is investigated.

  18. Vertical Mandibular Range of Motion in Anesthetized Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Gracis, Margherita; Zini, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The main movement of the temporomandibular joint of dogs and cats is in vertical dimensions (opening and closing the mouth). An objective evaluation of the vertical mandibular range of motion (vmROM) may favor early diagnosis of a number of conditions affecting the joint mobility. vmROM, corresponding to the maximum interincisal opening, was measured in 260 dogs and 127 cats anesthetized between June 2011 and April 2015 because of oral or maxillofacial problems and procedures. Animals with a known history of or having current diseases considered to hamper mandibular extension were excluded from the study. Dogs were divided into four subgroups, based on body weight: subgroup 1 (≤5.0 kg, 51 dogs), subgroup 2 (5.1-10.0 kg, 56 dogs), subgroup 3 (10.1-25 kg, 66 dogs), and subgroup 4 (>25.1 kg, 87 dogs). The mean vmROM of all dogs was 107 ± 30 mm (median 109, range 40-180); in subgroup 1 was 67 ± 15 mm (median 67, range 40-100), in subgroup 2 was 93 ± 15 mm (median 93, range 53-128), in subgroup 3 was 115 ± 19 mm (median 116, range 59-154), and in subgroup 4 was 134 ± 19 mm (median 135, range 93-180). The mean vmROM of the cats was 62 ± 8 mm (median 63, range 41-84). Correlations between vmROM, age, sex, and body weight were evaluated. In dogs, vmROM did not correlate with age, and in cats a weak positive correlation was found. vmROM and body weight were positively correlated in both populations, except dog subgroup 2. Overall, mean vmROM and body weight were significantly higher in male than in female, both in dogs and in cats. However, vmROM did not differ between sexes in any of the canine subgroups, and only in subgroup 4 male dogs were significantly heavier than females. Evaluation of vmROM should be incorporated into every diagnostic examination as it may be valuable in showing changes over time for every single patient. PMID:27446939

  19. Vertical Mandibular Range of Motion in Anesthetized Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gracis, Margherita; Zini, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The main movement of the temporomandibular joint of dogs and cats is in vertical dimensions (opening and closing the mouth). An objective evaluation of the vertical mandibular range of motion (vmROM) may favor early diagnosis of a number of conditions affecting the joint mobility. vmROM, corresponding to the maximum interincisal opening, was measured in 260 dogs and 127 cats anesthetized between June 2011 and April 2015 because of oral or maxillofacial problems and procedures. Animals with a known history of or having current diseases considered to hamper mandibular extension were excluded from the study. Dogs were divided into four subgroups, based on body weight: subgroup 1 (≤5.0 kg, 51 dogs), subgroup 2 (5.1–10.0 kg, 56 dogs), subgroup 3 (10.1–25 kg, 66 dogs), and subgroup 4 (>25.1 kg, 87 dogs). The mean vmROM of all dogs was 107 ± 30 mm (median 109, range 40–180); in subgroup 1 was 67 ± 15 mm (median 67, range 40–100), in subgroup 2 was 93 ± 15 mm (median 93, range 53–128), in subgroup 3 was 115 ± 19 mm (median 116, range 59–154), and in subgroup 4 was 134 ± 19 mm (median 135, range 93–180). The mean vmROM of the cats was 62 ± 8 mm (median 63, range 41–84). Correlations between vmROM, age, sex, and body weight were evaluated. In dogs, vmROM did not correlate with age, and in cats a weak positive correlation was found. vmROM and body weight were positively correlated in both populations, except dog subgroup 2. Overall, mean vmROM and body weight were significantly higher in male than in female, both in dogs and in cats. However, vmROM did not differ between sexes in any of the canine subgroups, and only in subgroup 4 male dogs were significantly heavier than females. Evaluation of vmROM should be incorporated into every diagnostic examination as it may be valuable in showing changes over time for every single patient. PMID:27446939

  20. Remote sensing applications for range management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of satellite information for range management is discussed. The use of infrared photography and color photography for analysis of vegetation cover is described. The methods of interpreting LANDSAT imagery are highlighted and possible applications of such interpretive methods to range management are considered. The concept of using LANDSAT as a sampling frame for renewable natural resource inventories was examined. It is concluded that a blending of LANDSAT vegetation data with soils and digital terrain data, will define a basic sampling unit that is appropriate for range management utilization.

  1. MODIS Vegetation Indices time series improvement considering real acquisition dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, S.; Borgogno Mondino, E.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite Vegetation Indices (VI) time series images are widely used for the characterization phenology, which requires a high temporal accuracy of the satellite data. The present work is based on the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD13Q1 product - Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 250m, which is generated through a maximum value compositing process that reduces the number of cloudy pixels and excludes, when possible, off-nadir ones. Because of its 16-days compositing period, the distance between two adjacent-in-time values within each pixel NDVI time series can range from 1 to 32 days, thus not acceptable for phenologic studies. Moreover, most of the available smoothing algorithms, which are widely used for phenology characterization, assume that data points are equidistant in time and contemporary over the image. The objective of this work was to assess temporal features of NDVI time series over a test area, composed by Castanea sativa (chestnut) and Fagus sylvatica (beech) pure pixels within the Piemonte region in Northwestern Italy. Firstly, NDVI, Pixel Reliability (PR) and Composite Day of the Year (CDOY) data ranging from 2000 to 2011 were extracted from MOD13Q1 and corresponding time series were generated (in further computations, 2000 was not considered since it is not complete because acquisition began in February and calibration is unreliable until October). Analysis of CDOY time series (containing the actual reference date of each NDVI value) over the selected study areas showed NDVI values to be prevalently generated from data acquired at the centre of each 16-days period (the 9th day), at least constantly along the year. This leads to consider each original NDVI value nominally placed to the centre of its 16-days reference period. Then, a new NDVI time series was generated: a) moving each NDVI value to its actual "acquisition" date, b) interpolating the obtained temporary time series through SPLINE functions, c) sampling such

  2. Long-Range Planning: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Carmen L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of one model to guide the long-range planning process of the Department of Residential Life, within the Division of Student Affairs and Services, at the University of Connecticut. Suggestions derived from the use of the model over a three-year planning cycle are presented for other housing officers to consider. (NB)

  3. [How the Congolese young people consider their elderly].

    PubMed

    Bikouta, Firmin; Bileckot, Richard; Cauli, Marie; Massamba, Honorine; Puisieux, François

    2015-12-01

    The traditional image of the African family that has long grant a place of choice to the elderly does match maybe any more the reality of today. The WHO report on violence and health 2002 and some studies carried out in other African countries suggest that elder abuse also exists in sub-Saharan Africa. To describe how the young Congolese adults consider their elderly and mistreatments that can result. A cross sectional study was realized between January and April, 2008 with 300 youth and adults aged 15 to 55 years (203 ≤ 25 years old), living in Brazzaville or in Pointe-Noire. The sample of 300 people was constituted according to the method of non-probability sampling. The data collection was made on the ground by state employees of the Ministry of Health, social affairs and family by means of a pre-established questionnaire containing open and closed questions. Youth and adults have contrasted and contradictory representations of the elderly. In 70% of the cases they said have good relationships with the elderly and qualified them as wise persons and as models but, conversely, more than 50% of them found them unwanted and disturbing. Witchcraft accusations are frequent with often serious consequences. Social transformations dispossess little by little the elderly people of their status and their prerogatives in Congo-Brazzaville. They come along with a change of look and behavior of the young adults towards them. Elder abuse in Congo-Brazzaville is an underestimated problem insufficiently denounced and fought. PMID:26707558

  4. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H; Rosenberg, Irwin H; Oakley, Godfrey P; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2010-03-01

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, including the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in the elderly in wealthier countries, and the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin B12 status. From a global perspective, the main cause of inadequate intake and status is a low intake of animal-source foods; even lacto-ovo vegetarians have lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations than omnivores, and for various reasons many populations have limited consumption of animal-source foods. Infants are vitamin B12-depleted from early infancy if their mothers' vitamin B12 status and intake are poor during pregnancy and lactation. Even in the United States, more than 20% of the elderly have serum vitamin B12 concentrations that indicate depletion, and an additional 6% have deficiency, primarily due to gastric atrophy, which impairs the absorption of the vitamin from food but usually not from supplements or fortified foods. Although the evidence is limited, it shows that fortified flour, consumed as bread, can improve vitamin B12 status. Where vitamin B12 fortification is implemented, the recommendation is to add 20 microg/kg flour, assuming consumption of 75 to 100 g flour per day, to provide 75% to 100% of the Estimated Average Requirement; the amount of the vitamin that can be added is limited by its cost. The effectiveness of this level of addition for improving vitamin B12 status in programs needs to be determined and monitored. In addition, further research should evaluate the bioavailability of the vitamin from fortified flour by elderly people with food cobalamin malabsorption and gastric atrophy.

  5. Ageing and taste.

    PubMed

    Methven, Lisa; Allen, Victoria J; Withers, Caroline A; Gosney, Margot A

    2012-11-01

    Taste perception has been studied frequently in young and older adult groups. This paper systematically reviews these studies to determine the effect of ageing on taste perception and establish the reported extent of sensory decline. Five databases were searched from 1900 to April 2012. Articles relating to healthy ageing in human subjects were included, reviewed and rated (Downs and Black scoring system). Sixty-nine studies investigated the effect of ageing on taste perception; forty examined detection thresholds of which twenty-three provided sufficient data for meta-analysis, eighteen reported identification thresholds and twenty-five considered supra-threshold intensity perception. Researchers investigating detection thresholds considered between one and thirteen taste compounds per paper. Overall, the consensus was that taste detection thresholds increased with age (Hedges' g = 0·91, P < 0·001), across all taste modalities. Identification thresholds were reported to be higher for older adults in seventeen out of eighteen studies. Sixteen out of twenty-five studies reported perception of taste intensity at supra-threshold levels to be significantly lower for older adults. However, six out of nine studies concerning sucrose found perceived intensity of sweet taste not to diminish with age. The findings of this systematic review suggest taste perception declines during the healthy ageing process, although the extent of decline varies between studies. Overall, the studies reviewed had low Downs and Black scores (mean 16 (SD 2)) highlighting the need for more robust large scale and longitudinal studies monitoring the impact of ageing on the sensory system, and how this influences the perception of foods and beverages.

  6. Vascular Hyperpermeability and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Ryan; Tharakan, Binu

    2014-01-01

    Vascular hyperpermeability, the excessive leakage of fluid and proteins from blood vessels to the interstitial space, commonly occurs in traumatic and ischemic injuries. This hyperpermeability causes tissue vasogenic edema, which often leads to multiple organ failure resulting in patient death. Vascular hyperpermeability occurs most readily in small blood vessels as their more delicate physical constitution makes them an easy target for barrier dysfunction. A single layer of endothelial cells, linked to one another by cell adhesion molecules, covers the interior surface of each blood vessel. The cell adhesion molecules play a key role in maintaining barrier functions like the regulation of permeability. Aging is a major risk factor for microvascular dysfunction and hyperpermeability. Apart from age-related remodeling of the vascular wall, endothelial barrier integrity and function declines with the advancement of age. Studies that address the physiological and molecular basis of vascular permeability regulation in aging are currently very limited. There have been many cellular and molecular mechanisms proposed to explain aging-related endothelial dysfunction but their true relationship to barrier dysfunction and hyperpermeability is not clearly known. Among the several mechanisms that promote vascular dysfunction and hyperpermeability, the following are considered major contributors: oxidative stress, inflammation, and the activation of apoptotic signaling pathways. In this review we highlighted (a) the physiological, cellular and molecular changes that occur in the vascular system as a product of aging; (b) the potential mechanisms by which aging leads to barrier dysfunction and vascular hyperpermeability in the peripheral and the blood-brain barrier; (c) the mechanisms by which the age-related increases in oxidative stress, inflammatory markers and apoptotic signaling etc. cause endothelial dysfunction and their relationship to hyperpermeability; and (d) the

  7. Age Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  8. Reference range of blood biomarkers for oxidative stress in Thoroughbred racehorses (2–5 years old)

    PubMed Central

    KUSANO, Kanichi; YAMAZAKI, Masahiko; KIUCHI, Masataka; KANEKO, Kouki; KOYAMA, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium is known to play an important role in equine medicine and equine exercise physiology. There are abundant findings in this field; however, not many studies have been conducted for reference ranges of oxidative stress biomarkers in horses. This study was conducted to determine the reference values of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) using blood samples from 372 (191 males, 181 females) Thoroughbred racehorse aged 2 to 5 (3.43 ± 1.10 (mean ± SD)) years old. There were obvious gender differences in oxidative biomarkers, and growth/age-related changes were observed especially in females. Gender and age must be considered when interpreting obtained oxidative stress biomarkers for diagnosis of disease or fitness alterations in Thoroughbred racehorses. PMID:27703408

  9. 20 CFR 404.2015 - Information considered in determining whether to make representative payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information considered in determining whether to make representative payments. 404.2015 Section 404.2015 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representative Payment §...

  10. 20 CFR 404.2015 - Information considered in determining whether to make representative payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information considered in determining whether to make representative payments. 404.2015 Section 404.2015 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representative Payment §...

  11. 20 CFR 404.2015 - Information considered in determining whether to make representative payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Information considered in determining whether to make representative payments. 404.2015 Section 404.2015 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representative Payment §...

  12. 20 CFR 404.2015 - Information considered in determining whether to make representative payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information considered in determining whether to make representative payments. 404.2015 Section 404.2015 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representative Payment §...

  13. 20 CFR 404.2015 - Information considered in determining whether to make representative payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information considered in determining whether to make representative payments. 404.2015 Section 404.2015 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representative Payment §...

  14. 20 CFR 404.2020 - Information considered in selecting a representative payee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information considered in selecting a representative payee. 404.2020 Section 404.2020 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representative Payment § 404.2020...

  15. 40 CFR 146.34 - Information to be considered by the Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... well the Director shall consider the following: (1) Information required in 40 CFR 144.31 and 144.31(g... type, construction, date drilled, location, depth, record of plugging and completion, and any... wells are of similar age, type, and construction the Director may elect to only require data on...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1506 - When we will not consider your impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When we will not consider your impairment. 404.1506 Section 404.1506 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1560 - When we will consider your vocational background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When we will consider your vocational background. 404.1560 Section 404.1560 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1506 - When we will not consider your impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When we will not consider your impairment. 404.1506 Section 404.1506 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1560 - When we will consider your vocational background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When we will consider your vocational background. 404.1560 Section 404.1560 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1560 - When we will consider your vocational background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When we will consider your vocational background. 404.1560 Section 404.1560 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1506 - When we will not consider your impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When we will not consider your impairment. 404.1506 Section 404.1506 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1539 - How we consider whether treatment is available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How we consider whether treatment is available. 404.1539 Section 404.1539 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1560 - When we will consider your vocational background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When we will consider your vocational background. 404.1560 Section 404.1560 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1539 - How we consider whether treatment is available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How we consider whether treatment is available. 404.1539 Section 404.1539 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1506 - When we will not consider your impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When we will not consider your impairment. 404.1506 Section 404.1506 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1560 - When we will consider your vocational background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When we will consider your vocational background. 404.1560 Section 404.1560 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1539 - How we consider whether treatment is available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How we consider whether treatment is available. 404.1539 Section 404.1539 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1539 - How we consider whether treatment is available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we consider whether treatment is available. 404.1539 Section 404.1539 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1506 - When we will not consider your impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When we will not consider your impairment. 404.1506 Section 404.1506 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1539 - How we consider whether treatment is available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How we consider whether treatment is available. 404.1539 Section 404.1539 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical...

  11. Some Templates to Consider When Encouraging Others to Grow through the Teacher Evaluation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupp, Judy-Arin

    1993-01-01

    Information about adulthood that evaluators need to consider as they help others grow is presented as a series of templates of development and change. Examples are given of growth receptivity at different ages and positions in life. In self-development evaluation, the individual might write an Individual Development Plan. (SLD)

  12. Beliefs about Cancer and Diet among Those Considering Genetic Testing for Colon Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E. L.; Upton, Rachel; Lee, Seungjin; Panter, Abby T.; Hadley, Don W.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess beliefs about the role of diet in cancer prevention among individuals considering genetic testing for Lynch Syndrome. Design: Family-centered, cascade recruitment; baseline assessment of a longitudinal study. Setting: Clinical research setting. Participants: Participants were 390 persons, ages 18 and older, including persons…

  13. Seasonal Variation in Daily Temperature Ranges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruschy, David L.; Baker, Donald G.; Skaggs, Richard H.

    1991-12-01

    Abrupt spring and autumnal changes in the daily temperature range, from low winter values to higher nonwinter values, were noted in the Minneapolis-St. Paul temperature record. Since this feature was even more evident in five rural and small town Minnesota stations, it can be accepted as real.The inverse relationship found between surface albedo and the daily temperature range indicated that the reduced winter temperature range is associated with snow cover. A second factor controlling the temperature range is cloud cover. This led to the conclusion that variation in net solar radiation is the primary factor.A strong statistical relationship between daily temperature range and the three variables considered (solar radiation, albedo, and cloud cover) was limited to the spring and fall. In March-April the statistically significant factors were solar radiation and albedo, while in October-November they were solar radiation and cloud cover. For the October-December period albedo was also statistically important.

  14. More Breast Cancer Patients Should Consider Radiation, New Guidelines Say

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161083.html More Breast Cancer Patients Should Consider Radiation, New Guidelines Say Mastectomy ... by three leading cancer organizations suggest that more breast cancer patients should consider radiation therapy after a mastectomy. ...

  15. Martian ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neukum, G.; Hiller, K.

    1981-01-01

    Four discussions are conducted: (1) the methodology of relative age determination by impact crater statistics, (2) a comparison of proposed Martian impact chronologies for the determination of absolute ages from crater frequencies, (3) a report on work dating Martian volcanoes and erosional features by impact crater statistics, and (4) an attempt to understand the main features of Martian history through a synthesis of crater frequency data. Two cratering chronology models are presented and used for inference of absolute ages from crater frequency data, and it is shown that the interpretation of all data available and tractable by the methodology presented leads to a global Martian geological history that is characterized by two epochs of activity. It is concluded that Mars is an ancient planet with respect to its surface features.

  16. Martian ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, G.; Hiller, K.

    1981-04-01

    Four discussions are conducted: (1) the methodology of relative age determination by impact crater statistics, (2) a comparison of proposed Martian impact chronologies for the determination of absolute ages from crater frequencies, (3) a report on work dating Martian volcanoes and erosional features by impact crater statistics, and (4) an attempt to understand the main features of Martian history through a synthesis of crater frequency data. Two cratering chronology models are presented and used for inference of absolute ages from crater frequency data, and it is shown that the interpretation of all data available and tractable by the methodology presented leads to a global Martian geological history that is characterized by two epochs of activity. It is concluded that Mars is an ancient planet with respect to its surface features.

  17. Plutonium aging

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, J.D.

    1999-03-01

    The author describes the plutonium aging program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aging of plutonium components in the US nuclear weapons stockpile has become a concern due to several events: the end of the cold war, the cessation of full scale underground nuclear testing as a result of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the closure of the Rocky Flats Plant--the site where the plutonium components were manufactured. As a result, service lifetimes for nuclear weapons have been lengthened. Dr. Olivas will present a brief primer on the metallurgy of plutonium, and will then describe the technical approach to ascertaining the long-term changes that may be attributable to self-radiation damage. Facilities and experimental techniques which are in use to study aging will be described. Some preliminary results will also be presented.

  18. Pathophysiology of ageing, longevity and age related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bürkle, Alexander; Caselli, Graziella; Franceschi, Claudio; Mariani, Erminia; Sansoni, Paolo; Santoni, Angela; Vecchio, Giancarlo; Witkowski, Jacek M; Caruso, Calogero

    2007-01-01

    On April 18, 2007 an international meeting on Pathophysiology of Ageing, Longevity and Age-Related Diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Several interesting topics on Cancer, Immunosenescence, Age-related inflammatory diseases and longevity were discussed. In this report we summarize the most important issues. However, ageing must be considered an unavoidable end point of the life history of each individual, nevertheless the increasing knowledge on ageing mechanisms, allows envisaging many different strategies to cope with, and delay it. So, a better understanding of pathophysiology of ageing and age-related disease is essential for giving everybody a reasonable chance for living a long and enjoyable final part of the life. PMID:17683521

  19. 20 CFR 416.1856 - Who is considered a child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is considered a child. 416.1856 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416.1856 Who is considered a child. We consider you to be a child if— (a)(1) You are under 18 years old; or (2) You are under 22 years old and...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1856 - Who is considered a child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who is considered a child. 416.1856 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416.1856 Who is considered a child. We consider you to be a child if— (a)(1) You are under 18 years old; or (2) You are under 22 years old and...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1856 - Who is considered a child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who is considered a child. 416.1856 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416.1856 Who is considered a child. We consider you to be a child if— (a)(1) You are under 18 years old; or (2) You are under 22 years old and...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1856 - Who is considered a child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who is considered a child. 416.1856 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416.1856 Who is considered a child. We consider you to be a child if— (a)(1) You are under 18 years old; or (2) You are under 22 years old and...

  3. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later). PMID:22351262

  4. Polyphenols and aging.

    PubMed

    Queen, Brannon L; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2010-02-01

    Age-associated changes within an individual are inherently complex and occur at multiple levels of organismal function. The overall decline in function of various tissues is known to play a key role in both aging and the complex etiology of certain age-associated diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Continuing research highlights the dynamic capacity of polyphenols to protect against age-associated disorders through a variety of important mechanisms. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that dietary polyphenols such as resveratrol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and curcumin have the capacity to mitigate age-associated cellular damage induced via metabolic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, recently acquired evidence also demonstrates a likely role for these polyphenols as anticancer agents capable of preventing formation of new vasculature in neoplastic tissues. Polyphenols have also been shown to possess other anticancer properties such as specific cell-signaling actions that may stimulate the activity of the regulatory protein SIRT1. Additionally, polyphenolic compounds have demonstrated their inhibitory effects against chronic vascular inflammation associated with atherosclerosis. These increasingly well-documented results have begun to provide a basis for considering the use of polyphenols in the development of novel therapies for certain human diseases. And while the mechanisms by which these effects occur are yet to be fully understood, it is evident that further investigation may yield a potential use for polyphenols as pharmacological interventions against specific age-associated diseases.

  5. Can ageing be slowed?

    PubMed Central

    Gaman, L; Stoian, I; Atanasiu, V

    2011-01-01

    Redox metabolism has long been considered to play important roles in aging and the development of age-related diseases. Both dietary and pharmacological manipulations of redox metabolism have been associated with the extension of lifespan. Increasing new evidence s also suggests that the process of aging may derive from imperfect clearance of oxidatively damaged material. The accumulation of this molecular “garbage”, relatively indigestible, further hinders cellular functions, induces progressive failure of maintenance and repair and increases the probability of death. One important trend in anti–aging strategy is, therefore, to prevent or even revert the accumulation of these oxidatively altered molecules by stimulating the maintenance and repair systems through hormesis. A promising approach for slowing down ageing and achieving a healthy senescence is represented by repeated exposure to various mild stresses (caloric restriction, moderate exercise, nutritional or pharmacological hormetins). This article reviews the potential therapeutic tools available to date for increasing longevity and obtaining and successful ageing from the redox and hormetic perspective. PMID:22514565

  6. 27 CFR 53.103 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease considered as sale... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.103 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of chapter 32 of the Code, the lease of an article by a manufacturer, producer, or importer shall be considered a...

  7. 42 CFR 408.68 - When premiums are considered paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When premiums are considered paid. 408.68 Section... MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Direct Remittance: Individual Payment § 408.68 When premiums are considered paid. (a) Payment by check. The premium is considered paid if...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4217-1 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lease considered as sale. 48.4217-1 Section 48... Taxes § 48.4217-1 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of Chapter 32 of the Code, the lease of an article by a manufacturer, producer, or importer shall be considered a sale of the article. The...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4217-1 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lease considered as sale. 48.4217-1 Section 48... Taxes § 48.4217-1 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of Chapter 32 of the Code, the lease of an article by a manufacturer, producer, or importer shall be considered a sale of the article. The...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4217-1 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lease considered as sale. 48.4217-1 Section 48... Taxes § 48.4217-1 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of Chapter 32 of the Code, the lease of an article by a manufacturer, producer, or importer shall be considered a sale of the article. The...

  11. 27 CFR 53.103 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Lease considered as sale... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.103 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of chapter 32 of the Code, the lease of an article by a manufacturer, producer, or importer shall be considered a...

  12. 25 CFR 89.42 - Factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Factors to be considered. 89.42 Section 89.42 Indians... TRIBES Payment of Tribal Attorney Fees with Appropriated Funds § 89.42 Factors to be considered. The following factors are to be considered in determining whether funds should be paid to provide private...

  13. 25 CFR 89.42 - Factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Factors to be considered. 89.42 Section 89.42 Indians... TRIBES Payment of Tribal Attorney Fees with Appropriated Funds § 89.42 Factors to be considered. The following factors are to be considered in determining whether funds should be paid to provide private...

  14. 25 CFR 89.42 - Factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Factors to be considered. 89.42 Section 89.42 Indians... TRIBES Payment of Tribal Attorney Fees with Appropriated Funds § 89.42 Factors to be considered. The following factors are to be considered in determining whether funds should be paid to provide private...

  15. 25 CFR 89.42 - Factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factors to be considered. 89.42 Section 89.42 Indians... TRIBES Payment of Tribal Attorney Fees with Appropriated Funds § 89.42 Factors to be considered. The following factors are to be considered in determining whether funds should be paid to provide private...

  16. 50 CFR 86.137 - What variables should I consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What variables should I consider? 86.137...) PROGRAM How States Will Complete the State Program Plans § 86.137 What variables should I consider? You should consider the following variables: (a) Location of population centers, (b) Boat-based...

  17. 50 CFR 86.137 - What variables should I consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What variables should I consider? 86.137...) PROGRAM How States Will Complete the State Program Plans § 86.137 What variables should I consider? You should consider the following variables: (a) Location of population centers, (b) Boat-based...

  18. 50 CFR 86.137 - What variables should I consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What variables should I consider? 86.137... (BIG) PROGRAM How States Will Complete the State Program Plans § 86.137 What variables should I consider? You should consider the following variables: (a) Location of population centers, (b)...

  19. 50 CFR 86.137 - What variables should I consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What variables should I consider? 86.137... (BIG) PROGRAM How States Will Complete the State Program Plans § 86.137 What variables should I consider? You should consider the following variables: (a) Location of population centers, (b)...

  20. 50 CFR 86.137 - What variables should I consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What variables should I consider? 86.137...) PROGRAM How States Will Complete the State Program Plans § 86.137 What variables should I consider? You should consider the following variables: (a) Location of population centers, (b) Boat-based...

  1. Epigenetic mechanisms of dietary restriction induced aging in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ting; Gaur, Uma; Yang, Deying; Li, Diyan; Li, Ying; Yang, Mingyao

    2015-12-01

    Aging is a long-standing problem that people are always interested in. Thus, it is critical to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms in aging and explore the most efficient method to extend life expectancy. To achieve this goal, a wide range of systems including cells, rodent models, budding yeast, worms and flies have been employed for decades. In recent years, the effect of dietary restriction (DR) on lifespan is in the prime focus. Although we have confirmed that reduced insulin and/or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling can increase Drosophila lifespan; the precise molecular mechanisms and nutritional response landscape of diet-mediated aging is ambiguous. Epigenetic events have been considered as the major contributors to lifespan extension with response to DR. The role of DNA methylation in aging is well acknowledged in mammals and rodents where it has been shown to impact aging by regulating the transcription, though the mechanism of regulation is not limited to only transcription. In Drosophila, the contribution of methylation during DR in aging is definitely less explored. In this review, we will update the advances in mechanisms of DR, with a particular focus on methylation as an upcoming target for aging studies and discuss Drosophila as a powerful model to understand mechanisms of aging with response to diet.

  2. [Market and ageing].

    PubMed

    Joël, M-E

    2005-06-01

    Ageing can be defined as growth of the proportion of elderly people in the population, but also as a group of transformations in life cycles: older age at time of first job, marriage, birth of first child, early retirement, longer life expectancy, active retirement, greater number of dependent persons. The economic impact of the ageing population has been extensively studied from the perspective of the social security fund. In France and in most developed countries, population ageing has considerably destabilized social accounting creating a gap between a system thought out after WWII and the present social environment. The current response of social security system to elderly person's needs is considered inadequate. There are however other consequences of ageing. It is important to measure the upheaval caused by longer life expectancy and changing life stages on all markets. Three kinds of markets are involved in different ways: job market, services market for the elderly and all goods market for seniors and golden aged. Many studies have focused on the links between economic production and physiological ageing. The traditional organisation of working conditions stresses working intensity over experience, young workers'capabilities over than those of older workers. The link between age and the job market can also be analyzed by considering supply and demand for employment for workers over 50. Another question is the workforce shortage forecasted in some sectors (health and social sectors in particular) and the role of immigration. Growth in the supply of long-term care will require restructuring of the sector's logistics and financing. Certain trends are appearing: government authorities are reducing their supply of services, private production is increasing, public financing is being maintained, and individual contributions are growing while the role of insurance has remained stagnant. A qualitative analysis of the markets also shows heterogeneous workers

  3. Age-Related Changes in 1/f Neural Electrophysiological Noise

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Mark A.; Case, John; Lepage, Kyle Q.; Tempesta, Zechari R.; Knight, Robert T.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with performance decrements across multiple cognitive domains. The neural noise hypothesis, a dominant view of the basis of this decline, posits that aging is accompanied by an increase in spontaneous, noisy baseline neural activity. Here we analyze data from two different groups of human subjects: intracranial electrocorticography from 15 participants over a 38 year age range (15–53 years) and scalp EEG data from healthy younger (20–30 years) and older (60–70 years) adults to test the neural noise hypothesis from a 1/f noise perspective. Many natural phenomena, including electrophysiology, are characterized by 1/f noise. The defining characteristic of 1/f is that the power of the signal frequency content decreases rapidly as a function of the frequency (f) itself. The slope of this decay, the noise exponent (χ), is often <−1 for electrophysiological data and has been shown to approach white noise (defined as χ = 0) with increasing task difficulty. We observed, in both electrophysiological datasets, that aging is associated with a flatter (more noisy) 1/f power spectral density, even at rest, and that visual cortical 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related impairments in visual working memory. These results provide electrophysiological support for the neural noise hypothesis of aging. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the neurobiological origins of age-related cognitive decline is of critical scientific, medical, and public health importance, especially considering the rapid aging of the world's population. We find, in two separate human studies, that 1/f electrophysiological noise increases with aging. In addition, we observe that this age-related 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related working memory decline. These results significantly add to this understanding and contextualize a long-standing problem in cognition by encapsulating age-related cognitive decline within a neurocomputational model of 1/f noise

  4. Age-Related Changes in 1/f Neural Electrophysiological Noise.

    PubMed

    Voytek, Bradley; Kramer, Mark A; Case, John; Lepage, Kyle Q; Tempesta, Zechari R; Knight, Robert T; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-09-23

    Aging is associated with performance decrements across multiple cognitive domains. The neural noise hypothesis, a dominant view of the basis of this decline, posits that aging is accompanied by an increase in spontaneous, noisy baseline neural activity. Here we analyze data from two different groups of human subjects: intracranial electrocorticography from 15 participants over a 38 year age range (15-53 years) and scalp EEG data from healthy younger (20-30 years) and older (60-70 years) adults to test the neural noise hypothesis from a 1/f noise perspective. Many natural phenomena, including electrophysiology, are characterized by 1/f noise. The defining characteristic of 1/f is that the power of the signal frequency content decreases rapidly as a function of the frequency (f) itself. The slope of this decay, the noise exponent (χ), is often <-1 for electrophysiological data and has been shown to approach white noise (defined as χ = 0) with increasing task difficulty. We observed, in both electrophysiological datasets, that aging is associated with a flatter (more noisy) 1/f power spectral density, even at rest, and that visual cortical 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related impairments in visual working memory. These results provide electrophysiological support for the neural noise hypothesis of aging. Significance statement: Understanding the neurobiological origins of age-related cognitive decline is of critical scientific, medical, and public health importance, especially considering the rapid aging of the world's population. We find, in two separate human studies, that 1/f electrophysiological noise increases with aging. In addition, we observe that this age-related 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related working memory decline. These results significantly add to this understanding and contextualize a long-standing problem in cognition by encapsulating age-related cognitive decline within a neurocomputational model of 1/f noise-induced deficits in

  5. Age-dating of rockslides: Methods and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, M.; Sanders, D.; Prager, C.

    2009-04-01

    Age-dating of deposits of catastrophic rockslides is prerequisite to unravel the potential relation between the frequency of mass-wasting events with climatic change or earthquakes. In the Alps, about 250 rockslides exceeding 106 m3 in volume are known, but the age as yet is determined only for a comparatively small number of events. For age determination of rockslide events, different methods are available (e. g. Lang et al., 1999). Radiocarbon Dating In the past few decades, rockslide deposits commonly were proxy-dated by 14C age determination of organic remnants preserved (a) in glacial, fluvio-glacial sediments overridden by the rockslide, (b) within the rockslide mass, or (c) in rockslide-dammed backwater deposits or lakes situated atop the rockslide mass. In each case, the 14C age provides a different constraint on the age of the rockslide event: in case (a), the 14C age represents a maximum age of the event; in case (b), which is quite rare, the 14C age is generally considered as a good proxy of the event age; in case (c) the 14C age represents a minimum age for the rockslide event. Unfortunately, radiocarbon dating often cannot be applied because of absence of suited deposits or exposures thereof, lack of organic remnants or of remnants suited for age-dating, and/or because determined 14C ages are substantially biased. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Proxy-dating of rockslide events by OSL can be applied to silt- to sand-sized quartzose sediments present (a) directly below, (b) within, or (c) above/laterally aside a rockslide mass. For each case (a) to (c), the determined ages are subject to the same constraints as outlined for radiocarbon dating. Unfortunately, situations allowing for application of OSL to rockslide event dating are comparatively rare, and the resulting ages tend to have a wide error range. Surface Exposure Dating with cosmogenic radionuclides Surface exposure ages can be determined for rock samples taken from the sliding planes at

  6. Aging Secret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The canny world of advertising has caught on to the free radical theory of aging, marketing a whole array of antioxidants for preventing anything from wrinkles to dry hair to reducing the risk of heart disease--promising to help slow the hands of time. Working with genetically engineered mice--to produce a natural antioxidant enzyme called…

  7. Gay Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events--the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional…

  8. 20 CFR 416.2211 - Criteria for determining when VR services will be considered to have contributed to a continuous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Payments for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Payment Provisions § 416.2211 Criteria for... considered to have contributed to the medical recovery if— (i) The individualized written...

  9. 20 CFR 416.2211 - Criteria for determining when VR services will be considered to have contributed to a continuous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Payments for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Payment Provisions § 416.2211 Criteria for... considered to have contributed to the medical recovery if— (i) The individualized written...

  10. Aging in male primates: reproductive decline, effects of calorie restriction and future research potential.

    PubMed

    Sitzmann, Brandon D; Urbanski, Henryk F; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2008-09-01

    Although less dramatic than in females, male mammals experience decreasing reproductive function during aging. In primates, multiple facets of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis show evidence of gradual age-related decline, including behavioral, neuroendocrine and endocrine alterations such as decreased testosterone levels, reduced circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels, increased numbers of sperm abnormalities, and a general decline in physiological responses. In this review we consider a range of age-related changes in males. These measures, including more subtle aging characteristics, are interesting additional indices for detecting the timing of age-related changes in behavioral, neuroendocrine, and endocrine responses. Evidence of potential effects of calorie restriction as an intervention in reproductive aging is also discussed. A discernable decline occurs in both metabolic and reproductive endocrine processes during male aging. This cascade of events includes neuroendocrine and behavioral changes; biomarkers such as circulating DHEAS also show clear age-related decline. The varied changes that occur during male aging are considered in the context of primate aging in general.

  11. Ar-Ar ages and thermal histories of enstatite meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Dixon, Eleanor T.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    2010-05-01

    Compared with ordinary chondrites, there is a relative paucity of chronological and other data to define the early thermal histories of enstatite parent bodies. In this study, we report 39Ar-40Ar dating results for five EL chondrites: Khairpur, Pillistfer, Hvittis, Blithfield, and Forrest; five EH chondrites: Parsa, Saint Marks, Indarch, Bethune, and Reckling Peak 80259; three igneous-textured enstatite meteorites that represent impact melts on enstatite chondrite parent bodies: Zaklodzie, Queen Alexandra Range 97348, and Queen Alexandra Range 97289; and three aubrites, Norton County, Bishopville, and Cumberland Falls Several Ar-Ar age spectra show unusual 39Ar recoil effects, possibly the result of some of the K residing in unusual sulfide minerals, such as djerfisherite and rodderite, and other age spectra show 40Ar diffusion loss. Few additional Ar-Ar ages for enstatite meteorites are available in the literature. When all available Ar-Ar data on enstatite meteorites are considered, preferred ages of nine chondrites and one aubrite show a range of 4.50-4.54Ga, whereas five other meteorites show only lower age limits over 4.35-4.46Ga. Ar-Ar ages of several enstatite chondrites are as old or older as the oldest Ar-Ar ages of ordinary chondrites, which suggests that enstatite chondrites may have derived from somewhat smaller parent bodies, or were metamorphosed to lower temperatures compared to other chondrite types. Many enstatite meteorites are brecciated and/or shocked, and some of the younger Ar-Ar ages may record these impact events. Although impact heating of ordinary chondrites within the last 1Ga is relatively common for ordinary chondrites, only Bethune gives any significant evidence for such a young event.

  12. Diet and healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    McKevith, Brigid

    2005-12-01

    In the future there will be more people aged 65 years and over ('older adults'). Although the exact mechanisms underlying normal ageing are not fully understood, ageing is generally associated with an increase in chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and osteoporosis. It is becoming clear that it is possible to prevent, slow or reverse the onset of many these by modifying lifestyle factors such as diet. Studies of older adults in a range of countries have highlighted a number of areas in which dietary quality could be improved. It is important to identify dietary patterns in addition to specific dietary components that offer protection against chronic disease. The challenge in the area of diet and healthy ageing is twofold: first, there is a need to improve the diet of older adults; and second, as most chronic diseases begin earlier in life, there is a need to encourage other age groups to adapt their diet so they can enter old age in better health.

  13. Magnesium and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Zanforlini, Bruno Micael; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is relatively stable in the intracellular compartment, although decreases linearly with advancing age. This begs the question as to whether Mg could be used as biomarker of aging. A biomarker of aging is a biological parameter of an organism that, in the absence of disease, better predicts functional capability at a later age than the chronological age. Bone and muscle Mg content might be useful biomarkers, but the need for biopsies and the heterogeneous distribution of Mg in bones and muscles strongly limit the application of these methods in clinical practice. Similar considerations can be made for urinary Mg assessment, particularly after a loading test. Markers of Mg in blood seem fairly unreliable as biomarkers of aging since they are strongly dependent upon renal function, do not reflect the intracellular Mg status, and, in some investigations, are within normal ranges although other Mg parameters are not. Other investigations (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance with fluorescent probes) seem to be promising, but their availability remains limited. PMID:26446714

  14. Aging and consumer decision making

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stephanie M.; Yoon, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Research on consumer decision making and aging is especially important for fostering a better understanding of ways to maintain consumer satisfaction and high decision quality across the life span. We provide a review of extant research on the effects of normal aging on cognition and decision processes and how these age-related processes are influenced by task environment, meaningfulness of the task, and consumer expertise. We consider how research centered on these topics generates insights about changes in consumption decisions that occur with aging and identify a number of gaps and directions for future research. PMID:22360794

  15. Range contraction in large pelagic predators

    PubMed Central

    Worm, Boris; Tittensor, Derek P.

    2011-01-01

    Large reductions in the abundance of exploited land predators have led to significant range contractions for those species. This pattern can be formalized as the range–abundance relationship, a general macroecological pattern that has important implications for the conservation of threatened species. Here we ask whether similar responses may have occurred in highly mobile pelagic predators, specifically 13 species of tuna and billfish. We analyzed two multidecadal global data sets on the spatial distribution of catches and fishing effort targeting these species and compared these with available abundance time series from stock assessments. We calculated the effort needed to reliably detect the presence of a species and then computed observed range sizes in each decade from 1960 to 2000. Results suggest significant range contractions in 9 of the 13 species considered here (between 2% and 46% loss of observed range) and significant range expansions in two species (11–29% increase). Species that have undergone the largest declines in abundance and are of particular conservation concern tended to show the largest range contractions. These include all three species of bluefin tuna and several marlin species. In contrast, skipjack tuna, which may have increased its abundance in the Pacific, has also expanded its range size. These results mirror patterns described for many land predators, despite considerable differences in habitat, mobility, and dispersal, and imply ecological extirpation of heavily exploited species across parts of their range. PMID:21693644

  16. Space-Based Range Safety and Future Space Range Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) study is a multiphase project to demonstrate the performance, flexibility and cost savings that can be realized by using space-based assets for the Range Safety [global positioning system (GPS) metric tracking data, flight termination command and range safety data relay] and Range User (telemetry) functions during vehicle launches and landings. Phase 1 included flight testing S-band Range Safety and Range User hardware in 2003 onboard a high-dynamic aircraft platform at Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California, USA) using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) as the communications link. The current effort, Phase 2, includes hardware and packaging upgrades to the S-band Range Safety system and development of a high data rate Ku-band Range User system. The enhanced Phase 2 Range Safety Unit (RSU) provided real-time video for three days during the historic Global Flyer (Scaled Composites, Mojave, California, USA) flight in March, 2005. Additional Phase 2 testing will include a sounding rocket test of the Range Safety system and aircraft flight testing of both systems. Future testing will include a flight test on a launch vehicle platform. This paper discusses both Range Safety and Range User developments and testing with emphasis on the Range Safety system. The operational concept of a future space-based range is also discussed.

  17. Space-Based Range Safety and Future Space Range Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety study is a multiphase project to demonstrate the performance, flexibility and cost savings that can be realized by using space-based assets for the Range Safety (global positioning system metric tracking data, flight termination command and range safety data relay) and Range User (telemetry) functions during vehicle launches and landings. Phase 1 included flight testing S-band Range Safety and Range User hardware in 2003 onboard a high-dynamic aircraft platform at Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System as the communications link. The current effort, Phase 2, includes hardware and packaging upgrades to the S-band Range Safety system and development of a high data rate Ku-band Range User system. The enhanced Phase 2 Range Safety Unit provided real-time video for three days during the historic GlobalFlyer (Scaled Composites, Mojave, California) flight in March, 2005. Additional Phase 2 testing will include a sounding rocket test of the Range Safety system and aircraft flight testing of both systems. Future testing will include a flight test on a launch vehicle platform. This report discusses both Range Safety and Range User developments and testing with emphasis on the Range Safety system. The operational concept of a future space-based range is also discussed.

  18. Aging & Health.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    By 2050 an estimated 83.7 million Americans will be ages sixty-five and older, up from 40.3 million in 2010. The shock wave of aging Americans will have profound implications for older people, their families, health care providers, and the economy. Researchers, policy makers, health care leaders, and others are designing responses to the challenges these actuarial shifts will create. For example, delivering health care at home could help keep more older Americans out of costly emergency departments and nursing homes. But such steps require more health care providers, a broader distribution of providers than currently exists, and better use of the resources we have. PMID:27605632

  19. Genetic Variance in Processing Speed Drives Variation in Aging of Spatial and Memory Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Deborah; McArdle, John J.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the correlation between declines with age in processing speed and higher cognitive abilities. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories for processing speed and cognitive abilities. Longitudinal twin data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging, including up to 5 measurement occasions covering a 16-year period, were available from 806 participants ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the 1st measurement wave. Factors were generated to tap 4 cognitive domains: verbal ability, spatial ability, memory, and processing speed. Model-fitting indicated that genetic variance for processing speed was a leading indicator of variation in age changes for spatial and memory ability, providing additional support for processing speed theories of cognitive aging. PMID:19413434

  20. Cretaceous Olistostrome Model, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    The foothills area of the Brooks Range thrust belt in the area between the Itkillik River and the Etivluk River is composed dominantly of shallow, thrusted olistostrome sheets. Three olistostrome units can be recognized based on the dominant lithology of contained olistoliths and age of the matrix shales. The lower unit is Thithonian to mid-Valanginian in age and is characterized by abundant graywacke and turbidite, mafic rocks, black cherts, olistoliths of Norian-Rhaetic shales, Nuka sands, and glide sheets of Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian rocks. Olistolights were derived from the Misheguk, Ipnavik, and Nuka Ridge allochthonous sequences. The middle unit is of late Valanginian age and has olistoliths of Norian shales; more abundant Upper Triassic chert; Otuk Formation; variegated, radiolarian, black and white cherts; Siksikpuk facies red, green and black shales; Upper Jurassic graywacke; and minor occurrences of mafic rocks. The unit is characterized by glide sheets of Triassic white and multicolor cherts. Olistoliths are derived from Nuka Ridge and Brooks Range sequences. The upper unit is Hauterivian in age and olistoliths included reworked material from all older units. Olistoliths are few and widely scattered. Isolated outcrops of white chert and conglomerate boulders are characteristic.

  1. Estimability and simple dynamical analyses of range (range-rate range-difference) observations to artificial satellites. [laser range observations to LAGEOS using non-Bayesian statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangelder, B. H. W.

    1978-01-01

    Non-Bayesian statistics were used in simulation studies centered around laser range observations to LAGEOS. The capabilities of satellite laser ranging especially in connection with relative station positioning are evaluated. The satellite measurement system under investigation may fall short in precise determinations of the earth's orientation (precession and nutation) and earth's rotation as opposed to systems as very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and lunar laser ranging (LLR). Relative station positioning, determination of (differential) polar motion, positioning of stations with respect to the earth's center of mass and determination of the earth's gravity field should be easily realized by satellite laser ranging (SLR). The last two features should be considered as best (or solely) determinable by SLR in contrast to VLBI and LLR.

  2. Integrating Non-Mathematical Domains into Mathematical Development: Key Factors to Consider in Constructing Effective Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Ganley, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    The successful acquisition and development of mathematics skills and concepts is a critical aspect of children's early academic growth. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the unique relations of working memory and language to a range of specific early mathematics skills in a sample of preschool and kindergarten age children.…

  3. Stress, Aging and Thirst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1998-01-01

    After growth during adolesence, total body water decreases progressively with aging from 65% of body weight to about 53% of body weight in the 70th decade; a majority of the loss occurs from the extracellular volume, from 42% to about 25%, respectively. Cellular volume also reaches equilibrium in the 70th decade at about 25% of body weight. Various stresses such as exercise, heat and attitude exposure, ad prior dehydration attenuate voluntary fluid intake (involuntary dehydration). Voluntary fluid intake appears to decrease with aging (involuntary dehydration in this sense aging can be considered as a stress. Kidney function and muscle mass (80% water) decrease somewhat with aging, and voluntary fluid intake (thirst) is also attenuated. Thirst is stimulated by increasing osmolality (hypernatremia) of the extracellular fluid and by decreased extracellular volume (mainly plasma volume) which act to increase intracellular fluid volume osmolality to activiate drinking. The latter decreases fluid compartment osmolality which ' It terminates drinking. However, this drinking mechanism seems to be attenuated with aging such that increasing plasma osmolality no longer stimulates fluid intake appropriately. Hypernatremia in the elderly has been associated all too frequently with greater incidence of bacterial infection and increased mortality. Involuntary dehydration can be overcome in young men by acclimation to an intermittent exercise-in-heat training program. Perhaps exercise training in the elderly would also increase voluntary fluid intake and increase muscle mass to enhance retention of water.

  4. 20 CFR 404.368 - When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance. 404.368 Section 404.368 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents'...

  5. 20 CFR 404.368 - When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance. 404.368 Section 404.368 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents'...

  6. 20 CFR 404.368 - When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance. 404.368 Section 404.368 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents'...

  7. 20 CFR 404.368 - When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance. 404.368 Section 404.368 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents'...

  8. 20 CFR 404.368 - When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance. 404.368 Section 404.368 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents'...

  9. Elbow joint disorders in relation to vibration exposure and age in stone quarry workers.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, H; Suzuki, H; Momoi, Y; Yamada, S

    1993-01-01

    Elbow joint disorders were studied in relation to vibration exposure and age in 74 male stone quarry workers who operated mainly chipping hammers and sometimes rock drills. They were examined for range of active motion in elbow extension and flexion, and by means of radiographs of the elbow joint. Effects of age and vibratory tool operation on the elbow joint were statistically estimated using multiple regression analysis. In the analysis of all subjects, including those aged over 60 years, age was significantly related to the range of motion in extension and to radiographic changes in both elbows, and the duration of vibratory tool operation was associated with the range of right elbow flexion. Among subjects under the age of 60 years, duration of vibratory tool operation showed a significant dose-effect relationship to the range of flexion and radiographic changes in the right elbow, but there was no significant relationship with age. The present results suggest that the operation of chipping hammers and rock drills contributes to elbow joint disorders or osteoarthrosis, even when the effect of age is taken into account. Besides vibration exposure, it may be necessary to consider various loads on the elbow joint such as firmly grasping and pressing the tool against stones with the arm bent at about 90 degrees, and carrying stones.

  10. Safety in GPR prospecting: a rarely-considered issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pajewski, Lara; Trela, Christiane; Carrick Utsi, Erica

    2016-04-01

    Safety issues (of people first of all, but also of the equipment and environment) are rarely considered in Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) prospecting and, more in general, in near-surface geophysical prospecting. As is right and fully understandable, the scientific community devotes greatest attention first of all to the theoretical and practical aspects of GPR technique, affecting the quality of attainable results, secondly to the efforts and costs needed to achieve them [1-2]. However, the (luckily) growing GPR market and range of applications make it worth giving serious consideration to safety issues, too. The existing manuals dealing with safety in geophysics are mainly concerned with applications requiring "deep" geophysical prospecting, for example the search for oilfields and other hydrocarbon resources [3]. Near-surface geophysics involves less dangers than deep geophysics, of course. Nevertheless, several accidents have already happened during GPR experimental campaigns. We have personally had critical experiences and collected reliable testimonies concerning occurred problems as mountain sicks, fractures of legs, stomach problems, allergic reactions, encounters with potentially-dangerous animals, and more. We have also noticed that much more attention is usually paid to safety issues during indoor experimental activities (in laboratory), rather than during outdoor fieldworks. For example, the Italian National research Council is conventioned with safety experts who hold periodical seminaries about safety aspects. Having taken part to some of them, to our experience we have never heard a "lecture" devoted to outdoor prospecting. Nowadays, any aspects associated to the use of the technologies should be considered. The increasing sensibility and sense of responsibility towards environmental matters impose GPR end-users to be careful not to damage the environment and also the cultural heritage. Near-surface prospecting should not compromise the flora and

  11. A Better Time Now to Consider New Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal, K.

    2004-03-01

    Mr. Christopher Crane, President and Chief Nuclear Officer of Exelon Nuclear was interviewed regarding his views on a series of questions related to the future of the nuclear industry in the United States. His view is that in order for new nuclear power plants to be considered, they must be economically competitive when compared to other baseload generation alternatives. With respect to capital cost, the industry has informally conveyed that overnight capital costs need to be below the range of $1,000-$1,200/kWE. Reactor vendors are working to reduce their first of a kind engineering costs to meet this capital cost threshold. Financing is then the next significant factor, which is complicated by whether the plant is being constructed in a regulated environment where the power company has the security of a regulated rate of return or as a merchant plant where the company assumes the risks and benefits of the proposed investment. With respect to operating and maintenance costs, the nuclear power industry has been dedicated to reducing costs while maintaining or improving safety. There are sound plans for spent fuel and high-level waste disposal, but there is a need to improve public confidence in transportation aspects. Regarding making new plants more attractive to investors, the risk factor has been a concern. The new Part 52 process is designed to help by requiring safety design issues to be identified and resolved prior to the issuance of the Combined Operating License (COL) process. While the revised process appears to be more acceptable from an investment risk perspective, there remains uncertainty in the fact that it has never been demonstrated. Skepticism, too, still exists with regard to building plants on schedule and within budget. Mr. Crane concludes that certain incentives will be needed for ''first movers'' in nuclear investment. These could include production tax credits, investment tax credits, government loan guarantees, and power purchase agreements

  12. "Ya Me Fui" When English Learners Consider Leaving School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Jeanmarie Hamilton

    2013-01-01

    This study examines narratives of English learners who have either dropped out or considered dropping out as a result of their experience in high school. This research seeks to determine at which point students left or considered leaving school, which often goes undetected in traditional quantitative data collection methods. The common themes that…

  13. 26 CFR 48.4217-1 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lease considered as sale. 48.4217-1 Section 48... Taxes § 48.4217-1 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of Chapter 32 of the Code, the lease of an... “lease” means a contract or agreement, written or verbal, which gives the lessee an exclusive,...

  14. 21 CFR 70.40 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safety factors to be considered. 70.40 Section 70.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.40 Safety factors to be considered. In accordance with section...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-3 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use considered sale. 48.4161(b)-3 Section 48... sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof, see section 4218 relating to use by a manufacturer considered a sale, and the...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-3 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use considered sale. 48.4161(b)-3 Section 48... sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof, see section 4218 relating to use by a manufacturer considered a sale, and the...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-4 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use considered sale. 48.4161(a)-4 Section 48... sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof, see section 4218 relating to use by a manufacturer being considered a sale, and...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-4 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use considered sale. 48.4161(a)-4 Section 48... sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof, see section 4218 relating to use by a manufacturer being considered a sale, and...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-3 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use considered sale. 48.4161(b)-3 Section 48... sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof, see section 4218 relating to use by a manufacturer considered a sale, and the...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-4 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use considered sale. 48.4161(a)-4 Section 48... sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof, see section 4218 relating to use by a manufacturer being considered a sale, and...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-3 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use considered sale. 48.4161(b)-3 Section 48... sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof, see section 4218 relating to use by a manufacturer considered a sale, and the...

  2. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-4 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use considered sale. 48.4161(a)-4 Section 48... sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof, see section 4218 relating to use by a manufacturer being considered a sale, and...

  3. Developmental Assets: A Prevention Framework for Students Considered at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Mumford, Vincent E.; Shillingford, M. Ann; Serra-Roldan, Rut

    2007-01-01

    Since the enactment of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program, students considered at risk of school failure have received increasing attention. Identification and treatment of students considered at risk often emphasize the risk behaviors themselves. The traditional medical model assumes there is a disease entity or…

  4. 46 CFR 502.503 - Procedures for considering petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND PROCEDURE Implementation of the Equal Access to Justice Act in Commission Proceedings § 502.503 Procedures for considering petitions. (a) Filing and service of documents. (1) Any petition for an award or... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for considering petitions. 502.503...

  5. 29 CFR 1990.132 - Factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Factors to be considered. 1990.132 Section 1990.132 Labor... Setting § 1990.132 Factors to be considered. (a) The setting of priorities is a complex matter which... respect to the setting of priorities. (b) Some factors which may be taken into account in...

  6. 31 CFR 27.4 - Factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Factors to be considered. 27.4... FOR MISUSE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NAMES, SYMBOLS, ETC. § 27.4 Factors to be considered. The... benefit intended to be derived from the misuse....

  7. 31 CFR 27.4 - Factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Factors to be considered. 27.4... FOR MISUSE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NAMES, SYMBOLS, ETC. § 27.4 Factors to be considered. The... benefit intended to be derived from the misuse....

  8. 31 CFR 27.4 - Factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Factors to be considered. 27.4... FOR MISUSE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NAMES, SYMBOLS, ETC. § 27.4 Factors to be considered. The... benefit intended to be derived from the misuse....

  9. 31 CFR 27.4 - Factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Factors to be considered. 27.4... FOR MISUSE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NAMES, SYMBOLS, ETC. § 27.4 Factors to be considered. The... benefit intended to be derived from the misuse....

  10. 29 CFR 1990.132 - Factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Factors to be considered. 1990.132 Section 1990.132 Labor... Setting § 1990.132 Factors to be considered. (a) The setting of priorities is a complex matter which... respect to the setting of priorities. (b) Some factors which may be taken into account in...

  11. 27 CFR 53.103 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lease considered as sale. 53.103 Section 53.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.103 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of chapter 32...

  12. 27 CFR 53.103 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lease considered as sale. 53.103 Section 53.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.103 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of chapter 32...

  13. 27 CFR 53.103 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lease considered as sale. 53.103 Section 53.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.103 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of chapter 32...

  14. Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

  15. 8 CFR 234.3 - Aircraft; how considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft; how considered. 234.3 Section 234... PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.3 Aircraft; how considered. Except as otherwise specifically provided in the Immigration and Nationality Act and this chapter, aircraft...

  16. 8 CFR 234.3 - Aircraft; how considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft; how considered. 234.3 Section 234... PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.3 Aircraft; how considered. Except as otherwise specifically provided in the Immigration and Nationality Act and this chapter, aircraft...

  17. 8 CFR 234.3 - Aircraft; how considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft; how considered. 234.3 Section 234... PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.3 Aircraft; how considered. Except as otherwise specifically provided in the Immigration and Nationality Act and this chapter, aircraft...

  18. Long-term clearance from small airways decreases with age.

    PubMed

    Svartengren, M; Falk, R; Philipson, K

    2005-10-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms increases with age. Age has been found to be negatively associated with large airway clearance. The small airways region is considered important for development of airway disease. Clearance after the first 24 h was studied in 46 healthy subjects with a wide age distribution, (mean 42, range 19-81 yrs). All subjects inhaled monodisperse 6 microm Teflon particles labelled with 111In, with an extremely slow inhalation flow (0.05 L.s-1). The particles were mainly deposited in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured at 0 and 24 h, and at 7, 14 and 21 days after inhalation. Significant relationships were found for the individual 24 h "large" airway clearance in per cent of initial lung deposition with age, forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity. Age was negatively associated with "small" airway clearance after 24 h as estimated at 2, 7, 14 and 21 days. Using stepwise linear regression only age remained significantly associated to clearance. In conclusion, small airway clearance over 21 days was found to decrease with age. This might be one factor associated with the high prevalence of respiratory symptoms associated among the elderly.

  19. Considering genetic characteristics in German Holstein breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Segelke, D; Täubert, H; Reinhardt, F; Thaller, G

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several research groups have demonstrated that several haplotypes may cause embryonic loss in the homozygous state. Up to now, carriers of genetic disorders were often excluded from mating, resulting in a decrease of genetic gain and a reduced number of sires available for the breeding program. Ongoing research is very likely to identify additional genetic defects causing embryonic loss and calf mortality by genotyping a large proportion of the female cattle population and sequencing key ancestors. Hence, a clear demand is present to develop a method combining selection against recessive defects (e.g., Holstein haplotypes HH1-HH5) with selection for economically beneficial traits (e.g., polled) for mating decisions. Our proposed method is a genetic index that accounts for the allele frequencies in the population and the economic value of the genetic characteristic without excluding carriers from breeding schemes. Fertility phenotypes from routine genetic evaluations were used to determine the economic value per embryo lost. Previous research has shown that embryo loss caused by HH1 and HH2 occurs later than the loss for HH3, HH4, and HH5. Therefore, an economic value of € 97 was used against HH1 and HH2 and € 70 against HH3, HH4, and HH5. For polled, € 7 per polled calf was considered. Minor allele frequencies of the defects ranged between 0.8 and 3.3%. The polled allele has a frequency of 4.1% in the German Holstein population. A genomic breeding program was simulated to study the effect of changing the selection criteria from assortative mating based on breeding values to selecting the females using the genetic index. Selection for a genetic index on the female path is a useful method to control the allele frequencies by reducing undesirable alleles and simultaneously increasing economical beneficial characteristics maintaining most of the genetic gain in production and functional traits. Additionally, we applied the genetic index to real data and

  20. 2013 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Welcome to the 2013 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides an Agency overview for current and potential range users. This report contains articles which cover a variety of subject areas, summaries of various activities performed during the past year, links to past reports, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be conducted in the future. Specific topics discussed in the 2013 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2013 highlights, Range Safety Training, Independent Assessments, support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations, a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies, and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. Every effort has been made to include the most current information available. We recommend this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. As is the case each year, we had a wide variety of contributors to this report from across our NASA Centers and the national range safety community at large, and I wish to thank them all. On a sad note, we lost one of our close colleagues, Dr. Jim Simpson, due to his sudden passing in December. His work advancing the envelope of autonomous flight safety systems software/hardware development leaves a lasting impression on our community. Such systems are being flight tested today and may one day be considered routine in the range safety business. The NASA family has lost a pioneer in our field, and he will surely be missed. In conclusion, it has been a very busy and productive year, and I look forward to working with all of you in NASA Centers/Programs/Projects and with the national Range Safety community in making Flight/Space activities as safe as they can be in the upcoming year.

  1. Illuminating geographical patterns in species' range shifts.

    PubMed

    Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies

  2. Illuminating geographical patterns in species' range shifts.

    PubMed

    Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies

  3. Telomere length variations in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Saliha; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are gene sequences present at chromosomal ends and are responsible for maintaining genome integrity. Telomere length is maximum at birth and decreases progressively with advancing age and thus is considered as a biomarker of chronological aging. This age associated decrease in the length of telomere is linked to various ageing associated diseases like diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, cancer etc. and their associated complications. Telomere length is a result of combined effect of oxidative stress, inflammation and repeated cell replication on it, and thus forming an association between telomere length and chronological aging and related diseases. Thus, decrease in telomere length was found to be important in determining both, the variations in longevity and age-related diseases in an individual. Ongoing and progressive research in the field of telomere length dynamics has proved that aging and age-related diseases apart from having a synergistic effect on telomere length were also found to effect telomere length independently also. Here a short description about telomere length variations and its association with human aging and age-related diseases is reviewed.

  4. Chip Scale Package Integrity Assessment by Isothermal Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1998-01-01

    Many aspects of chip scale package (CSP) technology, with focus on assembly reliability characteristics, are being investigated by the JPL-led consortia. Three types of test vehicles were considered for evaluation and currently two configurations have been built to optimize attachment processes. These test vehicles use numerous package types. To understand potential failure mechanisms of the packages, particularly solder ball attachment, the grid CSPs were subjected to environmental exposure. Package I/Os ranged from 40 to nearly 300. This paper presents both as assembled, up to 1, 000 hours of isothermal aging shear test results and photo micrographs, and tensile test results before and after 1,500 cycles in the range of -30/100 C for CSPs. Results will be compared to BGAs with the same the same isothermal aging environmental exposures.

  5. Exploration and mating range in African Pygmies.

    PubMed

    Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Hewlett, B

    1982-07-01

    The distributions of exploration range and of mating range were studied among Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic. Exploration range is defined and methods of estimation for single individuals suggested. A simple exponential distribution is found for individual Aka Pygmies, with variation of exploration range (the parameter defining mobility) with sex, age and ethnic affiliation. Distribution of distances from birthplace and place of residence are compared and show modest differences. The frequency of visits to a given place has also been studied. The average distance between birthplaces of mates is very similar to the mean exploration range. Correlations between individual exploration and mating ranges suggest that it is the male who may be choosing a marriage partner among Pygmies. A theory by Boyce, Küchemann & Harrison (1967) on the relations between "neighbourhood knowledge" and mating distance is inapplicable because of its reliance on the Pareto distribution, which does not apply in the present case, and of other unnecessary assumptions, but the general principle of a close relationship between exploratory activity and mating distance seems valid, at least in the present case. Suggestions are made for causes for the difference between the present distributions and those with other shapes observed in less primitive economies. PMID:7125597

  6. CONTROLS ON WATER CHEMISTRY OF AN OREGON COAST RANGE STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous factors may control losses of dissolved nutrients from forested basins in the Oregon Coast Range. Potentially important factors include forest composition, stand age, forest management, grazing, agriculture, sewage inputs and bedrock types, as well as others perhaps not...

  7. Developing age-friendly cities: case studies from Brussels and Manchester and implications for policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Buffel, Tine; McGarry, Paul; Phillipson, Chris; De Donder, Liesbeth; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Smetcoren, An-Sofie; Verté, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Developing environments responsive to the aspirations of older people has become a major concern for social and public policy. Policies and programs directed at achieving "age-friendly" communities are considered to require a wide range of interventions, including actions at the level of the social and physical environment. This article compares the age-friendly approaches of two European cities, Brussels and Manchester, with a particular focus on policies and initiatives that promote active aging in an urban context. The article examines, first, the demographic, social, and multicultural contexts of Brussels and Manchester; second, the way in which both cities became members of the World Health Organization Global Network of Age-Friendly Cities and Communities; third, similarities and differences in the age-friendly approaches and actions adopted by both cities; and fourth, opportunities and barriers to the implementation of age-friendly policies. The article concludes by discussing the key elements and resources needed to develop age-friendly cities.

  8. Simulation analyses of space use: Home range estimates, variability, and sample size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekoff, M.; Mech, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Simulations of space use by animals were run to determine the relationship among home range area estimates, variability, and sample size {number of locations}. As sample size increased, home range size increased asymptotically, whereas variability decreased among mean home range area estimates generated by multiple simulations for the same sample size. Our results suggest that field workers should ascertain between 100 and 200 locations in order to estimate reliably home range area. In some cases, this suggested guideline is higher than values found in the few published studies in which the relationship between home range area and number of locations is addressed. Sampling differences for small species occupying relatively small home ranges indicate that fewer locations may be sufficient to allow for a reliable estimate of home range. Intraspecffic variability in social status (group member, loner, resident, transient), age, sex, reproductive condition, and food resources also have to be considered, as do season, habitat, and differences in sampling and analytical methods. Comparative data still are needed.

  9. Sequential ranging: How it works

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugh, Harold W.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is directed to the users of data from the Sequential Ranging Assembly (SRA), and to others who have a general interest in range measurements. It covers the hardware, the software, and the processes used in acquiring range data; it does not cover analytical aspects such as the theory of modulation, detection, noise spectral density, and other highly technical subjects. In other words, it covers how ranging is done, but not the details of why it works. The publication also includes an appendix that gives a brief discussion of PN ranging, a capability now under development.

  10. Age Relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of impact craters in Aonia Planum, Mars. Remarkably, two of the craters are approximately equal in size, however, they clearly differ in age. The left (west) crater has a well-defined rim and its ejecta blanket overlies part of the less pronounced crater to its immediate east. The one with the ejecta blanket is younger. Other circular depressions in this bouldery scene are also old, eroded impact craters.

    Location near: 59.5oS, 78.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  11. Considering Environmental and Occupational Stressors in Cumulative Risk Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    While definitions vary across the global scientific community, cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) typically are described as exhibiting a population focus and analyzing the combined risks posed by multiple stressors. CRAs also may consider risk management alternatives as an anal...

  12. Considering the opposite: a corrective strategy for social judgment.

    PubMed

    Lord, C G; Lepper, M R; Preston, E

    1984-12-01

    It is proposed that several biases in social judgment result from a failure--first noted by Francis Bacon--to consider possibilities at odds with beliefs and perceptions of the moment. Individuals who are induced to consider the opposite, therefore, should display less bias in social judgment. In two separate but conceptually parallel experiments, this reasoning was applied to two domains--biased assimilation of new evidence on social issues and biased hypothesis testing of personality impressions. Subjects were induced to consider the opposite in two ways: through explicit instructions to do so and through stimulus materials that made opposite possibilities more salient. In both experiments the induction of a consider-the-opposite strategy had greater corrective effect than more demand-laden alternative instructions to be as fair and unbiased as possible. The results are viewed as consistent with previous research on perseverance, hindsight, and logical problem solving, and are thought to suggest an effective method of retraining social judgment.

  13. Psychological harm after PANE: NEPA's requirement to consider psychological damage

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.S. III

    1984-01-01

    In Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy (PANE), the Supreme Court held that the National Environmental Policy Act does not require the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider the probable impact of its actions on psychological health. The Court's opinion, however, supports the conclusion that NEPA generally requires federal agencies to consider such probable impacts. This article examines the scope of federal responsibility following this decision. It delineates the causal relationship test that the Court adopted in PANE, and discusses possible obstacles to the consideration of psychological impacts under NEPA. It divides federal actions into four categories, then considers the benefits and burdens of the ruling using the NRC's responsibility to consider psychological health effects before licensing new nuclear reactors. 221 references.

  14. Nuclear age thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  15. Ranging/tracking system for proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, P.; Udalov, S.

    1982-01-01

    The hardware development and testing phase of a hand held radar for the ranging and tracking for Shuttle proximity operations are considered. The radar is to measure range to a 3 sigma accuracy of 1 m (3.28 ft) to a maximum range of 1850 m (6000 ft) and velocity to a 3 sigma accuracy of 0.03 m/s (0.1 ft/s). Size and weight are similar to hand held radars, frequently seen in use by motorcycle police officers. Meeting these goals for a target in free space was very difficult to obtain in the testing program; however, at a range of approximately 700 m, the 3 sigma range error was found to be 0.96 m. It is felt that much of this error is due to clutter in the test environment. As an example of the velocity accuracy, at a range of 450 m, a 3 sigma velocity error of 0.02 m/s was measured. The principles of the radar and recommended changes to its design are given. Analyses performed in support of the design process, the actual circuit diagrams, and the software listing are included.

  16. The Mitochondrial Basis of Aging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Nuo; Youle, Richard J; Finkel, Toren

    2016-03-01

    A decline in mitochondrial quality and activity has been associated with normal aging and correlated with the development of a wide range of age-related diseases. Here, we review the evidence that a decline in mitochondria function contributes to aging. In particular, we discuss how mitochondria contribute to specific aspects of the aging process, including cellular senescence, chronic inflammation, and the age-dependent decline in stem cell activity. Signaling pathways regulating the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and mitophagy are also reviewed, with particular emphasis placed on how these pathways might, in turn, regulate longevity. Taken together, these observations suggest that mitochondria influence or regulate a number of key aspects of aging and suggest that strategies directed at improving mitochondrial quality and function might have far-reaching beneficial effects.

  17. Sex, desire and pleasure: considering the experiences of older Australian women

    PubMed Central

    Fileborn, Bianca; Thorpe, Rachel; Hawkes, Gail; Minichiello, Victor; Pitts, Marian; Dune, Tinashe

    2015-01-01

    Older age is often associated with asexuality. That is, older individuals are not viewed as desiring of sex, nor as sexually desirable to others. Broader social and cultural norms that downplay women's sexual desire and agency further compound these phenomena. Whether this popular image accurately reflects older women's sexual desires, behaviour and capacity to experience pleasure is unclear. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 43 partnered Australian women aged 55–81, this article considers women's sexual experiences and desires in older age. The findings of our research confirm that older women's experiences of sex and sexual desire are diverse and fluid. Some of the factors that influenced participants’ sexual behaviour and desire will be considered in this article, as will their understandings of what “counts” as sexual satisfaction and “successful sex”. The factors affecting sexual behaviour and desire also influence the way in which women are able to negotiate sexual interaction with their partners. Participants expressed a need for education and resources in order to gain greater control and to make autonomous choices over their sexual experiences, desire and ability to give and receive pleasure. The implications of these findings for practitioners are also considered. PMID:25544829

  18. The relationship of perceived age and sales of tobacco and alcohol to underage customers.

    PubMed

    Merrill, R M; Stanford, E J; Lindsay, G B; Neiger, B L

    2000-10-01

    The ability of store clerks to estimate the age of their customers is critical in preventing illegal sales of tobacco and alcohol to underage individuals. To avoid illegal sales of tobacco products to minors, the Food and Drug Administration created a policy in 1997 requiring store clerks to request identification of anyone perceived to be underage 27. A similar age standard has not been implemented for alcohol. The purpose of this article is to assess whether age 27 is adequate for minimizing tobacco sales to those under age 18 and whether this age is also a useful standard for minimizing illegal alcohol sales to those under age 21. The analysis is based on age estimates from 49 gas station and convenience store clerks. Each clerk estimated ages of 45 people filmed on video whose actual ages ranged from 15 to 29. T-tests, analysis of variance, contingency tables and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Store clerks found it more difficult to estimate ages of female customers than male customers. In addition, the store clerks significantly underestimated age of male customers under 18 and of female customers under 21. In contrast, the clerks significantly overestimated age of customers 21 years and older. Among underage customers, the store clerks' age, gender, work experience, education, and training in requesting identification had no influence on ability to judge age, nor did it have a strong influence on whether an underage customer was considered 18 or older or 21 or older. The results suggest that age 27 is adequate for minimizing illegal tobacco sales. Adoption of a similar or slightly older age may be appropriate for minimizing illegal alcohol sales. PMID:10982013

  19. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644

  20. Adult male chimpanzees inherit maternal ranging patterns.

    PubMed

    Murray, Carson M; Gilby, Ian C; Mane, Sandeep V; Pusey, Anne E

    2008-01-01

    Space use often correlates with reproductive success [1, 2]. Individual site fidelity is ubiquitous across a variety of taxa, including birds, mammals, insects, and reptiles [3-9]. Individuals can benefit from using the same area because doing so affords access to known resources, including food and/or breeding sites. The majority of studies on site fidelity have focused upon strictly territorial species in which individuals range in well-defined, exclusive areas (e.g., [4, 9]). By comparison, the transient groups that define fission-fusion species allow for considerable flexibility in individual space use. Although there is evidence that individual space use can influence reproductive success [2], relatively little is known about individual ranging patterns in fission-fusion species. Here, we investigate three potential correlates of male site fidelity (age, habitat quality, and maternal space use) in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We found that when alone, each male preferentially concentrated his space use near the area where his mother ranged when he was dependent. We suggest that solitary ranging allows males to avoid direct competition with conspecifics and that foraging in familiar areas maximizes foraging efficiency. These results highlight the importance of male foraging strategies in a species in which male ranging is typically explained in terms of mating access to females.

  1. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  2. Safety in GPR prospecting: a rarely-considered issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pajewski, Lara; Trela, Christiane; Carrick Utsi, Erica

    2016-04-01

    Safety issues (of people first of all, but also of the equipment and environment) are rarely considered in Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) prospecting and, more in general, in near-surface geophysical prospecting. As is right and fully understandable, the scientific community devotes greatest attention first of all to the theoretical and practical aspects of GPR technique, affecting the quality of attainable results, secondly to the efforts and costs needed to achieve them [1-2]. However, the (luckily) growing GPR market and range of applications make it worth giving serious consideration to safety issues, too. The existing manuals dealing with safety in geophysics are mainly concerned with applications requiring "deep" geophysical prospecting, for example the search for oilfields and other hydrocarbon resources [3]. Near-surface geophysics involves less dangers than deep geophysics, of course. Nevertheless, several accidents have already happened during GPR experimental campaigns. We have personally had critical experiences and collected reliable testimonies concerning occurred problems as mountain sicks, fractures of legs, stomach problems, allergic reactions, encounters with potentially-dangerous animals, and more. We have also noticed that much more attention is usually paid to safety issues during indoor experimental activities (in laboratory), rather than during outdoor fieldworks. For example, the Italian National research Council is conventioned with safety experts who hold periodical seminaries about safety aspects. Having taken part to some of them, to our experience we have never heard a "lecture" devoted to outdoor prospecting. Nowadays, any aspects associated to the use of the technologies should be considered. The increasing sensibility and sense of responsibility towards environmental matters impose GPR end-users to be careful not to damage the environment and also the cultural heritage. Near-surface prospecting should not compromise the flora and

  3. Skin anti-aging strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I.; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall “well-being” and the perception of “health” in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures. PMID:23467476

  4. Age Preferences: How Old Is "Too Old" for Selected Service Providers among Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farney, Lori; Aday, Ronald H.; Breault, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated age preferences for 11 different service providers and the age at which workers in these occupational roles were considered to be "too old" by three age groups: young (18-24), middle-aged (35-55), and older adults (65+). Results indicate that in comparison to middle-aged and older adults, young adults continue to have…

  5. Anomalous Growth of Aging Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider a discrete-time population dynamics with age-dependent structure. At every time step, one of the alive individuals from the population is chosen randomly and removed with probability q_k depending on its age, whereas a new individual of age 1 is born with probability r. The model can also describe a single queue in which the service order is random while the service efficiency depends on a customer's "age" in the queue. We propose a mean field approximation to investigate the long-time asymptotic behavior of the mean population size. The age dependence is shown to lead to anomalous power-law growth of the population at the critical regime. The scaling exponent is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the probabilities q_k at large k. The mean field approximation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. The Ocean: Consider the Connections...Educational Activities for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierce, Rose, Ed.

    This eight-chapter resource book is designed for use by elementary school-age children, teachers, and interested parents. It consists of activities (such as word games, art projects, and experiments) and information which not only provide knowledge but also stimulate creativity and provide entertainment. Areas addressed in the first seven chapters…

  7. Autism Diagnosis and Screening: Factors to Consider in Differential Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Beighley, Jennifer; Turygin, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    There has been an exponential growth in assessment methods to diagnose disorders on the autism spectrum. Many reasons for this trend exist and include advancing knowledge on how to make a diagnosis, the heterogeneity of the spectrum, the realization that different methods may be needed based on age and intellectual disability. Other factors…

  8. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  9. Small impact craters in the lunar regolith - Their morphologies, relative ages, and rates of formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Boyce, J. M.; Hahn, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The size frequency distributions, relative ages, and absolute age determination of lunar impact craters ranging in diameter from 1 to 100 m are discussed in relation to present-day and past impact rates. The size frequency distributions of craters produced by impacts on the lunar surface and of craters remaining after degradation with time and later impacts are examined, together with the steady state frequency curves for various crater morphologies. Relations between the relative ages of craters, their morphologies and their diameters are discussed, and the calibration of this kind of relationship with absolute crater ages by the location of individual craters with known absolute ages, diameters and frequency distribution statistics is considered. Estimates of present and past cratering rates based on crater size-frequency distributions are presented which suggest that the rate of impacting objects producing small lunar craters could have been constant over the last 100 million years.

  10. The age of the meteorite recovery surfaces of Roosevelt County, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Rendell, Helen M.; Wilson, Ivan; Wells, Gordon L.

    1992-01-01

    We have obtained minimum age estimates for the sand units underlying the two largest meteorite deflation surfaces in Roosevelt County, New Mexico, USA, using thermoluminescence dating techniques. The dates obtained ranged from 53.5 (+/- 5.4) to 95.2 (+/- 9.5) ka, and must be considered lower limits for the terrestrial ages of the meteorites found within these specific deflation surfaces. These ages greatly exceed previous measurements from adjacent meteorite-producing deflation basins. We find that Roosevelt County meteorites are probably terrestrial contemporaries of the meteorites found at most accumulation zones in Antarctica. The apparent high meteorite accumulation rate reported for Roosevelt County by Zolensky et al. (1990) is incorrect, as it used an age of 16 ka for all Roosevelt County recovery surfaces. We conclude that the extreme variability of terrestrial ages of the Roosevelt County deflation surfaces effectively precludes their use for calculations of the meteorite accumulation rate at the Earth's surface.

  11. Attention, psychomotor functions and age.

    PubMed

    Kallus, Konrad Wolfgang; Schmitt, Jeroen A J; Benton, David

    2005-12-01

    Nutrition might play an important role to ameliorate or to buffer age-related declines in attention and psychomotor functions. The assessment of nutritional effects in aged subjects has to take into account that attention and psychomotor functions can be subdivided in different functions that are differentially affected by age. This paper gives an overview of changes in different facets of attention and psychomotor functions beyond fifty as well as assessment methods for attention and psychomotor performance. It also provides a review of models to explain the pattern of changes with increasing age, and discusses the problems of high performance variance and of age related confounding variables like health status. Two different approaches are discussed that analyse a performance profile and an experimentally oriented functional microanalysis of changes in performance with respect to the effects of nutrition on attention and psychomotor functions. Addressed are examples of missing age-related deficits or even age-related superiority. Caffeine and Ginseng are considered as examples to enhance performance in older persons. Results are in accordance with data on the positive role of physical fitness for mental performance in older persons. Performance of older persons can well be enhanced by functional food components or nutritional supplementation. The effects are comparable to the effects obtained in younger groups, while there is only weak evidence for specific compensatory effects in aged persons. Finally the role of nutrition for the processes of healthy aging is discussed.

  12. [Medical drug abuse and aging].

    PubMed

    Nubukpo, Philippe; Clément, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Drug addiction is often underestimated among the aged. Opiate drugs (mostly pain killers) are the most frequently implicated in drug addiction after benzodiazepines (BZD) in the aged. The subjects aged of 65 years or more are the most represented among the BZD users in France. Frequency of BZD use varies according to various studies from 39 to 55% in this age group. Leading a lonely life is associated with the use of psychotropic drugs among retired people (OR=1.7). Vulnerability at this age must take into account not only polypathology, but also the faster aging of a minority of the population under opiate drugs substitution treatment (OST), more subjects to drugs interaction. Drug addiction among elderly often reflects the drift of "lawful" doctor's instructions that leads to an increase in drugs use. The difficulty has to do with a lack of specificity of diagnosis of addiction at this age, but perhaps also with physicans'instructions in the aged. Some authors suggest that continued and prolonged use should be considered the main criterion for BZD addiction at this age, with or without increase in doses and failed attempt at cessation. Besides, the prescription of BZD increases after retirement and loneliness.

  13. Financial Implications of Curriculum Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrold, Ross

    1978-01-01

    This article attempts to clarify the interdependent nature of curricular and financial aspects of school organization, then to provide a conceptual tool to help administrators consider both aspects concurrently. (Author)

  14. Ecological and evolutionary drivers of range size in Coenagrion damselflies.

    PubMed

    Swaegers, J; Janssens, S B; Ferreira, S; Watts, P C; Mergeay, J; McPeek, M A; Stoks, R

    2014-11-01

    Geographic range size is a key ecological and evolutionary characteristic of a species, yet the causal basis of variation in range size among species remains largely unresolved. One major reason for this is that several ecological and evolutionary traits may jointly shape species' differences in range size. We here present an integrated study of the contribution of ecological (dispersal capacity, body size and latitudinal position) and macroevolutionary (species' age) traits in shaping variation in species' range size in Coenagrion damselflies. We reconstructed the phylogenetic tree of this genus to account for evolutionary history when assessing the contribution of the ecological traits and to evaluate the role of the macroevolutionary trait (species' age). The genus invaded the Nearctic twice independently from the Palearctic, yet this was not associated with the evolution of larger range sizes or dispersal capacity. Body size and species' age did not explain variation in range size. There is higher flight ability (as measured by wing aspect ratio) at higher latitudes. Species with a larger wing aspect ratio had a larger range size, also after correcting for phylogeny, suggesting a role for dispersal capacity in shaping the species' ranges. More northern species had a larger species' range, consistent with Rapoport's rule, possibly related to niche width. Our results underscore the importance of integrating macroecology and macroevolution when explaining range size variation among species. PMID:25244423

  15. Genotypic expression at different ages: I. Prolificacy traits of sheep.

    PubMed

    Okut, H; Bromley, C M; Van Vleck, L D; Snowder, G D

    1999-09-01

    Genetic parameters for prolificacy traits for Columbia (COLU), Polypay (POLY), Rambouillet (RAMB), and Targhee (TARG) breeds of sheep were estimated with REML using animal models. Traits were number of live births (LAB), litter size at birth (LSB) and weaning (LSW), and litter weight weaned (LWW). Numbers of observations ranged from 5,140 to 7,095 for prolificacy traits and from 5,101 to 8,973 for litter weight weaned for the four breeds. For single-trait analyses, ewes were classified as young (1 yr old), middle-aged (2 and 3 yr old), or older (> 3 yr old). After single-trait analyses, three-trait analyses were done for each characteristic with traits defined by age class. Generally, heritability estimates from single-trait analyses were low and ranged from .01 to .17 for LAB and LSB and from .00 to .10 for LSW. Heritability estimates obtained for LWW ranged from low to moderate (.00 to .25) and were less for older ewes. Heritability estimates from the three-trait analyses were generally similar to estimates from single-trait analyses. Heritabilities for LAB and LSB were similar, and, for three-trait analyses, they ranged across age groups from .07 to .13 for COLU, .13 to .16 for POLY, .10 to .16 for RAMB, and .01 to .16 for TARG. Estimates for LSW from three-trait analyses ranged from .07 to .12 for COLU, .04 to .09 for POLY, .01 to .11 for RAMB, and .03 to .11 for TARG. For LWW, heritabilities ranged from .00 to .21 for COLU, .05 to .08 for POLY, .12 to .15 for RAMB, and .18 to .29 for TARG. Genetic correlations for LAB, LSB and LSW among age-defined traits ranged from .25 to 1.00. Genetic correlations for LAB and LSB between young and middle and between young and older age classes were less than .80 in COLU, POLY, and RAMB breeds. Only genetic correlations between middle and older age classes for these breeds were greater than .80. For TARG, genetic correlations among all age classes were greater than .80 (.88 to 1.00) for those traits. All genetic correlations

  16. Two wavelength satellite laser ranging using SPAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Jelinkova, Helena; Kirchner, Georg; Koidl, F.

    1993-01-01

    When ranging to satellites with lasers, there are several principal contributions to the error budget: from the laser ranging system on the ground, from the satellite retroarray geometry, and from the atmosphere. Using a single wavelength, we have routinely achieved a ranging precision of 8 millimeters when ranging to the ERS-1 and Starlette satellites. The systematic error of the atmosphere, assuming the existing dispersion models, is expected to be of the order of 1 cm. Multiple wavelengths ranging might contribute to the refinement of the existing models. Taking into account the energy balance, the existing picosecond lasers and the existing receiver and detection technology, several pairs or multiple wavelengths may be considered. To be able to improve the atmospheric models to the subcentimeter accuracy level, the differential time interval (DTI) has to be determined within a few picoseconds depending on the selected wavelength pair. There exist several projects based on picosecond lasers as transmitters and on two types of detection techniques: one is based on photodetectors, like photomultipliers or photodiodes connected to the time interval meters. Another technique is based on the use of a streak camera as an echo signal detector, temporal analyzer, and time interval vernier. The temporal analysis at a single wavelength using the streak camera showed the complexity of the problem.

  17. Fracture, aging and disease in bone

    SciTech Connect

    Ager, J.W.; Balooch, G.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2006-02-01

    From a public health perspective, developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the well-known increase in fracture risk of human bone with age is essential. This also represents a challenge from materials science and fracture mechanics viewpoints. Bone has a complex, hierarchical structure with characteristic features ranging from nanometer to macroscopic dimensions; it is therefore significantly more complex than most engineering materials. Nevertheless, by examining the micro-/nano-structural changes accompanying the process of aging using appropriate multiscale experimental methods and relating them to fracture mechanics data, it is possible to obtain a quantitative picture of how bone resists fracture. As human cortical bone exhibits rising ex vivo crack-growth resistance with crack extension, its fracture toughness must be evaluated in terms of resistance-curve (R-curve) behavior. While the crack initiation toughness declines with age, the more striking finding is that the crack-growth toughness declines even more significantly and is essentially absent in bone from donors exceeding 85 years in age. To explain such an age-induced deterioration in the toughness of bone, we evaluate its fracture properties at multiple length scales, specifically at the molecular and nanodimensions using pico-force atomic-force microscopy, nanoindentation and vibrational spectroscopies, at the microscale using electron microscopy and hard/soft x-ray computed tomography, and at the macroscale using R-curve measurements. We show that the reduction in crack-growth toughness is associated primarily with a degradation in the degree of extrinsic toughening, in particular involving crack bridging, and that this occurs at relatively coarse size-scales in the range of tens to hundreds of micrometers. Finally, we briefly describe how specific clinical treatments, e.g., with steroid hormones to treat various inflammatory conditions, can prematurely damage bone, thereby reducing its

  18. PN ranging/telemetry transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deerkoski, L. F.

    1977-01-01

    System can transmit range-indicating pseudonoise (PN) codes and simultaneously transmit auxiliary information as binary data at a rate at least on order of pseudonoise chipping rate. PN code is modulated by data stream with relatively low bit rate. Data stream with high bit rate can be transmitted in same frequency band as PN ranging code.

  19. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  20. Institutional Long-Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, John G.

    This booklet presents a general outline for conducting a long-range planning study that can be adapted for use by any institution of higher education. The basic components of an effective long-range plan should include: (1) purposes of the plan, which define the scope of the study and provide the setting in which it will be initiated; (2) a set of…

  1. Does the Aging Process Significantly Modify the Mean Heart Rate?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Reis, Francisco Prado; Santos, Thayná Ramos; Lima, Sonia Oliveira; Barreto-Filho, José Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background The Mean Heart Rate (MHR) tends to decrease with age. When adjusted for gender and diseases, the magnitude of this effect is unclear. Objective To analyze the MHR in a stratified sample of active and functionally independent individuals. Methods A total of 1,172 patients aged ≥ 40 years underwent Holter monitoring and were stratified by age group: 1 = 40-49, 2 = 50-59, 3 = 60-69, 4 = 70-79, 5 = ≥ 80 years. The MHR was evaluated according to age and gender, adjusted for Hypertension (SAH), dyslipidemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Several models of ANOVA, correlation and linear regression were employed. A two-tailed p value <0.05 was considered significant (95% CI). Results The MHR tended to decrease with the age range: 1 = 77.20 ± 7.10; 2 = 76.66 ± 7.07; 3 = 74.02 ± 7.46; 4 = 72.93 ± 7.35; 5 = 73.41 ± 7.98 (p < 0.001). Women showed a correlation with higher MHR (p <0.001). In the ANOVA and regression models, age and gender were predictors (p < 0.001). However, R2 and ETA2 < 0.10, as well as discrete standardized beta coefficients indicated reduced effect. Dyslipidemia, hypertension and DM did not influence the findings. Conclusion The MHR decreased with age. Women had higher values of MHR, regardless of the age group. Correlations between MHR and age or gender, albeit significant, showed the effect magnitude had little statistical relevance. The prevalence of SAH, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus did not influence the results. PMID:24029962

  2. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  3. Range indices of geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, W.F.; Green, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The simplest index of geomagnetic activity is the range in nT from maximum to minimum value of the field in a given time interval. The hourly range R was recommended by IAGA for use at observatories at latitudes greater than 65??, but was superceded by AE. The most used geomagnetic index K is based on the range of activity in a 3 h interval corrected for the regular daily variation. In order to take advantage of real time data processing, now available at many observatories, it is proposed to introduce a 1 h range index and also a 3 h range index. Both will be computed hourly, i.e. each will have a series of 24 per day, the 3 h values overlapping. The new data will be available as the range (R) of activity in nT and also as a logarithmic index (I) of the range. The exponent relating index to range in nT is based closely on the scale used for computing K values. The new ranges and range indices are available, from June 1987, to users in real time and can be accessed by telephone connection or computer network. Their first year of production is regarded as a trial period during which their value to the scientific and commercial communities will be assessed, together with their potential as indicators of regional and global disturbances' and in which trials will be conducted into ways of eliminating excessive bias at quiet times due to the rate of change of the daily variation field. ?? 1988.

  4. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  5. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  6. Rethinking the 2000 ACRL Standards: Some Things to Consider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.

    2013-01-01

    I propose three "rethinks" to consider in recasting the ACRL Standards for information literacy for the coming decades. First, rethink the concept of information need. Second, rethink the notion that information literacy is composed of a set of abilities for "extracting information." Third, rethink the holistic process of…

  7. Considering the opposite: a corrective strategy for social judgment.

    PubMed

    Lord, C G; Lepper, M R; Preston, E

    1984-12-01

    It is proposed that several biases in social judgment result from a failure--first noted by Francis Bacon--to consider possibilities at odds with beliefs and perceptions of the moment. Individuals who are induced to consider the opposite, therefore, should display less bias in social judgment. In two separate but conceptually parallel experiments, this reasoning was applied to two domains--biased assimilation of new evidence on social issues and biased hypothesis testing of personality impressions. Subjects were induced to consider the opposite in two ways: through explicit instructions to do so and through stimulus materials that made opposite possibilities more salient. In both experiments the induction of a consider-the-opposite strategy had greater corrective effect than more demand-laden alternative instructions to be as fair and unbiased as possible. The results are viewed as consistent with previous research on perseverance, hindsight, and logical problem solving, and are thought to suggest an effective method of retraining social judgment. PMID:6527215

  8. [Re]Considering Queer Theories and Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fifield, Steve; Letts, Will

    2014-01-01

    We take Mattias Lundin's "Inviting queer ideas into the science classroom: studying sexual education from a queer perspective" as a point of departure to explore some enduring issues related to the use of queer theories to interrogate science education and its practices. We consider the uneasy, polygamous relationship between gay…

  9. Addressing Challenging Behavior: Considering the Logic of Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terrance M.; Hirn, Regina G.

    2014-01-01

    When dealing with children who exhibit challenging behaviors there are no known interventions that work for all students or at all times. Thus, intervention for these students is often implemented in a trial and error manner. This article provides a logic for considering probability as a factor in selecting strategies. Understanding that some…

  10. Registers for Mathematics Classrooms in Malta: Considering the Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, Marie Therese

    2009-01-01

    Classroom mathematics in Malta is generally communicated through code-switching between the national language Maltese and the country's second language English. This is because not all mathematical words have Maltese equivalents and furthermore, mathematics textbooks are UK publications. I consider the language used for spoken communication and…

  11. Considering Jumping Ship? A Pirate Looks at Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Bob G.

    2011-01-01

    If you're like me, a "senior" faculty member at a public state university facing significant budget cuts, recently you've probably thought about leaving your current position for another faculty position in a different state. A possible reason for considering jumping ship is envisioning a clearer picture of your retirement as it nears on…

  12. 20 CFR 320.28 - Record of evidence considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of evidence considered. 320.28 Section 320.28 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT INITIAL DETERMINATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT AND REVIEWS OF...

  13. Considering the Activity in Interactivity: A Multimodal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ruth N.

    2010-01-01

    What factors contribute to effective multimedia learning? Increasingly, interactivity is considered a critical component that can foster learning in multimedia environments, including simulations and games. Although a number of recent studies investigate interactivity as a factor in the effective design of multimedia instruction, most examine only…

  14. When to consider acute HIV infection in the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Richard M; Hardwicke, Robin L; Grimes, Deanna E; DeGarmo, D Sean

    2016-01-16

    Patients presenting with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy are likely to have mononucleosis; however, patients with acute HIV infection may present with similar symptoms. Acute HIV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis if test results for mononucleosis are negative. This article describes when to order HIV testing and discusses the importance of early intervention for acute HIV infection. PMID:26678418

  15. Participatory Evaluation: Factors to Consider when Involving Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janet; Cater, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a critical perspective on the increasing involvement of young people in participatory evaluation as well as identifies the factors to consider when designing a youth-led evaluation project. Through this avenue, young people will increase their participation in organizational development and community change. Youth-led…

  16. Considering Critical Turns in Research on Educational Leadership and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Sarah; Young, Michelle D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of critical policy analysis (CPA) in the fields of educational leadership and policy. In addition to exploring how CPA compares to traditional research approaches in educational leadership and policy, the authors consider the influence of long-established ways of knowing, why scholars choose…

  17. Better Together: Considering Student Interfaith Leadership and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, William; Lane, Megan

    2014-01-01

    On campuses across the country, students and professional staff are considering student interfaith leadership as one way that students act on their core values to make a positive difference in the world. This kind of student leadership can be framed through student leadership models like the social change model of leadership development. Better…

  18. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.22 Safety factors to be considered. In accordance with... proposed use of a food additive will be safe: Except where evidence is submitted which justifies use of a... used; that is, a food additive for use by man will not be granted a tolerance that will exceed...

  19. Renovating Interior Office Space: What a Manager Needs To Consider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babey, Evelyn R.

    When planning an office renovation, a manager should design an office layout that is efficient and should consider the psychological aspects of office design, including sound level, color harmony, and lighting. The manager must also have a good understanding of all phases of the project plan and the timing involved. There are basically five phases…

  20. As Endowment Values Plummet, Some Institutions Consider Suing Brokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that as many as five colleges or charitable foundations whose endowments have suffered significant investment losses or were unable to access money in their accounts in recent months are considering legal action against their brokers or investment managers, alleging misrepresentation of risk or mismanagement. Jacob H.…

  1. Outer planet probe navigation. [considering Pioneer space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L.

    1974-01-01

    A series of navigation studies in conjunction with outer planet Pioneer missions are reformed to determine navigation requirements and measurement systems in order to target probes. Some particular cases are established where optical navigation is important and some cases where radio alone navigation is suffucient. Considered are a direct Saturn mission, a Saturn Uranus mission, a Jupiter Uranus mission, and a Titan probe mission.

  2. Roads to Consider in Assessments of Extraction Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural resource extraction in large undeveloped areas often necessitates construction of roads that substantially contribute to the environmental risk of the activity. Based on a scenario of potential mining in a large virtually roadless salmonid-rich watershed, we consider the ...

  3. 5 CFR 2608.202 - Factors OGE will consider.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 2608.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES... request. Among the relevant factors that the General Counsel may consider in making this decision are... be necessary to prevent a miscarriage of justice; (c) OGE has an interest in the decision that may...

  4. Governing Bodies That Consider Joining or Creating Federations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a research study exploring what motivates governing bodies to consider joining or creating a federation, their experiences of the process and the barriers faced. The research methodology involved semi-structured telephone interviews, face-to-face interviews and analysis of relevant documentation. The varied…

  5. Issues to Consider in Converting to Digital Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Etta D.; Zuley, Margarita; Baum, Janet K.; Marques, Helga S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper will outline the reasons that many radiology practices are converting to digital mammography. In addition, we will provide basic information on the issues that must be considered in making the transformation. These include technical matters regarding image display, storage and retrieval, as well as clinical and ergonomic considerations. PMID:17888771

  6. Researching with Young Children: Considering Issues of Ethics and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Amy

    2013-01-01

    When conducting research with young children it is important to consider not only the data which have been produced as a result of the research, but also the research process itself. This article presents a parallel analysis of data which has been articulated elsewhere from a three-year study of children's understandings about measurement.…

  7. 5 CFR 2608.202 - Factors OGE will consider.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 2608.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES... PROCEEDINGS Requests for Testimony and Production of Documents § 2608.202 Factors OGE will consider. The... would result in OGE appearing to favor one litigant over another; (l) Disclosure relates to...

  8. 5 CFR 2608.202 - Factors OGE will consider.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 2608.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES... PROCEEDINGS Requests for Testimony and Production of Documents § 2608.202 Factors OGE will consider. The... would result in OGE appearing to favor one litigant over another; (l) Disclosure relates to...

  9. 22 CFR 504.5 - Factors the BBG will consider.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Factors the BBG will consider. 504.5 Section 504.5 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS TESTIMONY BY BBG EMPLOYEES, PRODUCTION OF OFFICIAL RECORDS, AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS Demands or Requests for Testimony and Production of Documents § 504.5...

  10. Considering the Interest-Convergence Dilemma in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baber, Lorenzo DuBois

    2015-01-01

    This study examines tensions between universalist ideology and racial/ethnic inequalities in STEM education. Using data collected from qualitative interviews with STEM diversity administrators at 10 research-intensive, public universities, the study considers programmatic goals through an interest-convergence framework. Emerging patterns reveal…

  11. Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

  12. Age effects on EEG correlates of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Nuno S; Ferreira, Daniela; Reis, Joana; Jacinto, Luís R; Fernandes, Luís; Pinho, Francisco; Festa, Joana; Pereira, Mariana; Afonso, Nuno; Santos, Nadine C; Cerqueira, João J; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Body and brain undergo several changes with aging. One of the domains in which these changes are more remarkable relates with cognitive performance. In the present work, electroencephalogram (EEG) markers (power spectral density and spectral coherence) of age-related cognitive decline were sought whilst the subjects performed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Considering the expected age-related cognitive deficits, WCST was applied to young, mid-age and elderly participants, and the theta and alpha frequency bands were analyzed. From the results herein presented, higher theta and alpha power were found to be associated with a good performance in the WCST of younger subjects. Additionally, higher theta and alpha coherence were also associated with good performance and were shown to decline with age and a decrease in alpha peak frequency seems to be associated with aging. Additionally, inter-hemispheric long-range coherences and parietal theta power were identified as age-independent EEG correlates of cognitive performance. In summary, these data reveals age-dependent as well as age-independent EEG correlates of cognitive performance that contribute to the understanding of brain aging and related cognitive deficits. PMID:26216431

  13. Home range analysis using a mechanistic home range model

    SciTech Connect

    Moorcroft, P.R. . Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology); Lewis, M.A. . Dept. of Mathematics) Crabtree, R.L. . Dept. of Fish and Wildlife Resources)

    1999-07-01

    The traditional models used to characterize animal home ranges have no mechanistic basis underlying their descriptions of space use, and as a result, the analysis of animal home ranges has primarily been a descriptive endeavor. In this paper, the authors characterize coyote (Canis latrans) home range patterns using partial differential equations for expected space use that are formally derived from underlying descriptions of individual movement behavior. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that mechanistic models have been used to characterize animal home ranges. The results provide empirical support for a model formulation of movement response to scent marks, and suggest that having relocation data for individuals in adjacent groups is necessary to capture the spatial arrangement of home range boundaries. The authors then show how the model fits can be used to obtain predictions for individual movement and scent marking behavior and to predict changes in home range patterns. More generally, the findings illustrate how mechanistic models permit the development of a predictive theory for the relationship between movement behavior and animal spatial distribution.

  14. Range of motion and cervical myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Wilke, J; Niederer, D; Fleckenstein, J; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2016-01-01

    Several studies investigating myofascial pain syndrome include assessments of range of motion (ROM) as a diagnostic criterion. However, the value of ROM in this context has not yet been evaluated in controlled clinical studies. We aimed to examine whether patients with myofascial pain syndrome display alterations of ROM when compared to healthy subjects. Twenty-two individuals (13 females, 9 males; aged 33.4 ± 13.9 yrs) afflicted with active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle as well as 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. All subjects underwent an examination of maximal active cervical ROM in flexion/extension assessed by means of a 3D ultrasonic movement analysis system (30 Hz; Zebris CMS 70). In the patients group, pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the trigger points was determined using a pressure algometer. Maximum range of motion in the sagittal plane did not differ between individuals with MTrP (125.9 ± 23.2°, 95% CI: 116.2-135.6°) and asymptomatic subjects (128.2 ± 20.4°, 95% CI: 119.7-136.7°; p > .05). In patients, PPT (1.7 ± .6, 95% CI: 1.5-1.9) was not correlated with cervical mobility (r = -.13; p > .05). Based on these pilot data, range of motion in flexion/extension is not a valid criterion for the detection of myofascial trigger points. Additional research incorporating movement amplitudes in other anatomical planes and additional afflicted muscles should be conducted in order to further delineate the relative impact of MTrP on range of motion.

  15. Universal non-destructive testing method in the microwave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, R. Yu; Fadeev, G. N.; Gerasimov, Yu V.; Kondrakova, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    Considered in this paper, a new method of nondestructive control based on the spectra of radio wave radiation of the microwave range wideband scanning receiver. It is experimentally shown that this method has a high accuracy in the determination of the frequency spectrum. This allows the method considered to reach a sensitivity of 5-6 Hz/nm.

  16. Considering IIOT and security for the DoD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Bachman, Kristen; Landoll, Darren

    2016-05-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has come of age and domestic and industrial devices are all "smart". But how can they be universally classified and queried? How do we know that the underlying architecture is secure enough to deploy on a defense network? By leverage existing platforms designed for interoperability, extensibility, and security that can manage data across multiple domains and runs on any platform.

  17. The eclipse of species ranges.

    PubMed

    Hemerik, Lia; Hengeveld, Rob; Lippe, Ernst

    2006-01-01

    This paper distinguishes four recognisably different geographical processes in principle causing species to die out. One of these processes, the one we dub "range eclipse", holds that one range expands at the expense of another one, thereby usurping it. Channell and Lomolino (2000a, Journal of Biogeography 27: 169-179; 2000b, Nature 403: 84-87; see also Lomolino and Channell, 1995, Journal of Mammalogy 76: 335-347) measured the course of this process in terms of the proportion of the total range remaining in its original centre, thereby essentially assuming a homogeneous distribution of animals over the range. However, part of their measure seems mistaken. By giving a general, analytical formulation of eclipsing ranges, we estimate the exact course of this process. Also, our formulation does not partition a range into two spatially equal parts, its core and its edge, but it assumes continuity. For applying this model to data on the time evolution of species, individual time series should be available for each of them. For practical purposes we give an alternative way of plotting and interpreting such time series. Our approach, being more sensitive than Channell and Lomolino's, gives a less optimistic indication of range eclipses than theirs once these have started. PMID:17318329

  18. The little ice age

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Little Ice Age, a period of glacier expansion in alpine regions that began sometime between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries and lasted until late in the nineteenth century, was recorded not only in glacial features dated by geologic techniques but also in historical documents such as field sketches, land values, and weather records, especially in the Alps. Indirect evidence of its impact in other parts of the world includes the records of sea-ice extent near Iceland and Greenland, the fate of the Viking settlements in Greenland, and many other suggestions that the climate was colder in the recent past than it is today. Jean Grove's book is an authoritative, superbly documented, and excellently written summary of the abundant evidence of climatic change during the last few centuries in the context of broader climatic variations of the last 10,000 years. This summary provides a much-needed perspective for considering the magnitude and frequency of natural climatic variations in the past, given predictions for the future. In the final chapter, Grove notes that natural climatic variations, including another minor ice age, might be expected in the future but at the end of the Little Ice Age coincided with the increased burning of fossil fuels during the industralization of Europe and North America. This coincidence does indeed suggest that modern scientists already have had a significant impact on the global climate.

  19. Bone age in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p<0.005) in tetraparetic (17.7 months), hemiparetic (10.1 months), and diparetic patients (7.9 months). In the hemiparetic group, the mean bone age in the affected side was 96.88 months and the uncompromised side was 101.13 months (p<0.005). Regarding functional status, the ambulatory group showed a delay of 18.73 months in bone age (p<0.005). Comparing bone age between genders, it was observed a greater delay in males (13.59 months) than in females (9.63 months), but not statistically significant (p = 0.54). Conclusion There is a delay in bone age compared to chronological age influenced by the topography of spasticity, functional level and gender in patients with cerebral palsy. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453693

  20. Nutraceuticals, aging, and cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Head, Elizabeth; Zicker, Steven C

    2004-01-01

    Decline in cognitive function that accompanies aging in dogs might have a biological basis, and many of the disorders associated with aging in canines might be preventable through dietary modifications that incorporate specific nutraceuticals. Based on previous research and the results of laboratory and clinical studies, antioxidants might be one class of nutraceutical that benefits aged dogs. Brains of aged dogs accumulate oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, which can lead to dysfunction of neuronal cells. The production of free radicals and lack of increase in compensatory antioxidant enzymes might lead to detrimental modifications to important macromolecules within neurons. Reducing oxidative damage through food ingredients rich in a broad spectrum of antioxidants significantly improves, or slows the decline of, learning and memory in aged dogs; however, determining which compounds, combinations, dosage ranges, when to initiate intervention, and long-term effects constitute critical gaps in knowledge about this subject.