Science.gov

Sample records for age ranges results

  1. Pleistocene glaciations of Central Asia: results from 10Be surface exposure ages of erratic boulders from the Pamir (Tajikistan), and the Alay Turkestan range (Kyrgyzstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, U.; Bergau, A.; Seebach, D.; Zech, R.; Glaser, B.; Sosin, P.; Kubik, P. W.; Zech, W.

    2006-05-01

    We have determined the timing of glaciations in the Pamir (Tajikistan) and the Alay-Turkestan Range (Kyrgyzstan) using 10Be surface exposure dating. Glacial advances in the area have occurred >93-136, ˜60-80, (40-55), ˜27-25, ˜22-20, ˜19-17, ˜16-15, ˜15-13, and 11-9 cal ka BP. All Late Pleistocene glaciers in the Pamir, and the Alay-Turkestan Ranges have been valley glaciers except for the most extended glaciers on the Pamir plateau, which have formed local piedmont glaciations. In the eastern Pamir, these are characterized by ELA depressions of ˜370-380 m (THAR 0.5). In the Turkestan Range and Alay Range, ELA depressions at the same time were >750 and 600 m, respectively. Late Pleistocene glacier advances all over western High Asia were contemporaneous with climatic cold phases rather than monsoonal maxima. Their maximum extent and that of the western hemisphere ice sheets were asynchronous, due to increasing aridity in the region over the course of the Last Glacial. Late Pleistocene climate in Central Asia seems to have been influenced by the interplay of the westerly circulation and the Siberian anticyclone. Some indirect monsoonal influence in the eastern Pamir may be responsible for the existence of some of the Lateglacial moraine stages in this area. High altitude glaciers seem to have reached their maximum extent earlier (MIS 5-4) than low altitude glaciers (first half of MIS 3), possibly due to prolonged glacial aridity imparting with moisture advection onto high altitude sites, inducing glacial retreat, but prolonged cold during the same time imparting with glacier ablation at lower altitude sites, inducing glacial advance.

  2. Universal time - Results from lunar laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W.; Counselman, C. C., III; Shapiro, I. I.

    1978-01-01

    A least squares analysis of lunar laser ranging observations from the McDonald Observatory is used to estimate universal time. In addition to the ranging observations, the analysis simultaneously takes into account the parameters representing the locations of McDonald and the lunar retroreflectors, the orbits of the earth and the moon, and the moon's physical libration. The root-mean-square of the postfit range residuals for the 5-year period from October 1970 to November 1975 is 28 cm. The results are compared with those obtained by the Bureau International de l'Heure and by Stolz et al. (1976), and the reasons for discrepancies are discussed. It is suggested that problems in modeling the moon's motion make difficult the determination of UT with the accuracy inherent in the ranging observations.

  3. Results of laser ranging collocations during 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolenkiewicz, R.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of laser ranging collocations is to compare the ability of two satellite laser ranging systems, located in the vicinity of one another, to measure the distance to an artificial Earth satellite in orbit over the sites. The similar measurement of this distance is essential before a new or modified laser system is deployed to worldwide locations in order to gather the data necessary to meet the scientific goals of the Crustal Dynamics Project. In order to be certain the laser systems are operating properly, they are periodically compared with each other. These comparisons or collocations are performed by locating the lasers side by side when they track the same satellite during the same time or pass. The data is then compared to make sure the lasers are giving essentially the same range results. Results of the three collocations performed during 1983 are given.

  4. Lunar orbiter ranging data: initial results.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, J D; Sjogren, W L

    1967-01-01

    Data from two Lunar Orbiter spacecraft have been used to test the significance of corrections to the lunar ephemeris. Range residuals of up to 1700 meters were reduced by an order of magnitude by application of the corrections, with most of the residuals reduced to less than 100 meters. Removal of gross errors in the ephemeris reveals residual patterns that may indicate errors in location of observing stations, as well as the expected effects of Lunar nonsphericity. PMID:17799149

  5. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644

  6. Results of LWR snubber aging research

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D P; Werry, E V; Blahnik, D E

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the aging research results and recommendations for snubbers used in commercial nuclear power plants. Snubbers are safety-related devices used to restrain undesirable dynamic loads at various piping and equipment locations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Each snubber must accommodate a plant's normal thermal movements and must be capable of restraining the maximum off-normal dynamic loads, such as a seismic event or a transient, postulated for its specific location. The effects of snubber aging and the factors that contribute to the degradation of their safety performance need to be better understood. Thus, Phase II of Nuclear Plant Aging Research was conducted to enhance the understanding of snubber aging and its consequences. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff and their subcontractors, Lake Engineering and Wyle Laboratories, visited eight sites (encompassing thirteen plants) to conduct interviews with NPP staff and to collect data on snubber aging, testing, and maintenance. The Phase II research methodology, evaluation, results, conclusions, and recommendations are described in the report. Effective methods for service-life monitoring of snubbers are included in the recommendations.

  7. [Forensic age estimation in juveniles and young adults: Reducing the range of scatter in age diagnosis by combining different methods].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sven; Schramm, Danilo; Ribbecke, Sebastian; Schulz, Ronald; Wittschieber, Daniel; Olze, Andreas; Vieth, Volker; Ramsthaler, H Frank; Pfischel, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Geserick, Gunther; Schmeling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic rise in the number of refugees entering Germany means that age estimation for juveniles and young adults whose age is unclear but relevant to legal and official procedures has become more important than ever. Until now, whether and to what extent the combination of methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics has resulted in a reduction of the range of scatter of the summarized age diagnosis has been unclear. Hand skeletal age, third molar mineralization stage and ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphyses were determined for 307 individuals aged between 10 and 29 at time of death on whom autopsies were performed at the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Berlin, Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg between 2001 and 2011. To measure the range of scatter, linear regression analysis was used to calculate the standard error of estimate for each of the above methods individually and in combination. It was found that combining the above methods led to a reduction in the range of scatter. Due to various limitations of the study, the statistical parameters determined cannot, however, be used for age estimation practice. PMID:26934764

  8. Parkinson's disease as a result of aging

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Sabate, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    It is generally considered that Parkinson's disease is induced by specific agents that degenerate a clearly defined population of dopaminergic neurons. Data commented in this review suggest that this assumption is not as clear as is often thought and that aging may be critical for Parkinson's disease. Neurons degenerating in Parkinson's disease also degenerate in normal aging, and the different agents involved in the etiology of this illness are also involved in aging. Senescence is a wider phenomenon affecting cells all over the body, whereas Parkinson's disease seems to be restricted to certain brain centers and cell populations. However, reviewed data suggest that Parkinson's disease may be a local expression of aging on cell populations which, by their characteristics (high number of synaptic terminals and mitochondria, unmyelinated axons, etc.), are highly vulnerable to the agents promoting aging. The development of new knowledge about Parkinson's disease could be accelerated if the research on aging and Parkinson's disease were planned together, and the perspective provided by gerontology gains relevance in this field. PMID:25677794

  9. Age and growth of mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its cool-water-range limits.

    PubMed

    Piddocke, T P; Butler, G L; Butcher, P A; Stewart, J; Bucher, D J; Christidis, L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the age and growth of Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its southern (cooler) range limits in eastern Australia. Specimens were collected from New South Wales and southern Queensland between November 2011 and December 2013. Fork lengths (LF ) ranged from 190 to 1019 mm, and ages ranged from 2+ to 57+ years. Growth was described by the von Bertalanffy growth function with coefficients L∞ = 874·92 mm, K = 0·087 year(-1) and t0 = -2·76 years. Estimates of the instantaneous natural mortality rate (M) ranged from 0·072 to 0·25. The LF (mm) and mass (W; g) relationship was represented by the equation: W=2·647×10-5LF2·92. The maximum age of 57+ years is the oldest reported for any lutjanid and comparisons with tropical studies suggest that the age-based demography of L. argentimaculatus follows a latitudinal gradient. High maximum ages and low natural mortality rates indicate considerable vulnerability to overexploitation at the species' cool-water-range limits. These results demonstrate the need to identify underlying processes driving latitudinal gradients in fish demography. PMID:25943148

  10. New radiocarbon ages from cirques in Colorado Front Range

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.T. . Dept. Natural Science); Birkeland, P.W. . Dept. Geological Science); Caine, N. . Dept. of Geography); Rodbell, D.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The authors recovered sediment cores 3.1 m long from Blue Lake ([approximately]37m water depth, [approximately]3,445m a.s.l., 40[degree]5 minutes 20 seconds N, 105[degree]37 minutes 08 seconds W) and 2.7m long from Lake Dorothy ([approximately]35m water depth, [approximately]3,675m a.s.l., 40[degree]00 minutes 46 seconds N, 105[degree]41 minutes 11 seconds W). A light-weight percussion coring system suspended from perlon ropes was used because of sediment thicknesses, water depths, and ski-backpacking requirements. Lake ice provided a stable coring platform. One purpose of the project is provision of a high-resolution record of environmental change in the subalpine/alpine ecotone during the Holocene, under the auspices of the Niwot Ridge Long-Term Ecological Research program. The sediment cores also provide minimum-limiting radiocarbon ages for deglaciation of cirques and the deposits that impound their tarns. Here the authors report on this second purpose. The Blue Lake core bottomed in sandy, gray, inorganic sediment, presumably glacial diamict. A bulk sample from 2.8--2.9m depth yielded a conventional radiocarbon age of 12,275[+-]345 yrs BP. Thus, ice retreated from the site by 12 ka. Since 12 ka both glacial and rock-glacial sediments have been deposited upvalley; some of these events may be recognized in the core. In contrast, the Lake Dorothy core did not penetrate gray inorganic diamict and is entirely organic-rich. A bulk sample from 2.65--2.7m depth yielded a conventional radiocarbon age of 10,910 [+-] 320 yrs BP. Thus, the moraines impounding the lake are 2--3 times older than suggested by a combination of relative-age methods and one radiocarbon age from surface sediments.

  11. Precise long-range migration results from short-range stepwise migration during ring gland organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Higueras, Carlos; Hombría, James Castelli-Gair

    2016-06-01

    Many organs are specified far from the location they occupy when functional, having to migrate long distances through the heterogeneous and dynamic environment of the early embryo. We study the formation of the main Drosophila endocrine organ, the ring gland, as a new model to investigate in vivo the genetic regulation of collective cell migration. The ring gland results from the fusion of three independent gland primordia that migrate from the head towards the anterior aorta as the embryo is experiencing major morphogenetic movements. To complete their long-range migration, the glands extend filopodia moving sequentially towards a nearby intermediate target and from there to more distal ones. Thus, the apparent long-range migration is composed of several short-range migratory steps that facilitate reaching the final destination. We find that the target tissues react to the gland's proximity by sending filopodia towards it. Our finding of a succession of independent migration stages is consistent with the stepwise evolution of ring gland assembly and fits with the observed gland locations found in extant crustaceans, basal insects and flies. PMID:27063193

  12. Shippingport aging studies: Results and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.; Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an understanding of the metallurgical phenomena that may occur in nuclear reactor structural materials as a consequence of extended service at operating temperatures within and outside of the radiation environment and to assess the impact of these phenomena on structural integrity. Although many aging phenomena such as the embrittlement of cast stainless steel, low-temperature sensitization of austenitic stainless steels, and radiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels have been studied in the laboratory, most of the studies have been based on simulation of actual reactor conditions. The Shippingport reactor offers a unique opportunity to validate and benchmark the laboratory studies, and thereby, provide a sound basis for evaluating the integrity of structural components near the end of the projected life of the plant. Additional work will be undertaken to identify the possibility of new, previously unknown mechanisms of component degradation. 6 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Towards a method for determining age ranges from faces of juveniles on photographs.

    PubMed

    Cummaudo, M; Guerzoni, M; Gibelli, D; Cigada, A; Obertovà, Z; Ratnayake, M; Poppa, P; Gabriel, P; Ritz-Timme, S; Cattaneo, C

    2014-06-01

    The steady increase in the distribution of juvenile pornographic material in recent years strongly required valid methods for estimating the age of the victims. At the present in fact forensic experts still commonly use the assessment of sexual characteristics by Tanner staging, although they have proven to be too subjective and deceiving for age estimation. The objective of this study, inspired by a previous EU project involving Italy, Germany and Lithuania, is to verify the applicability of certain anthropometric indices of faces in order to determine age and to create a database of facial measurements on a population of children in order to improve face ageing techniques. In this study, 1924 standardized facial images in frontal view and 1921 in lateral view of individuals from 7 age groups (3-5 years, 6-8 years, 9-11 years, 12-14 years, 15-17 years, 18-20 years, 21-24 years) underwent metric analysis. Individuals were all of Caucasoid ancestry and Italian nationality. Eighteen anthropometric indices in the frontal view and five in the lateral view were then calculated from the obtained measurements. Indices showing a correlation with age were ch-ch/ex-ex, ch-ch/pu-pu, en-en/ch-ch and se-sto/ex-ex in the frontal view, se-prn/se-sn, se-prn/se-sto and se-sn/se-sto in the lateral view. All the indices increased with age except for en-en/ch-ch, without relevant differences between males and females. These results provide an interesting starting point not only for placing a photographed face in an age range but also for refining the techniques of face ageing and personal identification. PMID:24726662

  14. Recent results on short-range gravity experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Maki; Akiyama, Takashi; Ikeda, Yuki; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Narita, Keigo; Ninomiya, Kazufumi; Ogawa, Naruya; Sato, Toshiaki; Seitaibashi, Etsuko; Sekiguchi, Yuta; Tsutsui, Ryosuke; Yazawa, Kazumasa; Murata, Jiro

    2009-10-01

    According to the ADD model [1], deviation from Newton's inverse square law is expected at below sub-millimeter scale. Present study is an experimental investigation of the Newton's gravitational law at a short range scale. We have developed an experimental setup using torsion balance bar, and succeeded to confirm the inverse square law at a centimeter scale. In addition, composition dependence of gravitational constant G is also tested at the centimeter scale, motivated to test the weak equivalence principle.

  15. Range and railgun development results at LS and PA ``Soyuz``

    SciTech Connect

    Babakov, Y.P.; Plekhanov, A.V.; Zheleznyi, V.B.

    1995-01-01

    A rail electromagnetic accelerator is one of the most reliable and simple devices for accelerating macroparticles up to high velocity. These accelerators allow scientists to carry out fundamental and applied investigations to study both equation-of-state of materials at high pressure due to high velocity encounters, and creation of conditions for shock thermonuclear fusion. In the department ``Energophyzika`` LS and PA ``Soyuz`` range was created. It was equipped with an inductor with storage capacity up to 12.5 MJ energized by a solid propellant MHD generator and a capacitor bank (energy capacity up to 6 MJ). These systems deliver currents of 1 MA and 2 MA, respectively. Diagnostic, recording, and autocalculation systems allow use of as many as 120 data channels with acquisition frequency up to 10 MHz. Recent technical successes in railgun construction, using special methods to compact plasma armature and produce high velocity trailing contact, creation of hybrid armatures, and optimizing acceleration made possible to gain velocities in the range of 6.2 to 6.8 km/s (masses of 3.8 to 10 g) and velocities 2.7 to 3.8 km/s (masses of 50 to 100 g) on railguns with length 2 to 4 m.

  16. Reference hearing thresholds in an extended frequency range as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Jilek, Milan; Šuta, Daniel; Syka, Josef

    2014-10-01

    The ISO 7029 (2000) standard defines normative hearing thresholds H (dB hearing level) as a function of age Y (years), given by H = α(Y - 18)(2), up to 8 kHz. The purpose of this study was to determine reference thresholds above 8 kHz. Hearing thresholds were examined using pure-tone audiometry over the extended frequency range 0.125-16 kHz, and the acquired values were used to specify the optimal approximation of the dependence of hearing thresholds on age. A sample of 411 otologically normal men and women 16-70 years of age was measured in both ears using a high-frequency audiometer and Sennheiser HDA 200 headphones. The coefficients of quadratic, linear, polynomial and power-law approximations were calculated using the least-squares fitting procedure. The approximation combining the square function H = α(Y - 18)(2) with a power-law function H = β(Y - 18)(1.5), both gender-independent, was found to be the most appropriate. Coefficient α was determined at frequencies of 9 kHz (α = 0.021), 10 kHz (α = 0.024), 11.2 kHz (α = 0.029), and coefficient β at frequencies of 12.5 kHz (β = 0.24), 14 kHz (β = 0.32), 16 kHz (β = 0.36). The results could be used to determine age-dependent normal hearing thresholds in an extended frequency range and to normalize hearing thresholds when comparing participants differing in age. PMID:25324083

  17. Zircon fission-track ages from the Gasherbrum Diorite, Karakoram Range, northern Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Cerveny, P.F. ); Naeser, C.W. ); Kelemen, P.B. ); Lieberman, J.E. ); Zeitler, P.K. )

    1989-11-01

    The Gasherbrum Peaks, in the Himalaya of Pakistan, reach elevations of >8000 m. The relief between the peaks and the adjacent valley (Baltoro Glacier) is in excess of 3000 m. Eight samples of the Early Cretaceous Gasherbrum Diorite at elevations between 4880 and 7165 m on Gasherbrum IV were collected for fission-track dating. Zircon fission-track ages from the Gasherbrum Diorite vary from Early Cretaceous to middle Tertiary in age. There is no consistent pattern between age and elevation. The Cretaceous ages indicate that these rocks were never deeply buried, i.e., heated to temperatures in excess of 175 C, to reset the zircons during Cenozoic time. These results also indicate that the uplift of this part of the Himalaya has been either very rapid and recent, or very slow since Early Cretaceous time. This latter possibility is not consistent with the high relief at Gasherbrum and what is known about regional tectonics. Gasherbrum IV zircons, currently at {approximately}4880 m, have never been at depths greater than 6 km, and less than 3 km of material has been removed from the top of the range by erosion since the Early Cretaceous. Rapid uplift has occurred very recently, and erosion rates have not been able to keep pace with this uplift.

  18. Differential Range Use between Age Classes of Southern African Bearded Vultures Gypaetus barbatus

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Sonja; Reid, Timothy; Amar, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus movements were investigated in southern Africa to determine whether an individual's age, sex or breeding status influenced its ranging behaviour and to provide the information required to guide conservation activities. Data from satellite transmitters fitted to 18 individuals of four age classes were used to determine range size and use. Because of the nature of the movements of marked individuals, these data could be used to determine the overall foraging range of the entire population, which was estimated to be 51 767 km2. Although juvenile, immature and sub-adult birds used different parts of the overall range, their combined foraging range was 65% (33 636 km2) of the overall range. Average adult home ranges (286 km2) were only around 1% the size of the average foraging ranges of non-adults (10 540 –25 985 km2), with those of breeding adults being even smaller (95 km2). Home ranges of breeding adults did not vary in size between seasons but adults utilized their home range more intensively whilst breeding, moving greater distances during the incubation and chick hatching period. Range size and use increased as non-adults aged. Immatures and sub-adults had larger range sizes during winter, but range use of non-adults did not vary seasonally. Range size and use did not differ between the sexes in any of the age classes. Information on home range size and use enables specific areas within the species' range to be targeted for management planning, education and conservation action. PMID:25551614

  19. Differential range use between age classes of southern African Bearded Vultures Gypaetus barbatus.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Sonja; Reid, Timothy; Amar, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus movements were investigated in southern Africa to determine whether an individual's age, sex or breeding status influenced its ranging behaviour and to provide the information required to guide conservation activities. Data from satellite transmitters fitted to 18 individuals of four age classes were used to determine range size and use. Because of the nature of the movements of marked individuals, these data could be used to determine the overall foraging range of the entire population, which was estimated to be 51 767 km(2). Although juvenile, immature and sub-adult birds used different parts of the overall range, their combined foraging range was 65% (33 636 km(2)) of the overall range. Average adult home ranges (286 km(2)) were only around 1% the size of the average foraging ranges of non-adults (10 540 -25 985 km(2)), with those of breeding adults being even smaller (95 km(2)). Home ranges of breeding adults did not vary in size between seasons but adults utilized their home range more intensively whilst breeding, moving greater distances during the incubation and chick hatching period. Range size and use increased as non-adults aged. Immatures and sub-adults had larger range sizes during winter, but range use of non-adults did not vary seasonally. Range size and use did not differ between the sexes in any of the age classes. Information on home range size and use enables specific areas within the species' range to be targeted for management planning, education and conservation action. PMID:25551614

  20. Theoretical constraints on the precision and age range of rehydroxylation dating

    PubMed Central

    Hare, V. J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and precise dating methods are of central importance to archaeology, palaeontology and earth science. This paper investigates the expected precision and age range of rehydroxylation dating, a recently proposed technique for fired clays. An expression for combined measurement uncertainty is presented, which takes into account all significant sources of experimental uncertainty. Numerical simulations are performed for comparison. Combined measurement uncertainties of approximately 5% with respect to the age of the ceramic should be possible given well-designed experiments. In this case, the most significant contribution to combined measurement uncertainty is from effective lifetime temperature. In addition, it is shown that precision should be acceptable for recently fired material (less than 1 year). Mismatch of balance resolution to sample mass results in large variation in combined relative uncertainties, which vary by four orders of magnitude (approx. 1–1160%) across recent experimental studies, rendering some recently reported dates meaningless. It is recommended that this ratio be less than 10−6 for a combined relative uncertainty of less than 1%. The age limits of the technique are set by the value of the rate constant and individual sample mineralogy. This theoretical framework should help future interlaboratory comparison as well as optimizing instrument design. PMID:26064631

  1. Theoretical constraints on the precision and age range of rehydroxylation dating.

    PubMed

    Hare, V J

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and precise dating methods are of central importance to archaeology, palaeontology and earth science. This paper investigates the expected precision and age range of rehydroxylation dating, a recently proposed technique for fired clays. An expression for combined measurement uncertainty is presented, which takes into account all significant sources of experimental uncertainty. Numerical simulations are performed for comparison. Combined measurement uncertainties of approximately 5% with respect to the age of the ceramic should be possible given well-designed experiments. In this case, the most significant contribution to combined measurement uncertainty is from effective lifetime temperature. In addition, it is shown that precision should be acceptable for recently fired material (less than 1 year). Mismatch of balance resolution to sample mass results in large variation in combined relative uncertainties, which vary by four orders of magnitude (approx. 1-1160%) across recent experimental studies, rendering some recently reported dates meaningless. It is recommended that this ratio be less than 10(-6) for a combined relative uncertainty of less than 1%. The age limits of the technique are set by the value of the rate constant and individual sample mineralogy. This theoretical framework should help future interlaboratory comparison as well as optimizing instrument design. PMID:26064631

  2. A different approach to age range of Neogene sediments in SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk

    2015-04-01

    anhydrite levels at the upper part of this lacustrine sequence indicate an aridity period. These levels are most probably related to Messinian salinity crisis. Taking into account all of these results, the lowermost parts of the lacustrine sequence are Tortonian in age; the gypsum and anhydrite levels are Messinian in age; and the claystones with calishe at the upper part of the sequence are Lower Pliocene in age. Consequently, the tectonic evolution of the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone started in Middle-Late Miocene. Alluvial fan and river sediments (Gölhisar Fm) had deposited before and during Tortonien and now they have a thickness exceeding 1000 m under the İbecik Formtion. İbecik Formation has an age range between Tortonian and Lower Pliocene. The Plio-Quaternary sediments (Dirmil Formation) and equivalent units are generally located in front of the faults along the BFSZ and they point out a new sedimentation and tectonic period.

  3. Age-specific Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Ranges Among Apparently Healthy Nigerian Men Without Clinical Evidence of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ikuerowo, SO; Ajala, MO; Abolarinwa, AA; Omisanjo, OA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels increase with age and varies among different races and communities. The study was aimed at defining the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA in our environment. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between age and serum PSA levels and the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA among civil servants in Lagos, who underwent routine medical checkups. Criteria for inclusion were men who have no lower urinary tract symptoms, normal digital rectal examination and serum PSA ≤ 20 ng/ml. SPSS Statistic 21 was used for data evaluation and the mean, median, 95th percentile PSA levels were estimated. Pearson's correlation was used to examine the relationship, and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 4032 men met the criteria for inclusion in the evaluation. The mean age was 51.6 (range 40–70) years, and there was a strong correlation between serum PSA levels and age (r = 0.097, P < 0.001). PSA ranges of 0–2.5, >2.5–4.0, >4.0–10, and >10 ng/ml were found in 3218 (80%), 481 (12%), 284 (7%), and 52 (1%) men, respectively. The mean, median and the 95th percentile PSA for the overall group were 1.84, 1.33, and 5.2 ng/ml respectively. However the 95th percentile PSA levels for men aged 40–49, 50–59, and 60–70 years were 4.78, 5.47, and 8.93 ng/ml respectively. Conclusion: The age-specific PSA levels among Nigerian men for each age group is higher than what was described for men in the Western world. These reference ranges of serum PSA should be considered for men aged ≥40 years in our environment. PMID:27013850

  4. Age, Stratigraphy, and Correlations of the Late Neogene Purisima Formation, Central California Coast Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Barron, John A.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Clark, Joseph C.; Perry, Frank A.; Brabb, Earl E.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The Purisima Formation is an important upper Miocene and Pliocene stratigraphic unit in central California, cropping out from the coast at Point Reyes north of San Francisco to more extensive exposures in the Santa Cruz Mountains to the south. The fine-grained rocks in the lower parts of the Purisima Formation record a latest Miocene transgressive event, whereas the middle and upper parts of the formation consist of increasingly clastic-rich siltstones and sandstones resulting from uplift of adjacent coastal regions and the Sierra Nevada during Pliocene transgressive and regressive sea-level events. Exposures of the Purisima occur in three different, fault-bounded, structural blocks - the Santa Cruz, Pigeon Point, and Point Reyes tectonic blocks - that complicate correlations and regional age assignments. We summarize and compare published and new biostratigraphic and geochronologic data for various exposures of the Purisima Formation on the basis of mollusks, diatoms, radiometric dating, magnetostratigraphy, tephrochronology, and strontium isotope dating. On the basis of these data, we conclude that the Purisima Formation ranges in age from the latest Miocene (about 7 Ma) to the late Pliocene (about 2.6 Ma). The Purisima Formation of Santa Cruz County, exposed in the sea cliffs from Santa Cruz to Rio del Mar, is here designated a supplementary reference section because it is the most complete and well studied Purisima section in central California.

  5. Refined analysis of the critical age ranges of childhood overweight: implications for primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sascha W; Ulrich, Rolf; Simon, Perikles

    2012-10-01

    Prevention-interventions would certainly benefit from a precise knowledge of the age range when the most pronounced increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity occur in the general population. Data of 15,662 subjects aged 2-18 years were obtained from a national representative health survey (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)) conducted in Germany. Weight, height, and BMI z-scores were calculated relative to the UK 1990 reference, and prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined according to the IOTF (International Obesity Task Force) age- and sex-specific cut-offs. Univariate ANOVAs for overweight, obesity, weight, height, and BMI z-scores as dependent variables were employed to assess significant differences for these measures across various age levels. Significant analysis was followed by post-hoc comparisons using Bonferroni adjustments. The main effect of age was estimated using a multinomial logistic regression model, and by defining the first derivative of a polynomial spline function. Different eclectic slopes over the entire age range from 2 to 18 years have been observed. Prevalence of overweight substantially increases between the 5th and the 8th year (12.5-21.4%; P ≤ 0.001). Maximum increase of the polynomial fit was detected at 7.2 years. Our findings suggest a relatively narrow age range at the first school year when overweight in German children especially increases. We therefore propose that psychosocial correlates may be related to the general life-time event around the age of entering school. PMID:22714087

  6. Geographic ranges, population structure, and ages of sexual and parthenogenetic snail lineages.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Steven G

    2006-07-01

    Asexual reproduction is thought to doom organisms to extinction due to mutation accumulation and parasite exploitation. Theoretical models suggest that parthenogens may escape the negative effects of conspecifics and biological enemies through escape in space. Through intensive sequencing of a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and a nuclear intron locus in sexual and parthenogenetic freshwater snails (Campeloma), I examine three questions: (1) Are sexual mtDNA lineages more restricted geographically than parthenogenetic mtDNA lineages? (2) Are independent parthenogenetic lineages shorter lived than sexual lineages? and (3) Do parthenogens have higher intraindividual nuclear sequence diversity and form well-differentiated monophyletic groups as expected under the Meselson effect? Geographic ranges of parthenogenetic lineages are significantly larger than geographic ranges of sexual lineages. Based on coalescence times under different demographic assumptions, asexual lineages are short lived, but there is variation in clonal ages. Although alternative explanations exist, these results suggest that asexual lineages may persist in the short term through dispersal, and that various constraints may cause geographic restriction of sexual lineages. Both allotriploid and diploid Campeloma parthenogens have significantly higher allelic divergence within individuals, but show limited nuclear sequence divergence from sexual ancestors. In contrast to previous allozyme evidence for nonhybrid origins of diploid Campeloma parthenogens, cryptic hybridization may account for elevated heterozygosity. PMID:16929658

  7. Accelerated aging test results for aerospace wire insulation constructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Several wire insulation constructions were evaluated with and without continuous glow discharges at low pressure and high temperature to determine the aging characteristics of acceptable wire insulation constructions. It was known at the beginning of the test program that insulation aging takes several years when operated at normal ambient temperature and pressure of 20 C and 760 torr. Likewise, it was known that the accelerated aging process decreases insulation life by approximately 50% for each 10 C temperature rise. Therefore, the first phases of the program, not reported in these test results, were to select wire insulation constructions that could operate at high temperature and low pressure for over 10,000 hours with negligible shrinkage and little materials' deterioration.The final phase of the program was to determine accelerated aging characteristics. When an insulation construction is subjected to partial discharges the insulation is locally heated by the bombardment of the discharges, the insulation is also subjected to ozone and other deteriorating gas particles that may significantly increase the aging process. Several insulation systems using either a single material or combinations of teflon, kapton, and glass insulation constructions were tested. All constructions were rated to be partial discharge and/or corona-free at 240 volts, 400 Hz and 260 C (500 F) for 50, 000 hours at altitudes equivalent to the Paschen law. Minimum partial discharge aging tests were preceded by screening tests lasting 20 hours at 260 C. The aging process was accelerated by subjecting the test articles to temperatures up to 370 C (700 F) with and without partial discharges. After one month operation with continuous glow discharges surrounding the test articles, most insulation systems were either destroyed or became brittle, cracked, and unsafe for use. Time with space radiation as with partial discharges is accumulative.

  8. Impacts of Chromatin States and Long-Range Genomic Segments on Aging and DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan; Yi, Soojin V.

    2015-01-01

    posttranslational modification pathway in the aging brain. Utilizing aging segments rather than individual CpGs will provide more comprehensive genomic and epigenomic contexts to understand the intricate associations between genomic neighborhoods and developmental and aging processes. These results complement the aging epigenetic drift model and provide new insights. PMID:26091484

  9. Inflammatory Markers Change with Age, but do not Fall Beyond Reported Normal Ranges.

    PubMed

    Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Aleksandra; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena; Zielenkiewicz, Magdalena; Paczek, Leszek

    2016-06-01

    We examined the serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF, IL-6R, TNF-R1, and CRP and the dynamics of changes in these levels according to age. The study included healthy individuals of 20-90 years of age. Participants were divided into subgroups based on their decade of life, and into subgroups of ≥65 or <65 years. Serum cytokine levels were assayed by ELISA, and CRP using an immunoturbidimetric method. Serum CRP levels were within the normal range for all subgroups. The 60- to 70-year age group showed higher CRP than the 20- to 30- (p = 0.003), 30- to 40- (p = 0.009), and 40- to 50- (p = 0.030) year age groups. Serum cytokine levels were low. It was greater in the 60- to 70-year age group than in the 20- to 30- (p = 0.008) and 30- to 40- (p = 0.040) year groups, and was greater in the 70- to 90-year group than the 20- to 30-year group (p = 0.043). Serum TNF-R1 level in the 70- to 90-year group was greater than in all other age groups (p = 0.000 for all comparisons). Other measured parameters did not differ between groups. Serum levels of IL-6, CRP, and TNF-R1 were greater in participants ≥65 than <65 years of age. Healthy older people showed low serum levels of CRP and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but higher than in younger population. Therefore, the adjustment of normal ranges in the elderly should be considered. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines elevated beyond normal ranges indicate particular diseases. PMID:26283530

  10. Numeracy and Literacy Independently Predict Patients’ Ability to Identify Out-of-Range Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Exe, Nicole L; Witteman, Holly O

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of patients have direct access to laboratory test results outside of clinical consultations. This offers increased opportunities for both self-management of chronic conditions and advance preparation for clinic visits if patients are able to identify test results that are outside the reference ranges. Objective Our objective was to assess whether adults can identify laboratory blood test values outside reference ranges when presented in a format similar to some current patient portals implemented within electronic health record (EHR) systems. Methods In an Internet-administered survey, adults aged 40-70 years, approximately half with diabetes, were asked to imagine that they had type 2 diabetes. They were shown laboratory test results displayed in a standard tabular format. We randomized hemoglobin A1c values to be slightly (7.1%) or moderately (8.4%) outside the reference range and randomized other test results to be within or outside their reference ranges (ie, multiple deviations). We assessed (1) whether respondents identified the hemoglobin A1c level as outside the reference range, (2) how respondents rated glycemic control, and (3) whether they would call their doctor. We also measured numeracy and health literacy. Results Among the 1817 adult participants, viewing test results with multiple deviations increased the probability of identifying hemoglobin A1c values as outside the reference range (participants with diabetes: OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.12-1.92, P=.005; participants without diabetes: OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.00, P=.005). Both numeracy and health literacy were significant predictors of correctly identifying out-of-range values. For participants with diabetes, numeracy OR 1.32 per unit on a 1-6 scale (95% CI 1.15-1.51, P<.001) and literacy OR 1.59 per unit of a 1-5 scale (95% CI 1.35-1.87, P<.001); for participants without diabetes, numeracy OR 1.36 per unit (95% CI 1.17-1.58, P<.001) and literacy OR 1.33 per unit (95% CI 1

  11. Dark Ages Radio Explorer Instrument Verification Program: Antenna Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Abhirup; Bradley, R.; Burns, J. O.; Lazio, J.; Bauman, J.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of the HI 21 cm transition line promises to be an important probe into the cosmic Dark Ages and Epoch of Reionization. The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) is designed to measure the sky-averaged 21-cm signal from this cosmic age using a single radiometer operating between 40-120 MHz (redshifts z=11-35). DARE will orbit the Moon for a mission lifetime of ≤ 3 years and take data above the lunar far side, where it is shielded from the Earth's intense interference. The science objectives of DARE include formation of first stars, first accreting black holes, beginning of reionization and end of the Dark Ages. The science instrument is composed of a three-element radiometer, including electrically-short, tapered, bi-conical dipole antennas, a receiver, and a digital spectrometer. Although the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) of the individual components of DARE instrument is high, the overall instrument TRL is low. One of the main aim of the entire DARE team is to advance the instrument TRL. In this work we mainly focus on the development work for DARE Antenna. We will present the initial test results of a prototype DARE antenna, fabricated in NRAO. Some CST simulations using the actual DARE experiment set up have also been performed. In future, we plan to perform extensive tests to characterize the beam pattern and spectral response of the prototype DARE instrument design. In order to utilize the anechoic chamber available at NRAO, we will use a half-scale version of the DARE antenna (120-200 MHz). The full-scale version of the DARE antenna (40-120 MHz) along with the final version of the DARE receiver will be used for outdoor tests in the low-RFI environment of Western Australia. We will also present the initial software development for analyzing the test results from the prototype DARE antenna and receiver.

  12. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species. PMID:26106089

  13. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Neven, Lisa G.

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species. PMID:26106089

  14. Middle Jurassic U-Pb crystallization age for Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.E. ); Aleinikoff, J.N.; Walter, M. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors report here a U-Pb age for the Siniktanneyak Mountain Ophiolite klippe in the west-central Brooks Range, the first U-Pb ophiolite age in northern Alaska. Like klippen of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Brooks Range, the Siniktanneyak Mountain klippe is composed of a lower allochthon of Devonian and younger( ) diabase and metabasalt with trace-element characteristics of seamount basalts and an upper allochthon of ophiolite. The ophiolite is partial, consisting of (1) abundant dunite and subordinate harzburgite and wehrlite; (2) cumulate clinopyroxene gabbro, and (3) minor noncumulate clinopyroxene gabbro and subordinate plagiogranite; no sheeted dikes or volcanic rocks are known in the ophilitic allochthon. The plagiogranite forms small dikes and stocks that intrude the noncumulate gabbro and consists of zoned Na-rich plagioclase + clinopyroxene with interstial quartz and biotite. Five fractions of subhedral, tan zircon from the plagiogranite yield slightly discordant U-Pb data with an upper intercept age of 170 [+-] 3 Ma. The U-Pb data indicate that the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite crystallized in the Middle Jurassic and was emplaced by thrusting onto mafic accretionary prism rocks within about 10 m.y. of crystallization. The U-Pb data provide an upper limit to the age of initiation of the Brookian orogeny.

  15. The I-Xe Age of Orgueil Magnetite: New Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A. P.

    2003-01-01

    I-Xe ages of Murchison and Orgueil magnetites were reported to be the oldest [1] and interpreted as the condensation time of the solar nebula. More recent measurements, conducted on a highly magnetic separate from Orgueil (but not pure magnetite), gave much younger I-Xe ages [2]. We have since performed new studies on two pure separates of Orgueil magnetite, confirming the later closing time of the I-Xe system in this mineral phase. In the previous work of Lewis and Anders [1] special attention was paid to the purity of the analyzed material. It was shown, that the trapped Xe resided mostly in hydrated silicates and the radiogenic 129Xe in magnetite [3]. Therefore, Orgueil was finely ground and stirred with a saturated LiCl solution for 8 days at 60 C to remove the silicate-magnetite intergrowth. Although this procedure yields magnetic fractions that are at least 90% pure [1], it could potentially contaminate the magnetite with iodine and produce noncorrelated 128Xe and spurious I-Xe ages. To avoid this possibility, in our first work with Orgueil we deliberately omitted separation in LiCl solution. Instead, the meteorite was ground into a fine powder and the highly magnetic fraction was separated with a hand magnet and was confirmed to be largely magnetite [2]. The new work, reported here, was done in order to confirm our previous results and investigate the effects of the LiCl treatment on the I-Xe system in magnetite.

  16. New results about aging in an orientational glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberici, F.; Doussineau, P.; Levelut, A.

    1997-07-01

    Dielectric constant measurements of a K0.989Li0.011TaO3 crystal are performed in the orientational glass low-temperature phase. Aging and ergodicity breaking are studied through isothermal decays and temperature cycles. New results are obtained on the response of the sample to temperature jumps: three processes, with very different time scales, are put in evidence. This allows to propose a new interpretation of previous experiments and, in particular, to present a new solution of the paradox observed for the negative temperature cycles.

  17. Characterization of polymers in the glass transition range: Time-temperature and time-aging time superposition in polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Pesce, J.J.; Niemiec, J.M.; Chiang, M.Y.

    1995-12-31

    Here we present time-temperature and time-aging time superposition data for a commercial grade polycarbonate. The data reduction is performed for dynamic-mechanical data obtained in torsion over a range of temperatures from 103.6 to 144.5{degrees}C and aging times to 16 h. For time-temperature superposition the results show the deviation of the sub-T{sub g} response from the WTF equation. Two response regimes are observed: at temperatures far below T{sub g} the log(a{sub T}) is linear in T, followed by a transition towards the WLF behavior as T{sub g} is approached. The temperature at which the behavior changes from a linear dependence of log(aT) on T to the transition-type behavior is found to depend on the aging time. This temperature decreases as aging time increases. The time-aging time response is found to behave in a normal way. At temperatures far below T{sub g} the log(a{sub te}) vs log(t{sub e}) is constant and has a slope somewhat less than unity. However, nearer to T{sub g} the slope decreases and there is a second regime in which the aging virtually ceases. In this polycarbonate, above 136.9{degrees}C, no aging is observed.

  18. Range fires: A significant factor in exposure-age determination and geomorphic surface evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, P.; Gillespie, A. )

    1991-06-01

    Physical weathering of rock (spalling), removal of adhered rock varnish, and diffusive loss of noble gases are accelerated by heating in range fires, a dramatic and widespread geomorphic process that must be considered when samples are collected for determining surface exposure ages or for measuring in situ production rates of cosmogenic isotopes. Exposure ages and production rates will be minima if the effects of spalling and/or the effects of accelerated diffusive loss of gaseous isotopes such as He and Ne are not considered. To minimize the effect of fire-induced diffusive loss, samples for noble-gas analysis should be collected 5-10 cm below the rock surface or form outcrops that are unlikely to have been heated by fire. In addition, by determining the concentration of in situ produced cosmogenic isotopes of different half-lives, the magnitude of spalling loss (site-specific erosion rate) can be constrained for each sample.

  19. Aging and generational effects on drinking behaviors in men: results from the normative aging study.

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, R J; Bouchard, G R; LoCastro, J S; Laird, N M

    1985-01-01

    The effects of aging on alcohol consumption behaviors are unclear because of confounding with period and cohort effects. In 1973, 1,859 male participants in the Normative Aging Study, born between 1892 and 1945, described their drinking behaviors by responding to a mailed questionnaire. In 1982, 1,713 of the participants in this study responded to a similar questionnaire. We used multivariate techniques, adjusting regression coefficients for the correlations between repeated responses of the same individuals, to assess the effects of birth cohort and aging on mean alcohol consumption level, on the prevalence of problems with drinking, and on the prevalence of averaging three or more drinks per day. Older men drank significantly less than younger men at both times yet there was no tendency for men to decrease their consumption levels over time. Each successively older birth cohort had a prevalence of problems with drinking estimated to be 0.037 lower than the prevalence of the next youngest cohort (95 per cent confidence interval: 0.029-0.045), yet there was no decrease in drinking problems over nine years. Interpretation of these findings requires consideration of the changes in attitudes as well as the increases in per capita consumption occurring in the United States throughout the 1970s. Results suggest that aging is not as important a factor in changes in drinking behaviors as generational or attitudinal changes. PMID:4061714

  20. Assessment Of Noise-induced Sleep Fragility In Two Age Ranges By Means Of Polysomnographic Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzano, M. G.; Parrino, L.; Spaggiari, M. C.; Buccino, G. P.; Fioriti, G.; Depoortere, H.

    1993-04-01

    The microstructure of sleep, which translates the short-lived fluctuations of the arousal level, is a commonly neglected feature in polysomnographic studies. Specifically arranged microstructural EEG events may provide important information on the dynamic characteristics of the sleep process. CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) and non-CAP are complementary modalities in which arousal-related "phasic" EEG phenomena are organized in non-REM sleep, and they correspond to opposite conditions of unstable and stable sleep depth, respectively. Thus, arousal instability can be measured by the CAP rate, the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total non-REM sleep time. The CAP rate, an age-related physiological variable that increases in several pathological conditions, is highly sensitive to acoustic perturbation. In the present study, two groups of healthy subjects without complaints about sleep, belonging to different age ranges (six young adults, three males and three females, between 20 and 30 years, and six middle-aged individuals, three males and three females, between 40 and 55 years) slept, after adaptation to the sleep laboratory, in a random sequence for two non-consecutive nights either under silent baseline (27·3 dB(A) Lcq) or noise-disturbed (continuous 55 dB(A) white noise) conditions. Age-related and noise-related effects on traditional sleep parameters and on the CAP rate were statistically evaluated by a split-plot test. Compared to young adults, the middle-aged individuals showed a significant reduction of total sleep time, stage 2 and REM sleep and significantly higher values of nocturnal awakenings and the CAP rate. The noisy nights were characterized by similar alterations. The disruptive effects of acoustic perturbation were greater on the more fragile sleep architecture of the older group. The increased fragility of sleep associated with aging probably reflects the decreased capacity of the sleeping brain to maintain steady states of vigilance. Total

  1. Preliminary results from the portable standard satellite laser ranging intercomparison with MOBLAS-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selden, Michael; Varghese, Thomas K.; Heinick, Michael; Oldham, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Conventional Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) instrumentation has been configured and successfully used to provide high-accuracy laboratory measurements on the LAGEOS-2 and TOPEX cube-corner arrays. The instrumentation, referred to as the Portable Standard, has also been used for field measurements of satellite ranges in tandem with MOBLAS-7. Preliminary results of the SLR measurements suggest that improved range accuracy can be achieved using this system. Results are discussed.

  2. Suicidal behaviour in old age - results from the Ibadan study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An important reason for the high risk of suicide in the elderly is the determination with which they act out their suicidal thoughts. Early identification of suicidal behaviours in the elderly is therefore important for suicide prevention efforts in this population. Method Data are from the Ibadan Study of Ageing (ISA), a household multi-stage probability sample of 2149 Yoruba Nigerians aged 65 years or older conducted between 2003 and 2004. We used the third version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to explore suicidal experiences and behaviours. In this report, only those experiences or behaviours reported to have occurred after the age of 65 years are the focus of analysis. Derived weights were applied to the data in accordance with the study design and associations were explored using logistic regression. The results are presented as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. Result In all, 4.0% (95% C.I= 3.1-4.2) of the subjects had suicidal ideation occurring after the age of 65 years, while 0.7% (95% C.I=0.4-1.3) and 0.2% (95% C.I= 0.1-0.4) reported suicidal plans and attempts, respectively. There was a significantly elevated likelihood of suicidal ideation among persons who had experienced spousal separation through death or divorce (O.R=4.9., 95% C.I= 1.5-15) or who were residing in rural settings (O.R=2.5, 95% C.I=1.3-4.8). Conclusion Suicidal ideation is common among the elderly. About 20% and 6% of those with ideation proceed to plans and attempts, respectively. Circumstances of social isolation and exclusion are important correlates of suicidal behaviour in the elderly. PMID:23497382

  3. The child's conception of food: differentiation of categories of rejected substances in the 16 months to 5 year age range.

    PubMed

    Rozin, P; Hammer, L; Oster, H; Horowitz, T; Marmora, V

    1986-06-01

    Children (N = 54) ranging in age from one year four months to five years were offered over 30 items to eat. The items included normal adult foods and exemplars of different adult rejection categories: disgust (e.g. grasshopper, hair), danger (liquid dish soap), inappropriate (e.g. paper, leaf) and unacceptable combinations (e.g. ketchup and cookie). We report a high to moderate level of acceptance (item put into mouth) of substances from all of these categories in the youngest children. Acceptance of disgusting and dangerous substances decreases with increasing age, while acceptance of inappropriate substances remains at moderate levels across the age range studied. Although the youngest children accepted more disgust items, the majority rejected most of the disgust choices. Almost all children at all ages tested accept combinations of foods which, although individually accepted by adults, are rejected in combination. No significant differences were observed between 'normal' children and those with a history of toxin ingestion, although there was a tendency of ingesters to accept more inedible items. In general, the results suggest that a major feature of the development of food selection is learning what not to eat. PMID:3740830

  4. Surface-exposure ages of Front Range moraines that may have formed during the Younger Dryas, 8.2 cal ka, and Little Ice Age events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Madole, R.; Kubik, P.; McDonald, R.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-exposure (10Be) ages have been obtained on boulders from three post-Pinedale end-moraine complexes in the Front Range, Colorado. Boulder rounding appears related to the cirque-to-moraine transport distance at each site with subrounded boulders being typical of the 2-km-long Chicago Lakes Glacier, subangular boulders being typical of the 1-km-long Butler Gulch Glacier, and angular boulders being typical of the few-hundred-m-long Isabelle Glacier. Surface-exposure ages of angular boulders from the Isabelle Glacier moraine, which formed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) according to previous lichenometric dating, indicate cosmogenic inheritance values ranging from 0 to ???3.0 10Be ka.11Surface-exposure ages in this paper are labeled 10Be; radiocarbon ages are labeled 14C ka, calendar and calibrated radiocarbon ages are labeled cal ka, and layer-based ice-core ages are labeled ka. 14C ages, calibrated 14C ages, and ice core ages are given relative to AD 1950, whereas 10Be ages are given relative to the sampling date. Radiocarbon ages were calibrated using CALIB 5.01 and the INTCAL04 data base Stuiver et al. (2005). Ages estimated using CALIB 5.01 are shown in terms of their 1-sigma range. Subangular boulders from the Butler Gulch end moraine yielded surface-exposure ages ranging from 5 to 10.2 10Be ka. We suggest that this moraine was deposited during the 8.2 cal ka event, which has been associated with outburst floods from Lake Agassiz and Lake Ojibway, and that the large age range associated with the Butler Gulch end moraine is caused by cosmogenic shielding of and(or) spalling from boulders that have ages in the younger part of the range and by cosmogenic inheritance in boulders that have ages in the older part of the range. The surface-exposure ages of eight of nine subrounded boulders from the Chicago Lakes area fall within the 13.0-11.7 10Be ka age range, and appear to have been deposited during the Younger Dryas interval. The general lack of inheritance in

  5. Results of interlaboratory comparison of fission-track age standards: Fission-track workshop-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.S.; Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Hurford, A.J.; Naeser, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Five samples were made available as standards for the 1984 Fission Track Workshop held in the summer of 1984 (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York). Two zircons, two apatites and a sphene were distributed prior to the meeting to 40 different laboratories. To date, 24 different analysts have reported results. The isotopic ages of the standards ranged from 16.8 to 98.7 Myr. Only the statement that the age of each sample was less than 200 Myr was provided with the set of standards distributed. Consequently, each laboratory was required to use their laboratory's accepted treatment (irradiation level, etching conditions, counting conditions, etc.) for these samples. The results show that some workers have serious problems in achieving accurate age determinations. This emphasizes the need to calibrate experimental techniques and counting procedures against age standards before unknown ages are determined. Any fission-track age determination published or submitted for publication can only be considered reliable if it is supported by evidence of consistent determinations on age standards. Only this can provide the scientific community with the background to build up confidence concerning the validity of the fission-track method. ?? 1985.

  6. Structural aging program -- a summary of activities, results, and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. Primary program accomplishments have included formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, the Structural Aging Program conducted in-depth evaluations of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability.

  7. Age range of formation of sedimentary-volcanogenic complex of the Vetreny Belt (the southeast of the Baltic Shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhelovskaya, S. V.; Korsakov, A. K.; Mezhelovskii, A. D.; Bibikova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    As a result of studying the Vetreny Belt greenstone structure (the southeast of the Baltic Shield), zircons from terrigenous deposits of the Toksha Formation, underlying the section of the sedimentary-volcanogenic complex, and zircons of the Vetreny Belt Formation, deposits of which crown the section, were dated. The results of analysis of age data of detrital zircons from quartzites of the Toksha Formation indicate that Mesoarchean greenstone complexes and paleo-Archean granitogneisses of the Vodlozero Block (Karelia) were the provenance area from which these zircons were derived. The occurrence of the youngest zircons with age of 2654.3 ± 38.5 Ma is evidence that the formation of the Vetreny Belt, including the Toksha Formation, began no earlier than this time. Zircons from volcanic rocks of the Vetreny Belt yielded the age of 2405 ± 5 Ma. Thus, the age interval of the formation of the sedimentary-volcanogenic complex of the Vetreny Belt ranges from 2654.3 ± 38.5 to 2405 ± 5 Ma.

  8. Thermoluminescence dating of sediments: a re-extension of age range for loess

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.J.; Stipp, J.J.; Wintle, A.G.; Tamers, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of wind blown minerals provides a technique whereby non-carbonaceous sediments could be dated to several hundred thousand years. Two recent reports, however, indicate age underestimates on feldspar in some European loesses older than 50 ka, the effect increasing in severity with age. Suggested causes include decay of luminescence centers, or does dependent sensitivity changes. Data presented in this paper do not support these limitations or explanations. TL provides 3 separate techniques of dating sediments, which, when used together, prove to be efficient internal cross checks for mineralogical anomalies or inconsistencies created by any of the individual methods. In the authors studies each sample was dated by all 3 methods whereas the Europeans analyses employed only the Regeneration technique. This work presents results from loess sections in Mississippi, Illinois and Alaska. These show excellent internal consistency, and consistency with both independent dating methods and stratigraphy, with 2 exceptions. Both exceptions were by the Regen technique giving age underestimates up to 30%. The underestimates were found to be caused by a change in mineral sensitivity resulting from the Regen requirements of strong laboratory light-bleaching followed by irradiations. A simple method to test and correct for this condition is presented. TL thus appears to remain a powerful and increasingly flexible method of sediment dating.

  9. Long-Range Prediction of Population by Sex and Age in Each DistrictBased on Fuzzy Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Pyong Sik; Kim, Gwan

    This paper proposes a method of predicting the population by sex and age for each of 402 districts over a long-range period in the Kansai region, Japan, by applying fuzzy theories. First, to predict the total social increase for 402 districts by directly taking into consideration of differences in factors of migration in each district, nine rules or domains were set up by using the migration rate and the total social increase in each district as the premise variables. Regression models were constructed in the consequences which use various socioeconomic indicators as explaining variables. The future value of the total social increase in each district can be obtained by weighting the values calculated from the estimated regression models with the membership values denoting the degree of belonging to each rule. Second, a method to estimate the social increase by sex and age in each district is proposed based on fuzzy clustering method for dealing with long-range socioeconomic changes in population migration by sex, age and district. All the samples of the migration ratio were classified into the same nine domains. By applying Fuzzy c-Means on districts belonged to each domain, all samples were classified into 20 clusters. The future migration ratio in each district can be estimated by weighting the migration pattern in each cluster with the values of membership function denoting the degree of belonging to each cluster. Results of the validity test of the constructed population model based on the proposed methods are also presented. It has been shown that it becomes possible to predict the population by sex, age and district over a long-range period by using the proposed method.

  10. Age- and sex-related reference ranges for eight plasma constituents derived from randomly selected adults in a Scottish new town.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M D; Scott, R

    1980-01-01

    The results of analysis of blood specimens from randomly selected adults aged 19-88 years in the new town of Cumbernauld were used to establish age- and sex-related reference ranges by the centile method (central 95%) for plasma calcium, phosphate, total protein, albumin, globulins, urea, creatinine, and urate. The possible existence of a subpopulation with a higher reference range for urea is mooted. PMID:7400337

  11. Map, tables, and summary of fossil and isotopic age data, Mount Hayes Quadrangle, eastern Alaska range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Dutro, J. Thomas, Jr.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Silberling, Norman J.; Silva, Steven R.; Smith, Thomas E.; Turner, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes, summarizes, and interprets all known bedrock fossil and isotopic age studies for the Mount Hayes quadrangle, eastern Alaska Range, Alaska. The accompanying map shows the location of all known bedrock fossil and isotopic sample localities in the quadrangle on a generalized geologic base map. These fossil and isotopic age data are obtained from new studies, unpublished data of the U.S. Geological Survey, contributed unpublished data, and published data. This report is one result of a five-year mineral resource assessment of the quadrangle that was done during the summers of 1978 through 1982, with additional topical studiesin 1985 and 1986. This report is one part of a folio on the geological, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource assessment studies of the quadrangle prepared as part of the Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  12. School Age Child Care in Virginia: 1993 Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Child Day Care and Early Childhood Programs, Richmond, VA.

    School-age child care (SACC) programs based on-site in Virginia elementary schools were surveyed to determine the scope of such programs across the commonwealth, and to look more comprehensively at existing programs in terms of operators, activities, affordability, and other issues. In January 1993, the survey was sent to school superintendents in…

  13. Prostate Volume Changes Over Time: Results From the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Kettermann, Anna; Carter, H. Ballentine; Ferrucci, Luigi; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Walsh, Patrick C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose According to a 1944 publication by Swyer benign prostatic hyperplasia develops in some men after age 45 with further prostatic growth whereas in other men prostate size remains stable or decreases with advancing age. Although there is an abundance of literature describing prostatic enlargement in association with benign prostatic hyperplasia, less is known about the phenomenon of prostate atrophy. Materials and Methods In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging serial pelvic magnetic resonance imaging was performed in men without prostate cancer beginning in 1993. From this population we retrospectively identified 278 men with 2 or more magnetic resonance imaging determined prostate volume measurements to examine differential growth rates in a cohort of community men over time. Results Median age was 58 years and median prostate size was 28 cc at study entry. At a median followup of 4.3 years prostate size increased in 61.9% and remained stable or decreased in 38.1% of men. The median rate of volume change was 0.6 cc per year (range −9.9 to 62.1), corresponding to a median growth rate of 2.5% per year (range −29.2 to 176.4%). During followup 64.6% of men with an initial prostate size less than 40 cc had prostate growth compared to only 50.9% of men with an initial prostate size of 40 cc or greater. Conclusions These results suggest that changes in prostate size are highly variable among aging men. Although benign prostatic hyperplasia is common, a considerable proportion of aging men have a stable or decreasing prostate size. Further research is needed to identify the underlying mechanism for such differences in prostate growth. PMID:19683305

  14. Prototype Test Results for the Single Photon Detection SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; McGarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Cheek, Jack W.; Dunn, Peter J.; Patterson, Don; Donovan, Howard

    2004-01-01

    NASA's aging Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) network is scheduled to be replaced over the next few years with a fully automated single photon detection system. A prototype of this new system, called SLR2000, is currently undergoing field trials at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland to evaluate photon counting techniques and determine system hardware, software, and control algorithm performance levels and limitations. Newly developed diode pumped microchip lasers and quadrant microchannel plate-based photomultiplier tubes have enabled the development of this high repetition rate single photon detection SLR system. The SLR2000 receiver threshold is set at the single photoelectron (pe) level but tracks satellites with an average signal level typically much less than 1 pe. The 2 kHz laser fire rate aids in satellite acquisition and tracking and will enable closed loop tracking by accumulating single photon count statistics in a quadrant detector and using this information to correct for pointing errors. Laser transmitter beamwidths of 10 arcseconds (FWHM) or less are currently being used to maintain an adequate signal level for tracking while the receiver field of view (FOV) has been opened to 40 arcseconds to accommodate point ahead/look behind angular offsets. In the near future, the laser transmitter point ahead will be controlled by a pair of Risley prisms. This will allow the telescope to point behind and enable closure of the receiver FOV to roughly match the transmitter beam divergence. Bandpass filters (BPF) are removed for night tracking operations while 0.2 nm or 1 nm filters are used during daylight operation. Both day and night laser tracking of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites has been achieved with a laser transmitter energy of only 65 microjoules per pulse. Satellite tracking is presently limited to LEO satellites until the brassboard laser transmitter can be upgraded or replaced. Simultaneous tracks have also been observed with NASA s

  15. New U/Pb ages from granite and granite gneiss in the Ruby geanticline and southern Brooks Range, Alaska ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, W.W., Jr.; Stern, T.W.; Arth, Joseph G.; Carlson, C.

    1987-01-01

    New U/Pb zircon ages from the Ray Mountains of central Alaska clarify the plutonic history of the Ruby geanticline and support earlier suggestions that the Ruby geanticline and S Brooks Range were once parts of the same tectonostratigraphic terrane. U/Pb zircon ages of 109 to 112 Ma from the Ray Mountains pluton confirm previously reported mid-Cretaceous K/Ar ages and rule out the possibility that the earliest intrusive phase of the pluton is older than mid-Cretaceous K/Ar ages and rule out the possibility that the earliest intrusive phase of the pluton is older than mid- Cretaceous. New U/Pb zircon ages from 4 granite gneiss samples in the Ray Mountains indicate a Devonian protolith age of 390+ or -12 Ma and suggest that the Ruby geanticline, like the S Brooks Range, underwent a major plutonic event in mid-Paleozoic time.-Authors

  16. Plutonic rocks of Jurassic age in the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith: chemical variation and polarity.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, B.I.; Miesch, A.T.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Plutonic rocks of Jurassic age exposed on the Pacific side of this batholith form a compositionally continuous calc-alkaline suite that ranges from hornblende gabbro to quartz monzonite. Tonalite and quartz diorite are the dominant rock types. Trend-surface analysis of 102 samples indicates that the direction of slope of the trend is approximately normal to the Jurassic magmatic arc. K2O and SiO2 increase towards the E-SE and the other oxides towards the W-NW. If the chemical trends reflect the approximate geometry of a palaeo-subduction zone, the polarity of the Jurassic magmatic arc is to the NW, i.e. subduction was directed towards the SE. Thus the palaeo-subduction zone is on the opposite side of the arc from the position that has generally been assumed, indicating that the Jurassic plutonic rocks were not generated in response to classical Andean-type convergent plate margins. The magmatic arc may have been formed in an intra-ocean environment and subsequently has been rafted northwards and accreted to this part of the N Pacific rim during the late Mesozoic. Middle and Upper Jurassic clastics underlying Cook Inlet to the SE and derived from the magmatic arc are classified as back-arc deposits, rather than as an arc-trench gap sequence.-L.C.H.

  17. Depositional settings, correlation, and age carboniferous rocks in the western Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.; Blome, C.D.; Young, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Kuna Formation (Lisburne Group) in northwest Alaska hosts the Red Dog and other Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulfide deposits in the Red Dog district. New studies of the sedimentology and paleontology of the Lisburne Group constrain the setting, age, and thermal history of these deposits. In the western and west-central Brooks Range, the Lisburne Group includes both deep- and shallow-water sedimentary facies and local volcanic rocks that are exposed in a series of thrust sheets or allochthons. Deep-water facies in the Red Dog area (i.e., the Kuna Formation and related rocks) are found chiefly in the Endicott Mountains and structurally higher Picnic Creek allochthons. In the Red Dog plate of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, the Kuna consists of at least 122 m of thinly interbedded calcareous shale, calcareous spiculite, and bioclastic supportstone (Kivalina unit) overlain by 30 to 240 m of siliceous shale, mudstone, calcareous radiolarite, and calcareous lithic turbidite (Ikalukrok unit). The Ikalukrok unit in the Red Dog plate hosts all massive sulfide deposits in the area. It is notably carbonaceous, is generally finely laminated, and contains siliceous sponge spicules and radiolarians. The Kuna Formation in the Key Creek plate of the Endicott Mountains allochthon (60-110 m) resembles the Ikalukrok unit but is unmineralized and has thinner carbonate layers that are mainly organic-rich dolostone. Correlative strata in the Picnic Creek allochthon include less shale and mudstone and more carbonate (mostly calcareous spiculite). Conodonts and radiolarians indicate an age range of Osagean to early Chesterian (late Early to Late Mississippian) for the Kuna in the Red Dog area. Sedimentologic, faunal, and geochemical data imply that most of the Kuna formed in slope and basin settings characterized by anoxic or dysoxic bottom water and by local high productivity. Shallow-water facies of th e Lisburne Group in the Red Dog area are present locally in the Endicott Mountains

  18. Short-Range Guiding Can Result in the Formation of Circular Aggregates in Myxobacteria Populations

    PubMed Central

    Janulevicius, Albertas; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that upon starvation form multicellular fruiting bodies whose shape in different species can range from simple mounds to elaborate tree-like structures. The formation of fruiting bodies is a result of collective cell movement on a solid surface. In the course of development, groups of flexible rod-shaped cells form streams and move in circular or spiral patterns to form aggregation centers that can become sites of fruiting body formation. The mechanisms of such cell movement patterns are not well understood. It has been suggested that myxobacterial development depends on short-range contact-mediated interactions between individual cells, i.e. cell aggregation does not require long-range signaling in the population. In this study, by means of a computational mass-spring model, we investigate what types of short-range interactions between cells can result in the formation of streams and circular aggregates during myxobacterial development. We consider short-range head-to-tail guiding between individual cells, whereby movement direction of the head of one cell is affected by the nearby presence of the tail of another cell. We demonstrate that stable streams and circular aggregates can arise only when the trailing cell, in addition to being steered by the tail of the leading cell, is able to speed up to catch up with it. It is suggested that necessary head-to-tail interactions between cells can arise from physical adhesion, response to a diffusible substance or slime extruded by cells, or pulling by motility engine pili. Finally, we consider a case of long-range guiding between cells and show that circular aggregates are able to form without cells increasing speed. These findings present a possibility to discriminate between short-range and long-range guiding mechanisms in myxobacteria by experimentally measuring distribution of cell speeds in circular aggregates. PMID:25928112

  19. Short-range guiding can result in the formation of circular aggregates in myxobacteria populations.

    PubMed

    Janulevicius, Albertas; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that upon starvation form multicellular fruiting bodies whose shape in different species can range from simple mounds to elaborate tree-like structures. The formation of fruiting bodies is a result of collective cell movement on a solid surface. In the course of development, groups of flexible rod-shaped cells form streams and move in circular or spiral patterns to form aggregation centers that can become sites of fruiting body formation. The mechanisms of such cell movement patterns are not well understood. It has been suggested that myxobacterial development depends on short-range contact-mediated interactions between individual cells, i.e. cell aggregation does not require long-range signaling in the population. In this study, by means of a computational mass-spring model, we investigate what types of short-range interactions between cells can result in the formation of streams and circular aggregates during myxobacterial development. We consider short-range head-to-tail guiding between individual cells, whereby movement direction of the head of one cell is affected by the nearby presence of the tail of another cell. We demonstrate that stable streams and circular aggregates can arise only when the trailing cell, in addition to being steered by the tail of the leading cell, is able to speed up to catch up with it. It is suggested that necessary head-to-tail interactions between cells can arise from physical adhesion, response to a diffusible substance or slime extruded by cells, or pulling by motility engine pili. Finally, we consider a case of long-range guiding between cells and show that circular aggregates are able to form without cells increasing speed. These findings present a possibility to discriminate between short-range and long-range guiding mechanisms in myxobacteria by experimentally measuring distribution of cell speeds in circular aggregates. PMID:25928112

  20. High-resolution optical signatures of fresh and aged explosives in the 420nm to 620nm illumination range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunsford, Robert; Grun, Jacob; Gump, Jared

    2012-06-01

    Optical signatures of fresh and aged explosives are measured and compared to determine whether there exist differences in the signatures that can be exploited for detection. The explosives examined are RDX, TNT, and HMX, which have been heated for two weeks at 75 degrees centigrade or irradiated for two weeks with a 15-Watt ultraviolet lamp (254nm). The optical signatures are obtained by illuminating the samples with a sequence of laser wavelengths between 420nm and 620nm in 10 nm steps and measuring the spectra of light scattered from the sample at each laser wavelength. The measurements are performed on the Naval Research Laboratory's SWOrRD instrument. SWOrRD is capable of illuminating a sample with laser wavelength between 210nm and 2000nm, in steps of 0.1nm, and measuring the spectrum of light scattered from the sample at each wavelength. SWOrRD's broad tuning range, high average power (1- 300mW), narrow line width (< 4cm-1), and rapid wavelength tunability enable these measurements. Results, based on more than 80 measurements - each at 21 sequential laser wavelengths, indicate that the variation in spectral line amplitude observed when altering laser illumination wavelength differs between fresh and aged explosives. Thus, an instrument for rapid and reagent-less differentiation between aged and fresh explosives, based on illumination with a few appropriately chosen laser wavelengths appears feasible.

  1. Micromorphology of past urban soils: method and results (France, Iron Age - Middle Age)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, Cécilia

    2014-05-01

    Urban soils in French protohistoric and Roman towns and present-day towns of roman origin are several meters thick accumulations, with great spatial and vertical variability due to long duration of occupation. In order to improve our knowledge of both sedimentary and pedological characteristics as well as formation processes of urban soils, micromorphological analysis was carried out on buried towns. The studied sites include Iron Age towns (floodplain sites: Lattes or Lattara, Le Cailar; oppidum: Pech-Maho in the south of France), a roman buried town (Famars or Fanum Martis, North of France), and various towns occupied from the Roman period until now (urban and periurban sites in Paris, Strasbourg, Mâcon… North and East of France). Original method and sampling strategy were elaborated in order to try to encompass both spatial and vertical variability as well as the "mitage" of the present-day cities. In Lattes, representative elementary urban areas such as streets, courtyard, and houses were sampled for micromorphology during extensive excavation. These analyses revealed specific microscopic features related to complex anthropogenic processes (craft and domestic activities discarding, trampling, backfill, building), moisture and heat, and biological activity, which defined each kind of area. Comparison between well preserved buried town and current cities of roman origin, where the sequence of past urban soils is preserved in few place ("mitage") help to identify past activities, building rhythms as well as specific building materials. For example, in Paris, compacted sandy backfills alternate with watertight hardfloors during the Roman period (soils similar to Technosols). At the opposite, various kinds of loose bioturbated laminated dark earth resulting from activities such as craft refuses, backfills, compost or trampled layers were discriminated for Early Medieval Period (soils similar to Cumulic Anthroposol). Moreover, biological activity is usually

  2. Recent Results in ICESat Geolocation Parameter Calibration from Range Residual Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Rowlands, David D.; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Williams, Terry A.

    2004-01-01

    The Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), launched on January 12, 2003, carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which has a primary measurement of short-pulse laser-ranging to the Earths surface at 1064 nm wavelength at a rate of 40 pulses per second. The instrument has collected (at the time of this writing) over 540 million observations of the Earth's surface including precise elevation measurements of the ice sheets, sea ice roughness and thickness, ocean and land surface elevations and surface reflectivity. The accurate geolocation of GLASs surface returns, the spots from which the laser energy reflects on the Earths surface, is a critical issue in the scientific application of these data. Pointing, ranging, timing and orbit errors must be compensated to accurately geolocate the laser altimeter surface returns. Towards this end, the laser range observations can be fully exploited in an integrated residual analysis to accurately calibrate these geolocation/instrument parameters. The ICESat laser altimeter data have been simultaneously processed as direct altimetry from ocean sweeps and around-the-world scans along with dynamic crossovers in order to calibrate pointing ranging and timing. The analysis has resolved complex time varying signal resulting from thermal variations of instrument pointing and boresite shadowing. The calibration methodology and current calibration results are discussed along with future efforts and current geolocation accuracies.

  3. Age of the Dawson Arkose, southwestern Air Force Academy, Colorado, and implications for the uplift history of the Front Range

    SciTech Connect

    Kluth, C.F.; Nelson, S.N. )

    1988-01-01

    An angular unconformity within the synorogenic Dawson Arkose (Late Cretaceous-Eocene) is preserved and exposed in areas south of Denver, Colorado, along the eastern side of the Front Range uplift. In the southwestern part of the Air Force Academy, the basal Dawson is concordant with the underlying Laramie and Fox Hills formations and dips 72-84{degree} eastward. Above an intraformational angular unconformity, younger units of the Dawson dip 24{degree}-46{degree} eastward. Smaller angular unconformities (10{degree}{plus minus}), and beds with gradually decreasing dip occur higher in the Dawson section. Rocks above the largest unconformity contain a rich palynomorph assemblage of Late Maestrichtain age. These data indicate that approximately 30{degree}-40{degree}, and possibly as much as approximately 70{degree}, of tilting of the underlying rocks occurred during the Late Maestrichtian (66-70 Ma). It is also possible that approximately 30{degree}-40{degree} of the tilting of the Late Cretaceous rocks occurred between latest Maestrichtian and Eocene (approximately 45 Ma). These results suggest that the transition from a tectonically quiet marine environment to a non-marine, tectonically active condition took place rapidly, probably within a few million years. When combined with published data, the authors study indicates that the Front Range has different tectonic histories on its eastern and its western side, and that the deformation is diachronous along the strike of the eastern side of the Front Range.

  4. Short versus Long Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Suppression Protocols in IVF/ICSI Cycles in Patients of Various Age Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yubin; Xu, Yanwen; Zhou, Canquan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the two GnRH-a protocols (long GnRH-a protocol and short GnRH-a protocol) for ovarian stimulation in IVF/ICSI cycles in patients of various age ranges. Methods A total of 5662 IVF-ET/ICSI cycles from 2010 to 2013 were retrospectively identified. The cycles were divided into two groups: a long protocol group and short protocol group. In each group, the patients were divided into four age ranges: <31 years, 31 to 35 years, 36 to 40 years, and >40 years. The duration of stimulation, total dose of Gn, implantation rate and pregnancy rate were compared. Results The total dose of Gn was significantly higher, and the duration of stimulation was significantly longer, in the long protocol group than in the short protocol group for all age ranges (P<0.05). If the patients were of the same age range, the number of oocytes retrieved, MII oocytes, and high-quality embryos in the long protocol group were all significantly greater than those in the short protocol group (P<0.05). In the long protocol group, the clinical pregnancy rates of the four age ranges were 52.76%, 44.33%, 36.15% and 13.33%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the short protocol group (33.33%, 24.58%, 22.49% and 8.72%, respectively; P<0.05). The same trend was also found in the implantation rates of the four age ranges. As the age increased, the clinical pregnancy and implantation rates, as well as the number of oocytes retrieved, MII oocytes, and high-quality embryos, of the long protocol group significantly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that regardless of patient age, the long protocol was superior to the short protocol in terms of the number of retrieved oocytes, as well as the implantation and pregnancy rates. PMID:26208150

  5. Effects of age, replicative lifespan and growth rate of human nucleus pulposus cells on selecting age range for cell-based biological therapies for degenerative disc diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Lee, S M; Jeong, S W; Sung, Y G; Lee, J H; Kim, K W

    2016-07-01

    Autologous disc cell implantation, growth factors and gene therapy appear to be promising therapies for disc regeneration. Unfortunately, the replicative lifespan and growth kinetics of human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells related to host age are unclear. We investigated the potential relations among age, replicative lifespan and growth rate of NP cells, and determined the age range that is suitable for cell-based biological therapies for degenerative disc diseases. We used NP tissues classified by decade into five age groups: 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s and 70s. The mean cumulative population doubling level (PDL) and population doubling rate (PDR) of NP cells were assessed by decade. We also investigated correlations between cumulative PDL and age, and between PDR and age. The mean cumulative PDL and PDR decreased significantly in patients in their 60s. The mean cumulative PDL and PDR in the younger groups (30s, 40s and 50s) were significantly higher than those in the older groups (60s and 70s). There also were significant negative correlations between cumulative PDL and age, and between PDR and age. We found that the replicative lifespan and growth rate of human NP cells decreased with age. The replicative potential of NP cells decreased significantly in patients 60 years old and older. Young individuals less than 60 years old may be suitable candidates for NP cell-based biological therapies for treating degenerative disc diseases. PMID:27149303

  6. K-Ar ages of allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes and their metamorphic aureoles, Western Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, J.L.; Turner, D.L.; Wallace, W.K.; Moore, T.E.

    1985-04-01

    New K-Ar ages from allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes of the western Brooks Range (Brooks Range ophiolite) show that igneous rocks yielded ages nearly identical to those of underlying metamorphic aureole rocks. Dated rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence from Tumit Creek consist of (1) hornblende gabbro with minor greenschist and lower grade alteration, hornblende age 147.2 +/- 4.4 Ma; and (2) hornblende-bearing diorite, also slightly altered, age 155.8 +/- 4.7 Ma. Both samples come from presumed higher levels of the Misheguk sequence. Dated samples of metamorphic aureole rocks come from outcrops near Kismilot Creek and lie structurally beneath the Iyikrok Mountain peridotite body. The rocks consist of amphibolite and garnet-bearing biotite-hornblende gneiss considered to be metamorphosed Copter igneous sequence and related sedimentary rocks. Hornblende ages are 154.2 +/- 4.6 Ma and 153.2 +/- 4.6 Ma. metamorphism is clearly related to the structurally overlying perioditite, as the degree of alteration decreases downward. The authors suggest that the K-Ar ages of these rocks represent the effects of thermal metamorphism post-dating igneous crystallization, and are related to tectonic emplacement of the complex. Earlier K-Ar data on igneous rocks give similar ages and have been interpreted as reflecting tectonothermal events. The age of igneous crystallization of the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence remains uncertain.

  7. Geomagnetic Investigation of Sandstone Dikes of the Colorado Front Range, for Determination of Age and Mode of Emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, D.; Petronis, M. S.; Siddoway, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    In the Colorado Front Range, an array of sandstone dikes has intrigued geologists for over a century (Cross 1894,GSAB, 5, 525). Within their crystalline host, the dikes reach widths >7m and have a lateral extent of 70km along the Ute Pass Fault (UPF). The essential questions of sediment source, emplacement mode, and age of the dikes are unanswered. We present new paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) results used to determine the age and emplacement behavior of the dikes. The eleven dikes selected for magnetic studies have sharp, planar margins, and share the systematic geometry of the NW striking subvertical dike array. They exhibit little or no overprint by brittle fracturing/shear associated with the UPF. Our approach involved the use of paleomagnetic techniques to isolate the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), which we used to limit the age of the dikes' magnetization. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS),arising from alignment of detrital magnetite, serves as a proxy for the orientation of flow during dike emplacement. U-Pb detrital zircon ages, obtained previously, did not provide a useful constraint on emplacement age because the dominant age matches that of the prevalent host,1.03Ga Pikes Peak Granite. IRM acquisition experiments were performed to identify the principal magnetic phases as a mixture of Fe-Ti oxide phases, likely to be low-Ti magnetite and hematite. The sandstone consists of sub-rounded to rounded sand-sized quartz, angular feldspar (<5%), and detrital magnetite; selected samples have uniform grain size and uniform color arising from hematite cement. Although direct cover relationships are not preserved, a portion of the study sites are proximal to in situ near-horizontal sedimentary cover rocks that offer evidence against large tectonic rotation. Cores were collected using a gas-powered drill with a diamond bit and oriented using a sun compass. Where possible, cores were obtained on

  8. Depositional ages of clastic metasediments from Samos and Syros, Greece: results of a detrital zircon study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, Kersten; Bröcker, Michael; Berndt, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Siliciclastic metasediments from the islands of Samos and Syros, Cycladic blueschist unit, Greece, were studied to determine maximum sedimentation ages. Four samples from the Ampelos unit on Samos yielded age distribution spectra that range from ~320 Ma to ~3.2 Ga with a dominance of Cambrian-Neoproterozoic zircons (500-1,100 Ma). The youngest well-constrained age groups cluster at 500-550 Ma. Our results allow to link the Samos metasediments with occurrences showing similar age distribution patterns elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean region (Greece, Turkey, Libya, Israel and Jordan) that record the influx of `Pan-African' detritus. The lack of post-500-Ma zircons in the Samos samples is in marked contrast to the data from Syros that indicates Triassic to Cretaceous depositional ages. The samples from Syros were collected from the matrix of a meta-ophiolitic mélange that is exposed near the top of the metamorphic succession as well as from outcrops representing the basal part of the underlying marble-schist sequence. The zircon populations from Syros were mainly supplied by Mesozoic sources dominated by Triassic protolith ages. Subordinate is the importance of pre-Triassic zircons, but this may reflect bias induced by the research strategy. Sediment accumulation continued until Late Cretaceous time, but the overall contribution of Jurassic to Cretaceous detritus is more limited. Zircon populations are dominated by grains with small degree of rounding suggesting relatively short sediment transportation. Available observations are in accordance with a model suggesting deposition close to the magmatic source rocks.

  9. Results and applications of a space suit range-of-motion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, AL

    1989-01-01

    The range of motion of space suits has traditionally been described using limited 2-D mapping of limb, torso, or arm movements performed in front of an orthogonal grid. A new technique for recovering extra-vehicular (EVA) space suit range-of-motion data during underwater testing was described in a paper presented by the author at the 1988 conference. The new technique uses digitized data which is automatically acquired from video images of the subject. Three-dimensional trajectories are recovered from these data, and can be displayed using 2-D computer graphics. Results of using this technique for the current shuttle EVA suit during underwater simulated weightlessness testing are discussed. Application of the data for use in animating anthropometric computer models is highlighted.

  10. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ≥66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ≥ 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and

  11. 40Ar 39Ar Ages and tectonic setting of ophiolite from the Neyriz area, southeast Zagros Range, Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Pamic, J.

    1983-01-01

    An ophiolite, considered to be an allochthonous fragment of Tethyan oceanic crust and mantle, crops out near Neyriz in the Zagros Range, Iran. 40Ar 39Ar ages ranging from 76.8 ?? 23.8 Ma to 105 ?? 23.3 Ma were measured on hornblende from five samples of plagiogranite and diabase from the ophiolite. The most precise ages are 85.9 ?? 3.8 Ma for a diabase and 83.6 ?? 8.4 Ma for a plagiogranite. The weighted mean age of hornblende from the five samples is 87.5 ?? 7.2 Ma which indicates that the igneous part of the Neyriz ophiolite formed during the early part of the Late Cretaceous. Pargasite from amphibolite below peridotite of the Neyriz ophiolite has a 40Ar 39Ar age of 94.9 ?? 7.6 Ma. The pargasite age agrees within analytical uncertainty with the ages measured on diabase and plagiogranite. Comparable ages have been measured on igneous rocks from the Samail ophiolite of Oman and on amphibolite below peridotite of the Samail ophiolite. ?? 1983.

  12. Satellite laser ranging station "Holosiiv-Kyiv". Technical characteristics and results of 2001 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotina, O. V.; Gluschenko, Yu. M.; Medvedskij, M. M.; Peretyatko, N. N.; Suberlyak, V. R.; Yatskiv, D. Ya.

    2001-12-01

    Basic characteristics of the satellite laser ranging station "Holosiiv-Kyiv" (SLR) are presented. The principle of operation and the field system software of the station are described. Some peculiarities of the satellite tracking system and the calibration of measurements are discussed. The results and the analysis of observations and accuracy estimations of distance measurements are given. The coordinates of the SLR station reference point are improved on the basis of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 observations over the period 24.01.01--17.06.01. The coordinates obtained with the SLR method and calculated on the basis of geodetic measurements are compared, and their differences were analyzed.

  13. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

  14. ASSESSMENT OF WARFARIN TREATMENT EFFICACY BY MEANS; OF USING COAGULATION TEST RESULTS WITHIN THE THERAPEUTIC RANGE.

    PubMed

    Varim, P; Varim, C; Ergenç, H; Uyanık, M; Yaylacı, S; Vatan, M; Gündüz, H

    2016-06-01

    Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) is a value used to assess the efficacy of Warfarin treatment. The aim of our study is to determine the effective INR levels and the rate of TTR in patients on Warfarin regimen due to Atrial Fibrillation (AF) or Mechanical Prosthetic Valve (MPV). A total of 94 patients (58 female, and 36 male, mean age: 64.9±11years) on Warfarin treatment due to AF or MPV with at least 10 INR levels measurements in the last 6 months were included in this retrospective study. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of the patients with Valvular AF (n=47); Group 2 included the patients with Non-Valvular AF (n=47); TTR and INR levels were compared. The average of INR values were found as 2,4 (min: 1,3, max: 4,3) in all patients; 2,3 (min: 1,3, max: 4,2) in Group 1; 2,6 (min: 1,3, max: 4,3) in Group 2. The average of TTR values was found 40.3% (min: 10%, max: 80%) in all patients; 43.8% (min: 10%, max: 80%) in Group 1; 36,8% (min: 10%, max: 80%) in Group 2. INR and TTR values are needed to assess the effectiveness of the Warfarin treatment. The patients in treatment with Warfarin should be well trained and frequently monitored. On the other hand, the underlying factors of the TTR values being determined as lower in the Turkish patient population might be due to the lower socio-economic and socio-cultural status, inadequate education levels, and the insufficient information on use of the medication provided by the doctors to the patients. PMID:27441538

  15. Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description, Capabilities, and Analytical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, William T.; Daniels, Jeffrey; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Giles, Ken; Karr, Lynn; Kluesner, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Activity. DRI has operated these stations since that time. A third station was deployed in the period May to September 2011. The TTR is located within the northwest corner of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (280 mi2). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from Soils Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.

  16. The pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil over a range of oral doses and animal ages in the foal.

    PubMed

    Duffee, N E; Stang, B E; Schaeffer, D J

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of foal age on the pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil, five foals were administered cefadroxil in a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg) and a single oral dose (10 or 20 mg/kg) at ages of 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 months. Pharmacokinetic parameters of terminal elimination rate constant (beta(po)), oral mean residence time (MRTpo), mean absorption time (MAT), rate constant for oral absorption (Ka), bioavailability F, peak serum concentrations (Cmax) and time of peak concentration (tmax), were evaluated in a repeated measures analysis over dose. Across animal ages, parameters for the intravenous dose did not change significantly over animal age (P > or = 0.05). Mean values +/- SEM were: beta(IV) = 0.633 +/- 0.038 h-1; Cl = 0.316 +/- 0.010 L/kg/h; Vc = 0.196 +/- 0.008 L/kg; Varea = 0.526 +/- 0.024 L/kg; VSS = 0.374 +/- 0.014 L/kg; MRTiv = 1.22 +/- 0.07 h; Kel = 1.67 +/- 0.08 h-1. Following oral administration, drug absorption became faster with age (P < 0.05), as reflected by MRTpo, MAT, Ka and tmax. However, oral bioavailability (+/- SE) declined significantly (P < 0.05) from 99.6 +/- 3.69% at 0.5 months to 14.5 +/- 1.40% at 5 months of age. To evaluate a dose effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters, a series of oral doses (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) were administered to these foals at 1 month of age. beta(po) (0.548 +/- 0.023 h-1) and F (68.26 +/- 2.43%) were not affected significantly by the size of the dose. Cmax was approximately doubled with each two-fold increase in dose: 3.15 +/- 0.15, 5.84 +/- 0.48, 12.17 +/- 0.93 and 19.71 +/- 2.19 micrograms/mL. Dose-dependent kinetics were observed in MRTpo, MAT, Ka and tmax. PMID:9430765

  17. The exclusion of a significant range of ages in a massive star cluster.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai

    2014-12-18

    Stars spend most of their lifetimes on the main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The extended main-sequence turn-off regions--containing stars leaving the main sequence after having spent all of the hydrogen in their cores--found in massive (more than a few tens of thousands of solar masses), intermediate-age (about one to three billion years old) star clusters are usually interpreted as evidence of internal age spreads of more than 300 million years, although young clusters are thought to quickly lose any remaining star-forming fuel following a period of rapid gas expulsion on timescales of order 10(7) years. Here we report, on the basis of a combination of high-resolution imaging observations and theoretical modelling, that the stars beyond the main sequence in the two-billion-year-old cluster NGC 1651, characterized by a mass of about 1.7 × 10(5) solar masses, can be explained only by a single-age stellar population, even though the cluster has a clearly extended main-sequence turn-off region. The most plausible explanation for the existence of such extended regions invokes a population of rapidly rotating stars, although the secondary effects of the prolonged stellar lifetimes associated with such a stellar population mixture are as yet poorly understood. From preliminary analysis of previously obtained data, we find that similar morphologies are apparent in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams of at least five additional intermediate-age star clusters, suggesting that an extended main-sequence turn-off region does not necessarily imply the presence of a significant internal age dispersion. PMID:25519133

  18. Establishment of Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Ranges for 36 Routine and 57 Cell Population Data Items in a New Automated Blood Cell Analyzer, Sysmex XN-2000

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Han, Min-Young; Cho, Young-Uk; Jang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    We established age- and gender-specific reference ranges for the 36 routine complete blood cell (CBC) and 57 cell population data (CPD) items in the Sysmex XN-2000 (Sysmex, Japan). In total, 280 peripheral blood samples were obtained from an equal number of healthy adults. Values for 36 routine items and 57 CPD items were obtained for each sample, and the results were categorized into six subgroups (N>39 in each subgroup) according to patient age (20-40, 41-60, and >60 yr) and gender (male and female), and compared with respect to age and gender differences. The majority of data items (22 of 36 routine CBC items and 44 of 57 CPD items) exhibited significant differences (P≤0.05) in their results with respect to age or gender, and several red cell-, lymphocyte-, and platelet-related data tended to decrease in women or older adults. These results provide a basis for establishing age- and gender-specific reference ranges for routine and CPD items in Sysmex XN-2000. Furthermore, these reference ranges could be used to determine clinical significance for new items of Sysmex XN-2000 in further studies. PMID:26915613

  19. A FreeSurfer-compliant consistent manual segmentation of infant brains spanning the 0–2 year age range

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo Rodrigues, Katyucia; Ben-Avi, Emma; Sliva, Danielle D.; Choe, Myong-sun; Drottar, Marie; Wang, Ruopeng; Fischl, Bruce; Grant, Patricia E.; Zöllei, Lilla

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed description of a set of FreeSurfer compatible segmentation guidelines tailored to infant MRI scans, and a unique data set of manually segmented acquisitions, with subjects nearly evenly distributed between 0 and 2 years of age. We believe that these segmentation guidelines and this dataset will have a wide range of potential uses in medicine and neuroscience. PMID:25741260

  20. Cosmogenic exposure-age chronologies of Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations in greater Yellowstone and the Teton Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Licciardi, J.M.; Pierce, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained 69 new cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages from boulders on moraines deposited by glaciers of the greater Yellowstone glacial system and Teton Range during the middle and late Pleistocene. These new data, combined with 43 previously obtained 3He and 10Be ages from deposits of the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier, establish a high-resolution chronology for the Yellowstone-Teton mountain glacier complexes. Boulders deposited at the southern limit of the penultimate ice advance of the Yellowstone glacial system yield a mean age of 136??13 10Be ka and oldest ages of ???151-157 10Be ka. These ages support a correlation with the Bull Lake of West Yellowstone, with the type Bull Lake of the Wind River Range, and with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. End moraines marking the maximum Pinedale positions of outlet glaciers around the periphery of the Yellowstone glacial system range in age from 18.8??0.9 to 16.5??1.4 10Be ka, and possibly as young as 14.6??0.7 10Be ka, suggesting differences in response times of the various ice-cap source regions. Moreover, all dated Pinedale terminal moraines in the greater Yellowstone glacial system post-date the Pinedale maximum in the Wind River Range by ???4-6 kyr, indicating a significant phase relationship between glacial maxima in these adjacent ranges. Boulders on the outermost set and an inner set of Pinedale end moraines enclosing Jenny Lake on the eastern Teton front yield mean ages of 14.6??0.7 and 13.5??1.1 10Be ka, respectively. The outer Jenny Lake moraines are partially buried by outwash from ice on the Yellowstone Plateau, hence their age indicates a major standstill of an expanded valley glacier in the Teton Range prior to the Younger Dryas, followed closely by deglaciation of the Yellowstone Plateau. These new glacial chronologies are indicative of spatially variable regional climate forcing and temporally complex patterns of glacier responses in this region of the Rocky Mountains during the Pleistocene

  1. Fission track ages of detrital zircons from sandstones of the Umpqua Group and Tyee Formation, Oregon coast range

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, J.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Brandon, M.T. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Detrital zircons from Paleogene sandstones of the Umpqua Group (UG) and the Tyee Fm (TF) yield contrasting FT age patterns which distinguish these two units and cast new light on their regional extent, correlation and provenance. In the Roseburg (Rg) area of the southern Oregon Coast Range, where most widely exposed, the UG consists of continental and marine clastic beds which overlie submarine lavas of the Coast Range Basalt. K-Ar And Ar-Ar dating of the basement basalts shows a younging trend from about 62 Ma at Rg at the south to 56 Ma at Siletz River and 53 Ma at Tillamook to the north. Detrital zircons from the Rg area are characterized by old FT ages. Of 192 grains dated, 90% are older than 90 Ma; the median age is 129 Ma. A diorite cobble from an UG conglomerate gave a zircon FT age of 105 Ma. These ages point to a source in the Jurassic plutons in the Klamath Mountains nearby to the south. The authors have determined FT cooling ages of 110 and 120 Ma for zircons from the Mt. Ashland and Grants Pass plutons. Continental and shallow marine clastic strata of the TF overly the UG beds west of Rg. The UG is not widely exposed north of Rg where it thins and pinches out above the Coast Range Basalt and is overlain by a northern turbidite facies of the TF. Three TF sandstones from the latitude of Rg and three others from west and south of Corvallis yielded distinctive and identical zircon FT age patterns characterized by young ages. Of 335 zircons dated, 80% are younger than 90 Ma; the median age is 61 Ma. This maximum age is very close to that of the overlying Tillamook and Fisher Fms. The flood of detrital zircons with young FT ages in the TF marks the abrupt change from a nearby Klamath source for the UG beds to a distant, easterly TF source in a recently uplifted plutonic-metamorphic terrane.

  2. Carbon dioxide injection and resultant alteration of Weber Sandstone (Pennsylvanian-Permian), Rangely field, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Bowker, K.A.; Shuler, P.J.

    1989-03-01

    Geologic interpretations made during the current EOR (enhanced oil recovery) project at Rangely field (Rio Blanco County, Colorado), have made interesting connections between alteration of reservoir mineralogy and texture, changes in produced water composition, and increased production problems. Carbon dioxide is being injected into the Weber Sandstone in portions of Rangely field. The carbon dioxide injection is part of a very successful tertiary recovery project initiated in late 1986. The bottomhole pH of Weber brine has decreased from approximately 7.5 to 4.5 with the addition of CO/sub 2/. Changes in the chemistry of produced water are associated with alteration of reservoir mineralogy. The CO/sub 2/ flood has caused a substantial increase in the concentrations of iron, calcium, magnesium, and strontium in the produced brine. The amount of increase is directly related to the volume of CO/sub 2/ produced in each well. This increase resulted from the dissolution of carbonate cements, authigenic clays, and detrital feldspars. An increase in the calculated scaling potential of the produced water is a result of this change in chemistry. Hypotheses based on the water-chemistry changes were confirmed in pressure-cell and core-flood experiments. Core-flood experiments also indicate no net change in permeability following carbon dioxide injection: the increase in permeability due to the dissolution of carbonate cements is being offset by a decrease caused by migratory clays plugging pore throats. The clays, which coat the authigenic carbonates, are liberated when the carbonates are dissolved.

  3. Greater Perceived Age Discrimination in England than the United States: Results from HRS and ELSA

    PubMed Central

    Zaninotto, Paola; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined cross-national differences in perceptions of age discrimination in England and the United States. Under the premise that the United States has had age discrimination legislation in place for considerably longer than England, we hypothesized that perceptions of age discrimination would be lower in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from two nationally representative studies of aging, the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (n = 4,818) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 7,478). Respondents aged 52 years and older who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination were significantly higher in England than the United States, with 34.8% of men and women in England reporting age discrimination compared with 29.1% in the United States. Associations between perceived age discrimination and older age and lower levels of household wealth were observed in both countries, but we found differences between England and the United States in the relationship between perceived age discrimination and education. Discussion. Our study revealed that levels of perceived age discrimination are lower in the United States than England and are less socially patterned. This suggests that differing social and political circumstances in the two countries may have an important role to play. PMID:26224759

  4. Isotopes and ages in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kistler, Ronald W.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Morton, Douglas M.

    2003-01-01

    Strontium, oxygen and lead isotopic and rubidium-strontium geochronologic studies have been completed on Cretaceous and Jurassic (?) granitic rock samples from the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith in southern California. Many of these samples were collected systematically and studied chemically by A. K. Baird and colleagues (Baird and others, 1979). The distribution of these granitic rocks is shown in the Santa Ana, Perris, and San Jacinto Blocks, bounded by the Malibu Coast-Cucamonga, Banning, and San Andreas fault zones, and the Pacific Ocean on the map of the Peninsular Ranges batholith and surrounding area, southern California. The granitic rock names are by Baird and Miesch (1984) who used a modal mineral classification that Bateman and others (1963) used for granitic rocks in the Sierra Nevada batholith. In this classification, granitic rocks have at least 10% quartz. Boundaries between rock types are in terms of the ratio of alkali-feldspar to total feldspar: quartz diorite, 0-10%; granodiorite, 10-35%; quartz monzonite 35-65%; granite >65%. Gabbros have 0-10% quartz. Data for samples investigated are giv in three tables: samples, longitude, latitude, specific gravity and rock type (Table 1); rubidium and strontium data for granitic rocks of the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern California (Table 2); U, Th, Pb concentrations, Pb and Sr initial isotopic compositions, and δ18O permil values for granitic rocks of the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith (table 3).

  5. Procrastination, Distress and Life Satisfaction across the Age Range - A German Representative Community Study.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Manfred E; Klein, Eva M; Aufenanger, Stefan; Brähler, Elmar; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W; Quiring, Oliver; Reinecke, Leonard; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Stark, Birgit; Wölfling, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the lack of population-based data the purpose of this representative study was to assess procrastination and its associations with distress and life satisfaction across the life span. A representative German community sample (1,350 women; 1,177 men) between the ages of 14 and 95 years was examined by the short form of the General Procrastination Scale (GPS-K; 1) and standardized scales of perceived stress, depression, anxiety, fatigue and life satisfaction. As hypothesized, procrastination was highest in the youngest cohort (14-29 years). Only in the youngest and most procrastinating cohort (aged 14 to 29 years), men procrastinated more than women. As we had further hypothesized, procrastination was consistently associated with higher stress, more depression, anxiety, fatigue and reduced satisfaction across life domains, especially regarding work and income. Associations were also found with lack of a partnership and unemployment. Findings are discussed with regard to potential developmental and cohort effects. While procrastination appears to be a pervasive indicator for maladjustment, longitudinal analyses in high-risk samples (e.g. late adolescence, unemployment) are needed to identify means and mechanisms of procrastinating. PMID:26871572

  6. Procrastination, Distress and Life Satisfaction across the Age Range – A German Representative Community Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the lack of population-based data the purpose of this representative study was to assess procrastination and its associations with distress and life satisfaction across the life span. A representative German community sample (1,350 women; 1,177 men) between the ages of 14 and 95 years was examined by the short form of the General Procrastination Scale (GPS-K; 1) and standardized scales of perceived stress, depression, anxiety, fatigue and life satisfaction. As hypothesized, procrastination was highest in the youngest cohort (14–29 years). Only in the youngest and most procrastinating cohort (aged 14 to 29 years), men procrastinated more than women. As we had further hypothesized, procrastination was consistently associated with higher stress, more depression, anxiety, fatigue and reduced satisfaction across life domains, especially regarding work and income. Associations were also found with lack of a partnership and unemployment. Findings are discussed with regard to potential developmental and cohort effects. While procrastination appears to be a pervasive indicator for maladjustment, longitudinal analyses in high-risk samples (e.g. late adolescence, unemployment) are needed to identify means and mechanisms of procrastinating. PMID:26871572

  7. Stability and change in intelligence from age 12 to age 52: results from the Luxembourg MAGRIP study.

    PubMed

    Schalke, Daniela; Brunner, Martin; Geiser, Christian; Preckel, Franzis; Keller, Ulrich; Spengler, Marion; Martin, Romain

    2013-08-01

    The present longitudinal study tackled 2 key aspects of the development of intelligence across a 40-year time period from age 12 to age 52 concerning (a) stability and change in the structure of intelligence with reference to the age differentiation-dedifferentiation hypothesis (how different cognitive abilities relate to each other across age) and (b) differential stabilities (the rank ordering of persons' intelligence levels across time). To this end, we drew on 2 structural conceptions of intelligence: (a) the extended Gf-Gc model to study broad cognitive abilities and (b) the 3-stratum model to decompose cognitive change into processes that are shared by all broad abilities (attributable to general cognitive ability g) and processes specific to a certain ability (independent of g). Data were obtained for 344 persons (56.4% female). The results showed that people differ more greatly over time with respect to all broad abilities except for fluid reasoning, whereas the rank ordering of persons on all broad abilities remains remarkably stable. These combined results yielded substantial gap-widening effects from age 12 to age 52 years that were mainly accounted for by a substantial increase in g variance in combination with a high differential stability of g. Moreover, the increase in g variance reflects an increase in covariance among different broad abilities, which indicates that the different constructs relate more closely to each other at age 52 compared to age 12 (i.e., age dedifferentiation). Two theoretical explanations of this change in the structure of intelligence are discussed (common cause hypothesis and investment theory). PMID:23148935

  8. OASDI (Old-Age and Survivors Insurance): fiscal basis and long-range cost projections.

    PubMed

    Robertson, A H

    1977-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the financing structure of social security is a prerequisite to serious discussion of the financial condition of the program. In examining this structure, it becomes clear that the most important test of the program's financial soundness is whether expected future income to the funds equals expected future expenditures. Short-range and long-range cost estimates indicate that this condition does not exist and that an actual deficit of 7.96 percent of taxable payroll, equivalent to $4.3 trillion, needs to be eliminated--half of it perhaps by stabilizing benefits at current levels in relation to preretirement earnings. In addition, an unfunded accrued liability of $3.1 trillion exists, although there is no indication that this liability needs to be funded. PMID:847590

  9. Radiocarbon ages of insects and plants frozen in the No. 31 Glacier, Suntar-Khayata Range, eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, F.; Uchida, M.; Kondo, M.; Kadota, T.; Shirakawa, T.; Enomoto, H.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fujisawa, Y.; Konstantinov, P. Y.; Kusaka, R.; Miyairi, M.; Ohata, T.; Yabuki, H.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the age of glacier ice in the No. 31 Glacier in the Suntar-Khayata Range of eastern Siberia by performing dating of insects thought to be long-legged fly species (Dolichopodidae) as well as plants (species unknown) fragments preserved in the ice. Ice samples containing organisms were collected at depths of 0.4-1.1 m at five points from the middle to lowest parts of the glacier in 2013. The age of an insect collected at the lowest point on the glacier was estimated as 2038 ± 32 yr B.P. Insects collected at higher points had a modern or near-modern radiocarbon age. The age of plant fragments collected at the uppermost and middle points was 1531 ± 44 and 1288 ± 26 yr B.P., respectively, and that of a mixture of plant and insect fragments collected at the lowest point was 9772 ± 42 yr B.P. When comparing specimens collected at the same point, the plant fragments were found to be older than the insects. In 2012-2014 observations, some living insects were found on the glacier, and thus the age of the insects appears to correspond to the age of the ice. On the other hand, the plant fragments might have already aged since detachment from the source plants. This study found an approximately 2000-year gap in the age of the ice between the lowest and higher points. Annual mass balance observations from 2012 to 2014 showed that in recent years, the glacier sometimes had no accumulation area. Therefore, the wide gap in the age of ice may be due to a difference in past melting processes between the lowest and higher points on the glacier.

  10. Target error for image-to-physical space registration: preliminary clinical results using laser range scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Aize; Miga, Michael I.; Dumpuri, P.; Ding, S.; Dawant, B. M.; Thompson, R. C.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, preliminary results from an image-to-physical space registration platform are presented. The current platform employs traditional and novel methods of registration which use a variety of data sources to include: traditional synthetic skin-fiducial point-based registration, surface registration based on facial contours, brain feature point-based registration, brain vessel-to-vessel registration, and a more comprehensive cortical surface registration method that utilizes both geometric and intensity information from both the image volume and physical patient. The intraoperative face and cortical surfaces were digitized using a laser range scanner (LRS) capable of producing highly resolved textured point clouds. In two in vivo cases, a series of registrations were performed using these techniques and compared within the context of a true target error. One of the advantages of using a textured point cloud data stream is that true targets among the physical cortical surface and the preoperative image volume can be identified and used to assess image-to-physical registration methods. The results suggest that iterative closest point (ICP) method for intraoperative face surface registration is equivalent to point-based registration (PBR) method of skin fiducial markers. With regard to the initial image and physical space registration, for patient 1, mean target registration error (TRE) were 3.1+/-0.4 mm and 3.6 +/-0.9 mm for face ICP and skin fiducial PBR, respectively. For patient 2, the mean TRE were 5.7 +/-1.3 mm, and 6.6 +/-0.9 mm for face ICP and skin fiducial PBR, respectively. With regard to intraoperative cortical surface registration, SurfaceMI outperformed feature based PBR and vessel ICP with 1.7+/-1.8 mm for patient 1. For patient 2, the best result was achieved by using vessel ICP with 1.9+/-0.5 mm.

  11. Impaired Design Fluency Is a Marker of Pathological Cognitive Aging; Results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Tae Hui; Han, Ji Won; Lee, Seok Bum; Park, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Jung Jae; Youn, Jong Chul; Jhoo, Jin Hyung; Lee, Dong Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated neuropsychological markers that can be used to discriminate pathological cognitive aging from normal cognitive aging. Methods We administered frontal lobe function tests including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), digit span test, lexical fluency test, fixed condition design fluency test, and Trail Making Test B (TMT-B) to 92 individuals with pathological cognitive aging (PCA) and 222 individuals with normal cognitive aging (NCA). We examined the main effects of participants' diagnoses (PCA, NCA) and age (65-69 years old, 70-74 years old and 75 years old or over) on their test performance using multivariate analysis of variance. Results The main effects of both the diagnosis (F=2.860, p=0.002) and the age group (F=2.484, p<0.001) were significant. The PCA group showed lower performance on the backward digit span test (F=14.306, p<0.001), fixed condition design fluency test (F=8.347, p=0.004) and also exhibited perseverative errors in the WCST (F=4.19, p=0.042) compared with the NCA group. The main effect of the diagnosis on the backward digit span test and the fixed condition design fluency test remained significant after Bonferroni correction. The main effect of age remained significant in the TMT-B (F=8.737, p<0.001) after Bonferroni correction. Other test scores were not influenced by diagnosis or age. Conclusion The design fluency task may be a good neuropsychological marker to assess pathological cognitive aging. PMID:22396686

  12. Retirement Age and the Age of Onset of Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from the ICTUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Grotz, Catherine; Letenneur, Luc; Bonsang, Eric; Amieva, Hélène; Meillon, Céline; Quertemont, Etienne; Salmon, Eric; Adam, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test whether deferred retirement is associated with delayed onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and, if so, to determine whether retirement age still predicts the age at onset of AD when two potential biases are considered. Methods The study sample was gathered from the Impact of Cholinergic Treatment Use/Data Sharing Alzheimer cohort (ICTUS/DSA), a European study of 1,380 AD patients. Information regarding retirement age, onset of symptoms and covariates was collected at baseline whereas age at diagnosis was gathered from the patient’s medical record prior to study entry. Linear mixed models, adjusted for gender, education, occupation, center, country, household income, depression and cardiovascular risk factors were conducted on 815 patients. Results (1) The global analyses (n = 815) revealed that later age at retirement was associated with later age at diagnosis (β = 0.31, p < 0.0001); (2) once the selection bias was considered (n = 637), results showed that this association was weaker but remained significant (β = 0.15, p = 0.004); (3) once the bias of the reverse causality (i.e., the possibility that subjects may have left the workforce due to prior cognitive impairment) was considered (n = 447), the effect was no longer significant (β = 0.06, p = 0.18). Conclusion The present study supports that there is an association between retirement age and age at onset of AD. However, the strength of this association appears to be overestimated due to the selection bias. Moreover, the causality issue remains unresolved. Further prospective investigations are mandatory in order to correctly address this question. PMID:25714815

  13. Future Arctic temperature change resulting from a range of aerosol emissions scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobus, Cameron; Flanner, Mark; Sarofim, Marcus C.; Moura, Maria Cecilia P.; Smith, Steven J.

    2016-06-01

    The Arctic temperature response to emissions of aerosols -- specifically black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and sulfate -- depends on both the sector and the region where these emissions originate. Thus, the net Arctic temperature response to global aerosol emissions reductions will depend strongly on the blend of emissions sources being targeted. We use recently published equilibrium Arctic temperature response factors for BC, OC, and sulfate to estimate the range of present-day and future Arctic temperature changes from seven different aerosol emissions scenarios. Globally, Arctic temperature changes calculated from all of these emissions scenarios indicate that present-day emissions from the domestic and transportation sectors generate the majority of present-day Arctic warming from BC. However, in all of these scenarios, this warming is more than offset by cooling resulting from SO2 emissions from the energy sector. Thus, long-term climate mitigation strategies that are focused on reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy sector could generate short-term, aerosol-induced Arctic warming. A properly phased approach that targets BC-rich emissions from the transportation sector as well as the domestic sectors in key regions -- while simultaneously working toward longer-term goals of CO2 mitigation -- could potentially avoid some amount of short-term Arctic warming.

  14. Age constraints for Paleoproterozoic glaciation in the Lake Superior Region: Detrital zircon and hydrothermal xenotime ages for the Chocolay Group, Marquette Range Supergroup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallini, D.A.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A geochronological study of the Chocolay Group at the base of the Paleoproterozoic Marquette Range Supergroup in Michigan, Lake Superior Region, is attempted for the first time, Age data from detrital zircon grains and hydrothermal xenotime from the basal glaciogenic formation, the Enchantment Lake Formation, and the stratigraphically higher Sturgeon Quartzite and its equivalent, the Sunday Quartzite, provide maximum and minimum age constraints for the Chocolay Group. The youngest detrital zircon population in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2317 ?? 6 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2306 ?? 9 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2647 ?? 5 Ma. The oldest hydrothermal xenotime age in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2133 ?? 11 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2115 ?? 5 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2207 ?? 5 Ma. The radiometric age data in this study implies the depositional age of the Chocolay Group is constrained to ???2.3-2.2 Ga, which proves its correlation with part of the Huronian Supergroup in the Lake Huron Region, Ontario, and reveals the unconformity that separates the Chocolay Group from the overlying Menominee Group is up to 325 million years in duration. The source(s) of the ??? 2.3 Ga detrital zircon populations in the Enchantment Lake Formation and Sturgeon Quartzite remains an enigma because no known rock units of this age are known in the Michigan area. It is speculated that once widespread volcano-sedimentary cover sequences in Michigan were removed or concealed prior to Chocolay Group deposition. The hydrothermal xenotime ages probably reflect basinal hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the period of extension involving rifting and major dyke formation, that affected the North American provinces between 2.2 and 2.1 Ga. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  15. Do High Dynamic Range threatments improve the results of Structure from Motion approaches in Geomorphology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Juan de Sanjosé-Blasco, José; Schnabel, Susanne; de Matías-Bejarano, Javier; Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Berenguer-Sempere, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the hypothesis of improving 3D models obtained with Structure from Motion (SfM) approaches using images pre-processed by High Dynamic Range (HDR) techniques is tested. Photographs of the Veleta Rock Glacier in Spain were captured with different exposure values (EV0, EV+1 and EV-1), two focal lengths (35 and 100 mm) and under different weather conditions for the years 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012 and 2014. HDR images were produced using the different EV steps within Fusion F.1 software. Point clouds were generated using commercial and free available SfM software: Agisoft Photoscan and 123D Catch. Models Obtained using pre-processed images and non-preprocessed images were compared in a 3D environment with a benchmark 3D model obtained by means of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). A total of 40 point clouds were produced, georeferenced and compared. Results indicated that for Agisoft Photoscan software differences in the accuracy between models obtained with pre-processed and non-preprocessed images were not significant from a statistical viewpoint. However, in the case of the free available software 123D Catch, models obtained using images pre-processed by HDR techniques presented a higher point density and were more accurate. This tendency was observed along the 5 studied years and under different capture conditions. More work should be done in the near future to corroborate whether the results of similar software packages can be improved by HDR techniques (e.g. ARC3D, Bundler and PMVS2, CMP SfM, Photosynth and VisualSFM).

  16. Aging in Sensory and Motor Neurons Results in Learning Failure in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Kempsell, Andrew T; Fieber, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and molecular mechanisms of age-related memory loss are complicated by the complexity of vertebrate nervous systems. This study takes advantage of a simple neural model to investigate nervous system aging, focusing on changes in learning and memory in the form of behavioral sensitization in vivo and synaptic facilitation in vitro. The effect of aging on the tail withdrawal reflex (TWR) was studied in Aplysia californica at maturity and late in the annual lifecycle. We found that short-term sensitization in TWR was absent in aged Aplysia. This implied that the neuronal machinery governing nonassociative learning was compromised during aging. Synaptic plasticity in the form of short-term facilitation between tail sensory and motor neurons decreased during aging whether the sensitizing stimulus was tail shock or the heterosynaptic modulator serotonin (5-HT). Together, these results suggest that the cellular mechanisms governing behavioral sensitization are compromised during aging, thereby nearly eliminating sensitization in aged Aplysia. PMID:25970633

  17. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Antarctic Meteorites: Preliminary Results on Terrestrial Ages and Temporal Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlovich, E.; Vogt, S.; Wolf, S. F.; Elmore, D.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1993-07-01

    the production rates for these radionuclides in this group of meteorites to be 18.2 +/- 2.3 and 58 +/- 13 dpm/kg respectively, consistent with production rates cited for falls [8]. Cosmic ray exposure ages using the ^10Be/^21Ne method outlined by Graf et al. [9] substantially agree with ages calculated from noble gases alone. Similar agreements are obtained between cosmic ray exposure ages based solely on noble gases and those calculated using ^26Al/^21Ne [9]. We calculated terrestrial ages using the secular equilibrium distribution for ^36Cl of 22.8 +/- 3.1 dpm/kg [10]. Our results are similar to those seen by Nishiizumi et al. [10], with a few ages ranging up to several hundred thousand years. It is worth noting that the Yamato meteorites measured in the present study, all of which happen to have been collected in the 1979 recovery effort ("Y79"), have a much older terrestrial age distribution (median age of 140 ka) than the Yamato distribution shown in [10]. We find it interesting that our Yamato age distribution is, however, consistent with the distribution of Y79 ages (median age, 110 ka) listed in [10], and that non-Y79 Yamato meteorites (median age in [10], 22 ka) seem to be responsible for a disproportionate number of the youngest Yamato meteorites. This possible collection area phenomenon is under investigation. Preliminary statistical analysis of the results using the preliminary terrestrial ages calculated here, trace-element data [3,4,11], and the methods elucidated in [2] is consistent with the notion that the meteorite flux sampled by the Earth has changed as a function of time. The latest results will be presented in Vail. References: [1] Koeberl C. and Cassidy W. A. (1991) GCA, 55, 3-18. [2] Lipschutz M. E. and Samuels S. M. (1991) GCA, 55, 19-34. [3] Wolf S. F. and Lipschutz M. E. (1992) LPS XXIII, 1545-1546. [4] Dodd R. T. et al. (1993) JGR, submitted. [5] Wetherill G. W. (1986) Nature, 319, 357-358. [6] Schultz L., personal communication. [7

  18. Endovascular stents in children under 1 year of age: acute impact and late results.

    PubMed Central

    Hatai, Y.; Nykanen, D. G.; Williams, W. G.; Freedom, R. M.; Benson, L. N.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To review efficacy and safety of endovascular stent implants in children < 1 year of age with congenital heart lesions. DESIGN--Retrospective study of patients in a tertiary care setting. PATIENTS--26 children (median age of 4.7 months, range 2 days to 1 year) with various vascular obstructive lesions. INTERVENTION--Percutaneous or intraoperative implantation of balloon expandable endovascular stents. RESULTS--Optimal stent placement was obtained in 31 of the 37 deployed implants. Complications resulted primarily from stent malpositioning and one episode of bleeding at a puncture site. Stent implantation in three patients with a restrictive arterial duct allowed for patency and five patients with conduit stenosis had mean (SD) right ventricule to systemic artery pressure ratios falling from 0.99 (0.20) to 0.52 (0.18) (P < 0.05). In 10 patients with pulmonary artery stenosis, the mean vessel diameter increased from 2.8 (0.9) mm to 5.8 (1.4) mm (P << 0.001). No clinical improvement was seen in two patients because of diffuse hypoplasia of the pulmonary vessels. Nine of 10 patients with miscellaneous obstructive lesions improved clinically. Recatheterisation was performed in 19 patients (median 8 months, range 12 days to 28 months) and 11 patients required redilatation (17 stents). CONCLUSIONS--Stent implantation is technically feasible in infants and under specific circumstances may provide an alternative to surgical palliation or avoid reoperation. The long term impact on clinical course, however, involves further interventions directed at stent management. Images PMID:8541180

  19. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; W.G. Ernst; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  20. Results from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program: Their use in inspection activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Taylor, J. )

    1990-09-01

    The US NCR's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has determined the susceptibility to aging of components and systems, and the potential for aging to impact plant safety and availability. The NPAR Program also identified methods for detecting and mitigating aging in components. This report describes the NPAR results which can enhance NRC inspection activities. Recommendations are provided for communicating pertinent information to NRC inspectors. These recommendations are based on a detailed assessment of the NRC's Inspection Program, and feedback from resident and regional inspectors as described within. Examples of NPAR report summaries and aging inspection guides for components and systems are included. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. The Yellowstone 'hot spot' track results from migrating Basin Range extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulger, G. R.; Christiansen, R. L.; Anderson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Whether Columbia River Basalts, eastern Snake River Plain and Yellowstone volcanism is related to a mantle plume or plate tectonic processes is a long-standing controversy. There are numerous geological mismatches with the plume model, and logical flaws, including the use of arguments for a deep-mantle origin to support upper-mantle plume models. The sweeping of the USArray seismic network across the continent has recently yielded abundant new seismological results but despite this, the most sophisticated seismic experiment ever staged having targeted the Yellowstone region, seismic analyses have still not resolved the disparity of opinion. This suggests that seismology is fundamentally unable to resolve the plume question for Yellowstone and likely elsewhere. USArray data, have, however, inspired many new models that relate western USA volcanism to shallow mantle convection associated with evolution of the subduction zone to the west. These models assume, however, that all that is required for surface volcanism is melt in the mantle and that the lithosphere is essentially passive. We propose a pure Plate model in which melt is commonplace in the mantle, and its tendency to rise is not the cause of surface eruptions. Instead, it is extension of the lithosphere that permits melt to rise. Eruptions occur where there is extension and not simply where there is melt. The time-progressive chain of rhyolitic calderas in the eastern Snake River Plain-Yellowstone zone formed in response to systematic eastward migration of the axis of most intense Basin Range extension since the province formed at ~ 16 Ma. Rhyolitic volcanism followed migration of the locus of most rapid extension, not vice versa. This model does not depend on seismology to test it, but can be investigated using surface geological observations.

  2. Long-term aging of cast stainless steels: Mechanisms and resulting properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

    1987-09-01

    Mechanical property data are presented from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 450, 400, 350, 320, and 290/sup 0/C. The results indicate that thermal aging increases the tensile strength and decreases the impactenergy, J/sub IC/ and tearing modulus of the steels. Also, the ductile-to-brittle transition curve shifts to higher temperatures. The low-carbon CF-3 steels were the most resistant and the molybdenum-containing high-carbon CF-8M steels were the most susceptible to low-temperature embrittlement. The influence of nitrogen content and distribution of ferrite on loss of toughness are discussed. Data also indicate that existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 280 to 450/sup 0/C, i.e., extrapolation of high-temperature data to reactor temperatures may not be valid for some compositions of cast stainless steels. 13 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The problem of the age and structural position of the Blyb metamorphic complex (Fore Range zone, Great Caucasus) granitoids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamzolkin, Vladimir; Latyshev, Anton; Ivanov, Stanislav

    2016-04-01

    The Blyb metamorphic complex (BMC) of the Fore Range zone is one of the most high-grade metamorphosed element of the Great Caucasus fold belt. Determination of the timing and the mechanism of formation of the Fore Range fold-thrust structures are not possible without investigation of the BMC located at the basement of its section. At the same time, the conceptions about its structure and age are outdated and need revision. Somin (2011) determined the age of the protolith and metamorphism of the Blyb complex as the Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous. We have recently shown that the BMC has not the dome, as previously thought, but nappe structure (Vidjapin, Kamzolkin, 2015), and is metamorphically coherent with the peak metamorphism pressures up to 22 kbar (Kamzolkin et al., 2015; Konilov et al., 2013). Considering the age and structure of the Blyb complex it is necessary to revise the age of granitoid intrusions and their relations with gneisses and schists, which constitute the main part of the section of the complex. Most authors (Gamkrelidze, Shengelia, 2007; Lavrischev, 2002; Baranov, 1967) adheres to Early Paleozoic age of intrusives, which is doubtful, considering the younger age of metamorphic rocks. We suppose, that the intrusive bodies broke through a BMC nappe structure during the exhumation of the complex (Perchuk, 1991) at the Devonian - Carboniferous boundary. Seemingly, the massive monzodiorites body (Lavrischev, 2002), intruding garnet-muscovite schists and amphibolite gneisses of the Blyb complex and cut by the Main Caucasian fault (MCF), are younger. Given the timing of termination of the MCF movement activity as the Middle Jurassic (Greater Caucasus..., 2005), their age should be in the Early Carboniferous - Middle Jurassic interval. At the same time, on the modern geological map (Lavrischev, 2002) monzodiorites body is assigned to the Middle Paleozoic. The study of the BMC granitoids and monzodiorites will help in determining of the mechanism and

  4. Total Testosterone and Calculated Estimates for Free and Bioavailable Testosterone: Influence of Age and Body Mass Index and Establishment of Sex-Specific Reference Ranges.

    PubMed

    Deutschbein, T; Mann, K; Petersenn, S

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of sex steroids is required to evaluate gonadal function, but normative data are lacking (especially for estimates of physiologically active testosterone). Using modern immunoassays, this study established sex-specific reference ranges (2.5% and 97.5% percentiles) for total testosterone (TOT), bioactive testosterone Vermeulen (BTV), free androgen index (FAI), free testosterone Sartorius (FTS), free testosterone Vermeulen (FTV), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). In the comparative study, subjects were grouped by age (18-30; 31-50; >50 years), BMI (<25; 25-30; >30 kg/m(2)), and sex. Study participants were selected in such a way that each group comprised 12 subjects (e.g., 12 males between 18 and 30 years with a BMI of <25 kg/m(2), and so on), resulting in a total of 216 controls (108 males, 108 females; age: 40.3 ± 1.0; BMI: 27.8 ± 0.4). Multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed (covariates: age, BMI, sex), and sex-specific reference ranges were applied to 50 males (age: 46.1 ± 2.3; BMI: 27.4 ± 0.7) with suspected hypogonadism. Regression analysis identified the strongest predictor of each parameter apart from sex, resulting in age-specific (males: FAI, SHBG, BTV, FTV; females: TOT, FTS, SHBG), BMI-specific (males: TOT, FTS; females: FAI, BTV, FTV) and overall cutoffs for both sexes. In male patients, overall agreement between the results derived from the estimates (i.e., BTV, FTS, FTV) was high (with discordant results in only 4%). In summary, if both the endocrine workup and the clinical presentation were taken into account, the newly established reference ranges allowed reliable identification of hypogonadal males. PMID:25565093

  5. Birth characteristics and age at menarche: results from the dietary intervention study in children (DISC)

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Rovine, Michael J.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are individually associated with age at menarche. Methods Analyses were conducted using data from n = 278 female participants in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC). Age at menarche was prospectively collected as part of the original DISC investigation. DISC participants self-reported birth weight, birth length, and gestational age with assistance from their mothers and other records as part of the DISC06 Follow-up Study at ages 25–29. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of birth characteristics and age at menarche. Results Birth weight was positively associated with age at menarche (p ≤ 0.01) in multiple regression analyses after controlling for BMI-for-age percentile, race and DISC treatment group. No statistically significant relationships were detected between either length or gestational age and age at menarche. Conclusions Higher birth weight may be associated with a modest delay in age at menarche. PMID:20495859

  6. Evaluation of the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over☆

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; Santos, Pedro Doenux; Checchia, Sergio Luiz; Cohen, Carina; Giora, Taís Stedile Busin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over. Methods Between 1998 and 2009, 168 patients underwent operations. Five cases were excluded. The remaining 163 patients were stratified according to their age group: 65–69 years (49.1%), 70–74 (26.4%) and 75 years and over (24.5%). Their mean age was 71 years (range: 65–83). There were 63 male patients (38.7%). The mean length of time with pain, from the onset of symptoms to the surgery, was 23 months (range: 2 days to 240 months). Sixty-two patients (38%) reported histories of trauma and 26 (16%) reported that their pain worsened through exertion. Results From the UCLA criteria, 80.4% of the results were excellent, 16% good, 1.8% fair and 1.8% poor. Complications occurred in 11%. The final clinical result did not show any correlation with age progression, injury size or tendons affected. However, there was a significant association (p < 0.001) between the presence of trauma and larger injuries. The length of time between the onset of symptoms and the surgical procedure had a significant relationship (p < 0.027) with the postoperative results: the longer this time was, the worse the results were. Conclusion Arthroscopic treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over presented excellent and good results in 96.4% of the cases, according to the UCLA assessment, with a low complication rate. Advanced age did not show any influence on the postoperative clinical evolution, but the earlier the surgical treatment was instituted, the better the results were. PMID:26229935

  7. Mathematical results new and revisited on the distribution of groundwater age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginn, T. R.; Massoudieh, A.; Foglia, L.

    2009-12-01

    The equation governing the distribution of groundwater age under transient, 3D flow conditions is analyzed under several simplifying cases to illustrate some relations among groundwater age equations and some results about steady-state and transient age distributions. First linkages are made among the various groundwater age equations recently published, showing them all to be different simplifications of the same equation. The most basic analysis in 1D shows that groundwater age is at lease inverse-Gaussian distributed. More generally, steady state age moments, when they exist, are given by breakthrough curve moments and this allows us to use the temporal moment results from the solute transport literature as steady state age moments. In particular, age moment equations with arbitrary diffusive mass transfer (two-domain, radial microscopic, powerlaw) at steady state are already available as the temporal flux moment equations for solute transport under analogous boundary conditions. Lastly transient simulations of age in 1D are calculated to illustrate several aspects of the evolution of groundwater age distributions in time in the presences of multidomain diffusive transport.

  8. A programmable acoustic recording tag and first results from free-ranging northern elephant seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, W. C.; Tyack, P. L.; Le Boeuf, B. J.; Costa, D. P.

    A hydrophone-equipped tag recorded exposure to noise, as well as physiological and behavioral sounds, on free-ranging northern elephant seals ( Mirounga angustirostris). The compact acoustic probe (CAP) consisted of the hydrophone, a thermistor, and a pressure transducer in a 36 cm long, 10 cm diameter cylindrical hydrodynamic housing capable of withstanding 2000 m depth. The enclosed logging electronics included a programmable "TattleTale 7" data acquisition engine and a 340 Mb hard disk. A custom low-power operating system supported multi-channel interrupt-driven sampling at 5 kHz. The complete tag weighed 0.9 kg in water and displaced 2.1 l. During five deployments on juveniles translocated from and returning to Año Nuevo, California, CAP tags measured dive pattern, ambient and vessel noise exposure, oceanographic ranging (RAFOS) and thermometry (ATOC) beacons, acoustic signatures of swim stroke, surface respiration, and cardiac function, and possible vocalizations.

  9. Some results on the ageing of wire chambers with dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibaly, Mohammed; Chrusch, Peter; Hilgenberg, Gregory; Majewski, Stan; Wojcik, Randolph; Weintraub, Randy; Sauli, Fabio

    1988-12-01

    Ageing results of three test wire detectors when filled with dimethyl ether (DME) are presented. DME gas was analyzed before and during the tests for the presence of electronegative impurities, such as Freons. A strong dependence of the rate of ageing on the wire composition was observed. The resistive wires, such as Stablohm and Nicotin, produced fast ageing. Also, even the best available purified DME, as of today, used with gold-plated wires, produced some slow ageing. The rate of amplitude decrease depended on the Freon impurity level.

  10. Preparing Corrections Staff for the Future: Results of a 2-Day Training About Aging Inmates.

    PubMed

    Masters, Julie L; Magnuson, Thomas M; Bayer, Barbara L; Potter, Jane F; Falkowski, Paul P

    2016-04-01

    The aging of the prison population presents corrections staff with unique challenges in knowing how to support inmates while maintaining security. This article describes a 2-day training program to introduce the aging process to select staff at all levels. While the results of a pre-posttest measure, using a modified version of Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz, did not produce a statistically significant difference at the conclusion of the training, attendees did express satisfaction with the training and their newfound insight into the challenges faced by aging inmates. They also offered recommendations for future training to include more practical suggestions for the work environment. PMID:26984135

  11. Laboratory test results of the high speed optical tracking system for the Spaceborne Geodynamic Ranging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; White, David L.

    1987-02-01

    The high speed, high resolution optical tracking system for the Spaceborne Geodynamic Ranging System employs a two-axis gimbaled pointing device that can operate from a Space Shuttle platform and can track multiple retroreflector ground targets with arcsec accuracy. Laboratory tests of the stepping characteristics of the pointing system for various step sizes and directions has shown arcsec repeatability with little wasted motion, overshoot, or ringing. The worst rms tracking jitter was 1 and 2 arcsec in the roll and pitch axes, respectively, at the maximum tracking rate of 2 deg/sec.

  12. Laboratory test results of the high speed optical tracking system for the Spaceborne Geodynamic Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    The high speed, high resolution optical tracking system for the Spaceborne Geodynamic Ranging System employs a two-axis gimbaled pointing device that can operate from a Space Shuttle platform and can track multiple retroreflector ground targets with arcsec accuracy. Laboratory tests of the stepping characteristics of the pointing system for various step sizes and directions has shown arcsec repeatability with little wasted motion, overshoot, or ringing. The worst rms tracking jitter was 1 and 2 arcsec in the roll and pitch axes, respectively, at the maximum tracking rate of 2 deg/sec.

  13. The Crab pulsar light curve in the soft gamma ray range: FIGARO II results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massaro, E.; Agrinier, B.; Barouch, E.; Comte, R.; Costa, E.; Cusumano, G. C.; Gerardi, G.; Lemoine, D.; Mandrou, P.; Masnou, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    The FIGARO II experiment (a large area, balloon borne, crystal scintillator detector working from 0.15 to 4.3 MeV) observed the Crab pulsar on 1990 Jul. 9 for about seven hours. The study of the pulse profile confirms some structures detected with a low significance during the shorter observation of 1986, and adds new important elements to the picture. In particular, between the two main peaks, two secondary peaks appear centered at phase values 0.1 and 0.3, in the energy range 0.38 to 0.49 MeV; in the same energy range, a spectral feature at 0.44 MeV, interpreted as a redshifted positron annihilation line, was observed during the same balloon flight in the phase interval including the second main peak and the neighboring secondary peak. If the phase interval considered is extended to include also the other secondary peak, the significance of the spectral line appears to increase.

  14. Estimation of geopotential from satellite-to-satellite range rate data: Numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thobe, Glenn E.; Bose, Sam C.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for high-resolution geopotential field estimation by recovering the harmonic coefficients from satellite-to-satellite range rate data is presented and tested against both a controlled analytical simulation of a one-day satellite mission (maximum degree and order 8) and then against a Cowell method simulation of a 32-day mission (maximum degree and order 180). Innovations include: (1) a new frequency-domain observation equation based on kinetic energy perturbations which avoids much of the complication of the usual Keplerian element perturbation approaches; (2) a new method for computing the normalized inclination functions which unlike previous methods is both efficient and numerically stable even for large harmonic degrees and orders; (3) the application of a mass storage FFT to the entire mission range rate history; (4) the exploitation of newly discovered symmetries in the block diagonal observation matrix which reduce each block to the product of (a) a real diagonal matrix factor, (b) a real trapezoidal factor with half the number of rows as before, and (c) a complex diagonal factor; (5) a block-by-block least-squares solution of the observation equation by means of a custom-designed Givens orthogonal rotation method which is both numerically stable and tailored to the trapezoidal matrix structure for fast execution.

  15. Ageing does not result in a decline in cell synthetic activity in an injury prone tendon.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, C T; McDermott, B T; Goodship, A E; Clegg, P D; Birch, H L

    2016-06-01

    Advancing age is a well-known risk factor for tendon disease. Energy-storing tendons [e.g., human Achilles, equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT)] are particularly vulnerable and it is thought that injury occurs following an accumulation of micro-damage in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Several authors suggest that age-related micro-damage accumulates due to a failure of the aging cell population to maintain the ECM or an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic pathways. We hypothesized that ageing results in a decreased ability of tendon cells to synthesize matrix components and matrix-degrading enzymes, resulting in a reduced turnover of the ECM and a decreased ability to repair micro-damage. The SDFT was collected from horses aged 3-30 years with no signs of tendon injury. Cell synthetic and degradative ability was assessed at the mRNA and protein levels. Telomere length was measured as an additional marker of cell ageing. There was no decrease in cellularity or relative telomere length with increasing age, and no decline in mRNA or protein levels for matrix proteins or degradative enzymes. The results suggest that the mechanism for age-related tendon deterioration is not due to reduced cellularity or a loss of synthetic functionality and that alternative mechanisms should be considered. PMID:26058332

  16. Reproductive patterns result from age-related sensitivity to resources and reproductive costs in a mammalian carnivore.

    PubMed

    Rauset, Geir Rune; Low, Matthew; Persson, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects of individual age, resource availability, and reproductive costs have been extensively studied to understand the causes of variation in reproductive output, there are almost no studies showing how these factors interact in explaining this variation. To examine this interaction, we used longitudinal demographic data from an 18-year study of 53 breeding female wolverines (Gulo gulo), and corresponding environmental data from their individual home ranges. Females showed a typical age-related pattern in reproductive output, with an initial increase followed by a senescent decline in later years. This pattern was largely driven by four processes: (1) physiological/behavioral maturation between ages two and three; (2) age-related differences in the costs of reproduction resulting in an initial increase, and then a declining probability of breeding two years in a row as individuals aged; (3) resource availability (reindeer [Rangifer tarandus] carcass abundance; mostly Eurasian lynx [Lynx lynx] kills) in the months preceding parturition, which influenced the probability of having cubs, but only for individuals that had successfully bred in the previous year; and (4) resource availability also influenced the cost of reproduction in an age-dependent manner, as prime age females that had bred in the previous year were more responsive to resource availability than those at other ages. This study demonstrates that by examining how drivers of reproductive variation interact, we can get a much clearer understanding of the mechanisms responsible for age-related patterns of reproduction. This has implications not only for general ecological theory, but will also allow better predictions of population resnonses to environmental changes or management based on a population's age-structure. PMID:26909422

  17. Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test Result Is Associated with Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Newberry, Carolyn; Tierney, Ann; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and structural/functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. SIBO's association with clinical characteristics is unclear. This study investigates the association between clinical factors and SIBO according to lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) result. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a university-based gastroenterology practice was performed. Data was abstracted from the medical records of subjects undergoing LHBT from 6/1/2009 to 6/1/2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between predictor variables: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and positive LHBT, the outcome of interest. Results. LHBT was performed in 791 subjects. Fifty-four percent had a positive LHBT. There was no statistically significant difference between the LHBT results according to age or BMI. In females, the likelihood of a positive LHBT increased with age (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01–1.03). In males, the likelihood of a positive LHBT result decreased with age (OR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97–1.00). Conclusion. There was an association between age, with respect to sex, and a positive LHBT. With increased age in females, the odds of a positive LHBT increased, while, in men, the odds of a positive LHBT decreased with age. PMID:27073800

  18. Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test Result Is Associated with Age and Gender.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Carolyn; Tierney, Ann; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and structural/functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. SIBO's association with clinical characteristics is unclear. This study investigates the association between clinical factors and SIBO according to lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) result. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a university-based gastroenterology practice was performed. Data was abstracted from the medical records of subjects undergoing LHBT from 6/1/2009 to 6/1/2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between predictor variables: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and positive LHBT, the outcome of interest. Results. LHBT was performed in 791 subjects. Fifty-four percent had a positive LHBT. There was no statistically significant difference between the LHBT results according to age or BMI. In females, the likelihood of a positive LHBT increased with age (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.03). In males, the likelihood of a positive LHBT result decreased with age (OR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-1.00). Conclusion. There was an association between age, with respect to sex, and a positive LHBT. With increased age in females, the odds of a positive LHBT increased, while, in men, the odds of a positive LHBT decreased with age. PMID:27073800

  19. [Living the aging in Senegal Perceptions/representations and coping strategies of persons of age three: results of investigations retrospective].

    PubMed

    Kâ, Ousseynou; Faye, Atoumane; Mbaye, El Hadji; Tall, Alioune Badara; Gaye, Awa; Sow, Papa Gallo; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane

    2016-03-01

    In Senegal, due to the young age of the population (60%) the concerns of the old tend to be put in the background. And yet, problems related to old age are a reality. These problems come up not in terms of demography (the old represent only 4.7% of the population), but in terms of the breaking-up of the social fabric, urbanization and the dismantling of the solidarity and poverty networks. This work is based on a collection of qualitative data from three studies conducted between 2008 and 2011 with the elderly to assess their real- life experiences, their perception of aging, their challenges and coping strategies. The results showed a transformation in the role and status of the old; this transformation being caused by social and society-related mutations. As a result, the inter-generation solidarity links have much loosened in the urban areas making the old people more vulnerable (in economic, social, health terms), especially those in charge of a family. The situation has been made worse by the unemployment affecting their offspring. In addition, the old people, who are often suffering from chronic diseases, find it hard to take charge of their medical expenses, despite the institution of the National Sesame Health Plan for the old or free health care policy. This has made them even more vulnerable. Yet before this precarious situation, the elderly develop strategies to cope with difficulties. Some recommendations have been made with a view to improving their lives and socioeconomic condition. PMID:26852947

  20. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players

    PubMed Central

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78±0.41 for youth players aka “schools”, “elite juniors” 15.99±0.81 and “elite adults” 24.46±2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation’s parameters between “schools” and “juniors” players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between “juniors” and “adults” players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between “schools” and “juniors” and, in total work only, between “juniors” and “seniors”. The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17±1.83 sec to 31.23±2.34 sec respectively from “seniors” to “schools”. The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation

  1. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    PubMed

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling was found

  2. CARTEL: A method to calibrate S-band ranges with geostationary satellites. Results of orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitart, A.; Mesnard, B.

    1986-05-01

    A satellite tracking campaign was organized, with 4 S-band stations, for 1 wk. The relative geometry of the network with respect to the satellites was an opportunity to show how the most precise orbit can be computed with the operational software. This precise orbit served as a reference to evaluate what can be achieved with one station with range and angular measurements, a typical configuration used for stationkeeping of geostationary satellites. Orbit computation implied numerical integration with gravitational (Earth, Moon, and Sun) and solar radiation pressure forces acting on the satellite. Arc lengths of 2 days gave initial state vectors which were compared every day. Precision of 10 m is achieved. However, an analysis of the influence of parameters in the orbit computations reveals that the absolute accuracy is of the order of 100 m, since modeling perturbations were neglected in the operational software (e.g., polar motion). In a relative sense, the reference orbit allows estimation of systematic errors for other tracking antennas.

  3. Long range radio tracking of sea turtles and polar bear: Instrumentation and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    Instrumentation developed for studies of path behavior of the green sea turtle and migration movement of polar bear is described. Preliminary results bearing on navigation ability in these species are presented. Both species operate in difficult environments, and the problems faced in the design of electronic instrumentation for these studies are not completely specified at this time. However, the critical factors yet to be understood are primarily related to the behavior of instrumented animals. The data obtained with these experimental techniques are included, first to illustrate the technique and, second to provide initial preliminary results bearing on animal navigation.

  4. Rock size distributions on lava flow surfaces: New results from a range of compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. P.; Anderson, S. W.; Bulmer, M. H.

    2005-12-01

    We measured block sizes along 15-25m orthogonal transects on 12 lava flows of compositions ranging from basalt to rhyolite. At each site, we stretched a line across the flow surface then measured the length of each block cut by this line that were greater than 3-12cm (depending on composition). The measurements from each site were reduced to cumulative size frequency distribution plots, with block size (D) plotted against the fraction of the line f(D) composed of blocks greater than or equal to that size, and fitted with an exponential curve of the form f(D) = k exp(-qD) where k is the intercept and q is the decay parameter. Average block size and geometric mean were also determined for each site. Our data show no clear trends linking average or mean block size to composition, although there does seem to be relationship between block size and the decay parameter. Block size corresponds with the decay parameter at each site except for the basaltic andesite flow at Paint Pot Crater (CA). Many sites at this flow were covered with secondary spatter deposits. Largest blocks and smallest decay parameters were found for the andesite flows at Sabancaya (Peru), while the basalt flows at Cima (CA) exhibited the smallest blocks and largest decay parameters. The second largest block sizes occurred at the four Inyo domes composed of both crystal-rich and glassy rhyolite, and these domes also showed the second smallest decay parameters. All four of the Inyo domes were emplaced along the same feeder dike trend, and the average and mean sizes and decay parameters at these domes are nearly identical, suggesting that composition, extrusion rate, or eruption history controls the block size distributions. However, values for the two andesitic flows, Mt. Shasta (CA) and Sabancaya, were very different, suggesting that extrusion rate and/or eruption history exert a stronger control over the block size distributions than does composition. LIDAR data sets are capable of detecting sub

  5. Ovarian cycle activity varies with respect to age and social status in free-ranging elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Elizabeth W.; Meyer, Jordana M.; Putman, Sarah B.; Schulte, Bruce A.; Brown, Janine L.

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging African elephants live in a fission–fusion society, at the centre of which is the matriarch. Matriarchs are generally older females that guide their families to resources and co-ordinate group defense. While much is known about elephant society, knowledge is generally lacking about how age affects the physiology of wild elephants. Investigation of the ovarian activity of free-ranging elephants could provide insight into the reproductive ageing process, with implications for population management. Faecal samples were collected from 46 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 60 years for a 2-year period, and progestagen metabolite analyses were used to examine relationships between social status, age, season, and ovarian activity in female elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Social status was the strongest predictor of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in non-pregnant elephants, with grand matriarchs (n = 6) having the lowest values compared with matriarchs (n = 21) and non-matriarch females (n = 19). Likewise, social status and age were the strongest predictors of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in pregnant elephants (n = 27). The number of years since a non-pregnant female gave birth to her last calf (post-partum duration) was longer for older females with a higher social status, as well as during the dry season. Our results indicate that social standing and age of elephants are related to reproductive function, and that older females exhibit reductions in ovarian capacity. These results expand our understanding of reproduction and fertility throughout an elephant's lifespan, and the factors that impact gonadal function in free-ranging females. Given that possible over-abundance of elephants in areas such as Addo Elephant National Park is fuelling the debate over how best to manage these populations, knowledge about the reproductive potential of high-ranking females can provide managers with

  6. An expanded age range for meningococcal meningitis: molecular diagnostic evidence from population-based surveillance in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To understand epidemiologic patterns of meningococcal disease in Asia, we performed a retrospective molecular analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens collected in prospective surveillance among children aged < 5 years of age in China, South Korea, and Vietnam. Methods A total of 295 isolates and 2,302 CSFs were tested by a meningococcal species- and serogroup-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) ctrA gene. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed in Nm gene amplification analysis and incidence rates for meningococcal meningitis were estimated. Results Among 295 isolates tested, 10 specimens from Vietnam were confirmed as serogroup B and all were Sequence Type (ST) 1576 by MLST. Among the 2,032 CSF specimen tested, 284 (14%) were confirmed by PCR (ctrA gene), including 67 (23.6%) from China, 92 (32.4%) from Korea, and 125 (44.0%) from Vietnam. Neonates and infants aged < 6 months of age accounted for more than 50% of Nm-PCR positive CSF. Two CSF specimens from Vietnam were identified as serogroup B using MLST. In addition, 44 specimens underwent sequencing to confirm meningococcal serogroup; of these, 21 (48%) were serogroup C, 12 (27%) were serogroup X, 9 (20%) were serogroup Y and 2 (5%) were serogroup B. The incidence rates of meningococcal meningitis among children < 5 years of age was highest in Vietnam (7.4/100,000 [95% CI, 3.6—15.3] followed by Korea (6.8/100,000 [95% CI, 3.5-13.5] and China (2.1/100,000) [95% CI, 0.7-6.2]). Conclusions These results suggest that there is a previously undetected, yet substantial burden of meningococcal meningitis among infants and young children. Standardized, sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic assays with Nm serogrouping capacity are needed throughout Asia to understand the true burden of N. meningitidis disease. PMID:23164061

  7. Stability and Change in Intelligence from Age 12 to Age 52: Results from the Luxembourg MAGRIP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalke, Daniela; Brunner, Martin; Geiser, Christian; Preckel, Franzis; Keller, Ulrich; Spengler, Marion; Martin, Romain

    2013-01-01

    The present longitudinal study tackled 2 key aspects of the development of intelligence across a 40-year time period from age 12 to age 52 concerning (a) stability and change in the structure of intelligence with reference to the age differentiation-dedifferentiation hypothesis (how different cognitive abilities relate to each other across age)…

  8. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic. PMID:24752758

  9. Preliminary results from the White Sands Missile Range sonic boom propagation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.; Devilbiss, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Sonic boom bow shock amplitude and rise time statistics from a recent sonic boom propagation experiment are presented. Distributions of bow shock overpressure and rise time measured under different atmospheric turbulence conditions for the same test aircraft are quite different. The peak overpressure distributions are skewed positively, indicating a tendency for positive deviations from the mean to be larger than negative deviations. Standard deviations of overpressure distributions measured under moderate turbulence were 40 percent larger than those measured under low turbulence. As turbulence increased, the difference between the median and the mean increased, indicating increased positive overpressure deviations. The effect of turbulence was more readily seen in the rise time distributions. Under moderate turbulence conditions, the rise time distribution means were larger by a factor of 4 and the standard deviations were larger by a factor of 3 from the low turbulence values. These distribution changes resulted in a transition from a peaked appearance of the rise time distribution for the morning to a flattened appearance for the afternoon rise time distributions. The sonic boom propagation experiment consisted of flying three types of aircraft supersonically over a ground-based microphone array with concurrent measurements of turbulence and other meteorological data. The test aircraft were a T-38, an F-15, and an F-111, and they were flown at speeds of Mach 1.2 to 1.3, 30,000 feet above a 16 element, linear microphone array with an inter-element spacing of 200 ft. In two weeks of testing, 57 supersonic passes of the test aircraft were flown from early morning to late afternoon.

  10. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice. PMID:22317517

  11. Age group estimation in free-ranging African elephants based on acoustic cues of low-frequency rumbles

    PubMed Central

    Stoeger, Angela S.; Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Baotic, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Animal vocal signals are increasingly used to monitor wildlife populations and to obtain estimates of species occurrence and abundance. In the future, acoustic monitoring should function not only to detect animals, but also to extract detailed information about populations by discriminating sexes, age groups, social or kin groups, and potentially individuals. Here we show that it is possible to estimate age groups of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) based on acoustic parameters extracted from rumbles recorded under field conditions in a National Park in South Africa. Statistical models reached up to 70 % correct classification to four age groups (infants, calves, juveniles, adults) and 95 % correct classification when categorising into two groups (infants/calves lumped into one group versus adults). The models revealed that parameters representing absolute frequency values have the most discriminative power. Comparable classification results were obtained by fully automated classification of rumbles by high-dimensional features that represent the entire spectral envelope, such as MFCC (75 % correct classification) and GFCC (74 % correct classification). The reported results and methods provide the scientific foundation for a future system that could potentially automatically estimate the demography of an acoustically monitored elephant group or population. PMID:25821348

  12. Measurement of vortex velocities over a wide range of vortex age, downstream distance and free stream velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorke, J. B.; Moffett, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to obtain vortex velocity signatures over a wide parameter range encompassing the data conditions of several previous researchers while maintaining a common instrumentation and test facility. The generating wing panel was configured with both a revolved airfoil tip shape and a square tip shape and had a semispan aspect of 4.05/1.0 with a 121.9 cm span. Free stream velocity was varied from 6.1 m/sec to 76.2 m/sec and the vortex core velocities were measured at locations 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 chordlengths downstream of the wing trailing edge, yielding vortex ages up to 2.0 seconds. Wing pitch angles of 6, 8, 9 and 12 deg were investigated. Detailed surface pressure distributions and wing force measurements were obtained for each wing tip configuration. Correlation with vortex velocity data taken in previous experiments is good. During the rollup process, vortex core parameters appear to be dependent primarily on vortex age. Trending in the plateau and decay regions is more complex and the machanisms appear to be more unstable.

  13. Factors associated with hospitalization risk among community living middle aged and older persons: Results from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA).

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Jenny; Fransson, Eleonor I; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe and compare individual characteristics of hospitalized and not hospitalized community living persons, and (2) to determine factors that are associated with hospitalization risk over time. We conducted a prospective study with a multifactorial approach based on the population-based longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). A total of 772 Swedes (mean age at baseline 69.7 years, range 46-103, 59.8% females) answered a postal questionnaire about physical and psychological health, personality and socioeconomic factors. During nine years of follow-up, information on hospitalizations and associated diagnoses were obtained from national registers. Results show that 484 persons (63%) had at least one hospital admission during the follow-up period. The most common causes of admission were cardiovascular diseases (25%) and tumors (22%). Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age, sex and dependency within twin pairs, showed that higher age (HR=1.02, p<0.001) and more support from relatives (HR=1.09, p=0.028) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization, while marital status (unmarried (HR=0.75, p=0.033) and widow/widower (HR=0.69, p<0.001)) and support from friends (HR=0.93, p=0.029) were associated with lower risk of hospitalization. Social factors were important for hospitalization risk even when medical factors were controlled for in the analyses. Number of diseases was not a risk in the final regression model. Hospitalization risk was also different for women and men and within different age groups. We believe that these results might be used in future interventions targeting health care utilization. PMID:27281475

  14. The effect of range of motion exercises on delirium prevention among patients aged 65 and over in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Canan; Ozdemir, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of range of motion exercises on preventing delirium and shortening the duration of delirium among patients in the intensive care unit who are aged 65 and over. The study was conducted in the intensive care unit on patients with non-invasive mechanical ventilation. The sample size included 47 patients from the intervention group and 47 from the control group. The incidence of delirium was 8.5% in the intervention group and 21.3% in the control group. The duration of delirium was 15 h for patients in the intervention group and 38 h for those in the control group. Although delirium incidence and duration decreased by 2.5-fold in the intervention group compared to the control group; there was no significant relationship between the intervention and control groups. In conclusion, as the decreases in delirium occurrence and duration were not statistically significant, the effect of range of motion exercises was limited. PMID:26763172

  15. Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 132

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The data reveal significant age-related differences in proficiencies, strongly suggesting that proficiency tends to "naturally" decline with age. Age…

  16. Chinese Bone Turnover Marker Study: Reference Ranges for C-Terminal Telopeptide of Type I Collagen and Procollagen I N-Terminal Peptide by Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Li, Yan; Deng, Weimin; Zhang, Zhenlin; Deng, Zhongliang; Hu, Yingying; Xia, Weibo; Xu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone formation marker procollagen I N-terminal peptide (PINP) and resorption marker C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) are useful biomarkers for differential diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation of osteoporosis, but reference values are required. Methods The multi-center, cross-sectional Chinese Bone Turnover Marker Study included 3800 healthy volunteers in 5 Chinese cities. Serum PINP, β-CTX, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25OHD levels were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum PINP and β-CTX levels were assessed by age, gender, weight, recruitment latitude, levels of PTH and 25OHD. Results Subjects (n = 1436, M∶F, 500∶936; mean age 50.6±19.6 years) exhibited non-normally distributed PINP and β-CTX peaking between 15–19 years, gradually declining throughout adulthood, elevating within 10 years of postmenopause, and then declining by age 70. In women between the age of 30 and menopause, median PINP and β-CTX levels were 40.42 (95% CI: 17.10–102.15) and 0.26 (95% CI: 0.08–0.72) ng/mL, respectively. β-CTX and PINP were positively linearly correlated (r = 0.599, P<0.001). β-CTX correlated positively (r = 0.054 and 0.093) and PINP correlated negatively (r = −0.012 and −0.053) with 25OHD and PTH (P<0.05). Conclusions We established Chinese reference ranges for PINP and CTX. Chinese individuals exhibited high serum PINP and β-CTX levels between 15 and 19 years of age and at menopause, which gradually declined after 70 years of age. PMID:25117452

  17. Late glacial 10Be ages for glacial landforms in the upper region of the Taibai glaciation in the Qinling Mountain range, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Liang; Chen, Yixin; Liu, Beibei; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Cui, Zhijiu; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Glacial landforms are well preserved on Taibai Mountain (3767 m), the main peak of the Qinling mountain range located south of the Loess Plateau and east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The timing and extent of Quaternary glaciation in the study area is important for reconstructing Quaternary environmental change however numerical ages for glaciation in this study area have not previously been well resolved. Using terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides we dated four samples collected from two glacially eroded rock steps in the upper part of a valley near the main peak, in an area previously identified as having been occupied by ice during the Taibai glaciation. The 10Be results are all late glacial in age: 18.6 ± 1.1 ka, 16.9 ± 1.0 ka, 16.9 ± 1.1 ka and 15.1 ± 1.0 ka. The spatial pattern of ages in the valley suggests fast retreat, with horizontal and vertical retreat rates estimated to be on the order of 0.4 and 0.09 m a-1, respectively. A simple extrapolation of these retreat rates from the ages at the two sample sites suggests that the glacier retreat began during Last Glacial Maximum and that glaciers disappeared from the main peak by about 15 ka.

  18. POPULATION PARAMETERS OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. III. DYNAMICAL EVIDENCE FOR A RANGE OF AGES BEING RESPONSIBLE FOR EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS

    SciTech Connect

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Puzia, Thomas H.; Chandar, Rupali E-mail: verap@stsci.edu E-mail: rupali.chandar@utoledo.edu

    2011-08-10

    We present a new analysis of 11 intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. Seven of the clusters feature main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions that are wider than can be accounted for by a simple stellar population, whereas their red giant branches (RGBs) indicate a single value of [Fe/H]. The star clusters cover a range in present-day mass from about 1 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun} to 2 x 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}. We compare radial distributions of stars in the upper and lower parts of the MSTO region, and calculate cluster masses and escape velocities from the present time back to a cluster age of 10 Myr. Our main result is that for all clusters in our sample with estimated escape velocities v{sub esc} {approx}> 15 km s{sup -1} at an age of 10 Myr, the stars in the brightest half of the MSTO region are significantly more centrally concentrated than the stars in the faintest half and more massive RGB and asymptotic giant branch stars. This is not the case for clusters with v{sub esc} {approx}< 10 km s{sup -1} at an age of 10 Myr. We argue that the wide MSTO region of such clusters is caused mainly by a {approx}200-500 Myr range in the ages of cluster stars due to extended star formation within the cluster from material shed by first-generation stars featuring slow stellar winds. Dilution of this enriched material by accretion of ambient interstellar matter is deemed plausible if the spread of [Fe/H] in this ambient gas was very small when the second-generation stars were formed in the cluster.

  19. Morphology and Ages of Units on the Floor of Dao Vallis Head, Mars: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korteniemi, J.; Kukkonen, S.; Kostama, V.-P.

    2012-03-01

    Preliminary results of CTX/HiRISE scale geologic mapping and age estimates on the various floor units of Dao Vallis head, Mars. We have identified a complex and distinct feature set from an area previously considered as a single unit.

  20. National School-Age Child Care Alliance (NSACCA): National Survey Results. Draft Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Fern

    Presenting preliminary results of a National School-Age Child Care Alliance study of child care providers, this report is an initial analysis of 250 out of 427 questionnaires received as of April, 1993, representing practitioners in 40 states and 180 cities. Tables present data from responses to 16 items on the questionnaire soliciting information…

  1. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  2. Donor Age and Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss 5 Years after Successful Corneal Transplantation: Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study Results

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether endothelial cell loss 5 years after successful corneal transplantation is related to the age of the donor. Design Multicenter, prospective, double-masked clinical trial. Participants Three hundred forty-seven subjects participating in the Cornea Donor Study who had not experienced graft failure 5 years after corneal transplantation for a moderate-risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema). Testing Specular microscopic images of donor corneas obtained before surgery and postoperatively at 6 months, 12 months, and then annually through 5 years were submitted to a central reading center to measure endothelial cell density (ECD). Main Outcome Measure Endothelial cell density at 5 years. Results At 5 years, there was a substantial decrease in ECD from baseline for all donor ages. Subjects who received a cornea from a donor 12 to 65 years old experienced a median cell loss of 69% in the study eye, resulting in a 5-year median ECD of 824 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 613–1342), whereas subjects who received a cornea from a donor 66 to 75 years old experienced a cell loss of 75%, resulting in a median 5-year ECD of 654 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 538–986) (P [adjusted for baseline ECD] = 0.04). Statistically, there was a weak negative association between ECD and donor age analyzed as a continuous variable (r [adjusted for baseline ECD] = −0.19; 95% confidence interval, −0.29 to −0.08). Conclusions Endothelial cell loss is substantial in the 5 years after corneal transplantation. There is a slight association between cell loss and donor age. This finding emphasizes the importance of longer-term follow-up of this cohort to determine if this relationship affects graft survival. PMID:18387408

  3. Aging of an aluminum alloy resulting from variations in the cooling rate

    SciTech Connect

    Cavazos, J.L.; Colas, R.

    1999-10-01

    The effect that the rate of cooling after solubilization exerts on the aging behavior of an aluminum heat treatable alloy was studied. Bars of the alloy were heated in a box furnace for solubilization, and after this was achieved they were cooled to room temperature by placing one end in a shallow tank of water. Thermal evolution along the bar was registered with the aid of thermocouples connected to a PC-based data logging system. Small samples were cut from the bars and aged for different times and temperatures. Results from microhardness tests indicate that peak hardness, at a given aging temperature, augments with the increase of the cooling rate until a certain value is achieved, above which the hardness remains constant. This feature was found to be due to precipitation taking place at the lower cooling rates.

  4. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Range-Coastal Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    the 70 wells sampled, 3 surface-water samples were collected in streams near 2 of the sampled wells in order to better comprehend the interaction between groundwater and surface water in the area. The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-TCP), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and alkalinity), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate, stable isotopes of sulfur in dissolved sulfate, stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance), and dissolved gases (including noble gases) also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 298 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix-spikes) were collected at approximately 3 to 12 percent of the wells in the SCRC study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples generally were less than 10 percent relative and/or standard deviation, indicating acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 84

  5. Implications of Extending the ADHD Age-of-Onset Criterion to Age 12: Results from a Prospectively Studied Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Kollins, Scott H.; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether including children with onset of symptoms between ages 7 and 12 years in the ADHD diagnostic category would: (a) increase the prevalence of the disorder at age 12, and (b) change the clinical and cognitive features, impairment profile, and risk factors for ADHD compared with findings in the literature based on the…

  6. Childlessness and Psychological Well-Being in Midlife and Old Age: An Examination of Parental Status Effects across a Range of Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas; Slagsvold, Britt; Moum, Torbjorn

    2009-01-01

    The study explores and distinguishes links between parental status (childless persons, parents with residential children, and empty nest parents) and a range of psychological well-being outcomes in midlife and old age. Data are from the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG) study (n = 5,189). We separate outcomes…

  7. Link between Miocene compression of Lower Austroalpine Rust Range and subsidence of neighboring Eisenstadt Basin: Results from high-resolution geophysics at the Oslip section (Northern Burgenland, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, Hermann; Scheibz, Jürgen; Chwatal, Werner; Kohlbeck, Franz

    2014-05-01

    ) During Middle Badenian times shallow-marine Leitha Limestone was deposited along islands and atolls of the crystalline basement, and clastic sedimentation of the Eisenstadt Basin comprised both fine clastic marine and coarse clastic fluvial deposits. 3) Since Leitha Formation on top of the Rust Range is of Middle Badenian age, the base of which is located at an altitude of 200 meter above sea level, and limestone beds equivalent in age crop out at the eastern and western side of the Range at an altitude of 130 meter, we conclude epirogenetic uplift of Rust Range, which took place after Middle Badenian times. 4) The uplifted Rust Range was sealed by deposits of Upper Sarmatian age at its western side near St. Margarethen and at its eastern side north of Oggau. 5) Updoming of the Rust Range of at least 70 meters caused open fold structures in the Lower Miocene succession as measured along the Oslip road-section, openly folded limestone beds of Middle Badenian age east of St. Margarethen (Fuchs, 1965; Sauer et al., 1992) as well as eastward tilted successions of Badenian age, the fault tectonics of which was interpreted as reverse drag associated with deformation bands in the footwall of a normal fault in the Oslip sandpit by Spahić et al. (2011). 6) The exploration well Zillingtal 1 in the western Eisenstadt Basin down to a depth of 1415 m proofed 1150 m thick deposits of Badenian age overlain by approximately 200 m thick deposits of Sarmatian age (Häusler, in press). Consequently subsidence of the Eisenstadt Basin coevalled the short period of updoming and openly folding of the Rust Range during Upper Badenian to Lower Sarmatian times. 7) Ongoing subsidence of the Eisenstadt Basin along the listric fault in front of the uplifted Rust Range until Middle Pannonian times resulted in growth strata dipping to the east and fault drags indicating a hanging-wall syncline. Fuchs, W. (1965): Geologie des Ruster Berglandes (Burgenland). - Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt

  8. Link between Miocene compression of Lower Austroalpine Rust Range and subsidence of neighboring Eisenstadt Basin: Results from high-resolution geophysics at the Oslip section (Northern Burgenland, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, Hermann; Scheibz, Jürgen; Chwatal, Werner; Kohlbeck, Franz

    2014-05-01

    ) During Middle Badenian times shallow-marine Leitha Limestone was deposited along islands and atolls of the crystalline basement, and clastic sedimentation of the Eisenstadt Basin comprised both fine clastic marine and coarse clastic fluvial deposits. 3) Since Leitha Formation on top of the Rust Range is of Middle Badenian age, the base of which is located at an altitude of 200 meter above sea level, and limestone beds equivalent in age crop out at the eastern and western side of the Range at an altitude of 130 meter, we conclude epirogenetic uplift of Rust Range, which took place after Middle Badenian times. 4) The uplifted Rust Range was sealed by deposits of Upper Sarmatian age at its western side near St. Margarethen and at its eastern side north of Oggau. 5) Updoming of the Rust Range of at least 70 meters caused open fold structures in the Lower Miocene succession as measured along the Oslip road-section, openly folded limestone beds of Middle Badenian age east of St. Margarethen (Fuchs, 1965; Sauer et al., 1992) as well as eastward tilted successions of Badenian age, the fault tectonics of which was interpreted as reverse drag associated with deformation bands in the footwall of a normal fault in the Oslip sandpit by Spahić et al. (2011). 6) The exploration well Zillingtal 1 in the western Eisenstadt Basin down to a depth of 1415 m proofed 1150 m thick deposits of Badenian age overlain by approximately 200 m thick deposits of Sarmatian age (Häusler, in press). Consequently subsidence of the Eisenstadt Basin coevalled the short period of updoming and openly folding of the Rust Range during Upper Badenian to Lower Sarmatian times. 7) Ongoing subsidence of the Eisenstadt Basin along the listric fault in front of the uplifted Rust Range until Middle Pannonian times resulted in growth strata dipping to the east and fault drags indicating a hanging-wall syncline. Fuchs, W. (1965): Geologie des Ruster Berglandes (Burgenland). - Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt

  9. Atypical coastal environmental change during Copper Age - Bronze Age transition (Rio de Moinhos, NW Portugal) - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Helena; Danielsen, Randi

    2015-04-01

    for its infilling. Furthermore dating of wooden remains of what was interpreted as a fish trap, found on the sediment surface gave the age 2055-1770 cal BP (Roman Period). The old age of the top level may hence be the result of truncation of the sediment sequence at least in parts of the platform. Landwards, the Roman period is represented by fine and dark sediments similar to those of Rio de Moinhos beach, found in deeper cores. Acknowledgments This research is included in the project PTDC/EPH-ARQ/5204/2012 supported by FCT (Foundation for Science and Technology, Portugal). It is financed also by COMPETE and PEsT-C/MAR/LA0015/2013.

  10. Analysis of spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged over 65 years

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Izabela; Oleśniewicz, Piotr; Kurpas, Donata; Sołtysik, Mariusz; Błaszczuk, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objective The growing population of the elderly, as well as the occurrence of coexisting diseases and polypharmacy, is the reason why diseases of patients aged $65 years belong to the major issues of the contemporary medicine. Among the most frequent diseases of the elderly, there are respiratory system diseases. They are difficult to diagnose because of the patient group specificity, which is the reason for increased mortality among seniors, caused by underdiagnosis. The study objective was to assess the factors influencing spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years with respiratory system disorders. Material and methods In the research, 217 (100%) patients aged ≥65 years who underwent spirometry at the Regional Medical Center of the Jelenia Góra Valley Hospital in Poland were analyzed. In the statistical analysis, the STATISTICA 9.1 program, the t-test, the Shapiro–Wilk test, the ANOVA test, and the Scheffé’s test were applied. Results The majority of the patients (59.4%) were treated in the hospital. The most frequent diagnosis was malignant neoplasm (18%). The study showed a statistically significant dependence between the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC parameters and the time of hospitalization, as well as between the FVC and FEV1 parameters and the age of patients. The FVC parameter values turned out to be dependent on the main diagnosis. Highest results were noted in patients with the diagnosis of sleep apnea or benign neoplasm. A low FVC index can reflect restrictive ventilation defects, which was supported by the performed analyses. Highest FEV1/FVC values were observed in nonsmokers, which confirms the influence of nicotine addiction on the incidence of respiratory system diseases. Conclusion The respondents’ sex and the established diagnosis statistically significantly influenced the FVC index result, and the diet influenced the FEV1/FVC parameter result

  11. Lithofacies, Age, and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group in the Skimo Creek Area, Central Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Whalen, Michael T.; Harris, Anita G.

    2008-01-01

    The Lisburne Group, a mainly Carboniferous carbonate succession that is widely distributed across northern Alaska, contains notable amounts of oil and gas at Prudhoe Bay. Detailed studies of the Lisburne in the Skimo Creek area, central Brooks Range, delineate its lithofacies, age, conodont biofacies, depositional environments, and sequence stratigraphy and provide new data on its hydrocarbon source-rock and reservoir potential, as well as its thermal history, in this area. We have studied the Lisburne Group in two thrust sheets of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, herein called the Skimo and Tiglukpuk thrust sheets. The southern, Skimo Creek section, which is >900 m thick, is composed largely of even-bedded to nodular lime mudstone and wackestone intercalated with intervals of thin- to thick-bedded bioclastic packstone and grainstone. Some parts of the section are partially to completely dolomitized and (or) replaced by chert. A distinctive, 30-m-thick zone of black, organic-rich shale, lime mudstone, and phosphorite is exposed 170 m below the top of the Lisburne. The uppermost 40 m of section is also distinctive and made up of dark shale, lime mudstone, spiculite, and glauconitic grainstone. The northern, Tiglukpuk Creek section, which is similar to the Skimo Creek section but only ~760 m thick, includes more packstone and grainstone and less organic-rich shale. Analyses of conodonts and foraminifers indicate that both sections range in age from late Early Mississippian (Osagean) through Early Pennsylvanian (early Morrowan) and document a hiatus of at least 15 m.y. at the contact between the Lisburne and the overlying Siksikpuk Formation. No evidence of subaerial exposure was observed along this contact, which may represent a submarine erosional surface. Lithofacies and biofacies imply that the Lisburne Group in the study area was deposited mainly in midramp to outer-ramp settings. Deepest water strata are mud rich and formed below storm or fair-weather wave

  12. Physicochemical characterization of aged biomass burning aerosol after long-range transport to Greece from large scale wildfires in Russia and surrounding regions, Summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diapouli, E.; Popovicheva, O.; Kistler, M.; Vratolis, S.; Persiantseva, N.; Timofeev, M.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2014-10-01

    Smoke aerosol emitted by large scale wildfires in the European part of Russia and Ukraine, was transported to Athens, Greece during August 2010 and detected at an urban background site. Measurements were conducted for physico-chemical characterization of the aged aerosol and included on-line monitoring of PM10 and carbonaceous particles mass concentrations, as well as number size distributions and aerosol optical properties. In addition TSP filter samples were analyzed for major inorganic ions, while morphology and composition of particles was studied by individual particle analysis. Results supported the long-range transport of smoke plumes from Ukraine and Russia burning areas indicated by back trajectory analysis. An increase of 50% and 40% on average in organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations respectively, and more than 95% in carbonate carbon (CC) levels was observed for the biomass burning (BB) transport period of August with respect to the previous month of July. Mean 24-h OC/EC ratio was found in the range 3.2-8.5. Single scattering albedo (SSA) was also increased, indicating abundance of light scattering constituents and/or shift of size distributions towards larger particles. Increase in particle size was further supported by a decreasing trend in absorption Angström exponent (AAE). Ion analysis showed major contribution of secondary species (ammonium sulfate and nitrate) and soil components (Ca2+, Mg2+). Non-sea salt K+ exhibited very good correlation with secondary species, indicating the long-range transport of BB smoke as a possible common source. Individual particle analysis of the samples collected during BB-transport event in Athens revealed elevated number of soot externally mixed with fly ash Ca-rich particles. This result is in agreement with the increased OC and CC levels measured, thus pointing towards the main components comprising the aged BB aerosol microstructure.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS FROM ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR ON ROTATOR CUFF INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS UNDER 50 YEARS OF AGE

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Santos, Ruy Mesquita Maranhão; de Souza, Adriano; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries among patients under 50 years of age. Methods: Sixty-three patients with rotator cuff injuries who underwent arthroscopic surgical treatment performed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in the Fernandinho Simonsen wing of Santa Casa Medical School, São Paulo, between August 1998 and December 2007, were reassessed. The study included all patients with rotator cuff injuries who were under 50 years of age and had been followed up postoperatively for at least 24 months. Results: According to the UCLA evaluation criteria, 59 patients (92%) showed excellent and good results; five (8%) showed fair results; and none showed poor results. The postoperative evaluation showed that the mean range of motion was 145° for elevation, 47° for lateral rotation and T10 for medial rotation. Unsatisfactory results were associated with prolonged duration of the injury, with a statistically significant relationship. Conclusion: Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff injuries in young patients produces excellent or good results for most patients. PMID:27047819

  14. An acoustical assessment of pitch-matching accuracy in relation to speech frequency, speech frequency range, age and gender in preschool children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollinger, Valerie L.

    This study investigated the relationship between acoustical measurement of singing accuracy in relationship to speech fundamental frequency, speech fundamental frequency range, age and gender in preschool-aged children. Seventy subjects from Southeastern Pennsylvania; the San Francisco Bay Area, California; and Terre Haute, Indiana, participated in the study. Speech frequency was measured by having the subjects participate in spontaneous and guided speech activities with the researcher, with 18 diverse samples extracted from each subject's recording for acoustical analysis for fundamental frequency in Hz with the CSpeech computer program. The fundamental frequencies were averaged together to derive a mean speech frequency score for each subject. Speech range was calculated by subtracting the lowest fundamental frequency produced from the highest fundamental frequency produced, resulting in a speech range measured in increments of Hz. Singing accuracy was measured by having the subjects each echo-sing six randomized patterns using the pitches Middle C, D, E, F♯, G and A (440), using the solfege syllables of Do and Re, which were recorded by a 5-year-old female model. For each subject, 18 samples of singing were recorded. All samples were analyzed by the CSpeech for fundamental frequency. For each subject, deviation scores in Hz were derived by calculating the difference between what the model sang in Hz and what the subject sang in response in Hz. Individual scores for each child consisted of an overall mean total deviation frequency, mean frequency deviations for each pattern, and mean frequency deviation for each pitch. Pearson correlations, MANOVA and ANOVA analyses, Multiple Regressions and Discriminant Analysis revealed the following findings: (1) moderate but significant (p < .001) relationships emerged between mean speech frequency and the ability to sing the pitches E, F♯, G and A in the study; (2) mean speech frequency also emerged as the strongest

  15. Low heel ultrasound parameters predict mortality in men: results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Boonen, Steven; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Lee, David M.; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Wu, Frederick C.; O'Neill, Terence W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: low bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is associated with increased mortality. The relationship between other skeletal phenotypes and mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quantitative heel ultrasound parameters and mortality in a cohort of European men. Methods: men aged 40–79 years were recruited for participation in a prospective study of male ageing: the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). At baseline, subjects attended for quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel (Hologic—SAHARA) and completed questionnaires on lifestyle factors and co-morbidities. Height and weight were measured. After a median of 4.3 years, subjects were invited to attend a follow-up assessment, and reasons for non-participation, including death, were recorded. The relationship between QUS parameters (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA] and speed of sound [SOS]) and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: from a total of 3,244 men (mean age 59.8, standard deviation [SD] 10.8 years), 185 (5.7%) died during the follow-up period. After adjusting for age, centre, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, number of co-morbidities and general health, each SD decrease in BUA was associated with a 20% higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.4). Compared with those in higher quintiles (2nd–5th), those in the lowest quintile of BUA and SOS had a greater mortality risk (BUA: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1–2.3 and SOS: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2–2.2). Conclusion: lower heel ultrasound parameters are associated with increased mortality in European men. PMID:26162912

  16. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  17. A compendium of results from long-range alpha detector soil surface monitoring: June 1992--May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, S.E.; Bounds, J.A.; Allander, K.S.; Johnson, J.D.; MacArthur, D.W.; Caress, R.W.

    1994-11-01

    Soil surface monitors based on long-range alpha detector (LRAD) technology are being used to monitor alpha contamination at various sites in the Department of Energy complex. These monitors, the large soil-surface monitor (LSSM) and the small soil-surface monitor (SSSM), were used to help characterize sites at Fernald, Ohio, and active or inactive firing sites at Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Monitoring results are presented herein in chronological order.

  18. Groundwater-quality data in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010-Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    , radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes and dissolved noble gases also were measured to provide a dataset that will be used to help interpret the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater in subsequent reports. In total, 221 constituents were investigated for this study. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells in the CAMP study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Replicate samples generally were within the limits of acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 90 percent of the compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and CDPH, and to non-regulatory benchmarks established for aesthetic concerns by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and benchmarks for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with those benchmarks. All organic constituents and most inorganic constituents that were detected in groundwater samples from the 90 grid wells

  19. Age at treatment and long-term performance results in medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H.W.; Maruyama, Y.

    1984-05-01

    Medulloblastoma is highly radioresponsive, and recent treatment results have improved greatly since the introduction of megavoltage machine in 1960s. There is increasing evidence for the potential cure of medulloblastoma if properly treated in its early stages. The curable group represents approximately 75% of diagnosed patients. Long-term treatment effects were examined in this study. The study reveals age-dependent late effects in learning ability; the patients less than 4-years-old at treatment had major learning problems; patients of 5 to 7 years old performed at satisfactory-to-low passing levels in school work; patients older than 8 years old had no major intellectual impairment. Short stature was common when growth potential was present at the time of therapy, but endocrine tests were generally negative. These observations indicate special educational requirement needs, especially for children treated at a young age.

  20. Implications of IODP Expedition 349 Age Results for the Spreading History of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briais, Anne

    2016-04-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 in the South China Sea drilled three sites (U1431, U1433, and U1434) into the basaltic crustal basement near the fossil spreading center in the East and Southwest Subbasins. These results provided age constraints on the termination of seafloor spreading in the South China Sea (SCS) basin. Shipboard biostratigraphic analysis of microfossils from the sediment immediately above or between flows in the basaltic basement indicates early Miocene ages: 16.7-17.6 Ma for Site U1431 in the East Subbasin, ~18-21 Ma for Site U1433 in the Southwest Subbasin. Since Expedition 349, Ar/Ar dating of basalt samples from these two sites have confirmed these ages in the east, and have provided an age of 17 Ma in the Southwest. The similarity in crustal age between sites suggests that the last stages of spreading have been coeaval in both the East and Southwest Subbasins, forming a single mid-ocean ridge system with a series of transform faults and discontinuities between the two subbasins. Expedition 349 also drilled Site U1435 on a bathymetric high along the northwestern continent-ocean boundary. Onboard core description, biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy revealed that sediment at this site shows a sharp discontinuity at about 33 Ma, interpreted to represent the breakup unconformity and date the beginning of seafloor spreading in the East Subbasin. The results of IODP Exp. 349, as well as results from deep-towed magnetic surveys, thus imply that oceanic seafloor spreading in the SCS, from 33 to ~16-18 Ma, is coeval with a large part of the left-lateral motion along the Ailao Shan-Red River Fault Zone (dated 34 to 17 Ma). This episode of the extension of the South China Sea basin is therefore more likely driven by the extrusion of the Indochina tectonic block resulting from the collision of India with Eurasia than by the subduction of a proto-South China Sea to the south.

  1. The Onset of STI Diagnosis through Age 30: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine (1) whether onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. Design A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Setting Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle. Analysis Sample 608 participants in three intervention conditions interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions Teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome Cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Intervention Mechanisms Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested. Analysis and Results Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. Conclusions A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children’s social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI through age 30, especially for African

  2. The effect of age on result of straight leg raising test in patients suffering lumbar disc herniation and sciatica

    PubMed Central

    Tabesh, Homayoun; Tabesh, Ariyan; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Fazel, Mohammadreza; Abrishamkar, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ninety percent of all people sometimes during their lives experience low back pain, and 30-40% develops radicular leg pain with the sciatica characteristics. Although for clinical diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) straight leg raising (SLR) test in 85-90% of cases indicates LDH, but in our practice with LDH patients this test is frequently negative despite radicular leg pain due to LDH. Hence, we decided to evaluate this test in LDH in different age groups. Materials and Methods: All patients with leg pain referring to neurosurgery clinic were enrolled. Those with a history of pain other than sciatica excluded and SLR test and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbosacral spine performed. The patients with negative MRI findings excluded and finally 269 patients with true sciatica and positive MRI were included. SLR tests were performed for different age groups. Results: Of 269 patients, 167 were male. The age range was 16-80 years. The most involved levels were L5-S1 (47%) and L4-L5 (42%), respectively. The rate of positive SLR result, which was 100%, 87% and 82% for 10-19, 20-29 and 30-39 years age group respectively. With an increment of age, the rate of positive test regularly declined. The chance of positive SLR in men is 1.3 times the women (odds ratio [OR] 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.265-4.557; P = 0.007). Increasing the age has suppression effect in positivity of SLR so that for each 1-year the chance of SLR become 0.27 times less to become positive and this is also statically meaningful (OR = 0.271;95% CI = 0.188-0.391; P,0.001). The chance of positive SLR for patients under 60 is 5.4 folds more than patients above 60 years old (OR = 5.4; 95% CI = 4-8.3; P, 0.001). Conclusion: Age, sex (male), and disk level had statistically the effect on SLR positive test. PMID:25983767

  3. ICESat Laser Altimeter Pointing, Ranging and Timing Calibration from Integrated Residual Analysis: A Summary of Early Mission Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutchke, Scott B.; Rowlands, David D.; Harding, David J.; Bufton, Jack L.; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Williams, Teresa A.

    2003-01-01

    On January 12, 2003 the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) was successfUlly placed into orbit. The ICESat mission carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which consists of three near-infrared lasers that operate at 40 short pulses per second. The instrument has collected precise elevation measurements of the ice sheets, sea ice roughness and thickness, ocean and land surface elevations and surface reflectivity. The accurate geolocation of GLAS's surface returns, the spots from which the laser energy reflects on the Earth's surface, is a critical issue in the scientific application of these data Pointing, ranging, timing and orbit errors must be compensated to accurately geolocate the laser altimeter surface returns. Towards this end, the laser range observations can be fully exploited in an integrated residual analysis to accurately calibrate these geolocation/instrument parameters. Early mission ICESat data have been simultaneously processed as direct altimetry from ocean sweeps along with dynamic crossovers resulting in a preliminary calibration of laser pointing, ranging and timing. The calibration methodology and early mission analysis results are summarized in this paper along with future calibration activities

  4. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia. PMID:26655068

  5. Aging results in an unusual expression of Drosophila heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.E.; Walton, J.K.; Dubitsky, R.; Bensch, K.G. )

    1988-06-01

    The authors used high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to evaluate the effect of aging on the heat shock response in Drosophila melanogaster. Although the aging process is not well understood at the molecular level, recent observations suggest that quantitative changes in gene expression occur as these fruit flies approach senescence. Such genetic alterations are in accord with our present data, which clearly show marked differences in the synthesis of heat shock proteins between young and old fruit flies. In 10-day-old flies, a heat shock of 20 min results in the expression of 14 new proteins as detectable by two-dimensional electrophoresis of ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled polypeptides, whereas identical treatment of 45-day-old flies leads to the expression of at least 50 new or highly up-regulated proteins. In addition, there is also a concomitant increase in the rate of synthesis of a number of the normal proteins in the older animals. Microdensitometric determinations of the low molecular weight heat shock polypeptides on autoradiographs of five age groups revealed that their maximum expression occurs at 47 days for a population of flies with a mean life span of 33.7 days. Moreover, a heat shock effect similar to that observed in senescent flies occurs in young flies fed canavanine, an arginine analogue, before heat shock.

  6. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 1; Fan Stage Design and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Thorp, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. To this end, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and General Electric (GE) teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10 ), fan speed (7 ), inlet mass flow (3.5 ), inlet pressure (8 ), and inlet temperature (3 ). In this paper, NASA has set out to characterize a TBCC engine fan stage aerodynamic performance and stability limits over a wide operating range including power-on and hypersonic-unique "windmill" operation. Herein, we will present the fan stage design, and the experimental test results of the fan stage operating from 15 to 100 percent corrected design speed. Whereas, in the companion paper, we will provide an assessment of NASA s APNASA code s ability to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speed and bypass ratio.

  7. The onset of STI diagnosis through age 30: results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hill, Karl G; Bailey, Jennifer A; Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine (1) whether the onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full-intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle are the setting of the study. Six hundred eight participants in three intervention conditions were interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions include teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome is the cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested as potential intervention mechanisms. Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full-intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding, and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children's social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI

  8. HIV-associated anemia after 96 weeks on therapy: determinants across age ranges in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Jaganath, Devan; Walker, A Sarah; Ssali, Francis; Musiime, Victor; Kiweewa, Francis; Kityo, Cissy; Salata, Robert; Mugyenyi, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Given the detrimental effects of HIV-associated anemia on morbidity, we determined factors associated with anemia after 96 weeks of antiretroviral therapy (ART) across age groups. An HIV-positive cohort (n=3,580) of children age 5-14, reproductive age adults 18-49, and older adults ≥50 from two randomized trials in Uganda and Zimbabwe were evaluated from initiation of therapy through 96 weeks. We conducted logistic and multinomial regression to evaluate common and differential determinants for anemia at 96 weeks on therapy. Prior to initiation of ART, the prevalence of anemia (age 5-11 <10.5 g/dl, 12-14 <11 g/dl, adult females <11 g/dl, adult males <12 g/dl) was 43%, which decreased to 13% at week 96 (p<0.001). Older adults had a significantly higher likelihood of anemia compared to reproductive age adults (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.44-4.70, p=0.002). Reproductive age females had a significantly higher odds of anemia compared to men at week 96 (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.92-3.40, p<0.001), and particularly a greater odds for microcytic anemia compared to males in the same age group (p=0.001). Other common factors associated with anemia included low body mass index (BMI) and microcytosis; greater increases in CD4 count to week 96 were protective. Thus, while ART significantly reduced the prevalence of anemia at 96 weeks, 13% of the population continued to be anemic. Specific groups, such as reproductive age females and older adults, have a greater odds of anemia and may guide clinicians to pursue further evaluation and management. PMID:24506102

  9. Recent fracture mechanics results from NASA research related to the aging commercial transport fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is conducting the Airframe Structural Integrity Program in support of the aging commercial transport fleet. This interdisciplinary program is being worked in cooperation with the U.S. airframe manufacturers, airline operators, and the FAA. Advanced analysis methods are under development to predict the fatigue crack growth in complex built-up shell structures. Innovative nondestructive examination technologies are also under development to provide large area inspection capability to detect corrosion, disbonds, and fatigue cracks. Recent fracture mechanics results applicable to predicting the growth of cracks initiating at the rivets of fuselage splice joints are reviewed.

  10. Long-range transport of black carbon to the Pacific Ocean and its dependence on aging timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Tao, S.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the ability of global models to predict concentrations of black carbon (BC) over the Pacific Ocean is essential to evaluate the impact of BC on marine climate. In this study, we tag BC tracers from 13 source regions around the globe in a global chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). Numerous sensitivity simulations are carried out varying the aging timescale of BC emitted from each source region. The aging timescale for each source region is optimized by minimizing errors in vertical profiles of BC mass mixing ratios between simulations and HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO). For most HIPPO deployments, in the Northern Hemisphere, optimized aging timescales are less than half a day for BC emitted from tropical and midlatitude source regions and about 1 week for BC emitted from high-latitude regions in all seasons except summer. We find that East Asian emissions contribute most to the BC loading over the North Pacific, while South American, African and Australian emissions dominate BC loadings over the South Pacific. Dominant source regions contributing to BC loadings in other parts of the globe are also assessed. The lifetime of BC originating from East Asia (i.e., the world's largest BC emitter) is found to be only 2.2 days, much shorter than the global average lifetime of 4.9 days, making the contribution from East Asia to the global BC burden only 36 % of that from the second largest emitter, Africa. Thus, evaluating only relative emission rates without accounting for differences in aging timescales and deposition rates is not predictive of the contribution of a given source region to climate impacts. Our simulations indicate that the lifetime of BC increases nearly linearly with aging timescale for all source regions. When the aging rate is fast, the lifetime of BC is largely determined by factors that control local deposition rates (e.g., precipitation). The sensitivity of lifetime to aging

  11. Long-range transport of black carbon to the Pacific Ocean and its dependence on aging timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Tao, S.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Improving the ability of global models to predict concentrations of black carbon (BC) over the Pacific Ocean is essential to evaluate the impact of BC on marine climate. In this study, we tag BC tracers from 13 source regions around the globe in a global chemical transport model MOZART-4. Numerous sensitivity simulations are carried out varying the aging timescale of BC emitted from each source region. The aging timescale for each source region is optimized by minimizing errors in vertical profiles of BC mass mixing ratios between simulations and HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO). For most HIPPO deployments, in the Northern Hemisphere, optimized aging timescales are less than half a day for BC emitted from tropical and mid-latitude source regions, and about 1 week for BC emitted from high latitude regions in all seasons except summer. We find that East Asian emissions contribute most to the BC loading over the North Pacific, while South American, African and Australian emissions dominate BC loadings over the South Pacific. Dominant source regions contributing to BC loadings in other parts of the globe are also assessed. The lifetime of BC originating from East Asia (i.e., the world's largest BC emitter) is found to be only 2.2 days, much shorter than the global average lifetime of 4.9 days, making East Asia's contribution to global burden only 36 % of BC from the second largest emitter, Africa. Thus, evaluating only relative emission rates without accounting for differences in aging timescales and deposition rates is not predictive of the contribution of a given source region to climate impacts. Our simulations indicate that lifetime of BC increases nearly linearly with aging timescale for all source regions. When aging rate is fast, the lifetime of BC is largely determined by factors that control local deposition rates (e.g. precipitation). The sensitivity of lifetime to aging timescale depends strongly on the initial hygroscopicity of freshly emitted BC

  12. Modeling fluid flow and heat transfer at Basin and Range faults: preliminary results for Leach hot springs, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    López, Dina L.; Smith, Leslie; Storey, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrothermal systems of the Basin and Range Province are often located at or near major range bounding normal faults. The flow of fluid and energy at these faults is affected by the advective transfer of heat and fluid from an to the adjacent mountain ranges and valleys, This paper addresses the effect of the exchange of fluid and energy between the country rock, the valley fill sediments, and the fault zone, on the fluid and heat flow regimes at the fault plane. For comparative purposes, the conditions simulated are patterned on Leach Hot Springs in southern Grass Valley, Nevada. Our simulations indicated that convection can exist at the fault plane even when the fault is exchanging significant heat and fluid with the surrounding country rock and valley fill sediments. The temperature at the base of the fault decreased with increasing permeability of the country rock. Higher groundwater discharge from the fault and lower temperatures at the base of the fault are favored by high country rock permabilities and fault transmissivities. Preliminary results suggest that basal temperatures and flow rates for Leach Hot Springs can not be simulated with a fault 3 km deep and an average regional heat flow of 150 mW/m2 because the basal temperature and mass discharge rates are too low. A fault permeable to greater depths or a higher regional heat flow may be indicated for these springs.

  13. Application of Phase Smoothing Pseudo Range PPP/INS Tightly Coupled Technique in Improving the Results of Low Precision MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X.

    2015-12-01

    In land surveying and engineering surveying, we need to obtain high precision navigation results. However, due to the inertial device costs less than a introduction, commonly used low precision inertial navigation equipment with tightly coupled GPS / INS integrated to get high precision navigation results. Many studies have improved the accuracy of error by using the UKF and CKF filtering algorithm, but it is still using the traditional pseudo code directly, the improvement effect is not obvious, and the disturbance is large. In this study, the PPP /INSmodel is improved by using the carrier phase smoothing pseudo range algorithm. Experimental results show that based on phase smoothing pseudo range PPP/INS tight coupled method, the position precision and the velocity precision for of the measured data of higher accuracy of MEMS and GPS receiver can get to a decimeter level and centimeter level. This coupling method has higher accuracy, stronger anti disturbance and Have a better convergence than the traditional C/A code. Based on different phase smoothing epoch number combination the accuracy and smoothing effect is also different, the larger smooth epoch number is, the better treatment effect it has and The higher precision it has. For high precision measurement, the equipment cost is saved. It has a practical significance meaning in the measurement of outdoor ground.

  14. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  15. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  16. The nature of intermediate-range order in Ge-As-S glasses : results from reverse Monte Carlo modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Soyer-Uzun, S.; Benmore, C. J.; Siewenie, J. E.; Sen, S.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ.of California at Davis; LANL

    2010-01-01

    The experimental neutron and x-ray diffraction data for stoichiometric and S-deficient Ge{sub x}As{sub x}S{sub 100-2x} glasses with x = 18.2, 25.0, and 33.3 at.% have been modeled simultaneously using the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) technique. Nearest-neighbor coordination environments, as obtained in previous x-ray absorption spectroscopy and diffraction experiments, have been employed as short-range order constraints in these simulations. The large scale three-dimensional structural models thus obtained from RMC simulation are used to investigate the nature and compositional evolution of intermediate-range structural order in these ternary glasses. The intermediate-range structural order is controlled by (1) a corner-shared three-dimensional network of AsS{sub 3} pyramids and GeS{sub 4} tetrahedra in the stoichiometric Ge{sub 18.2}As{sub 18.2}S{sub 63.6} glass, (2) a heterogeneous structure that consists of homopolar bonded As-rich regions coexisting with a GeS{sub 2} network in the S-deficient Ge{sub 25}As{sub 25}S{sub 50} glass, and (3) a homogeneous structure resulting from the disruption of the topological continuity of the GeS{sub 2} network and As-rich clusters regions due to the formation of Ge-As bonds in the most S-deficient Ge{sub 33.3}As{sub 33.3}S{sub 33.3} glass. This scenario of the compositional evolution of intermediate-range structural order is consistent with and provides an atomistic explanation of the corresponding evolution in the position, width and intensity of the first sharp diffraction peak and the magnitude of small angle scattering in these glasses.

  17. Investigation of dielectric behavior of water and thermally aged of XLPE/BaTiO3 composites in the low-frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Lakhdar; Belkhiat, Saad; Berrag, Amine; Nemdili, Saad

    2015-10-01

    Cross-Linked Polyethylene (XLPE) is widely used as insulation in electrical engineering, especially as cable insulation sheaths. In order to improve the dielectric properties susceptible to be modified under the effects of thermal aging and water in an absorption environment, polymers are mixed with ceramics. In this paper, the influence of barium titanate (BaTiO3), on the dielectric properties of XLPE has been studied. Dielectric parameters have been measured using an impedance analyzer RLC (WAYNE KERR 6420 type). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used as characterization techniques. The study has been carried out on two samples of XLPE. A pure sample of each were studied as a unloaded samples to be compared with samples of 5%wt, 10%wt, 15%wt and 20%wt. BaTiO3 loaded XLPE. Afterwards, the composites were subject to humidity and to thermal aging. The incorporation of BaTiO3 1∘C does not modify the crystallinity and morphology of the XLPE and 2∘C reduces the space charges therefore the dielectric losses. tgδ, ɛr and loss index are measured. Frequency response analysis has been followed in the frequency range (20-300 Hz). Experimental results show well that BaTiO3 as nano-filler improves the dielectric properties of XLPE but in excessive content can drive to the cracking and therefore to absorption of water.

  18. MULTI-ETHNIC REFERENCE VALUES FOR SPIROMETRY FOR THE 3–95 YEAR AGE RANGE: THE GLOBAL LUNG FUNCTION 2012 EQUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Quanjer, Philip H.; Stanojevic, Sanja; Cole, Tim J.; Baur, Xaver; Hall, Graham L.; Culver, Bruce H.; Enright, Paul L.; Hankinson, John L.; Ip, Mary S.M.; Zheng, Jinping; Stocks, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Objective Derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Material Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5–95 years. Methods Lung function data were collated, and prediction equations derived using the LMS (λ, µ, σ) method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. Results After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals from 3–95 years for Caucasians (N=57,395), African Americans (N=3,545), and North (N=4,992) and South East Asians (N=8,255). FEV1 and FVC between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV1/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Conclusion Spirometric prediction equations for the 3–95 age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent, Arab, Polynesian, Latin American countries, and Africa will further improve these equations in the future. PMID:22743675

  19. Gender, Age and Season as Modifiers of the Effects of Diurnal Temperature Range on Emergency Room Admissions for Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Disease among the Elderly in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shan; Wang, Minzhen; Li, Bei; Wang, Shigong; He, Shilin; Yin, Ling; Shang, Kezheng; Li, Tanshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important index of climate change and variability. It is also a risk factor affecting human health. However, limited evidence is available to illustrate the effect of DTR modification on cause-specific cardiovascular disease among the elderly. Methods: A semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the exposure-effect relationship between DTR and daily emergency room (ER) admissions for cause-specific cardiovascular diseases among the elderly from 2009 to 2011 in Beijing. We examined the effects of DTR for stratified groups by gender and age, and examined the effects of DTR in the warm season and cold season for cause-specific cardiovascular diseases. Results: Significant associations were found between DTR and ER admissions for all cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease among elderly males, while DTR was significantly associated with ER admissions for all cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease among elderly females. People aged 75 years and older were more vulnerable to DTR. DTR caused greater adverse effects on both genders in the warm season, whereas the effect estimates on females were higher in cold season than in warm season. Conclusions: A short-term increase of DTR was significantly associated with ER admissions for cause-specific cardiovascular disease among the elderly in Beijing. Gender, age and season may modify the acute health effect of DTR. Some prevention programs that target the high risk subgroups in the elderly for impending large temperature changes may reduce the impact of DTR on people’s health. PMID:27128931

  20. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  1. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  2. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was −4.727% (95% CI: −4.821% to −4.634%) per year for men and −6.633% (95% CI: −6.751% to −6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994–2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20–24 years old and 15–24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  3. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was -4.727% (95% CI: -4.821% to -4.634%) per year for men and -6.633% (95% CI: -6.751% to -6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994-2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20-24 years old and 15-24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  4. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264

  5. Secondary shock features for large surface explosions: results from the Sayarim Military Range, Israel and other experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.

    2014-05-01

    A series of surface explosions was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at the Sayarim Military Range in the Negev desert, including two large-scale explosions: approx. 82 tons of high explosives in 2009, and approx. 100 tons of low-grade ANFO explosives in 2011. The main goal of the explosions was to provide large controlled sources for calibration of global infrasound stations designated for monitoring nuclear tests; however, the geophysical experiment also provided valuable observations for shock wave research. High-pressure gauges were deployed at distances between 100 and 600 m to record air blast properties and to provide reliable estimation of the true charge yield compared to the design value. Secondary shock phenomena were clearly observed at all near-source gauges as characteristic shock wave shapes. Secondary shocks were also observed at numerous seismic and acoustic sensors deployed in the range 0.3-20 km as acoustic phases. Empirical relationships for standard air blast parameters (peak pressure and impulse) and for a new parameter called secondary shock time delay, as a function of distance, were established and analyzed. The standard parameters, scaled by the cubic root of the estimated TNT yield, were found to be consistent for all analyzed explosions. However, the scaled secondary shock delays were clearly separated for the 2009 and 2011 explosions, thus demonstrating dependence on the explosive type. Additionally, air blast records from other experiments were used to extend the charge and distance ranges for the secondary shock observation, and showed consistency with the Sayarim data. Analysis and interpretation of observed features of the secondary shock phenomenon are proposed and a new empirical relationship of scaled secondary shock delay versus scaled distance is established. The results suggest that the secondary shock delay can be used as a new additional waveform feature for simple and cost-effective explosive

  6. Alternative Calculations of Individual Patient Time in Therapeutic Range While Taking Warfarin: Results From the ROCKET AF Trial

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Daniel E.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Yuan, Zhong; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Breithardt, Günter; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Becker, Richard C.; Hacke, Werner; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban–Once‐daily, oral, direct Factor Xa inhibition Compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation) trial, marked regional differences in control of warfarin anticoagulation, measured as the average individual patient time in the therapeutic range (iTTR) of the international normalized ratio (INR), were associated with longer inter‐INR test intervals. The standard Rosendaal approach can produce biased low estimates of TTR after an appropriate dose change if the follow‐up INR test interval is prolonged. We explored the effect of alternative calculations of TTR that more immediately account for dose changes on regional differences in mean iTTR in the ROCKET AF trial. Methods and Results We used an INR imputation method that accounts for dose change. We compared group mean iTTR values between our dose change–based method with the standard Rosendaal method and determined that the differences between approaches depended on the balance of dose changes that produced in‐range INRs (“corrections”) versus INRs that were out of range in the opposite direction (“overshoots”). In ROCKET AF, the overall mean iTTR of 55.2% (Rosendaal) increased up to 3.1% by using the dose change–based approach, depending on assumptions. However, large inter‐regional differences in anticoagulation control persisted. Conclusions TTR, the standard measure of control of warfarin anticoagulation, depends on imputing daily INR values for the vast majority of follow‐up days. Our TTR calculation method may better reflect the impact of warfarin dose changes than the Rosendaal approach. In the ROCKET AF trial, this dose change–based approach led to a modest increase in overall mean iTTR but did not materially affect the large inter‐regional differences previously reported. Clinical Trial Registration URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00403767. PMID:25736441

  7. Technical memo on new results on CsI photocathodes: Enhancement and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S. ); Hoeneisen, B. ); Peskov, V. . World Lab.)

    1991-09-01

    It appears that there are 4 processes involved in the enhancement and aging of a CsI or CsI-TMAE photocathode: water absorption, charging up of the photocathode, a self annealing aging, and a permanent aging. The evidence for these processes are presented. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Effects of sex, age, and season on plasma steroids in free-ranging Texas horned lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum).

    PubMed

    Wack, Corina L; Fox, Stanley F; Hellgren, Eric C; Lovern, Matthew B

    2008-02-01

    The Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) is protected in several states due to its apparently declining numbers; information on its physiology is therefore of interest from both comparative endocrine and applied perspectives. We collected blood samples from free-ranging P. cornutum in Oklahoma from April to September 2005, spanning their complete active period. We determined plasma concentrations of the steroids, progesterone (P), testosterone (T), and corticosterone (CORT) by radioimmunoassay following chromatographic separation and 17beta-estradiol (E2) by direct radioimmunoassay. T concentrations in breeding males were significantly higher than in non-breeding males. P showed no significant seasonal variation within either sex. CORT was significantly higher during the egg-laying season compared to breeding and non-breeding seasons for adult females and it was marginally higher in breeding than in non-breeding males (P=0.055). CORT concentrations also significantly increased with handling in non-breeding males and egg-laying females. Perhaps most surprisingly, there were no significant sex differences in plasma concentrations of P and E2. Furthermore, with respect to seasonal differences, plasma E2 concentrations were significantly higher in breeding females than in egg-laying or non-breeding females, and they were significantly higher in breeding than in non-breeding males. During the non-breeding season, yearling males exhibited higher E2 concentrations than adult males; no other differences between the steroid concentrations of yearlings and adults were detected. In comparison to other vertebrates, the seasonal steroid profile of P. cornutum exhibited both expected and unexpected patterns, and our results illustrate the value of collecting such baseline data as a springboard for appropriate questions for future research. PMID:18048031

  9. Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy Results in Children are Affected by Age, Anthropometric Factors, and Study Duration

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Gregory K.; Shulman, Robert J.; Chumpitazi, Bruno P.

    2014-01-01

    Background A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Methods Retrospective review of children who underwent a 4-hour solid-meal GES study at a tertiary care center. GES results and anthropometric data (e.g., weight, stature, body surface area) were systematically captured. Key Results Of 216 children, 188 (87%) were able to complete the study meal. Children unable to complete the meal were younger and smaller. In multivariate analysis, only increasing body surface area (BSA) was identified as being positively associated with ability to complete the meal (odds ratio: 19.7; P<0.001). Of those completing the meal, 48 (26%) had delayed emptying (4-hour retention value >10%). These children were significantly younger and smaller than those with normal emptying. In multivariate analysis of those completing the meal, only increasing BSA (odds ratio: 0.26; P=0.006) was identified as being negatively associated with delayed emptying. There was a progressive increase in the positive predictive value for identification of delayed gastric emptying as the duration of the study increased (0.25, 0.60, and 0.71 at 1, 2, and 3 hr, respectively) using the 4-hr value as a comparator. Conclusions and Inferences Young children have more difficulty completing the GES meal. Childhood gastric retention is affected by age and anthropometric factors, primarily BSA. The standardized 4-hr GES protocol may need to take these factors into account in children. PMID:25557417

  10. Extended Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Analyses at the Shuttle Landing Facility: Phase II Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred C.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the AMU's Short-Range Statistical Forecasting task for peak winds at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). The peak wind speeds are an important forecast element for the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. The 45th Weather Squadron and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group indicate that peak winds are challenging to forecast. The Applied Meteorology Unit was tasked to develop tools that aid in short-range forecasts of peak winds at tower sites of operational interest. A seven year record of wind tower data was used in the analysis. Hourly and directional climatologies by tower and month were developed to determine the seasonal behavior of the average and peak winds. Probability density functions (PDF) of peak wind speed were calculated to determine the distribution of peak speed with average speed. These provide forecasters with a means of determining the probability of meeting or exceeding a certain peak wind given an observed or forecast average speed. A PC-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) tool was created to display the data quickly.

  11. The Pisa pre-main sequence tracks and isochrones. A database covering a wide range of Z, Y, mass, and age values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tognelli, E.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2011-09-01

    Context. In recent years new observations of pre-main sequence stars (pre-MS) with Z ≤ Z⊙ have been made available. To take full advantage of the continuously growing amount of data of pre-MS stars in different environments, we need to develop updated pre-MS models for a wide range of metallicity to assign reliable ages and masses to the observed stars. Aims: We present updated evolutionary pre-MS models and isochrones for a fine grid of mass, age, metallicity, and helium values. Methods: We use a standard and well-tested stellar evolutionary code (i.e. FRANEC), that adopts outer boundary conditions from detailed and realistic atmosphere models. In this code, we incorporate additional improvements to the physical inputs related to the equation of state and the low temperature radiative opacities essential to computing low-mass stellar models. Results: We make available via internet a large database of pre-MS tracks and isochrones for a wide range of chemical compositions (Z = 0.0002-0.03), masses (M = 0.2-7.0 M⊙), and ages (1-100 Myr) for a solar-calibrated mixing length parameter α (i.e. 1.68). For each chemical composition, additional models were computed with two different mixing length values, namely α = 1.2 and 1.9. Moreover, for Z ≥ 0.008, we also provided models with two different initial deuterium abundances. The characteristics of the models have been discussed in detail and compared with other work in the literature. The main uncertainties affecting theoretical predictions have been critically discussed. Comparisons with selected data indicate that there is close agreement between theory and observation. Tracks and isochrones are available on the web at the http://astro.df.unipi.it/stellar-models/Tracks and isochrones are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/533/A109

  12. Results of interlaboratory comparison of fission track ages for 1992 fission track workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.S.; Crowley, K.D.; Dokka, R.K.; Galbraith, R.F.; Kowallis, B.J.; Naeser, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    Two apatites and one sphene were made available to the fission track research community for analysis prior to the 1992 Fission Track Workshop held in Philadelphia, U.S.A., 13-17 July. Eighteen laboratories throughout the world received aliquots of apatite and sphene. To date, analyses by 33 different scientists have been representing 15 different laboratories. With respect to the previous two interlaboratory comparisons, there is a noticeable improvement in the accuracy of the age results (Naeser and Cebula, 1978; Naeser et al., 1981; Miller et al., 1985;Miller et al.1990). Ninety-four percent of the analysis used the external detector method (EDM) combined with the zeta technique while the remaining individuals used the population method (POP). Track length measurements (requested for the first time in the interlaboratory comparison studies) were in relatively good agreement. ?? 1993.

  13. Aging results for PRD 49 III/epoxy and Kevlar 49/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamstad, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kevlar 49/epoxy composite is growing in use as a structural material because of its high strength-to-weight ratio. Currently, it is used for the Trident rocket motor case and for various pressure vessels on the Space Shuttle. In 1979, the initial results for aging of filament-wound cylindrical pressure vessels which were manufactured with preproduction Kevlar 49 (Hamstad, 1979) were published. This preproduction fiber was called PRD 49 III. This report updates the continuing study to 10-year data and also presents 7.5-year data for spherical pressure vessels wound with production Kevlar 49. For completeness, this report will again describe the specimens of the original study with PRD 49 as well as specimens for the new study with Kevlar 49.

  14. Does positive affect change in old age? Results from a 22-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gana, Kamel; Saada, Yaël; Amieva, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    The authors examined longitudinal change in positive affect (PA), a component of subjective well-being. Positive affect was assessed with the PA subscale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977) in a sample of individuals from the PAQUID cohort (n = 3,777; age 62-101 years, M = 75.46, SD = 6.91 at Wave 1) over a period of 22 years (10 waves of data). Latent growth curve modeling was used to assess change in PA. A quadratic latent growth curve was found to characterize the latent growth pattern of PA in our sample, indicating linear change before a decline phase. These results were discussed with reference to the well-being paradox. PMID:25436598

  15. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  16. Temporal and spatial variations of pulsating auroras obtained from ground-based observations at Poker Flat Research Range: Initial result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, T.; Sakanoi, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Katoh, Y.; Asamura, K.; Sato, M.; Okano, S.

    2011-12-01

    Pulsating Aurora(PA) is characterized by the periodically changing emission amplitudes with the rectangular pulses of a few seconds to a few tens of seconds [e.g., Oguti et al., 1981; Yamamoto, 1988]. PAs tend to appear in the recovery phase of substorm between postmidnight and dawn sector. The horizontal size of PAs are known to be 10-200 km, based on the optical observations. Recently, some ground-satellite coordinated observations suggested the generation mechanisms of PAs as a result of pitch angle scatterings due to whistler mode chorus waves and/or the electron cyclotron harmonics[Nishimura et al., 2010; Liang et al., 2010]. Time-varying field aligned potential was also suggested by Sato et al. [2004]. The dominant mechanisms and the origin of the periodicity remain unclear. Ground-based all-sky observations have been made for a long time, although they were not enough for a quantitative discussion about small-scale characteristics of PAs such as the shapes and dynamics due to their limited spatial resolutions. The fast temporal variations of intensity known as quasi-3Hz modulations, which was reported by a number of rocket/satellite observations about precipitating electrons[e.g., Sandahl et al., 1980], has been hardly discussed in detail using the ground instruments because of the limited temporal resolutions and sensitivities. We have carried out ground-based observations using a suit of instruments, consisting of an EMCCD camera, an all-sky video camera, a photometer, and a search coil magnetometer covering the frequency range of ELF-VLF. We installed the instruments at Poker Flat Research Range between November 2010 and March 2011. Our EMCCD camera has narrow field of view corresponding to 100km × 100km at altitude of 110 km and high sampling rate up to 100 frames per second. An initial analysis result of event on March 4th 2011 around 1100UT revealed two important features of PAs in small scale. One is PAs in the FOV can be categorized into three

  17. Placing Absolute Timing on Basin Incision Adjacent to the Colorado Front Range: Results from Meteoric and in Situ 10BE Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duehnforth, M.; Anderson, R. S.; Ward, D.

    2010-12-01

    A sequence of six levels of gravel-capped surfaces, mapped as Pliocene to Holocene in age, are cut into Cretaceous shale in the northwestern part of the Denver Basin immediately adjacent to the Colorado Front Range (CFR). The existing relative age constraints and terrace correlations suggest that the incision of the Denver Basin occurred at a steady and uniform rate of 0.1 mm yr-1 since the Pliocene. As absolute ages in this landscape are rare, they have the potential to test the reliability of the existing chronology, and to illuminate the detailed history of incision. We explore the timing of basin incision and the variability of geomorphic process rates through time by dating the three highest surfaces at the northwestern edge of the Denver Basin using both in situ and meteoric 10Be concentrations. As the tectonic conditions have not changed since the Pliocene, much of the variability of generation and abandonment of alluvial surfaces likely reflects the influence of glacial-interglacial climate variations. We selected Gunbarrel Hill (mapped as pre-Rocky Flats (Pliocene)), Table Mountain (mapped as Rocky Flats (early Pleistocene)), and the Pioneer surface (mapped as Verdos (Pleistocene, ~640 ka)) as sample locations. We took two amalgamated clast samples on the Gunbarrel Hill surface, and dated depth profiles using meteoric and in situ 10Be on the Table Mountain and Pioneer surfaces. In addition, we measured the in situ 10Be concentrations of 6 boulder samples from the Table Mountain surface. We find that all three surfaces are significantly younger than expected and that in situ and meteoric age measurements largely agree with each other. The samples from the pre-Rocky Flats site (Gunbarrel Hill) show ages of 250 and 310 ka, ignoring post-depositional surface erosion. The ages of the Table Mountain and Pioneer sites fall within the 120 to 150 ka window. These absolute ages overlap with the timing of the penultimate glaciation during marine isotope stage (MIS) 6

  18. Surveillance strategies for detecting chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer and elk: results of a CWD surveillance workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Joly, Damien O.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wright, Scott D.; Otis, David L.; Werge, Rob W.; Miller, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a fatal brain disease of North American deer and elk, has recently emerged as an important wildlife management issue. Interest and concern over the spread of this disease and its potential impact on free-ranging cervid populations has increased with discovery of the disease in numerous states and provinces. Current studies suggest that CWD may adversely affect of these highly visible, socially desirable, and economically valuable species. Despite the lack of evidence that CWD affects humans or livestock, a significant concern has been the perceived risk to humans and livestock. Uncertainty about whether CWD poses a health risk to hunters and their families who consume venison has resulted in testing of free-ranging cervids for CWD. In response to many of these concerns, wildlife management agencies across the nation have undertaken surveillance programs to detect CWD in their cervid populations. The nation-wide costs for an extensive CWD surveillance program have been estimated at several million dollars. This document provides guidance on the development and conduct of scientifically sound surveillance programs to detect CWD in free-ranging deer and elk populations. These guidelines will not apply equally to all jurisdictions. In many cases local circumstances, resources, area(s) of concern, disease risk, animal and landscape ecology, political, social, and many other factors will influence the objectives, design, and conduct of CWD surveillance programs. Part I of this report discusses the importance of management goals, strategies, and disease risks in developing a surveillance program. Part II describes surveillance methods, steps in designing a sampling strategy to detect CWD, alternative collection methods, and statistical considerations. Part III describes costs (personnel, time, and money) associated with implementation of these plans that will influence program design. Part IV outlines research that is needed to further

  19. Lunar and Artificial Satellite Laser Ranging: The Use of Queue Scheduling and Worth Functions to Maximize Scientific Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelus, P. J.; Ricklefs, R. L.; Wiant, J. R.; Ries, J. G.

    2003-08-01

    The lunar and artificial satellite laser ranging network, part of the International Laser Ranging Service, monitors a large number of targets. Many scientific disciplines are investigated using these data. These include the realization and maintenance of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame; the 3-dimensional deformation of the solid Earth; Earth orientation; variations in the topography and volume of the liquid Earth, including ocean circulation, mean sea level, ice sheet thickness, and wave heights; tidally generated variations in atmospheric mass distribution; calibration of microwave tracking techniques; picosecond global time transfer; determination of the dynamic equinox, the obliquity of the ecliptic, the precession constant and theories of nutation; gravitational and general relativistic studies, including Einstein's Equivalence Principle, the Robertson-Walker b parameter and time rate of change of the gravitational constant; lunar physics, including the dissipation of rotational energy, shape of the core-mantle boundary (Love Number k2), and free librations and their stimulating mechanisms; Solar System ties to the International Celestial Reference Frame. With shrinking resources, we must not only assess specific data requirements for each target, but also maximize the efficiency of the observing network. Several factors must be considered. First, not only does a result depend critically upon the quality and quantity of the data, it also depends upon the data distribution. Second, as technology improves, the cost of obtaining data can increase. Both require that scientific endeavor pay close attention to the manner in which the data is gathered. We examine the evolution of the laser network, using data analysis requirements and efficient network scheduling to maximize the scientific return. This requires an understanding of the observing equipment, as well as the scientific principles being studied. Queue scheduling and worth functions become

  20. Shear Properties of Brain Tissue over a Frequency Range Relevant for Automotive Impact Situations: New Experimental Results.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Stéphane; Lounis, Mourad; Willinger, Rémy

    2004-11-01

    This research aims at improving the definition of the shear linear material properties of brain tissue. A comparison between human and porcine white and gray matter samples was carried out over a new large frequency range associated with both traffic road and non-penetrating ballistic impacts. Oscillatory experiments were performed by using an original custom-designed oscillatory shear testing device. The findings revealed that no significant difference occured between the linear viscoelastic behavior of the porcine and the human brain tissue. On the average, the storage modulus (G') and the loss modulus (G") of the white matter increased respectively from 2.1 +/- 0.9 kPa to 16.8 +/- 2.0 kPa and from 0.4 +/- 0.2 kPa to 18.7 +/- 2.3 kPa between 0.1 and 6300 Hz at 37 degrees C. In addition, the gray and white matter behaviors seemed to be similar at small strains. The reliability of the data and the robustness of the experimental protocol were checked using a standard rheometer (Bohlin C-VOR 150). A good agreement was found between the data obtained in the frequency and time field. As a result, the linear relaxation modulus was determined over an extensive time range (from 10(-5) s to 300 s). In a first approach, the nonlinear behavior of brain tissue was studied using stress relaxation tests. Brain tissue showed significant shear softening for strains above 1% and the time relaxation behavior was independent of the applied strain. On this basis, a visco-hyperelastic model was proposed using the generalized Maxwell model and the Ogden hyperelastic model. These models respectively describe the linear relaxation modulus and the strain dependence of the shear stress. PMID:17230269

  1. Geospatial compilation of results from field sample collection in support of mineral resource investigations, Western Alaska Range, Alaska, July 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Graham, Garth E.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Benzel, William M.

    2015-01-01

    This Data Series summarizes results from July 2013 sampling in the western Alaska Range near Mount Estelle, Alaska. The fieldwork combined in situ and camp-based spectral measurements of talus/soil and rock samples. Five rock and 48 soil samples were submitted for quantitative geochemi­cal analysis (for 55 major and trace elements), and the 48 soils samples were also analyzed by x-ray diffraction to establish mineralogy and geochemistry. The results and sample photo­graphs are presented in a geodatabase that accompanies this report. The spectral, mineralogical, and geochemical charac­terization of these samples and the sites that they represent can be used to validate existing remote-sensing datasets (for example, ASTER) and future hyperspectral studies. Empiri­cal evidence of jarosite (as identified by x-ray diffraction and spectral analysis) corresponding with gold concentrations in excess of 50 parts per billion in soil samples suggests that surficial mapping of jarosite in regional surveys may be use­ful for targeting areas of prospective gold occurrences in this sampling area.

  2. Two Measurement Methods of Leaf Dry Matter Content Produce Similar Results in a Broad Range of Species

    PubMed Central

    Vaieretti, María Victoria; Díaz, Sandra; Vile, Denis; Garnier, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf dry matter content (LDMC) is widely used as an indicator of plant resource use in plant functional trait databases. Two main methods have been proposed to measure LDMC, which basically differ in the rehydration procedure to which leaves are subjected after harvesting. These are the ‘complete rehydration’ protocol of Garnier et al. (2001, Functional Ecology 15: 688–695) and the ‘partial rehydration’ protocol of Vendramini et al. (2002, New Phytologist 154: 147–157). Methods To test differences in LDMC due to the use of different methods, LDMC was measured on 51 native and cultivated species representing a wide range of plant families and growth forms from central-western Argentina, following the complete rehydration and partial rehydration protocols. Key Results and Conclusions The LDMC values obtained by both methods were strongly and positively correlated, clearly showing that LDMC is highly conserved between the two procedures. These trends were not altered by the exclusion of plants with non-laminar leaves. Although the complete rehydration method is the safest to measure LDMC, the partial rehydration procedure produces similar results and is faster. It therefore appears as an acceptable option for those situations in which the complete rehydration method cannot be applied. Two notes of caution are given for cases in which different datasets are compared or combined: (1) the discrepancy between the two rehydration protocols is greatest in the case of high-LDMC (succulent or tender) leaves; (2) the results suggest that, when comparing many studies across unrelated datasets, differences in the measurement protocol may be less important than differences among seasons, years and the quality of local habitats. PMID:17353207

  3. Copper-catalyzed ascorbate oxidation results in glyoxal/AGE formation and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Shangari, Nandita; Chan, Tom S; Chan, Katie; Huai Wu, Shuo; O'Brien, Peter J

    2007-04-01

    Previously we showed that 10 muM glyoxal compromised hepatocyte resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) by increasing glutathione (GSH) and NADPH oxidation and decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) before cytotoxicity ensued. Since transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbate (Asc) has been shown to result in the generation of both glyoxal and H(2)O(2), we hypothesized that glyoxal formation during this process compromises hepatocyte resistance to H(2)O(2). We used isolated rat hepatocytes and incubated them with Asc/copper and measured cytotoxicity, glyoxal levels, H(2)O(2), GSH levels, and MMP. To investigate the role of Asc/copper on glyoxal-BSA adducts, we measured the appearance of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in the presence and absence of catalase or aminoguanidine (AG). Asc/copper increased glyoxal and H(2)O(2) formation. Hepatocyte GSH levels were decreased and cytotoxicity ensued after a collapse of the hepatocyte MMP. Glyoxal traps protected hepatocytes against Asc/copper-induced cytotoxicity. In cell-free studies with BSA, incubation with Asc and copper resulted in glyoxal-hydroimidazolone formation, which was decreased by both AG and catalase. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that illustrates the importance of glyoxal production by transition metal-catalyzed Asc autoxidation. Understanding this mechanism of toxicity could lead to the development of novel copper chelating drug therapies to treat diabetic complications. PMID:17390397

  4. Range of variation of genu valgum and association with anthropometric characteristics and physical activity: comparison between children aged 3-9 years.

    PubMed

    Kaspiris, Angelos; Zaphiropoulou, Chrisi; Vasiliadis, Elias

    2013-07-01

    The lower limbs of children aged 3-9 years present varying knock-knee deformities that have a direct impact on the diversification of the load-bearing axis of the valgus limb and on the modification of gait kinematics. The purpose of our study was to establish the reference values of knee alignment in a Greek population and whether this is linked to a change in the physical activity of children depending on the severity of the genu valgum. Using a clinical method, we measured both the tibiofemoral (TF) angle and the intermalleolar (IM) distance of the lower extremities of normal children. Subsequently, forms of the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) for young children and the Baecke questionnaire on habitual physical activity, modified especially for children, were completed by the parents. We examined both the development of the TF angle and the IM distance in relation to age and the degree of restriction of physical activity in relation to the severity of the genu valgum. We analysed 316 unaffected lower extremities in children aged 3-9 years. The average value of the TF angle starts around 7° at the age of 3 years and gradually decreases to 4° at the age of 7-8 years. The average value of the IM distance ranges over 3.5 cm at the age of 3 years and progressively decreases to 2 cm at the age of 7-8 years. Physical activity appears to be influenced by sex and the severity of the genu valgum. We provide age-specific values for limb alignment and joint orientation of the lower extremity in children aged 3-9 years. A statistical correlation between all indexes (sport, leisure time and total) of the Baecke and the NPAQs and measurements of genu valgum was noted depending on the severity of the valgus deformity. PMID:23563283

  5. Social Work Faculty's Knowledge of Aging: Results from a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna S.; Chonody, Jill M.; Krase, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Social work students have reported in previous studies that they receive insufficient coursework and training to work effectively with older adults. A critical factor in these deficiencies may be the level of knowledge of social work faculty. This study sought to assess social work faculty's knowledge of aging using the Knowledge of Aging for…

  6. Immigrant Children's Age at Arrival and Assessment Results. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Anthony; Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina

    2012-01-01

    While a number of single-country studies have been done to explore whether or not there is a "critical age" at which the arrival in a new country becomes a steep disadvantage to the immigrant student, this study aims to determine whether the steepness of the age-at-arrival/test score profile varies across origin or destination countries. As…

  7. The Mount Evans batholith in the Colorado Front Range: revision of its age and reinterpretation of its structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Reed, J.C., Jr.; Dewitt, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Mount Evans batholith is composed of a main phase of massive to conspicuously foliated monzogranite and granodiorite and undeformed aplite and pegmatite. The Mount Evans batholith was previously considered to be part of the 1.7 Ga Routt Plutonic Suite. New U-Pb zircon ages on four samples (granodiorite, monzogranite, and granite), however, indicate that the batholith was emplaced at 1442 ?? 2 Ma and belongs to the Berthoud Plutonic Suite. Most of the batholith has igneous textures and structures, except in the vicinity of the Idaho Springs-Ralston shear zone where those features are tectonically recrystallized and foliated. The Mount Evans batholith is anomalous in composition and structure compared to most other 1.4 Ga plutons of the southwestern US. The differences probably reflect different sources of partial melting; the specific tectonic setting where rocks of such disparate origin are temporally and spatially juxtaposed is not understood. -from Authors

  8. Preliminary results for an aeromagnetic survey flown over Italy using the HALO (High Altitude and LOng range) research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesur, V.; Schachtschneider, R.; Gebler, A.

    2013-12-01

    In June 2012 the GEOHALO mission was flown over Italy using the high altitude and long-range German research aircraft HALO (Gulfstream jet - G550). One goal of the mission was to demonstrate the feasibility of using geodetic and geophysical instrumentation on such fast flying aircraft. The magnetic data were collected through two independent acquisition chains placed inside under-wing containers. Each chain included a total intensity cesium magnetometer, a three-component fluxgate magnetometer, several temperature censors and a digitizer. Seven parallel profiles, each around 1000 km long, were flown over the Apennine peninsula from north-west to south-east. The flight altitude was about 3500 m and the survey line spacing around 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles, and a repeated flight line at a higher altitude (approx. 10500 m). The measured magnetic data appear to be consistent with the expected signal. Here we present preliminary results of the data processing. From the calibration maneuvers we have been able to correct the data for most of the plane generated signal. High frequency noise, probably associated with the plane engines, has been filtered out. Along profile data are compared with the Italian aeromagnetic grid as provided by the last version of the WDMAM (World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map).

  9. Evidence for the Permo-Triassic transtensional rifting in the Iberian Range (NE Spain) according to magnetic fabrics results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lasanta, C.; Oliva-Urcia, B.; Román-Berdiel, T.; Casas, A. M.; Gil-Peña, I.; Sánchez-Moya, Y.; Sopeña, A.; Hirt, A. M.; Mattei, M.

    2015-05-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) techniques are applied to Permo-Triassic red beds from the Castilian Branch (Iberian Range, NE Spain) that were deposited in an extensional basin inverted during Cenozoic times. The main goal of this work is to characterize the tectonic evolution of the basinal stage by differentiating synsedimentary to early diagenetic magnetic fabrics from the secondary tectonic fabrics related to compression, which are scarcely developed because no penetrative structures related to compression have been recognized. Oblate magnetic fabrics, with kmin axes perpendicular to bedding ,are observed in most cases. Magnetic lineations are variable, showing a dominant ENE-WSW maximum, which fits with a dextral transtensional regime acting on NW-SE master faults during the Triassic. We propose that variations in the orientation of the magnetic lineation are associated with transfer faults which fragment the basin and trigger strain partitioning in different areas. Magnetic fabrics are locally modified by Cenozoic compression, with intermediate and minimum axes distributed along girdles perpendicular to fold axes. Comparing all these results with macrostructures and mesostructural kinematic indicators, we conclude that the fine-grained hematite-bearing rocks carry a consistent magnetic fabric which can be used to reconstruct the basin history.

  10. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous

  11. Shock recovery experiments in the range of 10 to 45 GPa - comparison of results of synthetic magnetite and terrestrial diabase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, T.; Pesonen, L.; Deutsch, A.; Honnermann, U.; Heikinheimo, E.

    2008-12-01

    Shock-induced changes in magnetic properties of rocks, minerals and meteorites play an important role in modelling the magnetic anomalies of impact structures (e.g. Vredefort), in interpretation of the magnetic anomalies of planetary bodies (e.g. Mars) and in understanding the paleomagnetic data of meteorites. To shed further light on these problems we report results of experimentally shocked samples of synthetic fine grained magnetite. We used cylindrical surface-polished discs (d 10 mm, h 4 mm) of the well characterized magnetite with SD-PSD grain size range. The magnetite powder was mixed with Al2O3 and sintered into disktype pellets. A series of shock recovery experiments from 10 to 45 GPa (nominal pressure) using a conventional high-explosive set-up with a steel (ARMCO) sample container, surrounded by a momentum trap of the identical material. As the samples were shocked inside the highly magnetic containers, the prevailing magnetic field was roughly five times higher than the ambient field. After the shock, the containers cooled down slowly to ambient temperatures. The estimated post-shock temperatures of the samples range from nearly ambient temperature (10 GPa) up to about 1400 K (45 GPa). Evaluating the "real" pressures reached in these experiments requires a model to account for the high porosity of the pellets. The porosity also affects significantly the post-shock temperature. Independent of the fact that pressure, shock- and post- shock tmperatures are not sufficiently constrained yet, the experiments form a well-characterized series of shocks with systematically increasing pressure. Surprisingly enough, the sample discs were not friable and could be removed by retaining shape largely unchanged. The shock induced changes in sample properties show, with the exception of the 45 GPa sample, with increasing shock pressure: 1. Reduction of bulk density and significant increase in porosity 2. Minor increase in magnetic susceptibility (10 GPa, 15 GPa and 45

  12. Trends and correlates of age at menarche in Colombia: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erica C; Herrán, Oscar F; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of age at menarche could provide useful information on the impact of changing environmental conditions on child health. Nevertheless, nationally representative data are exceedingly rare. The aim of this study was to examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of age at menarche of Colombian girls. The study sample included 15,441 girls born between 1992 and 2000 who participated in the Colombian National Nutrition Survey of 2010. We estimated median menarcheal age using Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analyses. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated with Cox regression models. The median age at menarche was 12.6 years. There was an estimated decline of 0.54 years/decade (P<0.001) over the birth years; this decline was only observed among girls from urban areas, and was more pronounced among girls from wealthier versus poorer families. Child height and BMI, maternal BMI and education, and family wealth were each inversely associated with menarcheal age whereas food insecurity and number of children in the household were positively associated with age at menarche. In conclusion, a negative trend in age at menarche is ongoing in Colombia, especially in groups most likely to benefit from socioeconomic development. PMID:26398849

  13. Decreased Polycystin 2 Levels Result in Non-Renal Cardiac Dysfunction with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ivana Y.; Duong, Sophie L.; Nguyen, Lily; Ehrlich, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for polycystin 2 (Pkd2) lead to polycystic kidney disease, however the main cause of mortality in humans is cardiac related. We previously showed that 5 month old Pkd2+/- mice have altered calcium-contractile activity in cardiomyocytes, but have preserved cardiac function. Here, we examined 1 and 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice to determine if decreased amounts of functional polycystin 2 leads to impaired cardiac function with aging. We observed changes in calcium handling proteins in 1 month old Pkd2+/- mice, and these changes were exacerbated in 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice. Anatomically, the 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice had thinner left ventricular walls, consistent with dilated cardiomyopathy, and the left ventricular ejection fraction was decreased. Intriguingly, in response to acute isoproterenol stimulation to examine β-adrenergic responses, the 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice exhibited a stronger contractile response, which also coincided with preserved localization of the β2 adrenergic receptor. Importantly, the Pkd2+/- mice did not have any renal impairment. We conclude that the cardiac-related impact of decreased polycystin 2 progresses over time towards cardiac dysfunction and altered adrenergic signaling. These results provide further evidence that polycystin 2 provides a critical function in the heart, independent of renal involvement. PMID:27081851

  14. Basin and range-age reactivation of the ancestral Rocky Mountains in Texas Panhandle: evidence from Ogallala Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, R.T.

    1984-04-01

    The Ogallala Formation (Neogene) is a widespread syntectonic alluvial apron that was shed eastward from the Rio Grande rift and related uplifts in Colorado and New Mexico during Basin and Range extension. In the Texas Panhandle, the Ogallala completely buried Ancestral Rocky Mountain (Pennsylvanian) structures. Renewed movement on these older structures during the Neogene influenced the thickness and facies distribution of the Ogallala. The Ogallala thickens into the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko basins. Major distributary channels on Ogallala alluvial fans coincide with the axes of these basins, whereas major interchannel areas overlie intervening uplifts. Second-order structures subtly influenced the unit as well. For example, the Carson basin, a Pennsylvanian rhomb graben along the Amarillo uplift, the Ogallala is over 250 m (820 ft) thick compared with 90 m (275 ft) in adjacent areas. Within the Palo Duro basin, local highs controlled the distribution of thin, interchannel flood-basin and lacustrine deposits. Thicker, braided-stream channel deposits follow local lows. Later movement on the Amarillo uplift broadly folded the Ogallala. The southern high plains surface subtly reflects basement structure, with topographic highs overlying basement highs, suggesting post-Ogallala deformation within the Palo Duro basin. The Amarillo uplift is approximately perpendicular to the Rio Grande rift and parallel to the direction of Basin and Range extension. Thus, the stress field that produced the rift may have caused strike-slip movement and reactivation of the Carson basin along the Amarillo uplift.

  15. [Psychiatric morbidity in the oldest old. Results of the Berlin Aging Study].

    PubMed

    Helmchen, H; Linden, M; Wernicke, T

    1996-09-01

    An increasing life expectancy leads to a higher number of persons aged 70-84 years and persons aged 85 years and older. Information concerning changes in the spectrum of psychiatric morbidity is rare. The Berlin Aging Study was based on a representative age- and gender-stratified sample (n = 516) of Berlin citizens aged 70-100 years and older. In this inter-disciplinary study, an intensive investigation was carried out by psychologists, sociologists, internists and psychiatrists. This report focuses on subjectively reported complaints (Beschwerdeliste, BL), observed psychopathological symptomatology (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, BPRS) and psychiatric diagnoses following the criteria of DSM-III-R (based on the Geriatric Mental State Examination, GMSA). On the self-rating scale (BL) 10% of all persons reported severe subjective complaints, 32% moderate complaints. On the BPRS, 17% showed severe psychopathological symptomatology, 75% at least mild symptoms. Following the criteria of DSM-III-R, 23.5% of all persons had a psychiatric disease, 4.2% a disease of severe intensity. When the DSM-III-R diagnoses "Not Otherwise Specified" (NOS) were included 40.4% of all subjects were diagnosed by the clinical judgement of the psychiatrists to have a psychiatric disease. The most frequent psychiatric diseases were insomnia (18.8%), depression NOS (17.8%) and dementia (13.8%). Dementia showed the well-known age-related increase, whereas no other incidences of psychiatric morbidity were age-related. Persons aged 70-84 years did not differ in the investigated psychiatric variables from persons aged 85 years and older, the only exception being the prevalence of dementia. PMID:8992371

  16. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats. Results Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague–Dawley albino rats weighing 160–280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p < 0.001), from 31.2±2.3 Hz to 10.9±1.4 Hz (p < 0.001) when pressure was applied, and from 18.9±1.2 Hz to 7.6±1.1 Hz (p < 0.001) upon brushing. Thereafter, the mean firing rates gradually recovered. Conclusions Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain. PMID:23211003

  17. Insensitivity of astrocytes to interleukin 10 signaling following peripheral immune challenge results in prolonged microglial activation in the aged brain.

    PubMed

    Norden, Diana M; Trojanowski, Paige J; Walker, Frederick R; Godbout, Jonathan P

    2016-08-01

    Immune-activated microglia from aged mice produce exaggerated levels of cytokines. Despite high levels of microglial interleukin (IL)-10 in the aged brain, neuroinflammation was prolonged and associated with depressive-like deficits. Because astrocytes respond to IL-10 and, in turn, attenuate microglial activation, we investigated if astrocyte-mediated resolution of microglial activation was impaired with age. Here, aged astrocytes had a dysfunctional profile with higher glial fibrillary acidic protein, lower glutamate transporter expression, and significant cytoskeletal re-arrangement. Moreover, aged astrocytes had reduced expression of growth factors and IL-10 receptor-1 (IL-10R1). After in vivo lipopolysaccharide immune challenge, aged astrocytes had a molecular signature associated with reduced responsiveness to IL-10. This IL-10 insensitivity of aged astrocytes resulted in a failure to induce IL-10R1 and transforming growth factor β and resolve microglial activation. In addition, adult astrocytes reduced microglial activation when co-cultured ex vivo, whereas aged astrocytes did not. Consistent with the aging studies, IL-10R(KO) astrocytes did not augment transforming growth factor β after immune challenge and failed to resolve microglial activation. Collectively, a major cytokine-regulatory loop between activated microglia and astrocytes is impaired in the aged brain. PMID:27318131

  18. The effect of production system (barn and free-range), slaughtering age and gender on carcass traits and meat quality of partridges (Alectoris chukar).

    PubMed

    Yamak, U S; Sarica, M; Boz, M A; Ucar, A

    2016-04-01

    1. A total of 400 Alectoris chukar partridges were reared in either barn or free-range production systems and slaughtered at 14, 16 or 18 weeks of age in order to determine the effects of production system, age and gender on carcass traits (live weight, carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass part and edible inner organ percentages at slaughtering) and meat quality (L*, a* and b* meat colour and pH). 2. Production system had a significant effect on both slaughter traits and meat quality. 3. Partridges raised in barn conditions had higher live weights and carcass weights whereas meat quality was better in birds raised in the free-range system. PMID:26813778

  19. Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Monaghan, A. J.; Eisen, L.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Ochoa, C.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriquez, C. M.; Quattrochi, D.; MorenoMadrinan, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    In tropical and sub ]tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio ]economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data-- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation-- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

  20. Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosson, W. L.; Eisen, L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Monaghan, A. J.; Moreno Madriñán, M. J.; Ochoa, C.; Quattrochi, D.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio-economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data -- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation -- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

  1. Dolutegravir in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1: 96-week results from a randomized dose-ranging study

    PubMed Central

    Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Reynes, Jacques; Lazzarin, Adriano; Voronin, Eugene; Pulido, Federico; Felizarta, Franco; Almond, Steve; Clair, Marty St; Flack, Nancy; Min, Sherene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety/tolerability of dolutegravir (DTG, S/GSK1349572), a potent inhibitor of HIV integrase, through the full 96 weeks of the SPRING-1 study. Design: ING112276 (SPRING-1) was a 96-week, randomized, partially blinded, phase IIb dose-ranging study. Methods: Treatment-naive adults with HIV received DTG 10, 25, or 50 mg once daily or efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg once daily (control arm) combined with investigator-selected dual nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone regimen (tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine). The primary endpoint of the study was the proportion of participants with plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/ml, based on time to loss of virologic response at 16 weeks (conducted for the purpose of phase III dose selection), with a planned analysis at 96 weeks. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results: Of 208 participants randomized to treatment, 205 received study drug. At week 96, the proportion of participants achieving plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/ml was 79, 78, and 88% for DTG 10, 25, and 50 mg, respectively, compared with 72% for EFV. The median increase from baseline in CD4+ cells was 338 cells/μl with DTG (all treatment groups combined) compared with 301 cells/μl with EFV (P = 0.155). No clinically significant dose-related trends in adverse events were observed, and fewer participants who received DTG withdrew because of adverse events (3%) compared with EFV (10%). Conclusion: Throughout the 96 weeks of the SPRING-1 study, DTG demonstrated sustained efficacy and favorable safety/tolerability in treatment-naive individuals with HIV-1. PMID:23807273

  2. Identifying a Safe Range of Stimulation Current for Intraoperative Neuromonitoring of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Results from a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Zhou, Gang; Yang, Yang; Gao, Zhi-Dong; Guo, Peng; Shen, Zhan-Long; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Qi-Wei; Ye, Ying-Jiang; Jiang, Ke-Wei; Wang, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) has been widely applied during thyroid surgery. However, the safe range of stimulation intensity for IONM remains undetermined. Methods: Total thyroidectomies were performed on twenty dogs, and their RLNs were stimulated with a current of 5–20 mA (step-wise in 5 mA increments) for 1 min. The evoked electromyography (EMG) of vocal muscles before and after supramaximal stimulation were recorded and compared. Acute microstructural morphological changes in the RLNs were observed immediately postoperatively under an electron microscope. Results: The average stimulating threshold for RLNs stimulated with 15 mA and 20 mA showed no significant changes compared to the unstimulated RLNs (15 mA group: 0.320 ± 0.123 mA vs. 0.315 ± 0.097 mA, P = 0.847; 20 mA group: 0.305 ± 0.101 mA vs. 0.300 ± 0.103 mA, P = 0.758). Similar outcomes were shown in average evoked EMG amplitude (15 mA group: 1,026 ± 268 μV vs. 1,021 ± 273 μV, P = 0.834; 20 mA group: 1,162 ± 275 μV vs. 1,200 ± 258 μV, P = 0.148). However, obvious acute microstructural morphological changes were observed in the nerves that were stimulated with 20 mA. Conclusions: A stimulation intensity less than 15 mA might be safe for IONM of the RLN. PMID:27453233

  3. Aerosol transport from Chiang Mai, Thailand to Mt. Lulin, Taiwan - Implication of aerosol aging during long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Engling, Guenter; Chang, Shih-Yu; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Chang, You-Jia; Hong, Guo-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The transport of biomass burning (BB) aerosol from Indochina may cause a potential effect on climate change in Southeast Asia, East Asia, and the Western Pacific. Up to now, the understanding of BB aerosol composition modification during long-range transport (LRT) is still very limited due to the lack of observational data. In this study, atmospheric aerosols were collected at the Suthep/Doi Ang Khang (DAK) mountain sites in Chiang Mai, Thailand and the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (Mt. Lulin) in central Taiwan from March to April 2010 and from February to April 2013, respectively. During the study period, an upwind and downwind relationship between the Suthep/DAK and Lulin sites (2400 km apart) was validated by backward trajectories. Comprehensive aerosol properties were resolved for PM2.5 water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous content, water-soluble/insoluble organic carbon (WSOC/WIOC), dicarboxylic acids and their salts (DCAS), and anhydrosugars. A Modification Factor (MF) is proposed by employing non-sea-salt potassium ion (nss-K+) or fractionalized elemental carbon evolved at 580 °C after pyrolized OC correction (EC1-OP) as a BB aerosol tracer to evaluate the mass fraction changes of aerosol components from source to receptor regions during LRT. The MF values of nss-SO42-, NH4+, NO3-, OC1 (fractionalized organic carbon evolved from room temperature to 140 °C), OP (pyrolized OC fraction), DCAS, and WSOC were above unity, which indicated that these aerosol components were enhanced during LRT as compared with those in the near-source region. In contrast, the MF values of anhydrosugars ranged from 0.1 to 0.3, indicating anhydrosugars have degraded during LRT.

  4. Superoxide Dismutase 1 Loss Disturbs Intracellular Redox Signaling, Resulting in Global Age-Related Pathological Changes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and organ dysfunction, which occur in a progressive and irreversible manner. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) serves as a major antioxidant and neutralizes superoxide radicals throughout the body. In vivo studies have demonstrated that copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1−/−) mice show various aging-like pathologies, accompanied by augmentation of oxidative damage in organs. We found that antioxidant treatment significantly attenuated the age-related tissue changes and oxidative damage-associated p53 upregulation in Sod1−/− mice. This review will focus on various age-related pathologies caused by the loss of Sod1 and will discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in Sod1−/− mice. PMID:25276767

  5. Age at natural menopause in Spain and the United States: results from the DAMES project.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Robert F; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2005-01-01

    Our research was undertaken to determine the median age of natural menopause and correlates of the timing of menopause in Spain and the United States (U.S.). A population-based sample of 300 women from Madrid, Spain and a random sample of 293 women from Fallon Community Health plan (FCHP), a health maintenance organization (HMO) in central Massachusetts, were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Logit analysis and logistic regression were used to estimate the median age at menopause and identify factors associated with it. The median age of natural menopause in Spain is estimated at 51.7 years, and in the U.S., it is 52.6 years. In Spain, women with any children (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.36) and a lower body mass index (BMI) (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78) had later ages at menopause while current smokers (OR = 5.51, 95% CI: 1.82, 16.7) had earlier ages of menopause in a multivariate model. A multiplicative interaction between smoking status and parity was identified, and an interaction term included in the multivariate model (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.94). In the U.S., household income, marital status, and education level were statistically associated with age at natural menopause in bivariate models. These factors were no longer statistically significant after adjustments in a multivariate model. Oral contraceptive use, cycle length, and cycle regularity were not statistically associated with the age of menopause in either country. The ages of natural menopause in Spain and the U.S. are comparable to other industrialized nations. The factors associated with the timing of natural menopause, in particular smoking and BMI, are consistent with those identified in previous studies. PMID:15849704

  6. Effects of Lowering the Minimum Alcohol Purchasing Age on Weekend Assaults Resulting in Hospitalization in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Gabrielle; McElduff, Patrick; Connor, Jennie; Langley, John

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effects on assault rates of lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age in New Zealand from 20 to 18 years. We hypothesized that the law change would increase assaults among young people aged 18 to 19 years (the target group) and those aged 15 to 17 years via illegal sales or alcohol supplied by older friends or family members. Methods. Using Poisson regression, we examined weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization from 1995 to 2011. Outcomes were assessed separately by gender among young people aged 15 to 17 years and those aged 18 to 19 years, with those aged 20 and 21 years included as a control group. Results. Relative to young men aged 20 to 21 years, assaults increased significantly among young men aged 18 to 19 years between 1995 and 1999 (the period before the law change), as well as the postchange periods 2003 to 2007 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.39) and 2008 to 2011 (IRR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.37). Among boys aged 15 to 17 years, assaults increased during the postchange periods 1999 to 2003 (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.49) and 2004 to 2007 (IRR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.45). There were no statistically significant effects among girls and young women. Conclusions. Lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age increased weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization among young males 15 to 19 years of age. PMID:24922142

  7. Scapular Notching on Kinematic Simulated Range of Motion After Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Is Not the Result of Impingement in Adduction

    PubMed Central

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Charbonnier, Caecilia; Stimec, Bojan V.; Fasel, Jean H.D.; Zderic, Ivan; Hagen, Jennifer; Walch, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Impingement after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is believed to occur from repetitive contact in adduction between the humeral component and the inferior scapular pillar. The primary purpose of this biomechanical study was to confirm the presence of different types of impingement and to examine which daily-life movements are responsible for them. A secondary aim was to provide recommendations on the type of components that would best minimize notching and loss of range of motion (ROM). The study included 12 fresh frozen shoulder specimens; each had a computed tomography (CT) image of the entire scapula and humerus in order to acquire topological information of the bones before RSA implantation. Cyclic tests were run postimplantation with 3 shoulders in each modalities. To quantify bone loss due to impingement, 3-dimensional anatomical models of the scapula were reconstructed from the CT scans and compared to their intact states. We found 8 bony impingements in 7 specimens: 2 at the lateral acromion, 1 at the inferior acromion, 4 scapular notching, and 1 with the glenoid resulting to wear at the 3:00 to 6:00 clock-face position. Impingements occurred in all kinds of tested motions, except for the internal/external rotation at 90° of abduction. The 3 specimens tested in abduction/adduction presented bone loss on the acromion side only. Scapular notching was noted in flexion/extension and in internal/external rotation at 0° of abduction. The humeral polyethylene liner was worn in 2 specimens—1 at the 6:00 to 8:00 clock-face position during internal/external rotation at 0° of abduction and 1 at the 4:00 clock-face position during flexion/extension. The present study revealed that 2 types of impingement interactions coexist and correspond to a frank abutment or lead to a scapular notching (friction-type impingement). Scapular notching seems to be caused by more movements or combination of movements than previously considered, and in particular by

  8. Scapular Notching on Kinematic Simulated Range of Motion After Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Is Not the Result of Impingement in Adduction.

    PubMed

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Charbonnier, Caecilia; Stimec, Bojan V; Fasel, Jean H D; Zderic, Ivan; Hagen, Jennifer; Walch, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Impingement after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is believed to occur from repetitive contact in adduction between the humeral component and the inferior scapular pillar. The primary purpose of this biomechanical study was to confirm the presence of different types of impingement and to examine which daily-life movements are responsible for them. A secondary aim was to provide recommendations on the type of components that would best minimize notching and loss of range of motion (ROM). The study included 12 fresh frozen shoulder specimens; each had a computed tomography (CT) image of the entire scapula and humerus in order to acquire topological information of the bones before RSA implantation. Cyclic tests were run postimplantation with 3 shoulders in each modalities. To quantify bone loss due to impingement, 3-dimensional anatomical models of the scapula were reconstructed from the CT scans and compared to their intact states. We found 8 bony impingements in 7 specimens: 2 at the lateral acromion, 1 at the inferior acromion, 4 scapular notching, and 1 with the glenoid resulting to wear at the 3:00 to 6:00 clock-face position. Impingements occurred in all kinds of tested motions, except for the internal/external rotation at 90° of abduction. The 3 specimens tested in abduction/adduction presented bone loss on the acromion side only. Scapular notching was noted in flexion/extension and in internal/external rotation at 0° of abduction. The humeral polyethylene liner was worn in 2 specimens--1 at the 6:00 to 8:00 clock-face position during internal/external rotation at 0° of abduction and 1 at the 4:00 clock-face position during flexion/extension. The present study revealed that 2 types of impingement interactions coexist and correspond to a frank abutment or lead to a scapular notching (friction-type impingement). Scapular notching seems to be caused by more movements or combination of movements than previously considered, and in particular by movements of

  9. The age patterns of severe malaria syndromes in sub-Saharan Africa across a range of transmission intensities and seasonality settings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A greater understanding of the relationship between transmission intensity, seasonality and the age-pattern of malaria is needed to guide appropriate targeting of malaria interventions in different epidemiological settings. Methods A systematic literature review identified studies which reported the age of paediatric hospital admissions with cerebral malaria (CM), severe malarial anaemia (SMA), or respiratory distress (RD). Study sites were categorized into a 3 × 2 matrix of Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity and seasonality. Probability distributions were fitted by maximum likelihood methods, and best fitting models were used to estimate median ages and to represent graphically the age-pattern of each outcome for each transmission category in the matrix. Results A shift in the burden of CM towards younger age groups was seen with increasing intensity of transmission, but this was not the case for SMA or RD. Sites with 'no marked seasonality' showed more evidence of skewed age-patterns compared to areas of 'marked seasonality' for all three severe malaria syndromes. Conclusions Although the peak age of CM will increase as transmission intensity decreases in Africa, more than 75% of all paediatric hospital admissions of severe malaria are likely to remain in under five year olds in most epidemiological settings. PMID:20939931

  10. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 2; Comparison of CFD and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celestina, Mark L.; Suder, Kenneth L.; Kulkarni, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    NASA and GE teamed to design and build a 57 percent engine scaled fan stage for a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space with multipoint operations. This fan stage was tested in NASA's transonic compressor facility. The objectives of this test were to assess the aerodynamic and aero mechanic performance and operability characteristics of the fan stage over the entire range of engine operation including: 1) sea level static take-off; 2) transition over large swings in fan bypass ratio; 3) transition from turbofan to ramjet; and 4) fan wind-milling operation at high Mach flight conditions. This paper will focus on an assessment of APNASA, a multistage turbomachinery analysis code developed by NASA, to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speeds (37 to 100 percent) and bypass ratios.

  11. Parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatric age: results of a pooled analysis from North American and European cooperative groups

    PubMed Central

    Merks, J. H. M.; De Salvo, G. L.; Bergeron, C.; Bisogno, G.; De Paoli, A.; Ferrari, A.; Rey, A.; Oberlin, O.; Stevens, M. C. G.; Kelsey, A.; Michalski, J.; Hawkins, D. S.; Anderson, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Parameningeal (PM) site is a well-known adverse prognostic factor in children with localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). To identify risk factors associated with outcome at this site, we pooled data from 1105 patients treated in 10 studies conducted by European and North American cooperative groups between 1984 and 2004. Patients and methods Clinical factors including age, histology, size, invasiveness, nodal involvement, Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) clinical group, site, risk factors for meningeal involvement (MI), study group, and application of radiotherapy (RT) were studied for their impact on event-free and overall survival (EFS and OS). Results Ten-year EFS and OS were 62.6 and 66.1% for the whole group. Patients without initial RT showed worse survival (10-year OS 40.8% versus 68.5% for RT treated patients). Multivariate analysis focusing on 862 patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment revealed four unfavorable prognostic factors: age <3 or >10 years, signs of MI, unfavorable site, and tumor size. Utilizing these prognostic factors, patients could be classified into different risk groups with 10-year OS ranging between 51.1 and 80.9%. Conclusions While, in general, PM localization is regarded as an adverse prognostic factor, the current analysis differentiates those with good prognosis (36% patients with 0–1 risk factor: 10-year OS 80.9%) from high-risk PM patients (28% with 3–4 factors: 10-year OS 51.1%). Furthermore, this analysis reinforces the necessity for RT in PM RMS. PMID:24356633

  12. Atmospheric Aging and Its Impacts on Physical Properties of Soot Aerosols: Results from the 2009 SHARP/SOOT Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Khalizov, A. F.; Zheng, J.; Reed, C. C.; Collins, D. R.; Olaguer, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols impact the Earth energy balance directly by scattering solar radiation back to space and indirectly by changing the albedo, frequency, and lifetime of clouds. Carbon soot (or black carbon) produced from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning represents a major component of primary aerosols. Because of high absorption cross-sections over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectra, black carbon contributes significantly to climate change by direct radiative forcing and is the second most important component causing global warming after carbon dioxide. In areas identified as aerosol hotspots, which include many megacities, solar heating by soot-containing aerosols is roughly comparable to heating due to greenhouse gases. In addition, light absorbing soot aerosols may reduce photolysis rates at the surface level, producing a noticeable impact on photochemistry. Enhanced light absorption and scattering by soot can stabilize the atmosphere, retarding vertical transport and exacerbating accumulation of gaseous and particulate matter (PM) pollutants within the planetary boundary layer. Less surface heating and atmospheric stabilization may decrease formation of clouds, and warming in the atmosphere can evaporate existing cloud droplets by lowering relative humidity. Furthermore, soot-containing aerosols represent a major type of PM that has adverse effects on human health. When first emitted, soot particles are low-density aggregates of loosely connected primary spherules. Freshly emitted soot particles are typically hydrophobic, but may become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) during atmospheric aging by acquiring hydrophilic coatings. Hygroscopic soot particles, being efficient CCN, can exert indirect forcing on climate. In this talk, results will be presented on measurements of soot properties during the 2009 SHARP/SOOT Campaign. Ambient aerosols and fresh soot particles injected into a captured air chamber were monitored to

  13. Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary Education in New York State. Evaluation Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education Planning.

    This document presents four action recommendations for implementing the long-range plan for technology in elementary and secondary education in New York state and three options or different strategies for implementing each of the action recommendations. The tables and bar graphs which make up the major part of this report indicate the extent to…

  14. Southward-younging apatite (U-Th)/He ages in the northern California Coast Ranges due to a northward-migrating crustal welt [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Robert J.; Spotila, James A.

    2005-06-01

    (U-Th)/He in apatite dating of Franciscan Formation samples from between 39°47'N and 39°08'N in the northern California Coast Ranges (NCCR) reveals a southward- and downward-younging pattern of ages (21.8 ± 0.6 Ma to 7.9 ± 0.9 Ma). These ages are interpreted to represent a northward or northeastward dipping fossil He partial retention zone that was tilted and exhumed by a northward-migrating pulse of crustal thickening that begins ˜150-200 km ahead of the migrating Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ) [K.P. Furlong, R. Govers, Ephemeral crustal thickening at a triple junction: the Mendocino crustal conveyor, Geology 27 (1999) 127-130). The ˜8 Ma ages from the southern end of the sample transect are interpreted to come from rocks that were immediately below the He partial retention zone when crustal thickening began, ˜5 my before the MTJ passed by; these rocks have now reached the surface, ˜3 my after passage of the MTJ. The older ages from the central and northern portions of the sample transect are interpreted to represent rocks that were within the He partial retention zone prior to crustal thickening ahead of the MTJ, and which therefore record ages transitional from older subduction-related cooling and exhumation to more recent transform-related cooling and exhumation. In addition to providing support for the model of a migrating crustal welt associated with the MTJ, the existence of an essentially intact, gently tilted fossil partial retention zone in the northern California Coast Range raises the possibility of using isochronous surfaces as neotectonic structural markers in this geologically complex and heavily vegetated region.

  15. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  16. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  17. Assessment of Aging Individuals with Down Syndrome in Clinical Trials: Results of Baseline Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul S.; Dalton, Arthur J.; Andrews, Howard F.; Tsai, Wei-Yann

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge to developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive loss and dementia in aging individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is the selection of appropriate outcome measures. This report describes the adaptation of the Brief Praxis Test (a nonverbal cognitive test) as a primary outcome measure, as well as the selection of secondary…

  18. Disseminating the Positively Aging[R] Teaching Materials: Results of a Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Pruski, Linda A.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Liu, Yan; Plaetke, Rosemarie

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of 2 dissemination methods for the Positively Aging teaching materials. In San Antonio, Texas, 4 middle schools participated in a 3-year controlled trial of dissemination via distance electronic support alone (control) compared to distance electronic support plus in-school support from study staff…

  19. TESTOSTERONE, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE, AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN OLDER MEN: RESULTS FROM THE MASSACHUSETTS MALE AGING STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript examines the relationships of total testosterone (T), bioavailable T, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) to measures of physical performance in a large, population-based, random sample of men. In the most recent wave of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study, measur...

  20. Extraction/oxidation kinetics of low molecular weight compounds in wine brandy resulting from different ageing technologies.

    PubMed

    Canas, Sara; Caldeira, Ilda; Belchior, A Pedro

    2013-06-15

    This study provides innovative information on the influence of new technologies of ageing (stainless steel tanks with wood staves or wood tablets of chestnut or Limousin oak), in comparison with traditional technology (oak wooden barrels), on the extraction/oxidation kinetics of low molecular weight compounds of wine brandy. The brandy was sampled and analysed by HPLC during the first year of ageing. The results show that most of the compounds tend to increase over the time, but their extraction/oxidation kinetics depend on the ageing technology. The wooden barrels promote greater enrichment in the majority of the compounds. However, gallic acid, ellagic acid and syringaldehyde, and vanillin and 5-methylfurfural, which are strong antioxidants and key-odourant compounds, respectively, present higher contents in the brandy aged with the alternative technologies. Chestnut proves to be a suitable alternative to Limousin oak for the ageing of brandy in all the studied technologies, inducing faster evolution and high quality. PMID:23497909

  1. Does age matter in song bird vocal interactions? Results from interactive playback experiments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The song of oscines provides an extensively studied model of age-dependent behaviour changes. Male and female receivers might use song characteristics to obtain information about the age of a signaller, which is often related to its quality. Whereas most of the age-dependent song changes have been studied in solo singing, the role of age in vocal interactions is less well understood. We addressed this issue in a playback study with common nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos). Previous studies showed that male nightingales had smaller repertoires in their first year than older males and males adjusted their repertoire towards the most common songs in the breeding population. We now compared vocal interaction patterns in a playback study in 12 one year old and 12 older nightingales (cross-sectional approach). Five of these males were tested both in their first and second breeding season (longitudinal approach). Song duration and latency to respond did not differ between males of different ages in either approach. In the cross-sectional approach, one year old nightingales matched song types twice as often as did older birds. Similarly, in the longitudinal approach all except one bird reduced the number of song type matches in their second season. Individuals tended to overlap songs at higher rates in their second breeding season than in their first. The higher levels of song type matches in the first year and song overlapping by birds in their second year suggest that these are communicative strategies to establish relationships with competing males and/or choosy females. PMID:22071317

  2. Prediction of the spectrum of atmospheric microburst noise in the range 2-20 Hz - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Jay C.; Pope, D. Stuart

    1989-01-01

    An engineering estimate of the spectrum of atmospheric microburst noise radiation in the range 2-20 Hz is developed. This prediction is obtained via a marriage of standard aeroacoustic theory with a numerical computation of the relevant fluid dynamics. The 'computational aeroacoustics' technique applied here to the interpretation of atmospheric noise measurements is illustrative of a methodology that can now be employed in a wide class of problems.

  3. Results of seismological monitoring in the Cascade Range 1962-1989: earthquakes, eruptions, avalanches and other curiosities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, C.S.; Norris, R.D.; Jonientz-Trisler, C.

    1990-01-01

    Modern monitoring of seismic activity at Cascade Range volcanoes began at Longmire on Mount Rainier in 1958. Since then, there has been an expansion of the regional seismic networks in Washington, northern Oregon and northern California. Now, the Cascade Range from Lassen Peak to Mount Shasta in the south and Newberry Volcano to Mount Baker in the north is being monitored for earthquakes as small as magnitude 2.0, and many of the stratovolcanoes are monitored for non-earthquake seismic activity. This monitoring has yielded three major observations. First, tectonic earthquakes are concentrated in two segments of the Cascade Range between Mount Rainier and Mount Hood and between Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, whereas little seismicity occurs between Mount Hood and Mount Shasta. Second, the volcanic activity and associated phenomena at Mount St. Helens have produced intense and widely varied seismicity. And third, at the northern stratovolcanoes, signals generated by surficial events such as debris flows, icequakes, steam emissions, rockfalls and icefalls are seismically recorded. Such records have been used to alert authorities of dangerous events in progress. -Authors

  4. Stratigraphic and structural implications of conodont and detrital zircon U-Pb ages from metamorphic rocks of the Coldfoot terrane, Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.E.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Harris, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    New paleontologic and isotopic data from the Emma Creek and Marion Creek schists of the Coldfoot terrane, Arctic Alaska superterrane, central Brooks Range, suggest Devonian and possibly younger ages of deposition for their sedimentary protoliths. Conodonts from marble of the Emma Creek schist, intruded by a roughly 392 Ma orthogneiss, are late Lochkovian (early Early Devonian, between about 408 and 396 Ma) and Silurian to Devonian at two other locations. Spherical to oblong detrital zircons from quartz-mica schist of the overlying Marion Creek schist yield mostly discordant U-Pb data suggestive of provenance ages of 3.0, 2.0-1.8, and 1.5-1.4 Ga; however, several euhedral grains of zircon from Marion Creek quartz-mica schist have concordant U-Pb ages from 370 to 360 Ma. The Marion Creek schist in our study area therefore is at least 26 m.y. younger than the Emma Creek schist. The age data imply that the protolith of the Emma Creek schist is age correlative with Devonian carbonate rocks in the Hammond and North Slope terranes, whereas the Marion Creek schist is age correlative with Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian clastic sedimentary rocks of the Endicott Group in the Endicott Mountains terrane and shale and carbonate units in the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes. Consequently, tectonic models restoring the entire Coldfoot terrane beneath partly or wholly coeval rocks of the Hammond, Endicott Mountains, De Long Mountains, and Sheenjek River terranes of the Arctic Alaska superterrane require revision. Alternative reconstructions, including restoration of the Coldfoot terrane inboard of the Endicott Mountains terrane or outboard of the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes are plausible but require either larger amounts of shortening than previously suggested or indicate problematic facies relations. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. An assessment of the reliability of palaeointensity results obtained from the Cretaceous aged Suhongtu section, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mimi J.; Pan, Yongxin; Davies, Ceri J.

    2008-08-01

    Here we present microwave palaeointensity results from 89 sister samples from the study of Zhu et al. [Zhu, R., Pan, Y., He, H., Qin, H., Ren, S., 2008. Palaeomagnetism and 40Ar/ 39Ar age from a Cretaceous volcanic sequence, Inner Mongolia, China: implications for the field variation during the Cretaceous normal superchron. Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 169, 59-75] who carried out Thellier palaeointensity analysis as part of their integrated palaeomagnetic and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating study of Cretaceous lava from the Suhungtu section, Inner Mongolia, China. Additionally, a comprehensive rock magnetic investigation has been carried out in order to determine the mineralogy and hence the validity of assuming that the remanence is a thermal remanent magnetisation (TRM). The microwave results are of apparent high quality and give flow mean palaeointensity estimates ranging from 13 to 49 μT corresponding to virtual dipole moment (VDM) estimates ranging from 2.5 to 8.9 × 10 22 Am 2, and an overall mean VDM of 5.5 ± 1.9 × 10 22 Am 2 for the 24 flows (aged 110.6 ± 0.1 Ma). When the microwave results (using the perpendicular applied field method with partial microwave thermal remanence (pT MRM) and pT MRM tail checks) are compared to those obtained with the Thellier method (Coe version with pTRM but not tail checks, and heating in argon atmosphere) differences are seen at the sample, flow and palaeomagnetic unit level however, the overall means and spread in palaeointensity estimates are consistent. Some discrepancy is due to the differing sized sample sets and sample inhomogeneity but discrepancy is also interpreted to be due to the differing protocols, methodology, plus the subjectivity in interpretation. Considering only those results that are consistent to within 20% the spread in palaeointensity estimates remains. There is substantial rock magnetic evidence from progressive heating in air and argon experiments (both showing irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour) as well as

  6. High female mortality resulting in herd collapse in free-ranging domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Åhman, Birgitta; Svensson, Kristin; Rönnegård, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Reindeer herding in Sweden is a form of pastoralism practised by the indigenous Sámi population. The economy is mainly based on meat production. Herd size is generally regulated by harvest in order not to overuse grazing ranges and keep a productive herd. Nonetheless, herd growth and room for harvest is currently small in many areas. Negative herd growth and low harvest rate were observed in one of two herds in a reindeer herding community in Central Sweden. The herds (A and B) used the same ranges from April until the autumn gathering in October-December, but were separated on different ranges over winter. Analyses of capture-recapture for 723 adult female reindeer over five years (2007-2012) revealed high annual losses (7.1% and 18.4%, for herd A and B respectively). A continuing decline in the total reindeer number in herd B demonstrated an inability to maintain the herd size in spite of a very small harvest. An estimated breakpoint for when herd size cannot be kept stable confirmed that the observed female mortality rate in herd B represented a state of herd collapse. Lower calving success in herd B compared to A indicated differences in winter foraging conditions. However, we found only minor differences in animal body condition between the herds in autumn. We found no evidence that a lower autumn body mass generally increased the risk for a female of dying from one autumn to the next. We conclude that the prime driver of the on-going collapse of herd B is not high animal density or poor body condition. Accidents or disease seem unlikely as major causes of mortality. Predation, primarily by lynx and wolverine, appears to be the most plausible reason for the high female mortality and state of collapse in the studied reindeer herding community. PMID:25356591

  7. Lower crustal deformation beneath the central Transverse Ranges, southern California: Results from the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godfrey, N.J.; Fuis, G.S.; Langenheim, V.; Okaya, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    We present a P wave velocity model derived from active source seismic data collected during the 1994 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment. Our model extends previously published upper crustal velocity models to mantle depths. Our model was developed by both ray tracing through a layered model and calculating travel times through a gridded model. It includes an 8-km-thick crustal root centered beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas fault, north of the highest topography in the San Gabriel Mountains. A simple mass balance calculation suggests that ???36 km of north-south shortening across the San Andreas fault in the central Transverse Ranges could have formed this root. If north-south compression began when the "Big Bend" in the San Andreas fault formed at ???5 Ma, 36 km of shortening implies a north-south contraction rate of ???7.1 mm/yr across the central Transverse Ranges. If, instead, north-south compression began when the Transverse Ranges formed at 3.4-3.9 Ma, 36 km of shortening implies a contraction rate of 9.2-10.6 mm/yr. North of the San Andreas fault, the Mojave Desert crust has a low-velocity (6.3 km/s) mid and lower crust and a 28-km-deep Moho. South of the San Andreas fault, beneath the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley basins, there is a fast (6.6-6.8 km/s), thick (10-12 km) lower crust with a 27-km-deep Moho. Farther south still, the lower crust of the Continental Borderland is fast (6.6-6.8 km/s) and thin (5 km) with a shallow (22 km deep) Moho.

  8. High Female Mortality Resulting in Herd Collapse in Free-Ranging Domesticated Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Åhman, Birgitta; Svensson, Kristin; Rönnegård, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Reindeer herding in Sweden is a form of pastoralism practised by the indigenous Sámi population. The economy is mainly based on meat production. Herd size is generally regulated by harvest in order not to overuse grazing ranges and keep a productive herd. Nonetheless, herd growth and room for harvest is currently small in many areas. Negative herd growth and low harvest rate were observed in one of two herds in a reindeer herding community in Central Sweden. The herds (A and B) used the same ranges from April until the autumn gathering in October–December, but were separated on different ranges over winter. Analyses of capture-recapture for 723 adult female reindeer over five years (2007–2012) revealed high annual losses (7.1% and 18.4%, for herd A and B respectively). A continuing decline in the total reindeer number in herd B demonstrated an inability to maintain the herd size in spite of a very small harvest. An estimated breakpoint for when herd size cannot be kept stable confirmed that the observed female mortality rate in herd B represented a state of herd collapse. Lower calving success in herd B compared to A indicated differences in winter foraging conditions. However, we found only minor differences in animal body condition between the herds in autumn. We found no evidence that a lower autumn body mass generally increased the risk for a female of dying from one autumn to the next. We conclude that the prime driver of the on-going collapse of herd B is not high animal density or poor body condition. Accidents or disease seem unlikely as major causes of mortality. Predation, primarily by lynx and wolverine, appears to be the most plausible reason for the high female mortality and state of collapse in the studied reindeer herding community. PMID:25356591

  9. Age and composition of Archean crystalline rocks from the southern Madison Range, Montana. Implications for crustal evolution in the Wyoming craton

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.A.; Shuster, R.D. ); Wooden, J.L. ); Erslev, E.A. ); Bowes, D.R. )

    1993-04-01

    The southern Madison Range of southwestern Montana contains two distinct Precambrian lithologic assemblages: (1) a complex of tonalitic to granitic gneisses that has been thrust over (2) a medium-grade metasupracrustal sequence dominated by pelitic schist. Crystallization ages for the protolith of a granodioritic gneiss that intruded the metasupracrustal sequence ([approximately]2.6 Ga)-along with an intercalated meta-andesite ([approximately]2.7 Ga) confirm the sequence as Archean. Chemical (major and trace element), isotopic (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb), and geochronologic (U-Pb zircon) data for selected components of the gneiss complex indicate two groups of gneisses: an older, tonalitic to trondhjemitic group ([approximately]3.3 Ga) and a younger, mostly granitic group ([approximately]2.7 Ga). Both groups of gneisses exhibit the radiogenic Pb and nonradiogenic Nd isotopic signature characteristic of Middle and Late Archean rocks from throughout the Wyoming province. The older gneisses, in particular, appear to be compositionally, isotopically, and chronologically comparable to other Middle Archean gneisses from the northern part of the province (for example, Beartooth Mountains). The Late Archean gneisses, however, exhibit some distinct differences relative to their temporal counterparts, including (1) trace-element patterns that are more suggestive of crustal melts than subduction activity and (2) higher initial Sr isotopic ratios that suggest more involvement of older crust in their petrogenesis. These comparisons suggest that the juxtaposition of Late Archean terranes in the northern Wyoming province was the result, at least in part, of intracratonic processes. 41 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: The TERESA field results

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Choong-Min; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Lawrence, Joy E.; Rohr, Annette C.; Godleski, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions Source Aerosols (TERESA) study was carried out at three US coal-fired power plants to investigate the potential toxicological effects of primary and photochemically aged (secondary) particles using in situ stack emissions. The exposure system designed successfully simulated chemical reactions that power plant emissions undergo in a plume during transport from the stack to receptor areas (e.g., urban areas). Test atmospheres developed for toxicological experiments included scenarios to simulate a sequence of atmospheric reactions that can occur in a plume: (1) primary emissions only; (2) H2SO4 aerosol from oxidation of SO2; (3) H2SO4 aerosol neutralized by gas-phase NH3; (4) neutralized H2SO4 with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the reaction of α-pinene with O3; and (5) three control scenarios excluding primary particles. The aged particle mass concentrations varied significantly from 43.8 to 257.1 μg/m3 with respect to scenario and power plant. The highest was found when oxidized aerosols were neutralized by gas-phase NH3 with added SOA. The mass concentration depended primarily on the ratio of SO2 to NOx (particularly NO) emissions, which was determined mainly by coal composition and emissions controls. Particulate sulfate (H2SO4 + neutralized sulfate) and organic carbon (OC) were major components of the aged particles with added SOA, whereas trace elements were present at very low concentrations. Physical and chemical properties of aged particles appear to be influenced by coal type, emissions controls and the particular atmospheric scenarios employed. PMID:20462390

  11. Results of Aging Tests of Vendor-Produced Blended Feed Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Buchmiller, William C.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2009-04-21

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is procuring through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) a minimum of five 3,500 gallon batches of waste simulant for Phase 1 testing in the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). To make sure that the quality of the simulant is acceptable, the production method was scaled up starting from laboratory-prepared simulant through 15-gallon vendor prepared simulant and 250-gallon vendor prepared simulant before embarking on the production of the 3500-gallon simulant batch by the vendor. The 3500-gallon PEP simulant batches were packaged in 250-gallon high molecular weight polyethylene totes at NOAH Technologies. The simulant was stored in an environmentally controlled environment at NOAH Technologies within their warehouse before blending or shipping. For the 15-gallon, 250-gallon, and 3500-gallon batch 0, the simulant was shipped in ambient temperature trucks with shipment requiring nominally 3 days. The 3500-gallon batch 1 traveled in a 70-75°F temperature controlled truck. Typically the simulant was uploaded in a PEP receiving tank within 24-hours of receipt. The first uploading required longer with it stored outside. Physical and chemical characterization of the 250-gallon batch was necessary to determine the effect of aging on the simulant in transit from the vendor and in storage before its use in the PEP. Therefore, aging tests were conducted on the 250-gallon batch of the vendor-produced PEP blended feed simulant to identify and determine any changes to the physical characteristics of the simulant when in storage. The supernate was also chemically characterized. Four aging scenarios for the vendor-produced blended simulant were studied: 1) stored outside in a 250-gallon tote, 2) stored inside in a gallon plastic bottle, 3) stored inside in a well mixed 5-L tank, and 4) subject to extended temperature cycling under summer temperature conditions in a gallon plastic bottle. The following

  12. Study of Height Reduction of Sn99Cu1/Cu Solder Joints as a Result of Isothermal Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwen; Liu, Changqing; Wu, Yiping; An, Bing; Zhou, Longzao

    2015-11-01

    Sn99Cu1/Cu solder joints were investigated after isothermal aging at 175°C for different lengths of time under vacuum conditions. The results revealed height reduction of the solder of approximately 1.2 μm after aging for 1132.5 h. This was primarily attributed to growth of a layer of interfacial intermetallic compounds. The reduction was measured by use of a copper block containing a recess filled with solder, which was reflowed then polished flat. Height reduction of the solder joint during aging was found to obey the parabolic law Δ h = -0.031√ t, and was in excellent agreement with theoretical calculation.

  13. Aging results in copper accumulations in GFAP-positive cells in the subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Pushkar, Yulia; Robison, Gregory; Sullivan, Brendan; Zheng, Wei; Fu, Sherleen X.; Kohne, Meghan; Jiang, Wendy; Rohr, Sven; Lai, Barry; Marcus, Matthew A.; Zakharova, Taisiya

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of rodent brains with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy combined with immunohistochemistry allowed us to demonstrate that local Cu concentrations are thousands of times higher in the glia of the subventricular zone than in other cells. Using XRF microscopy with subcellular resolution and intracellular X-ray absorption spectroscopy we determined the copper (I) oxidation state and the sulfur ligand environment. Cu K-edge XANES is consistent with Cu being bound as a multimetallic Cu-S cluster similar to one present in Cu-metallothionein. Analysis of age related changes show that Cu content in astrocytes of the SVZ increases 4 fold from 3 weeks to 9 months while Cu concentration in other brain areas remain essentially constant. This increase in Cu correlates with a decrease in adult neurogenesis assessed using the Ki67 marker (both, however, can be age related effects). We demonstrate that the Cu distribution and age-related concentration changes in the brain are highly cell-specific. PMID:23738916

  14. 2015-16 results from the FIM global model for medium-range to subseasonal forecast duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Stan; Sun, Shan; Bleck, Rainer; Grell, Georg; Bao, Jian-Wen; Brown, John

    2016-04-01

    NOAA/ESRL has continued to develop numerical, physics, and coupled ocean refinements to the FIM global model (Flow-following finite-volume) Icosahedral Model) with a unique combination of an adaptive largely isentropic vertical grid and an icosahedral horizontal grid. The FIM model is being applied to both medium-range and seasonal prediction with considerable success and is a candidate for NOAA week 3-4 prediction within a multi-model ensemble and as a research earth system simulator with ocean and inline chemistry components already in use. FIM is currently run at down to 10-km resolution in real-time. Design improvements from FIM will be applied, in part, toward NOAA's future Next-Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS). 2015-2016 performance of the FIM global model vs. GFS and other models for medium-range prediction will be summarized. In 2015 controlled experiments, 30km FIM shows improved anomaly correlation attributable to its dynamic core. The presentation will include detail on its coupled with inline chemistry and a matching icosahedral version of the HYCOM ocean model.

  15. Sex Differences in the Limit to Deficit Accumulation in Late Middle-Aged and Older Chinese People: Results From the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Yang, Zhan; Song, Xiaowei; Yu, Pulin; Fang, Xianghua; Tang, Zhe; Peng, Dantao; Mitnitski, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Background. On average, as people age, they accumulate more health deficits and have an increased risk of death. The deficit accumulation–based frailty index (FI) can quantify health and its outcomes in aging. Previous studies have suggested that women show higher FI values than men and that the highest FI score (the “limit to frailty”) occurs at a value of FI ~ 0.7. Even so, gender differences in the limit to frailty have not been reported. Methods. Data for this analysis were obtained from the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging that involved 3,257 community-dwelling Chinese people, aged 55+ years at baseline. The main outcome measure was 5-year mortality. An FI consisting of 35 health-related variables was constructed. The absolute and 99% FI limits were calculated for different age groups and analyzed by sex. Results. The mean level of the FI increased with age and was lower in men than in women (F = 67.87, p < .001). The 99% FI limit leveled off slightly earlier with a relatively lower value in men (60 years; 0.44 ± 0.02) compared with that in women (65 years; 0.52 ± 0.04). The highest absolute FI value was 0.61 in men and 0.69 in women. In both groups, people with an FI greater than or equal to the 99% limit showed close to 100% mortality by 5 years. Conclusion. Compared with men, women appeared to better tolerate deficits in health, yielding both relatively lower mortality and higher limit values to the FI. Even so, the FI did not exceed 0.7 in any individual. PMID:24127426

  16. Caspase-3-Dependent Proteolytic Cleavage of Tau Causes Neurofibrillary Tangles and Results in Cognitive Impairment During Normal Aging.

    PubMed

    Means, John C; Gerdes, Bryan C; Kaja, Simon; Sumien, Nathalie; Payne, Andrew J; Stark, Danny A; Borden, Priscilla K; Price, Jeffrey L; Koulen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are important for understanding how pathological signaling cascades change neural circuitry and with time interrupt cognitive function. Here, we introduce a non-genetic preclinical model for aging and show that it exhibits cleaved tau protein, active caspases and neurofibrillary tangles, hallmarks of AD, causing behavioral deficits measuring cognitive impairment. To our knowledge this is the first report of a non-transgenic, non-interventional mouse model displaying structural, functional and molecular aging deficits associated with AD and other tauopathies in humans with potentially high impact on both new basic research into pathogenic mechanisms and new translational research efforts. Tau aggregation is a hallmark of tauopathies, including AD. Recent studies have indicated that cleavage of tau plays an important role in both tau aggregation and disease. In this study we use wild type mice as a model for normal aging and resulting age-related cognitive impairment. We provide evidence that aged mice have increased levels of activated caspases, which significantly correlates with increased levels of truncated tau and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. In addition, cognitive decline was significantly correlated with increased levels of caspase activity and tau truncated by caspase-3. Experimentally induced inhibition of caspases prevented this proteolytic cleavage of tau and the associated formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Our study shows the strength of using a non-transgenic model to study structure, function and molecular mechanisms in aging and age related diseases of the brain. PMID:27220334

  17. Associations of fatigue from mid to late life with physical performance and strength in early old age: Results from a British prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mänty, Minna; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine associations of fatigue in mid and later life with physical performance and strength in early old age. METHODS Data on approximately 1800 men and women from the UK Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development with data on fatigue at ages 43 and 60-64 years were used. Fatigue was defined as perceived tiredness and was assessed prospectively at ages 43 and 60-64. At both ages, participants were categorized as having no, occasional or frequent fatigue. Physical performance and strength were measured at age 60-64 using four objective measures: grip strength, standing balance, chair rising, and timed get-up-and-go (TUG) tests. RESULTS There were associations between reports of frequent fatigue at both ages and poorer grip strength, chair rise and TUG performance at 60-64 years. Furthermore, individuals reporting frequent fatigue at both ages had weaker grip strength (β -4.09 kg, 95% CI -6.71, -1.48), and slower chair rise (β -4.65 rep./min, 95% CI -6.65, -2.64) and TUG (β -4.22 cm/s, 95% CI -12.16, -2.28) speeds when compared to those who reported no fatigue at both time points. These associations were robust and were maintained after adjustment for a range of covariates including physical activity and health status. CONCLUSIONS Reports of frequent fatigue were associated with poorer physical performance in early old age, especially if sustained from mid to later life. These findings indicate that it is not just fatigue but fatigue sustained across adulthood that has implications for later life functioning. PMID:26176776

  18. Solutions of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model: Benchmarks and Results from a Wide Range of Numerical Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, J. P. F.; Antipov, Andrey E.; Becca, Federico; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Chung, Chia-Min; Deng, Youjin; Ferrero, Michel; Henderson, Thomas M.; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Kozik, E.; Liu, Xuan-Wen; Millis, Andrew J.; Prokof'ev, N. V.; Qin, Mingpu; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Shi, Hao; Svistunov, B. V.; Tocchio, Luca F.; Tupitsyn, I. S.; White, Steven R.; Zhang, Shiwei; Zheng, Bo-Xiao; Zhu, Zhenyue; Gull, Emanuel; Simons Collaboration on the Many-Electron Problem

    2015-10-01

    Numerical results for ground-state and excited-state properties (energies, double occupancies, and Matsubara-axis self-energies) of the single-orbital Hubbard model on a two-dimensional square lattice are presented, in order to provide an assessment of our ability to compute accurate results in the thermodynamic limit. Many methods are employed, including auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo, bare and bold-line diagrammatic Monte Carlo, method of dual fermions, density matrix embedding theory, density matrix renormalization group, dynamical cluster approximation, diffusion Monte Carlo within a fixed-node approximation, unrestricted coupled cluster theory, and multireference projected Hartree-Fock methods. Comparison of results obtained by different methods allows for the identification of uncertainties and systematic errors. The importance of extrapolation to converged thermodynamic-limit values is emphasized. Cases where agreement between different methods is obtained establish benchmark results that may be useful in the validation of new approaches and the improvement of existing methods.

  19. Aging of polyurethane foam insulation in simulated refrigerator panels -- Initial results with third-generation blowing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, K.E.; Gabbard, W.A.; Weaver, F.J.

    1998-11-01

    Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements -- HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and {minus}10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for about 250 days of aging for the core-foam specimens and for the first six months of aging for the full-thickness panels.

  20. Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--Three-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, K.E.

    2001-05-29

    Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and -10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first three years of a multi-year aging study. Preliminary comparisons of measured data with predictions of a mathematical aging model are presented.

  1. Parallel Mutations Result in a Wide Range of Cooperation and Community Consequences in a Two-Species Bacterial Consortium.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Sarah M; Chubiz, Lon M; Harcombe, William R; Ytreberg, F Marty; Marx, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-species microbial communities play a critical role in human health, industry, and waste remediation. Recently, the evolution of synthetic consortia in the laboratory has enabled adaptation to be addressed in the context of interacting species. Using an engineered bacterial consortium, we repeatedly evolved cooperative genotypes and examined both the predictability of evolution and the phenotypes that determine community dynamics. Eight Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains evolved methionine excretion sufficient to support growth of an Escherichia coli methionine auxotroph, from whom they required excreted growth substrates. Non-synonymous mutations in metA, encoding homoserine trans-succinylase (HTS), were detected in each evolved S. enterica methionine cooperator and were shown to be necessary for cooperative consortia growth. Molecular modeling was used to predict that most of the non-synonymous mutations slightly increase the binding affinity for HTS homodimer formation. Despite this genetic parallelism and trend of increasing protein binding stability, these metA alleles gave rise to a wide range of phenotypic diversity in terms of individual versus group benefit. The cooperators with the highest methionine excretion permitted nearly two-fold faster consortia growth and supported the highest fraction of E. coli, yet also had the slowest individual growth rates compared to less cooperative strains. Thus, although the genetic basis of adaptation was quite similar across independent origins of cooperative phenotypes, quantitative measurements of metabolite production were required to predict either the individual-level growth consequences or how these propagate to community-level behavior. PMID:27617746

  2. Preliminary results for an aeromagnetic survey flown over Italy using the HALO (High Altitude and LOng range) research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesur, V.; Gebler, A.; Schachtschneider, R.

    2012-12-01

    In June 2012 the GEOHALO mission was flown over Italy using the high altitude and long-range German research aircraft HALO (Gulfstream jet - G550). One goal of the mission was to demonstrate the feasibility of using geodetic and geophysical instrumentation on such fast flying aircraft. Several types of data were acquired including gravity, GNSS signals (reflectometry, spectrometry and occultation), laser altimetry and magnetic data. The magnetic data were collected through two independent acquisition chains placed inside under-wing containers. Each chain included a total intensity cesium magnetometer, a three-component fluxgate magnetometer, several temperature censors and a digitizer. Magnetic and temperature data were collected at a 10 Hz sampling rate. Seven parallel profiles, each around 1000 km long, were flown over the Apennine peninsula from north-west to south-east. The flight altitude was about 3500 m and the survey line spacing around 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles, and a repeated flight line at a higher altitude (approx. 10500 m). The ground speed during the flight was generally around 125 m/s (450 km/h). The output from the first steps of the magnetic data processing will be shown. The measured magnetic data appear to be consistent with the expected signal.

  3. Mutations in SACPD-C Result in a Range of Elevated Stearic Acid Concentration in Soybean Seed

    PubMed Central

    Carrero-Colón, Militza; Abshire, Nathan; Sweeney, Daniel; Gaskin, Erik; Hudson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Soybean oil has a wide variety of uses, and stearic acid, which is a relatively minor component of soybean oil is increasingly desired for both industrial and food applications. New soybean mutants containing high levels of the saturated fatty acid stearate in seeds were recently identified from a chemically mutagenized population. Six mutants ranged in stearate content from 6–14% stearic acid, which is 1.5 to 3 times the levels contained in wild-type seed of the Williams 82 cultivar. Candidate gene sequencing revealed that all of these lines carried amino acid substitutions in the gene encoding the delta-9-stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein desaturase enzyme (SACPD-C) required for the conversion of stearic acid to oleic acid. Five of these missense mutations were in highly conserved residues clustered around the predicted di-iron center of the SACPD-C enzyme. Co-segregation analysis demonstrated a positive association of the elevated stearate trait with the SACPD-C mutation for three populations. These missense mutations may provide additional alleles that may be used in the development of new soybean cultivars with increased levels of stearic acid. PMID:24846334

  4. Zirconolite, zircon and monazite-(Ce) U-Th-Pb age constraints on the emplacement, deformation and alteration history of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex, Halls Creek Orogen, Kimberley region, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, Peter J.; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Fletcher, Ian R.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Rasmussen, Birger; Jaques, A. Lynton; Verrall, Michael; Sweetapple, Marcus T.

    2016-04-01

    In situ SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zirconolite in clinopyroxenite from the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex, situated in the southern Halls Creek Orogen, Kimberley region, Western Australia, has provided a reliable 207Pb/206Pb age of emplacement of 1009 ± 16 Ma. Variably metamict and recrystallised zircons from co-magmatic carbonatites, including a megacryst ~1.5 cm long, gave a range of ages from ~1043-998 Ma, reflecting partial isotopic resetting during post-emplacement deformation and alteration. Monazite-(Ce) in a strongly foliated dolomite carbonatite produced U-Th-Pb dates ranging from ~900-590 Ma. Although the monazite-(Ce) data cannot give any definitive ages, they clearly reflect a long history of hydrothermal alteration/recrystallisation, over at least 300 million years. This is consistent with the apparent resetting of the Rb-Sr and K-Ar isotopic systems by a post-emplacement thermal event at ~900 Ma during the intracratonic Yampi Orogeny. The emplacement of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex probably resulted from the reactivation of a deep crustal structure within the Halls Creek Orogen during the amalgamation of Proterozoic Australia with Rodinia over the period ~1000-950 Ma. This may have allowed an alkaline carbonated silicate magma that was parental to the Cummins Range carbonatites, and generated by redox and/or decompression partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle, to ascend from the base of the continental lithosphere along the lithospheric discontinuity constituted by the southern edge of the Halls Creek Orogen. There is no evidence of a link between the emplacement of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex and mafic large igneous province magmatism indicative of mantle plume activity. Rather, patterns of Proterozoic alkaline magmatism in the Kimberley Craton may have been controlled by changing plate motions during the Nuna-Rodinia supercontinent cycles (~1200-800 Ma).

  5. Association between Frailty, Osteoporosis, Falls and Hip Fractures among Community-Dwelling People Aged 50 Years and Older in Taiwan: Results from I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Kuo; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hwang, An-Chun; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2015-01-01

    Background Association of frailty with adverse clinical outcomes has been reported in Western countries, but data from the Asian population are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of frailty among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly population and to explore its association with musculoskeletal health in Taiwan. Methods I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study (ILAS) data were retrieved for this study. Frailty was defined by the Fried’s criteria; a comparison of demographic characteristics, physical performance, and body composition, including skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD), as well as recent falls, history of hip fractures and the functional status of subjects with different frailty statuses were accomplished. Results Overall, the data of 1,839 participants (mean age: 63.9±9.3 years, male 47.5%) were obtained for analysis. The prevalence of pre-frailty was 42.3% in men and 38.8% in women, whereas the prevalence of frailty was 6.9% and 6.7% in men and women, respectively. Frailty was significantly associated with older age, the male gender, larger waist circumference, lower skeletal muscle index, lower hip BMD, poorer physical function, poorer nutritional status, and poorer cognitive function. Also, frailty was significantly associated with osteoporosis (OR: 7.73, 95% CI: 5.01–11.90, p<0.001), history of hip fractures (OR: 8.66, 95% CI: 2.47–30.40, p = 0.001), and recent falls (O.R: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.35–4.76, p = 0.004). Conclusions Frailty and pre-frailty, in Taiwan, was closely associated with recent falls, history of hip fractures and osteoporosis among community-dwelling people 50 years of age and older. Furthermore, frailty intervention programs should take an integrated approach towards strengthening both and muscle mass, as well as prevention of falls. PMID:26348034

  6. Preliminary results of Terabit-per-second long-range free-space optical transmission Experiment THRUST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giggenbach, D.; Poliak, J.; Mata-Calvo, R.; Fuchs, C.; Perlot, N.; Freund, R.; Richter, T.

    2015-10-01

    Future Very High Throughput Satellite Systems (VHTS) will perform at several Tbit/s throughput and thus face the challenge of limited feeder-link spectrum. Whereas with conventional RF feeder links several tens of ground gateway stations would be required, the total capacity can alternatively be linked through a single optical ground station using Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) techniques as known from terrestrial fiber communications. While intermittent link blockage by clouds can be compensated by ground station diversity, the optical uplink signal is directly affected by scintillation and beam wander induced by the atmospheric index-of-refraction turbulence. The transmission system must be capable to mitigate these distortions by according high-speed tracking and fading compensation techniques. We report on the design of a near-ground long-range (10km) atmospheric transmission test-bed which is, with its relatively low elevation of 1.8 degrees, exemplary for a worst case GEO uplink scenario. The transmitting side of the test-bed consists of a single telescope with a a fine pointing assembly in order to track the atmospheric angle-ofarrival and precisely aim towards the beacon of the receiver. On the other side of the test-bed, the receiver telescope is also capable of fine pointing by tracking the transmitted signal. The GEO uplink scenario is modelled by a precise scaling of the beam divergence and the receiver's field of view as well as by the beacon offset to model the point-ahead angle. In order to make the experimental test-bed correspond to an actual feeder link scenario, the link budget as well as the turbulence profile of the experimental scenario are modelled and compared to the GEO uplink. Several DWDM channels are multiplexed to reach the total link capacity of above one Tbit/s.

  7. Solutions of the two-dimensional Hubbard model: Benchmarks and results from a wide range of numerical algorithms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    LeBlanc, J. P. F.; Antipov, Andrey E.; Becca, Federico; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Chung, Chia -Min; Deng, Youjin; Ferrero, Michel; Henderson, Thomas M.; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; et al

    2015-12-14

    Numerical results for ground-state and excited-state properties (energies, double occupancies, and Matsubara-axis self-energies) of the single-orbital Hubbard model on a two-dimensional square lattice are presented, in order to provide an assessment of our ability to compute accurate results in the thermodynamic limit. Many methods are employed, including auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo, bare and bold-line diagrammatic Monte Carlo, method of dual fermions, density matrix embedding theory, density matrix renormalization group, dynamical cluster approximation, diffusion Monte Carlo within a fixed-node approximation, unrestricted coupled cluster theory, and multireference projected Hartree-Fock methods. Comparison of results obtained by different methods allows for the identification ofmore » uncertainties and systematic errors. The importance of extrapolation to converged thermodynamic-limit values is emphasized. Furthermore, cases where agreement between different methods is obtained establish benchmark results that may be useful in the validation of new approaches and the improvement of existing methods.« less

  8. Solutions of the two-dimensional Hubbard model: Benchmarks and results from a wide range of numerical algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, J. P. F.; Antipov, Andrey E.; Becca, Federico; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Chung, Chia -Min; Deng, Youjin; Ferrero, Michel; Henderson, Thomas M.; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Kozik, E.; Liu, Xuan -Wen; Millis, Andrew J.; Prokof’ev, N. V.; Qin, Mingpu; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Shi, Hao; Svistunov, B. V.; Tocchio, Luca F.; Tupitsyn, I. S.; White, Steven R.; Zhang, Shiwei; Zheng, Bo -Xiao; Zhu, Zhenyue; Gull, Emanuel

    2015-12-14

    Numerical results for ground-state and excited-state properties (energies, double occupancies, and Matsubara-axis self-energies) of the single-orbital Hubbard model on a two-dimensional square lattice are presented, in order to provide an assessment of our ability to compute accurate results in the thermodynamic limit. Many methods are employed, including auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo, bare and bold-line diagrammatic Monte Carlo, method of dual fermions, density matrix embedding theory, density matrix renormalization group, dynamical cluster approximation, diffusion Monte Carlo within a fixed-node approximation, unrestricted coupled cluster theory, and multireference projected Hartree-Fock methods. Comparison of results obtained by different methods allows for the identification of uncertainties and systematic errors. The importance of extrapolation to converged thermodynamic-limit values is emphasized. Furthermore, cases where agreement between different methods is obtained establish benchmark results that may be useful in the validation of new approaches and the improvement of existing methods.

  9. Groundwater-quality data in the northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwa

  10. Age specific trends in asthma mortality in England and Wales, 1983-95: results of an observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. J.; Cogman, G. R.; Holgate, S. T.; Johnston, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in asthma mortality by age group in England and Wales during 1983-95. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: All deaths classified as having an underlying cause of asthma registered from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time trends for age specific asthma deaths. RESULTS: Deaths in the age group 5-14 years showed an irregular downward trend during 1983-95; deaths in the age groups 15-44, 45-64, and 65-74 years peaked before 1989 and then showed a downward trend; and deaths in the age group 75-84 years peaked between 1988 and 1993 and subsequently dropped. Trends were: age group 5-14 years, 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%); 15-44 years, 6% (5% to 7%); 45-64 years, 5% (4% to 6%); 65-74 years, 2% (1% to 3%). Deaths in the 75-84 and 85 and over categories plateaued. CONCLUSIONS: There are downward trends in asthma mortality in Britain, which may be due to increased use of prophylactic treatment. PMID:9167558

  11. Effect of Young Maternal Age on Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes: Results from the Tertiary Center in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Oya; Yılmaz, Ertuğrul; Tosun, Özgür; Kumru, Pınar; Arınkan, Arzu; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Selçuk, Selçuk; Dolgun, Zehra Nihal; Arısoy, Resul; Erdoğdu, Emre; Tarhan, Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Young maternal age is variously defined in studies of its effect on obstetrics and perinatal outcomes. Also, pregnancy has been reported as the leading cause of death in adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether young maternal age was associated with an increased risk of obstetrics and perinatal adverse outcomes. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: This case-control study was derived from a database of the medical records between January 2008 and December 2012. In the present study, 1374 teenage pregnancy and 1294 adult pregnancy cases were included. After restriction of analyses to singleton primiparous women, 1282 teenage pregnancy and 735 adult pregnancy cases were analyzed. Maternal age was separated into three groups: 15 and less, 16–19, and 20–34 years. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were derived through logistic regression models for the potential confounding factors. Results: Adolescents aged 15 years and younger had higher risks of preterm delivery, early preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death and neonatal death compared with women aged 20 to 34 years after adjustment for confounding factors. In addition, both groups of adolescents had higher risks for anemia and episiotomy and lower risk of cesarean delivery. The rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, chronic diseases, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were higher in the adult group. Conclusion: Younger maternal age was correlated with increased risks of preterm delivery, fetal and neonatal death and anemia. PMID:27308080

  12. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages in the Colorado Front Range (Rocky Mts.) and their significance for chemical weathering fluxes within the critical zone (CZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Huber, Juliane; Leopold, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    The Colorado Front Range is divided in five altitudinal belts reaching from the alpine tundra (> 3.450 m a.s.l.) down to the plains (> 1.710 m a.s.l.). Our investigations are dealing with different kinds of slope deposits, their genesis and age. The critical zone is the heterogeneous carapace of soil and weathered rock, and the ecosystems they support. Understanding the evolution of the critical zone, and its sensitivity to perturbations, requires an understanding of its architecture and the processes that produce this architecture. The Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC CZO) is designed to understand how weathering (both physical and chemical) and transport processes control the structure of the critical zone, and to explore the impact of critical zone structure on hydrological, geochemical and biological functions of the landscape. Slope deposits are crucial elements of the critical zone. The 1.160 km2 Boulder Creek watershed in Colorado's Front Range encompasses strong contrasts in erosional regimes, and therefore contains critical zone architectures that range from dominantly bare rock to deeply weathered profiles. Through the late Cenozoic, a slowly eroding rocky upland comprising Precambrian crystalline rocks has been etched in its headwaters by glaciers, and bitten into by headward migrating stream knickzones. This has produced a landscape in which the critical zone is captured in three states. Each of these is represented in a focus subcatchment in the BcCZO where the critical zone will be characterized in detail. The slope deposits show characteristic variations within the subcatchments. Fundamental characteristics of the critical zone, together control the passage of water, the chemical processes operating, the material strength, and the function of subsurface ecosystems. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages play a decisive role.

  13. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages in the Colorado Front Range (Rocky Mts.) and their significance for the relief and the interflow within the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, J.; Leopold, M.; Huber, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Colorado Front Range is divided in five altitudinal belts reaching from the alpine tundra (> 3.450 m a.s.l.) down to the plains (> 1.710 m a.s.l.). Our investigations are dealing with different kinds of slope deposits, their genesis and age. The critical zone is the heterogeneous carapace of soil and weathered rock, and the ecosystems they support. Understanding the evolution of the critical zone, and its sensitivity to perturbations, requires an understanding of its architecture and the processes that produce this architecture. The Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC CZO) is designed to understand how weathering (both physical and chemical) and transport processes control the structure of the critical zone, and to explore the impact of critical zone structure on hydrological, geochemical and biological functions of the landscape. Slope deposits are crucial elements of the critical zone. The 1.160 km2 Boulder Creek watershed in Colorado's Front Range encompasses strong contrasts in erosional regimes, and therefore contains critical zone architectures that range from dominantly bare rock to deeply weathered profiles. Through the late Cenozoic, a slowly eroding rocky upland comprising Precambrian crystalline rocks has been etched in its headwaters by glaciers, and bitten into by headward migrating stream knickzones. This has produced a landscape in which the critical zone is captured in three states. Each of these is represented in a focus subcatchment in the BcCZO where the critical zone will be characterized in detail. The slope deposits show characteristic variations within the subcatchments. Fundamental characteristics of the critical zone, together control the passage of water, the chemical processes operating, the material strength, and the function of subsurface ecosystems. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages play a decisive role.

  14. Exercise referral for drug users aged 40 and over: results of a pilot study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Beynon, Caryl M; Luxton, Amy; Whitaker, Rhiannon; Cable, N Tim; Frith, Lucy; Taylor, Adrian H; Zou, Lu; Angell, Peter; Robinson, Scott; Holland, Dave; Holland, Sharon; Gabbay, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To test whether older drug users (aged 40 and over) could be recruited to an exercise referral (ER) scheme, to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability and measure the impact of participation on health. Design Observational pilot. Setting Liverpool, UK. Participants (1) 12 men and 5 women recruited to ER. (2) 7 specialist gym instructors. Outcome measures Logistic feasibility and acceptability of ER and associated research, rate of recruitment, level of participation over 8 weeks and changes in health. Results 22 gym inductions were arranged (recruitment time: 5 weeks), 17 inductions were completed and 14 participants began exercising. Attendance at the gym fluctuated with people missing weeks then re-engaging; in week 8, seven participants were in contact with the project and five of these attended the gym. Illness and caring responsibilities affected participation. Participants and gym instructors found the intervention and associated research processes acceptable. In general, participants enjoyed exercising and felt fitter, but would have welcomed more support and the offer of a wider range of activities. Non-significant reductions in blood pressure and heart rate and improvements in metabolic equivalents (METs; a measure of fitness) and general well-being were observed for eight participants who completed baseline and follow-up assessments. The number of weeks of gym attendance was significantly associated with a positive change in METs. Conclusions It is feasible to recruit older drug users into a gym-based ER scheme, but multiple health and social challenges affect their ability to participate regularly. The observed changes in health measures, particularly the association between improvements in METs and attendance, suggest further investigation of ER for older drug users is worthwhile. Measures to improve the intervention and its evaluation include: better screening, refined inclusion/exclusion criteria, broader monitoring of physical

  15. [Anemia in women of reproductive age. The results of a national probability survey].

    PubMed

    Martínez, H; González-Cossío, T; Flores, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J; Lezana, M A; Sepúlveda-Amor, J

    1995-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent forms of malnutrition which is clinically known as anemia. Functional consequences of anemia include impairment of cardiovascular performance, limitation in productivity, higher incidence of low birth weight and premature delivery, and increased maternal mortality. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of anemia in women of reproductive age in Mexico. Data were collected by the Ministry of Health through a National Nutrition Survey in 1988, which draw a representative sample from four regions: North, Center, South and Federal District. Anemia was more prevalent in pregnant (18.17%) than in non-pregnant women (15.38%). Those women living in predominantly indigenous communities had higher prevalence of anemia (24.02%) than non-indigenous women (14.67%). Anemia was more prevalent in urban areas (15.54%) than in rural (13.56%). Mean +/- standard deviation values for hemoglobin were lower in pregnant women (12.5 +/- 1.6 g/dL) than in non-pregnant ones (13.7 +/- 1.6 g/dL). Consistently, the Northern and Southern regions were worse off than the Center and the Federal District. These data indicate that anemia is a public health problem in Mexico. The functional consequences of this deficiency justify interventions to treat and prevent it. PMID:7618111

  16. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX): Instructions for Implementing the Test Procedure, Calibration Test Reference Results, and Example Acceptance-Range Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.

    2011-08-01

    This publication summarizes building energy simulation test for existing homes (BESTEST-EX): instructions for implementing the test procedure, calibration tests reference results, and example acceptance-range criteria.

  17. Can psychosocial work conditions protect against age-related cognitive decline? Results from a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Nexø, Mette Andersen; Meng, Annette; Borg, Vilhelm

    2016-01-01

    According to the use it or lose it hypothesis, intellectually stimulating activities postpone age-related cognitive decline. A previous systematic review concluded that a high level of mental work demands and job control protected against cognitive decline. However, it did not distinguish between outcomes that were measured as cognitive function at one point in time or as cognitive decline. Our study aimed to systematically review which psychosocial working conditions were prospectively associated with high levels of cognitive function and/or changes in cognitive function over time. Articles were identified by a systematic literature search (MEDLINE, Web of Science (WOS), PsycNET, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH)). We included only studies with longitudinal designs examining the impact of psychosocial work conditions on outcomes defined as cognitive function or changes in cognitive function. Two independent reviewers compared title-abstract screenings, full-text screenings and quality assessment ratings. Eleven studies were included in the final synthesis and showed that high levels of mental work demands, occupational complexity or job control at one point in time were prospectively associated with higher levels of cognitive function in midlife or late life. However, the evidence to clarify whether these psychosocial factors also affected cognitive decline was insufficient, conflicting or weak. It remains speculative whether job control, job demands or occupational complexity can protect against cognitive decline. Future studies using methodological advancements can reveal whether workers gain more cognitive reserve in midlife and late life than the available evidence currently suggests. The public health implications of a previous review should thereby be redefined accordingly. PMID:27178844

  18. Can psychosocial work conditions protect against age-related cognitive decline? Results from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nexø, Mette Andersen; Meng, Annette; Borg, Vilhelm

    2016-07-01

    According to the use it or lose it hypothesis, intellectually stimulating activities postpone age-related cognitive decline. A previous systematic review concluded that a high level of mental work demands and job control protected against cognitive decline. However, it did not distinguish between outcomes that were measured as cognitive function at one point in time or as cognitive decline. Our study aimed to systematically review which psychosocial working conditions were prospectively associated with high levels of cognitive function and/or changes in cognitive function over time. Articles were identified by a systematic literature search (MEDLINE, Web of Science (WOS), PsycNET, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH)). We included only studies with longitudinal designs examining the impact of psychosocial work conditions on outcomes defined as cognitive function or changes in cognitive function. Two independent reviewers compared title-abstract screenings, full-text screenings and quality assessment ratings. Eleven studies were included in the final synthesis and showed that high levels of mental work demands, occupational complexity or job control at one point in time were prospectively associated with higher levels of cognitive function in midlife or late life. However, the evidence to clarify whether these psychosocial factors also affected cognitive decline was insufficient, conflicting or weak. It remains speculative whether job control, job demands or occupational complexity can protect against cognitive decline. Future studies using methodological advancements can reveal whether workers gain more cognitive reserve in midlife and late life than the available evidence currently suggests. The public health implications of a previous review should thereby be redefined accordingly. PMID:27178844

  19. Simple Cognitive and Behavioural Changes Resulting from Improved Physical Fitness in Persons over 50 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates the effects of exercise on simple cognitive performance and on psychological well-being in persons over 50 years of age. It also assesses the relationship between a set of subject variables and dropout from fitness programs. Results suggest that the beneficial effects of exercise may extend to cognitive and personality processes.…

  20. A comparison of zircon U-Pb age results of the Red Clay sequence on the central Chinese Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Hujun; Nie, Junsheng; Wang, Zhao; Peng, Wenbin; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Single grain zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated great potentials in extracting tectonic and atmospheric circulation signal carried by aeolian, fluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments. A routine in this sort of studies is analyzing 100–150 grains and then compares zircon U-Pb age spectra between the measured sample and the potential sources. Here we compared the zircon U-Pb age results of the late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence of two neighboring sites from the Chinese Loess Plateau where similar provenance signal is expected. Although the results from the 5.5 Ma sediment support this prediction, the results from the 3 Ma sediment at these two sites differ from each other significantly. These results emphasize the importance of increasing analysis number per sample and combining the zircon U-Pb geochronology with other provenance tools in order to get reliable provenance information. PMID:27538343

  1. A comparison of zircon U-Pb age results of the Red Clay sequence on the central Chinese Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hujun; Nie, Junsheng; Wang, Zhao; Peng, Wenbin; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Single grain zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated great potentials in extracting tectonic and atmospheric circulation signal carried by aeolian, fluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments. A routine in this sort of studies is analyzing 100-150 grains and then compares zircon U-Pb age spectra between the measured sample and the potential sources. Here we compared the zircon U-Pb age results of the late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence of two neighboring sites from the Chinese Loess Plateau where similar provenance signal is expected. Although the results from the 5.5 Ma sediment support this prediction, the results from the 3 Ma sediment at these two sites differ from each other significantly. These results emphasize the importance of increasing analysis number per sample and combining the zircon U-Pb geochronology with other provenance tools in order to get reliable provenance information. PMID:27538343

  2. Age-related differences in the structure of human pineal calcium deposits: results of transmission electron microscopy and mineralographic microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Schmid, H A; Raykhtsaum, G

    1995-01-01

    Pineal tissue calcifications (male, ages 14, 47, 62, 82), which were metallographically embedded and polished at controlled levels and studied by transmission electron microscopy and microanalytic spectroscopy, showed age-related differences. Results show that concentrically arranged crescent-shaped lamellae increase in number and decrease in width with age. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) per point measurements in dark and light lamellae at various distances from the core show Ca/P molar ratios between 1.49-1.62 in the 82-year-old specimen as compared to 1.26 to 1.41 in the younger specimens. The 62-year-old specimens show a decrease in P and an increase in Ca from periphery to center. These data and other descriptive details suggest that the sum of these changes represent remodelling of the mineralogical structure within the same calcification throughout the life span. PMID:7776174

  3. Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--One-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Gabbard, W.A.; Weaver, F.J.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1999-09-27

    Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and {minus}10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first year of a multi-year study for the full-thickness panels and for about 1-1/2 years of aging for the core-foam specimens.

  4. Style and age of late Oligocene-early Miocene deformation in the southern Stillwater Range, west central Nevada: Paleomagnetism, geochronology, and field relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Mark R.; John, David A.; Conrad, James E.; McKee, Edwin H.

    2000-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geochronologic data combined with geologic mapping tightly restrict the timing and character of a late Oligocene to early Miocene episode of large magnitude extension in the southern Stillwater Range and adjacent regions of west central Nevada. The southern Stillwater Range was the site of an Oligocene to early Miocene volcanic center comprising (1) 28.3 to 24.3 Ma intracaldera ash flow tuffs, lava flows, and subjacent plutons associated with three calderas, (2) 24.8 to 20.7 Ma postcaldera silicic dikes and domes, and (3) unconformably overlying 15.3 to 13.0 Ma dacite to basalt lava flows, plugs, and dikes. The caldera-related tuffs, lava flows, and plutons were tilted 60°-70° either west or east during the initial period of Cenozoic deformation that accommodated over 100% extension. Directions of remanent magnetization obtained from these extrusive and intrusive, caldera-related rocks are strongly deflected from an expected Miocene direction in senses appropriate for their tilt. A mean direction for these rocks after tilt correction, however, suggests that they were also affected by a moderate (33.4° ± 11.8°) component of counterclockwise vertical axis rotation. Paleomagnetic data indicate that the episode of large tilting occurred during emplacement of 24.8 to 20.7 Ma postcaldera dikes and domes. In detail, an apparent decrease in rotation with decreasing age of individual, isotopically dated bodies of the postcaldera group indicates that most tilting occurred between 24.4 and 24.2 Ma. The onset of tilting immediately following after the final caldera eruptions suggests that the magmatism and deformation were linked. Deformation was not driven by magma buoyancy, however, because tilting equally affected the caldera systems of different ages, including their plutonic roots. It is more likely that regional extension was focused in the southern Stillwater Range due to magmatic warming and reduction of tensile strength of the brittle crust

  5. Tracking long-range transported upper-tropospheric pollution layers with a newly developed airborne Hyperspectral Sun/Sky spectrometer (4STAR): Results from the TCAP 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Flynn, C. J.; Johnson, R.; Dunagan, S.; Shinozuka, Y.; Herman, J. R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Comstock, J. M.; Hubbe, J.

    2013-12-01

    TCAP, the Two Column Aerosol Project, was aimed at providing a detailed set of observations to investigate topics related to radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions, and to learn about aging and transport of atmospheric aerosols and gaseous constituents that are related to tropospheric pollution events. During the year-long campaign, an intensive airborne deployment was held in the summer of 2012 based at the Hyannis airport, Cape-Cod, MA. In the course of the campaign, the newly developed Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) flew onboard the DOE Gulfstream 1 (G-1) aircraft, together with a suite of in-situ instruments to measure atmospheric state parameters and aerosol and cloud characteristics. One of the unique features of the 4STAR instrument, stemming from its design using grating spectrometers that cover the UV-VIS-SWIR spectral range (i.e. 350-1700nm), is its capability to measure atmospheric trace gases such as water vapor, O3 and NO2 concurrently with spectrally resolved aerosol optical depth (AOD). Here, we utilize the 4STAR measurements above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) (i.e. above 3000 meters) to investigate atmospheric composition of elevated pollution layers transported from the continental US and Canada during the TCAP summer phase. The 4STAR-retrieved values of AOD at 500 nm, Ångstrom exponent (AE) at 500 nm, columnar water vapor (CWV), and NO2 are used as variables in a k-means clustering algorithm to determine the atmospheric composition characteristics of the observed elevated polluted layers during the July flights. We found that, compared to AOD, NO2 displays less variability in plumes that are related to biomass-burning (BB) emissions over the course of several days. HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis has confirmed our clustering results of two major air-mass sources: a relatively dry and clean upper tropospheric source and a humid, polluted one. Our clustering analysis, resulting in different ocean

  6. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  7. Some results from the Arizona tams facility: AMS ages of athletic, artistic, and animal artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, D. J.; Jull, A. J. T.; Linick, T. W.; Hatheway, A.; Toolin, L. J.; Gore, B.; Damon, P. E.

    1987-11-01

    In this paper we will describe the operation of the University of Arizona tandem accelerator mass spectrometer facility, present some results that demonstrate the precision with which radiocarbon measurements can be made and describe several experiments that have been completed on a variety of artifacts.

  8. Influence of social support on cognitive change and mortality in old age: results from the prospective multicentre cohort study AgeCoDe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support has been suggested to positively influence cognition and mortality in old age. However, this suggestion has been questioned due to inconsistent operationalisations of social support among studies and the small number of longitudinal studies available. This study aims to investigate the influence of perceived social support, understood as the emotional component of social support, on cognition and mortality in old age as part of a prospective longitudinal multicentre study in Germany. Methods A national subsample of 2,367 primary care patients was assessed twice over an observation period of 18 months regarding the influence of social support on cognitive function and mortality. Perceived social support was assessed using the 14-item version of the FSozU, which is a standardised and validated questionnaire of social support. Cognition was tested by the neuropsychological test battery of the Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia (SIDAM). The influence of perceived support on cognitive change was analysed by multivariate ANCOVA; mortality was analysed by multivariate logistic and cox regression. Results Sample cognitive change (N = 1,869): Mean age was 82.4 years (SD 3.3) at the beginning of the observation period, 65.9% were female, mean cognition was 49 (SD 4.4) in the SIDAM. Over the observation period cognitive function declined in 47.2% by a mean of 3.4 points. Sample mortality (N = 2,367): Mean age was 82.5 years (SD 3.4), 65.7% were female and 185 patients died during the observation period. Perceived social support showed no longitudinal association with cognitive change (F = 2.235; p = 0.135) and mortality (p = 0.332; CI 0.829-1.743). Conclusions Perceived social support did not influence cognition and mortality over an 18 months observation period. However, previous studies using different operationalisations of social support and longer observation periods indicate that such an influence may exist. This influence is

  9. Periodic inspection on crop sprayers: results according to age of sprayers.

    PubMed

    Antuniassi, Ulisses R; Gandolfo, Marco A

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the IPP Project--Periodic Inspection on Crop Sprayers--are to develop methods for sprayer certification, analyze quality on spray operation, propose an inspection system for crop sprayers in Brazil, improve environmental quality on spray operation, and reduce costs on chemical control for plant protection systems. Periodic inspections on crop sprayers are performed in several countries and are compulsory in most of them, and it is becoming an important tool for improvement and optimization of use of chemicals. The IPP Project in Brazil is funded by FAPESP--Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo. The results so far showed that all the sprayers presented failures. However, most of them could be approved with minor services. As an example, 56.6% of the sprayers with more than 2 years of use presented leaks, 47% of them had damaged hoses and 80.5% presented bad tips (nozzles). These results indicate the need for better procedures of use and maintenance of sprayers, justifying the periodic inspection system. PMID:15656181

  10. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Rigi, Mohammed; Feldman, Robert M.; Bell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Methods Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18–35, 36–45, 46–55, 56–65, and 66–79 years). ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL), length of scleral spur landmark (SSL) to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM), iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM), pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe), and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter. Results Mean (±SD) values were 2.24 mm (±0.46), 4.06 mm (±0.27), 3.65 mm (±0.48), 4.16 mm (±0.47), 1.14 (±0.04), 1.51 mm2 (±0.23), and 38.42 μL (±4.91) for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002) and RICe (P = 0.027) decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002) and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001). ICR (P = 0.54) and iris volume (P = 0.49) were not affected by age. Conclusion This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states. PMID:26815917

  11. The results of pregnancies after gender selection by pre implantation genetic diagnosis and its relation with couple's age

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Sorayya; Fahami, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-medical utilization of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), like sex selection, is increasing, therefore it is necessary to follow-up the health and outcome of fertilization and newborn's birth followed PGD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of fertilization after sex selection by PGD and the relation between the age of parents and the outcome of fertilization. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive correlative study conducted on 218 couples in Isfahan. Samples were selected through convenience sampling. The rate of chemical and clinical pregnancy and abortion, the frequency of success in achieving the desired sex, and the mean of gestational age and weight of newborns were gathered through reviewing medical files and phone interviews. Data was analyzed using independent t test and Pearson correlation test. Results: The rate of chemical and clinical pregnancy was 30.7% and 30.3% respectively, the rate of abortion was 26.9%, the frequency of success in achieving the desired sex was 100%, and the mean of gestational age and weight of newborns was 3260 (616) kg and 37.7 (2.07) weeks respectively. There was no significant relation between the age of parents and the rate of abortion, the rate of chemical and clinical pregnancy and newborn's gestational weight. But there was a significant relation between the age of men and gestational age of newborns (P = 0.04). Conclusions: PGD method was 100% successful in achieving the desired sex, but relatively high rate of abortion could indicate the effect of PGD on the embryo development process. PMID:26793251

  12. Neighborhood Physical Disorder, Social Cohesion and Insomnia: Results from Participants Over Age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P.; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Augustinavicius, Jura L.; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Wennberg, Alexandra M. V.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    Background We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g., vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g., friendliness of people, availability of help when needed); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, feeling unrested). Results After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR)=1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.14), waking too early (OR=1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.02–1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11) and feeling unrested (OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). Conclusions Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population. PMID:25222023

  13. Neighborhood physical disorder, social cohesion, and insomnia: results from participants over age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Augustinavicius, Jura L; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M; Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Smith, Michael T; Spira, Adam P

    2014-09-15

    ABSTRACT Background: We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods: Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g. vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, and cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g. friendliness of people, availability of help when needed, etc.); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, and feeling unrested). Results: After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.14), waking too early (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 years (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and feeling unrested (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15). Conclusions: Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population. PMID:25222023

  14. Muscleblind-like 3 deficit results in a spectrum of age-associated pathologies observed in myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jongkyu; Dixon, Donald M; Dansithong, Warunee; Abdallah, Walid F; Roos, Kenneth P; Jordan, Maria C; Trac, Brandon; Lee, Han Shin; Comai, Lucio; Reddy, Sita

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) exhibits distinctive disease specific phenotypes and the accelerated onset of a spectrum of age-associated pathologies. In DM1, dominant effects of expanded CUG repeats result in part from the inactivation of the muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins. To test the role of MBNL3, we deleted Mbnl3 exon 2 (Mbnl3(ΔE2)) in mice and examined the onset of age-associated diseases over 4 to 13 months of age. Accelerated onset of glucose intolerance with elevated insulin levels, cardiac systole deficits, left ventricle hypertrophy, a predictor of a later onset of heart failure and the development of subcapsular and cortical cataracts is observed in Mbnl3(ΔE2) mice. Retention of embryonic splice isoforms in adult organs, a prominent defect in DM1, is not observed in multiple RNAs including the Insulin Receptor (Insr), Cardiac Troponin T (Tnnt2), Lim Domain Binding 3 (Ldb3) RNAs in Mbnl3(ΔE2) mice. Although rare DM1-like splice errors underlying the observed phenotypes cannot be excluded, our data in conjunction with the reported absence of alternative splice errors in embryonic muscles of a similar Mbnl3(ΔE2) mouse by RNA-seq studies, suggest that mechanisms distinct from the adult retention of embryonic splice patterns may make important contributions to the onset of age-associated pathologies in DM1. PMID:27484195

  15. [Role of the father in the development of school-age children. Results of an epidemiologic study].

    PubMed

    Blanz, B; Geisel, B; Laucht, M; Esser, G; Schmidt, M H

    1986-01-01

    As part of an epidemiological follow-up study, data collected from 356 children at ages 8 and 13 and from their parents were analyzed to examine the relationship of parental child-rearing behavior and parents' psychological problems to the intellectual, emotional and social development of the offspring. The results revealed that while children are growing up father and child influence each other in specific ways. The fathers were particularly active in developing their children's cognitive abilities and had a strong influence especially on the development of their sons. At both age 8 and age 13, children whose parents had psychiatric disturbances, regardless of which parent was affected, were much more likely than those with normal parents to have psychiatric disorders themselves. Significant parental gender effects were found, however, when the form of the child's disorder was considered: At age 13, the children were at a higher risk for a conduct disorder if the father had a problem than if the mother did. In further analyses, children who had lost their fathers were compared with those in intact families. Significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders were found for the fatherless boys, whereas no such effect could be detected for the fatherless girls. PMID:3739433

  16. Muscleblind-like 3 deficit results in a spectrum of age-associated pathologies observed in myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jongkyu; Dixon, Donald M.; Dansithong, Warunee; Abdallah, Walid F.; Roos, Kenneth P.; Jordan, Maria C.; Trac, Brandon; Lee, Han Shin; Comai, Lucio; Reddy, Sita

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) exhibits distinctive disease specific phenotypes and the accelerated onset of a spectrum of age-associated pathologies. In DM1, dominant effects of expanded CUG repeats result in part from the inactivation of the muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins. To test the role of MBNL3, we deleted Mbnl3 exon 2 (Mbnl3ΔE2) in mice and examined the onset of age-associated diseases over 4 to 13 months of age. Accelerated onset of glucose intolerance with elevated insulin levels, cardiac systole deficits, left ventricle hypertrophy, a predictor of a later onset of heart failure and the development of subcapsular and cortical cataracts is observed in Mbnl3ΔE2 mice. Retention of embryonic splice isoforms in adult organs, a prominent defect in DM1, is not observed in multiple RNAs including the Insulin Receptor (Insr), Cardiac Troponin T (Tnnt2), Lim Domain Binding 3 (Ldb3) RNAs in Mbnl3ΔE2 mice. Although rare DM1-like splice errors underlying the observed phenotypes cannot be excluded, our data in conjunction with the reported absence of alternative splice errors in embryonic muscles of a similar Mbnl3ΔE2 mouse by RNA-seq studies, suggest that mechanisms distinct from the adult retention of embryonic splice patterns may make important contributions to the onset of age-associated pathologies in DM1. PMID:27484195

  17. Understanding green roof spatial dynamics: results from a scale based hydrologic study and introduction of a low-cost method for wide-range monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimdavar, Raha; Culligan, Patricia J.; Guido, Aida

    2014-05-01

    used to test the reliability of the proposed approach using two different low-cost soil moisture probes. The estimates of runoff are compared with observed runoff data for durations ranging between 6 months to 1 year. Preliminary results indicate that this can be an effective low-cost and low-maintenance alternative to the custom made weir and lysimeter systems frequently used to quantify runoff during green roof studies. By significantly reducing the cost and labor associated with typical monitoring efforts, the SWA method makes large scale studies of green roof hydrologic performance more feasible.

  18. Gait Characteristics Associated with Walking Speed Decline in Older Adults: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Gerald J; Ko, Seung-uk; Kauffman, Danielle; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to walking speed decline can provide needed insight for developing targeted interventions to reduce the rate and likelihood of decline. Objective Examine the association between gait characteristics and walking speed decline in older adults. Methods Participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging aged 60 to 89 were evaluated in the gait laboratory which used a three dimensional motion capture system and force platforms to assess cadence, stride length, stride width, percent of gait cycle in double stance, anterior-posterior mechanical work expenditure (MWE), and medial-lateral MWE. Usual walking speed was assessed over 6 meters at baseline and follow-up. Gait characteristics associated with meaningful decline (decline ≥ 0.05 m/s/y) in walking speed were evaluated by logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, race, height, weight, initial walking speed and follow-up time. Results Among 362 participants, the average age was 72.4 (SD=8.1) years, 51% were female, 27% were black and 23% were identified has having meaningful decline in usual walking speed with an average follow-up time of 3.2 (1.1) years. In the fully adjusted model, faster cadence [ORadj=0.65 95% CI (0.43,0.97)] and longer strides [ORadj=0.87 95% CI (0.83,0.91)] were associated with lower odds of decline. However age [ORadj=1.04 95% CI (0.99,1.10)] was not associated with decline when controlling for gait characteristics and other demographics. Conclusion A sizable proportion of healthy older adults experienced walking speed decline over an average of 3 years. Longer stride and faster cadence were protective against meaningful decline in usual walking speed. PMID:25614178

  19. Assessing Mobility Difficulties for Cross-National Comparisons: Results from the WHO Study on AGEing and Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Capistrant, Benjamin D.; Glymour, M. Maria; Berkman, Lisa F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the correspondence between self-reported and measured indicators of mobility disability among older adults across six low and middle income countries [LMICs]. Design Cross-sectional analysis of Study of Ageing and Adult Health [SAGE] Setting Household surveys in China, India, Russia, South Africa, Ghana, and Mexico Participants Community-dwelling SAGE respondents aged 65+ (total n= 12,215) Measurements Objective mobility was assessed by a 4-meter timed walk at normal pace conducted in the respondent’s home; we defined slow walking speed per the Fried frailty criteria (lowest quintile of walking speed, adjusted for age and height). Self-reported mobility difficulty was assessed with a question about ability to walk 1 kilometer (km); we dichotomized this response into any/no self-reported difficulty walking 1 km (reference: no difficulty). We estimated the age (5-year groups) and gender-specific probability of self-reporting difficulty walking 1 km among those with a measured slow walk with logistic regression. Results Across the countries, between 42% and 76% of people aged 65+ reported any difficulty walking 1 km. Average walking speed was slowest in Russia (0.61 m/s) and fastest in China (0.88 m/s). The probabilities of reporting any difficulty walking 1km among women aged 65–69, for example, with a slow walk varied: China=0.35; India=0.90; Russia=0.68; South Africa=0.81; Ghana=0.91; Mexico=0.73; test of country differences p-value<0.001. There was significant variation at older ages, albeit smaller in magnitude. Patterns were similar for men. Conclusion Although correspondence between an objective and self-reported measure of mobility was generally high, correspondence differed significantly across LMICs. International comparisons of self-reported disability measures for clinical, prevention and policy guidelines in LMICs should consider that self-reported data may not correspond to objective measures uniformly across countries. PMID

  20. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  1. Influence of chronic UV exposure and lifestyle on facial skin photo-aging--results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Akiba, S; Shinkura, R; Miyamoto, K; Hillebrand, G; Yamaguchi, N; Ichihashi, M

    1999-12-01

    In order to better understand the effect of chronic sun exposure on facial skin photo-aging and to identify the factors affecting it, we planned a study in two areas in Japan, Akita and Kagoshima, which correspond to the low and high sun exposure environments, respectively. As a first step, we conducted a pilot study in the two areas, examining 195 subjects. Hyper-pigmentation and wrinkling were measured with a high-resolution digital video imaging system. As expected, people in Kagoshima had darker skin, higher visual grades of facial hyper-pigmentation, and more facial wrinkles than people in Akita, reflecting the difference of UV exposure levels in the two areas. Both the grades of hyper-pigmentation and number of wrinkles increased in a roughly linear fashion with the advancement of age. On the other hand, the effect of gender was different in those two skin photo-aging parameters. Women had higher hyper-pigmentation grades (P = 0.012) and less wrinkles (P = 0.004) than men. Interestingly, post-menopausal women had higher grades of hyper-pigmentation than pre-menopausal women. Neither sun exposure index for darkness nor wrinkling showed any significant differences by menopausal status. In this pilot study, we collected information on various factors, including life-styles. The results of detail analysis will be presented elsewhere. In the present analysis, we found that the grade of hyper-pigmentation was not related to total hours spent outside in life but was affected by various factors, including toe-nail zinc levels. On the other hand, the number of wrinkles was significantly related to total hours spent outside in life. The most important risk factors of non-melanoma skin cancer are chronic sun exposure, age and male sex. All of them are strongly related to higher levels of UV exposure. The present study confirmed that chronic sun exposure, age and male sex were strong risk factors of the wrinkle number. The number of wrinkles was significantly related to

  2. The allometric exponent for scaling clearance varies with age: a study on seven propofol datasets ranging from preterm neonates to adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenguang; Allegaert, Karel; Peeters, Mariska Y M; Tibboel, Dick; Danhof, Meindert; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2014-01-01

    Aim For scaling clearance between adults and children, allometric scaling with a fixed exponent of 0.75 is often applied. In this analysis, we performed a systematic study on the allometric exponent for scaling propofol clearance between two subpopulations selected from neonates, infants, toddlers, children, adolescents and adults. Methods Seven propofol studies were included in the analysis (neonates, infants, toddlers, children, adolescents, adults1 and adults2). In a systematic manner, two out of the six study populations were selected resulting in 15 combined datasets. In addition, the data of the seven studies were regrouped into five age groups (FDA Guidance 1998), from which four combined datasets were prepared consisting of one paediatric age group and the adult group. In each of these 19 combined datasets, the allometric scaling exponent for clearance was estimated using population pharmacokinetic modelling (nonmem 7.2). Results The allometric exponent for propofol clearance varied between 1.11 and 2.01 in cases where the neonate dataset was included. When two paediatric datasets were analyzed, the exponent varied between 0.2 and 2.01, while it varied between 0.56 and 0.81 when the adult population and a paediatric dataset except for neonates were selected. Scaling from adults to adolescents, children, infants and neonates resulted in exponents of 0.74, 0.70, 0.60 and 1.11 respectively. Conclusions For scaling clearance, ¾ allometric scaling may be of value for scaling between adults and adolescents or children, while it can neither be used for neonates nor for two paediatric populations. For scaling to neonates an exponent between 1 and 2 was identified. PMID:23772816

  3. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: results from a nationally representative United States sample.

    PubMed

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. PMID:25466426

  4. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: Results from a nationally representative United States sample

    PubMed Central

    Taillieu, Tamara L.; Afifi, Tracie O.; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M.; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n = 34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. PMID:25466426

  5. Effectiveness of a low-threshold physical activity intervention in residential aged care – results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cichocki, Martin; Quehenberger, Viktoria; Zeiler, Michael; Adamcik, Tanja; Manousek, Matthias; Stamm, Tanja; Krajic, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Research on effectiveness of low-threshold mobility interventions that are viable for users of residential aged care is scarce. Low-threshold is defined as keeping demands on organizations (staff skills, costs) and participants (health status, discipline) rather low. The study explored the effectiveness of a multi-faceted, low-threshold physical activity program in three residential aged-care facilities in Austria. Main goals were enhancement of mobility by conducting a multi-faceted training program to foster occupational performance and thus improve different aspects of health-related quality of life (QoL). Participants and methods The program consisted of a weekly session of 60 minutes over a period of 20 weeks. A standardized assessment of mobility status and health-related QoL was applied before and after the intervention. A total of 222 of 276 participants completed the randomized controlled trial study (intervention group n=104, control group n=118; average age 84 years, 88% female). Results Subjective health status (EuroQoL-5 dimensions: P=0.001, d=0.36) improved significantly in the intervention group, and there were also positive trends in occupational performance (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure). No clear effects were found concerning the functional and cognitive measures applied. Conclusion Thus, the low-threshold approach turned out to be effective primarily on subjective health-related QoL. This outcome could be a useful asset for organizations offering low-threshold physical activity interventions. PMID:26056438

  6. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the older population: results from the multiple national studies on ageing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Qian, Dongfu; Hu, Dan

    2016-02-01

    The international comparisons that provided useful epidemiologic information of hypertension in the elderly people is still sparse; we aim to provide the latest international estimates on the burden of hypertension. These sampling methods of the selection of surveys mainly used multistage population registry; this cross-national study of 63,014 adults aged ≥50 years was from in four high-income countries, four upper-middle-income countries (UMICs), and three low-middle-income countries (LMICs). Overall, the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension among the adult population aged ≥50 years was 53.2% (51.9% of men and 54.3% of women). The high-income countries and UMICs had more or less twice the prevalence of hypertension compare with LMICs. The rates of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were 55.6%, 44.1%, and 17.1%, respectively, and awareness and control of hypertension were lowest in UMICs and treatment of hypertension was lowest in LMICs. Among this multiple national study population, hypertension was very common among elderly population. Even more worrisome is that the rates of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were relatively low in UMICs and IMICs. These results indicate that improving the ability to control and prevention of hypertension in resource-limited settings is needed. PMID:26778770

  7. Thermal Aging Study of a Dow Corning SE 1700 Porous Structure Made by Direct Ink Writing: 1-Year Results and Long-Term Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Ward; Pearson, Mark A.; Maiti, Amitesh; Metz, Thomas R.; Duoss, Eric B.; Wilson, Thomas S.

    2015-11-13

    Dow Corning SE 1700 (reinforced polydimethylsiloxane) porous structures were made by direct ink writing (DIW). The specimens (~50% porosity) were subjected to various compressive strains (15, 30, 45%) and temperatures (room temperature, 35, 50, 70°C) in a nitrogen atmosphere (active purge) for 1 year. Compression set and load retention of the aged specimens were measured periodically during the study. Compression set increased with strain and temperature. After 1 year, specimens aged at room temperature, 35, and 50°C showed ~10% compression set (relative to the applied compressive deflection), while those aged at 70°C showed 20-40%. Due to the increasing compression set, load retention decreased with temperature, ranging from ~90% at room temperature to ~60-80% at 70°C. Long-term compression set and load retention at room temperature were predicted by applying time-temperature superposition (TTS). The predictions show compression set relative to the compressive deflection will be ~10-15% with ~70-90% load retention after 50 years at 15-45% strain, suggesting the material will continue to be mechanically functional. Comparison of the results to previously acquired data for cellular (M97*, M9760, M9763) and RTV (S5370) silicone foams suggests that the SE 1700 DIW porous specimens are on par with, or outperform, the legacy foams.

  8. Testing short-range migration of microbial methane as a hydrate formation mechanism: Results from Andaman Sea and Kumano Basin drill sites and global implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverno, Alberto; Goldberg, David S.

    2015-07-01

    Methane gas hydrates in marine sediments often concentrate in coarse-grained layers surrounded by fine-grained marine muds that are hydrate-free. Methane in these hydrate deposits is typically microbial, and must have migrated from its source as the coarse-grained sediments contain little or no organic matter. In "long-range" migration, fluid flow through permeable layers transports methane from deeper sources into the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). In "short-range" migration, microbial methane is generated within the GHSZ in fine-grained sediments, where small pore sizes inhibit hydrate formation. Dissolved methane can then diffuse into adjacent sand layers, where pore size does not restrict hydrate formation and hydrates can accumulate. Short-range migration has been used to explain hydrate accumulations in sand layers observed in drill sites on the northern Cascadia margin and in the Gulf of Mexico. Here we test the feasibility of short-range migration in two additional locations, where gas hydrates have been found in coarse-grained volcanic ash layers (Site NGHP-01-17, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean) and turbidite sand beds (Site IODP-C0002, Kumano forearc basin, Nankai Trough, western Pacific). We apply reaction-transport modeling to calculate dissolved methane concentration and gas hydrate amounts resulting from microbial methane generated within the GHSZ. Model results show that short-range migration of microbial methane can explain the overall amounts of methane hydrate observed at the two sites. Short-range migration has been shown to be feasible in diverse margin environments and is likely to be a widespread methane transport mechanism in gas hydrate systems. It only requires a small amount of organic carbon and sediment sequences consisting of thin coarse-grained layers that can concentrate microbial methane generated within thick fine-grained sediment beds; these conditions are common along continental margins around the globe.

  9. Age of the most recent event and range of slip rate on the central Maacama fault, near Ukiah, Mendocino County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sickler, R. R.; Prentice, C. S.; Dengler, L. A.

    2005-12-01

    The 180-km-long Maacama fault zone (MFZ) is the northern extension of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek fault zones, which together comprise a major element of the San Andreas fault system in California. Previous studies indicate that the MFZ has been active in the Holocene and that it continues to produce numerous small-magnitude earthquakes. Fault creep has been reported and measured at several locations, also. However, little slip-rate or earthquake-chronology data are available for the MFZ. Our investigation combined fault trenching, cone penetrometer, and shallow seismic refraction studies on the active trace of the MFZ at a site approximately 3 km northeast of the town of Ukiah. Radiocarbon analyses of detrital charcoal collected from sediments associated with a strath-terrace riser yield a calibrated radiocarbon age range of 4840 to 4550 years BP. Our studies show that this terrace riser is right-laterally offset between 42 and 61 m, giving a slip rate of 8.7 to 13.4 mm/yr. We also determined that the most recent earthquake to cause surface rupture on this section of the Maacama fault, occurred sometime after 1410 AD, but before 1660 AD. If this earthquake is the same earthquake interpreted from evidence exposed in trenches excavated approximately 7 km southeast of this site, then it occurred between 1520 AD and 1660 AD. Thus, the minimum and maximum slip rate values of 8.7 and 13.4 mm/yr, when combined with the minimum and maximum years of elapsed time since the most recent earthquake, yield a strain accumulation of 3.0 to 6.5 m. However, the creep rate of the MFZ approximately 7 km southeast of our site is about 4.5 mm/yr. If this creep rate is representative of the long-term creep rate on this section of the MFZ, then the strain accumulation at our site may be between 1.4 to 4.3 m. If this slip is released in a single earthquake it would correspond to a magnitude ranging between Mw 7.0 to 7.6. These data suggest that the MFZ is a significant seismic hazard

  10. Behavioral deficits during early stages of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans result from locomotory deficits possibly linked to muscle frailty.

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Charles F.; Chow, David K.; Gami, Minaxi S.; Iser, Wendy B.; Hanselman, Keaton B.; Wolkow, Catherine A.; David, Lawrence; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Cooke, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    Many behavioral responses require the coordination of sensory inputs with motor outputs. Aging is associated with progressive declines in both motor function and muscle structure. However, the consequences of age-related motor deficits upon behavior have not been clearly defined. Here, we examined the effects of aging on behavior in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. As animals aged, mild locomotory deficits appeared that were sufficient to impair behavioral responses to sensory cues. In contrast, sensory ability appeared well-maintained during aging. Age-related behavioral declines were delayed in animals with mutations in the daf-2/insulin-like pathway governing longevity. A decline in muscle tissue integrity was correlated with the onset of age-related behavioral deficits, although significant muscle deterioration did not. Treatment with a muscarinic agonist significantly improved locomotory behavior in aged animals, indicating that improved neuromuscular signaling may be one strategy for reducing the severity of age-related behavioral impairments. PMID:15699524

  11. Behavioral deficits during early stages of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans result from locomotory deficits possibly linked to muscle frailty.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Charles F; Chow, David K; David, Lawrence; Cooke, Carol A; Gami, Minaxi S; Iser, Wendy B; Hanselman, Keaton B; Goldberg, Ilya G; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2004-12-01

    Many behavioral responses require the coordination of sensory inputs with motor outputs. Aging is associated with progressive declines in both motor function and muscle structure. However, the consequences of age-related motor deficits on behavior have not been clearly defined. Here, we examined the effects of aging on behavior in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. As animals aged, mild locomotory deficits appeared that were sufficient to impair behavioral responses to sensory cues. In contrast, sensory ability appeared well maintained during aging. Age-related behavioral declines were delayed in animals with mutations in the daf-2/insulin-like pathway governing longevity. A decline in muscle tissue integrity was correlated with the onset of age-related behavioral deficits, although significant muscle deterioration was not. Treatment with a muscarinic agonist significantly improved locomotory behavior in aged animals, indicating that improved neuromuscular signaling may be one strategy for reducing the severity of age-related behavioral impairments. PMID:15699524

  12. Linearization of the Frequency Sweep of a Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave Semiconductor Laser Radar and the Resulting Ranging Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Christer J.; Olsson, Fredrik Å. A.

    1999-05-01

    The performance of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) semiconductor laser radar has been examined. Frequency modulation (linear chirp) has been studied experimentally in detail. To create a linear frequency sweep, we modified the modulating function according to the measured frequency response of the laser, using an arbitrary function generator. The measurements indicate the possibility of achieving a spectral width of the signal peak that is transform limited rather than limited by the frequency modulation response of the laser, which permits the use of a narrow detection bandwidth. The narrow width results in a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio for low output power and thus also in relatively long-range and high-range accuracy. We have performed measurements of a diffuse target to determine the performance of a test laser radar system. The maximum range, range accuracy, and speed accuracy for a semiconductor laser with an output power of 10 mW and a linewidth of 400 kHz are presented. The influence of the laser s output power and coherence length on the performance of a semiconductor-laser-based FMCW laser radar is discussed.

  13. Linearization of the frequency sweep of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave semiconductor laser radar and the resulting ranging performance.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, C J; Olsson, F A

    1999-05-20

    The performance of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) semiconductor laser radar has been examined. Frequency modulation (linear chirp) has been studied experimentally in detail. To create a linear frequency sweep, we modified the modulating function according to the measured frequency response of the laser, using an arbitrary function generator. The measurements indicate the possibility of achieving a spectral width of the signal peak that is transform limited rather than limited by the frequency modulation response of the laser, which permits the use of a narrow detection bandwidth. The narrow width results in a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio for low output power and thus also in relatively long-range and high-range accuracy. We have performed measurements of a diffuse target to determine the performance of a test laser radar system. The maximum range, range accuracy, and speed accuracy for a semiconductor laser with an output power of 10 mW and a linewidth of 400 kHz are presented. The influence of the laser's output power and coherence length on the performance of a semiconductor-laser-based FMCW laser radar is discussed. PMID:18319935

  14. Polarizabilities of π-Conjugated Chains Revisited: Improved Results from Broken-Symmetry Range-Separated DFT and New CCSD(T) Benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, M Belén; Ilawe, Niranjan V; Wong, Bryan M

    2016-08-01

    We present a detailed analysis of nonempirically tuned range-separated functionals, with both short- and long-range exchange, for calculating the static linear polarizability and second hyperpolarizabilities of various polydiacetylene (PDA) and polybutatriene (PBT) oligomers. Contrary to previous work on these systems, we find that the inclusion of some amount of short-range exchange does improve the accuracy of the computed polarizabilities and second hyperpolarizabilities. Most importantly, in contrast to prior studies on these oligomers, we find that the lowest-energy electronic states for PBT are not closed-shell singlets, and enhanced accuracy with range-separated DFT can be obtained by allowing the system to relax to a lower-energy broken-symmetry solution. Both the computed polarizabilities and second hyperpolarizabilities for PBT are significantly improved with these broken-symmetry solutions when compared to previously published and current benchmarks. In addition to these new analyses, we provide new large-scale CCSD(T) and explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12 benchmarks for the PDA and PBT systems, which comprise the most complete and accurate calculations of linear polarizabilities and second hyperpolarizabilities on these systems to date. These new CCSD(T) and CCSD(T)-F12 benchmarks confirm our DFT results and emphasize the importance of broken-symmetry effects when calculating polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilties of π-conjugated chains. PMID:27331862

  15. Older people, the natural environment and common mental disorders: cross-sectional results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A Matthew; Jones, Andy; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the hypothesis that higher exposure to natural environments in local areas is associated with a lower odds of depression and anxiety in later life. Design A cross-sectional study based on the year-10 interview of the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS), a population-based study of ageing in the UK. Postcodes of the CFAS participants were mapped onto small geographic units, lower-layer super output areas (LSOAs) and linked to environmental data from government databases. The natural environment was characterised as the percentage of green space and private gardens in each LSOA based on the UK Generalised Land Use 2001 Dataset. Participants 2424 people aged 74 and over in the CFAS year-10 follow-up interview (2001) from 4 English centres (Cambridgeshire, Nottingham, Newcastle and Oxford). Main outcome measures Depression and anxiety; clinical and subthreshold cases were identified using the Geriatric Mental State Examination (GMS) package and its associated diagnostic algorithm: the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy. Results Compared with the lowest quartile, living in the highest quartile of neighbourhood natural environment provision was associated with a reduced odds of subthreshold depression (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95), anxiety symptoms (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.83) and their co-occurrence (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.84) after adjusting for individual-level factors. Controlling for area deprivation attenuated the strength of associations for subthreshold depression by 20% but not for anxiety symptoms or for co-occurrence of the conditions. Conclusions A high exposure to natural environments (green space and gardens) in communities was associated with fewer mental disorders among older people. Increasing provision of green environments in local areas could be a potential population-level intervention to improve mental health among older people. PMID:26377504

  16. Pain in Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Dementia: Results from the National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Lauren J.; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Yaffe, Kristine; Stephens, Caroline E.; Miao, Yinghui; Boscardin, W. John; Smith, Alex K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To report prevalence, correlates, and medication management of pain in community-dwelling older adults with dementia. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING In-person interviews with self- or proxy respondents living in private residences or non-nursing home residential care settings. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older enrolled in the National Health and Aging Trends Study 2011 wave. MEASUREMENTS Dementia status was determined using a modified previously validated algorithm. Participants were asked whether they had had bothersome and activity-limiting pain over the past month. A multivariable Poisson regression model was used to determine the relationship between bothersome pain and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS Of the 7,609 participants with complete data on cognitive function, 802 had dementia (67.2% aged ≥80, 65.0% female, 67.9% white, 49.7% proxy response, 32.0% lived alone, 18.8% lived in residential care); 670 (63.5%) participants with dementia experienced bothersome pain, and 347 (43.3%) had pain that limited activities. These rates were significantly higher than in a propensity score–matched cohort without dementia (54.5% bothersome pain, P < .001, 27.2% pain that limited activity, P < .001). Proxies reported slightly higher rates of pain than self-respondents, but differences were statistically significant only for activity-limiting pain (46.6% proxy vs 40.1% self, P = .03). Correlates of bothersome pain included arthritis, heart and lung disease, less than high school education, activity of daily living disability, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and low energy. Of those reporting pain, 30.3% stated that they rarely or never took any medications for pain. CONCLUSION Community-living older adults with dementia are at high risk of having pain. Creative interventions and programs are needed to manage pain adequately in this vulnerable population. PMID

  17. Intensive Weight Loss Intervention in Individuals Ages 65 Years or Older: Results from the Look AHEAD Type 2 Diabetes Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Rejeski, W. Jack; West, Delia S.; Bray, George A.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Peters, Anne L.; Chen, Haiying; Johnson, Karen C.; Horton, Edward S.; Hazuda, Helen P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the relative effects of four years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among older versus younger individuals DESIGN A randomized controlled clinical trial SETTING 16 US clinical sites PARTICIPANTS Individuals with type 2 diabetes: 1,053 aged 65–76 years and 4,092 aged 45–64 years INTERVENTIONS An intensive behavioral intervention designed to promote and maintain weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to a condition of diabetes support and education. MEASUREMENTS Standardized assessments of weight, fitness (based on graded exercise testing), and cardiovascular disease risk factors RESULTS Across four years, older individuals had greater intervention-related mean weight losses than younger participants, 6.2% versus 5.1% (interaction p=0.006) and comparable relative mean increases in fitness, 0.56 versus 0.53 metabolic equivalents (interaction p=0.72). These benefits were seen consistently across subgroups of older adults formed by many demographic and health factors. Among a panel of age-related health conditions, only self-reported worsening vision was associated with poorer intervention-related weight loss in older individuals. The intensive lifestyle intervention produced mean increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.03 mg/dl; p<0.001) and decreases in glycated hemoglobin (0.21%; p<0.001) and waist girth (3.52 cc; p<0.001) across 4 years that were at least as large in older compared to younger individuals. CONCLUSION Intensive lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss and increased physical activity is effective in overweight and obese older individuals to produce sustained weight loss and improvements in fitness and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23668423

  18. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Susanne; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Fuchs, Angela; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; Koppara, Alexander; Pentzek, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mösch, Edelgard; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in primary care patients over 75 years covering an observation period of 7.5 years. We used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to examine the relationship of SCD and mortality. Further, we estimated survival times by the Kaplan Meier method and case-fatality rates with regard to SCD. Results Among 971 individuals without objective cognitive impairment, 233 (24.0%) incidentally expressed SCD at follow-up I. Incident SCD was not significantly associated with increased mortality in the univariate (HR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.3, p = .90) as well as in the multivariate analysis (HR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2, p = .40). The same applied for SCD in relation to concerns. Mean survival time with SCD was 8.0 years (SD = 0.1) after onset. Conclusion Incident SCD in memory in individuals with unimpaired cognitive performance does not predict mortality. The main reason might be that SCD does not ultimately lead into future cognitive decline in any case. However, as prevalence studies suggest, subjectively perceived decline in non-memory cognitive domains might be associated with increased mortality. Future studies may address mortality in such other cognitive domains of SCD in incident cases. PMID:26766555

  19. How do cold-sensitive species endure ice ages? Phylogeographic and paleodistribution models of postglacial range expansion of the mesothermic drought-tolerant conifer Austrocedrus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Souto, Cintia P; Kitzberger, Thomas; Arbetman, Marina P; Premoli, Andrea C

    2015-11-01

    In view of global climate change, it is important to understand the responses of tree species to climate changes in the past. Combinations of phylogeographic analysis of genetic evidence, coupled with species distribution models (SDMs), are improving our understanding on this subject. We combined SDMs and microsatellite data from populations of the entire range of Austrocedrus chilensis, a dominant mesotherm (cold-sensitive) conifer of dryland forests of the southern Andes, to test the hypothesis of long-distance postglacial migration from northern and warmer refugia at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The SDM indicated suitable conditions for Austrocedrus in northern Chile (western) at the LGM and largely unsuitable conditions in Argentina (eastern). Population genetic diversity and effective population sizes within populations decreased southward along the Andes, consistent with the hypothesis of long-distance dispersal from a northern refugium. Results support the hypothesis of one (or a few) warmer (low latitude) refugia in Chile for Austrocedrus. On balance, the evidence suggests that in contrast to cold-tolerant tree taxa with the capacity to fast-track postglacial warming thanks to local refugia, cold-sensitive species might have undergone long-distance range expansion, lagging behind progressive climate change throughout the Holocene. PMID:26079667

  20. Work Content and Serious Mental Illness among Middle-Aged Men: Results from a 6-Year Longitudinal Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Smith, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to determine prospective associations between work content after a working life of more than 20 years and serious mental illness among Japanese men aged 50 to 59 years, using a nationwide population-based survey. Methods Data were extracted from a national longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly persons previously conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan. We analyzed data across 10 work content categories for Japanese men who had been working in the same job type or industry for over 20 years. As part pf the survey, participants completed the Kessler (K)6 scale each year to determine their level of psychological distress (with scores ≥13 indicating serious mental illness). Cox discrete time proposal hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between work content and serious mental illness from 2005 to 2010. Further adjustments were made for other sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Results The current study involved a total of 11,942 participants with a mean (± standard deviation [SD]) of follow-up was 3.4 (± 2.0) years, during which time 892 participants (7.5%) had been classified as having a new-onset serious mental illness. Men who had worked in service jobs and in manufacturing jobs at baseline were more likely to develop serious mental illness than those in managerial jobs (hazard ratio 1.37, 1.30, 95% confidence intervals 1.04–1.80, 1.02–1.65) after adjustment for confounding variables. Conclusion These findings suggest that Japanese men aged 50 to 59 years who have worked in service and manufacturing jobs after a working life of over 20 years have an increased risk of serious mental illness during follow-up. Identifying the most at-risk work content category after a working life of over 20 years would be an essential part of providing more effective interventions for psychological distress among Japanese men in this age group. PMID:26121355

  1. Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche (<11 years). Methods Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data were collected in 2006 by anonymous self-reported standardized questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of 1072 15 years old girls in school classrooms. Family environment, school experience, physical and psychological factors, risk behaviours (substance use and sexual initiation) were recorded. Logistic regression models were applied (analysing for crude and adjusted relationships between early menarche and risk behaviours controlled for family context). Results Median age at menarche was 13.0 years; 57 girls (5.3%) were early-matured. Controlled for familial environment, early menarche was associated with having had more than two life-drunkenness episodes (adjusted OR = 2.5 [1.3-4.6]), early sexual initiation (adjusted OR = 2.8 [1.3-6.0]) and overweight (adjusted OR = 7.3 [3.6-14.9]). Conclusion Early-maturing girls may affiliate with older adolescents, hence engage in risk behaviours linked to their appearance rather than their maturity level. Factors associated with early menarche highlight the need to focus attention on early-matured girls to prevent further health problems linked to risk behaviours. PMID:20353570

  2. Mid-to long-term results of revision total hip replacement in patients aged 50 years or younger.

    PubMed

    Lee, P T H; Lakstein, D L; Lozano, B; Safir, O; Backstein, J; Gross, A E

    2014-08-01

    Revision total hip replacement (THR) for young patients is challenging because of technical complexity and the potential need for subsequent further revisions. We have assessed the survivorship, functional outcome and complications of this procedure in patients aged < 50 years through a large longitudinal series with consistent treatment algorithms. Of 132 consecutive patients (181 hips) who underwent revision THR, 102 patients (151 hips) with a mean age of 43 years (22 to 50) were reviewed at a mean follow-up of 11 years (2 to 26) post-operatively. We attempted to restore bone stock with allograft where indicated. Using further revision for any reason as an end point, the survival of the acetabular component was 71% (sd 4) and 54% (sd 7) at ten- and 20 years. The survival of the femoral component was 80% (sd 4) and 62% (sd 6) at ten- and 20 years. Complications included 11 dislocations (6.1%), ten periprosthetic fractures (5.5%), two deep infections (1.1%), four sciatic nerve palsies (2.2%; three resolved without intervention, one improved after exploration and freeing from adhesions) and one vascular injury (0.6%). The mean modified Harris Hip Score was 41 (10 to 82) pre-operatively, 77 (39 to 93) one year post-operatively and 77 (38 to 93) at the latest review. This overall perspective on the mid- to long-term results is valuable when advising young patients on the prospects of revision surgery at the time of primary replacement. PMID:25086120

  3. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Sara; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Spissu, Nicoletta; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Fiore, Filippo; Cocco, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels in dogs' plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p < 0.005) and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p < 0.005) after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs. PMID:26464952

  4. [Age, marital status, fecundity and mortality of the population of Colombia: demographic results of the National Household Survey, June 1978].

    PubMed

    1980-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the National Household Survey conducted in Colombia in June 1978, which covered about 0.2% of the total population, and which interviewed 60,000 people in rural and in urban areas. Main findings were: 1) a decrease in the percentage of the population aged 0-4, and 5-9, as compared to the population aged 10-14; 2) a decrease in the number of live births, especially in young women; and, 3) average parity per woman was 3.7, a decrease of 12% since 1976. Crude birth rate was measured to be 27.4/1000, while it was 31.1/1000 in 1976. Life expectancy was estimated to be 65.1 for women, and 55.1 for men, much too low to be acceptable, and possibly caused by wrong information given to interviewers. Total mortality was 6.7/1000, too low to be acceptable, while infant mortality was 69/1000. PMID:12262301

  5. Genome-wide significant results identified for plasma apolipoprotein H levels in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Karen A.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Song, Fei; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Poljak, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; McEvoy, Mark; Kwok, John B.; Assareh, Amelia A.; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Lee, Teresa; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J.; Trollor, Julian N.; Schofield, Peter W.; Brodaty, Henry; Scott, Rodney J.; Schofield, Peter R.; Attia, John R.; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a multi-functional plasma glycoprotein that has been associated with negative health outcomes. ApoH levels have high heritability. We undertook a genome-wide association study of ApoH levels using the largest sample to date and replicated the results in an independent cohort (total N = 1,255). In the discovery phase, a meta-analysis of two cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (Sydney MAS) and the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) (n = 942) revealed genome-wide significant results in or near the APOH gene on chromosome 17 (top SNP, rs7211380, p = 1 × 10−11). The results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Hunter Community Study (p < 0.002) (n = 313). Conditional and joint analysis (COJO) confirmed the association of the chromosomal 17 region with ApoH levels. The set of independent SNPs identified by COJO explained 23% of the variance. The relationships between the top SNPs and cardiovascular/lipid/cognition measures and diabetes were assessed in Sydney MAS, with suggestive results observed for diabetes and cognitive performance. However, replication of these results in the smaller OATS cohort was not found. This work provides impetus for future research to better understand the contribution of genetics to ApoH levels and its possible impacts on health. PMID:27030319

  6. Genome-wide significant results identified for plasma apolipoprotein H levels in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Song, Fei; Armstrong, Nicola J; Poljak, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G; McEvoy, Mark; Kwok, John B; Assareh, Amelia A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Lee, Teresa; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J; Trollor, Julian N; Schofield, Peter W; Brodaty, Henry; Scott, Rodney J; Schofield, Peter R; Attia, John R; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a multi-functional plasma glycoprotein that has been associated with negative health outcomes. ApoH levels have high heritability. We undertook a genome-wide association study of ApoH levels using the largest sample to date and replicated the results in an independent cohort (total N = 1,255). In the discovery phase, a meta-analysis of two cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (Sydney MAS) and the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) (n = 942) revealed genome-wide significant results in or near the APOH gene on chromosome 17 (top SNP, rs7211380, p = 1 × 10(-11)). The results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Hunter Community Study (p < 0.002) (n = 313). Conditional and joint analysis (COJO) confirmed the association of the chromosomal 17 region with ApoH levels. The set of independent SNPs identified by COJO explained 23% of the variance. The relationships between the top SNPs and cardiovascular/lipid/cognition measures and diabetes were assessed in Sydney MAS, with suggestive results observed for diabetes and cognitive performance. However, replication of these results in the smaller OATS cohort was not found. This work provides impetus for future research to better understand the contribution of genetics to ApoH levels and its possible impacts on health. PMID:27030319

  7. Age Determination and Chemical and Petrological Features of Shock-Melted Antarctic H Chondrite Y 790746: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, T.; Nagao, K.; Nakamura, N.; Fujiwara, T.; Misawa, K.; Kagami, H.; Yanai, K.; Kojima, H.

    1995-09-01

    Extensive K-Ar age determinations have been carried out for shocked chondrites [1]. However the young shock ages obtained by the less susceptible clocks such as Rb-Sr isotopes are still rarely reported for chondritic meteorites [2,3], particulary only for H-chondrites [4]. In order to search for ages, chemical and petrological characteristics of shocked H-chondrites, we have carried out analyses of Rb-Sr, K-Ar and other rare gass isotopes along with isotope dilution analyses of K, Rb, Sr, Ba, Ca, Mg, and Fe for impact melted Antarctic H-chondreite, Y-790746. The meteorite contains shock veins (widths: 5-10mm) formed from melts. One intensely melted portion was sampled for the present study. The observations by an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope indicate that the specimen has basaltic texture consisting of relic olivine grains with several hundred micrometer sizes, cryptocrystalline subhedral olivines and pyroxenes associated with glassy groundmass. Relic olivines with undulatory extinction and planar fractures occasionally carry several micrometer sized Fe-Ni deposits and shock veins. Recrystallized olivines and pyroxenes are mostly zoned by Fe-rich overgrowth rims. Ca-rich pyroxenes also carry Ca depleted overgrowth rim materials. Numerous Fe-Ni metal droplets (several ten to hundred micrometer sizes) associated with troilites also exist in interstitial areas of mineral grains. No plagioclase nor maskerynite grains were identified but instead abundant glassy materials exist in the interstitial areas. Abundances of alkali metals (K, Rb) and alkaline earths (Ba, Sr) in the whole-rock are almost H-chondritic (x1.02, x1.41, x1.19, x1.1; relative to average H-chondrites). The major element abundances normalized to average H-chondrites are low in Mg (x0.84), Fe (x0.70), and Ca (x0.87), indicating that Y-790746 is depleted in mafic components. These results suggest that Fe-Ni metal, (possibly, olivines and pyroxenes) was removed from the source

  8. Socioeconomic status and self-reported health among middle-aged Japanese men: results from a nationwide longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine potential associations between socioeconomic factors and self-rated health among a national sample of Japanese men aged 50–59 years between 2005 and 2010, including the 2008 global financial crisis. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Randomly selected 2515 census areas from a total of 1.8 million census areas in Japan. Participants This study utilised data from a national, longitudinal survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Starting in 2005, 16 738 Japanese men aged 50–59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire each year. We analysed data for the 6-year period (2005–2010) from participants who had worked for over 20 years in the same industry (n=9727). Main outcome measures We focused on worsening self-rated health status by occupation, education and employment contract. Results Working in the manufacturing industry was associated with worsening self-rated health scores when compared to those working in management (HR=1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.37). A relationship between education level and worsening self-rated health was also identified as follows: junior high school (HR=1.49; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.69), high school (HR=1.29; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.42), and vocational college (HR=1.25; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.46), when compared with those holding university-level qualifications. Precarious employment (HR=1.17; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.37) was also associated with worsening self-rated health status in the current study. Conclusions This study suggests that working in manufacturing for more than 20 years and having lower education levels may have a significant impact on the self-rated health of middle-aged Japanese men. This may reflect a progressive decline in Japanese working conditions following the global financial crisis and/or the impact of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:26109119

  9. Diabetes, Depressive Symptoms, and Inflammation in Older Adults: Results from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Todd A.; de Groot, Mary; Harris, Tamara; Schwartz, Frank; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kanaya, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objective Up-regulated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are common to both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevated depressive symptoms, yet little attention has been given to the biological mechanisms associated with these co-morbidities. This study examined the association between inflammation and both T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Methods Baseline data were analyzed from 3,009 adults, aged 70–79, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetes was assessed per self-report, medication use, fasting glucose and/or glucose tolerance tests. Elevated depressive symptoms were categorized using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (cut-score≥20). Log-transformed IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results Participants with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms (T2DM+DEP n=14) demonstrated significantly (p<.05) higher IL-6 compared to (T2DM Only n=628), (DEP Only n=49), and (No T2DM or DEP n=2,067) groups following covariate adjustment. Similarly, participants with T2DM+DEP (n=14) had significantly (p<.05) higher CRP, after covariate adjustment, compared to DEP Only (n=50) and No T2DM or DEP groups (n=2,153). No association was observed for TNF-α. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that inflammation is associated with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Participants with T2DM+DEP demonstrated the highest IL-6 levels compared to all other groups. Greater CRP levels were also observed in T2DM, but not elevated depressive symptoms, which may suggest that differential associations between T2DM and depressive symptoms exist for various inflammatory markers. Further investigation into these associations could aid in understanding the biological pathways underlying both T2DM and depressive symptoms. PMID:24182629

  10. Annual variations of the amplitude characteristic of the noise magnetic field in the ELF frequency range based on the results of high-latitude observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pchelkin, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    The annual variation of a number of amplitude characteristics of the noise electromagnetic field in the frequency range near the first Schumann resonance (and in particular the mean values of the modulus of horizontal magnetic components and parameters of the distribution function of noise pulses over amplitudes) was obtained and analyzed based on the results of three-year measurements performed at the high-latitude magnetic observatory Lovozero. The summer increase in mean and median values of the magnetic component of noises associated with electrical storms and the lack of annual variations of the exponent that empirically describes the distribution of amplitudes of noise signals were found. The relationship between the seasonal (winter/summer in the northern hemisphere) increase in the mean value of the modulus of the horizontal magnetic field component and seasonal increase in the global number of lightning discharges is shown by the correlation of the results of satellite observations and measurements of the magnetic component.

  11. [Middle-term result of surgery in 78 cases of complete atrioventricular canal before one year of age].

    PubMed

    Barazer, P Y; Losay, J; Lacour-Gayet, F; Planché, C; Binet, J P

    1989-05-01

    Between 1970 and 1985, 78 children with complete atrioventricular canal were operated upon before the age of one year at the Marie-Lannelongue Surgical Centre. Forty-seven survivors were followed up for periods of 3 months to 13 years after the initial operation; 2 were lost of following. Among the 13 children who survived banding, 1 died spontaneously, 1 had Blalock-Taussig anastomosis and 11 underwent full repair with 5 deaths; out of 6 survivors, 4 are doing well without any treatment, 1 was reoperated upon twice and died during the second operation, and 1 was lost sight of; the survival rates at 5 and 10 years are 46 +/- 23 p. 100 and 29 +/- 23 p. 100 respectively. Among the 34 children who survived an initial complete repair, 2 were reoperated upon 3 months after the repair, with 1 death, 7 subsequently died of infection (6 had trisomy 21); out of 26 survivors followed up for 3 years and 3 months on average after the complete repair (2 to 13 years), 18 show an excellent result and 3 a mediocre result; the survival rates at 5 and 10 years are 45 +/- 9 p. 100 and 30 +/- 27 p. 100 respectively. Whether the patients initially had banding followed by complete repair or complete repair from the start, the probability of survival at 5 and 10 years was the same. The presence of trisomy 21 is an unfavourable prognostic factor at medium-term.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2525372

  12. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI) in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home). Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. Results In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders. PMID:21777439

  13. Comparison of chlorofluorocarbon-age dating with particle-tracking results of a regional ground-water flow model of the Portland Basin, Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study in which chlorofluorocarbon-age dating was used to evaluate the results of a ground-water particle tracker for the Portland Basin in Oregon and Washington.

  14. Early Parental and Child Predictors of Recurrent Abdominal Pain at School Age: Results of a Large Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; Hotopf, Matthew; Wiles, Nicola J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether parental psychological and physical factors and child factors measured in the first year of life were associated with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children at age 6 3/4 years. Method: A longitudinal cohort study (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), followed 8,272 children from pregnancy to age 6…

  15. Indirect dark matter signatures in the cosmic dark ages. I. Generalizing the bound on s -wave dark matter annihilation from Planck results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies by Planck provide a sensitive probe of dark matter annihilation during the cosmic dark ages, and specifically constrain the annihilation parameter feff⟨σ v ⟩/mχ. Using new results (paper II) for the ionization produced by particles injected at arbitrary energies, we calculate and provide feff values for photons and e+e- pairs injected at keV-TeV energies; the feff value for any dark matter model can be obtained straightforwardly by weighting these results by the spectrum of annihilation products. This result allows the sensitive and robust constraints on dark matter annihilation presented by the Planck collaboration to be applied to arbitrary dark matter models with s -wave annihilation. We demonstrate the validity of this approach using principal component analysis. As an example, we integrate over the spectrum of annihilation products for a range of Standard Model final states to determine the CMB bounds on these models as a function of dark matter mass, and demonstrate that the new limits generically exclude models proposed to explain the observed high-energy rise in the cosmic ray positron fraction. We make our results publicly available at http://nebel.rc.fas.harvard.edu/epsilon.

  16. Longitudinal Trajectories in Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey Data: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental trends in personality traits over 42 years were examined using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging (N = 2,359, aged 17 to 98), collected from 1958 to 2002. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed cumulative mean-level changes averaging about 0.5 SD across adulthood. Scales related to Extraversion showed distinct developmental patterns: General Activity declined from age 60 to 90; Restraint increased; Ascendance peaked around age 60; and Sociability declined slightly. Scales related to Neuroticism showed curvilinear declines up to age 70 and then increased. Scales related to Agreeableness and Openness changed little; Masculinity declined linearly. Significant individual variability in change was found. Although intercepts differed, trajectories were similar for men and women. Attrition and death had no effect on slopes. This study highlights the use of lower-order traits in providing a more nuanced picture of developmental change. PMID:16497954

  17. Perspective: A Critical Look at the Ancillary Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2: Nutrition and Cognitive Function Results in Older Individuals with Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Billy R; Renzi-Hammond, Lisa M

    2016-05-01

    A large body of literature suggests that the dietary carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid are related to improved cognitive function across the life span. A recent report by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) group appears to contradict the general findings of others in the field. In this review, we look critically at the methods, study designs, and analysis techniques used in the larger body of literature and compare them with the recent AREDS reports. PMID:27184270

  18. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station: Phase I Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the results of the ANU's (Applied Meteorology Unit) Short-Range Statistical Forecasting task for peak winds. The peak wind speeds are an important forecast element for the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. The Keith Weather Squadron and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group indicate that peak winds are challenging to forecast. The Applied Meteorology Unit was tasked to develop tools that aid in short-range forecasts of peak winds at tower sites of operational interest. A 7 year record of wind tower data was used in the analysis. Hourly and directional climatologies by tower and month were developed to determine the seasonal behavior of the average and peak winds. In all climatologies, the average and peak wind speeds were highly variable in time. This indicated that the development of a peak wind forecasting tool would be difficult. Probability density functions (PDF) of peak wind speed were calculated to determine the distribution of peak speed with average speed. These provide forecasters with a means of determining the probability of meeting or exceeding a certain peak wind given an observed or forecast average speed. The climatologies and PDFs provide tools with which to make peak wind forecasts that are critical to safe operations.

  19. Aging, rejuvenation, and memory effects in short-range Ising spin glass: Cu_0.5Co_0.5Cl_2-FeCl3 GBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.; Suzuki, I. S.

    2004-03-01

    Cu_0.5Co_0.5Cl_2-FeCl3 GBIC undergoes a spin glass (SG) transition at Tg (= 3.92 ± 0.11 K). The system shows a dynamic behavior that has some similarities and some significant differences compared to a 3D Ising SG.^1 Here we report on non-equilibrium aging dynamics which has been studied using zero-field cooled (ZFC) magnetization and low frequency AC magnetic susceptibility.^2 The time dependence of the relaxation rate S(t) = (1/H)dM_ZFC/dln t for the ZFC magnetization after the ZFC aging protocol, shows a peak at a characteristic time t_cr near a wait time t_w, corresponding to a crossover from quasi equilibrium dynamics to non-equilibrium. The time t_cr strongly depends on t_w, temperature, magnetic field, and the temperature shift. The rejuvenation effect is observed in both i^' and i^'' under the T-shift and H-shift procedures. The memory of the specific spin configurations imprinted during the ZFC aging protocol can be recalled when the system is re-heated at a constant heating rate. The aging, rejuvenation, and memory effects are discussed in terms of the scaling concepts derived from numerical studies on 3D Edwards-Anderson spin glass model. 1. I.S. Suzuki and M. Suzuki, Phys. Rev. B 68, 094424 (2003) 2. M. Suzuki and I.S. Suzuki, cond-mat/0308285

  20. Three-micron extinction of the Titan haze in the 250-700 km altitude range: Possible evidence of a particle-aging process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtin, Régis; Kim, Sang Joon; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    2015-01-01

    Context. The chemical nature of the Titan haze is poorly understood. The investigation carried out by the Cassini-Huygens suite of instruments is bringing new insights into this question. Aims: This work aims at deriving the vertical variation of the spectral structure of the 3.3-3.4 μm absorption feature of the Titan haze from Cassini VIMS solar occultation data recorded between 250 and 700 km altitude. Methods: We computed the transmittance of Titan's atmosphere using a spherical shell model and a radiative transfer code including the influence of CH4, CH3D, and C2H6, as well as the effects of absorption and scattering by the haze particles. We derived the haze extinction from a comparison of the synthetic spectra with the VIMS solar occultation spectra. Results: We find a marked change in the relative amplitudes of the 3.33 and 3.38 μm features, which are characteristic of aromatic (double C=C chains or rings) or aliphatic (single C-C chains) structural groups, respectively. The pseudo-ratio of aromatics to aliphatics (uncorrected for the absolute band strengths) varies from 3.3 ± 1.9 at 580-700 km to 0.9 ± 0.1 at 350-450 km, and is 0.5 ± 0.1 around 250 km. The structural change from the aromatic to the aliphatic type between 580 and 480 km appears to correspond to a spontaneous aging of the particles - a transition between unannealed and hardened particles - while the further decrease of the pseudo-ratio of aromatics to aliphatics below 480 km may be related to the coating of the core particles by condensates such as heavy alkanes. VIMS transmission spectra data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A21

  1. Is the advanced age a contraindication to GERD laparoscopic surgery? Results of a long term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In this prospective non randomized observational cohort study we have evaluated the influence of age on outcome of laparoscopic total fundoplication for GERD. Methods Six hundred and twenty consecutive patients underwent total laparoscopic fundoplication for GERD. Five hundred and twenty-four patients were younger than 65 years (YG), and 96 patients were 65 years or older (EG). The following parameters were considered in the preoperative and postoperative evaluation: presence, duration, and severity of GERD symptoms, presence of a hiatal hernia, manometric and 24 hour pH-monitoring data, duration of operation, incidence of complications and length of hospital stay. Results Elderly patients more often had atypical symptoms of GERD and at manometric evaluation had a higher rate of impaired esophageal peristalsis in comparison with younger patients. The duration of the operation was similar between the two groups. The incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications was low and the difference was not statistically significant between the two groups. An excellent outcome was observed in 93.0% of young patients and in 88.9% of elderly patients (p = NS). Conclusions Laparoscopic antireflux surgery is a safe and effective treatment for GERD even in elderly patients, warranting low morbidity and mortality rates and a significant improvement of symptoms comparable to younger patients. PMID:24267613

  2. No significant steady state surface creep along the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul: Results of 6 months of seafloor acoustic ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakic, P.; Piété, H.; Ballu, V.; Royer, J.-Y.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Petersen, F.; Özeren, M. S.; Ergintav, S.; Geli, L.; Henry, P.; Deschamps, A.

    2016-07-01

    The submarine Istanbul-Silivri fault segment, within 15 km of Istanbul, is the only portion of the North Anatolian Fault that has not ruptured in the last 250 years. We report first results of a seafloor acoustic ranging experiment to quantify current horizontal deformation along this segment and assess whether the segment is creeping aseismically or accumulating stress to be released in a future event. Ten transponders were installed to monitor length variations along 15 baselines. A joint least squares inversion for across-fault baseline changes, accounting for sound speed drift at each transponder, precludes fault displacement rates larger than a few millimeters per year during the 6 month observation period. Forward modeling shows that the data better fit a locked state or a very moderate surface creep—less than 6 mm/yr compared to a far-field slip rate of over 20 mm/yr—suggesting that the fault segment is currently accumulating stress.

  3. A discussion of the results of the rainflow counting of a wide range of dynamics associated with the simultaneous operation of adjacent wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N.; Desrochers, G.; Tangler, J.; Smith, B.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a fatigue load comparison between two identical wind turbines employing different rotor designs. One turbine was fitted with a rotor consisting of a set of NREL (SERI) thin-airfoil blades while the other rotor included the original-equipment AeroStar blades. The data discussed are based on sample load populations derived from the rainflow cycle counting of 405, 10-minute records specifically collected over a wide range of inflow turbulence conditions. The results have shown that the statistical structure of the alternating load cycles on both turbines can be described as a mixture of three stochastic processes. We noted a high degree of load distribution similarity between the two turbines, with the differences attributable to either rotor weight or swept area.

  4. Age and spatial distribution of Holocene permafrost in Norway - model results and implications for glacier-permafrost interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilleoren, K. S.; Etzelmuller, B.; Gisnås, K.; Humlum, O.

    2011-12-01

    Following the last glaciation, cryogenic processes related to valley and cirque glaciers, permafrost and seasonal frost have dominated the Norwegian landscape development in high-mountain environments. This is evident by different landscape and landform features, like rock glaciers, block fields, palsas, ice-wedge polygons and ice-cored moraines. For Scandinavia the present regional distribution of mountain permafrost is reasonably well known, both through ground temperature measurements in boreholes, geophysical soundings and spatial modelling exercises. An important question in this context is the dynamics of permafrost during the Holocene, as a major factor for landscape development and geomorphological processes in high mountain areas of Scandinavia. In the present study mean annual air temperature deviation curves through Holocene have been compiled to drive a 1D heat flow model over the last 10 ka period for several mountain sites in Norway. At each site temperature-monitored boreholes were used to calibrate the model. Both an annual run and a seasonal run including monthly temperature variations were performed for each site. In addition the spatial distribution of permafrost during selected time periods of the Holocene were addressed using an equilibrium permafrost model on a 1*1 km resolution. The results of this study indicate an altitudinal zonation of relative permafrost age in Norway, where permafrost has existed continuously since the deglaciation in the highest areas, while large areas that is underlain by permafrost today were degraded during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM). In all boreholes the deepest simulated permafrost occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), and also the largest areal distribution of Holocene permafrost in Norway is connected to the LIA. In addition, there exist a clear connection between the distribution of permafrost and presence of blockfields. These findings have several implications, such as for the subglacial

  5. Plasma selenium and risk of dysglycemia in an elderly French population: results from the prospective Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A preventive role of selenium on the risk of diabetes has been reported and ascribed to the "insulin-like" activity of selenium and the antioxidant properties of the selenoenzymes. By contrast, data from cross-sectional studies and clinical trials have suggested an adverse effect of high selenium status and selenium supplementation on type-2 diabetes risk. Given these controversial results, we investigated prospectively the relationship between baseline plasma selenium concentration and occurrence of dysglycemia (impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes) in an elderly French cohort. Methods The Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing (EVA) study (n = 1389, 59-71 years) is a 9-year longitudinal study in which, fasting plasma glucose was measured at baseline, 2, 4 and 9 years. Analyses were performed on 1162 participants with complete data. Results At baseline plasma selenium mean levels were 1.08 (0.21) μmol/l in men and 1.10 (0.20) μmol/l in women. During the 9-year follow-up, 127 cases of dysglycemia occurred. A significant interaction was found between plasma selenium and sex. Risk of dysglycemia was significantly lower in men with plasma selenium in the highest tertile (T3:1.19-1.97) compared to those in the lowest tertile (T1:0.18-1.00) [HR = 0.48 (0.25-0.92)], but no significant relationship was observed in women. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, lifestyle factors, cardiovascular diseases, body mass index, hypertension and lipid profile, plasma selenium remained marginally significantly associated with occurrence of dysglycemia in men [T3 vs. T1, HR = 0.50 (0.24-1.04)] and unrelated in women. Conclusions This prospective study suggests a sex-specific protective effect of higher selenium status at baseline on later occurrence of dysglycemia. PMID:20298544

  6. Age-related improvement in complex language comprehension: results of a cross-sectional study with 361 children aged 5 to 15.

    PubMed

    Wassenberg, Renske; Hurks, Petra P M; Hendriksen, Jos G M; Feron, Frans J M; Meijs, Celeste J C; Vles, Johan S H; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-05-01

    We investigated age-related improvement in speed and accuracy of complex language comprehension with 361 children attending kindergarten and the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Language comprehension was measured using both the neuropsychological procedure proposed by Luria (1966, 1980) and an adapted version of the Token Test. Levels of short-term memory and verbal intelligence were controlled for in the evaluation of language comprehension. The findings show that the accuracy of language comprehension continued to develop until the 6th grade, whereas the speed of language comprehension continued to improve up until the 7th grade. We thus conclude that the complex language comprehension of children is not fully developed until early adolescence. We further contend that the speed of complex language comprehension appears to be more sensitive than accuracy with respect to measuring developmental differences. PMID:18938680

  7. Aging of the reaction mixture as a tool to modulate the crystallite size of UiO-66 into the low nanometer range.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Marco; Dümbgen, Kim Corinna; van Bokhoven, Jeroen Anton; Ranocchiari, Marco

    2016-05-11

    Nanosized UiO-66 with an unprecedented crystallite size of 10 nm was synthesized by exploiting controlled aging of stock solutions of Zr(4+) in N,N-dimethylformamide in the presence of variable amounts of water and acetic acid prior to the addition of the ligand. The yield of the synthesis is not affected, affording high conversion of the starting reagents into the product. PMID:27091378

  8. Hair Mercury Levels in U.S. Children and Women of Childbearing Age: Reference Range Data from NHANES 1999–2000

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Margaret A.; Dillon, Charles F.; Osterloh, John; Bolger, P. Michael; Pellizzari, Edo; Fernando, Reshan; de Oca, Ruben Montes; Schober, Susan E.; Sinks, Thomas; Jones, Robert L.; Mahaffey, Kathryn R.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to methyl mercury, a risk factor for neurodevelopmental toxicity, was assessed in U.S. children 1–5 years of age (n = 838) and women 16–49 years of age (n = 1,726) using hair mercury analysis during the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The data are nationally representative and are based on analysis of cross-sectional data for the non-institutionalized, U.S. household population. The survey consisted of interviews conducted in participants’ homes and standardized health examinations conducted in mobile examination centers. Distributions of total hair mercury levels expressed as micrograms per gram hair Hg and the association of hair Hg levels with sociodemographic characteristics and fish consumption are reported. Geometric mean (standard error of the geometric mean) hair mercury was 0.12 μg/g (0.01 μg/g) in children, and 0.20 μg/g (0.02 μg/g) in women. Among frequent fish consumers, geometric mean hair mercury levels were 3-fold higher for women (0.38 vs. 0.11 μg/g) and 2-fold higher for children (0.16 vs. 0.08 μg/g) compared with nonconsumers. The NHANES 1999–2000 data provide population-based data on hair mercury concentrations for women and children in the United States. Hair mercury levels were associated with age and fish consumption frequency. PMID:15289161

  9. Age Differences in the Trends of Smoking Among California Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans. PMID:25929677

  10. Medical Injection Use Among Adults and Adolescents Aged 15 to 64 Years in Kenya: Results From a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, Daniel; Kamau, Rachel; Ssempijja, Victor; Robinson, Katherine; Oluoch, Tom; Njeru, Mercy; Mwangi, Jane; Njogu, David; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unsafe medical injections remain a potential route of HIV transmission in Kenya. We used data from a national survey in Kenya to study the magnitude of medical injection use, medication preference, and disposal of medical waste in the community. Methods The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a nationally representative population-based survey. Among participants aged 15–64 years, data were collected regarding medical injections received in the year preceding the interview; blood samples were collected from participants for HIV testing. Results Of the 13,673 participants who answered questions on medical injections, 35.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 34.5 to 37.3] reported receiving ≥1 injection in the past 12 months and 51.2% (95% CI: 49.7 to 52.8) preferred receiving an injection over a pill. Among those who received an injection from a health care provider, 95.9% (95% CI: 95.2 to 96.7) observed him/her open a new injection pack, and 7.4% (95% CI: 6.4 to 8.4) had seen a used syringe or needle near their home or community in the past 12 months. Men who had received ≥1 injection in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2 to 8.9) and women who had received an injection in the past 12 months, not for family planning purposes (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5), were significantly more likely to be HIV infected compared with those who had not received medical injection in the past 12 months. Conclusions Injection preference may contribute to high rates of injections in Kenya. Exposure to unsafe medical waste in the community poses risks for injury and infection. We recommend that community- and facility-based injection safety strategies be integrated in disease prevention programs. PMID:24413041

  11. Community environment, cognitive impairment and dementia in later life: results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Jones, Andrew P.; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: few studies have investigated the impact of the community environment, as distinct from area deprivation, on cognition in later life. This study explores cross-sectional associations between cognitive impairment and dementia and environmental features at the community level in older people. Method: the postcodes of the 2,424 participants in the year-10 interview of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study in England were mapped into small area level geographical units (Lower-layer Super Output Areas) and linked to environmental data in government statistics. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to investigate associations between cognitive impairment (defined as MMSE ≤ 25), dementia (organicity level ≥3 in GMS-AGECAT) and community level measurements including area deprivation, natural environment, land use mix and crime. Sensitivity analyses tested the impact of people moving residence within the last two years. Results: higher levels of area deprivation and crime were not significantly associated with cognitive impairment and dementia after accounting for individual level factors. Living in areas with high land use mix was significantly associated with a nearly 60% reduced odds of dementia (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) after adjusting for individual level factors and area deprivation, but there was no linear trend for cognitive impairment. Increased odds of dementia (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.2) and cognitive impairment (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.0) were found in the highest quartile of natural environment availability. Findings were robust to exclusion of the recently relocated. Conclusion: features of land use have complex associations with cognitive impairment and dementia. Further investigations should focus on environmental influences on cognition to inform health and social policies. PMID:26464419

  12. Zircon age range and sources of alkaline rocks from the Kurgusul intrusion, Kuznetsk Alatau: The first U-Pb (SHRIMP II) and Sm-Nd isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.; Gertner, I. F.; Tishin, P. A.; Bayanova, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    U-Pb isotope analysis of basic feldspathoid rocks (juvites) of the Kurgusul intrusion, NE Kuznetsk Alatau, revealed three generations of zircons of various ages (˜1.3-1.5 Ga; 484.3 ± 5.5 and 393.6 ± 9.2Ma). This suggests several stages of regional alkaline basic magmatism in the Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician and Early-Middle Devonian and melting of the Mesoproterozoic continental crust, which form part of the basement of the Kuznetsk Alatau terrane. The trace element geochemical data indicate a continental margin setting characterized by the complex interaction of a plume-related, supra-subduction zone and crustal materials. A possible model of the magmatic evolution assumes that the ascent of a plume at the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary induced generation of the initial alkaline basaltic magmas and metasomatism and erosion of the lower lithosphere. Repeated partial melting of the lower crust after a 100 Myr period produced new magma batches of alkaline composition, which inherited zircons from the preceding episode of magma generation. The inherited juvenile magmatic source (PREMA + E-type MORB + EM) is confirmed by similarities in the Sm-Nd isotopic signatures (ɛNd( T) ≈ +4.5 to +5.7, T(Nd)DM ≈ 0.8-0.9 Ga) of derivatives of regional alkaline basic complexes of different ages.

  13. A specimen of Paralycoptera Chang & Chou 1977 (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei) from Hong Kong (China) with a potential Late Jurassic age that extends the temporal and geographical range of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Tze-Kei; Chang, Mee-mann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a Mesozoic fish Paralycoptera sp. (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei), on the basis of a postcranial skeleton collected from the volcaniclastic mudstones of the Lai Chi Chong Formation of Hong Kong, China. The new finding—representing the city’s first Mesozoic fish—extends the geographical distribution of Paralycoptera from eastern mainland China into Hong Kong, demonstrating a wider distribution than previously appreciated for this genus. A radiometric age for the Lai Chi Chong Formation of 146.6 ± 0.2 Ma implies a temporal range expansion for Paralycoptera of approximately 40 million years back from the Early Cretaceous (∼110 Ma). However, spores found in the Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age that is consistent with the existing age assignment to Paralycoptera. We argue that the proposed temporal range extension is genuine because it is based on recent high precision radiometric age data, but given the discrepancies with the biostratigraphic ages further investigation is needed to confirm this. This study provides an important step towards revealing Hong Kong’s Mesozoic vertebrate fauna and understanding its relationship to well-studied mainland Chinese ones. PMID:25834774

  14. Short-range forecast of Shershnevskoie (South Ural) water-storage algal blooms: preliminary results of predictors' choosing and membership functions' construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayazova, Anna; Abdullaev, Sanjar

    2014-05-01

    Short-range forecasting of algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs and other waterbodies is an actual element of water treatment system. Particularly, Shershnevskoie reservoir - the source of drinking water for Chelyabinsk city (South Ural region of Russia) - is exposed to interannual, seasonal and short-range fluctuations of blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and other dominant species abundance, which lead to technological problems and economic costs and adversely affect the water treatment quality. Whereas the composition, intensity and the period of blooms affected not only by meteorological seasonal conditions but also by ecological specificity of waterbody, that's important to develop object-oriented forecasting, particularly, search for an optimal number of predictors for such forecasting. Thereby, firstly fuzzy logic and fuzzy artificial neural network patterns for blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) blooms prediction in nearby undrained Smolino lake were developed. These results subsequently served as the base to derive membership functions for Shernevskoie reservoir forecasting patterns. Time series with the total lenght about 138-159 days of dominant species seasonal abundance, water temperature, cloud cover, wind speed, mineralization, phosphate and nitrate concentrations were obtained through field observations held at Lake Smolino (Chelyabinsk) in the warm season of 2009 and 2011 with time resolution of 2-7 days. The cross-correlation analysis of the data revealed the potential predictors of M. aeruginosa abundance quasi-periodic oscillations: green alga Pediastrum duplex (P. duplex) abundance and mineralization for 2009, P. duplex abundance, water temperature and concentration of nitrates for 2011. According to the results of cross-correlation analysis one membership function "P. duplex abundance" and one rule linking M. aeruginosa and P. duplex abundances were set up for database of 2009. Analogically, for database of 2011

  15. Anxiety, Depression, and Peer Relationships during Adolescence: Results from the Portuguese National Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Barrett, Paula; Dadds, Mark; Shortt, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Used data from the Portuguese HBSC (Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children) survey, which was conducted by one of the authors who is the national representative of the European Study HBSC, a World Health Organisation collaborative study (Currie, Hurrelmann, Setterbulte, Smith, & Todd, 2000; Matos, Simoes, Carvalhosa, Reis & Canha 2000), to…

  16. Land use mix and five-year mortality in later life: Results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Jones, Andy; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol; MRC CFAS

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the potential modifying effect of age and mediation effect of co-morbidity on the association between land use mix, a measure of neighbourhood walkability, and five-year mortality among the 2424 individuals participating in the year-10 follow-up of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study in England. Postcodes of participants were mapped onto Lower-layer Super Output Areas, a small area level geographical unit in the UK, and linked to Generalised Land Use data. Cox regression models were fitted to investigate the association. For the younger older age group (75–79 years), the effect of high land use mix on an elevated risk of mortality was mediated by co-morbidity. For older old age groups (80–84, 85+ years), a higher land use mix was directly associated with a 10% lower risk of five-year mortality. The findings suggest differential impacts of land use mix on the health of the younger and older old. PMID:26798962

  17. Construction of a Danish CDI Short Form for Language Screening at the Age of 36 Months: Methodological Considerations and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vach, Werner; Bleses, Dorthe; Jorgensen, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Several research groups have previously constructed short forms of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) for different languages. We consider the specific aim of constructing such a short form to be used for language screening in a specific age group. We present a novel strategy for the construction, which is applicable…

  18. Health Information Literacy and Competencies of Information Age Students: Results From the Interactive Online Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA)

    PubMed Central

    O’Boyle, Irene; Casey, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    Background In an era of easy access to information, university students who will soon enter health professions need to develop their information competencies. The Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA) is based on the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, and it measures proficiency in obtaining health information, evaluating the quality of health information, and understanding plagiarism. Objective This study aimed to measure the proficiency of college-age health information consumers in finding and evaluating electronic health information; to assess their ability to discriminate between peer-reviewed scholarly resources and opinion pieces or sales pitches; and to examine the extent to which they are aware of their level of health information competency. Methods An interactive 56-item online assessment, the Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA), was used to measure the health information competencies of university students. We invited 400 students to take part in the study, and 308 participated, giving a response rate of 77%. The RRSA included multiple-choice questions and problem-based exercises. Declarative and procedural knowledge were assessed in three domains: finding health information, evaluating health information, and understanding plagiarism. Actual performance was contrasted with self-reported skill level. Upon answering all questions, students received a results page that summarized their numerical results and displayed individually tailored feedback composed by an experienced librarian. Results Even though most students (89%) understood that a one-keyword search is likely to return too many documents, few students were able to narrow a search by using multiple search categories simultaneously or by employing Boolean operators. In addition, nearly half of the respondents had trouble discriminating between primary and secondary sources of information as well as between references to journal articles and other published

  19. THE ABUNDANCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE REDSHIFT RANGE 8.5-12: NEW RESULTS FROM THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Richard S.; Schenker, Matthew A.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Cirasuolo, Michele; Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Koekemoer, Anton; Charlot, Stephane; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2013-01-20

    We present the results of the deepest search to date for star-forming galaxies beyond a redshift z {approx_equal} 8.5 utilizing a new sequence of near-infrared Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR) images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). This 'UDF12' campaign completed in 2012 September doubles the earlier exposures with WFC3/IR in this field and quadruples the exposure in the key F105W filter used to locate such distant galaxies. Combined with additional imaging in the F140W filter, the fidelity of high-redshift candidates is greatly improved. Using spectral energy distribution fitting techniques on objects selected from a deep multi-band near-infrared stack, we find seven promising z > 8.5 candidates. As none of the previously claimed UDF candidates with 8.5 < z < 10 are confirmed by our deeper multi-band imaging, our campaign has transformed the measured abundance of galaxies in this redshift range. Although we recover the candidate UDFj-39546284 (previously proposed at z = 10.3), it is undetected in the newly added F140W image, implying that it lies at z = 11.9 or is an intense emission line galaxy at z {approx_equal} 2.4. Although no physically plausible model can explain the required line intensity given the lack of Ly{alpha} or broadband UV signal, without an infrared spectrum we cannot rule out an exotic interloper. Regardless, our robust z {approx_equal} 8.5-10 sample demonstrates a luminosity density that continues the smooth decline observed over 6 < z < 8. Such continuity has important implications for models of cosmic reionization and future searches for z >10 galaxies with James Webb Space Telescope.

  20. The Abundance of Star-forming Galaxies in the Redshift Range 8.5-12: New Results from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Richard S.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Robertson, Brant E.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Schenker, Matthew A.; Koekemoer, Anton; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Ouchi, Masami; Rogers, Alexander B.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Stark, Daniel P.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Cirasuolo, Michele

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of the deepest search to date for star-forming galaxies beyond a redshift z ~= 8.5 utilizing a new sequence of near-infrared Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR) images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). This "UDF12" campaign completed in 2012 September doubles the earlier exposures with WFC3/IR in this field and quadruples the exposure in the key F105W filter used to locate such distant galaxies. Combined with additional imaging in the F140W filter, the fidelity of high-redshift candidates is greatly improved. Using spectral energy distribution fitting techniques on objects selected from a deep multi-band near-infrared stack, we find seven promising z > 8.5 candidates. As none of the previously claimed UDF candidates with 8.5 < z < 10 are confirmed by our deeper multi-band imaging, our campaign has transformed the measured abundance of galaxies in this redshift range. Although we recover the candidate UDFj-39546284 (previously proposed at z = 10.3), it is undetected in the newly added F140W image, implying that it lies at z = 11.9 or is an intense emission line galaxy at z ~= 2.4. Although no physically plausible model can explain the required line intensity given the lack of Lyα or broadband UV signal, without an infrared spectrum we cannot rule out an exotic interloper. Regardless, our robust z ~= 8.5-10 sample demonstrates a luminosity density that continues the smooth decline observed over 6 < z < 8. Such continuity has important implications for models of cosmic reionization and future searches for z >10 galaxies with James Webb Space Telescope.

  1. Adélie penguins coping with environmental change: Results from a natural experiment at the edge of their breeding range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.; Lyber, Phil O'B.; Schine, Casey

    2014-01-01

    We investigated life history responses to extreme variation in physical environmental conditions during a long-term demographic study of Adélie penguins at 3 colonies representing 9% of the world population and the full range of breeding colony sizes. Five years into the 14-year study (1997–2010) two very large icebergs (spanning 1.5 latitude degrees in length) grounded in waters adjacent to breeding colonies, dramatically altering environmental conditions during 2001–2005. This natural experiment allowed us to evaluate the relative impacts of expected long-term, but also extreme, short-term climate perturbations on important natural history parameters that can regulate populations. The icebergs presented physical barriers, not just to the penguins but to polynya formation, which profoundly increased foraging effort and movement rates, while reducing breeding propensity and productivity, especially at the smallest colony. We evaluated the effect of a variety of environmental parameters during breeding, molt, migration and wintering periods during years with and without icebergs on penguin breeding productivity, chick mass, and nesting chronology. The icebergs had far more influence on the natural history parameters of penguins than any of the other environmental variables measured, resulting in population level changes to metrics of reproductive performance, including delays in nesting chronology, depressed breeding productivity, and lower chick mass. These effects were strongest at the smallest, southern-most colony, which was most affected by alteration of the Ross Sea Polynya during years the iceberg was present. Additionally, chick mass was negatively correlated with colony size, supporting previous findings indicating density-dependent energetic constraints at the largest colony. Understanding the negative effects of the icebergs on the short-term natural history of Adélie penguins, as well as their response to long-term environmental variation, are

  2. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Waugh, Courtney; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Carver, Scott; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative) at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive) at either urogenital (UGT) and/or ocular sites (Oc), but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking), results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting. PMID:26756624

  3. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Courtney; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Carver, Scott; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative) at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive) at either urogenital (UGT) and/or ocular sites (Oc), but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated / sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking), results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting. PMID:26756624

  4. Mirror activity in the human brain while observing hand movements: a comparison between EEG desynchronization in the mu-range and previous fMRI results.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anat; Bentin, Shlomo

    2009-07-28

    Mu (mu) rhythms are EEG oscillations between 8-13 Hz distinguished from alpha by having more anterior distribution and being desynchronized by motor rather than visual activity. Evidence accumulating during the last decade suggests that the desynchronization of mu rhythms (mu suppression) might be also a manifestation of a human Mirror Neuron System (MNS). To further explore this hypothesis we used a paradigm that, in a previous fMRI study, successfully activated this putative MNS in humans. Our direct goal was to provide further support for a link between modulation of mu rhythms and the MNS, by finding parallels between the reported patterns of fMRI activations and patterns of mu suppression. The EEG power in the mu range has been recorded while participants passively observed either a left or a right hand, reaching to and grasping objects, and compared it with that recorded while participants observed the movement of a ball, and while observing static grasping scenes or still objects. Mirroring fMRI results (Shmuelof, L., Zohary, E., 2005. Dissociation between ventral and dorsal fMRI activation during object and action recognition. Neuron 47, 457-470), mu suppression was larger in the hemisphere contra-lateral to the moving hand and larger when the hands grasped different objects in different ways than when the movement was repetitive. No suppression was found while participants observed still objects but mu suppression was also found while seeing static grasping postures. These data are discussed in light of similar parallels between modulations of alpha waves and fMRI while recording EEG in the magnet. The present data support a link between mu suppression and a human MNS. PMID:19500557

  5. U-Pb isotopic results for single shocked and polycrystalline zircons record 550-65.5-Ma ages for a K-T target site and 2700-1850-Ma ages for the Sudbury impact event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    The refractory mineral zircon develops distinct morphological features during shock metamorphism and retains these features under conditions that would anneal them in other minerals. In addition, weakly shocked zircon grains give primary ages for the impact site, while highly reconstituted (polycrystalline) single grains give ages that approach the age of the impact event. Data for a series of originally coeval grains will define a mixing line that gives both of these ages providing that no subsequent geological disturbances have overprinted the isotopic systematics. In this study, we have shown that the three zircon grain types described by Bohor, from both K-T distal ejecta (Fireball layer, Raton Basin, Colorado) and the Onaping Formation, represent a progressive increase in impact-related morphological change that coincides with a progressive increase in isotopic resetting in zircons from the ejecta and basement rocks. Unshocked grains are least affected by isotopic resetting while polycrystalline grains are most affected. U-Pb isotopic results for 12 of 14 single zircon grains from the Fireball layer plot on or close to a line recording a primary age of 550 +/- 10 Ma and a secondary age of 65.5 +/- 3 Ma. Data for the least and most shocked grains plot closest to the primary and secondary ages respectively. The two other grains each give ages between 300 and 350 Ma. This implies that the target ejecta was dominated by 550-Ma rocks and that the recrystallization features of the zircon were superimposed during the impact event at 65.5 Ma. A predominant age of 550 Ma for zircons from the Fireball layer provides an excellent opportunity to identify the impact site and to test the hypothesis that multiple impacts occurred at this time. A volcanic origin for the Fireball layer is ruled out by shock-related morphological changes in zircon and the fact that the least shocked grains are old. Basement Levack gneisses north of the Sudbury structure have a primary age of

  6. Association between muscular strength and inflammatory markers among elderly persons with cardiac disease: results from the KORA-Age study.

    PubMed

    Volaklis, K A; Halle, M; Koenig, W; Oberhoffer, R; Grill, E; Peters, A; Strasser, B; Heier, M; Emeny, R; Schulz, H; Ladwig, K H; Meisinger, C; Thorand, B

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the association between muscle strength and inflammation in diseased individuals and particularly in cardiac patients. Thus, our purpose was to examine the association of muscular strength with the inflammatory status in older adults with and without cardiac disease. The cross-sectional analysis was based on 1079 adults aged 65-94 years, who participated in the KORA-Age study. Participants underwent an interview and extensive physical examinations including anthropometric measurements, registration of diseases and drug intake, determination of health-related behaviors, collection of blood samples for measurements of interleukin-6 and hs-CRP and muscle strength measurement using hand-grip dynamometry. Cardiac patients (n = 323) had higher levels of IL-6 and poorer muscle strength compared with older adults without cardiac disease. Among persons with cardiac diseases, muscle strength in the lower tertile compared to the upper tertile was significantly associated with increased odds of having elevated IL-6 levels (OR 3.53, 95 % CI 1.18-10.50, p = 0.024) after controlling for age, gender, body fat, alcohol intake, smoking status, diseases, medications and physical activity, whereas the association between muscle strength and hs-CRP remained borderline significant (OR 2.80, 95 % CI 0.85-9.24, p = 0.092). The same trends, with slightly lower odds ratios, were also observed in older adults without cardiac disease. Lower levels of muscular strength are associated with higher concentrations of IL-6 and hs-CRP in elderly individuals with and without cardiac disease suggesting a significant contribution of the muscular system in reducing low-grade inflammation that accompanies cardiac disease and aging. PMID:25967155

  7. Killing Range

    PubMed Central

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  8. Long-range, collision-induced hyperpolarizabilities of atoms or centrosymmetric linear molecules: Theory and numerical results for pairs containing H or He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoping; Hunt, Katharine L. C.; Pipin, Janusz; Bishop, David M.

    1996-12-01

    For atoms or molecules of D∞h or higher symmetry, this work gives equations for the long-range, collision-induced changes in the first (Δβ) and second (Δγ) hyperpolarizabilities, complete to order R-7 in the intermolecular separation R for Δβ, and order R-6 for Δγ. The results include nonlinear dipole-induced-dipole (DID) interactions, higher multipole induction, induction due to the nonuniformity of the local fields, back induction, and dispersion. For pairs containing H or He, we have used ab initio values of the static (hyper)polarizabilities to obtain numerical results for the induction terms in Δβ and Δγ. For dispersion effects, we have derived analytic results in the form of integrals of the dynamic (hyper)polarizabilities over imaginary frequencies, and we have evaluated these numerically for the pairs H...H, H...He, and He...He using the values of the fourth dipole hyperpolarizability ɛ(-iω; iω, 0, 0, 0, 0) obtained in this work, along with other hyperpolarizabilities calculated previously by Bishop and Pipin. For later numerical applications to molecular pairs, we have developed constant ratio approximations (CRA1 and CRA2) to estimate the dispersion effects in terms of static (hyper)polarizabilities and van der Waals energy or polarizability coefficients. Tests of the approximations against accurate results for the pairs H...H, H...He, and He...He show that the root mean square (rms) error in CRA1 is ˜20%-25% for Δβ and Δγ; for CRA2 the error in Δβ is similar, but the rms error in Δγ is less than 4%. At separations ˜1.0 a.u. outside the van der Waals minima of the pair potentials for H...H, H...He, and He...He, the nonlinear DID interactions make the dominant contributions to Δγzzzz (where z is the interatomic axis) and to Δγxxxx, accounting for ˜80%-123% of the total value. Contributions due to higher-multipole induction and the nonuniformity of the local field (Qα terms) may exceed 15%, while dispersion effects

  9. Successful Promotion of Hepatitis B Vaccinations Among Vietnamese-American Children Ages 3 to 18: Results of a Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, Stephen J.; Nguyen, Thoa; Euler, Gary L.; Mock, Jeremiah; Wong, Ching; Lam, Tram; Nguyen, Walter; Nguyen, Sang; Ha, Martin Quach Huynh; Do, Son T.; Buu, Chau

    2006-01-01

    Objective Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus is endemic in Southeast Asian populations, including Vietnamese. Previous research has documented low rates of hepatitis B vaccine coverage among Vietnamese-American children and adolescents ages 3 to 18. To address this problem, we designed and tested in a controlled trial 2 public health outreach “catch-up” campaigns for this population. Design In the Houston, Texas metropolitan area, we mounted a media-led information and education campaign, and in the Dallas metropolitan area, we organized a community mobilization strategy. We evaluated the success of these interventions in a controlled trial, using the Washington, DC metropolitan area as a control site. To do so, we conducted computer-assisted telephone interviews with random samples of ~500 Vietnamese-American households in each of the 3 study sites both before and after the interventions. We assessed respondents’ awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B and asked for hepatitis B vaccination dates for a randomly selected child in each household. When possible, we validated vaccination dates through direct contact with each child’s providers. Results Awareness of hepatitis B increased significantly between the pre- and postintervention surveys in all 3 areas, and the increase in the media education area (+21.5 percentage points) was significantly larger than in the control area (+9.0 percentage points). At postintervention, significantly more parents knew that free vaccines were available for children in the media education (+31.9 percentage points) and community mobilization (+16.7 percentage points) areas than in the control area (+4.7 percentage points). An increase in knowledge of sexual transmission of hepatitis B virus was significant in the media education area (+14.0 percentage points) and community mobilization (+13.6 percentage points) areas compared with the control area (+5.2 percentage points). Parent- or provider-reported data (n = 783

  10. Devonian magmatism in Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dillion, J.T.; Tilton, G.R.

    1985-04-01

    Devonian bimodel metaplutonic and metavolcanic rocks lie in parallel, west-trending belts in the southern Brooks Range. Overlapping distribution of the plutonic and volcanic rocks occurs in volcanic centers found south of the Doonerak window in the Wiseman, Chandalar, and Colleen quadrangles, and near the Beaver Creek pluton in the Survey Pass quadrangle. The Devonian age is interpreted from isotopic analyses of U and Pb of over 55 zircon fractions from these felsic metaigneous units. Considering concordia plots and Pb-Pb ages from over 40 discordant zircon fractions and fossil ages derived from marbles intercalated in the volcanic sequences, the authors see an age range of 360-410 Ma. The age range is attributed to variation in crystallization ages, as well as the U-Pb systematics of the Brooks Range zircons. Their overlapping age and distribution provides evidence for cogenesis of the Devonian plutonic and volcanic rocks, and also for their correlation with Devonian magmatic rocks of the North American Cordilleran. Lower intercepts on U-Pb concordia diagrams for these zircons range from 105 to 150 Ma, bracketing the end of lead loss resulting from metamorphism. The age of this metamorphic event corresponds to the Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous emplacement of the Angayucham terrane. U-Pb concordia plots of 15 zircon fractions from five samples of the Ernie Lake granitic gneiss bodies are explained as latest Proterozoic intrusion of granitic magma with entrained 2-Ga-old zircons, which subsequently lost lead during Mesozoic metamorphism.

  11. (U-Th)/He Apatite Age Data From the Inyo Mountains, California: Implications for the Timing of Extension and Dextral Slip Rates Along the Western Boundary of the Basin Range Province/Eastern California Shear Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Stockli, D.

    2006-12-01

    With topographic relief of ~2.7 km, the Inyo Mountains, California is one of the largest mountains within the western part of the Basin Range Province (BRP) and Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ). This rugged range is underlain by Paleozoic sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks, Mesozoic plutons, and Quaternary alluvial deposits. An active, east-dipping normal fault, the eastern Inyo fault zone (EIFZ), defines the eastern flank of the range; the Saline Valley pull-apart basin is exposed in its hanging wall. To the south, the dextral Hunter Mountain fault (HMF) connects the EIFZ to the Panamint Valley fault. We completed the first (U-Th)/He apatite thermochronometric study on 24 samples collected from the Pat Keyes pluton across the range that bear on the timing of normal slip along the EIFZ and provide insight into the distribution of dextral shear across the ECSZ. Samples from the west-side of the range yield an elevation invariant (U-Th)/He age of 50.9±0.9 Ma. In contrast, samples from the east side of the range define two exhumed Partial Retention Zones (PRZ) and inflection points. From the top of the range ages systematically decrease from ~50 Ma at the top of the range to ~15 Ma. Below this upper inflection point, samples yield invariant (U-Th)/He ages of 15.0±0.3 Ma over a vertical distance of 0.8 km. (U-Th)/He ages then decrease again from ~15 Ma to ~3 Ma defining a Miocene-Pliocene PRZ. At the range front, below this lower inflection point, samples yield an invariant age of 2.8±0.1 Ma. We interpret these age patterns as indicating: (a) slow cooling (0.03- 0.06 mm/yr) through an older PRZ at high structural levels between >50 and 15.0 Ma; (b) rapid cooling, exhumation, and normal slip along the EIFZ at 15.0 Ma accommodated by westward tilting; (c) slow cooling (0.03-0.06 mm/yr) between 15.0 and 2.8 Ma through a younger PRZ; and (d) rapid cooling, exhumation, and renewed normal slip along the EIFZ at 2.8 Ma. The two episodes of exhumation along the EIFZ

  12. Masitinib in the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis: results of a multicentre, open-label, dose-ranging, phase 2a study

    PubMed Central

    Tebib, Jacques; Mariette, Xavier; Bourgeois, Pierre; Flipo, René-Marc; Gaudin, Philippe; Le Loët, Xavier; Gineste, Paul; Guy, Laurent; Mansfield, Colin D; Moussy, Alain; Dubreuil, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Sibilia, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Since current treatment options for patients suffering from active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain inadequate, especially for those unresponsive to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), new and improved medication is needed. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of masitinib (AB1010), a potent and selective protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor of c-KIT, in the monotherapy treatment of DMARD-refractory RA. Methods This was a multicentre, uncontrolled, open-label, randomised, dose-ranging, phase 2a trial. Masitinib was administered orally to 43 patients who had inadequate response to DMARDs, at initial randomised dosing levels of 3 and 6 mg/kg per day over a 12-week period. Dose adjustment was permitted based upon tolerability and response criteria. Efficacy was assessed via American College of Rheumatology 20%/50%/70% improvement criteria (ACR20/50/70) responses, disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28), index of improvement in RA (ACRn) and C-reactive protein (CRP) improvement, relative to baseline at week 12. Results Improvement was observed in all efficacy endpoints, including ACR20/50/70 scores of 54%, 26% and 8%, respectively, and a reduction in CRP level by greater than 50% for approximately half the population. This improvement was sustainable throughout an extension phase (> 84 weeks) and was also independent of initial DMARD resistance (anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha and/or methotrexate). A relatively high patient withdrawal rate (37%) required the use of last observation carried forward (LOCF) data imputation. Incidence of adverse events was high (95%), although the majority were of mild or moderate severity with a considerable decline in frequency observed after 12 weeks of treatment. Two nonfatal serious adverse events were reported. Dose-response analyses tentatively indicate that an initial dosing level of 6.0 mg/kg per day administered orally in two daily intakes is the most appropriate, based upon potency

  13. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. PMID:26506377

  14. Seven-year results of a press-fit, hydroxyapatite-coated double mobility acetabular component in patients aged 65 years or older.

    PubMed

    Fresard, Pierre-Luc; Alvherne, Charles; Cartier, Jean-Loup; Cuinet, Patrick; Lantuejoul, Jean-Pierre

    2013-05-01

    One hundred and thirty-four THA were done between 1998 and 2002 with AVANTAGE(®) Press-Fit double mobility cup. The mean age of patients was 74 ± 6 years (range 65-94 years). The mean follow-up was 5.4 years (range, 0.15-10 years). The mean preoperative Harris Hip Score was 51.3 ± 14 versus 88 ± 12, at the latest follow-up, and the mean Merle d'Aubigné hip functional score was 8 ± 3 versus 16.3 ± 2.91; patients (68 %) were alive at a mean of 7.2 years postoperatively (range, 5-10 years). Three revisions were documented for aseptic loosening. The overall survival rate at 7.2 years was 96.3 % (95 % confidence interval 92.2-100) using cup revision for aseptic loosening as the end point. PMID:23412297

  15. Age-related macular degeneration and protective effect of HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (statins): results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, D T Q; Mendes, T S; Cíntron-Colon, H R; Wang, S Y; Bhisitkul, R B; Singh, K; Lin, S C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the association of hydroxymethylglutarylcoenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase inhibitor (statin) use with the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods This cross-sectional study included 5604 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2008, ≥40 years of age, who were ascertained with regard to the diagnosis of AMD, the use of statins, and comorbidities and health-related behaviors such as smoking. Results The mean age of participants denying or confirming a history of AMD was 68 (SEM 0.90) and 55 (SEM 0.36) years, respectively. Individuals 68 years of age or older who were classified as long-term users of statins had statistically significant less self-reported AMD (odds ratio (OR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49–0.84; P=0.002), after adjusting for potential confounding variables. No significant association was found between the prevalence of AMD and statin consumption among subjects between 40 and 67 years of age (OR 1.61, 95% CI 0.85–3.03; P=0.137). Conclusions Our results suggest a possible beneficial effect of statin intake for the prevention of AMD in individuals 68 years of age or older. PMID:24503725

  16. Apparent metabolizable energy needs of male and female broilers ranging from thirty-six to forty-seven days of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed ingredient prices have fluctuated in recent yrs. In commercial practice, one strategy implemented to reduce live production cost has been to reduce AMEn minimums in diet formulation, which can result in poor feed conversion. Four experiments were conducted to examine AMEn responses of male and ...

  17. 40Ar-39Ar age determinations of lunar basalt meteorites Asuka 881757, Yamato 793169, Miller Range 05035, La Paz Icefield 02205, Northwest Africa 479, and basaltic breccia Elephant Moraine 96008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Vera A.; Burgess, Ray; Morris, Adam

    2009-06-01

    40Ar-39Ar data are presented for the unbrecciated lunar basaltic meteorites Asuka (A-) 881757, Yamato (Y-) 793169, Miller Range (MIL) 05035, LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02205, Northwest Africa (NWA) 479 (paired with NWA 032), and basaltic fragmental breccia Elephant Moraine (EET) 96008. Stepped heating 40Ar-39Ar analyses of several bulk fragments of related meteorites A-881757, Y-793169 and MIL 05035 give crystallization ages of 3.763 ± 0.046 Ga, 3.811 ± 0.098 Ga and 3.845 ± 0.014 Ga, which are comparable with previous age determinations by Sm-Nd, U-Pb Th-Pb, Pb-Pb, and Rb-Sr methods. These three meteorites differ in the degree of secondary 40Ar loss with Y-793169 showing relatively high Ar loss probably during an impact event ˜200 Ma ago, lower Ar loss in MIL 05035 and no loss in A-881757. Bulk and impact melt glass-bearing samples of LAP 02205 gave similar ages (2.985 ± 0.016 Ga and 2.874 ± 0.056 Ga) and are consistent with ages previously determined using other isotope pairs. The basaltic portion of EET 96008 gives an age of 2.650 ± 0.086 Ga which is considered to be the crystallization age of the basalt in this meteorite. The Ar release for fragmental basaltic breccia EET 96008 shows evidence of an impact event at 631 ± 20 Ma. The crystallization age of 2.721 ± 0.040 Ga determined for NWA 479 is indistinguishable from the weighted mean age obtained from three samples of NWA 032 supporting the proposal that these meteorites are paired. The similarity of 40Ar-39Ar ages with ages determined by other isotopic systems for multiple meteorites suggests that the K-Ar isotopic system is robust for meteorites that have experienced a significant shock event and not a prolonged heating regime.

  18. Relationship between the results of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and dynamical mechanical analysis in composite solid propellants during their aging.

    PubMed

    Farhadian, Amir Hossein; Tehrani, Masoud Kavosh; Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Karimi, Mehran; Reza Darbani, Seyyed Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to analyze thermal aging in AP/HTPB composite solid propellants, where AP and HTPB are ammonium perchlorate and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene, respectively. The method of accelerated aging was used to obtain samples of different ages. Dynamical mechanical analysis results have been provided in order to validate the LIBS results. Many methods have been used for the accurate investigation of spectra. First, molecular bands, such as CN, C2, and AlO, were compared in different samples so that their intensity ratios could be considered. In order to discriminate more accurately between different sample spectra, principle component analysis (PCA) was used as a suitable chemometric method. All these results represent changes in the chemical structure due to increasing time and temperature. PMID:27411188

  19. Analytical results and sample locality map of heavy-mineral- concentrate and rock samples from the Kingston Range Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-222), San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adrian, B.M.; Frisken, J.G.; Malcolm, M.J.; Crock, J.G.; Briggs, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    During 1984, 60 stream sites were sampled for the presence of Giardia sp. cysts. The sampling sites ranged in elevation from 6 ,000 to 12,000 feet, and were distributed over a distance of more than 200 miles, from the Lake Tahoe basin in the north to Mt. Whitney in the south. Cysts of Giardia were detected in 27 of 78 samples. The number of cysts detected ranged from 1 to 41. Of the 27 samples positive for Giardia, only 1 cyst was detected in each of 10 samples, 2 cysts were detected in each of 8 samples, 3 cysts were detected in each of 3 samples, 4 cysts were detected in each of 2 samples, and 5, 6, 14, and 41 cysts were detected in 1 sample each. (USGS)

  20. Preliminary results of simulation of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays in ground-based experiments on plant objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belisheva, Natalia; Petrashova, Dina; Shchegolev, Boris

    The most dangerous for the astronauts and cosmonauts are the cosmic rays and drastic decrease of the tension of geomagnetic field (GMF) on the Earth orbit and in the open space. The tension in the interplanetary magnetic field is 10 nT, whereas the tension of GMF is 10 (4) nT on the Earth surface. We carried out the preliminary experiments for study the effects of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays (CR) on the plant objects (Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulgaris, Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, Cucumis sativis). GMF was weakened by using special shielding chamber made on the basis of the amorphous alloy magnetic material. The camera is able to weaken the GMF from 48 μT till 0.192 μT. Modulation of the energetic range of the neutron component of secondary CR was performed with using of the shielding by graphite and by paraffin. The influence of hypo magnetic field and the neutron intensity were studied on the germination of seeds, the growth, the length and the side branches of the roots in the experimental samples. We found that the sensitivity to the hypo magnetic field and to the variations in energetic range of neutrons can vary from object to object. For instance, exposure of the hypo magnetic field on black bean and mung bean stimulated the growth of the roots while do not affect on the white bean. Likewise sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris (black and white bean) and Vigna radiata (mung bean) to exposure of nucleon component of cosmic rays on the Earth's surface are differed. It was found that modification of energetic range of CR by using graphite shielding leads to a change in sign of correlation between the length of roots in all experimental samples and the nucleon component of CR compared with the control samples. This is evidence that physiology of biological objects significantly are modified in hypo magnetic environment, as well as under exposure of the CR in different energetic ranges during the space flights. Our

  1. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents from the Age Range of 2 to 19 Years Old in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Niehues, Janaina R.; Gonzales, Ana Inês; Lemos, Robson R.; Bezerra, Poliana Penasso; Haas, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Infant juvenile obesity is currently a worldwide public health problem and it is increasing at alarming rate in the Brazilian population, showing its relevance in terms of public health. Objectives. Determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents between 2 and 19 years old in different regions of Brazil. Methods. The following electronic databases were searched (from September through November 2013): Medline (PubMed), LILACS, and SciELO, using the descriptors and Boolean operators (obesity) and (overweight) and (child) and (prevalence) and (Brazil). Prospective and/or cross-sectional designs studies were found regarding the prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the five regions of Brazil. Results. A total of 191 scientific articles were found of which 17 met all inclusion criteria. A higher prevalence of overweight was found in the south (25.7%) and north (28.8%) of the country, and obesity in the southeast (15.4%) and south (10.4%). Conclusions. The scope of the studies was mostly based on municipal coverage, which resulted in limitations for conclusive analysis, showing the need for further studies of prevalence at the national level, with emphasis on public health in obese children and adolescents throughout the Brazilian territory. PMID:24995019

  2. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from the age range of 2 to 19 years old in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina R; Gonzales, Ana Inês; Lemos, Robson R; Bezerra, Poliana Penasso; Haas, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Infant juvenile obesity is currently a worldwide public health problem and it is increasing at alarming rate in the Brazilian population, showing its relevance in terms of public health. Objectives. Determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents between 2 and 19 years old in different regions of Brazil. Methods. The following electronic databases were searched (from September through November 2013): Medline (PubMed), LILACS, and SciELO, using the descriptors and Boolean operators (obesity) and (overweight) and (child) and (prevalence) and (Brazil). Prospective and/or cross-sectional designs studies were found regarding the prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the five regions of Brazil. Results. A total of 191 scientific articles were found of which 17 met all inclusion criteria. A higher prevalence of overweight was found in the south (25.7%) and north (28.8%) of the country, and obesity in the southeast (15.4%) and south (10.4%). Conclusions. The scope of the studies was mostly based on municipal coverage, which resulted in limitations for conclusive analysis, showing the need for further studies of prevalence at the national level, with emphasis on public health in obese children and adolescents throughout the Brazilian territory. PMID:24995019

  3. Association between Lifetime Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged and Older Community Dwelling Adults: Results from the Brain in Motion Study.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephanie J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Longman, R Stewart; Drogos, Lauren L; Davenport, Margie H; Tyndall, Amanda V; Eskes, Gail A; Hogan, David B; Hill, Michael D; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Wilson, Ben J; Poulin, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5 ± 6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. PMID:26581793

  4. Have cementless and resurfacing components improved the medium-term results of hip replacement for patients under 60 years of age?

    PubMed Central

    Mason, James; Baker, Paul; Gregg, Paul J; Porter, Martyn; Deehan, David J; Reed, Mike R

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The optimal hip replacement for young patients remains unknown. We compared patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), revision risk, and implant costs over a range of hip replacements. Methods We included hip replacements for osteoarthritis in patients under 60 years of age performed between 2003 and 2010 using the commonest brand of cemented, cementless, hybrid, or resurfacing prosthesis (11,622 women and 13,087 men). The reference implant comprised a cemented stem with a conventional polyethylene cemented cup and a standard-sized head (28- or 32-mm). Differences in implant survival were assessed using competing-risks models, adjusted for known prognostic influences. Analysis of covariance was used to assess improvement in PROMs (Oxford hip score (OHS) and EQ5D index) in 2014 linked procedures. Results In males, PROMs and implant survival were similar across all types of implants. In females, revision was statistically significantly higher in hard-bearing and/or small-stem cementless implants (hazard ratio (HR) = 4) and resurfacings (small head sizes (< 48 mm): HR = 6; large head sizes (≥ 48 mm): HR = 5) when compared to the reference cemented implant. In component combinations with equivalent survival, women reported significantly greater improvements in OHS with hybrid implants (22, p = 0.006) and cementless implants (21, p = 0.03) (reference, 18), but similar EQ5D index. For men and women, National Health Service (NHS) costs were lowest with the reference implant and highest with a hard-bearing cementless replacement. Interpretation In young women, hybrids offer a balance of good early functional improvement and low revision risk. Fully cementless and resurfacing components are more costly and do not provide any additional benefit for younger patients. PMID:25285617

  5. Hypofractionated Helical Tomotherapy for Older Aged Patients With Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Results of a Phase I-II Trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Xia; Du, Lei; Yu, Wei; Cai, Bo-Ning; Xu, Shou-Ping; Xie, Chuan-Bin; Ma, Lin

    2016-08-01

    In our center, the feasibility and related acute toxicities of hypofractionated helical tomotherapy have been evaluated in older aged patients with prostate cancer . Between February 2009 and February 2014, 67 patients (older than 65 years) were enrolled in a prospective phase I-II study (registered number, ChiCTR-ONC-13004037). Patients in cohort 1 (n = 33) and cohort 2 (n = 34) received 76 Gy in 34 fractions (2.25 Gy/F) and 71.6 Gy in 28 fractions (2.65 Gy/F), respectively, to the prostate and seminal vesicles, while 25 patients in cohort 2 also received integrated elective lymph node irradiation (50.4 Gy). All patients were treated with helical tomotherapy, and daily image guidance was performed before each treatment. Acute toxicities were assessed with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. No significant difference was detected between the 2 cohorts in the incidence of acute toxicities. In cohort 1, the incidences of grade 1 and 2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were 45.5% and 45.4%, respectively, and without grade 3 and 4 toxicities. In cohort 2, the incidences of acute grade 1 and 2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were 47.1% and 55.9%, respectively, and grade 3 genitourinary toxicity (hematuria) was noted only in 1 patient. No significant difference was detected in the incidence of acute toxicities between the patients receiving integrated elective lymph node irradiation and those receiving irradiation to prostate and seminal vesicle in cohort 2. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with clinical parameters. Only the baseline weight was found negatively correlated with genitourinary toxicities at a weak level (relative risk = 0.946, 95% confidence interval 0.896-0.998], P = .043). This study shows that 2 hypofractionation regimens (76 Gy/34F and 71.6 Gy/28F) delivered with HT are well tolerated in older aged patients having prostate cancer

  6. Preliminary results, Central Gneiss Complex of the Coast Range batholith, southeastern Alaska: the roots of a high-K, calc-alkaline arc?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.; Arth, Joseph G.

    1984-01-01

    The Central Gneiss Complex (CGC) of the Coast Range batholith is the oldest unit of the batholith east of Ketchikan, Alaska, being dated by the zircon UPb method (by T.W. Stern) at 128-140 Ma. Heterogeneous, layered, commonly migmatitic, orthogneiss of hornblende-biotite quartz diorite, tonalite, quartz monzodiorite and granodiorite compositions (IUGS terminology) form the major part of the CGC. These gneisses show a range of 50-65% SiO2 and are high in Al2O3 (c. 15-19%), K2O (1.5-4%) and Sr (800-900 ppm). Most major elements show coherent, typically magmatic trends with SiO2. La and Rb show maxima at ??? 58% SiO2. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios are relatively high and range from 0.7052 to 0.7066. Wallrocks of the CGC are mostly metagraywacke, pelite and metavolcanic rocks at amphibolite facies; they are geochemically dissimilar to the CGC. Major and minor elements of the CGC are very similar to those of high-K orogenic, calc-alkaline andesitic suites. The CGC may have formed largely by fractionation of mantle-derived, high AlKSr basaltic liquid in an ascending diapir, having hornblende, plagioclase, and biotite as major precipitating phases. The CGC probably represents the plutonic equivalent of a continental-margin or Andean arc that formed when the Taku terrane of the Insular belt on the west collided with the previously emplaced (but also allochthonous) Stikine terrane on the east in Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous time. ?? 1984.

  7. Pharmacological interventions against aging through the cell plasma membrane: a review of the experimental results obtained in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Zs-Nagy, Imre

    2002-04-01

    As was shown in a recent review by this author (Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 928: 187-199, 2001), oxyradicals cannot be considered only as harmful by-products of the oxidative metabolism, but living cells and organisms implicitly require their production. This idea is supported by numerous facts and arguments, the most important of which is that the complete inhibition of the oxyradical production by KCN (or by any block of respiration) kills the living organisms long before the energy reserves would be exhausted. This new theoretical approach not only helps our understanding of the normal functions of the living organisms, such as the basic memory mechanisms in the brain cells, but also helps in identifying the site-specific, radical-induced damaging mechanisms that represent the undesirable side effects of oxygen free radicals. First of all, these effects make the cell plasma membrane vulnerable and cause a series of intracellular functional disorders, as described by the membrane hypothesis of aging (MHA). The logical way for any antiaging intervention therefore should be to increase the available number of loosely bound electrons inside the plasma membrane that are easily accessible for OH(*) free radical scavenging. The present review summarizes the available knowledge regarding the theory of the use of membrane-related antiaging pharmaca, like centrophenoxine (CPH), tested in both animal experiments and human clinical trials. A modified, developed version of CPH coded as BCE-001 is also reported. PMID:11976205

  8. Results of the IEA Round Robin on Viscosity and Aging of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils: Long-Term Tests and Repeatability

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Oasmaa, Anja; Meier, Dietrich; Preto, Fernando; Bridgwater, Anthony V.

    2012-11-06

    An international round robin study of the viscosity and aging of fast pyrolysis bio-oil has been undertaken recently and this work is an outgrowth from that effort. Two bio-oil samples were distributed to the laboratories for aging tests and extended viscosity studies. The accelerated aging test was defined as the change in viscosity of a sealed sample of bio-oil held for 24 h at 80 °C. The test was repeated 10 times over consecutive days to determine the repeatability of the method. Other bio-oil samples were placed in storage at three temperatures, 21 °C, 4 °C and -17 °C for a period up to a year to evaluate the change in viscosity. The variation in the results of the aging test was shown to be low within a given laboratory. Storage of bio-oil under refrigeration can minimize the amount of change in viscosity. The accelerated aging test gives a measure of change similar to that of 6-12 months of storage at room temperature. These results can be helpful in setting standards for use of bio-oil, which is just coming into the marketplace.

  9. Young People in 1994: the Health Related Behaviour Questionnaire Results for 48,297 Pupils between the Ages of 11 and 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balding, John

    This report examines the results of the "Health Related Behaviour Questionnaire" given to 48,297 pupils between the ages of 11 and 16 in the United Kingdom. Survey services are tailored to suit a cooperative method of working between different agencies supporting health promotion at community level. Survey origin, development over time, use,…

  10. AIM results for space-qualified HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors from 0.9-μm to 13-μm spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiml, M.; Bauer, A.; Bitterlich, H.; Bruder, M.; Hofmann, K.; Lutz, H.; Mai, M.; Nothaft, H.-P.; Rühlich, I.; Wendler, J.; Wiedmann, T.; Wollrab, R.; Ziegler, J.

    2006-09-01

    Remote sensing from space is an emerging market for applications in security, climate research, weather forecast, and global environmental monitoring, to mention a few. In particular, next generation systems demand for large, two-dimensional arrays in the short (SWIR, 0.9-2.5 μm) and the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) spectral range up to 15 μm. AIM's developments for space applications benefit from AIM's experiences in high-performance thermal imaging and seeker-head applications. AIM has delivered a 13 μm cut-off demonstrator for a high resolution Fourier-transform imaging spectrometer in limb geometry. For this 256 x 256 VLWIR sensor we measured a responsivity of 100 LSB/K and a noise equivalent temperature difference of 22 mK with 14 bit ADCs at 880 Hz full frame-rate. The substrate and epitaxial layer grown at AIM exhibit very good uniformity and low dark currents. Currently, AIM develops a 1024 x 256 SWIR detector (0.9-2.5 μm) with a capacitance transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) for hyperspectral imaging. The radiation hardness of AIM's FPA technology (MCT sensor and Silicon read-out integrated circuit) has been successfully tested by a total ionization dose (TID) experiment using ESTEC's 60Co γ-source. Our reference module withstands 30 krad TID. For enhanced reliability of the IDCA, AIM has developed a compact 1 W pulse-tube cooler with flexure bearing compressor, which induces also a very low vibration output. In summary, AIM will be able to supply space qualified detector modules covering the spectral range from 0.9 to 13 μm in the near future.

  11. Determinants of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) among Non Smoking Adolescents (Aged 11–17 Years Old) in Greece: Results from the 2004–2005 GYTS Study

    PubMed Central

    Rachiotis, George; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S.; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11–17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5% were exposed to ETS outside of the home. Gender, age group, parental and close friends smoking status were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to ETS. The results of the study could be valuable for the implementation of public health initiatives in Greece aiming to reduce the burden of adolescent’s exposure to passive smoking. PMID:20195445

  12. Determinants of exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) among non smoking adolescents (aged 11-17 years old) in Greece: results from the 2004-2005 GYTS Study.

    PubMed

    Rachiotis, George; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11-17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5% were exposed to ETS outside of the home. Gender, age group, parental and close friends smoking status were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to ETS. The results of the study could be valuable for the implementation of public health initiatives in Greece aiming to reduce the burden of adolescent's exposure to passive smoking. PMID:20195445

  13. The AMS 14C dating of Iron Age rice chaff ceramic temper from Ban Non Wat, Thailand: First results and its interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higham, Charles F. W.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Burr, G. S.

    2010-04-01

    Pottery tempered with rice chaff from the early Iron Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat site, northeast Thailand, has been subjected to direct AMS 14C dating, using low temperature combustion with oxygen as originally developed by authors. The carbon yield (0.2-0.5%) testifies the suitability of this pottery for dating. However, not all the results are in agreement with expected archaeological ages and other 14C dates from the studied site and neighboring site of Noen U-Loke. This calls for a thorough analysis and interpretation of pottery temper dates from the region.

  14. Age, puberty, body dissatisfaction, and physical activity decline in adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS). Methods The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS) was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%). Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Results Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78). The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56). No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75). BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Conclusions Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies. PMID:22032266

  15. Age differences in the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Birnbaum, Howard; Shahly, Victoria; Bromet, Evelyn; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura Helena; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Browne, Mark Oakley; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Stein, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although depression appears to decrease in late life, this could be due to misattribution of depressive symptoms to physical disorders that increase in late life. Methods We investigated this issue by studying age differences in comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes (MDE) with chronic physical conditions in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of community epidemiological surveys carried out in 10 developed countries (n = 51,771) and 8 developing countries (n = 37,265). MDE and other mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Organic exclusion rules were not used to avoid inappropriate exclusion of cases with physical comorbidity. Physical conditions were assessed with a standard chronic conditions checklist. Results Twelve-month DSM-IV/CIDI MDE was significantly less prevalent among respondents ages 65+ than younger respondents in developed but not developing countries. Prevalence of comorbid mental disorders generally either decreased or remained stable with age, while comorbidity of MDE with mental disorders generally increased with age. Prevalence of physical conditions, in comparison, generally increased with age, while comorbidity of MDE with physical conditions generally decreased with age. Depression treatment was lowest among the elderly in developed and developing countries. Conclusions The weakening associations between MDE and physical conditions with increasing age argue against the suggestion that the low estimated prevalence of MDE among the elderly is due to increased confounding with physical disorders. Future study is needed to investigate processes that might lead to a decreasing impact of physical illness on depression among the elderly. PMID:20037917

  16. Argon-40/argon-39 whole-rock slate ages from the Robertson Bay terrane, northern Victoria Land: Documenting diachronous orogeny as a result of terrane accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Dallmeyer, R.D.

    1987-09-01

    In models of tectonic convergence, oceanic material enters subduction zones, descends, and is deformed. Over time subduction cuts across areas of deformation and should become younger in a direction opposite the dip of the subduction zone. Typically, geologists have found it difficult to document this because of insufficient cross-strike exposure, uncertainties in interpretation of radiometric ages, and overprinting of later tectonothermal events. The Robertson Bay and Bowers terranes of northern Victoria Land, which were accreted to the east antarctic craton (Gondwana margin) during the Ordovician Ross Orogeny, offer a unique opportunity to document a potentially diachronous deformation associated with an Ordovician orogeny. Exposed over a large area, these terranes display nearly uniform lithology, low metamorphic grade, and structural style and are combined with the absence of a regionally significant tectonothermal over print. Reconnaissance age analysis by potassium/argon and argon-40/argon-39 methods suggests that ages decrease eastward across the Robertson Bay terrane. The objective is systematically to collect samples of and perform argon-40/argon-39 age analysis on a whole-rock suite from the Bowers and Robertson Bay terranes. The resultant ages would more clearly document the suggested diachronism and allow more rigorous evaluation of the various tectonothermal models proposed for the evolution of the Gondwana margin.

  17. Dust flux in peripheral East Antarctica: preliminary results from GV7 ice core and extension of the TALDICE dust record to the sub-micron range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmonte, Barbara; Giovanni, Baccolo; Fausto, Marasci; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Valter, Maggi

    2015-04-01

    Improved understanding of climate variability over the last two millennia - that is a critical time period for investigating natural and anthropogenic climate change - is one of the key priorities of the International Partnership in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS). The Italian contribution to this concerted international effort is represented by the project IPICS-2kyr-Italy supported by PNRA. In this context, a novel intermediate core (about 250 m deep) was drilled during the 2013/14 field season at the peripheral site of GV7 in East Antarctica (70°41'S, 158°52'E; elevation 1950 m), where snow accumulation is very high (about 3 times Talos Dome, 10 times EPICA Dome C). After the ice core processing campaign at EuroCold (UNIMIB) carried out in synergy between Italy and Korea teams, measurements of dust concentration and size distribution are now in progress. A novel Coulter Counter apparatus has been set up in order to extend dust size spectra down to 600 nm. Samples are analyzed immediately after melting and also 24h later under identical conditions, for a quantitative assessment of the contribution of water-soluble microparticles (salts). Seasonal variability and trends of insoluble dust, metastable salts and size distribution of these compounds is under study. The possibility to extended the size range of dust measurements has allowed refining estimates of dust flux at Talos Dome and an adjustment of published data.

  18. Results of joint processing of data on nuclear and chemical explosions recorded on the long-range Quartz profile (Murmansk-Kyzyl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenkova, G. A.; Pavlenkova, N. I.

    2008-04-01

    The long-range seismic profile Quartz, measured by the GEON Center (Ministry of Geology of the USSR), crosses a few large geostructures: the East European platform, Timan-Pechora plate, Northern Urals, West Siberian plate (WSP), and Altai. Observations of nuclear and chemical explosions were conducted on the profile. Joint processing of records from sources of both types provided detailed structures of the crust and upper mantle. They have confirmed the known patterns in the structure of these shells of the Earth and revealed new ones. Mountain roots are observed beneath the Urals and Altai, and areas of a higher heat flow are matched by lower velocity zones in the upper mantle. Moreover, it is shown that the Timan-Pechora plate is characterized by a two-layer crust untypical of other young plates of central Eurasia and the upper mantle has the same velocities beneath the ancient East European platform and the young Altai orogen. It is also shown that the vast region including the Timan-Pechora plate, Urals, and WSP is bounded on both sides by deep faults in the upper mantle dipping toward the center of Western Siberia. A few nearly continuous reflectors traceable in the upper mantle are represented by thin-layered heterogeneous beds. The largest horizontal heterogeneity is observed in the upper 100-km layer, often underlain by a lower velocity zone. The asthenosphere, as a layer of lower seismic velocities at the depth of a possible solidus (200 250 km), has not been revealed. The latter is evidently a feature specific to inner parts of the Eurasian continent; in marginal regions, e.g., in Western Europe, the asthenospheric layer is identified almost ubiquitously.

  19. Range Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than two hundred years, grazing remains California’s most extensive land use. The ‘Range Ecosystems’ chapter in the ‘Ecosystems of California’ sourcebook provides an integrated picture of the biophysical, social, and economic aspects of lands grazed by livestock in the state. Grazing mana...

  20. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-01-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008–2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood. PMID:25033373

  1. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-07-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008-2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood. PMID:25033373

  2. The middle-aged universe: Results from high-z supernovae and the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coil, Alison Laurel

    2004-12-01

    This thesis presents observational results detailing the state of the Universe ~5-9 billion years ago, focusing primarily on the spatial distribution and clustering of galaxies. We first present optical spectra, obtained with the Keck 10-m telescope, of two high-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at maximum light, discovered by the High-z Supernova Search Team: SN 1999ff at z = 0.455 and SN 1999fv at z ~= 1.2. We compare our high- z spectra with low- z normal and peculiar SNe Ia as well as with SNe Ic, Ib, and II and find that are no significant differences between SN 1999ff and SN1999fv and normal SNe la at low redshift. This solidifies the use of type Ia SNe as standard candles at cosmological distances. We then develop and test mock galaxy catalogs to be used for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, which will obtain redshifts for ~50,000 galaxies between 0.7 < z < 1.5, mapping the galaxy distribution in a comoving volume of roughly 7 x 10 6 Mpc 3 h -3 . Using data from the first observing season of the DEEP2 Redshift Survey, we measure the amplitude of galaxy clustering using the two-point correlation function, x( r ), for a sample of 2219 galaxies between 0.7 < z < 1.35. We find that galaxies are significantly less clustered at z ~ 1 relative to z ~ 0; r 0 ~ 3.0-3.5 h -1 Mpc (comoving). We find that red, absorption-dominated, passively-evolving galaxies have a larger clustering scale length than blue, emission-line, actively star-forming galaxies. Intrinsically brighter galaxies also cluster more strongly than fainter galaxies at z ~= 1. Our results imply that the DEEP2 galaxies have an effective bias b ~ 1.0-1.2, lower than what is predicted by semi-analytic simulations at z ~= 1, which may be the result of our R -band target selection. Our results demonstrate that galaxy clustering properties as a function of color, spectral type and luminosity seen in the local Universe were largely in place by z ~= 1. We also present measurements of the projected angular

  3. Chikungunya Virus Infection Results in Higher and Persistent Viral Replication in Aged Rhesus Macaques Due to Defects in Anti-Viral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Vomaske, Jennifer; Totonchy, Thomas; Kreklywich, Craig N.; Haberthur, Kristen; Springgay, Laura; Brien, James D.; Diamond, Michael S.; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Streblow, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne Alphavirus that causes a clinical disease involving fever, myalgia, nausea and rash. The distinguishing feature of CHIKV infection is the severe debilitating poly-arthralgia that may persist for several months after viral clearance. Since its re-emergence in 2004, CHIKV has spread from the Indian Ocean region to new locations including metropolitan Europe, Japan, and even the United States. The risk of importing CHIKV to new areas of the world is increasing due to high levels of viremia in infected individuals as well as the recent adaptation of the virus to the mosquito species Aedes albopictus. CHIKV re-emergence is also associated with new clinical complications including severe morbidity and, for the first time, mortality. In this study, we characterized disease progression and host immune responses in adult and aged Rhesus macaques infected with either the recent CHIKV outbreak strain La Reunion (LR) or the West African strain 37997. Our results indicate that following intravenous infection and regardless of the virus used, Rhesus macaques become viremic between days 1–5 post infection. While adult animals are able to control viral infection, aged animals show persistent virus in the spleen. Virus-specific T cell responses in the aged animals were reduced compared to adult animals and the B cell responses were also delayed and reduced in aged animals. Interestingly, regardless of age, T cell and antibody responses were more robust in animals infected with LR compared to 37997 CHIKV strain. Taken together these data suggest that the reduced immune responses in the aged animals promotes long-term virus persistence in CHIKV-LR infected Rhesus monkeys. PMID:23936572

  4. [Everyday competencies and learning processes in old age. Results and perspectives of the PIAAC extension study "Competencies in later life"].

    PubMed

    Friebe, J; Knauber, C; Weiß, C; Setzer, B

    2014-11-01

    This article deals with the study "Competencies in later life" (CiLL), a parallel study to the German program for the international assessment of adult competencies (PIAAC) survey which assesses the level and distribution of skills of the adult population in a representative study. Assuming the growing importance of learning and education in a society challenged by demographic changes, the first section of the paper outlines the qualitative research of learning activities of focus groups in the daily life of elderly people. The second section of the paper presents the survey design and exemplary findings of the quantitative CiLL study. Initial results show that basic skills of the elderly are highly influenced by personal and sociodemographic variables, particularly by educational background. The data available indicate that the participation of the elderly in adult education and the options available for competence development have to be increased. PMID:25139446

  5. Initial results from dissolution rate testing of N-Reactor spent fuel over a range of potential geologic repository aqueous conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.J.; Einziger, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    Hanford N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (HSNF) may ultimately be placed in a geologic repository for permanent disposal. To determine whether the engineered barrier system that will be designed for emplacement of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuel will also suffice for HSNF, aqueous dissolution rate measurements were conducted on the HSNF. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether HSNF dissolves faster or slower than LWR spent fuel under some limited repository-relevant water chemistry conditions. The tests were conducted using a flowthrough method that allows the dissolution rate of the uranium matrix to be measured without interference by secondary precipitation reactions that would confuse interpretation of the results. Similar tests had been conducted earlier with LWR spent fuel, thereby allowing direct comparisons. Two distinct corrosion modes were observed during the course of these 12 tests. The first, Stage 1, involved no visible corrosion of the test specimen and produced no undissolved corrosion products. The second, Stage 2, resulted in both visible corrosion of the test specimen and left behind undissolved corrosion products. During Stage 1, the rate of dissolution could be readily determined because the dissolved uranium and associated fission products remained in solution where they could be quantitatively analyzed. The measured rates were much faster than has been observed for LWR spent fuel under all conditions tested to date when normalized to the exposed test specimen surface areas. Application of these results to repository conditions, however, requires some comparison of the physical conditions of the different fuels. The surface area of LWR fuel that could potentially be exposed to repository groundwater is estimated to be approximately 100 times greater than HSNF. Therefore, when compared on the basis of mass, which is more relevant to repository conditions, the HSNF and LWR spent fuel dissolve at similar rates.

  6. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers study unit, 2011-2012: results from the California GAMA program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Results for constituents with nonregulatory benchmarks set for aesthetic concerns showed that iron concentrations greater than the CDPH secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL-CA) of 300 μg/L were detected in samples from 19 grid wells. Manganese concentrations greater than the SMCL-CA of 50 μg/L were detected in 27 grid wells. Chloride was detected at a concentration greater than the SMCL-CA upper benchmark of 500 mg/L in one grid well. TDS concentrations in three grid wells were greater than the SMCL-CA upper benchmark of 1,000 mg/L.

  7. Trajectories of memory decline in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: results from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of ageing.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Lim, Yen Ying; Ames, David; Harrington, Karra; Restrepo, Carolina; Martins, Ralph N; Rembach, Alan; Laws, Simon M; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Memory changes in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often characterized by heterogenous trajectories. However, data regarding the nature and determinants of predominant trajectories of memory changes in preclinical AD are lacking. We analyzed data from 333 cognitively healthy older adults who participated in a multicenter prospective cohort study with baseline and 18-, 36-, and 54-month follow-up assessments. Latent growth mixture modeling revealed 3 predominant trajectories of memory change: a below average, subtly declining memory trajectory (30.9%); a below average, rapidly declining memory trajectory (3.6%); and an above average, stable memory trajectory (65.5%). Compared with the stable memory trajectory, high Αβ (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.1), and lower Mini-Mental State Examination (RRR = 0.6) and full-scale IQ (RRR = 0.9) scores were independently associated with the subtly declining memory trajectory; and high Αβ (RRR = 8.3), APOE ε4 carriage (RRR = 6.1), and greater subjective memory impairment (RRR = 1.2) were independently associated with the rapidly declining memory trajectory. Compared with the subtly declining memory trajectory group, APOE ε4 carriage (RRR = 8.4), and subjective memory complaints (RRR = 1.2) were associated with a rapidly declining memory trajectory. These results suggest that the preclinical phase of AD may be characterized by 2 predominant trajectories of memory decline that have common (e.g., high Αβ) and unique (e.g., APOE ε4 genotype) determinants. PMID:25585532

  8. Dynamic Progression of White Matter Hyperintensities in Alzheimer’s Disease and Normal Aging: Results from the Sunnybrook Dementia Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Joel; McNeely, Alicia A.; Berezuk, Courtney; Gao, Fuqiang; Black, Sandra E.

    2016-01-01

    Although white matter hyperintensities (WMH), markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), are believed to generally increase over time, some studies have shown sharp decreases after therapeutic intervention, suggesting that WMH progression may be more dynamic than previously thought. Our primary goal was to examine dynamic progression of WMH in a real-world sample of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and normal elderly (NC), with varying degrees of SVD. WMH volumes from serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; mean = 1.8 years) were measured from NC (n = 44) and AD patients (n = 113) with high and low SVD burden. Dynamic progression for each individual was measured using spatial overlap images to assess shrinkage, growth, and stable WMH volumes. Significant group differences were found for shrinkage (p < 0.001), growth (p < 0.001) and stable (p < 0.001) WMH, where the AD high SVD group showed the largest changes relative to low SVD and NC. Our results suggest spatial progression measured at the individual patient level may be more sensitive to the dynamic nature of WMH. PMID:27047377

  9. Paleomagnetism and age determinations of the Deccan Traps (India): Results of a Nagpur-Bombay Traverse and review of earlier work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandamme, Didier; Courtillot, Vincent; Besse, Jean; Montigny, Raymond

    1991-05-01

    Review of available radiometric age determinations of the Deccan traps (India) shows a spectrum of K-Ar ages that is highly polluted by argon loss. Stepwise 40Ar-39Ar age determinations include estimates of data quality and thus avoid contaminated results. The absolute age of the Deccan traps determined using 22 40Ar-39Ar plateau age spectra is 65.5 ± 2.5 Ma. Paleontological data on infratrappean and intertrappean sediments constrain Deccan age to between the A. mayaroensis zone, in the Upper Maestrichtian (about 67 Ma), and the P2 foraminifer zone, in the Lower Paleocene (about 60.5 Ma). Paleomagnetic study of a Nagpur-Bombay traverse (preliminary results of which were used by Courtillot et al. (1986a, b) for a general discussion about Deccan volcanism and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary) is presented in detail. All available paleomagnetic results from the Deccan traps (563 flows) are then compiled. Results considered to be transitional or to come from suspicious sites are removed leaving 485 flow results. This extensive data set from a single geological unit allowed us to look in some detail at its statistical distribution. The virtual geomagnetic poles (VGP) are approximately Fisher distributed but present a complex asymmetry. No regional variation can be seen (to within paleomagnetic uncertainties). Although the 3.5° angular difference between the separate normal (pole) and reversed (antipole) data is not statistically significant, it can be explained by either a 2.1 m.y. drift along the apparent polar wander path (APWP) of the Indian plate assuming a normal-reverse-normal (N-R-N) magnetostratigraphy, or a 3.5% contamination by a present field overprint, or a slight nondipole field component. A quality coefficient has been assigned to each result on the basis of existence and value of published 95% confidence angle. Because the normal and reversed mean poles become more precisely antipodal with higher-quality data and with more recent publication date (as a

  10. Fundamentals of a modified model of the distribution of neutron-resonance widths and results of its application in the mass-number range of 35 {<=} A {<=} 249

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhovoj, A. M. Khitrov, V. A.

    2013-01-15

    A modified model is developed for describing the distribution of random resonance width for any nuclei. The model assumes the coexistence in a nucleus of one or several partial radiative and neutron amplitudes for respective resonance widths, these amplitudes differing in their parameters. Also, it is assumed that amplitude can be described by a Gaussian curve characterized by a nonzero mean value and a variance not equal to unity and that their most probable values can be obtained with the highest reliability from approximations of cumulative sums of respective widths. An analysis of data for 157 sets of neutron widths for 0 {<=} l {<=} 3 and for 56 sets of total radiative widths has been performed to date. The basic result of this analysis is the following: both for neutron and for total radiative widths, the experimental set of resonance width can be represented with a rather high probability in the form of a superposition of k {<=} 4 types differing in mean amplitude parameters.

  11. Ethylglucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate Assays in Clinical Trials, Interpretation and Limitations: Results of a Dose Ranging Alcohol Challenge Study and Two Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jatlow, Peter I.; Agro, Ann; Wu, Ran; Nadim, Haleh; Toll, Benjamin A.; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Nogueira, Christine; Shi, Julia; Dziura, James D.; Petrakis, Ismene L.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanol metabolites, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are biomarkers of recent alcohol consumption that provide objective measures of abstinence. Our goals are to better understand the impact of cutoff concentration on test interpretation, the need for measuring both metabolites, and how best to integrate test results with self-reports in clinical trials. Methods Subjects (n=18) were administered, one week apart, 3 alcohol doses calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL respectively. Urinary EtG/EtS were measured at timed intervals during a 24 hour hospitalization and twice daily thereafter. In addition, participants from 2 clinical trials provided samples for EtG/EtS and drinking histories. Cutoffs for EtG/EtS of 100/50, 200/100 and 500/250 ng/mL were evaluated. Results Twelve hours following each challenge, EtG was always positive at the 100 and 200 cutoffs, but at 24 hours sensitivity was poor at all cutoffs following the low dose, and poor after 48 hours regardless of dose or cutoff. Similarly, in the clinical trials EtG sensitivity was good for detecting any drinking during the last 24 hours at the two lowest cutoffs, but under 40% during the last 24-48 hours. Sensitivity was reduced at the 500 ng/mL cutoff. Discrepancies between EtG and EtS were few. Comparison of self- reports of abstinence and EtG confirmed abstinence indicated under-reporting of drinking. Conclusions Any drinking the night before should be detectable the following morning with EtG cutoffs of 100 or 200 ng/mL. Twenty-four hours after drinking, sensitivity is poor for light drinking, but good for heavier consumption. At 48 hours, sensitivity is low following 6 drinks or less. Increasing the cutoff to 500 ng/mL leads to substantially reduced sensitivity. Monitoring both EtG and EtS should usually be unnecessary. We recommend EtG confirmed self-reports of abstinence for evaluation of outcomes in clinical trials. PMID:24773137

  12. Earth-Tide Derived Aquifer Properties in Fractured Granite: Results from a Groundwater Monitoring Well Network in the Peninsular Ranges Batholith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, J. L.; Quinlan, P. T.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fractured rock aquifers are difficult to characterize because of the three dimensional spatial heterogeneity of the fracture networks. Aquifer properties cannot be determined from a single borehole and traditional aquifer tests are difficult to design and analyze without prior knowledge of the subsurface permeability distribution. Using passive monitoring of the water level responses to tidal strains in wells allows for characterization of the aquifer over greater spatial extent and can be used to guide the design and implementation of aquifer tests. In this study, the water level response to tidal strains measured in over 20 groundwater wells, spaced irregularly over an approximately 48 km2 area, was used to estimate the specific storage and transmissivity of the surrounding granite aquifer. The water level data were corrected to remove barometric pressure effects before the amplitude and phase shifts for the O1 and M2 components of the tidal potential were calculated. Systematic differences in the calculated aquifer characteristics were observed. The differences correlate with the density of fractures observed in borehole geophysical logs. The aquifer properties derived from the earth-tide analysis were compared to those derived from aquifer tests conducted at two of the wells analyzed. The two methods yielded similar results.

  13. An Integrational Model of Quality of Life in Older Age. Results from the Esrc/mrc Hsrc Quality of Life Survey in Britain.(author Abstract)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, Ann; Gabriel, Zahava

    2004-01-01

    This paper is based on the results of a national survey of the quality of life of 999 randomly sampled people aged 65 and over, living at home in Britain. The survey was semi-structured, and a sample of survey respondents was followed up and interviewed in-depth in order to explore their perceptions of quality of life in full. Comparisons are made…

  14. [Relationships among self concept, perception of aging and physical aging].

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Kim, M S; Choi, Y H

    1988-12-01

    Although everyone grows old, perception about the aging process and aging as measured physiologically vary widely. Perceptions of aging have psychologically influence on physical aging. This study was to examine the relationships between, self-concept, perception of aging, and physical aging in the elderly and to contribute to the theory development which may direct nursing intervention to promote well-being of the aged. Subjects were 70 women residents of a nursing home for the elderly in Seoul. Data collection was done from May 15 to June 15, 1988 using interview schedules and mechanical instruments. The instruments were selected items from the Health Self Concept Scale developed by Jacox and Stewart for self concept, and Secord and Jourad's Body Cathexis Scale and Osgood's Semantic Differential Scale for perception of aging. Physical aging was measured by mechanical instruments, inspection, questions, and palpation. The data were analysed for mean, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson Correlation Coefficient using an S.P.S.S computerized program. The results of the analysis were as follows. 1. The mean level of self concept for the subject group was 16.97 (SD = +/- 6.17) in a range from 6-30. The mean level of perception of aging was 39.6. (SD = +/- 6.51) in a range from 13-65. The mean level of physical aging was 14.09 (SD = +/- 2.05) in a range from 8-40. 2. Relationships among self-concept, perception of aging, and physical aging. 1) There was a positive relationship between self-concept and perception of aging (r = 0.4461, p = 0.000). 2) There was a negative relationship between physical aging and perception of aging (r = -0.2975, p = 0.006). 3) There was a tendency toward a negative relationship between physical aging and self-concept, but not a significant relationship (r = -0.1033, p = 0.197). 3. 1) No general characteristic variables were related to self concept. 2) The general characteristic variable related to the level of perception of aging was religion (t = 4

  15. A comparison of health expectancies over two decades in England: results of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study I and II

    PubMed Central

    Jagger, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E; Wohland, Pia; Fouweather, Tony; Stephan, Blossom C M; Robinson, Louise; Arthur, Antony; Brayne, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Whether rises in life expectancy are increases in good-quality years is of profound importance worldwide, with population ageing. We investigate how various health expectancies have changed in England between 1991 and 2011, with identical study design and methods in each decade. Methods Baseline data from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies in populations aged 65 years or older in three geographically defined centres in England (Cambridgeshire, Newcastle, and Nottingham) provided prevalence estimates for three health measures: self-perceived health (defined as excellent–good, fair, or poor); cognitive impairment (defined as moderate–severe, mild, or none, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination score); and disability in activities of daily living (defined as none, mild, or moderate–severe). Health expectancies for the three regions combined were calculated by the Sullivan method, which applies the age-specific and sex-specific prevalence of the health measure to a standard life table for the same period. Findings Between 1991 and 2011, gains in life expectancy at age 65 years (4·5 years for men and 3·6 years for women) were accompanied by equivalent gains in years free of any cognitive impairment (4·2 years [95% CI 4·2–4·3] for men and 4·4 years [4·3–4·5] for women) and decreased years with mild or moderate–severe cognitive impairment. Gains were also identified in years in excellent or good self-perceived health (3·8 years [95% CI 3·5–4·1] for men and 3·1 years [2·7–3·4] for women). Gains in disability-free years were much smaller than those in excellent–good self-perceived health or those free from cognitive impairment, especially for women (0·5 years [0·2–0·9] compared with 2·6 years [2·3–2·9] for men), mostly because of increased mild disability. Interpretation During the past two decades in England, we report an absolute compression (ie, reduction) of cognitive impairment, a relative

  16. Use of Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Bioidentical Hormone Therapy in Australian Women 50 to 69 Years of Age: Results from a National, Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Velentzis, Louiza S; Banks, Emily; Sitas, Freddy; Salagame, Usha; Tan, Eng Hooi; Canfell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) use in Australia fell by 55% from 2001 to 2005, following the release of large-scale findings on its risks and benefits. Comprehensive national data, including information on overall prevalence of MHT use as well as information on duration of use in Australia have not been reported since the 2004-5 National Health Survey, when 11% of women aged 45+ years were estimated to be current MHT users. No national data are available on prevalence of use of "bioidentical" hormone therapy (BHT). The objective of this study was to determine recent prevalence of MHT and BHT use. A cross-sectional, national, age-stratified, population survey was conducted in 2013. Eligible women, aged 50-69 years, resident in Australia were randomly sampled in 5-year age groups from the Medicare enrolment database (Australia's universal health scheme). The response rate was 22% based on return of completed questionnaires, and analyses were restricted to 4,389 women within the specified age range. The estimated population-weighted prevalence of current use of MHT was 13% (95%CI 12-14), which was broadly similar to the previously reported national figures in 2004-5, suggesting that the use of MHT in Australia has largely stabilised over the past decade. A total of 39% and 20% of current-users with an intact uterus reported use of oestrogen-progestagen MHT and oestrogen-only MHT, respectively, whereas 77% of hysterectomised current-users used oestrogen-only MHT. Almost three-quarters of current-users [population-weighted prevalence 9% (95%CI 8-10)] had used MHT for ≥5 years. In regard to BHT, estimated population-weighted prevalence of ever use was 6% (95%CI 6-7) and 2% (95%CI 2-3) for current use. The population-weighted prevalence of MHT and BHT combined, in current users in their fifties and sixties was 15% (95%CI 14-16). These data provide a recent national "snapshot" of Australian women's use of both conventional MHT and of BHT. PMID:27008039

  17. The relation of autologous serum and plasma skin test results with urticarial activity score, sex and age in patients with chronic urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Aktar, Sirac; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Calka, Omer; Karadag, Ayse Serap

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Some previous studies reported autoimmunity as an etiologic factor in chronic urticaria (CU), but the results of some autoimmunity tests in these studies are conflicting. Aim To concretize whether there was any relation of autologous serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) results with sex, age and urticarial activity score (UAS) in patients with CU. Material and methods Fifty patients with CU and twenty healthy subjects admitted to our dermatology clinic were included in the present study. The ASST and APST were applied to all individuals. Results The positiveness rates of ASST and APST were significantly higher in the patient group than controls (p = 0.027, p = 0.001, respectively). Among patients, the APST positiveness rate (72%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than ASST (46%). It was seen that 48% of patients with negative ASST results had positive APST. However, no patient with negative APST results had positive ASST. There were significant (p < 0.05) relations of the tests’ positiveness rates with sex and old age but with UAS. The diameter of the erythematous papule was remarkably (p < 0.05) larger in APST than ASST and also significantly (p < 0.05) larger in females compared to males in both tests (p < 0.05). It was positively increased with old age (p < 0.05). Conclusions We can suggest that APST is more sensitive than ASST in the assessment of autoimmunity in CU. A high positiveness rate of APST results may be attributed to high numbers of autoantibodies and coagulation factors present in plasma that might probably play a role in etiopathogenesis of CU. PMID:26161057

  18. 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb Ages and Isotopic Data for Oligocene Ignimbrites, Calderas, and Granitic Plutons, Southern Stillwater Range and Clan Alpine Mountains: Insights into the Volcanic-Plutonic Connection and Crustal Evolution in Western Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, D. A.; Watts, K. E.; Henry, C.; Colgan, J. P.; Cousens, B.

    2014-12-01

    Calderas in the southern Stillwater Range (SSR) and Clan Alpine Mountains (CAM) were formed during the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flareup and subsequently tilted (40->90°) by large-magnitude extension. New geologic mapping, geochemistry, and 40Ar/39Ar and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating document 2 periods of magmatism resulting in 4 nested calderas and related granitoid plutons in sections up to 10 km thick. The first period included pre-caldera rhyolite lava domes (30(?) Ma), ~5 km of pre- and post-collapse intermediate lavas and rhyolite tuff that filled the Job Canyon caldera (~29.4 to 28.8 Ma), and the >4-5 km thick, geochemically similar IXL pluton (28.9±0.4 Ma) that intruded the Job Canyon caldera. The second period included pre-caldera rhyolite lava domes and dikes (~25.5 Ma) and 3 ignimbrite units in 3 calderas: tuff of the Louderback Mountains (low-silica rhyolite; ≥600 m thick; ~25.2 Ma); tuff of Poco Canyon (high-silica rhyolite; up to 4.3 km thick; 25.27±0.05 Ma); and ≥2000 km3 tuff of Elevenmile Canyon (trachydacite to rhyolite; up to 4.5 km thick; 25.12±0.01 Ma). The composite Freeman Creek pluton (granite, 24.8±0.4 Ma; granodiorite, 25.0±0.2 Ma) and Chalk Mountain rhyolite porphyry (25.2±0.2 Ma) and granite (24.8±0.3 Ma) plutons intruded the Poco Canyon and Elevenmile Canyon calderas. Early (30 Ma) rhyolites have the least radiogenic compositions (Sri~0.7040), whereas other units are relatively homogeneous (Sri~0.7050, ENd~0.0). Oxygen isotope compositions for SSR and CAM calderas are highly variable (d18Oquartz=5.6-8.2‰, d18Osanidine=5.5-7.0‰, d18Ozircon= 4.1-6.3‰), corresponding to a magmatic range of 5.7-7.9‰. U-Pb dating of zircons indicates homogeneous age populations and few/no xenocrysts and antecrysts. These data show that (1) thick plutons (>2-5 km) underlie compositionally and temporally related caldera-filling ignimbrites, (2) caldera-forming cycles are isotopically variable, requiring divergent magmatic sources in relatively

  19. Lead and manganese levels in serum and erythrocytes in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: results from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic J; Faux, Noel G; Roberts, Blaine R; Volitakis, Irene; Martins, Ralph N; Bush, Ashley I

    2016-06-01

    We examined serum and erythrocyte lead and manganese levels in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL), which contains over 1000 registrants including over 200 cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 100 mildly cognitively impaired (MCI) individuals. After correcting for confounding effects of age, collection site and sex, we found a significant decrease in serum manganese levels in AD subjects compared to healthy controls. Analysis of smaller subset of erythrocytes revealed no difference in either lead or manganese levels in AD. Although lead and manganese have neurotoxic effects and may be involved in AD pathology, our results showed that neither metal in serum nor erythrocytes are suitable biomarkers in our cohort. However, prospective studies might reveal whether the burden of either metal modifies disease outcomes. PMID:26962965

  20. Disparities by race, age, and sex in the improvement of survival for major cancers: Results from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program in United States, 1990 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chenjie; Wen, Wanqing; Morgans, Alicia K.; Pao, William; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Substantial progress has been made in cancer diagnosis and treatment, resulting in a steady improvement in cancer survival. The degree of improvement by age, race and sex remains unclear. OBJECTIVE to quantify the degree of survival improvement over time by age, race and sex in the United States. DESIGN Longitudinal analyses of cancer follow-up data. SETTING Cancer diagnosis data for 1990–2009 and follow-up data to 2010 from nine population-based registries, part of the NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. PARTICIPANTS Approximately 1.02 million patients from SEER registries diagnosed with cancer of the colon/rectum, breast, prostate, lung, liver, pancreas, or ovary from 1990–2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific death were estimated for patients diagnosed with any of these cancers during, 1995–1999, 2000–2004, and 2005–2009, compared diagnoses in 1990–1994. RESULTS Significant improvements in survival were found for cancers of the colon/rectum, breast, prostate, lung, and liver. Improvements were more pronounced for younger patients. For example, for patients aged 50–64 and diagnosed between 2005–2009, adjusted HRs (95%CI) were 0.57 (0.55–0.60), 0.48 (0.45–0.51), 0.61 (0.57–0.68), and 0.32 (0.30–0.36), for cancer of the colon/rectum, breast, liver and prostate, respectively, compared with the same age group of patients diagnosed during 1990–94. However, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for elderly patients (aged 75–85) were only 0.88 (0.84–0.82), 0.88 (0.84–0.92), 0.76 (0.69–0.84), and 0.65 (0.61–0.70), for the same four cancer sites, respectively. A similar, although weaker, age-related period effect was observed for lung and pancreatic cancers. The adjusted HRs (95%CIs) for lung cancer were 0.75 (95%CI, 0.73–0.77) and 0.84 (95%CI, 0.81–0.86), respectively, for patients aged 50 to 64 years and 75 to 85 years diagnosed

  1. Range and range rate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Olin L. (Inventor); Russell, Jim K. (Inventor); Epperly, Walter L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A video controlled solid state range finding system which requires no radar, high power laser, or sophisticated laser target is disclosed. The effective range of the system is from 1 to about 200 ft. The system includes an opto-electric camera such as a lens CCD array device. A helium neon laser produces a source beam of coherent light which is applied to a beam splitter. The beam splitter applies a reference beam to the camera and produces an outgoing beam applied to a first angularly variable reflector which directs the outgoing beam to the distant object. An incoming beam is reflected from the object to a second angularly variable reflector which reflects the incoming beam to the opto-electric camera via the beam splitter. The first reflector and the second reflector are configured so that the distance travelled by the outgoing beam from the beam splitter and the first reflector is the same as the distance travelled by the incoming beam from the second reflector to the beam splitter. The reference beam produces a reference signal in the geometric center of the camera. The incoming beam produces an object signal at the camera.

  2. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  3. The influence of age, gender and socio-economic status on multimorbidity patterns in primary care. first results from the multicare cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a phenomenon with high burden and high prevalence in the elderly. Our previous research has shown that multimorbidity can be divided into the multimorbidity patterns of 1) anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders (ADS) and pain, and 2) cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known, how these patterns are influenced by patient characteristics. The objective of this paper is to analyze the association of socio-demographic variables, and especially socio-economic status with multimorbidity in general and with each multimorbidity pattern. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of 3.189 multimorbid patients aged 65+ randomly selected from 158 GP practices. Data were collected in GP interviews and comprehensive patient interviews. Missing values have been imputed by hot deck imputation based on Gower distance in morbidity and other variables. The association of patient characteristics with the number of chronic conditions is analysed by multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results Multimorbidity in general is associated with age (+0.07 chronic conditions per year), gender (-0.27 conditions for female), education (-0.26 conditions for medium and -0.29 conditions for high level vs. low level) and income (-0.27 conditions per logarithmic unit). The pattern of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders shows comparable associations with a higher coefficient for gender (-1.29 conditions for female), while multimorbidity within the pattern of ADS and pain correlates with gender (+0.79 conditions for female), but not with age or socioeconomic status. Conclusions Our study confirms that the morbidity load of multimorbid patients is associated with age, gender and the socioeconomic status of the patients, but there were no effects of living arrangements and marital status. We could also show that the influence of patient characteristics is dependent on the

  4. [Saving motives in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Preliminary results of a new inventory for exploring lifespan saving motives].

    PubMed

    Rager, B; Lang, F R; Wagner, G G

    2012-12-01

    There is some research on personal reasons for saving money in the economic sciences. However, not much is known about the age differences of saving motives. In this vein, the future time perspective (FTP) is known to play a critical role for motivation across the life span. In this study, we introduce a new Saving Motive Inventory (SMI), which also covers saving goals after retirement. Furthermore, it is argued that additional saving motives that are not based on economic models of life-cycle saving also exist. In accordance with the socio-emotional selectivity theory, we explored age differences in an online survey with 496 participants from young (19-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years), and older (65-86 years) adulthood, who completed a questionnaire on saving motives, personality, and future-related thinking (e.g., Future Time Perspective Scale, Life Orientation Test). Results of the explorative Factor Analysis (EFA) are consistent with the theoretical expectations. The factors are generativity, educational investment, consumption, indifference, and provision for death and dying. Together these five factors account for 67% of the variance. In general, the inventory is reliable and valid with respect to the expected internal and external criteria. It contributes to better understanding of saving motives over the lifespan, especially with respect to effects of the future time perspective. PMID:22538787

  5. Three-year results of a modified photodynamic therapy procedure (Ironing PDT) for age-related macular degeneration patients with large lesions

    PubMed Central

    Otsuji, Tsuyoshi; Sho, Kenichiro; Tsumura, Akiko; Koike, Naoko; Nishimura, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Kanji

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using a modified procedure on exudative age-related macular degeneration having been conventionally difficult to treat. Methods The medical records of eight consecutive patients (eight eyes) with age-related macular degeneration treated with modified PDT were reviewed retrospectively. Modified PDT was used for the lesions that could not be covered by conventional use of PDT, either because the lesion was too large or too close to the optic disc. A moving PDT laser spot at constant speed, for 83 seconds, was used to cover the entire lesion, and was named “Ironing PDT.” This retrospective study was performed with informed patient consent. It was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Kansai Medical University. Results No exudation could be found 36 months after treatment in five eyes (62.5%). There was no significant difference between the best-corrected visual acuity before PDT (0.95 logMAR) and after PDT (1.09 logMAR). The logMAR best-corrected visual acuity was improved in one eye, maintained in five eyes, and deteriorated in two eyes. Conclusion Ironing PDT decreased subfoveal fluid and preserved visual acuity in some patients with age-related macular degeneration difficult to treat with conventional therapy. PMID:27041985

  6. The Effect of Age, Gender, and Insertion Site on Marginal Bone Loss around Endosseous Implants: Results from a 3-Year Trial with Premium Implant System

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Massimiliano; Macaluso, Guido M.; Manfredi, Edoardo; Bonanini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The goal of this study was to evaluate bone changes around endosseous implants in partially edentulous patients. Materials and Methods. A total of 632 two-stage implants were placed in 252 patients. The implants had straight emergence profile, ZirTi surface, 3.3 to 5 mm diameter, and 8.5 to 13 mm length. Bone levels were assessed on orthopantomography immediately after surgery and after 36 months and marginal bone loss (MBL) was calculated from their difference. Results. Cumulative survival rate was 98.73%. Overall MBL was 0.8 mm ± 0.03 (mean ± SEM). Higher MBL was observed around implants in the maxilla than in the mandible (P < 0.007). A relation between implant diameter and MBL (P < 0.0001) was observed in male and, more limitedly, female patients. Older patients had higher MBL in the maxilla, but not in the mandible (P < 0.0001). MBL progressively increased with age in male patients, but reached a peak already in the 50–60 years age group in the female subset (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The overall MBL is consistent with the available literature. Site difference and patient age and gender appear to significantly affect MBL, representing important factors to be considered during implant placement. PMID:25187903

  7. A meta-analysis on age-associated changes in blood DNA methylation: results from an original analysis pipeline for Infinium 450k data.

    PubMed

    Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Boattini, Alessio; Gentilini, Davide; Giampieri, Enrico; Pirazzini, Chiara; Giuliani, Cristina; Fontanesi, Elisa; Remondini, Daniel; Capri, Miriam; Del Rio, Alberto; Luiselli, Donata; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Castellani, Gastone; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio; Garagnani, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Aging is characterized by a profound remodeling of the epigenetic architecture in terms of DNA methylation patterns. To date the most effective tool to study genome wide DNA methylation changes is Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Infinium 450k). Despite the wealth of tools for Infinium 450k analysis, the identification of the most biologically relevant DNA methylation changes is still challenging. Here we propose an analytical pipeline to select differentially methylated regions (DMRs), tailored on microarray architecture, which is highly effective in highlighting biologically relevant results. The pipeline groups microarray probes on the basis of their localization respect to CpG islands and genic sequences and, depending on probes density, identifies DMRs through a single-probe or a region-centric approach that considers the concomitant variation of multiple adjacent CpG probes. We successfully applied this analytical pipeline on 3 independent Infinium 450k datasets that investigated age-associated changes in blood DNA methylation. We provide a consensus list of genes that systematically vary in DNA methylation levels from 0 to 100 years and that have a potentially relevant role in the aging process. PMID:25701668

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Pain in People Aged 60 Years and above in Singapore: Results from the WiSE Study

    PubMed Central

    Satghare, Pratika; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimansyah; Chua, Boon Yiang; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although pain is experienced among people of all ages, there is a need to study its risk factors and impact among older adults. Aims. The study sought to determine the prevalence, sociodemographics, and clinical correlates of pain along with association of pain with disability among older adults in Singapore. Methods. The WiSE study was a comprehensive cross-sectional, single phase, epidemiological survey conducted among the elderly aged 60 years and above and used a nationally representative sample of three main ethnic groups in Singapore: Chinese, Malays, and Indians. The survey administered 10/66 protocol pain questionnaire, sociodemographic questionnaire, health status questionnaire, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0), and Geriatric Mental State (GMS) examination. Results. A total of 2565 respondents completed the study giving a response rate of 65.5%. The prevalence of pain among the elderly aged 60 years and above is 19.5 %. Females, incomplete primary education Indians, and those diagnosed with any chronic health condition were associated with risk of pain and disability. Conclusion. Study findings showed that disability related to pain among the elderly is considerable making it a priority to reduce the morbidity and disability among the elderly with pain. PMID:27445628

  9. Awareness of Federal Dietary Guidance in persons aged 16 years and older: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jacqueline D; Wang, Chia-Yih

    2011-02-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 included questions on awareness of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), the Food Guide Pyramid, and the 5 A Day for Better Health Program. Prevalence of awareness of federal dietary guidance was estimated and differences were tested across demographic traits, health characteristics, and diet-related attitudes and behavior. The continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey uses a nationally representative cross-sectional sample design. The analytic sample consisted of 5,499 persons aged 16 years and older with complete data. Among persons aged 16 years and older, 83.8% had heard of at least one of the initiatives: 49.2% had heard of the DGA, 80.6% had heard of the Food Guide Pyramid, and 51.2% had heard of the 5 A Day program. There was a linear trend of decreasing awareness of at least one of the guidance efforts with increasing age. Differences by sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income were also observed. Differences by body mass index were not statistically significant; however, significant differences were seen with fatalistic beliefs about body weight. Differences by smoking, self-assessed diet quality, and eating out frequency were not statistically significant after adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and income. These results may be useful in promotion of the upcoming edition of the DGA and to suggest population groups that may benefit from strengthened and more innovative education efforts at the public health program level and at the clinic level. PMID:21272706

  10. The effects of acid leaching on 40Ar/39Ar age dating results using samples from the Walvis Ridge hotspot trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klath, J. F.; Koppers, A. A.; Heaton, D. E.; Schnur, S.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we systematically explore how acid leaching can be used to reduce the negative effects of seawater alteration on the 40Ar/39Ar age dating of submarine basalts. Koppers et al (2000) showed that acid leaching of groundmass samples generated more consistent ages as well as ages more concordant with phenocrystic mineral phases, compared to samples that were left untreated. By studying the effects of progressively increasing the strength and length of acid treatment, we will show how acid leaching of groundmass separates reduces alteration while leaving the initial eruption signature intact. Samples were chosen from the Walvis ridge hotspot trail in the southeast Atlantic. Three samples were selected based on degree and style of alteration. Two samples (basalt and basaltic andesite) appear highly altered in thin section. The basalt contains diffuse iddingsite alteration that is pervasive throughout the groundmass. The basaltic andesite displays focused secondary mineral phases within and around abundant vesicles. The third sample, a trachyte, shows relatively minor degrees of alteration in thin section. These groundmass separates were divided into four splits and treated with a progressively stronger acid and for longer duration. One split from each rock was left untreated to act as a baseline. Of the other three splits from each sample, one was treated with a mild leach (1N HCl and 1N HNO3), one a strong leach (1N HCl, 1N HNO3, 6N HCl, and 3N HNO3), and lastly the strong leach performed twice. The samples were then handpicked to remove any remaining visible alteration. The untreated samples were picked as well, removing the most distinctly altered grains. All splits were analyzed by electron microprobe, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and the incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar dating method. We will report on the results of an image analysis of microprobe backscatter images and elemental maps taken of individual groundmass grains. This analysis will show the location

  11. β-Amyloid infusion results in delayed and age-dependent learning deficits without role of inflammation or β-amyloid deposits

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Tarja; Ort, Michael; Tähtivaara, Leena; Jukarainen, Niko; Goldsteins, Gundars; Puoliväli, Jukka; Nurmi, Antti; Pussinen, Raimo; Ahtoniemi, Toni; Miettinen, Taina-Kaisa; Kanninen, Katja; Leskinen, Suvi; Vartiainen, Nina; Yrjänheikki, Juha; Laatikainen, Reino; Harris-White, Marni E.; Koistinaho, Milla; Frautschy, Sally A.; Bures, Jan; Koistinaho, Jari

    2006-01-01

    β-Amyloid (Aβ) polypeptide plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by progressive decline of cognitive functions, formation of Aβ deposits and neurofibrillary tangles, and loss of neurons. Increased genetic production or direct intracerebral administration of Aβ in animal models results in Aβ deposition, gliosis, and impaired cognitive functions. Whether aging renders the brain prone to Aβ and whether inflammation is required for Aβ-induced learning deficits is unclear. We show that intraventricular infusion of Aβ1–42 results in learning deficits in 9-month-old but not 2.5-month-old mice. Deficits that become detectable 12 weeks after the infusion are associated with a slight reduction in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase activity but do not correlate with Aβ deposition and are not associated with gliosis. In rats, Aβ infusion induced learning deficits that were detectable 6 months after the infusion. Approximately 20% of the Aβ immunoreactivity in rats was associated with astrocytes. NMR spectrum analysis of the animals cerebrospinal fluid revealed a strong reduction trend in several metabolites in Aβ-infused rats, including lactate and myo-inositol, supporting the idea of dysfunctional astrocytes. Even a subtle increase in brain Aβ1–42 concentration may disrupt normal metabolism of astrocytes, resulting in altered neuronal functions and age-related development of learning deficits independent of Aβ deposition and inflammation. PMID:16723396

  12. Long-term (60-month) results for the implantable miniature telescope: efficacy and safety outcomes stratified by age in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, David; Freund, K Bailey; Regillo, Carl; Levy, Marc H; Garg, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of an implantable miniature telescope (IMT) in patients with bilateral, end-stage, age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical trial with fellow eye controls enrolled 217 patients (mean age 76 years) with AMD and moderate-to-profound bilateral central visual acuity loss (20/80–20/800) resulting from untreatable geographic atrophy, disciform scars, or both. A subgroup analysis was performed with stratification for age (patient age 65 to <75 years [group 1; n=70] and patient age ≥75 years [group 2; n=127]), with a comparative evaluation of change in best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), quality of life, ocular complications from surgery, adverse events, and endothelial cell density (ECD). Follow-up in an extension study was 60 months. Results Data were available for 22, 38, and 31 patients in group 1 and 42, 46, and 32 patients in group 2 at 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Mean BCDVA improvement from baseline to 60 months was 2.41±2.69 lines in all patients (n=76), with 2.64±2.55 lines in group 1 and 2.09±2.88 lines in group 2. Quality of life scores were significantly higher in group 1. The most common significant surgery-related ocular complications in group 1 were iritis >30 days after surgery (7/70; 10%) and persistent corneal edema (3/70; 4.3%); and in group 2 were a decrease in BCDVA in the implanted eye or IMT removal (10/127 each; 7.9%), corneal edema >30 days after surgery (9/127; 7.1%), and persistent corneal edema (6/127; 4.7%). Significant adverse events included four corneal transplants, comprising two (2.9%) in group 1 and two (1.6%) in group 2. At 60 months, one patient in group 1 (3.2%) and three patients in group 2 (9.4%) had lost ≥2 lines of vision. The IMT was removed in one (1.4%) and ten (7.9%) patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean ECD loss was 20% at 3 months. Chronic loss was 3% per

  13. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  14. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  15. Breast Cancer by Age at Diagnosis in the Gharbiah, Egypt, Population-Based Registry Compared to the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 2004–2008

    PubMed Central

    Schlichting, Jennifer A.; Soliman, Amr S.; Schairer, Catherine; Harford, Joe B.; Hablas, Ahmed; Ramadan, Mohamed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Although breast cancers (BCs) in young women often display more aggressive features, younger women are generally not screened for early detection. It is important to understand the characteristics of young onset breast cancer to increase awareness in this population. This analysis includes all ages, with emphasis placed on younger onset BC in Egypt as compared to the United States. Methods. BC cases in the Gharbiah cancer registry (GCR), Egypt, were compared to those in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. This analysis included 3,819 cases from the GCR and 273,019 from SEER diagnosed 2004–2008. Results. GCR cases were diagnosed at later stages, with <5% diagnosed at Stage I and 12% diagnosed at Stage IV. 48% of all SEER cases were diagnosed at Stage I, dropping to 30% among those ≤40. Significant differences in age, tumor grade, hormone receptor status, histology, and stage exist between GCR and SEER BCs. After adjustment, GCR cases were nearly 45 times more likely to be diagnosed at stage III and 16 times more likely to be diagnosed at stage IV than SEER cases. Conclusions. Future research should examine ways to increase literacy about early detection and prompt therapy in young cases. PMID:26495294

  16. Clustering of pain and its associations with health in people aged 50 years and older: cross-sectional results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, R J; Strauss, V Y; Rathod, T; Belcher, J; Croft, P R; Natvig, B; Wilkie, R; McBeth, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most pain in patients aged ≥50 years affects multiple sites and yet the predominant mode of presentation is single-site syndromes. The aim of this study was to investigate if pain sites form clusters in this population and if any such clusters are associated with health factors other than pain. Setting Six general practices in North Staffordshire, UK. Design Cross-sectional, postal questionnaire, study. Participants Community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years registered at the general practices. Main outcomes measures Number of pain sites was measured by asking participants to shade sites of pain lasting ≥1 day in the past 4 weeks on a blank body manikin. Health factors measured included anxiety and depression (Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale), cognitive complaint (Sickness Impact Profile) and sleep. Pain site clustering was investigated using latent class analysis. Association of clusters with health factors, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and morbidities, was analysed using multinomial regression models. Results 13 986 participants (adjusted response 70.6%) completed a questionnaire, of whom 12 408 provided complete pain data. Four clusters of participants were identified: (1) low number of pain sites (36.6%), (2) medium number of sites with no back pain (31.5%), (3) medium number of sites with back pain (17.9%) and (4) high number of sites (14.1%). Compared to Cluster 1, other clusters were associated with poor health. The strongest associations (relative risk ratios, 95% CI) were with Cluster 4: depression (per unit change in score) 1.11 (1.08 to 1.14); cognitive complaint 2.60 (2.09 to 3.24); non-restorative sleep 4.60 (3.50 to 6.05). Conclusions These results indicate that in a general population aged ≥50 years, pain forms four clusters shaped by two dimensions—number of pain sites (low, medium, high) and, within the medium cluster, the absence or presence of back pain. The usefulness of primary care treatment

  17. Burden of HIV Infection Among Children Aged 18 Months to 14 Years in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Population-Based Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ng’eno, Bernadette; Mwangi, Ann; Ng’ang’a, Lucy; Kim, Andrea A.; Waruru, Anthony; Mukui, Irene; Ngugi, Evelyn W.; Rutherford, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds In Kenya, mathematical models estimate that there are approximately 220,000 children aged less than 15 years infected with HIV. We analyzed data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years. Methods KAIS 2012 was a nationally representative 2-stage cluster sample household survey. We studied children aged 18 months to 14 years whose parents or guardians answered questions pertaining to their children by interview. Blood specimens were collected for HIV serology and viral load measurement. Results We identified 5162 children who were eligible for the study. Blood was obtained for 3681 (71.3%) children. Among child participants, 16.4% had been tested for HIV infection in the past, and among children with parents or guardians who self-reported HIV-positive status, 52.9% had been tested for HIV infection. Twenty-eight (0.9%) children tested HIV-positive in the survey. Of these, 11 had been previously diagnosed with HIV infection before the survey. All 11 children were in HIV care and receiving cotrimoxazole; 8 were on antiretorivral therapy (ART). Among those on ART, 4 were virologically suppressed. Conclusions HIV causes a substantial burden of disease in the Kenyan pediatric population. Although most children who had been diagnosed with HIV before the survey were engaged in care and treatment, they represented less than half of HIV-infected children identified in the survey. Future efforts should focus on identifying infected children and getting them into care and on suppressive ART as early as possible. PMID:24732823

  18. Prevalence and Incidence of HIV Infection, Trends, and Risk Factors Among Persons Aged 15–64 Years in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kimanga, Davies O.; Ogola, Samuel; Umuro, Mamo; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Kimondo, Lucy; Murithi, Patrick; Muttunga, James; Waruiru, Wanjiru; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Sharrif, Shahnaaz; De Cock, Kevin M.; (UK), FRCP; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enhanced HIV surveillance using demographic, behavioral, and biologic data from national surveys can provide information to evaluate and respond to HIV epidemics efficiently. Methods From October 2012 to February 2013, we conducted a 2-stage cluster sampling survey of persons aged 18 months to 64 years in 9 geographic regions in Kenya. Participants answered questionnaires and provided blood for HIV testing. We estimated HIV prevalence, HIV incidence, described trends in HIV prevalence over the past 5 years, and identified factors associated with HIV infection. This analysis was restricted to persons aged 15–64 years. Results HIV prevalence was 5.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9 to 6.3] in 2012, a significant decrease from 2007, when HIV prevalence, excluding the North Eastern region, was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6 to 7.9). HIV incidence was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9) in 2012. Among women, factors associated with undiagnosed HIV infection included being aged 35–39 years, divorced or separated, from urban residences and Nyanza region, self-perceiving a moderate risk of HIV infection, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and reporting 4 or more lifetime number of partners. Among men, widowhood, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and lack of circumcision were associated with undiagnosed HIV infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence has declined in Kenya since 2007. With improved access to treatment, HIV prevalence has become more challenging to interpret without data on new infections and mortality. Correlates of undiagnosed HIV infection provide important information on where to prioritize prevention interventions to reduce transmission of HIV in the broader population. PMID:24445338

  19. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults—Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study

    PubMed Central

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J.; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E.

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  20. Associations of various perceived-stress situations with depressive symptoms in ≥50-year old Taiwanese men and women: Results from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin-Jen; Chang, Fu-Kuei

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between various perceived-stress and depressive symptoms in old Taiwanese men and women aged 50 years and over. Data were derived from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. Stress for health, finance, and family members' related issues were all cross-sectionally associated with concurrent depressive symptoms for men and women (all P<0.05). Increased/constant-high health stress was positively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in both genders (all P<0.05). Constantly high job stress and increased stress over family members' problems were associated with higher likelihood of subsequent depressive symptoms in men (P<0.05). Constantly high/increased financial stress and relationship strain with family members were positively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in women (all P<0.05). The results suggest that stress for health, job, finance, and family members-related issues are unequally associated with depressive symptoms among Taiwanese men and women aged 50 years and over. Changes of health stress even reduced are significantly associated with subsequent depressive symptoms. Long-term job stress and increased stress over family members' problems increase occurrences of men's depressive symptoms, while increased/long-term financial stress and relationship-strain with family members increase occurrences of women's depressive symptoms. Long-term high health stress has more impacts on men's depressive symptoms than women's, while long-term high relationship strain with family members has more impacts on women's depressive symptoms than men's. PMID:27490720

  1. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults--Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study.

    PubMed

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  2. Factors Influencing Suicidal Ideation Among Korean Adults by Age: Results of the 2010-2011 Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-ok; Lee, Hyo Young

    2015-11-01

    Suicidal ideation increases the risk of suicide. This study investigated the age-specific contributions of sociodemographic factors, health status, and health behaviors to suicidal ideation using nationally representative data. The factors associated with suicidal ideation differ by age. Perceived bad health, stress, and depression had a significant influence on suicidal ideation in all age groups, but their specific effects differed in different age groups. The influence of perceived bad health increased with age, and the effect of stress was strongest among those aged 45-64 years. Moreover, the effect of being depressed decreased by age and was strongest among those 20-44 years of age. Disease and marital status did not have a significant effect on suicidal ideation among those 45-64 years old, and education had no effect among those 65 years or older. PMID:25833725

  3. The Earth's frame-dragging via laser-ranged satellites: A Response to "Some considerations on the present-day results for the detection of frame-dragging after the final outcome of GP-B" by Iorio L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. C.; Ciufolini, I.; Pavlis, E. C.; Paolozzi, A.; Koenig, R.; Matzner, R. A.; Sindoni, G.; Neumayer, H.

    2011-11-01

    In this letter, we reply to the preceding paper by Iorio (EPL, 96 (2011) 30001 (this issue)), hereafter referred to as I2011, where we address criticisms regarding the Lense-Thirring frame-dragging experiment results obtained from the laser ranging to the two LAGEOS satellites.

  4. Does age affect surgical outcomes in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy? Results from the prospective multicenter AOSpine International study on 479 patients

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Hiroaki; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Nagoshi, Narihito; Nouri, Aria; Kopjar, Branko; Arnold, Paul M; Bartels, Ronald; Defino, Helton; Kale, Shashank; Zhou, Qiang; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Background In general, older patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) are felt to have lower recovery potential following surgery due to increased degenerative pathology, comorbidities, reduced physiological reserves and age-related changes to the spinal cord. This study aims to determine whether age truly is an independent predictor of surgical outcome and to provide evidence to guide practice and decision-making. Methods A total of 479 patients with DCM were prospectively enrolled in the CSM-International study at 16 centres. Our sample was divided into a younger group (<65 years) and an elderly (≥65 years) group. A mixed model analytic approach was used to evaluate differences in the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA), Nurick, Short Form-36 (SF-36) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores between groups. We first created an unadjusted model between age and surgical outcome and then developed two adjusted models that accounted for variations in (1) baseline characteristics and (2) both baseline and surgical factors. Results Of the 479 patients, 360 (75.16%) were <65 years and 119 (24.84%) were ≥65 years. Elderly patients had a worse preoperative health status (p<0.0001) and were functionally more severe (p<0.0001). The majority of younger patients (64.96%) underwent anterior surgery, whereas the preferred approach in the elderly group was posterior (58.62%, p<0.0001). Elderly patients had a greater number of decompressed levels than younger patients (p<0.0001). At 24 months after surgery, younger patients achieved a higher postoperative mJOA (p<0.0001) and a lower Nurick score (p<0.0001) than elderly patients. After adjustments for patient and surgical characteristics, these differences in postoperative outcome scores decreased but remained significant. Conclusions Older age is an independent predictor of functional status in patients with DCM. However, patients over 65 with DCM still achieve functionally significant

  5. Vitamin B12 status in women of childbearing age in the UK and its relationship with national nutrient intake guidelines: results from two National Diet and Nutrition Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Venkataraman, Hema; Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess serum B12, folate and the associated homocysteine (Hcy) levels among women of childbearing age in the UK and examine their association with dietary intake in relation to the UK Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for B12 and folate. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data from two publicly available National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS 2000/2001 and 2008/2012) were used. These were population-based surveys of randomly selected samples of adults which were carried out in their households. Participants Women of childbearing age (aged 19–39 years), representative of the UK population. Those who were pregnant or breastfeeding were excluded. Outcome measures The associations between micronutrient intakes and blood levels of B12, folate and Hcy were assessed by correlation and stepwise linear regression. B12 intake was divided into quintiles and plotted against blood B12 and Hcy concentrations to determine the threshold of any associations. Results 299 women from the first NDNS cohort had complete intake and biomarker data. The prevalence of serum vitamin B12 (≤150 pmol/L) and serum folate (≤10 nmol/L) deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia (≥12 µmol/L) was 12.4%, 6.4% and 21.2%, respectively, despite seemingly adequate B12 intakes (median 3.8 μg/day, 96% consumed more than the UK RNI of 1.5 μg/day). B12 concentrations increased across all quintiles of intake with serum levels in quintiles 4 and 5 (median intake 4.9 and 7.1 μg/day, respectively) significantly higher than quintile 1. However, Hcy concentrations levelled off between quintiles 4 and 5. Comparison of micronutrient intake between the two surveys found that folate intake has reduced in the more recent cohort. Conclusions The UK RNI for B12 intake should be increased for women of childbearing age with intakes of around 5–7 μg/day likely to be associated with stable biomarker levels. B12 levels should also be measured in women preconceptionally or in early

  6. Results from in vitro and ex vivo skin aging models assessing the antiglycation and anti-elastase MMP-12 potential of glycylglycine oleamide

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanowicz, Patrick; Haure, Marie-José; Ceruti, Isabelle; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Castex-Rizzi, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycation is an aging reaction of naturally occurring sugars with dermal proteins. Type I collagen and elastin are most affected by glycation during intrinsic chronological aging. Aim To study the in vitro and ex vivo assays in human skin cells and explants and the antiaging effects of glycylglycine oleamide (GGO). Materials and methods The antiglycation effect of GGO was assessed in a noncellular in vitro study on collagen and, ex vivo, by immunohistochemical staining on human skin explants (elastin network glycation). The ability of GGO to contract fibroblasts was assessed in a functional assay, and its anti-elastase (MMP-12) activity was compared to that of oleic acid alone, glycylglycine (GG) alone, and oleic acid associated with GG. Results In vitro, GGO reduced the glycation of type I collagen. Ex vivo, GGO restored the expression of fibrillin-1 inhibited by glycation. Furthermore, GGO induced a tissue retraction of almost 30%. Moreover, the MMP-12 activity was inhibited by up to 60%. Conclusion Under the present in vitro and ex vivo conditions, GGO prevents glycation of the major structural proteins of the dermis, helping to reduce the risk of rigidification. By maintaining the elastic function of the skin, GGO may be a promising sparring partner for other topical antiaging agents. PMID:27382322

  7. Predictions of mortality from pleural mesothelioma in Italy: a model based on asbestos consumption figures supports results from age-period-cohort models.

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Montanaro, Fabio; Mastrantonio, Marina; Uccelli, Raffaella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Nesti, Massimo; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2005-05-20

    Italy was the second main asbestos producer in Europe, after the Soviet Union, until the end of the 1980s, and raw asbestos was imported on a large scale until 1992. The Italian pattern of asbestos consumption lags on average about 10 years behind the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom and the Nordic countries. Measures to reduce exposure were introduced in the mid-1970s in some workplaces. In 1986, limitations were imposed on the use of crocidolite and in 1992 asbestos was definitively banned. We have used primary pleural cancer mortality figures (1970-1999) to predict mortality from mesothelioma among Italian men in the next 30 years by age-cohort-period models and by a model based on asbestos consumption figures. The pleural cancer/mesothelioma ratio and mesothelioma misdiagnosis in the past were taken into account in the analysis. Estimated risks of birth cohorts born after 1945 decrease less quickly in Italy than in other Western countries. The findings predict a peak with about 800 mesothelioma annual deaths in the period 2012-2024. Results estimated using age-period-cohort models were similar to those obtained from the asbestos consumption model. PMID:15645436

  8. Association Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Older Adults: Results From the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Virginia J.; McClure, Leslie A.; Buys, Katie Crawford; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.; Levitan, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) on older adults’ prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. Methods. Data were from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, an observational study of 1000 community-dwelling Black and White Alabamians aged 65 years and older, in 1999 to 2001. We assessed hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control with blood pressure measurements and self-report data. We assessed ND with US Census data corresponding with participants’ census tracts, created tertiles of ND, and fit models with generalized estimating equations via a logit link function with a binomial distribution. Adjusted models included variables assessing personal advantage and disadvantage, place-based factors, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. Results. Living in mid-ND (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 2.1) and high-ND tertiles (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.3) was associated with higher hypertension prevalence, and living in high-ND tertiles was associated with lower odds of controlled hypertension (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6). In adjusted models, ND was not associated with hypertension awareness or treatment. Conclusions. These findings show that neighborhood environmental factors matter for hypertension outcomes and suggest the importance of ND for hypertension management in older adults. PMID:25322309

  9. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age.

    PubMed

    Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G

    2010-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels. PMID:20625698

  10. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H.; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G.

    2010-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.

  11. Do Effects of Early Child Care Extend to Age 15 Years? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret; Steinberg, Laurence; Vandergrift, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4 1/2 years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1,364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with…

  12. Effect of Relative Age in the First Grade of Primary School on Long-Term Scholastic Results: International Comparative Evidence Using PISA 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprietsma, Maresa

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of pupil's relative age within the first grade of primary school on mathematics and reading test scores at age 15. The main objective is to evaluate the long-term causal effect of relative age in the first grades of primary school on pupil's test in 16 different countries. We use the national rule for…

  13. Organophosphate Insecticide Metabolites in Prenatal and Childhood Urine Samples and Intelligence Scores at 6 Years of Age: Results from the Mother–Child PELAGIE Cohort (France)

    PubMed Central

    Cartier, Chloé; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Saint-Amour, Dave; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in children. Objectives: We evaluated associations between biomarkers of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure and cognitive function of 6-year-olds in a French longitudinal birth cohort. Methods: In 2002–2006, the PELAGIE mother–child cohort enrolled pregnant women from Brittany. For a random subcohort, we measured nonspecific dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAP) of OP in one maternal urine sample, collected before 19 weeks’ gestation, and in one urine sample collected from their 6-year-old children. Six subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV) were administered when the children were 6 years of age to evaluate cognitive function (n = 231). Linear regression models controlling for factors including maternal intelligence and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score were used. Results: WISC-IV scores were not significantly associated with prenatal or childhood total DAP metabolites. WISC verbal comprehension score was significantly higher in association with the highest maternal urinary concentrations of diethylphosphate (DE) metabolites (5.5; 95% CI: 0.8, 10.3 for > 13.2 nmol/L vs. < LOQ), whereas WISC working memory score was significantly lower in association with the highest urinary concentrations of DE metabolites at age 6 years (–3.6; 95% CI: –7.8, –0.6 for > 11.1 nmol/L vs. < LOD). Conclusion: We found no evidence that prenatal OP exposure adversely affected cognitive function in 6-year-olds, perhaps because of the population’s socioeconomic status, which was higher than in previous studies, though other causal and noncausal explanations are also possible. The negative association between WISC score and concurrent DE urinary concentrations requires replication by longitudinal studies investigating childhood OP exposure. Citation: Cartier C, Warembourg C, Le Maner

  14. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: Results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study☆

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Deborah L.; Schieve, Laura A.; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associa