Science.gov

Sample records for age receptive vocabulary

  1. Measuring bilingual children's receptive vocabularies.

    PubMed

    Umbel, V M; Pearson, B Z; Fernández, M C; Oller, D K

    1992-08-01

    Receptive vocabulary of Hispanic children in Miami was tested in both English and Spanish with complementary standardized tests, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) and the Test de Vocabulario en Imágenes Peabody (TVIP-H). 105 bilingual first graders, of middle to high socioeconomic status relative to national norms, were divided according to the language(s) spoken in their homes. Both groups, whether they spoke only Spanish in the home (OSH) or both English and Spanish in the home (ESH), performed near the mean of 100 in Spanish receptive vocabulary (TVIP-H means 97.0 and 96.5); in contrast, ESH group children scored more than 1 SD higher in English than OSH group children (PPVT-R means 88.0 and 69.7, respectively). It appears, therefore, that learning 2 languages at once does not harm receptive language development in the language of origin, while it does lay the groundwork for superior performance in the majority language. Furthermore, an analysis of translation equivalents, items shared by both tests, shows that a statistically significant portion of bilingual children's lexical knowledge does not overlap in their 2 languages and is therefore not reflected in single-language scores.

  2. Receptive vocabulary in boys with autism spectrum disorder: cross-sectional developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kover, Sara T; McDuffie, Andrea S; Hagerman, Randi J; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-11-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4-11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2-11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for boys with ASD relative to age and nonverbal cognition. Relative to expressive vocabulary, assessed with the Expressive Vocabulary Test, receptive vocabulary increased at a lower rate for boys with ASD. Vocabulary trajectories in ASD are distinguished from typical development; however, nonverbal cognition largely accounts for the patterns observed.

  3. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    English receptive vocabulary scores from 797 monolingual and 808 bilingual participants between the ages of 17 and 89 years old were aggregated from 20 studies to compare standard scores across language groups. The distribution of scores was unimodal for both groups but the mean score was significantly different, with monolinguals obtaining higher…

  4. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  5. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD…

  6. Hearing Experience and Receptive Vocabulary Development in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Mary K.; Pisoni, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated receptive vocabulary delay in deaf children with cochlear implants. Participants were 23 children with profound hearing loss, ages 6-14 years, who received a cochlear implant between ages 1.4 and 6 years. Duration of cochlear implant use ranged from 3.7 to 11.8 years. "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition"…

  7. A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

  8. Conceptual scoring of receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in simultaneous and sequential bilingual children

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the effects of conceptual scoring on the performance of simultaneous and sequential bilinguals on standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and Spanish. Method Participants included 40 English-speaking monolingual children, 39 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children, and 19 sequential bilinguals, ages 5–7. The children completed standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and also in Spanish for bilinguals. After the standardized administration, bilinguals were given the opportunity to respond to missed items in their other language to obtain a conceptual score. Results Controlling for group differences in socioeconomic status (SES), both simultaneous and sequential bilinguals scored significantly below monolinguals on single-language measures of English receptive and expressive vocabulary. Conceptual scoring removed the significant difference between monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals in the receptive modality, but not in the expressive modality; differences remained between monolinguals and sequential bilinguals in both modalities. However, in both bilingual groups conceptual scoring increased the proportion of children with vocabulary scores within the average range. Conclusions Conceptual scoring does not fully ameliorate the bias inherent in single-language standardized vocabulary measures for bilinguals, but the procedures employed here may assist in ruling out vocabulary deficits, particularly in typically-developing simultaneous bilingual children. PMID:24811415

  9. Short persistent sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary performance in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Valerie; Touchette, Evelyne; Dionne, Ginette; Petit, Dominique; Seguin, Jean R; Montplaisir, Jacques; Vitaro, Frank; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether short sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary at age 10 years. In the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, parents reported their children's nocturnal sleep duration annually from ages 2.5 to 10 years, and children were assessed for receptive vocabulary using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) at ages 4 and 10 years. Groups with distinct nocturnal sleep duration trajectories were identified and the relationships between sleep trajectories and poor PPVT-R performance were characterized. In all, 1192 children with available sleep duration and PPVT-R data participated in this epidemiological study. We identified four longitudinal nocturnal sleep trajectories: short persistent sleepers (n = 72, 6.0%), short increasing sleepers (n = 47, 3.9%), 10-h sleepers (n = 628, 52.7%) and 11-h sleepers (n = 445, 37.3%). In all, 14.8% of the children showed poor PPVT-R performance at age 10 years. Nocturnal sleep trajectories and poor PPVT-R performance at age 10 were associated significantly (P = 0.003). After adjusting for baseline receptive vocabulary performance at age 4 and other potential confounding variables, logistic regression analyses suggest that, compared to 11-h sleepers, the odds ratio of presenting poor receptive vocabulary at age 10 was 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-5.74, P = 0.012] for short persistent sleepers and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.06-2.59, P = 0.026) for 10-h sleepers. These results corroborate previous findings in early childhood, and indicate that short sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary during middle childhood.

  10. Joint Book Reading and Receptive Vocabulary: A Parallel Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to understand the reciprocal, bidirectional longitudinal relation between joint book reading and English receptive vocabulary. To address the research goals, a nationally representative sample of Head Start children, the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (2003 cohort), was used for analysis. The…

  11. Receptive vocabulary and semantic knowledge in children with SLI and children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laws, Glynis; Briscoe, Josie; Ang, Su-Yin; Brown, Heather; Hermena, Ehab; Kapikian, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary and associated semantic knowledge were compared within and between groups of children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing children. To overcome the potential confounding effects of speech or language difficulties on verbal tests of semantic knowledge, a novel task was devised based on picture-based semantic association tests used to assess adult patients with semantic dementia. Receptive vocabulary, measured by word-picture matching, of children with SLI was weak relative to chronological age and to nonverbal mental age but their semantic knowledge, probed across the same lexical items, did not differ significantly from that of vocabulary-matched typically developing children. By contrast, although receptive vocabulary of children with DS was a relative strength compared to nonverbal cognitive abilities (p < .0001), DS was associated with a significant deficit in semantic knowledge (p < .0001) indicative of dissociation between word-picture matching vocabulary and depth of semantic knowledge. Overall, these data challenge the integrity of semantic-conceptual development in DS and imply that contemporary theories of semantic cognition should also seek to incorporate evidence from atypical conceptual development.

  12. Receptive Vocabulary, Expressive Vocabulary, and Speech Production of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Price, Johanna; Barnes, Elizabeth; Nelson, Lauren; Burchinal, Margaret; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Edwards, Anne; Malkin, Cheryl; Anderson, Kathleen; Misenheimer, Jan; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys…

  13. The Yes/No Test as a Measure of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochida, Akira; Harrington, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Performance on the Yes/No test (Huibregtse et al., 2002) was assessed as a predictor of scores on the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), a standard test of receptive second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 1990). The use of identical items on both tests allowed a direct comparison of test performance, with alternative methods for scoring the…

  14. The Effects of Receptive and Productive Learning of Word Pairs on Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    English as a foreign language students in Japan learned target words in word pairs receptively and productively. Five aspects of vocabulary knowledge--orthography, association, syntax, grammatical functions, and meaning and form--were each measured by receptive and productive tests. The study uses an innovative methodology in that each target word…

  15. Development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension: receptive vocabulary and conceptual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Annaz, Dagmara

    2010-09-01

    Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy are common in our daily communication. This is one of the first studies to investigate metaphor and metonymy comprehension using a developmental approach. Forty-five typically developing individuals participated in a metaphor-metonymy verbal comprehension task incorporating 20 short picture-stories. Cross-sectional trajectory analyses linking task performance to either chronological age or receptive vocabulary (mental age, MA) were used to compare the development of metaphor and metonymy. Results showed that development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension is strongly linked with chronological and MA, but metaphor comprehension develops at a slower rate compared to metonymy. It was also found that participants, across all ages, consistently showed around 21% better performance on metonymy. The relationship between metaphor and metonymy comprehension is discussed in terms of linguistic and cognitive models of figurative language comprehension arguing that metonymy is cognitively more basic than metaphor.

  16. Does L1 Make a Difference? Evidence from the Receptive Vocabulary Size of Spanish and German EFL Primary School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agustin Llach, Maria Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The present paper explores and compares the receptive vocabulary sizes of two groups of learners of different native languages. One of the most widely used vocabulary size tests is the Vocabulary Levels Test designed by Nation. Some reservations have been raised in relation to the adequacy of the Vocabulary Levels Test to estimate the vocabulary…

  17. The receptive-expressive gap in the vocabulary of young second-language learners: Robustness and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Todd A.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2010-01-01

    Adults and children learning a second language show difficulty accessing expressive vocabulary that appears accessible receptively in their first language (L1). We call this discrepancy the receptive-expressive gap. Kindergarten Spanish (L1) - English (L2) sequential bilinguals were given standardized tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary in both Spanish and English. We found a small receptive-expressive gap in English but a large receptive-expressive gap in Spanish. We categorized children as having had high or low levels of English exposure based on demographic variables and found that the receptive-expressive gap persisted across both levels of English exposure. Regression analyses revealed that variables predicting both receptive and expressive vocabulary scores failed to predict the receptive-expressive gap. The results suggest that the onset of the receptive-expressive gap in L1 must have been abrupt. We discuss possible mechanisms underlying the phenomenon. PMID:22247648

  18. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738…

  19. Exploring the Relationship between Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Sizes and Their Increased Use by Azerbaijani English Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajiyeva, Konul

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the results of two studies on receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge of first-year English majors in an English-medium degree programme. The aim of the study is to answer these research questions: (1) to what extent do the receptive and productive vocabulary sizes of English majors increase after a year of…

  20. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes

  1. Receptive Vocabulary and Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness in Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Gorin, Joanna S.; Burstein, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of language proficiency on the cross-language transfer (CLT) of phonemic awareness in Spanish-speaking kindergarten students and assessed Spanish and English receptive vocabulary and phonemic awareness abilities. Correlation results indicated positive correlations between phonemic awareness across languages;…

  2. Longitudinal Analysis of Receptive Vocabulary Growth in Young Spanish English-Speaking Children from Migrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher; Leacox, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors of this study described developmental trajectories and predicted kindergarten performance of Spanish and English receptive vocabulary acquisition of young Latino/a English language learners (ELLs) from socioeconomically disadvantaged migrant families. In addition, the authors examined the extent to which gender and individual…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  4. Adult Age Differences in Vocabulary Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Lisa Laumann; Shaw, Raymond J.

    2000-01-01

    Younger (n=41, ages 18-27) and older (n=39, ages 55-85) adults were given rare words to define. Older adults gave more complete definitions and had higher vocabulary test scores, but lower working memory scores. For older adults existing vocabulary knowledge contributed more than working memory to the ability to derive meaning from context. (SK)

  5. Long-term outcomes on spatial hearing, speech recognition and receptive vocabulary after sequential bilateral cochlear implantation in children.

    PubMed

    Sparreboom, Marloes; Langereis, Margreet C; Snik, Ad F M; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M

    2014-11-01

    Sequential bilateral cochlear implantation in profoundly deaf children often leads to primary advantages in spatial hearing and speech recognition. It is not yet known how these children develop in the long-term and if these primary advantages will also lead to secondary advantages, e.g. in better language skills. The aim of the present longitudinal cohort study was to assess the long-term effects of sequential bilateral cochlear implantation in children on spatial hearing, speech recognition in quiet and in noise and receptive vocabulary. Twenty-four children with bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) were tested 5-6 years after sequential bilateral cochlear implantation. These children received their second implant between 2.4 and 8.5 years of age. Speech and language data were also gathered in a matched reference group of 26 children with a unilateral cochlear implant (UCI). Spatial hearing was assessed with a minimum audible angle (MAA) task with different stimulus types to gain global insight into the effective use of interaural level difference (ILD) and interaural timing difference (ITD) cues. In the long-term, children still showed improvements in spatial acuity. Spatial acuity was highest for ILD cues compared to ITD cues. For speech recognition in quiet and noise, and receptive vocabulary, children with BiCIs had significant higher scores than children with a UCI. Results also indicate that attending a mainstream school has a significant positive effect on speech recognition and receptive vocabulary compared to attending a school for the deaf. Despite of a period of unilateral deafness, children with BiCIs, participating in mainstream education obtained age-appropriate language scores.

  6. The relationship between gender, receptive vocabulary, and literacy from school entry through to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Law, James; Rush, Robert; Parsons, Samantha; Schoon, Ingrid

    2013-08-01

    It is commonly assumed that boys have poorer language skills than girls, but this assumption is largely based on studies with small, clinical samples or focusing on expressive language skills. This study examines the relationship between gender and receptive vocabulary, literacy, and non-verbal performance at 5 years through to adulthood. The participants were a UK birth cohort of 11,349 children born in one week in March 1970. Logistic regression models were employed to examine the association of gender with language and literacy at 5 and 34 years. Non-verbal abilities were comparable at 5 years, but there were significant differences for both receptive vocabulary and reading, favouring the boys and the girls, respectively. Boys but not girls who had parents who were poor readers were more likely to be not reading at 5 years. Gender was not associated with adulthood literacy. Boys may have a slight advantage over girls in terms of their receptive vocabulary, raising questions about the skills tested and the characteristics of clinical populations. The findings are discussed in terms of the nature of the way that children are assessed and the assumptions underpinning clinical practice.

  7. Simultaneous bilingual language acquisition: The role of parental input on receptive vocabulary development.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Andrea An; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Boegner-Pagé, Sarah; Fontolliet, Salomé

    2013-02-01

    Parents often turn to educators and healthcare professionals for advice on how to best support their child's language development. These professionals frequently suggest implementing the 'one-parent-one-language' approach to ensure consistent exposure to both languages. The goal of this study was to understand how language exposure influences the receptive vocabulary development of simultaneous bilingual children. To this end, we targeted nine German-French children growing up in bilingual families. Their exposure to each language within and outside the home was measured, as were their receptive vocabulary abilities in German and French. The results indicate that children are receiving imbalanced exposure to each language. This imbalance is leading to a slowed development of the receptive vocabulary in the minority language, while the majority language is keeping pace with monolingual peers. The one-parent-one-language approach does not appear to support the development of both of the child's languages in the context described in the present study. Bilingual families may need to consider other options for supporting the bilingual language development of their children. As professionals, we need to provide parents with advice that is based on available data and that is flexible with regards to the current and future needs of the child and his family.

  8. The Effect of Singing Paired with Signing on Receptive Vocabulary Skills ofElementary ESL Students.

    PubMed

    Schunk

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of singing paired with signing on receptive vocabulary skills of elementary English as a Second Language (ESL) students. Eighty children attended language sessions in one of the following rehearsal conditions: sung text paired with signs, spoken text paired with signs, sung text, and a control group of spoken text only. Pretest and posttest data were analyzed to determine gains in receptive vocabulary identification. Results from this study indicate that all four groups made significant pretest to posttest gains. Children in the sung text paired with sign and the spoken text paired with sign conditions, however, made significantly greater gains in vocabulary recognition than those in the control condition of spoken text only. These findings suggest the benefits of integrating signs into second language rehearsal to provide visual cues and to engage students in meaningful physical participation. The condition yielding the highest mean gain score was that in which signing was paired with singing, indicating there may be advantages to using a combination of the two for language acquisition.

  9. Relationship between receptive vocabulary and the neural substrates for story processing in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Sroka, M Claire; Vannest, Jennifer; Maloney, Thomas C; Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Byars, Anna W; Holland, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    A left-lateralized fronto-temporo-parietal language network has been well-characterized in adults; however, the neural basis of this fundamental network has hardly been explored in the preschool years, despite this being a time for rapid language development and vocabulary growth. We examined the functional imaging correlates associated with vocabulary ability and narrative comprehension in 30 preschool children ages 3 to 5. Bilateral auditory cortex and superior temporal activation as well as left angular and supramarginal gyrus activation were observed during a passive listening-to-stories task. Boys showed greater activation than girls in the right anterior cingulate and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Finally, children with higher vocabulary scores showed increased grey matter left-lateralization and greater activation in bilateral thalamus, hippocampus, and left angular gyrus. This study is novel in its approach to relate left-hemisphere language regions and vocabulary scores in preschool-aged children using fMRI.

  10. Puerto Rican Children's Codeswitching and Their Performance on Receptive Vocabulary Instruments and a Nonverbal Cognitive Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyola, Jaime L.; McBride, David F.

    1991-01-01

    This study of 34 bilingual Spanish/English children (ages 9-13) revealed the influence of a codeswitching or language mixing factor in performance on the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody-Adaptacion Hispanoamericana, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, their translations, and the combined results. Both combined/bilingual instruments'…

  11. Addressing the Effects of Reciprocal Teaching on the Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary of 1st-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Eliana; Osana, Helena P.; Venkatesh, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Adapted Reciprocal Teaching (ART) on the receptive and expressive flight-word vocabulary of 1st-grade students. During ART, classroom interactions produced narrative contexts within which students assumed responsibility for applying new flight words in personally meaningful ways. Students in the control group…

  12. Risk factors for low receptive vocabulary abilities in the preschool and early school years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Daniel; Zubrick, Stephen R; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4-8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4-8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well-fitted multivariate model

  13. Longitudinal Effects of a Two-Generation Preschool Programme on Receptive Language Skill in Low-Income Canadian Children to Age 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the "Peabody picture vocabulary test" (3rd ed.). Effects of culture…

  14. Investigating the Receptive Vocabulary Size of University-Level Chinese Learners of English: How Suitable Is the Vocabulary Levels Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lan; MacGregor, Lucy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) is widely used to assess the vocabulary size of second-language learners of English. The test assesses learners' knowledge of words of different frequencies within general English and of high-frequency words within academic texts. We used the VLT to measure the English vocabulary size of Chinese university students…

  15. Predicting Vocabulary Growth in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study from 2;6 to 21 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; Hoffman, Lesa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often have vocabulary impairments. This study evaluates longitudinal growth in a latent trait of receptive vocabulary in affected and unaffected children ages 2;6 (years;months) to 21 years and evaluates as possible predictors maternal education, child gender, and nonverbal IQ. Method: A…

  16. The concurrent use of three implicit measures (eye movements, pupillometry, and event-related potentials) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Kerry; Coderre, Emily; Bosley, Laura; Buz, Esteban; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Gordon, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen the advent and proliferation of the use of implicit techniques to study learning and cognition. One such application is the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge. Other implicit assessment techniques that may be well-suited to other testing situations or to use with varied participant groups have not been used as widely to study receptive vocabulary knowledge. We sought to develop additional implicit techniques to study receptive vocabulary knowledge that could augment the knowledge gained from the use of the ERP technique. Specifically, we used a simple forced-choice paradigm to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adult participants using eye movement monitoring (EM) and pupillometry. In the same group of participants, we also used an N400 semantic incongruity ERP paradigm to assess their knowledge of two groups of words: those expected to be known to the participants (high-frequency, familiar words) and those expected to be unknown (low-frequency, unfamiliar words). All three measures showed reliable differences between the known and unknown words. EM and pupillometry thus may provide insight into receptive vocabulary knowledge similar to that from ERPs. The development of additional implicit assessment techniques may increase the feasibility of receptive vocabulary testing across a wider range of participant groups and testing situations, and may make the conduct of such testing more accessible to a wider range of researchers, clinicians, and educators.

  17. Prospective Association of Childhood Receptive Vocabulary and Conduct Problems with Self-Reported Adolescent Delinquency: Tests of Mediation and Moderation in Sibling-Comparison Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4–9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4–9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14–17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds. PMID:24736982

  18. Prospective association of childhood receptive vocabulary and conduct problems with self-reported adolescent delinquency: tests of mediation and moderation in sibling-comparison analyses.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4-9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4-9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14-17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds.

  19. Teaching Receptive Vocabulary to Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Curriculum-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Stephen; Law, James; Gascoigne, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) frequently experience difficulties with understanding vocabulary and are subsequently academically disadvantaged. This study describes a curriculum-based assessment and therapy technique and its implementation with two children with language difficulties. Mathematical vocabulary that the children…

  20. Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) of a concept influences the speed at which native English speakers are able to name pictures using a newly acquired second language (L2) vocabulary. In Experiment 1, participants were taught L2 words associated with pictures. In Experiment 2 a second group of participants were taught the same words associated with L1 translations. Following training both groups performed a picture naming task in which they were asked to name pictures using the newly acquired words. Significant AoA effects were observed only in Experiment 1, in that participants were faster at naming pictures representing early acquired relative to late acquired concepts. The results suggest that the AoA of a concept can exert influence over processing which is independent of the AoA of the word form. The results also indicate that different training methods may lead to qualitative differences in the nature of the links formed between words and concepts during the earliest stages of second language learning. PMID:20817131

  1. Comprehension of figurative language in Taiwanese children with autism: The role of theory of mind and receptive vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Huang, Su-Fen; Oi, Manabu; Taguchi, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    First-order theory of mind (ToM) is necessary for comprehension of metaphors, and second-order ToM is necessary for comprehension of irony. This study investigated the role of ToM and language ability in comprehending figurative language in 50 Taiwanese children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) compared with 50 typically developing children. Results showed that the No-ToM HFASDs group performed worse than the first-order ToM HFASDs group and the second-order ToM HFASDs group in comprehension of metaphors, irony, sarcasm and indirect reproach, but not for indirect request. Receptive vocabulary correlated only with metaphor comprehension. The volatility of results seen among studies in terms of the relationship between ToM and figurative language comprehension is discussed.

  2. Does Vocabulary Decline Qualitatively in Old Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dowd, Sarah C.

    1984-01-01

    Tested both superior and average-ability subjects (N=112) from contrasting educational settings to examine the apparent decline in vocabulary skills of older adults. Results showed older adults performed better than the young, judged by either standard or qualitative criteria. (BH)

  3. Do Infant Vocabulary Skills Predict School-Age Language and Literacy Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Fiona J.; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background: Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for…

  4. Comparing C-Tests and Yes/No Vocabulary Size Tests as Predictors of Receptive Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsch, Claudia; Hartig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Placement and screening tests serve important functions, not only with regard to placing learners at appropriate levels of language courses but also with a view to maximizing the effectiveness of administering test batteries. We examined two widely reported formats suitable for these purposes, the discrete decontextualized Yes/No vocabulary test…

  5. Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method: Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS; Samuelsson et al., 2005). The ILTS includes 1,045…

  6. Vocabulary Intervention for School-age Children with Language Impairment: A Review of Evidence and Good Practice.

    PubMed

    Steele, Sara C; Mills, Monique T

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence to support direct vocabulary intervention practices for primary school-age children with language impairment (LI). A rationale for providing direct vocabulary intervention for children with LI is outlined by reviewing typical and atypical vocabulary acquisition, evidence of instructional strategies from research in mainstream and special education is summarised, and suggestions for vocabulary intervention activities that facilitate deep word knowledge are provided. Suggestions for choosing appropriate vocabulary, using strategies during direct intervention, and conducting activities that increase depth of vocabulary knowledge are included.

  7. Atypical Cross-Modal Profiles and Longitudinal Associations Between Vocabulary Scores in Initially Minimally Verbal Children With ASD.

    PubMed

    Woynaroski, Tiffany; Yoder, Paul; Watson, Linda R

    2016-02-01

    We tested the relative levels (i.e., age equivalencies) of concurrent cross-modality (receptive and expressive) vocabulary and the relative strength of the longitudinal, cross-modality associations between early and later vocabulary sizes in minimally verbal preschoolers with ASD. Eighty-seven children participated. Parent-reported vocabulary was assessed at four periods separated by 4 months each. Expressive age equivalent scores were higher than receptive age equivalent scores at all four periods. Cross-lagged panel analysis was used to rule out common, but trivial, explanations for differences between the longitudinal associations of interest. Key associations were tested across intervals that varied from 8 to 12 months. In two of the three tested panels, the associations between early expressive vocabulary size and later receptive vocabulary size were stronger than the associations between early receptive vocabulary size and later expressive vocabulary size, providing evidence that is consistent with the hypothesis that expressive vocabulary size drives receptive vocabulary size in minimally verbal preschoolers with ASD.

  8. Vocabulary Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: A Review of Evidence and Good Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Sara C.; Mills, Monique T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide evidence to support direct vocabulary intervention practices for primary school-age children with language impairment (LI). A rationale for providing direct vocabulary intervention for children with LI is outlined by reviewing typical and atypical vocabulary acquisition, evidence of instructional…

  9. Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS). The ILTS includes 1,045 twin pairs from the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia aged 5 to 8 years. We applied the DeFries-Fulker regression method to determine whether problems in PM and vocabulary tend to co-occur because of overlapping genes, overlapping environmental risk factors, or both. Results Among children with isolated PM deficits, we found significant bivariate heritability of PM and vocabulary weaknesses both within and across time. However, when probands were selected for a vocabulary deficit, there was no evidence for bivariate heritability. In this case, the PM-vocabulary relationship appeared to owe to common shared environmental experiences. Conclusions The findings are consistent with previous research on the heritability of specific language impairment and suggest that there are etiologic subgroups of children with poor vocabulary for different reasons, one more influenced by genes and another more influenced by environment. PMID:23275423

  10. "Older is always better": Age-related differences in vocabulary scores across 16 years.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Erel, Hadas; Goy, Huiwen; Schneider, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies of cognitive aging compare age groups at 1 time point. It is unclear from such studies whether age-related cognitive differences remain stable across time. We present a cross-sectional investigation of vocabulary scores of 2,000 younger and older adults collected across 16 years, using the same laboratory and protocol. We found a steady decrease with year of testing and an advantage for older adults. An additive relation between age group and year of testing implied that age-related differences in vocabulary are independent of changes over time, suggesting that younger and older adults are similarly affected by changes in word usage.

  11. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  12. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  13. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: An 8-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  14. Do Hours Spent Viewing Television at Ages 3 and 4 Predict Vocabulary and Executive Functioning at Age 5?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…

  15. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

    PubMed

    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  16. Longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language skill in low-income Canadian children to age 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the Peabody picture vocabulary test (3rd ed.). Effects of culture (Aboriginal, other Canadian-born, and recent immigrant), and gender of the children were explored. Between programme intake and age 10, scores improved significantly, F(3, 75) = 21.11, p < .0005. There were significant differences among cultural groups at all time-points except age 10. Scores differed significantly for girls, but not boys, at age 10, F = 5.11, p = .01. Recent immigrant boys reached the Canadian average, while girls were two-thirds of the standard deviation below average. Early intervention programmes must include a focus on the unique circumstances of recent immigrant girls; supportive transition workers in schools are one recommendation. PMID:27453625

  17. Classroom Age Composition and Vocabulary Development among At-Risk Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Tompkins, Virginia; Justice, Laura; Petscher, Yaacov

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between classroom age composition and preschoolers' vocabulary gains over an academic year and also to examine whether these relations were moderated by classroom quality. In this study (N = 130 children in 16 classrooms representing a subset of all…

  18. Bilingual Vocabulary Knowledge and Arrival Age among Japanese Heritage Language Students at "Hoshuukoo"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Yoshiko; Calder, Toshiko M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines bilingual vocabulary knowledge in relation to arrival age among first language (L1) Japanese students attending "hoshuukoo" (i.e., supplementary academic schools for Japanese-speaking children) in the United States. It also examines the relationship between L1 Japanese and English as a second language (L2), as…

  19. Classroom Age Composition and Vocabulary Development Among At-Risk Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ying; Tompkins, Virginia; Justice, Laura; Petscher, Yaacov

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between classroom age composition and preschoolers’ vocabulary gains over an academic year and also to examine whether these relations were moderated by classroom quality. In this study (N = 130 children in 16 classrooms representing a subset of all children enrolled in these classrooms), results showed a significant cross-level interaction between classroom age composition and children’s age, suggesting positive effects of greater variance in classroom age composition for younger but not older children. The interaction between behavior management (1 dimension of classroom quality) and classroom age composition was also significant, indicating that a wider distribution of classroom age composition was positively related to children’s vocabulary gains within classrooms characterized by better behavior management. Practice or Policy Findings underscore the importance of children’s social interactions with more knowledgeable conversational partners in promoting their vocabulary development and signify the need to help teachers learn how to manage children’s behaviors so as to provide a classroom that is optimal for child learning.

  20. Vocabulary and Working Memory in Children Fit with Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Method: Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward…

  1. Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Berry, Jane M; Freeman, Sara P

    2014-12-01

    Relatively high vocabulary scores of older adults are generally interpreted as evidence that older adults possess more of a common ability than younger adults. Yet, this interpretation rests on empirical assumptions about the uniformity of item-response functions between groups. In this article, we test item response models of differential responding against datasets containing younger-, middle-aged-, and older-adult responses to three popular vocabulary tests (the Shipley, Ekstrom, and WAIS-R) to determine whether members of different age groups who achieve the same scores have the same probability of responding in the same categories (e.g., correct vs. incorrect) under the same conditions. Contrary to the null hypothesis of measurement invariance, datasets for all three tests exhibit substantial differential responding. Members of different age groups who achieve the same overall scores exhibit differing response probabilities in relation to the same items (differential item functioning) and appear to approach the tests in qualitatively different ways that generalize across items. Specifically, younger adults are more likely than older adults to leave items unanswered for partial credit on the Ekstrom, and to produce 2-point definitions on the WAIS-R. Yet, older adults score higher than younger adults, consistent with most reports of vocabulary outcomes in the cognitive aging literature. In light of these findings, the most generalizable conclusion to be drawn from the cognitive aging literature on vocabulary tests is simply that older adults tend to score higher than younger adults, and not that older adults possess more of a common ability.

  2. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  3. Development and Transfer of Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kleuver, Cherie G.; Farver, Joann M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N = 96, mean age = 54.51 months, 54.3% male; Sample 2: N = 116, mean age = 60·70 months, 56.0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first…

  4. Optimizing your reception area.

    PubMed

    Lachter, Jesse; Raldow, Ann; Molin, Niki

    2012-01-01

    Through the optimization of reception areas (waiting rooms), physicians can improve the medical experiences of their patients. A qualitative investigation identified issues relevant to improving the quality of the reception area and was used to develop a thorough questionnaire. Most patients were satisfied with accessibility, reception area conditions, and performance of doctors and nurses. The main reasons for dissatisfaction were due to remediable points. No correlations were found between patient satisfaction and age, sex, or religion. A 36-item checklist for satisfaction with reception areas is offered as a useful tool for health quality self-assessment.

  5. Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja

    2014-05-01

    Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language.

  6. Factors Associated with Expressive and Receptive Language in French-Speaking Toddlers Clinically Diagnosed with Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvestre, Audette; Desmarais, Chantal; Meyer, Francois; Bairati, Isabelle; Rouleau, Nancie; Merette, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine child and environmental factors known to be associated to language development and how they relate to results in expressive vocabulary, expressive language, and receptive language in language-delayed toddlers. The cross-sectional data on 96 French-speaking children aged 18-36 months were…

  7. Personality, gender, and age in the language of social media: the open-vocabulary approach.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Ramones, Stephanie M; Agrawal, Megha; Shah, Achal; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Seligman, Martin E P; Ungar, Lyle H

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 700 million words, phrases, and topic instances collected from the Facebook messages of 75,000 volunteers, who also took standard personality tests, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age. In our open-vocabulary technique, the data itself drives a comprehensive exploration of language that distinguishes people, finding connections that are not captured with traditional closed-vocabulary word-category analyses. Our analyses shed new light on psychosocial processes yielding results that are face valid (e.g., subjects living in high elevations talk about the mountains), tie in with other research (e.g., neurotic people disproportionately use the phrase 'sick of' and the word 'depressed'), suggest new hypotheses (e.g., an active life implies emotional stability), and give detailed insights (males use the possessive 'my' when mentioning their 'wife' or 'girlfriend' more often than females use 'my' with 'husband' or 'boyfriend'). To date, this represents the largest study, by an order of magnitude, of language and personality. PMID:24086296

  8. Personality, Gender, and Age in the Language of Social Media: The Open-Vocabulary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, H. Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Kern, Margaret L.; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Ramones, Stephanie M.; Agrawal, Megha; Shah, Achal; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 700 million words, phrases, and topic instances collected from the Facebook messages of 75,000 volunteers, who also took standard personality tests, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age. In our open-vocabulary technique, the data itself drives a comprehensive exploration of language that distinguishes people, finding connections that are not captured with traditional closed-vocabulary word-category analyses. Our analyses shed new light on psychosocial processes yielding results that are face valid (e.g., subjects living in high elevations talk about the mountains), tie in with other research (e.g., neurotic people disproportionately use the phrase ‘sick of’ and the word ‘depressed’), suggest new hypotheses (e.g., an active life implies emotional stability), and give detailed insights (males use the possessive ‘my’ when mentioning their ‘wife’ or ‘girlfriend’ more often than females use ‘my’ with ‘husband’ or 'boyfriend’). To date, this represents the largest study, by an order of magnitude, of language and personality. PMID:24086296

  9. Personality, gender, and age in the language of social media: the open-vocabulary approach.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Ramones, Stephanie M; Agrawal, Megha; Shah, Achal; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Seligman, Martin E P; Ungar, Lyle H

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 700 million words, phrases, and topic instances collected from the Facebook messages of 75,000 volunteers, who also took standard personality tests, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age. In our open-vocabulary technique, the data itself drives a comprehensive exploration of language that distinguishes people, finding connections that are not captured with traditional closed-vocabulary word-category analyses. Our analyses shed new light on psychosocial processes yielding results that are face valid (e.g., subjects living in high elevations talk about the mountains), tie in with other research (e.g., neurotic people disproportionately use the phrase 'sick of' and the word 'depressed'), suggest new hypotheses (e.g., an active life implies emotional stability), and give detailed insights (males use the possessive 'my' when mentioning their 'wife' or 'girlfriend' more often than females use 'my' with 'husband' or 'boyfriend'). To date, this represents the largest study, by an order of magnitude, of language and personality.

  10. Development and transfer of vocabulary knowledge in Spanish-speaking language minority preschool children.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J; Kleuver, Cherie G; Farver, Joann M

    2016-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N = 96, mean age = 54·51 months, 54·3% male; Sample 2: N = 116, mean age = 60·70 months, 56·0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages at two time points approximately 9-12 months apart. We examined whether unique L1 and L2 vocabulary at time 1 predicted later L2 and L1 vocabulary, respectively. Results indicated that unique L1 vocabulary did not predict later L2 vocabulary after controlling for initial L2 vocabulary. An identical pattern of results emerged for L1 vocabulary outcomes. We also examined whether children acquired translational equivalents for words known in one language but not the other. Results indicated that children acquired translational equivalents, providing partial support for the transfer of vocabulary knowledge across languages.

  11. Vocabulary influences older and younger listeners' processing of dysarthric speech.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Megan J; Gibson, Elizabeth M R; Kerr, Sarah E; Anderson, Tim; LaShell, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    This study examined younger (n = 16) and older (n = 16) listeners' processing of dysarthric speech-a naturally occurring form of signal degradation. It aimed to determine how age, hearing acuity, memory, and vocabulary knowledge interacted in speech recognition and lexical segmentation. Listener transcripts were coded for accuracy and pattern of lexical boundary errors. For younger listeners, transcription accuracy was predicted by receptive vocabulary. For older listeners, this same effect existed but was moderated by pure-tone hearing thresholds. While both groups employed syllabic stress cues to inform lexical segmentation, older listeners were less reliant on this perceptual strategy. The results were interpreted to suggest that individuals with larger receptive vocabularies, with their presumed greater language familiarity, were better able to leverage cue redundancies within the speech signal to form lexical hypothesis-leading to an improved ability to comprehend dysarthric speech. This advantage was minimized as hearing thresholds increased. While the differing levels of reliance on stress cues across the listener groups could not be attributed to specific individual differences, it was hypothesized that some combination of larger vocabularies and reduced hearing thresholds in the older participant group led to them prioritize lexical cues as a segmentation frame.

  12. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word…

  13. Teaching Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  14. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Method: Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to…

  15. The Impact of Vocabulary Instruction on Passage-Level Comprehension of School-Age Children: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elleman, Amy M.; Lindo, Endia J.; Morphy, Paul; Compton, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis of vocabulary interventions in grades pre-K to 12 was conducted with 37 studies to better understand the impact of vocabulary on comprehension. Vocabulary instruction was found to be effective at increasing students' ability to comprehend text with custom measures (d = 0.50), but was less effective for standardized measures (d =…

  16. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  17. Impact of classroom noise on reading and vocabulary skills in elementary school-aged children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Prudence; Brogan, Nashlea; Allan, Chris

    2001-05-01

    Classroom noise levels often exceed recommendations and, in large scale retrospective studies, it has been suggested that higher noise levels often correlate significantly with poorer academic performance [e.g., Shield., et al. (2002)]. However, experimental data on the performance of individual children are limited. This study therefore examined the effect of noise on the performance of children in grades 3-4 and 7-8 on standardized tests of oral reading, silent reading, and vocabulary (the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Gray Silent Reading Test, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test). Each child completed parallel forms of a test in quiet and in classroom noise presented at 60 dB SPL. Required speech was presented at +10 S/N. Results from grouped data showed significantly reduced performance in noise only on the silent reading task and only for the older group of children. However, across tasks, when the effects of noise were evaluated as a function of childrens quiet performance levels, the noise effect was shown to be significant for the children performing at above average levels in quiet. These findings suggest that the effect of classroom noise may vary significantly across tasks and children. [Work supported by CLLRNet.

  18. Visualizing Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  19. Vocabulary Knowledge of Children With Cochlear Implants: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lund, Emily

    2016-04-01

    This article employs meta-analysis procedures to evaluate whether children with cochlear implants demonstrate lower spoken-language vocabulary knowledge than peers with normal hearing. Of the 754 articles screened and 52 articles coded, 12 articles met predetermined inclusion criteria (with an additional 5 included for one analysis). Effect sizes were calculated for relevant studies and forest plots were used to compare differences between groups of children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants. Weighted effect size averages for expressive vocabulary measures (g = -11.99; p < .001) and for receptive vocabulary measures (g = -20.33; p < .001) indicated that children with cochlear implants demonstrate lower vocabulary knowledge than children with normal hearing. Additional analyses confirmed the value of comparing vocabulary knowledge of children with hearing loss to a tightly matched (e.g., socioeconomic status-matched) sample. Age of implantation, duration of implantation, and chronological age at testing were not significantly related to magnitude of weighted effect size. Findings from this analysis represent a first step toward resolving discrepancies in the vocabulary knowledge literature.

  20. Comparing Methods for Assessing Receptive Language Skills in Minimally Verbal Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plesa Skwerer, Daniela; Jordan, Samantha E.; Brukilacchio, Briana H.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This research addresses the challenges of assessing receptive language abilities in minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder by comparing several adapted measurement tools: a standardized direct assessment of receptive vocabulary (i.e. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4); caregiver report measures including scores on the Vineland-II…

  1. An Investigation of the Impact of Small Group Direct Vocabulary Instruction on the Vocabulary Development of Kindergarten Children Living in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Katie A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which tri-weekly evidence-based vocabulary lessons implemented throughout the regular school day would increase kindergarten students' expressive and receptive vocabulary development, thus decreasing the vocabulary gap exhibited between low-income children and their more advantaged peers…

  2. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  3. Shyness and Chinese and English Vocabulary Skills in Hong Kong Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuli; Ting, Ka-Tsun; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between parent-rated shyness and children's vocabulary skills in 54 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners who learned English as a foreign language at school. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary were assessed both in Chinese and in English. Parent-rated shyness was uniquely associated with…

  4. Do children with Williams syndrome really have good vocabulary knowledge? Methods for comparing cognitive and linguistic abilities in developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Brock, Jon; Jarrold, Christopher; Farran, Emily K; Laws, Glynis; Riby, Deborah M

    2007-09-01

    The comparison of cognitive and linguistic skills in individuals with developmental disorders is fraught with methodological and psychometric difficulties. In this paper, we illustrate some of these issues by comparing the receptive vocabulary knowledge and non-verbal reasoning abilities of 41 children with Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder in which language abilities are often claimed to be relatively strong. Data from this group were compared with data from typically developing children, children with Down syndrome, and children with non-specific learning difficulties using a number of approaches including comparison of age-equivalent scores, matching, analysis of covariance, and regression-based standardization. Across these analyses children with Williams syndrome consistently demonstrated relatively good receptive vocabulary knowledge, although this effect appeared strongest in the oldest children.

  5. A TOMM40 poly-T variant modulates gene expression and is associated with vocabulary ability and decline in nonpathologic aging.

    PubMed

    Payton, A; Sindrewicz, P; Pessoa, V; Platt, H; Horan, M; Ollier, W; Bubb, V J; Pendleton, N; Quinn, J P

    2016-03-01

    The Translocase of Outer Mitochondrial Membrane 40 Homolog and Apolipoprotein E (TOMM40-APOE) locus has been associated with a number of age-related phenotypes in humans including nonpathologic cognitive aging, late-onset Alzheimer's disease, and longevity. Here, we investigate the influence of the TOMM40 intron 6 poly-T variant (rs10524523) on TOMM40 gene expression and cognitive abilities and decline in a cohort of 1613 community-dwelling elderly volunteers who had been followed for changes in cognitive functioning over a period of 14 years (range = 12-18 years). We showed that the shorter length poly-T variants were found to act as a repressor of luciferase gene expression in reporter gene constructs. Expression was reduced to approximately half of that observed for the very long variant. We further observed that the shorter poly-T variant was significantly associated with reduced vocabulary ability and a slower rate of vocabulary decline with age compared to the very long poly-T variants. No significant associations were observed for memory, fluid intelligence or processing speed, although the direction of effect, where the short variant was correlated with reduced ability and slower rate of decline was observed for all tests. Our results indicate that the poly-T variant has the ability to interact with transcription machinery and differentially modulate reporter gene expression and influence vocabulary ability and decline with age.

  6. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  7. The role of social networks and media receptivity in predicting age of smoking initiation: a proportional hazards model of risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Unger, J B; Chen, X

    1999-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of adolescent smoking demonstrates the need to identify factors associated with early smoking initiation. Previous studies have shown that smoking by social network members and receptivity to pro-tobacco marketing are associated with smoking among adolescents. It is not clear, however, whether these variables also are associated with the age of smoking initiation. Using data from 10,030 California adolescents, this study identified significant correlates of age of smoking initiation using bivariate methods and a multivariate proportional hazards model. Age of smoking initiation was earlier among those adolescents whose friends, siblings, or parents were smokers, and among those adolescents who had a favorite tobacco advertisement, had received tobacco promotional items, or would be willing to use tobacco promotional items. Results suggest that the smoking behavior of social network members and pro-tobacco media influences are important determinants of age of smoking initiation. Because early smoking initiation is associated with higher levels of addiction in adulthood, tobacco control programs should attempt to counter these influences. PMID:10400276

  8. Age-of-Acquisition Effects in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Expert Vocabularies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadthagen-Gonzalez, Hans; Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Damian, Markus F.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the contributions of age-of-acquisition (AoA) and frequency to visual word recognition. Three databases were created from electronic journals in chemistry, psychology and geology in order to identify technical words that are extremely frequent in each discipline but acquired late in life. In Experiment 1, psychologists…

  9. "Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests": Correction to Fox, Berry, and Freeman (2014).

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Reports an error in "Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests" by Mark C. Fox, Jane M. Berry and Sara P. Freeman (, 2014[Dec], Vol 29[4], 925-938). In the article, unneeded zeros were inadvertently included at the beginnings of some numbers in Tables 1-4. In addition, the right column in Table 4 includes three unnecessary zeros after asterisks. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) Relatively high vocabulary scores of older adults are generally interpreted as evidence that older adults possess more of a common ability than younger adults. Yet, this interpretation rests on empirical assumptions about the uniformity of item-response functions between groups. In this article, we test item response models of differential responding against datasets containing younger-, middle-aged-, and older-adult responses to three popular vocabulary tests (the Shipley, Ekstrom, and WAIS-R) to determine whether members of different age groups who achieve the same scores have the same probability of responding in the same categories (e.g., correct vs. incorrect) under the same conditions. Contrary to the null hypothesis of measurement invariance, datasets for all three tests exhibit substantial differential responding. Members of different age groups who achieve the same overall scores exhibit differing response probabilities in relation to the same items (differential item functioning) and appear to approach the tests in qualitatively different ways that generalize across items. Specifically, younger adults are more likely than older adults to leave items unanswered for partial credit on the Ekstrom, and to produce 2-point definitions on the WAIS-R. Yet, older adults score higher than younger adults, consistent with most reports of vocabulary outcomes in the cognitive aging literature. In light of these findings, the most generalizable conclusion to be drawn from the cognitive aging

  10. The Sooner the Better? An Investigation into the Role of Age of Onset and Its Relation with Transfer and Exposure in Bilingual Frisian-Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Bosma, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    In this study, age of onset (AoO) was investigated in five- and six-year-old bilingual Frisian-Dutch children. AoO to Dutch ranged between zero and four and had a positive effect on Dutch receptive vocabulary size, but hardly influenced the children's accurate use of Dutch inflection. The influence of AoO on vocabulary was more prominent than the…

  11. Vocabulary Is Important for Some, but Not All Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for…

  12. Concrete and relational vocabulary: comparison between Williams and Smith-Magenis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Garayzábal Heinze, Elena; Osório, Ana; Lens, María; Sampaio, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    We compared the performance of two clinical groups, Williams syndrome (WS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), in terms of concrete and relational vocabulary. We analyzed (a) whether the WS group had an advantage in concrete vocabulary when compared to the SMS group, as good concrete vocabulary knowledge is considered a hallmark of WS; (b) if spatial processing difficulties in WS would be reflected specifically in their knowledge of relational spatial vocabulary; (c) if a specific vocabulary profile could be outlined for SMS. Our results show similar performances on receptive concrete and relational vocabulary in both groups. However, and as anticipated, performance on relational space concepts was significantly lower in the WS group.

  13. Investigating a Multimodal Intervention for Children With Limited Expressive Vocabularies Associated With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Storkel, Holly L.; Bushnell, Paige; Barker, R. Michael; Saunders, Kate; Daniels, Debby; Fleming, Kandace

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated a new intervention package aimed at increasing expressive word learning by school-age children with autism who have limited expressive vocabularies. This pilot investigation was intended to show proof of concept. Method Ten children between the ages of 6 and 10 years participated, with educational diagnoses of autism and limited expressive vocabularies at the outset of the study. A multimodal intervention composed of speech sound practice and augmentative and alternative communication was used to teach individualized vocabulary words that were selected on the basis of initial speech sound repertoires and principles of phonotactic probability and neighborhood density. A multiple-probe design was used to evaluate learning outcomes. Results Five children showed gains in spoken-word learning across successive word sets (high responders). Five children did not meet learning criteria (low responders). Comparisons of behaviors measured prior to intervention indicated that high responders had relatively higher skills in receptive language, prelinguistic communication, vocal/verbal imitation, adaptive behavior, and consonant productions. Conclusions The intervention package holds promise for improving spoken word productions for some children with autism who have limited expressive vocabularies. Further research is needed to better describe who may most benefit from this approach as well as investigate generalized benefits to untaught contexts and targets. PMID:25910710

  14. Karuk Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    A vocabulary list provides commonly-used words in the language of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California. Illustrations, handlettered Karuk terms, and English equivalents comprise entries for each of the 156 terms; space is also provided to practice writing each Karuk word. Topics covered include numbers, parts of the body, animals and…

  15. The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Grøver, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twemty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood, were employed to predict the children's L2 vocabulary trajectories. The results of growth analyses revealed that maternal education was the only variable predicting children's vocabulary growth during the elementary years. However, teacher-led talk, peer talk, and neighborhood predicted children's L2 vocabulary skills at age five, and these differences were maintained up to age ten. This study underscores the importance of both preschool talk exposure (teacher-led talk and peer talk) and demographic factors on L2 learners' vocabulary development.

  16. Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…

  17. Speech, vocabulary, and the education of children using cochlear implants: oral or total communication?

    PubMed

    Connor, C M; Hieber, S; Arts, H A; Zwolan, T A

    2000-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between the teaching method, oral or total communication, used at children's schools and children's consonant-production accuracy and vocabulary development over time. Children who participated in the study (N = 147) demonstrated profound sensorineural hearing loss and had used cochlear implants for between 6 months and 10 years. Educational programs that used an oral communication (OC) approach focused on the development of spoken language, whereas educational programs that used a total communication (TC) approach focused on the development of language using both signed and spoken language. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) we compared the consonant-production accuracy, receptive spoken vocabulary, and expressive spoken and/or signed vocabulary skills, over time, of children who were enrolled in schools that used either OC or TC approaches, while controlling for a number of variables. These variables included age at implantation, preoperative aided speech detection thresholds, type of cochlear implant device used, and whether a complete or incomplete active electrode array was implanted. The results of this study indicated that as they used their implants the children demonstrated improved consonant-production accuracy and expressive and receptive vocabulary over time, regardless of whether their school employed a TC or OC teaching method. Furthermore, there appeared to be a complex relationship among children's performance with the cochlear implant, age at implantation, and communication/teaching strategy employed by the school. Controlling for all variables, children in OC programs demonstrated, on average, superior consonant-production accuracy, with significantly greater rates of improvement in consonant-production accuracy scores over time compared to children in TC programs. However, there was no significant difference between OC and TC groups in performance or rate of growth in consonant-production accuracy when

  18. Knowing a Lot for One's Age: Vocabulary Skill and Not Age Is Associated with Anticipatory Incremental Sentence Interpretation in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Fernald, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults.…

  19. English Language Learners and English-Only Learners' Response to Direct Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crevecoeur, Yvel C.; Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2014-01-01

    We examined data from an 18-week kindergarten vocabulary intervention study to determine whether treatment outcomes had differential effects that favored English language learners (ELLs) or English-only learners (EOLs) and whether the relationship between initial English general receptive vocabulary knowledge and response to vocabulary…

  20. Factors that Influence Vocabulary Development in Two-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Klee, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background: This research explored the relative impact of demographic, cognitive, behavioural, and psycholinguistic factors on vocabulary development in two-year-old children. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two children (24-30 months) were tested on expressive and receptive vocabulary, cognitive development, word learning and working memory…

  1. "It Takes a Village" to Support the Vocabulary Development of Children with Multiple Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C.; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly…

  2. Do Multiple-Choice Options Inflate Estimates of Vocabulary Size on the VST?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Validated under a Rasch framework (Beglar, 2010), the Vocabulary Size Test (VST) (Nation & Beglar, 2007) is an increasingly popular measure of decontextualized written receptive vocabulary size in the field of second language acquisition. However, although the validation indicates that the test has high internal reliability, still unaddressed…

  3. Vocabulary Size, Translation Equivalents, and Efficiency in Word Recognition in Very Young Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jacqueline; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined early vocabulary development in fifty-nine French monolingual and fifty French-English bilingual infants (1;4-1;6). Vocabulary comprehension was assessed using both parental report (MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory; CDI) and the Computerized Comprehension Task (CCT). When assessing receptive vocabulary…

  4. English Vocabulary Development in Bilingual Kindergarteners: What Are the Best Predictors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2006-01-01

    This study examines growth rates in vocabulary over an academic year for 150 Latino English language learners. In October, February, and June of kindergarten, participants completed standardized measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary. Before the second and third assessments, a third of the children watched Arthur three times a week during…

  5. Effect of "Missing" Information on Fast Mapping by Individuals with Vocabulary Limitations Associated with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Krista

    2007-01-01

    One phenomenon of language development is a dramatic increase in vocabulary size, driven by rapid word learning. For individuals with intellectual disabilities, the size of the lexicon often lags behind what would be expected both for CA and MA. I examined how well individuals with severely limited receptive vocabulary associated with intellectual…

  6. Vocabulary Acquisition without Adult Explanations in Repeated Shared Book Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…

  7. Why Dose Frequency Affects Spoken Vocabulary in Preschoolers With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Paul J; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E; Warren, Steven F; Gardner, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    In an earlier randomized clinical trial, daily communication and language therapy resulted in more favorable spoken vocabulary outcomes than weekly therapy sessions in a subgroup of initially nonverbal preschoolers with intellectual disabilities that included only children with Down syndrome (DS). In this reanalysis of the dataset involving only the participants with DS, we found that more therapy led to larger spoken vocabularies at posttreatment because it increased children's canonical syllabic communication and receptive vocabulary growth early in the treatment phase.

  8. Receptive and Expressive Language Skills in Children with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, K. M.; Munir, F.

    1998-01-01

    Receptive and expressive language skills were assessed in 13 British children (ages 4-14) with cri-du-chat syndrome. Results found a discrepancy between the children's chronological ages and their presumed language ages and a receptive-expressive discrepancy, with reduced expressive skills compared to receptive skills. Remediation that focuses on…

  9. Deaf Students' Receptive and Expressive American Sign Language Skills: Comparisons and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents receptive and expressive American Sign Language skills of 85 students, 6 through 22 years of age at a residential school for the deaf using the American Sign Language Receptive Skills Test and the Ozcaliskan Motion Stimuli. Results are presented by ages and indicate that students' receptive skills increased with age and…

  10. Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates…

  11. The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

  12. Performance of a Receptive Language Test among Young Children in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Ann M.; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Galasso, Emanuela; Ratsifandrihamanana, Lisy

    2015-01-01

    Language tests developed and validated in one country may lose their desired properties when translated for use in another, possibly resulting in misleading estimates of ability. Using Item Response Theory (IRT) methodology, we assess the performance of a test of receptive vocabulary, the U.S.-validated Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition (PPVT-III), when translated, adapted, and administered to children 3 to 10 years of age in Madagascar (N = 1372), in the local language (Malagasy). Though Malagasy is considered a single language, there are numerous dialects spoken in Madagascar. Our findings were that test scores were positively correlated with age and indicators of socio-economic status. However, over half (57/96) of items evidenced unexpected response variation and/or bias by local dialect spoken. We also encountered measurement error and reduced differentiation among person abilities when we used the publishers’ recommended stopping rules, largely because we lost the original item ordering by difficulty when we translated test items into Malagasy. Our results suggest that bias and testing inefficiency introduced from the translation of the PPVT can be significantly reduced with the use of methods based on IRT at both the pre-testing and analysis stages. We explore and discuss implications for cross-cultural comparisons of internationally recognized tests, such as the PPVT. PMID:25830221

  13. Diversity Networking Reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    Join us at the APS Diversity Reception to relax, network with colleagues, and learn about programs and initiatives for women, underrepresented minorities, and LGBT physicists. You'll have a great time meeting friends in a supportive environment and making connections.

  14. Reception problems and options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, J. F. C.

    1982-04-01

    The apparatus needed for home satellite reception is described. A distinction is made between 'normal' signals - those intended for reception in a particular country - and 'spillover' transmissions, that is, transmissions intended for reception elsewhere but susceptible of reception with the appropriate equipment. For normal signals, a parabolic antenna of 0.7-0.9 m is required; for spillover transmissions, a steerable dish would be needed, together with tuning over the whole 800 MHz band. A figure showing the relationship between antenna size, receiver noise figure, and signal strength is included. It is thought that practical and economic receivers will have a noise figure between 3 and 6 dB. With regard to the placement of the dish, it is pointed out that there must be a line of sight from the dish to the satellite. A proposed system for a practical satellite TV receiver is described. A double superhet is employed, with the first frequency changer mounted directly on the antenna. The first local oscillator is fixed, so that each transmission frequency corresponds to a particular first IF. For a half-band receiver, the first IF covers the 400 MHz between 950 MHz and 1.35 GHz.

  15. Supersonic Leading Edge Receptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslov, Anatoly A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies of leading edge boundary layer receptivity for imposed stream disturbances. Studies were conducted in the supersonic T-325 facility at ITAM and include data for both sharp and blunt leading edges. The data are in agreement with existing theory and should provide guidance for the development of more complete theories and numerical computations of this phenomena.

  16. Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

  17. "It takes a village" to support the vocabulary development of children with multiple risk factors.

    PubMed

    Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

    2014-04-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly associated with language stimulation and learning materials in all families regardless of risk status. Maternal warmth and responsiveness supported vocabulary competence in families of low economic status only when maternal depressive symptoms were low. In families with the highest levels of risk, that is, with depression and economic distress jointly present, support by the extended family and neighbors for caring for the child protected children's vocabulary development against these adverse conditions. The empirical evidence on the positive contribution of extrafamilial support to young children's receptive vocabulary under adverse conditions allows an expansion of our current theorizing about influences on language development.

  18. Rethinking Role Play in the Reception Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sue; Evans, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background: In 2000 the so-called "Reception" class was re-conceived (in curricular terms, at least) as the second and final year of the Foundation Stage, a distinctive educational phase for children aged 3 until entry to key stage 1 at 5 or 6 years old. The "Curriculum guidance for the Foundation Stage" endorses a play-based, informal curriculum…

  19. An Examination of Growth in Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in Early Childhood: An Individual Growth Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Christina Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study used individual growth modeling to examine the role of specific forms (i.e., receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary and grammatical skill) and levels of oral vocabulary skill (i.e., 25th, 50th, or 75th percentile) in phonological awareness growth during the preschool and kindergarten years. Sixty-one,…

  20. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  1. Bridging the Vocabulary Gap: What the Research Tells Us about Vocabulary Instruction in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2010-01-01

    It is important for children to develop knowledge of words' meanings from a young age because vocabulary development has an impact on their reading comprehension and academic success as they get older. Some children come to school knowing far fewer words than others. Hart and Risley studied young children's vocabulary development and found that…

  2. French Vocabulary Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, J.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews French vocabulary lists and bilingual dictionaries and evaluates their usefulness for the preparation of materials for the language laboratory as well as for any programed approach to vocabulary teaching. (FB)

  3. Education & Diversity Reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-03-01

    Join us to relax, unwind, and recognize new fellows and award winners at the Education & Diversity Reception sponsored by the Forum on Education, the Committee on Minorities, and the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics. We will recognize new Forum on Education Fellows, recipients of the Committee on Education's Award for Improving Undergraduate Physics Education, as well as women and minority physicists who have received APS prizes, awards, and fellowships. Light refreshments will be served. All are welcome; no registration required.

  4. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Creativity and Their Lexical Reception and Production Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajilou, Y.; Yazdani, H.; Shokrpour, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between creativity on one hand and lexical reception and production knowledge of Iranian EFL students on the other hand. The data were collected using three tests: a creativity test (Torrance, 1990), the Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt, & Clapham, 2001), and the Productive Version of the…

  5. Mapping Entry Vocabulary to Unfamiliar Metadata Vocabularies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael; Chen, Aitao; Chen, Hui-Min; Kim, Youngin; Lam, Byron; Larson, Ray; Norgard, Barbara; Purat, Jacek; Gey, Frederic

    1999-01-01

    Reports on work at the University of California, Berkeley, on the design and development of English-language indices to metadata vocabularies. Discusses the significance of unfamiliar metadata and describes the Entry Vocabulary Module which helps searchers to be more effective and increases the return on the original investment in generating…

  6. Rote Memorization of Vocabulary and Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Weidong; Dai, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rote memorization of vocabulary has long been a common way for Chinese students to learn lexical items. Cultural, educational background and traditional teaching practice in China are identified to be the factors that contribute to many students' heavy reliance on memorization as their sole approach to vocabulary learning. In addition to rote…

  7. Vocabulary: Challenges and Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad; Dastjerdi, Hossein Vahid

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, vocabulary was neglected in language teaching programs and curriculums for the sake of grammar and other parts of language. Nowadays, however, researchers have realized that vocabulary is an important part of language learning and teaching and worthy of attention and research. A proliferation of studies done on vocabulary can be…

  8. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  9. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise

    2015-01-01

    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary assessments. Study 2 extended these results by giving 90 eighth-grade students expanded measures of vocabulary and morphology that assessed (a) definitional knowledge, (b) usage, (c) relational knowledge, and (d) knowledge of morphological variants, with each potential aspect of knowledge assessed using an identical set of 23 words to control for differential knowledge of specific vocabulary items. Results indicated that a single-factor model that encompassed morphological and vocabulary knowledge provided the best fit to the data. Finally, explanatory item response modeling was used to investigate sources of variance in the vocabulary and morphological awareness tasks we administered. Implications for assessment and instruction are discussed. PMID:26273128

  10. Reading for Pleasure and Progress in Vocabulary and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Alice; Brown, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines inequalities in attainment in vocabulary and mathematics at age 16 for a nationally representative cohort of people born in Britain in 1970 (the 1970 British Cohort Study). Our analytical sample is n = 3,583 cohort members who completed vocabulary and mathematics tests at age 16. We explore whether inequalities as a result of…

  11. Phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in children who use cochlear implants: does age of implantation explain individual variability in performance outcomes and growth?

    PubMed

    James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    The phonological awareness (PA), vocabulary, and word reading abilities of 19 children with cochlear implants (CI) were assessed. Nine children had an implant early (between 2 and 3.6 years) and 10 had an implant later (between 5 and 7 years). Participants were tested twice over a 12-month period on syllable, rhyme, and phoneme awareness (see James et al., 2005). Performance of CI users was compared against younger hearing children matched for reading level. Two standardized assessments of vocabulary and single word reading were administered. As a group, the children fitted early had better performance outcomes on PA, vocabulary, and reading compared to hearing benchmark groups. The early group had significant growth on rhyme awareness, whereas the late group showed no significant gains in PA over time. There was wide individual variation in performance and growth in the CI users. Two participants with the best overall development were both fitted with an implant late in childhood.

  12. NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

  13. The Influence of Spanish Vocabulary and Phonemic Awareness on Beginning English Reading Development: A Three-Year (K-2nd) Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michael F.; Roe, Mary; Blanchard, Jay; Atwill, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined the influence of varying levels of Spanish receptive vocabulary and phonemic awareness ability on beginning English vocabulary, phonemic awareness, word reading fluency, and reading comprehension development across kindergarten through second grade. The 80 respondents were Spanish speaking children with no English…

  14. Patterns of Independent Reading, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Literacy Skills among English- Only, Limited-English Proficient, and Fluent-English Proficient Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurie E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined independent reading behaviors and contextual factors that contributed to growth in vocabulary and literacy of fourth grade English-only (EO), limited English proficient (LEP), and fluent English proficient (FEP) children. Participants were given pre-post measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary, word reading, decoding,…

  15. A Comparison between Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary in Bilingual and Monolingual South African School Beginners: Implications for Bilingual Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockcroft, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bilingual and monolingual school beginners on measures of simple and complex verbal working memory and receptive and expressive vocabulary. The aim was to determine whether the tests of working memory are fairer measures of language ability than the vocabulary tests for bilingual children when tested in their second language.…

  16. Age-Related Differences in Lexical Access Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Rebecca; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary size has been suggested as a useful measure of “verbal abilities” that correlates with speech recognition scores. Knowing more words is linked to better speech recognition. How vocabulary knowledge translates to general speech recognition mechanisms, how these mechanisms relate to offline speech recognition scores, and how they may be modulated by acoustical distortion or age, is less clear. Age-related differences in linguistic measures may predict age-related differences in speech recognition in noise performance. We hypothesized that speech recognition performance can be predicted by the efficiency of lexical access, which refers to the speed with which a given word can be searched and accessed relative to the size of the mental lexicon. We tested speech recognition in a clinical German sentence-in-noise test at two signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), in 22 younger (18–35 years) and 22 older (60–78 years) listeners with normal hearing. We also assessed receptive vocabulary, lexical access time, verbal working memory, and hearing thresholds as measures of individual differences. Age group, SNR level, vocabulary size, and lexical access time were significant predictors of individual speech recognition scores, but working memory and hearing threshold were not. Interestingly, longer accessing times were correlated with better speech recognition scores. Hierarchical regression models for each subset of age group and SNR showed very similar patterns: the combination of vocabulary size and lexical access time contributed most to speech recognition performance; only for the younger group at the better SNR (yielding about 85% correct speech recognition) did vocabulary size alone predict performance. Our data suggest that successful speech recognition in noise is mainly modulated by the efficiency of lexical access. This suggests that older adults’ poorer performance in the speech recognition task may have arisen from reduced efficiency in lexical access

  17. Age-Related Differences in Lexical Access Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Rebecca; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary size has been suggested as a useful measure of "verbal abilities" that correlates with speech recognition scores. Knowing more words is linked to better speech recognition. How vocabulary knowledge translates to general speech recognition mechanisms, how these mechanisms relate to offline speech recognition scores, and how they may be modulated by acoustical distortion or age, is less clear. Age-related differences in linguistic measures may predict age-related differences in speech recognition in noise performance. We hypothesized that speech recognition performance can be predicted by the efficiency of lexical access, which refers to the speed with which a given word can be searched and accessed relative to the size of the mental lexicon. We tested speech recognition in a clinical German sentence-in-noise test at two signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), in 22 younger (18-35 years) and 22 older (60-78 years) listeners with normal hearing. We also assessed receptive vocabulary, lexical access time, verbal working memory, and hearing thresholds as measures of individual differences. Age group, SNR level, vocabulary size, and lexical access time were significant predictors of individual speech recognition scores, but working memory and hearing threshold were not. Interestingly, longer accessing times were correlated with better speech recognition scores. Hierarchical regression models for each subset of age group and SNR showed very similar patterns: the combination of vocabulary size and lexical access time contributed most to speech recognition performance; only for the younger group at the better SNR (yielding about 85% correct speech recognition) did vocabulary size alone predict performance. Our data suggest that successful speech recognition in noise is mainly modulated by the efficiency of lexical access. This suggests that older adults' poorer performance in the speech recognition task may have arisen from reduced efficiency in lexical access; with an

  18. Vocabulary: Five Common Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy; Bromley, Karen; Rasinski, Tim; Newton, Evangeline

    2012-01-01

    When young readers encounter texts that contain too many unfamiliar words, their comprehension suffers. Reading becomes slow, laborious, and frustrating, impeding their learning. That's why vocabulary knowledge is a key element in reading comprehension. To comprehend fully and learn well, all students need regular vocabulary exploration.…

  19. The Superlearning of Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillmer, H. Thompson

    1983-01-01

    Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…

  20. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  1. Second Language Vocabulary Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart Alexander; Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

    2012-01-01

    The vocabulary knowledge of 166 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners in Taiwan was measured annually over a five year period using a bilingual version of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) (Nation, 1983, 1990; Schmitt, Schmitt, and Clapham, 2001). The five years of data collection involved English language instruction in high school and…

  2. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  3. Invited Commentary: Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ron; Schmitt, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    While formal research into the effect various technologies have on vocabulary acquisition is still in its infancy, it is clear that--intentionally or incidentally--students have used various electronic media to learn new words for some time now. Moreover, although it is still far from clear exactly how one acquires vocabulary in a second language…

  4. The N400 effect in children: relationships with comprehension, vocabulary and decoding.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Lisa M; Baseler, Heidi A; Clarke, Paula J; Watson, Sarah; Snowling, Margaret J

    2011-05-01

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we investigated the N400 (an ERP component that occurs in response to meaningful stimuli) in children aged 8-10 years old and examined relationships between the N400 and individual differences in listening comprehension, word recognition and non-word decoding. Moreover, we tested the claim that the N400 effect provides a valuable indicator of behavioural vocabulary knowledge. Eighteen children were presented with picture-word pairs that were either 'congruent' (the picture depicted the spoken word) or 'incongruent' (they were unrelated). Three peaks were observed in the ERP waveform triggered to the onset of the picture-word stimuli: an N100 in fronto-central channels, an N200 in central-parietal channels and an N400 in frontal, central and parietal channels. In contrast to the N100 peak, the N200 and N400 peaks were sensitive to semantic incongruency with greater peak amplitudes for incongruent than congruent conditions. The incongruency effects for each peak correlated positively with listening comprehension but when the peak amplitudes were averaged across congruent/incongruent conditions they correlated positively with non-word decoding. These findings provide neurophysiological support for the position that sensitivity to semantic context (reflected in the N400 effect) is crucial for comprehension whereas phonological decoding skill relates to more general processing differences reflected in the ERP waveform. There were no correlations between ERP and behavioural measures of expressive or receptive vocabulary knowledge for the same items, suggesting that the N400 effect may not be a reliable estimate of vocabulary knowledge in children aged 8-10 years.

  5. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  6. The sooner the better? An investigation into the role of age of onset and its relation with transfer and exposure in bilingual Frisian-Dutch children.

    PubMed

    Blom, Elma; Bosma, Evelyn

    2016-05-01

    In this study, age of onset (AoO) was investigated in five- and six-year-old bilingual Frisian-Dutch children. AoO to Dutch ranged between zero and four and had a positive effect on Dutch receptive vocabulary size, but hardly influenced the children's accurate use of Dutch inflection. The influence of AoO on vocabulary was more prominent than the influence of exposure. Regarding inflection, the reverse was found. Accuracy at using Frisian inflection emerged as a significant predictor; this transfer effect was modulated by lexical overlap between the two languages. This study shows that 'the sooner the better' does not necessarily hold for language development. In fact, for the correct use of inflection, it does not matter whether children start at age zero or four. For rapidly learning words in a new language it may be helpful to first build a substantial vocabulary in the first language before learning a new language. PMID:26915635

  7. Service Learning: Flooding Students with Vocabulary through Read Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.

  8. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise

    2015-01-01

    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary…

  9. Acquiring Vocabulary through Reading: Effects of Frequency and Contextual Richness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahar, Rick; Cobb, Tom; Spada, Nina

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the number of times a word must be encountered in order to be learned and the types of contexts that are conducive to learning in a vocabulary acquisition study with Quebec school-aged English-as-a-Second-Language learners at five levels of proficiency. Learners read text and were tested on new vocabulary and learned and unlearned…

  10. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  11. Predictors of Expressive Vocabulary Growth in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Veronica; Mirenda, Pat; Zaidman-Zait, Anat

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the variability and predictors of expressive vocabulary development in children with autism and very delayed language. Method: This study involved 35 children with autism whose initial chronological ages were between 20 and 71 months and whose initial expressive vocabularies were less…

  12. A Study: The Relationship of Personality Type to Vocabulary Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covner, Thelma Crockin

    To test the hypothesis that aspects of one's personality are associated with expansion of his or her vocabulary, a study focused on thirteen students of various ages who constituted a vocabulary development class. Students were taught techniques for discovering meaning through context or extracting meaning through word structure. Considerable time…

  13. Vocabulary Development in Italian Children: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Odorico, Laura; Carubbi, Stefania; Salerni, Nicoletta; Calvo, Vicenzo

    2001-01-01

    Vocabulary development of a sample of 42 Italian children was evaluated through monthly administration of the Italian version of the CDI. Data collection started at age one for 32 children and a few moths later for the remaining subjects and continued until children's vocabulary reached 200 words. At fixed stages of vocabulary size, individual…

  14. Spelling Ability in College Students Predicted by Decoding, Print Exposure, and Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocal, Turkan; Ehri, Linnea

    2017-01-01

    This study examines students' exposure to print, vocabulary and decoding as predictors of spelling skills. Participants were 42 college students (Mean age 22.5, SD = 7.87; 31 females and 11 males). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that most of the variance in spelling was explained by vocabulary knowledge. When vocabulary was entered first…

  15. E-Book as Facilitator of Vocabulary Acquisition: Support of Adults, Dynamic Dictionary and Static Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Atishkin, Shifra; Turgeman, Merav

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three facilitators: adults' support, dynamic visual vocabulary support and static visual vocabulary support on vocabulary acquisition in the context of e-book reading. Participants were 144 Israeli Hebrew-speaking preschoolers (aged 4-6) from middle SES neighborhoods. The entire sample read the e-book without a…

  16. Evidence for Preserved Novel Word Learning in Down Syndrome Suggests Multiple Routes to Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosse, Emma K.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to…

  17. Supporting Young Children's Vocabulary Growth: The Challenges, the Benefits, and Evidence-Based Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck; Sobolak, Michelle J.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of words makes vocabulary development a multi-faceted process that presents challenges to early childhood educators, offers benefits to young learners, and must be supported through evidence-based strategies. All students, regardless of socio-economic status or background, need to make significant gains in receptive and expressive…

  18. Brain Dynamics of Word Familiarization in 20-Month-Olds: Effects of Productive Vocabulary Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Hansen, Hanna Friis; Svangstu, Janne Mari; Smith, Lars; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Moen, Inger; Lindgren, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the brain mechanisms involved during young children's receptive familiarization with new words, and whether the dynamics of these mechanisms are related to the child's productive vocabulary size. To this end, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 20-month-old children in a pseudoword repetition task.…

  19. Corporal punishment and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes through 5 years-of-age: Evidence from a contemporary urban birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3 years-of-age, and the associations between spanking and externalizing behavior and receptive verbal ability at age 5. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3. Mothers facing greater stress and those who spanked earlier are more likely to spank at age 3, whereas those who report a supportive partner during pregnancy and those who were not U.S. born were less likely to spank. Mothers and fathers in communities where spanking was more normative were more likely to spank. Fathers were less likely to spank daughters at age 3. Frequent maternal spanking at age 3 was associated with externalizing behavior and receptive vocabulary at age 5, controlling for an array of ecological risks, earlier behavior, and verbal capacity. Taking advantage of the large and diverse sample we explored potential interactions and found no evidence that race, parental warmth, normativeness, or child gender moderated the association between spanking and externalizing or receptive vocabulary. These findings add to the literature on negative consequences associated with a widely endorsed parenting practice, and highlight the need for research that explores alternative effective discipline practices and addresses parent questions of what else they could, or even should, be doing.

  20. Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students

    PubMed Central

    Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates to other aspects of academic achievement. This study used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to examine the vocabulary knowledge of DHH and hearing postsecondary students as well as their awareness (predictions) of that knowledge. Relationships between vocabulary knowledge and print exposure, communication backgrounds, and reading and verbal abilities also were examined. Consistent with studies of children, hearing college students demonstrated significantly larger vocabularies than DHH students both with and without cochlear implants. DHH students were more likely to overestimate their vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary scores were positively related to reading and verbal abilities but negatively related to sign language abilities. Among DHH students they also were positively related to measures of spoken language ability. Results are discussed in terms of related cognitive abilities, language fluency, and academic achievement of DHH students and implications for postsecondary education. PMID:25558473

  1. From endometrial receptivity to infertility.

    PubMed

    Tabibzadeh, S; Shea, W; Lessey, B A; Broome, J

    1999-01-01

    Implantation of the blastocyst in endometrium requires establishment of a coordinated molecular dialogue between the embryo and the endometrium. Factors instrumental in the preparation of a receptive endometrium are derived from the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. These factors modulate the expression of genes that drive the endometrium throughout the characteristic menstrual cycles. During each menstrual cycle, a series of coordinated, architectural, morphological, cytochemical, and molecular changes ultimately lead to the preparation of a receptive endometrium during the putative "receptive period" or "implantation window." It is during this critical period that a proper dialogue can be established between an intrusive blastocyst and a receptive endometrium. If, for any reason, this dialogue is not established or is perturbed, the embryo is aborted. The natural fate of the receptive endometrium, in the absence of implantation, is development of a second set of changes that ultimately lead to menstruation. The identity of the molecular repertoire that makes endometrium receptive to implantation and/or lead to menstruation is being revealed and broadly includes cytokines, heat shock factors, adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteases. We identified a novel gene of the transforming growth factor-beta, superfamily of molecules, the so-called endometrial bleeding--associated factor or ebaf, whose expression is confined to the late secretory and menstrual phases. Various forms of female infertility were associated with dysregulated expression of ebaf during the implantation window. The findings show an occult molecular defect of endometrial receptivity that seems to be due to dysregulated and premature expression of a member of the premenstrual molecular repertoire. The dysregulated expression of ebaf may assist in the identification, prognostication, and monitoring of treatment of infertile women.

  2. Children's printed word database: continuities and changes over time in children's early reading vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Jackie; Stuart, Morag; Dixon, Maureen; Lovejoy, Sophie

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a comprehensive database of the vocabulary in reading materials used by 5 - 9 year old children in the UK. The database is available on-line http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology/cpwd and allows researchers into early reading development the possibility of rigorous control over critical characteristics of experimental stimuli such as word frequency, regularity and length, frequency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, orthographic and phonological neighbourhoods etc. The on-line database is also a resource that can be used by practitioners with interests in literacy development and literacy instruction. It can be used to obtain characteristics for a user-generated list of words, or else to generate a list of words according to constraints specified by the user. Here we present an overview of the construction of the database, the materials entered into it, the survey of schools by which we obtained information about the books that were most likely to be used by children in each age group, and the search features available on the database website. We also discuss certain characteristics of the Vocabulary itself and compare these with those reported in an earlier non-representative database reported in Stuart, Dixon, Masterson and Gray (2003). We then present a detailed analysis of the characteristics of Vocabulary in books used in the Reception year, against the background of recent recommendations for change in the early teaching of reading. Finally, we present data showing that the database is indeed already proving a useful resource for both practitioners and researchers.

  3. Boundary layer receptivity and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    Receptivity processes initiate natural instabilities in a boundary layer. The instabilities grow and eventually break down to turbulence. Consequently, receptivity questions are a critical element of the analysis of the transition process. Success in modeling the physics of receptivity processes thus has a direct bearing on technological issues of drag reduction. The means by which transitional flows can be controlled is also a major concern: questions of control are tied inevitably to those of receptivity. Adjoint systems provide a highly effective mathematical method for approaching many of the questions associated with both receptivity and control. The long term objective is to develop adjoint methods to handle increasingly complex receptivity questions, and to find systematic procedures for deducing effective control strategies. The most elementary receptivity problem is that in which a parallel boundary layer is forced by time-harmonic sources of various types. The characteristics of the response to such forcing form the building blocks for more complex receptivity mechanisms. The first objective of this year's research effort was to investigate how a parallel Blasius boundary layer responds to general direct forcing. Acoustic disturbances in the freestream can be scattered by flow non-uniformities to produce Tollmien-Schlichting waves. For example, scattering by surface roughness is known to provide an efficient receptivity path. The present effort is directed towards finding a solution by a simple adjoint analysis, because adjoint methods can be extended to more complex problems. In practice, flows are non-parallel and often three-dimensional. Compressibility may also be significant in some cases. Recent developments in the use of Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) offer a promising possibility. By formulating and solving a set of adjoint parabolized equations, a method for mapping the efficiency with which external forcing excites the three

  4. Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: Direct Tests and Text-Derived Simulations of Vocabulary Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Andrew; Rosenstein, Mark; Sparks, Randall; Landauer, Thomas K.; Foltz, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Determining word meanings that ought to be taught or introduced is important for educators. A sequence for vocabulary growth can be inferred from many sources, including testing children's knowledge of word meanings at various ages, predicting from print frequency, or adult-recalled Age of Acquisition. A new approach, Word Maturity, is based…

  5. Vocabulary Instruction in a Balanced Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupley, William H.; Logan, John W.; Nichols, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the role of vocabulary in reading development and suggests some classroom-tested approaches for nurturing students' vocabulary development and interest. Discusses vocabulary growth, vocabulary and concept development, and active processing of vocabulary. Discusses applications and examples of active-process vocabulary instruction,…

  6. The effect of vocabulary knowledge on novel word identification.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Alison M; Brady, Susan A

    2013-10-01

    The study investigated the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and novel word reading. Fourth-grade students were assessed on standardized measures of word identification, decoding, and receptive vocabulary, as well as on an experimental word identification measure using words that students in the fourth grade are unlikely to have seen before in print. In the experimental measure, pairs of words were matched on printed frequency and orthographic pattern (with a variety of spelling patterns represented), but differed in terms of the frequency of expected oral exposure for children (i.e., higher vs. lower). Results showed that students' receptive vocabulary knowledge was significantly related to performance on both the standardized and experimental measures of word identification, even after accounting for the substantial amount of variance explained by decoding ability. Students performed better reading the words with higher expected oral frequencies on the experimental task than on those items with lower expected oral frequencies. The results point to the benefits, albeit modest, of oral word familiarity for reading words when they are first encountered in print and suggest that this top-down effect is not limited to exception words, as has been suggested, but has a wider scope.

  7. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  8. Vocabulary Plus: Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkin, Rhoda

    2010-01-01

    "Vocabulary Plus" is an interactive strategy which links vocabulary development with content area learning for English learners. This strategy uses interactive read-alouds of thematically- connected informational text matched to the grade-appropriate state standards and content of core subjects. When using "Vocabulary Plus",…

  9. The Receptive Side of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    When observing teachers in action, one is likely to witness explaining, modeling, managing, guiding, and encouraging. These expressive behaviors constitute a directive force moving outward from teacher to students. Though less visible to an outside observer, teaching also requires receptive skills, the ability to take in information by being fully…

  10. Endometrial receptivity array: Clinical application.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Human implantation is a complex process requiring synchrony between a healthy embryo and a functionally competent or receptive endometrium. Diagnosis of endometrial receptivity (ER) has posed a challenge and so far most available tests have been subjective and lack accuracy and a predictive value. Microarray technology has allowed identification of the transcriptomic signature of the window of receptivity window of implantation (WOI). This technology has led to the development of a molecular diagnostic tool, the ER array (ERA) for diagnosis of ER. Use of this test in patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) has shown that the WOI is displaced in a quarter of these patients and use of a personalized embryo transfer (pET) on the day designated by ERA improves reproductive performance. Our results in the Indian population revealed an endometrial factor in 27.5% RIF patients, which was significantly greater than the non-RIF group 15% (P = 0.04). After pET, the overall ongoing pregnancy rate was 42.4% and implantation rate was 33%, which was at par with our in-vitro fertilization results over 1-year. We also performed ERA in patients with persistently thin endometrium, and it was reassuring to find that the endometrium in 75% of these patients was receptive despite being 6 mm or less. A pregnancy rate of 66.7% was achieved in this group. Though larger studies are required to validate these results ERA has become a useful tool in our diagnostic armamentarium for ER. PMID:26538853

  11. Value-Added Predictors of Expressive and Receptive Language Growth in Initially Nonverbal Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Linda R.; Lambert, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders who were initially nonverbal (under 6 words in language sample and under 21 parent-reported words said) were assessed at five time points over 16 months. Statistical models that accounted for the intercorrelation among nine theoretically- and empirically-motivated predictors, as well as two background variables (i.e., cognitive impairment level, autism severity), were applied to identify value-added predictors of expressive and receptive spoken language growth and outcome. The results indicate that responding to joint attention, intentional communication, and parent linguistic responses were value-added predictors of both expressive and receptive spoken language growth. In addition, consonant inventory was a value-added predictor of expressive growth; early receptive vocabulary and autism severity were value-added predictors of receptive growth. PMID:25344152

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study of Receptive Language Ability of 12-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Meaburn, Emma L.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Docherty, Sophia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Price, Thomas S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a "genome-wide association" approach. Method: The…

  13. Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Children With Cochlear Implants Using Electronic Storybooks.

    PubMed

    Messier, Jane; Wood, Carla

    2015-10-01

    The present intervention study explored the word learning of 18 children with cochlear implants in response to E-book instruction. Capitalizing on the multimedia options available in electronic storybooks, the intervention incorporated videos and definitions to provide a vocabulary intervention that includes evidence-based teaching strategies. The extent of the children's word learning was assessed using three assessment tasks: receptive pointing, expressively labeling, and word defining. Children demonstrated greater immediate expressive labeling gains and definition generation gains for words taught in the treatment condition compared to those in the comparison condition. In addition, the children's performance on delayed posttest vocabulary assessments indicated better retention across the expressive vocabulary task for words taught within the treatment condition as compared to the comparison condition. Findings suggest that children with cochlear implants with functional speech perception can benefit from an oral-only multimedia-enhanced intensive vocabulary instruction. PMID:26251346

  14. Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Children With Cochlear Implants Using Electronic Storybooks.

    PubMed

    Messier, Jane; Wood, Carla

    2015-10-01

    The present intervention study explored the word learning of 18 children with cochlear implants in response to E-book instruction. Capitalizing on the multimedia options available in electronic storybooks, the intervention incorporated videos and definitions to provide a vocabulary intervention that includes evidence-based teaching strategies. The extent of the children's word learning was assessed using three assessment tasks: receptive pointing, expressively labeling, and word defining. Children demonstrated greater immediate expressive labeling gains and definition generation gains for words taught in the treatment condition compared to those in the comparison condition. In addition, the children's performance on delayed posttest vocabulary assessments indicated better retention across the expressive vocabulary task for words taught within the treatment condition as compared to the comparison condition. Findings suggest that children with cochlear implants with functional speech perception can benefit from an oral-only multimedia-enhanced intensive vocabulary instruction.

  15. Teaching Vocabulary across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bintz, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Learning vocabulary is an important instructional aim for teachers in all content areas in middle grades schools. Recent research, however, indicates that vocabulary instruction may be problematic because many teachers are not "confident about best practice in vocabulary instruction and at times don't know where to begin to form an instructional…

  16. Teaching Vocabulary to ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the ways in which vocabulary is taught and in particular what important learning points ESL students should know in order to understand new vocabulary words. It also discusses various ideas of how teachers could teach vocabulary. It highlights the importance of a theory that states there are 3 key stages that students progress…

  17. Conceptually based vocabulary intervention: second graders' development of vocabulary words.

    PubMed

    Dimling, Lisa M

    2010-01-01

    An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students took part in the 30-minute intervention over 6-8 weeks, learning 12 new vocabulary words each week by means of the three intervention components: (a) word introduction, (b) word activity (semantic mapping), and (c) practice. Results indicated that the vocabulary intervention successfully improved all students' recognition, production, and comprehension of the vocabulary words and phrases. PMID:21305978

  18. Conceptually based vocabulary intervention: second graders' development of vocabulary words.

    PubMed

    Dimling, Lisa M

    2010-01-01

    An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students took part in the 30-minute intervention over 6-8 weeks, learning 12 new vocabulary words each week by means of the three intervention components: (a) word introduction, (b) word activity (semantic mapping), and (c) practice. Results indicated that the vocabulary intervention successfully improved all students' recognition, production, and comprehension of the vocabulary words and phrases.

  19. Categorization Skills and Receptive Language Development in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerer, Judy A.; Sigman, Marian

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of category knowledge and receptive language skills of 16 autistic (3-6 years old), mentally retarded, and normal children indicated that the autistic children's knowledge of function, form, and color categories was comparable to that of the mental-age-matched mentally retarded and normal comparison groups. (Author/DB)

  20. Adolescent Weight Status and Receptivity to Food TV Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Beach, Michael L.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Design: Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). Setting: New Hampshire and Vermont. Participants: Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Main Outcome…

  1. Intervention for Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Impairment: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    Studies indicate that language impairment that cannot be accounted for by factors such as below-average non-verbal ability, hearing impairment, behaviour or emotional problems, or neurological impairments affects some 6% of school-age children. Language impairment with a receptive language component is more resistant to intervention than specific…

  2. Program Description for the Phoenix Reception and Assessment Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datema, Thea; And Others

    Phoenix Reception and Assessment Center (PRAC) is a non-secure detention and assessment center for up to 15 Wayne County delinquent, adolescent males who have been committed to the Michigan Department of Social Services for care, treatment and supervision. Adolescents, ages 12 through 18, are eligible for placement at Phoenix according to the…

  3. Children's inference generation: The role of vocabulary and working memory.

    PubMed

    Currie, Nicola Kate; Cain, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Inferences are crucial to successful discourse comprehension. We assessed the contributions of vocabulary and working memory to inference making in children aged 5 and 6years (n=44), 7 and 8years (n=43), and 9 and 10years (n=43). Children listened to short narratives and answered questions to assess local and global coherence inferences after each one. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed developmental improvements on both types of inference. Although standardized measures of both vocabulary and working memory were correlated with inference making, multiple regression analyses determined that vocabulary was the key predictor. For local coherence inferences, only vocabulary predicted unique variance for the 6- and 8-year-olds; in contrast, none of the variables predicted performance for the 10-year-olds. For global coherence inferences, vocabulary was the only unique predictor for each age group. Mediation analysis confirmed that although working memory was associated with the ability to generate local and global coherence inferences in 6- to 10-year-olds, the effect was mediated by vocabulary. We conclude that vocabulary knowledge supports inference making in two ways: through knowledge of word meanings required to generate inferences and through its contribution to memory processes.

  4. A large receptive-expressive gap in bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Grob, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the discrepancy between receptive and expressive language competence among bilingual children and tests possible explanatory factors of this gap. The sample consisted of 406 bilingual children with German as their second language (L2) and 46 different first languages. Receptive and expressive German language competence (L2) were measured with a standardized language development test at the age of 43 months. As expected, a significant gap in receptive and expressive German language competence (L2) emerged in all language groups. The size of the gap reached 1 SD and correlated with the amount of language contact and thus provides support for the language exposure hypothesis. However, we found no evidence for the language familiarity hypothesis. The present study contributes to the understanding of mechanisms in bilingual language development and, hence, is consequential for both basic research and language assessment practice. PMID:26379601

  5. Techniques for Learning Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherford, H. Jarold

    A variety of classroom techniques for second language vocabulary learning are described, based on the principle that different approaches work with different students under varying conditions. The techniques include: rote rehearsal; the use of visual aids, including items that are acted out by students for the benefit of the class; role-playing;…

  6. EFL Vocabulary Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meara, Paul

    This volume contains a set of experimental English language vocabulary tests designed to be used with learners of English as a Second Language (ESL). The tests are graded into 6 levels of difficulty and there are 20 tests at each level. Teachers can use the tests to provide a rough lexical profile of individual students, or to monitor the progress…

  7. The Electric Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

  8. Vocabulary at the Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

    2009-01-01

    In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

  9. "Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Roxy

    Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

  10. Teaching Vocabulary in Colour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnoinska, Anna

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's use of color to make classroom instruction more interesting. Techniques included using colored paper for handouts, conducting an experiment to see whether the use of colors could enhance students' memory power, and using colored flashcards to teach vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  11. Modelling Vocabulary Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meara, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some simple simulation models of vocabulary attrition. The attrition process is modelled using a random autonomous Boolean network model, and some parallels with real attrition data are drawn. The paper argues that applying a complex systems approach to attrition can provide some important insights, which suggest that real…

  12. Age 13 language and reading outcomes in late-talking toddlers.

    PubMed

    Rescorla, Leslie

    2005-04-01

    Language and reading outcomes at 13 years of age were examined in 28 children identified at 24 to 31 months as late talkers, all of whom came from middle- to upper-class socioeconomic status (SES) families and had normal nonverbal ability and age-adequate receptive language at intake. Late talkers were compared with a group of 25 typically developing children matched at intake on age, SES, and nonverbal ability. As a group, late talkers performed in the average range on all standardized language and reading tasks at age 13. However, they scored significantly lower than SES-matched peers on aggregate measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal memory, as well as on reading comprehension. They were similar to comparison peers in reading mechanics and writing aggregates. Intercorrelations between outcome measures were moderately high, suggesting considerable shared variance. Regression analyses indicated that age 2 Language Development Survey vocabulary score was a significant predictor of age 13 vocabulary, grammar, verbal memory, and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that slow language development at age 2-2 1/2 is associated with a weakness in language-related skills into adolescence relative to typically developing peers.

  13. Transition receptivity and control: Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Helen L.; Saric, William S.

    1994-03-01

    We modeled the receptivity of the laminar boundary layer on a semi-infinite flat plate with a modified super-elliptic leading edge using a spatial direct numerical simulation. The incompressible flow was simulated by solving the governing full Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates by a finite-difference method. First, the steady basic-state solution was obtained in a transient approach using spatially varying time steps. Then, time-harmonic oscillations of the freestream streamwise velocity, modeling sound or spanwise vorticity, were applied as unsteady boundary conditions, and the governing equations were solved to evaluate the spatial and temporal developments of the perturbation leading to instability waves in the boundary layer. The effects of leading-edge radius and geometry on receptivity were determined. The work was closely coordinated with the experimental program. The computational work was also extended to solve the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations for the evolution of Gortler vortices in the presence of concave and convex curvature. Experiments were conducted on the receptivity of T-S waves to freestream sound in four different cases: (1) two-dimensional roughness elements; (2) the interaction and control of T-S waves with 2-D roughness; (3) three-dimensional roughness clements; and (4) the leading edge. T-S wave amplitudes were measured as a function of freestream sound level and the roughness height for both 2-D and 3-D roughness elements.

  14. Associations between Problem Behaviors and Early Vocabulary Skills among Hispanic Dual-Language Learners in Pre-K

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Soares, Denise A.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Zhu, Leina; Davis, Heather S.; Kwok, Oi-man; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Saenz, Laura M.; Resendez, Nora M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relations between problem behaviors and early learning outcomes among 138 children in dual-language pre-K programs who were identified at the beginning of the school year to be at risk for difficulties in early language and literacy development. Children's expressive and receptive vocabulary, listening comprehension, and…

  15. Do Children with Williams Syndrome Really Have Good Vocabulary Knowledge? Methods for Comparing Cognitive and Linguistic Abilities in Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Jon; Jarrold, Christopher; Farran, Emily K.; Laws, Glynis; Riby, Deborah M.

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of cognitive and linguistic skills in individuals with developmental disorders is fraught with methodological and psychometric difficulties. In this paper, we illustrate some of these issues by comparing the receptive vocabulary knowledge and non-verbal reasoning abilities of 41 children with Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder in…

  16. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children: Intercorrelations for Normal Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattrocchi, Mary M.; Golden, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children was examined utilizing 86 normal children, including 55 females and 31 males from middle-class families. Significant relationships were predicted between the PPVT-R and the receptive scale on the…

  17. [Receptive music therapy with persons suffering from a physical handicap].

    PubMed

    Scholer, M

    2010-01-01

    Music therapy, as a part of arts therapies, is used as a therapeutical tool for restoring, maintaining and improving the mental, physical and emotional health of human beings. The main mission of receptive music therapy is not found on the performance level, but on the level of attentive and intimate music listening that is not passive at all, contributing to musical pleasure and to wellbeing. At first we introduce the basic vocabulary used in receptive music therapy, flow experience and the main dimensions (bio-psycho-social) influenced by stimulating music listening. We also present the aims of this psycho-pedagogical project: The focus lies on determining the sensitivity of physically handicapped persons to different music stimuli (music styles). In this case, we can talk of the degree of music reception. We worked in an institution for persons suffering from a physical handicap. The applied methodology is based on the psycho-musical survey by Verdeau-Paillès (1). This psychological record consists in a basic interview and a test of music listening performances leading to the construction of a summary graph and the final receptivity psychogram. An observational frame conceived by Schiltz (2) and adapted to the actual situation offers the possibility of making exact observations as to non-verbal and verbal variables during the therapeutical sessions. Thus, we can present the results of descriptive and non-parametric statistical procedures, but also the results of case studies. The statistical tests used were Wilcoxon's sign-rank test for a pre-post comparison of variables related to non-verbal and verbal behaviour (two different sessions of music therapy with similar contents) and Spearman's Rho which permitted us to compute the correlations between non-verbal expression and verbal communication (N=14). Finally we conclude that our patients considered their musical experience as very positive. The results of the personal interview and the psycho-musical survey

  18. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish–English Bilinguals From 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Señor, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish–English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to measure mean vocabulary size and growth in 47 Spanish–English bilingually developing children from 22 to 30 months of age based on results from the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993) and the Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (Jackson-Maldonado et al., 2003). Bilingual children’s scores of total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were compared with CDI scores for a control group of 56 monolingual children. Results The total vocabulary measure resulted in mean vocabulary scores and average rate of growth similar to monolingual growth, whereas conceptual vocabulary scores were significantly smaller and grew at a slower rate than total vocabulary scores. Total vocabulary identified the same proportion of bilingual children below the 25th percentile on monolingual norms as the CDI did for monolingual children. Conclusion These results support the use of total vocabulary as a means of assessing early language development in young bilingual Spanish–English speaking children. PMID:24023382

  19. Preschool speech intelligibility and vocabulary skills predict long-term speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C; Colson, Bethany G; Pisoni, David B

    2014-07-01

    Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of CIs. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3-6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes.

  20. Effects of Vocabulary Size on Online Lexical Processing by Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Law, Franzo; Edwards, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between vocabulary size and the speed and accuracy of lexical processing in preschoolers between the ages of 30-46 months using an automatic eye tracking task based on the looking-while-listening paradigm (Fernald, Zangl, Portillo, & Marchman, 2008) and mispronunciation paradigm (White & Morgan, 2008). Children's eye gaze patterns were tracked while they looked at two pictures (one familiar object, one unfamiliar object) on a computer screen and simultaneously heard one of three kinds of auditory stimuli: correct pronunciations of the familiar object's name, one-feature mispronunciations of the familiar object's name, or a nonword. The results showed that children with larger expressive vocabularies, relative to children with smaller expressive vocabularies, were more likely to look to a familiar object upon hearing a correct pronunciation and to an unfamiliar object upon hearing a novel word. Results also showed that children with larger expressive vocabularies were more sensitive to mispronunciations; they were more likely to look toward the unfamiliar object rather than the familiar object upon hearing a one-feature mispronunciation of a familiar object-name. These results suggest that children with smaller vocabularies, relative to their larger-vocabulary age peers, are at a disadvantage for learning new words, as well as for processing familiar words. PMID:26508903

  1. Characteristics of early vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers: a CDI-adaptation study*.

    PubMed

    Marjanovič-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Podlesek, Anja

    2013-09-01

    A large body of research shows that vocabulary does not develop independently of grammar, representing a better predictor of the grammatical complexity of toddlers' utterances than age. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers using the Slovenian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI). The sample included 512 Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers aged 0 ; 8 to 2 ; 6. The findings suggest that between age 0 ; 8 and 2 ; 6 the development of vocabulary is best described using a quadratic function. The results also show that nouns predominate in the vocabularies of infants and toddlers of various ages; as they age and with the increasing size of their vocabularies, the share of interjections decreases and the share of verbs and adjectives increases. The size of vocabulary was also found to be related to the grammatical structure of toddlers' utterances.

  2. Conceptually Based Vocabulary Intervention: Second Graders' Development of Vocabulary Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimling, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students took…

  3. Improving Vocabulary of English Language Learners through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Meghan; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a professional development project. The purpose of the project was to provide professional development to teachers in vocabulary instructional strategies and to examine vocabulary acquisition of English language learners. The participants were 8 second grade ELL students and 6 second grade teachers. The eight second grade…

  4. Early vocabulary development in Mandarin (Putonghua) and Cantonese.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Twila; Fletcher, Paul; Liang, Weilan; Kaciroti, Niko

    2009-11-01

    Parent report instruments adapted from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) examined vocabulary development in children aged 0 ; 8 to 2 ; 6 for two Chinese languages, Mandarin (n=1694) and Cantonese (n=1625). Parental reports suggested higher overall scores for Mandarin- than for Cantonese-speaking children from approximately 1 ; 4 onward. Factors relevant to the difference were only-child status, monolingual households and caregiver education. In addition to the comparison of vocabulary scores overall, the development of noun classifiers, grammatical function words common to the two languages, was assessed both in terms of the age and the vocabulary size at which these terms are acquired. Whereas age-based developmental trajectories again showed an advantage for Beijing children, Hong Kong children used classifiers when they had smaller vocabularies, reflecting the higher frequencies and greater precision of classifier use in adult Cantonese. The data speak to the importance of using not just age, but also vocabulary size, as a metric by which the acquisition of particular linguistic elements can be examined across languages.

  5. Validity of a parent vocabulary checklist for young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants.

    PubMed

    Guiberson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of the current investigation was to examine the concurrent and predictive validity of a parent vocabulary checklist with young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants. This study implemented a longitudinal approach. Nineteen families participated when children were 15-16 months of age, and then again at 30-32 months of age. The Spanish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Communicativas, INV) and spontaneous language samples collected during naturalistic play were used to examine the relationship between observed and reported vocabulary. Vocabulary reported through the INV-II and vocabulary observed at 30-32 months were significantly correlated, suggesting that the INV-II captures a valid representation of vocabulary at this age. Comparatively, vocabulary reported on the INV-I, was not correlated with observed vocabulary at 15-16 months of age or reported or observed vocabulary at 30-32 months of age. These results suggest that the INV-I, when used with 14-16-month-olds, demonstrates limited concurrent and predictive validity. Implications for the clinical use of the INV-I and INV-II are presented.

  6. Vocabulary Development Using Visual Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Kindergarten teachers use a variety of strategies that focus on vocabulary development. A common and effective practice to introduce new vocabulary to kindergarteners is reading storybooks to children, what is commonly known as "read-alouds" (Bus, van Ijzendoorn, & Pelligrini, 1995; Christ & Wang, 2010; Newton, Padak &…

  7. Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…

  8. The State of Vocabulary Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

  9. Assessing Partial Knowledge in Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    Partial knowledge was assessed in a multiple choice vocabulary test. Test reliability and concurrent validity were compared using Rasch-based dichotomous and polychotomous scoring models. Results supported the polychtomous scoring model, and moderately supported J. O'Connor's theory of vocabulary acquisition. (Author/GDC)

  10. Web Watch: Vocabulary Learning Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that vocabulary building online can help to develop collaboration skills and positive home-school connections. Notes that most teachers can attest to the positive relationship between technology and motivation in the classroom. Provides an annotated list of 10 Internet sites for vocabulary learning which includes a brief description of…

  11. Mastering the Vocabulary of Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischler, Helene

    Developed for use by students in an introductory accounting course, these learning modules deal with mastering the vocabulary of accounting. Focus of the modules is on vocabulary appearing in the first six chapters of the text, "Accounting Principles" by Niswonger and Fess. Covered in the individual modules are the following topics: discovering…

  12. Making Connections in Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarf, Reima

    2006-01-01

    Vocabulary teaching and learning constitute a major problem for EFL instructors and students. The pretest showed that freshman students at COLT have difficulty in pronouncing, recognizing the meaning of, using and spelling English words. In their first semester, freshman students are required to take a vocabulary course that consists of 50 lessons…

  13. A Receptive Perspective for Introductory German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovik, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that additional attention to the sequencing of the grammatical structures needed for receptive comprehension might alleviate the problems associated with first-year German textbooks. The simple past tense, word order, and the indefinite pronoun "man" are used to illustrate the concept of a receptive grammar. (14 references) (Author/CK)

  14. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Andrei S.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2016-01-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  15. Assessing Growth in Young Children: A Comparison of Raw, Age-Equivalent, and Standard Scores Using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Winter, Suzanne M.; Sass, Daniel A.; Svenkerud, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Many tests provide users with several different types of scores to facilitate interpretation and description of students' performance. Common examples include raw scores, age- and grade-equivalent scores, and standard scores. However, when used within the context of assessing growth among young children, these scores should not be…

  16. Word fluency in relation to severity of closed head injury, associated frontal brain lesions, and age at injury in children.

    PubMed

    Levin, H S; Song, J; Ewing-Cobbs, L; Chapman, S B; Mendelsohn, D

    2001-01-01

    Effects of closed head injury (CHI) severity, focal brain lesions, and age at injury on word fluency (WF) were studied longitudinally in 122 children (78 severe, 44 mild); 112 CHI patients (68 severe, 44 mild CHI) and 104 uninjured normal controls participated in a cross-sectional study. WF was measured by asking the child to generate as many words as possible beginning with a designated letter within 60 s, repeated for three letters. Intellectual ability, receptive vocabulary, narrative discourse, and word list recall were also measured. Results of the cross-sectional study showed a significant group effect with poorer WF in severe CHI than mild CHI and control groups. Growth curve analysis of longitudinal data revealed an interaction of age, follow-up interval, and CHI severity as WF recovery was slower after severe CHI in younger children as compared to severe CHI in older children or mild CHI in younger children. An interaction of left frontal lesion with age and interval indicated a more adverse effect on WF in older children. Right frontal lesion effect was nonsignificant and did not interact with age. Correlations of WF with receptive vocabulary, word list recall, and narrative discourse were moderate and weak with estimated intellectual ability. Differences in focal lesion effects after traumatic versus nontraumatic brain injury in children, the contribution of diffuse white matter injury, reduced opportunity for language development, and functional commitment of left frontal region at time of CHI were discussed. PMID:11163370

  17. Spoken language scores of children using cochlear implants compared to hearing age-mates at school entry.

    PubMed

    Geers, Ann E; Moog, Jean S; Biedenstein, Julia; Brenner, Christine; Hayes, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated three questions: Is it realistic to expect age-appropriate spoken language skills in children with cochlear implants (CIs) who received auditory-oral intervention during the preschool years? What characteristics predict successful spoken language development in this population? Are children with CIs more proficient in some areas of language than others? We analyzed language skills of 153 children with CIs as measured by standardized tests. These children (mean age = 5 years and 10 months) attended programs in the United States (N = 39) that used an auditory-oral educational approach. Age-appropriate scores were observed in 50% of the children on measures of receptive vocabulary, 58% on expressive vocabulary, 46% on verbal intelligence, 47% on receptive language, and 39% on expressive language. Regression analysis indicated that, after controlling for the effects of nonverbal intelligence and parent education level, children who received their implants at young ages had higher scores on all language tests than children who were older at implantation. On average, children with CIs performed better on certain language measures than others, indicating that some areas of language may be more difficult for these children to master than others. Implications for educators of deaf children with CIs are discussed.

  18. Developmental Relations between Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Change Score Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, M[subscript age] = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and…

  19. Vocabulary Development in Greek Children: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison Using the Language Development Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaeliou, Christina F.; Rescorla, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1 ; 6 to 2 ; 11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the…

  20. Lexical Richness in Maternal Input and Vocabulary Development of Turkish Preschoolers in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir-Vegter, Serpil; Aarts, Rian; Kurvers, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined lexical richness in maternal input to Turkish preschool children in the Netherlands and the relationship with their vocabulary. Fifteen Turkish mother-child dyads were videotaped at the age of 3 and 4 in three settings: book reading, picture description and block building. Children's vocabulary in Turkish was…

  1. Exploring Expressive Vocabulary Variability in Two-Year-Olds: The Role of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbury, Jayne; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Moran, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether measures of working memory ability contribute to the wide variation in 2-year-olds' expressive vocabulary skills. Method: Seventy-nine children (aged 24-30 months) were assessed by using standardized tests of vocabulary and visual cognition, a processing speed measure, and behavioral measures of verbal working…

  2. Maternal Correlates of Growth in Toddler Vocabulary Production in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Barbara Alexander; Rowe, Meredith L.; Singer, Judith D.; Snow, Catherine E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of growth in toddlers' vocabulary production between the ages of 1 and 3 years by analyzing mother-child communication in 108 low-income families. Individual growth modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in children's observed vocabulary production and predictors of initial status and between-person…

  3. Contrasting Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge on Temporal and Parietal Brain Structure across Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Filippi, Roberto; Harth, Helen; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Using behavioral, structural, and functional imaging techniques, we demonstrate contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure in 47 healthy volunteers who ranged in age from 7 to 73 years. In the left posterior supramarginal gyrus, vocabulary knowledge was positively correlated with gray matter density in…

  4. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Arabic Vocabulary Size among Pre-University Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baharudin, Harun; Ismail, Zawawi

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size are among the main factors that help determine how students learn second language vocabulary. The present study was an attempt to exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and Arabic vocabulary size of 742 pre-university in "Religious High School" (SMKA) and…

  5. FL Vocabulary Learning of Undergraduate English Majors in Western China: Perspective, Strategy Use and Vocabulary Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baicheng

    2009-01-01

    The present study, by use of questionnaire and vocabulary tests, has investigated the foreign language vocabulary learning situation of 481 undergraduates in terms of their perspective of vocabulary learning, strategy use and vocabulary size. Based on the questionnaire investigation and vocabulary level tests, the characteristics of the subjects'…

  6. The Vocabulary Conundrum. Technical Report No. 570.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard C.; Nagy, William E.

    Research often underestimates the vocabulary resources of the English language and, hence, the size of students' vocabularies and the rate of their vocabulary growth, by failing to take into account words that are not thought of as "general vocabulary," but that are essential to comprehension. These words include proper names, words with multiple…

  7. Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckin, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 14 essays on reading and vocabulary learning in second language acquisition. Chapters include: "Research on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: Putting It in Context" (James Coady); "Implications for L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Instruction From L1 Vocabulary Research" (Fredricka Stoller and William Grabe); "Patterns and Perils of…

  8. For ELLs: Vocabulary beyond the Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nancy S.; Truxaw, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a classroom teacher discusses ambiguities in mathematics vocabulary and strategies for ELL students in building understanding. The authors note that mathematics vocabulary may be more difficult to learn than other academic vocabulary for several reasons: (1) definitions are filled with technical vocabulary, symbols, and diagrams;…

  9. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Foreign Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne V.

    1976-01-01

    A method of teaching academic vocabulary to the intermediate to advanced EFL graduate students is discussed. Academic vocabulary includes non-technical vocabulary used in the research process, analysis and evaluation. Criteria for selecting academic vocabulary items are explained. Selected items and sample exercises for each area are given. (SCC)

  10. Vocabulary Knowledge of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtar, Ahmad Azman; Rawian, Rafizah Mohd; Yahaya, Mohamad Fadhili; Abdullah, Azaharee; Mansor, Mahani; Osman, Mohd Izwan; Zakaria, Zahrullaili Ahmad; Murat, Aminarashid; Nayan, Surina; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed Malaysian tertiary students' levels of passive and controlled active vocabulary knowledge. Two tests from the Vocabulary Levels Test were used to collect the data namely the Passive Vocabulary Test and Controlled Active Vocabulary Test. When using the test, the researchers were not particularly interested in the students' total…

  11. Comparison of the Syntax and Vocabulary of Bilingual Spanish, Indian, and Monolingual Anglo-American Children. Working Papers in Bilingualism, No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serapiglia, Theresa

    The purpose of this study is to compare the English syntactic structures produced in spontaneous oral language and the receptive English syntactic and vocabulary skills of bilingual Spanish and Indian children and monolingual Anglo-Americans, all of whom qualify for Title I elementary schools (Grades 1-6). People in Action, the Northwestern Syntax…

  12. Idealized computational models for auditory receptive fields.

    PubMed

    Lindeberg, Tony; Friberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory by which idealized models of auditory receptive fields can be derived in a principled axiomatic manner, from a set of structural properties to (i) enable invariance of receptive field responses under natural sound transformations and (ii) ensure internal consistency between spectro-temporal receptive fields at different temporal and spectral scales. For defining a time-frequency transformation of a purely temporal sound signal, it is shown that the framework allows for a new way of deriving the Gabor and Gammatone filters as well as a novel family of generalized Gammatone filters, with additional degrees of freedom to obtain different trade-offs between the spectral selectivity and the temporal delay of time-causal temporal window functions. When applied to the definition of a second-layer of receptive fields from a spectrogram, it is shown that the framework leads to two canonical families of spectro-temporal receptive fields, in terms of spectro-temporal derivatives of either spectro-temporal Gaussian kernels for non-causal time or a cascade of time-causal first-order integrators over the temporal domain and a Gaussian filter over the logspectral domain. For each filter family, the spectro-temporal receptive fields can be either separable over the time-frequency domain or be adapted to local glissando transformations that represent variations in logarithmic frequencies over time. Within each domain of either non-causal or time-causal time, these receptive field families are derived by uniqueness from the assumptions. It is demonstrated how the presented framework allows for computation of basic auditory features for audio processing and that it leads to predictions about auditory receptive fields with good qualitative similarity to biological receptive fields measured in the inferior colliculus (ICC) and primary auditory cortex (A1) of mammals. PMID:25822973

  13. Idealized Computational Models for Auditory Receptive Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lindeberg, Tony; Friberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory by which idealized models of auditory receptive fields can be derived in a principled axiomatic manner, from a set of structural properties to (i) enable invariance of receptive field responses under natural sound transformations and (ii) ensure internal consistency between spectro-temporal receptive fields at different temporal and spectral scales. For defining a time-frequency transformation of a purely temporal sound signal, it is shown that the framework allows for a new way of deriving the Gabor and Gammatone filters as well as a novel family of generalized Gammatone filters, with additional degrees of freedom to obtain different trade-offs between the spectral selectivity and the temporal delay of time-causal temporal window functions. When applied to the definition of a second-layer of receptive fields from a spectrogram, it is shown that the framework leads to two canonical families of spectro-temporal receptive fields, in terms of spectro-temporal derivatives of either spectro-temporal Gaussian kernels for non-causal time or a cascade of time-causal first-order integrators over the temporal domain and a Gaussian filter over the logspectral domain. For each filter family, the spectro-temporal receptive fields can be either separable over the time-frequency domain or be adapted to local glissando transformations that represent variations in logarithmic frequencies over time. Within each domain of either non-causal or time-causal time, these receptive field families are derived by uniqueness from the assumptions. It is demonstrated how the presented framework allows for computation of basic auditory features for audio processing and that it leads to predictions about auditory receptive fields with good qualitative similarity to biological receptive fields measured in the inferior colliculus (ICC) and primary auditory cortex (A1) of mammals. PMID:25822973

  14. DSpace and customized controlled vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skourlas, C.; Tsolakidis, A.; Kakoulidis, P.; Giannakopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    The open source platform of DSpace could be defined as a repository application used to provide access to digital resources. DSpace is installed and used by more than 1000 organizations worldwide. A predefined taxonomy of keyword, called the Controlled Vocabulary, can be used for describing and accessing the information items stored in the repository. In this paper, we describe how the users can create, and customize their own vocabularies. Various heterogeneous items, such as research papers, videos, articles and educational material of the repository, can be indexed in order to provide advanced search functionality using new controlled vocabularies.

  15. How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant’s Age

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Keuleers, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the literature and a large scale crowdsourcing experiment, we estimate that an average 20-year-old native speaker of American English knows 42,000 lemmas and 4,200 non-transparent multiword expressions, derived from 11,100 word families. The numbers range from 27,000 lemmas for the lowest 5% to 52,000 for the highest 5%. Between the ages of 20 and 60, the average person learns 6,000 extra lemmas or about one new lemma every 2 days. The knowledge of the words can be as shallow as knowing that the word exists. In addition, people learn tens of thousands of inflected forms and proper nouns (names), which account for the substantially high numbers of ‘words known’ mentioned in other publications. PMID:27524974

  16. How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant's Age.

    PubMed

    Brysbaert, Marc; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Keuleers, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the literature and a large scale crowdsourcing experiment, we estimate that an average 20-year-old native speaker of American English knows 42,000 lemmas and 4,200 non-transparent multiword expressions, derived from 11,100 word families. The numbers range from 27,000 lemmas for the lowest 5% to 52,000 for the highest 5%. Between the ages of 20 and 60, the average person learns 6,000 extra lemmas or about one new lemma every 2 days. The knowledge of the words can be as shallow as knowing that the word exists. In addition, people learn tens of thousands of inflected forms and proper nouns (names), which account for the substantially high numbers of 'words known' mentioned in other publications. PMID:27524974

  17. How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant's Age.

    PubMed

    Brysbaert, Marc; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Keuleers, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the literature and a large scale crowdsourcing experiment, we estimate that an average 20-year-old native speaker of American English knows 42,000 lemmas and 4,200 non-transparent multiword expressions, derived from 11,100 word families. The numbers range from 27,000 lemmas for the lowest 5% to 52,000 for the highest 5%. Between the ages of 20 and 60, the average person learns 6,000 extra lemmas or about one new lemma every 2 days. The knowledge of the words can be as shallow as knowing that the word exists. In addition, people learn tens of thousands of inflected forms and proper nouns (names), which account for the substantially high numbers of 'words known' mentioned in other publications.

  18. The vocabulary of beginning writers: implications for children with complex communication needs.

    PubMed

    Clendon, Sally A; Erickson, Karen A

    2008-12-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) professionals is providing children with complex communication needs with access to the vocabulary that they need in order to develop mature language and literacy abilities. The purpose of this study was to analyze the vocabulary used by typically developing early-elementary children in the United States and New Zealand when they write about self-selected topics, in order to inform practices with children with complex communication needs. The children's writing samples were compared across school ages and countries. The school age comparisons highlighted the relatively restricted range of vocabulary used by children in the earliest stages of writing development, and the country comparisons revealed differences in core vocabulary. The findings of this study hopefully will assist AAC professionals as they engage in selecting, prioritizing, and organizing vocabulary to support written language development in children with complex communication needs.

  19. Coping with changing controlled vocabularies.

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, J. J.; Clayton, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    For the foreseeable future, controlled medical vocabularies will be in a constant state of development, expansion and refinement. Changes in controlled vocabularies must be reconciled with historical patient information which is coded using those vocabularies and stored in clinical databases. This paper explores the kinds of changes that can occur in controlled vocabularies, including adding terms (simple additions, refinements, redundancy and disambiguation), deleting terms, changing terms (major and minor name changes), and other special situations (obsolescence, discovering redundancy, and precoordination). Examples are drawn from actual changes appearing in the 1993 update to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD9-CM). The methods being used at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center to reconcile its Medical Entities Dictionary and its clinical database are discussed. PMID:7949906

  20. Solar Power Satellite Microwave Transmission and Reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Numerous analytical and experimental investigations related to SPS microwave power transmission and reception are reported. Aspects discussed include system performance, phase control, power amplifiers, radiating elements, rectenna, solid state configurations, and planned program activities.

  1. Satellite sound broadcasting system, portable reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nasser; Vaisnys, Arvydas

    1990-01-01

    Studies are underway at JPL in the emerging area of Satellite Sound Broadcast Service (SSBS) for direct reception by low cost portable, semi portable, mobile and fixed radio receivers. This paper addresses the portable reception of digital broadcasting of monophonic audio with source material band limited to 5 KHz (source audio comparable to commercial AM broadcasting). The proposed system provides transmission robustness, uniformity of performance over the coverage area and excellent frequency reuse. Propagation problems associated with indoor portable reception are considered in detail and innovative antenna concepts are suggested to mitigate these problems. It is shown that, with the marriage of proper technologies a single medium power satellite can provide substantial direct satellite audio broadcast capability to CONUS in UHF or L Bands, for high quality portable indoor reception by low cost radio receivers.

  2. The impact of a dialogic reading program on deaf and hard-of-hearing kindergarten and early primary school-aged students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Fung, Pan-Chung; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a special interactive dialogic reading method developed by Whitehurst et al. (1988) on deaf and hard-of-hearing children in Hong Kong. Twenty-eight deaf and hard-of-hearing children in kindergarten, first, or second grade were pretested on a receptive vocabulary test and assigned to one of three conditions, dialogic reading, typical reading, and control, with age and degree of hearing loss matched. After an 8-week intervention, the children were re-tested. The dialogic reading group had a significantly greater improvement in vocabulary scores than did the other two groups. Parent-child interactions of high quality and the use of pictorial materials are likely the key successful factors in the program. The educational value of this intervention is discussed. PMID:15585750

  3. The etiology of diverse receptive language skills at 12 years

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Philip S.; Harlaar, Nicole; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In the second decade of life, language skills expand in both quantitative and qualitative ways. The etiology of these new skills and the relationships among them have been little explored. Method Taking advantage of widespread access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections in the United Kingdom, we administered four web-based measures of receptive language development – Vocabulary, Listening Grammar, Figurative Language, and Making Inferences – to a sample of 4892 12-year-old twin pairs participating in the Twins’ Early Development Study (TEDS). Results The four measures showed moderate phenotypic intercorrelation. All four showed moderate genetic influence (a2 between .25 and .36), and low shared environmental influence (c2 between .13 and .19). The median genetic correlation among the four measures was 0.87, indicating strong genetic overlap among them. A latent factor score for language, based on the common variance among the measures, showed substantial genetic influence (a2 = .59) and moderate shared environmental influence (c2 = .28). A small but significant sex difference favored females on the Listening Grammar and Making Inferences tests, but there was no evidence for sex differences in the etiology of any of the measures. Conclusion Despite the emergence of new skills at this developmental period, from the etiological perspective language skills remain relatively undifferentiated at an etiological level.. PMID:20605943

  4. Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kover, Sara T.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young children with ASD, applying the Extended Statistical Learning theory of vocabulary delay in late talkers (Stokes, Kern, & dos Santos, 2012) to toddlers with ASD. Method Parents reported the words produced by toddlers with ASD (n=57; ages 21–37 months) or toddlers without ASD (n=41; ages 22–26 months) on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. The average phonological neighborhood density, word frequency, and word length of each toddler’s lexicon was calculated. These lexical characteristics served as predictors of vocabulary size. Results Findings differed for toddlers with and without ASD and according to subsamples. Vocabulary size was predicted by word length for toddlers with ASD and by phonological neighborhood density for toddlers without ASD. Conclusions Distinct relationships between lexical characteristics and vocabulary size were observed for toddlers with and without ASD. Experimental studies on distributional cues to vocabulary acquisition are needed to inform what is known about mechanisms of learning in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24687027

  5. Effects of Vocabulary Size on Online Lexical Processing by Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Franzo, II; Edwards, Jan R.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between vocabulary size and the speed and accuracy of lexical processing in preschoolers between the ages of 30 and 46 months using an automatic eye tracking task based on the looking-while-listening paradigm (Fernald, Zangl, Portillo, & Marchman, 2008) and mispronunciation paradigm…

  6. Improving the Knowledge and Application of Vocabulary within Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austermuehle, Dana; Kautz, Tabitha; Sprenzel, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This action research paper depicts the teacher-developed instructional strategies to enhance vocabulary instruction among school-age students in the public school setting. The selected population spans across three school districts and includes a third grade classroom, a fifth grade classroom, as well as a select fourth and fifth grade students…

  7. 33 CFR 158.420 - Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria for Adequacy of Reception Facilities: Garbage § 158.420 Reception facilities:...

  8. 33 CFR 158.420 - Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria for Adequacy of Reception Facilities: Garbage § 158.420 Reception facilities:...

  9. 33 CFR 158.420 - Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria for Adequacy of Reception Facilities: Garbage § 158.420 Reception facilities:...

  10. 33 CFR 158.420 - Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria for Adequacy of Reception Facilities: Garbage § 158.420 Reception facilities:...

  11. 33 CFR 158.420 - Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria for Adequacy of Reception Facilities: Garbage § 158.420 Reception facilities:...

  12. Monolingual and bilingual children with and without primary language impairment: core vocabulary comparison.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Manon; Mayer-Crittenden, Chantal; Minor-Corriveau, Michèle; Bélanger, Roxanne

    2014-09-01

    Core vocabulary is an important component of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems for school-aged children who have complex communication needs. One method of identifying core vocabulary for these individuals is to study the vocabulary of speaking children. To date, the use of core vocabulary by speaking bilingual children has not been well documented. The present study compared the core vocabulary used by children who are monolingual (French), and bilingual (French-English; English-French). We also gathered and compared language samples from French-speaking children identified as having primary language impairment (PLI), with the goal of better understanding the language differences demonstrated by children with this disability. Language samples were collected from a total of 57 children within a school setting, in a region where French is a minority language. Contrary to the hypothesis, the analysis of language transcripts revealed that there were no important differences between the core words from the groups studied.

  13. Nonword-repetition ability does not appear to be a causal influence on children's vocabulary development.

    PubMed

    Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Klem, Marianne; Hagtvet, Bente; Hulme, Charles

    2012-10-01

    In the study reported here, we assessed the theory that vocabulary learning in children depends critically on the capacity of a "phonological loop" that is indexed by nonword-repetition ability. A 3-year longitudinal study of 219 children assessed nonword-repetition ability and vocabulary knowledge at yearly intervals between the ages of 4 and 7 years. There was a considerable degree of longitudinal stability in children's vocabulary and nonword-repetition skills, but there was no evidence of any influence of nonword-repetition ability on later vocabulary knowledge. These results seriously call into question the claim that vocabulary learning in children is constrained by nonword-repetition ability, and they cast doubt on the broader theory that the phonological loop functions as a language-learning device.

  14. Longitudinal Receptive American Sign Language Skills Across a Diverse Deaf Student Body.

    PubMed

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S

    2016-04-01

    This article presents results of a longitudinal study of receptive American Sign Language (ASL) skills for a large portion of the student body at a residential school for the deaf across four consecutive years. Scores were analyzed by age, gender, parental hearing status, years attending the residential school, and presence of a disability (i.e., deaf with a disability). Years 1 through 4 included the ASL Receptive Skills Test (ASL-RST); Years 2 through 4 also included the Receptive Test of ASL (RT-ASL). Student performance for both measures positively correlated with age; deaf students with deaf parents scored higher than their same-age peers with hearing parents in some instances but not others; and those with a documented disability tended to score lower than their peers without disabilities. These results provide longitudinal findings across a diverse segment of the deaf/hard of hearing residential school population. PMID:26864689

  15. Word learning in children with vocabulary deficits.

    PubMed

    Nash, Marysia; Donaldson, Morag L

    2005-04-01

    Word learning in 16 children with specific language impairment (SLI) was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CAC) and vocabulary-age controls (VAC), to examine the extent and nature of word-learning deficits in the children with SLI. The children were exposed to novel words in a story and an explicit teaching context. Five tasks assessed how much the children had learned about the words' phonological form and semantic properties after 6 repetitions (Time 1) and again after 12 repetitions (Time 2) of the words in each context. The SLI group performed significantly worse than the CAC group at both Time 1 and Time 2 on all measures of the words presented in both contexts. They performed similarly to the VAC group (who were on average 21/2 years younger) on Time 1 and Time 2 measures from both contexts, except for the Naming task at Time 2, on which their performance was significantly lower. These findings suggest that children with vocabulary deficits have difficulties with both phonological and semantic aspects of word learning.

  16. Early postnatal testosterone predicts sex-related differences in early expressive vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Kung, Karson T F; Browne, Wendy V; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Noorderhaven, Rebecca M; Hines, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    During the first few years of life, girls typically have a larger expressive vocabulary than boys. This sex difference is important since a small vocabulary may predict subsequent language difficulties, which are more prevalent in boys than girls. The masculinizing effects of early androgen exposure on neurobehavioral development are well-documented in nonhuman mammals. The present study conducted the first test of whether early postnatal testosterone concentrations influence sex differences in expressive vocabulary in toddlers. It was found that testosterone measured in saliva samples collected at 1-3 months of age, i.e., during the period called mini-puberty, negatively predicted parent-report expressive vocabulary size at 18-30 months of age in boys and in girls. Testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty also accounted for additional variance in expressive vocabulary after other predictors such as sex, child's age at vocabulary assessment, and paternal education, were taken into account. Furthermore, testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty mediated the sex difference in expressive vocabulary. These results suggest that testosterone during the early postnatal period contributes to early language development and neurobehavioral sexual differentiation in humans.

  17. Early postnatal testosterone predicts sex-related differences in early expressive vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Kung, Karson T F; Browne, Wendy V; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Noorderhaven, Rebecca M; Hines, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    During the first few years of life, girls typically have a larger expressive vocabulary than boys. This sex difference is important since a small vocabulary may predict subsequent language difficulties, which are more prevalent in boys than girls. The masculinizing effects of early androgen exposure on neurobehavioral development are well-documented in nonhuman mammals. The present study conducted the first test of whether early postnatal testosterone concentrations influence sex differences in expressive vocabulary in toddlers. It was found that testosterone measured in saliva samples collected at 1-3 months of age, i.e., during the period called mini-puberty, negatively predicted parent-report expressive vocabulary size at 18-30 months of age in boys and in girls. Testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty also accounted for additional variance in expressive vocabulary after other predictors such as sex, child's age at vocabulary assessment, and paternal education, were taken into account. Furthermore, testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty mediated the sex difference in expressive vocabulary. These results suggest that testosterone during the early postnatal period contributes to early language development and neurobehavioral sexual differentiation in humans. PMID:26970201

  18. Expressive and Receptive Vocabulary in Children with Williams and Down Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ypsilanti, A.; Grouios, G.; Alevriadou, A.; Tsapkini, K.

    2005-01-01

    Williams (WS) and Down syndromes (DS) are two genetic disorders that involve intellectual disability (ID) and have been extensively studied over the past decades because of the unique linguistic profiles they exhibit. Recent investigations seek to explore the fractionation of linguistic components within the cognitive system using genetically…

  19. Simultaneous Bilingual Language Acquisition: The Role of Parental Input on Receptive Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Boegner-Page, Sarah; Fontolliet, Salome

    2013-01-01

    Parents often turn to educators and healthcare professionals for advice on how to best support their child's language development. These professionals frequently suggest implementing the "one-parent-one-language" approach to ensure consistent exposure to both languages. The goal of this study was to understand how language exposure influences the…

  20. Receptive English Vocabulary in a Foreign Language Context: A Case Study of Preschoolers in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auleear Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah

    2014-01-01

    In Mauritius, English, the least socially used language, is the main language of literacy and the main written medium of instruction throughout the education system, starting from the first year of compulsory primary education. The importance of English as a school language is reflected in the 2003 Preschool Curriculum Guidelines, which mention…

  1. Development of Metaphor and Metonymy Comprehension: Receptive Vocabulary and Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Annaz, Dagmara

    2010-01-01

    Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy are common in our daily communication. This is one of the first studies to investigate metaphor and metonymy comprehension using a developmental approach. Forty-five typically developing individuals participated in a metaphor-metonymy verbal comprehension task incorporating 20 short…

  2. The Effects of Individualized, Online Vocabulary Instruction on Picture Vocabulary Scores: An Efficacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Charles N.; Davison, Mark L.; Graves, Michael F.; Sales, Gregory C.; Seipel, Ben; Sekhran-Sharma, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is of fundamental importance to reading comprehension, and many students lack the vocabulary knowledge necessary to facilitate learning to read. A study was conducted to determine the effects of an individualized, online vocabulary program on picture vocabulary test scores. Elementary summer school students (N = 43), entering…

  3. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  4. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  5. Teaching Vocabulary in Storybooks: Embedding Explicit Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction is a critical component of early language and literacy programs. Vocabulary skills in the early elementary school years are strong predictors of later reading achievement and there is a correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Children who have limited vocabulary in kindergarten are at high risk of…

  6. Receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control messages and adolescent smoking initiation

    PubMed Central

    Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. Methods This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10–13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007–2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. Results In 2007–2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Conclusions Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24503771

  7. Receptivity to Television Fast-Food Restaurant Marketing and Obesity Among U.S. Youth

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. Purpose The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. Methods A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15–23 years, were surveyed in 2010–2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2–4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Conclusions Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. PMID:24139768

  8. Ontogenesis of receptive fields in the rabbit striate cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathers, L. H.; Chow, K. L.; Spear, P. D.; Grobstein, P.

    1974-01-01

    The development of receptive fields in rabbit pups was investigated by measuring their responses to various light stimuli and to electric shock delivered to the optic nerve head. The pups ranged in age from three to twenty-five days, allowing correlation of findings with maturation. The data, classified according to relation with symmetric or asymmetric field types, strongly suggest that retina maturation is the key factor in the rate of development in central visual pathways, and that central synaptic connections are made before the onset of retinal activity.

  9. Label-free proteomics uncovers energy metabolism and focal adhesion regulations responsive for endometrium receptivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Zhang, Aijun; Yu, Feng; Gao, Jing; Liu, Yue; Yu, Chengli; Zhou, Hu; Xu, Chen

    2015-04-01

    The menstrual cycle of the female uterus leads to periodic changes of the endometrium. These changes are important for developing the endometrial receptivity and for achieving competency of embryo implantation. However, the molecular events underlying the endometrial receptivity process remain poorly understood. Here we applied an LC-MS-based label-free quantitative proteomic approach to compare the endometrial tissues in the midsecretory (receptive) phase with the endometrial tissues in the proliferative phase from age-matched woman (n = 6/group). The proteomes of endometrial tissues were extracted using an SDS-based detergent, digested by the filter-aided sample preparation procedures, and subsequently analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS (Orbitrap XL) with a 4 h gradient. Reliable protein expression profiles were reproducibly obtained from the endometrial tissues in the receptive and proliferative phases. A total of 2138 protein groups were quantified under highly stringent criteria with a false discovery rate of <1% for peptide and protein groups. Among these proteins, 317 proteins had differences in expression that were statistically significant between the receptive and proliferative phases. Direct protein-protein interaction network analyses of these significantly changed proteins showed that the up-regulation of creatine kinase B-type (CKB) in the receptive phase may be related to endometrium receptivity. The interaction network also showed that proteins related to cell-cell adhesion were down-regulated. Moreover, the results from KEGG pathway analyses are consistent with the protein-protein interaction results. The proteins, including alpha-actinin (ACTN), extracellular matrix proteins, integrin alpha-V, and so on, that are involved in the focal adhesion pathway were down-regulated in the receptive phase compared with the proliferative phase, which may facilitate the implantation of the fertilized ovum. Selected proteins were validated by Western blot analysis and

  10. A longitudinal investigation of the role of quantity and quality of child-directed speech in vocabulary development.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meredith L

    2012-01-01

    Quantity and quality of caregiver input was examined longitudinally in a sample of 50 parent-child dyads to determine which aspects of input contribute most to children's vocabulary skill across early development. Measures of input gleaned from parent-child interactions at child ages 18, 30, and 42months were examined in relation to children's vocabulary skill on a standardized measure 1year later (e.g., 30, 42, and 54months). Results show that controlling for socioeconomic status, input quantity, and children's previous vocabulary skill; using a diverse and sophisticated vocabulary with toddlers; and using decontextualized language (e.g., narrative) with preschoolers explains additional variation in later vocabulary ability. The differential effects of various aspects of the communicative environment at several points in early vocabulary development are discussed.

  11. Improving Online Reading and Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucky, John Paul

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find ways to improve online reading and vocabulary learning. Various new types of online reading comprehension and vocabulary development programs and tests were compared in this study to consider how useful they may be for guiding individual or classroom L2 vocabulary instruction. It explored how these programs seek…

  12. Teaching Vocabulary in the Literature Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, James

    2001-01-01

    Advocates concept-related vocabulary instruction, in which students link individual words with larger literature concepts. Outlines four steps to creating a concept-related vocabulary lesson. Offers examples of how concept-related vocabulary lessons can be conducted while reading, before reading, and after reading. Outlines web, weave, and…

  13. Vocabulary Teaching Based on Semantic-Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangru, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary is an indispensable part of language and it is of vital importance for second language learners. Wilkins (1972) points out: "without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed." Vocabulary teaching has experienced several stages characterized by grammatical-translation method, audio-lingual…

  14. Assessing Vocabulary Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica L.; Teale, William H.; Paciga, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread agreement with in the field of early childhood education that vocabulary is important to literacy achievement and that reading aloud can support vocabulary growth. However, there are unexplored and significant problems with the ways we assess young children's vocabulary learning from read-alouds. This paper critically…

  15. Vocabulary Levels and Size of Malaysian Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Bhar, Sareen Kaur; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is a fundamental requirement of language acquisition, and its competence enables independent reading and effective language acquisition. Effective language use requires adequate level of vocabulary knowledge; therefore, efforts must be made to identify students' vocabulary base for greater efficiency and competency in the language.…

  16. Using Visuals To Develop Reading Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazeli, Marilyn J.; Olle, Ruth E.

    This paper discusses research findings regarding vocabulary instruction and reading comprehension and suggests methods to develop vocabulary using visual aids. As indicated by the research, vocabulary instruction is necessary and can lead to improved comprehension; there also appears to be a strong need to relate concrete visual experiences to…

  17. Enhancing Vocabulary Development in Multiple Classroom Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Janis M.; Staton, Denise G.

    1999-01-01

    Describes ways teachers can enhance students' vocabulary development through multiple contexts available in typical middle school classroom settings. Addresses questions about vocabulary learning and offers suggestions for enhancing vocabulary with narrative and expository texts that involve multiple classroom contexts. Considers the Vocab-o-gram…

  18. How To Build a Better Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Works, Cathenia G.

    This resource booklet, intended for teachers, contains practical suggestions for promoting vocabulary enhancement in the classroom. The booklet lists and explains a number of common and less common vocabulary-building strategies and techniques, including Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy, Color Shock, Clusters, ABC Books, Anagrams, Word Banks,…

  19. Influence of Contexts on Vocabulary Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Chun-mei

    2007-01-01

    In vocabulary testing, whether to adopt context is a heat-debated topic. In the article, an experiment is designed to investigate what is the effect of zero context and sentence context on the vocabulary testing? And how do the different kinds of context in vocabulary affect the subjects' performance? The experimental result demonstrates that…

  20. Academic Listening: A Source of Vocabulary Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Karina

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study of the acquisition of English-as-a-Foreign-Language vocabulary through academic listening. Explored the effects of EFL proficiency and lecture comprehension on vocabulary acquisition as well as the relationship between vocabulary gain and the following factors: frequency of occurrence, types of word, type of word elaboration, and…

  1. Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

  2. Acoustic receptivity of compressible boundary layers: Receptivity by way of surface-temperature variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan

    1994-01-01

    The Goldstein-Ruban theory has been extended within the framework of Zavol'skii et al. to study the acoustic receptivity of compressible boundary layers. We consider the receptivity produced in a region of localized, small-amplitude variation in the surface temperature and compare it with the receptivity that is induced through a similar mechanism by a variation in the suction velocity at the surface. It is found that the orientation of the acoustic wave can have a significant impact on the receptivity process, with the maximum receptivity at a given sound-pressure level being produced by upstream oriented acoustic waves. At sufficiently low Mach numbers, the variation of receptivity with the acoustic-wave orientation can be predicted analytically and is the same for both surface suction and surface heating. However, as a result of the acoustic refraction across the mean boundary layer, the above dependence can become rather complex and, also, dependent on the type of surface nonuniformity. The results also suggest that the receptivity caused by temperature nonuniformities may turn out to be more significant than that produced by the mean-flow perturbations associated with strip suction.

  3. Teaching Vocabulary Expeditiously: Three Keys to Improving Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    Integrating vocabulary games and activities more often into the structure of the day, Thomas B. Smith establishes a word-rich environment for high school students to experiment with unfamiliar words in varying, playful contexts. Smith asserts that giving frequent opportunities for hearing, speaking, and writing in the typical context of the day is…

  4. The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

  5. Characteristics of Early Vocabulary and Grammar Development in Slovenian-Speaking Infants and Toddlers: A CDI-Adaptation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Podlesek, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research shows that vocabulary does not develop independently of grammar, representing a better predictor of the grammatical complexity of toddlers' utterances than age. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers using the…

  6. Measuring Growth in Bilingual and Monolingual Children's English Productive Vocabulary Development: The Utility of Combining Parent and Teacher Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagh, Shaher Banu; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined growth in the English productive vocabularies of bilingual and monolingual children between ages 24 and 36 months and explored the utility and validity of supplementing parent reports with teacher reports to improve the estimation of children's vocabulary. Low-income, English-speaking and English/Spanish-speaking…

  7. 24-Month-Old Children with Larger Oral Vocabularies Display Greater Academic and Behavioral Functioning at Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher…

  8. Vocabulary skills are well developed in university students with dyslexia: Evidence from multiple case studies.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Eddy; Casalis, Séverine; El Ahmadi, Abdessadek; Zira, Mélody; Poracchia-George, Florence; Colé, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Most studies in adults with developmental dyslexia have focused on identifying the deficits responsible for their persistent reading difficulties, but little is known on how these readers manage the intensive exposure to written language required to obtain a university degree. The main objective of this study was to identify certain skills, and specifically vocabulary skills, that French university students with dyslexia have developed and that may contribute to their literacy skills. We tested 20 university students with dyslexia and 20 normal readers (matched on chronological age, gender, nonverbal IQ, and level of education) in reading, phonological, vocabulary breadth (number of known words), and vocabulary depth (accuracy and precision) tasks. In comparing vocabulary measures, we used both Rasch model and single case study methodologies. Results on reading and phonological tasks confirmed the persistence of deficits in written word recognition and phonological skills. However, using the Rasch model we found that the two groups performed at the same level in the vocabulary breadth task, whereas dyslexics systematically outperformed their chronological age controls in the vocabulary depth task. These results are supplemented by multiple case studies. The vocabulary skills of French university students with dyslexia are well developed. Possible interpretations of these results are discussed.

  9. Transformation of Words into Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parveen, H. Naseema; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of a word and the changes it undergoes in its form when it is placed in the hierarchy of grammatical constituents thereby forming a new word termed as vocabulary. This change or transformation is the result of affixations. Transformation becomes essential as the words learnt cannot be used as such in a…

  10. A Vocabulary for Numerical Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton Paul

    This glossary presents a standardized nomenclature for numerical control. It defines and describes some 286 technical words, terms, abbreviations, and acronyms which form a specialized vocabulary. The aim of this glossary is to provide a means for arriving at some common understanding of terminology for numerical control technology. Numerous…

  11. Is There an "Academic Vocabulary"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Ken; Tse, Polly

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the notion of "academic vocabulary": the assumption that students of English for academic purposes (EAP) should study a core of high frequency words because they are common in an English academic register. We examine the value of the term by using Cox-head's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) to explore the distribution of its…

  12. Multisensory Strategies for Science Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husty, Sandra; Jackson, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Seeing, touching, smelling, hearing, and learning! The authors observed that their English Language Learner (ELL) students achieved a deeper understanding of the properties of matter, as well as enhanced vocabulary development, when they were guided through inquiry-based, multisensory explorations that repeatedly exposed them to words and…

  13. Trainable Mentally Handicapped: Protective Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 21 materials for teaching protective vocabulary to trainable mentally handicapped students. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and include…

  14. Testing the Receptive Skills: Some Basic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall L.

    1984-01-01

    Reacts to Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," concentrating on three areas: (1) the nature of the receptive skills and the requirements of a valid instrument to measure them, (2) the design features that are consistent with his test design principles, and (3) adaptive testing procedures.…

  15. Practical Considerations in Receptive Skills Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," focusing on the third section, "Suggestions for improvements in receptive language testing." Considers such areas as: (1) level descriptions for academic use, (2) item and item types, and (3) validation. (SED)

  16. Comprehensive Hearing Impaired Reception Program; Spring, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxman, Wendy G.

    This document presents a description and evaluation of the Comprehensive Hearing Impaired Reception Program (CHIRP). This program was designed to improve effective communication skills for hearing handicapped students whose native language was not English, and whose language deficiencies prevented them from effective participation in the learning…

  17. Language, gay pornography, and audience reception.

    PubMed

    Leap, William L

    2011-01-01

    Erotic imagery is an important component of gay pornographic cinema, particularly, where work of audience reception is concerned. However, to assume the audience engagement with the films is limited solely to the erotic realm is to underestimate the workings of ideological power in the context and aftermath of reception. For example, the director of the film under discussion here (Men of Israel; Lucas, 2009b) intended to present an erotic celebration of the nation-state. Yet, most viewers ignore the particulars of context in their comments about audience reception, placing the "Israeli" narrative within a broader framework, using transnational rather than film-specific criteria to guide their "reading" of the Israeli-centered narrative. This article uses as its entry point the language that viewers employ when describing their reactions to Men of Israel on a gay video club's Web site; this article shows how the work of audience reception may draw attention to a film's erotic details while invoking social and political messages that completely reframe the film's erotic narrative. PMID:21740219

  18. An integral sunshade for optical reception antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    Optical reception antennas (telescopes) must be capable of receiving communications even when the deep-space laser source is located within a small angle of the Sun. Direst sunlight must not be allowed to shine on the primary reflector of an optical reception antenna, because too much light would be scattered into the signal detectors. A conventional sunshade that does not obstruct the antenna aperture would have to be about five times longer than its diameter in order to receive optical communications at a solar elongation of 12 degrees without interference. Such a long sunshade could not be accommodated within the dome of any existing large-aperture astronomical facility, and providing a new dome large enough would be prohibitively expensive. It is also desirable to reduce the amount of energy a space-based large-aperture optical reception facility would expend orienting a structure with such a sizable moment of inertia. Since a large aperture optical reception antenna will probably have a hexagonally segmented primary reflector, a sunshade consisting of hexagonal tubes can be mounted in alignment with the segmentation without producing any additional geometric obstruction. An analysis of the duration and recurrence of solar-conjunction communications outages (caused when a deep-space probe near an outer planet appears to be closer to the Sun than a given minimum solar elongation), and the design equations for the integral sunshade are appended.

  19. Receptive Multilingualism in the Swiss Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthele, Raphael; Wittlin, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a particular context where receptive multilingualism at work can be observed is discussed. The Swiss armed forces underwent a series of quite dramatic downsizing measures, which lead to a situation with increased amount of mixed groups and linguistically mixed situations regarding the first/native language of officers and the…

  20. IV. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring language (vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding).

    PubMed

    Gershon, Richard C; Slotkin, Jerry; Manly, Jennifer J; Blitz, David L; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Schnipke, Deborah; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gleason, Jean Berko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Weintraub, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    Mastery of language skills is an important predictor of daily functioning and health. Vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding are relatively quick and easy to measure and correlate highly with overall cognitive functioning, as well as with success in school and work. New measures of vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding (in both English and Spanish) were developed for the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB). In the Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test (TPVT), participants hear a spoken word while viewing four pictures, and then must choose the picture that best represents the word. This approach tests receptive vocabulary knowledge without the need to read or write, removing the literacy load for children who are developing literacy and for adults who struggle with reading and writing. In the Toolbox Oral Reading Recognition Test (TORRT), participants see a letter or word onscreen and must pronounce or identify it. The examiner determines whether it was pronounced correctly by comparing the response to the pronunciation guide on a separate computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of language during childhood and the relation of language and brain function. We also review the development of the TPVT and TORRT, including information about the item calibration process and results from a validation study. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the measures are discussed. PMID:23952202

  1. IV. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring language (vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding).

    PubMed

    Gershon, Richard C; Slotkin, Jerry; Manly, Jennifer J; Blitz, David L; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Schnipke, Deborah; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gleason, Jean Berko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Weintraub, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    Mastery of language skills is an important predictor of daily functioning and health. Vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding are relatively quick and easy to measure and correlate highly with overall cognitive functioning, as well as with success in school and work. New measures of vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding (in both English and Spanish) were developed for the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB). In the Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test (TPVT), participants hear a spoken word while viewing four pictures, and then must choose the picture that best represents the word. This approach tests receptive vocabulary knowledge without the need to read or write, removing the literacy load for children who are developing literacy and for adults who struggle with reading and writing. In the Toolbox Oral Reading Recognition Test (TORRT), participants see a letter or word onscreen and must pronounce or identify it. The examiner determines whether it was pronounced correctly by comparing the response to the pronunciation guide on a separate computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of language during childhood and the relation of language and brain function. We also review the development of the TPVT and TORRT, including information about the item calibration process and results from a validation study. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the measures are discussed.

  2. Changes in frontal EEG coherence across infancy predict cognitive abilities at age 3: The mediating role of attentional control.

    PubMed

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical perspectives of cognitive development have maintained that functional integration of the prefrontal cortex across infancy underlies the emergence of attentional control and higher cognitive abilities in early childhood. To investigate these proposed relations, we tested whether functional integration of prefrontal regions across the second half of the first year predicted observed cognitive performance in early childhood 1 year prior indirectly through observed attentional control (N = 300). Results indicated that greater change in left-but not right-frontal EEG coherence between 5 and 10 months was positively associated with attentional control, cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control. Specifically, a larger increase in coherence between left frontal regions was positively associated with accuracy on a visual search task at Age 2, and visual search accuracy was positively associated with receptive vocabulary, performance on a set-shifting task (DCCS), and delay of gratification at Age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from the change in left frontal EEG coherence to 3-year cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control were significant, suggesting that internally controlled attention is a mechanism through which early neural maturation influences children's cognitive development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27441486

  3. Child-directed speech: relation to socioeconomic status, knowledge of child development and child vocabulary skill.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meredith L

    2008-02-01

    This study sought to determine why American parents from different socioeconomic backgrounds communicate in different ways with their children. Forty-seven parent-child dyads were videotaped engaging in naturalistic interactions in the home for ninety minutes at child age 2;6. Transcripts of these interactions provided measures of child-directed speech. Children's vocabulary comprehension skills were measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 2;6 and one year later at 3;6. Results indicate that: (I) child-directed speech with toddlers aged 2;6 predicts child vocabulary skill one year later, controlling for earlier toddler vocabulary skill; (2) child-directed speech relates to socioeconomic status as measured by income and education; and (3) the relation between socioeconomic status and child-directed speech is mediated by parental knowledge of child development. Potential mechanisms through which parental knowledge influences communicative behavior are discussed.

  4. Vocabulary development in Greek children: a cross-linguistic comparison using the Language Development Survey.

    PubMed

    Papaeliou, Christina F; Rescorla, Leslie A

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1;6 to 2;11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the instrument's normative sample (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000). Vocabulary size increased markedly with age, but Greek toddlers appeared to get off to a slower start in early word learning than US children. The correlation between percentage word use scores in Greek and US samples was moderate in size, indicating considerable overlap but some differences. Common nouns were the largest category among the fifty most frequent words in both samples. Numbers of adjectives and verbs were comparable across languages, but people and closed-class words were more numerous in the Greek sample. Finally, Greek late talkers showed similar patterns of vocabulary composition to those observed in typically developing Greek children.

  5. Receptivity in parallel flows: An adjoint approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Linear receptivity studies in parallel flows are aimed at understanding how external forcing couples to the natural unstable motions which a flow can support. The vibrating ribbon problem models the original Schubauer and Skramstad boundary layer experiment and represents the classic boundary layer receptivity problem. The process by which disturbances are initiated in convectively-unstable jets and shear layers has also received attention. Gaster was the first to handle the boundary layer analysis with the recognition that spatial modes, rather than temporal modes, were relevant when studying convectively-unstable flows that are driven by a time-harmonic source. The amplitude of the least stable spatial mode, far downstream of the source, is related to the source strength by a coupling coefficient. The determination of this coefficient is at the heart of this type of linear receptivity study. The first objective of the present study was to determine whether the various wave number derivative factors, appearing in the coupling coefficients for linear receptivity problems, could be reexpressed in a simpler form involving adjoint eigensolutions. Secondly, it was hoped that the general nature of this simplification could be shown; indeed, a rather elegant characterization of the receptivity properties of spatial instabilities does emerge. The analysis is quite distinct from the usual Fourier-inversion procedures, although a detailed knowledge of the spectrum of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation is still required. Since the cylinder wake analysis proved very useful in addressing control considerations, the final objective was to provide a foundation upon which boundary layer control theory may be developed.

  6. Specific language and reading skills in school-aged children and adolescents are associated with prematurity after controlling for IQ.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eliana S; Yeatman, Jason D; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M

    2011-04-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N=100) included 9-16-year old children born before 36 weeks gestation and weighing less than 2500 grams (preterm group, n=65) compared to children born at 37 weeks gestation or more (full-term group, n=35). Children born preterm had significantly lower scores than full-term controls on Performance IQ, Verbal IQ, receptive and expressive language skills, syntactic comprehension, linguistic processing speed, verbal memory, decoding, and reading comprehension but not on receptive vocabulary. Using MANCOVA, we found that SES, IQ, and prematurity all contributed to the variance in scores on a set of six non-overlapping measures of language and reading. Simple regression analyses found that after controlling for SES and Performance IQ, the degree of prematurity as measured by gestational age group was a significant predictor of linguistic processing speed, β=-.27, p<.05, R(2)=.07, verbal memory, β=.31, p<.05, R(2)=.09, and reading comprehension, β=.28, p<.05, R(2)=.08, but not of receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, or decoding. The language and reading domains where prematurity had a direct effect can be classified as fluid as opposed to crystallized functions and should be monitored in school-aged children and adolescents born preterm.

  7. Specific Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents are Associated with Prematurity after Controlling for IQ

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N = 100) included 9–16 year old children born before 36 weeks gestation weighing less than 2500 grams (preterm group, n = 65) compared to children born at 37 weeks gestation or more (full-term group, n = 35). Children born preterm had significantly lower scores than full-term controls on Performance IQ, Verbal IQ, receptive and expressive language skills, syntactic comprehension, linguistic processing speed, verbal memory, decoding, and reading comprehension but not on receptive vocabulary. Using MANCOVA, we found that SES, IQ, and prematurity all contributed to the variance in scores on a set of six non-overlapping measures of language and reading. Simple regression analyses found that after controlling for SES and Performance IQ, the degree of prematurity as measured by gestational age group was a significant predictor of linguistic processing speed, β = −.27, p < .05, R2 = .07, verbal memory, β = .31, p < .05, R2 = .09, and reading comprehension, β = .28, p < .05, R2 = .08, but not of receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, or decoding. The language and reading domains where prematurity had a direct effect can be classified as fluid as opposed to crystallized functions and should be monitored in school-age children and adolescents born preterm. PMID:21195100

  8. Motor skills in children aged 7-10 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Whyatt, Caroline P; Craig, Cathy M

    2012-09-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as indicated by a significant general motor impairment in the group with autism. However, sub-analysis of the M-ABC2 revealed that there were only 2 out of 8 subcomponent skills which showed universal significant specific deficits for the autism group; i.e. catching a ball and static balance. These results suggest that motor skill deficits associated with autism may not be pervasive but more apparent in activities demanding complex, interceptive actions or core balance ability.

  9. Infant word segmentation and childhood vocabulary development: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Leher; Steven Reznick, J; Xuehua, Liang

    2012-07-01

    Infants begin to segment novel words from speech by 7.5 months, demonstrating an ability to track, encode and retrieve words in the context of larger units. Although it is presumed that word recognition at this stage is a prerequisite to constructing a vocabulary, the continuity between these stages of development has not yet been empirically demonstrated. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether infant word segmentation skills are indeed related to later lexical development. Two word segmentation tasks, varying in complexity, were administered in infancy and related to childhood outcome measures. Outcome measures consisted of age-normed productive vocabulary percentiles and a measure of cognitive development. Results demonstrated a strong degree of association between infant word segmentation abilities at 7 months and productive vocabulary size at 24 months. In addition, outcome groups, as defined by median vocabulary size and growth trajectories at 24 months, showed distinct word segmentation abilities as infants. These findings provide the first prospective evidence supporting the predictive validity of infant word segmentation tasks and suggest that they are indeed associated with mature word knowledge. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxzLi5oLZQ8. PMID:22709398

  10. Longitudinal Receptive American Sign Language Skills across a Diverse Deaf Student Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results of a longitudinal study of receptive American Sign Language (ASL) skills for a large portion of the student body at a residential school for the deaf across four consecutive years. Scores were analyzed by age, gender, parental hearing status, years attending the residential school, and presence of a disability (i.e.,…

  11. 33 CFR 158.320 - Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND... Residue § 158.320 Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. (a) Except as allowed in paragraph...

  12. 33 CFR 158.320 - Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND... Residue § 158.320 Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. (a) Except as allowed in paragraph...

  13. 33 CFR 158.320 - Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND... Residue § 158.320 Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. (a) Except as allowed in paragraph...

  14. 33 CFR 158.320 - Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND... Residue § 158.320 Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. (a) Except as allowed in paragraph...

  15. 33 CFR 158.320 - Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND... Residue § 158.320 Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. (a) Except as allowed in paragraph...

  16. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers' vocabulary size

    PubMed Central

    Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development. PMID:25762957

  17. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers' vocabulary size.

    PubMed

    Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  18. An Investigation into the Role of Gesture in Enhancing Children's Vocabulary Command

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidari, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to explore whether non-linguistic conventions, especially gesture, have a significant impact on children's vocabulary learning. Fifty male and female Iranian children aged between 3 and 6 years of age (mean age?=?3.5) from two classes of a language institute were taught a set of lexical items using two…

  19. Emergent literacy profiles of preschool-age children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Lomax, Richard G; Justice, Laura M; Breit-Smith, Allison; Skibbe, Lori E; McGinty, Anita S

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to explore the heterogeneity of emergent literacy skills among preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) through examination of profiles of performance. Fifty-nine children with SLI were assessed on a battery of emergent literacy skills (i.e., alphabet knowledge, print concepts, emergent writing, rhyme awareness) and oral language skills (i.e., receptive/expressive vocabulary and grammar). Cluster analysis techniques identified three emergent literacy profiles: (1) Highest Emergent Literacy, Strength in Alphabet Knowledge; (2) Average Emergent Literacy, Strength in Print Concepts; and (3) Lowest Emergent Literacy across Skills. After taking into account the contribution of child age, receptive and expressive language skills made a small contribution to the prediction of profile membership. The present findings, which may be characterized as exploratory given the relatively modest sample size, suggest that preschool-age children with SLI display substantial individual differences with regard to their emergent literacy skills and that these differences cannot be fully determined by children's age or oral language performance. Replication of the present findings with a larger sample of children is needed.

  20. Emergent literacy profiles of preschool-age children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Lomax, Richard G; Justice, Laura M; Breit-Smith, Allison; Skibbe, Lori E; McGinty, Anita S

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to explore the heterogeneity of emergent literacy skills among preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) through examination of profiles of performance. Fifty-nine children with SLI were assessed on a battery of emergent literacy skills (i.e., alphabet knowledge, print concepts, emergent writing, rhyme awareness) and oral language skills (i.e., receptive/expressive vocabulary and grammar). Cluster analysis techniques identified three emergent literacy profiles: (1) Highest Emergent Literacy, Strength in Alphabet Knowledge; (2) Average Emergent Literacy, Strength in Print Concepts; and (3) Lowest Emergent Literacy across Skills. After taking into account the contribution of child age, receptive and expressive language skills made a small contribution to the prediction of profile membership. The present findings, which may be characterized as exploratory given the relatively modest sample size, suggest that preschool-age children with SLI display substantial individual differences with regard to their emergent literacy skills and that these differences cannot be fully determined by children's age or oral language performance. Replication of the present findings with a larger sample of children is needed. PMID:20586530

  1. On the receptive prosodic loss in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pell, M D

    1996-12-01

    To comprehensively explore how the processing of linguistic and affective prosodic cues is affected by idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), a battery of receptive tests was presented to eleven PD patients without intellectual or language impairment and eleven control subjects (NC) matched for age, gender, and educational attainment. Receptive abilities for both low-level (discrimination) and higher-level (identification) prosodic processing were explored; moreover, the identification of prosodic feature was tested at both the lexical level (phonemic stress perception) and over the sentential domain (prosodic pattern identification). The results obtained demonstrated a general reduction in the ability of the PD patients to identify the linguistic- and affective-prosodic meaning of utterances relative to NC subjects, without a concurrent loss in the ability to perceive phonemic stress contrasts or discriminate prosodic patterns. However, the qualitative pattern of the PD and NC groups' performance across the various identification conditions tested was remarkably uniform, indicating that only quantitative differences in comprehension abilities may have characterized the two groups. It is hypothesized that the basal ganglia form part of a functional network dedicated to prosodic processing (Blonder et al., 1989) and that the processes required to map prosodic features onto their communicative representations at the sentence level are rendered less efficient by the degenerative course of PD. PMID:8954247

  2. Eugen Bleuler 150: Bleuler's reception of Freud.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Thomas G

    2007-12-01

    On the 150th anniversary of Eugen Bleuler's birth, this article examines his reception of Sigmund Freud and his use of Freudian theory to understand the symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, in contrast to earlier interpretations of Bleuler's relationship with Freud in terms of an eventual personal and theoretical incompatibility, the article demonstrates that, although Bleuler did distance himself from the psychoanalytic movement, he remained consistent in his views on Freud's theories.

  3. Characterization of the Transcriptional Complexity of the Receptive and Pre-receptive Endometria of Dairy Goats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; An, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Rui; Fu, Ming-Zhe; Han, Peng; Peng, Jia-Yin; Hou, Jing-Xing; Zhou, Zhan-Qin; Cao, Bin-Yun; Song, Yu-Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Endometrium receptivity is essential for successful embryo implantation in mammals. However, the lack of genetic information remains an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of a receptive endometrium from the pre-receptive phase in dairy goats. In this study, more than 4 billion high-quality reads were generated and de novo assembled into 102,441 unigenes; these unigenes were annotated using published databases. A total of 3,255 unigenes that were differentially expressed (DEGs) between the PE and RE were discovered in this study (P-values < 0.05). In addition, 76,729–77,102 putative SNPs and 12,837 SSRs were discovered in this study. Bioinformatics analysis of the DEGs revealed a number of biological processes and pathways that are potentially involved in the establishment of the RE, notably including the GO terms proteolysis, apoptosis, and cell adhesion and the KEGG pathways Cell cycle and extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction. We speculated that ADCY8, VCAN, SPOCK1, THBS1, and THBS2 may play important roles in the development of endometrial receptivity. The de novo assembly provided a good starting point and will serve as a valuable resource for further investigations into endometrium receptivity in dairy goats and future studies on the genomes of goats and other related mammals. PMID:26373443

  4. Talking to children matters: early language experience strengthens processing and builds vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Weisleder, Adriana; Fernald, Anne

    2013-11-01

    Infants differ substantially in their rates of language growth, and slow growth predicts later academic difficulties. In this study, we explored how the amount of speech directed to infants in Spanish-speaking families low in socioeconomic status influenced the development of children's skill in real-time language processing and vocabulary learning. All-day recordings of parent-infant interactions at home revealed striking variability among families in how much speech caregivers addressed to their child. Infants who experienced more child-directed speech became more efficient in processing familiar words in real time and had larger expressive vocabularies by the age of 24 months, although speech simply overheard by the child was unrelated to vocabulary outcomes. Mediation analyses showed that the effect of child-directed speech on expressive vocabulary was explained by infants' language-processing efficiency, which suggests that richer language experience strengthens processing skills that facilitate language growth.

  5. A Corpus Analysis of Vocabulary Coverage and Vocabulary Learning Opportunities within a Children's Story Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Extensive reading for second language learners have been widely documented over the past few decades. However, few studies, if any, have used a corpus analysis approach to analyze the vocabulary coverage within a single-author story series, its repetition of vocabulary, and the incidental and intentional vocabulary learning opportunities therein.…

  6. The Effects of Small Group Vocabulary Instruction on Second Grade Students' Expressive Vocabularies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fariss, Laura Lester

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group vocabulary instruction above and beyond whole group, read aloud vocabulary instruction, on second grade students' expressive vocabularies. This experimental study reflected a between-subjects design as three treatment groups were compared using a pretest, posttest within…

  7. Assessing the Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategy Use and Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the correlation between direct and indirect vocabulary learning strategies along with the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, a sample of 145 low proficiency students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) completed a questionnaire concerning vocabulary learning strategy use.…

  8. Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their

  9. Doubly blessed: older adults know more vocabulary and know better what they know.

    PubMed

    Kavé, Gitit; Halamish, Vered

    2015-03-01

    This study examined age-related differences in the ability to judge one's vocabulary. Young, middle-age, and older adults completed a multiple-choice test of vocabulary, judged their confidence in each answer, and estimated their overall performance. Older adults performed better and were more confident in their knowledge than were the other 2 groups. Importantly, relative to young adults, older adults demonstrated better calibration both on item-by-item confidence judgments and on global estimates. Resolution, as defined by correlations between item-by-item performance and confidence judgments, was age-invariant. We suggest that age-related accumulation of vocabulary is accompanied by enhanced perception of mastery in one's knowledge.

  10. 24-Month-Old Children With Larger Oral Vocabularies Display Greater Academic and Behavioral Functioning at Kindergarten Entry.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher socioeconomic status households, females, and those experiencing higher quality parenting had larger oral vocabularies. Children born with very low birth weight or from households where the mother had health problems had smaller oral vocabularies. Even after extensive covariate adjustment, 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies displayed greater reading and mathematics achievement, increased behavioral self-regulation, and fewer externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors at kindergarten entry.

  11. 24-Month-Old Children With Larger Oral Vocabularies Display Greater Academic and Behavioral Functioning at Kindergarten Entry.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher socioeconomic status households, females, and those experiencing higher quality parenting had larger oral vocabularies. Children born with very low birth weight or from households where the mother had health problems had smaller oral vocabularies. Even after extensive covariate adjustment, 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies displayed greater reading and mathematics achievement, increased behavioral self-regulation, and fewer externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors at kindergarten entry. PMID:26283023

  12. 24-Month-Old Children with Larger Oral Vocabularies Display Greater Academic and Behavioral Functioning at Kindergarten Entry

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher socioeconomic status households, females, and those experiencing higher-quality parenting had larger oral vocabularies. Children born with very low birth weight or from households where the mother had health problems had smaller oral vocabularies. Even after extensive covariate adjustment, 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies displayed greater reading and mathematics achievement, increased behavioral self-regulation, and fewer externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors at kindergarten entry. PMID:26283023

  13. A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may

  14. Family relationships during infancy and later mother and father vocabulary use with young children

    PubMed Central

    Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erica; Roe, Jacqueline R.

    2009-01-01

    Very little previous research has considered the contributions of family relationships and interactions on the language input of mothers and fathers to their young children. This study examined the contributions of marital love and conflict, and broader family-level conflict, cohesion, and expressiveness to mother and father vocabulary in triadic interactions with their young children in 70 dual-earner families. It was found that after controlling for parent sensitivity and parent directive behavior, marital love and family conflict when children were 12 months of age were significant predictors of both father vocabulary and mother vocabulary to children at 24 months of age. In families with higher levels of marital love when children were 12 months of age, mothers and fathers used a more diverse vocabulary with their 24 month-old children. In families with lower levels of family conflict when children were 12 months of age, mothers and fathers used a more diverse vocabulary with their 24 month-old children. PMID:19169439

  15. Shared understanding and idiosyncratic expression in early vocabularies.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-05-01

    To what extent do toddlers have shared vocabularies? We examined CDI data collected from 14,607 infants and toddlers in five countries and measured the amount of variability between individual lexicons during development for both comprehension and production. Early lexicons are highly overlapping. However, beyond 100 words, toddlers share more words with other toddlers in comprehension than in production, even when matched for lexicon sizes. This finding points to a structural difference in early comprehension and production: Toddlers are generalists in comprehension but develop a unique, expressive voice. Variability in production decreases after two years of age, suggesting convergence to a common expressive core vocabulary. We discuss potential exogenous and endogenous contributions to the inverted U-shaped development observed in young children's expressive lexical variability.

  16. Photomultiplier reception of satellite beacon flashes.

    PubMed

    Abby, D G; Wirtanen, T E

    1969-03-01

    Experiments have been performed on the electrooptical detection of flashes from satellite-borne beacons for the purposes of establishing the time of flash at the observing site, measurement of received pulse shape, and relative measurement of received energy. Initial observations have been made of the beacons carried by the geodetic satellite GEOS-B. Time of flash has been obtained to a precision of 0.1 msec. Pulse shape and energy measurements have been made for various slant ranges and at various voltages on the photomultiplier circuits. Continued testing is directed toward microsecond timing of flash reception.

  17. Effects of Morphological Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Peter N.; Kirby, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a 20-session intervention targeting morphological word structure on vocabulary knowledge were investigated in four Grade 4 and 5 classes, assigned randomly to treatment and control conditions. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for initial vocabulary showed significant instructional effects on morphological analysis and…

  18. Glossary of Social Studies Terms and Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorov, Karen R., Comp.

    This glossary is a tool to help teachers better understand the language of social studies. It was not created to be a study guide for vocabulary tests, as learning social studies vocabulary is best done in context. The glossary is for use in conjunction with the social studies portion of Michigan's Clarifying Language in Michigan Benchmarks (MI…

  19. A Hybrid Method for Determining Technical Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwary, Deny Arnos

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of technical vocabulary has become increasingly important over the last few decades along with the advances in various subject disciplines. ESP teachers and book authors need to know what words are considered technical vocabulary when creating ESP learning materials. LSP lexicographers need to know how to determine technical vocabulary…

  20. Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

  1. Hypermedia and Vocabulary Acquisition for Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meli, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of multimedia as a delivery tool for enhancing vocabulary in second-language classrooms. The mixed method design focused on specific techniques to help students acquire Spanish vocabulary and communication skills. The theoretical framework for this study consisted of second language theories…

  2. Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge in German Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary-Sundquist, Colleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on second language vocabulary acquisition has shown that learning to use a new word is not a simple matter of making a form-meaning connection. Knowing a word instead requires mastery of as many as nine different aspects of vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 2001). The current study uses data from five beginning-level textbooks of…

  3. Mnemonic Vocabulary Instruction: Additional Effectiveness Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Joel R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four experiments with 132 seventh graders, 162 eighth graders, 75 fourth graders, and 52 third graders compared the mnemonic keyword method with various other vocabulary learning strategies. Mnemonic keyword students outperformed sentence-context and free-study counterparts and generally outperformed others on tests of vocabulary usage. (SLD)

  4. Embedding Vocabulary Instruction into the Art Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrocca, RoseAnn; Morrow, Lesley Mandel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how an elementary art specialist scaffolded learning of specific academic vocabulary during a unit on how to create hollow clay ceramic sculptures. Although much has been written recently on how elementary teachers might better teach academic vocabulary in reading and language arts contexts as well as in…

  5. Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…

  6. Building Conceptual Understanding through Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupley, William H.; Nichols, William Dee; Mraz, Maryann; Blair, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Instructional design is an integral part of a balanced approach to teaching vocabulary instruction. This article presents several instructional procedures using research-based vocabulary strategies and explains how to design and adapt those strategies in order to reach desired learning outcomes. Emphasis is placed on research-based principles that…

  7. Incidental Acquisition of Vocabulary by Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of reading on vocabulary development with adult ESL students at the National Institute of Technology (Trichirappalli, India). The researcher analyzes the performance of the students who devoted their time to reading, and the students who learned consciously the meaning of words to develop their vocabulary knowledge.…

  8. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  9. Fostering Academic Vocabulary Use in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun-Mercer, Nicole; Zimmerman, Cheryl Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Though research has established a relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic success and identified features to guide the L2 word learner through academic tasks (see Nation, 2013), less is known regarding student perceptions of academic vocabulary and the conscious decision-making process of these learners while they are writing. In…

  10. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  11. Is Form-Focused Vocabulary Instruction Worthwhile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Beniko; Krashen, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Hearing stories can result in considerable incidental vocabulary development, for both first and second language acquisition (e.g. Elley 1992; Robbins and Ehri 1994; Senechal, LeFevre, Hudson and Lawson 1996). It has also been claimed, however, that direct instruction is more effective than incidental vocabulary acquisition and that combining both…

  12. Vocabulary Practices in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Rebecca; Crandell, Jennifer DiBara

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a correlational study of the relationship between teachers' vocabulary instruction practices and pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children's vocabulary. We observed sixteen teachers during three 90-minute language arts blocks, and we assessed the performance of their 244 children on knowledge of target words and…

  13. Vocabulary Support for Independent Online Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLoup, Jean W.; Ponterio, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Frequent reading practice is one of the best ways to develop vocabulary and improve reading comprehension. "Extensive reading" (reading large amounts of text without worrying too much about details or looking up all vocabulary) and "intensive reading" (closely examining meaning and structures to be sure you figure out all the details) are both…

  14. Input-Based Incremental Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This fascinating presentation of current research undoes numerous myths about how we most effectively learn new words in a second language. In clear, reader-friendly text, the author details the successful approach of IBI vocabulary instruction, which emphasizes the presentation of target vocabulary as input early on and the incremental (gradual)…

  15. Enhancing Emotional Vocabulary in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers suggestions on enhancing emotional vocabulary in early childhood education settings. A schematic of children's emotional literacy is followed by ways to build emotional vocabulary by teaching directly, teaching incidentally, or utilizing special activities. Suggestions also address teaching children to recognize feelings in…

  16. Vocabulary Assistance before and during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessi, Stephen; Dwyer, Angelique

    2008-01-01

    Intermediate learners of Spanish read a Spanish newspaper article with vocabulary assistance either before reading, while reading, both, or without any such assistance. Reading performance was significantly better for students receiving vocabulary assistance during reading, but not for those receiving it before reading. Reading time of the…

  17. Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

  18. Building Academic Vocabulary Student Notebook, Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra

    2008-01-01

    We've changed our BAV (Building Academic Vocabulary) student materials to a sturdy bound notebook to give you a lower price and a more durable format. Instead of using loose-leaf pages, teachers can now give each student this colorful notebook that follows the 6-step method for teaching academic vocabulary. There is space for more terms, and…

  19. Implementing an Online Vocabulary Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Although vocabulary acquisition research has shed much light on practical methods for increasing lexical knowledge (Nation, 1994), many foreign language teachers hesitate to implement focused vocabulary-training programs in their classrooms. The reasons most often cited for this hesitation are associated with the difficult tasks of creating,…

  20. A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

  1. Evaluation of CALL: Initial Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allum, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary learning theory suggests that productive recall should strengthen learning of new vocabulary items (Nation, 2001). CALL can provide both the opportunities for productive recall and the feedback to motivate repeated efforts to reproduce new items. The latter capability appears to give CALL some advantages over paper-based exercises, in…

  2. Vocabulary Memorizing Strategies by Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wei-dong; Dai, Wei-ping

    2012-01-01

    The findings of the study indicate that students prefer to engage in the vocabulary learning strategies that would be most appealing to them and that would entail less manipulation of the language. Of the four vocabulary memorizing strategies cited in the study (rote repetition, structural associations, semantic strategies, and mnemonic keyword…

  3. Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydorenko, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio) on (a) the learning of written and aural word forms, (b) overall vocabulary gains, (c) attention to input, and (d) vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian…

  4. Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Digital Flashcards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…

  5. Experimentally Induced Increases in Early Gesture Lead to Increases in Spoken Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Raudenbush, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Differences in vocabulary that children bring with them to school can be traced back to the gestures they produced at the age of 1;2, which, in turn, can be traced back to the gestures their parents produced at the same age (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009a). We ask here whether child gesture can be experimentally increased and, if so, whether the…

  6. Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carol; Goswami, Usha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the phonological awareness skills of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and relationships with vocabulary and reading development. Method: Forty-three deaf children with implants who were between 5 and 15 years of age were tested; 21 had been implanted at around 2.5 years of age (Early CI group), and 22 had been…

  7. Child Vocabulary, Maternal Behavior, and Inhibitory Control Development Among Spanish-Speaking Children

    PubMed Central

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children’s inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother–child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal behavior was rated independently from the interactions. Inhibitory control was measured with a battery of tasks at ages 2½ and 3½. Greater maternal sensitivity was correlated with higher vocabulary at 2½. Greater vocabulary predicted positive growth in child inhibitory control skills from ages 2½ to 3½ in multivariable regression models that controlled for maternal education, family income, the home environment, and mothering quality. Practice or Policy These findings suggest that supporting vocabulary development in low-income Spanish-speaking children is important for the development of inhibitory control skills, an important foundation for school readiness and academic success. PMID:26306074

  8. Parents’ Education, Mothers’ Vocabulary, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Evidence From Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. I estimated the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and early child cognitive development in a sample of poor children in rural Ecuador. Methods. I used regression analysis to estimate the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and the vocabulary, memory, and visual integration skills of children at early ages, controlling for possible confounders. The study is based on a longitudinal cohort of children in rural Ecuador (n = 2118). Results. The schooling and vocabulary levels of mothers were strong predictors of the cognitive development of young children. Household wealth and child's height, weight, and hemoglobin levels explained only a modest fraction of the observed associations. The vocabulary levels of mothers and children were more strongly correlated among older children in the sample, suggesting that the effects of a richer maternal vocabulary are cumulative. Conclusions. Differences in children's cognitive outcomes start very early, which has important implications for the intergenerational transmission of poverty and inequality. Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children, perhaps through parenting programs or high-quality center-based care, hold promise. PMID:22021308

  9. The effects of speech production and vocabulary training on different components of spoken language performance.

    PubMed

    Paatsch, Louise E; Blamey, Peter J; Sarant, Julia Z; Bow, Catherine P

    2006-01-01

    A group of 21 hard-of-hearing and deaf children attending primary school were trained by their teachers on the production of selected consonants and on the meanings of selected words. Speech production, vocabulary knowledge, reading aloud, and speech perception measures were obtained before and after each type of training. The speech production training produced a small but significant improvement in the percentage of consonants correctly produced in words. The vocabulary training improved knowledge of word meanings substantially. Performance on speech perception and reading aloud were significantly improved by both types of training. These results were in accord with the predictions of a mathematical model put forward to describe the relationships between speech perception, speech production, and language measures in children (Paatsch, Blamey, Sarant, Martin, & Bow, 2004). These training data demonstrate that the relationships between the measures are causal. In other words, improvements in speech production and vocabulary performance produced by training will carry over into predictable improvements in speech perception and reading scores. Furthermore, the model will help educators identify the most effective methods of improving receptive and expressive spoken language for individual children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

  10. Receptivity to Bariatric Surgery in Qualified Patients.

    PubMed

    Fung, Michael; Wharton, Sean; Macpherson, Alison; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective intervention for weight loss and diabetes management. Despite this, many patients qualified for bariatric surgery are not interested in undergoing the procedure. The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing receptivity to bariatric surgery among those who qualify for the procedure. Methods. Patients attending a publicly funded weight management clinic who qualified for bariatric surgery were asked to complete an elective questionnaire between February 2013 and April 2014. Results. A total of 371 patients (72% female) completed the questionnaire. Only 87 of 371 (23%) participants were interested in bariatric surgery. Individuals interested in bariatric surgery had a higher BMI (48.0 versus 46.2 kg/m(2), P = 0.03) and believed that they would lose more weight with surgery (51 versus 44 kg, P = 0.0069). Those who scored highly on past weight loss success and financial concerns were less likely to be interested in bariatric surgery, whereas those who scored highly on high receptivity to surgery and positive social support were more likely to be interested in bariatric surgery. Conclusion. Although participants overestimated the effect of bariatric surgery on weight loss, most were still not interested in bariatric surgery. PMID:27516900

  11. Receptivity to Bariatric Surgery in Qualified Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Michael; Wharton, Sean; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective intervention for weight loss and diabetes management. Despite this, many patients qualified for bariatric surgery are not interested in undergoing the procedure. The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing receptivity to bariatric surgery among those who qualify for the procedure. Methods. Patients attending a publicly funded weight management clinic who qualified for bariatric surgery were asked to complete an elective questionnaire between February 2013 and April 2014. Results. A total of 371 patients (72% female) completed the questionnaire. Only 87 of 371 (23%) participants were interested in bariatric surgery. Individuals interested in bariatric surgery had a higher BMI (48.0 versus 46.2 kg/m2, P = 0.03) and believed that they would lose more weight with surgery (51 versus 44 kg, P = 0.0069). Those who scored highly on past weight loss success and financial concerns were less likely to be interested in bariatric surgery, whereas those who scored highly on high receptivity to surgery and positive social support were more likely to be interested in bariatric surgery. Conclusion. Although participants overestimated the effect of bariatric surgery on weight loss, most were still not interested in bariatric surgery. PMID:27516900

  12. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  13. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  14. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning

    PubMed Central

    BJORK, ROBERT A.; KROLL, JUDITH F.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  15. Extension and Integration of the Gene Ontology (GO): Combining GO Vocabularies With External Vocabularies

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David P.; Blake, Judith A.; Richardson, Joel E.; Ringwald, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Structured vocabulary development enhances the management of information in biological databases. As information grows, handling the complexity of vocabularies becomes difficult. Defined methods are needed to manipulate, expand and integrate complex vocabularies. The Gene Ontology (GO) project provides the scientific community with a set of structured vocabularies to describe domains of molecular biology. The vocabularies are used for annotation of gene products and for computational annotation of sequence data sets. The vocabularies focus on three concepts universal to living systems, biological process, molecular function and cellular component. As the vocabularies expand to incorporate terms needed by diverse annotation communities, species-specific terms become problematic. In particular, the use of species-specific anatomical concepts remains unresolved. We present a method for expansion of GO into areas outside of the three original universal concept domains. We combine concepts from two orthogonal vocabularies to generate a larger, more specific vocabulary. The example of mammalian heart development is presented because it addresses two issues that challenge GO; inclusion of organism-specific anatomical terms, and proliferation of terms and relationships. The combination of concepts from orthogonal vocabularies provides a robust representation of relevant terms and an opportunity for evaluation of hypothetical concepts. PMID:12466303

  16. Extension and integration of the gene ontology (GO): combining GO vocabularies with external vocabularies.

    PubMed

    Hill, David P; Blake, Judith A; Richardson, Joel E; Ringwald, Martin

    2002-12-01

    Structured vocabulary development enhances the management of information in biological databases. As information grows, handling the complexity of vocabularies becomes difficult. Defined methods are needed to manipulate, expand and integrate complex vocabularies. The Gene Ontology (GO) project provides the scientific community with a set of structured vocabularies to describe domains of molecular biology. The vocabularies are used for annotation of gene products and for computational annotation of sequence data sets. The vocabularies focus on three concepts universal to living systems, biological process, molecular function and cellular component. As the vocabularies expand to incorporate terms needed by diverse annotation communities, species-specific terms become problematic. In particular, the use of species-specific anatomical concepts remains unresolved. We present a method for expansion of GO into areas outside of the three original universal concept domains. We combine concepts from two orthogonal vocabularies to generate a larger, more specific vocabulary. The example of mammalian heart development is presented because it addresses two issues that challenge GO; inclusion of organism-specific anatomical terms, and proliferation of terms and relationships. The combination of concepts from orthogonal vocabularies provides a robust representation of relevant terms and an opportunity for evaluation of hypothetical concepts.

  17. A randomised controlled trial of nonlinear frequency compression versus conventional processing in hearing aids: speech and language of children at 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa YC; Day, Julia; Zhang, Vicky; Dillon, Harvey; Van Buynder, Patricia; Seeto, Mark; Hou, Sanna; Marnane, Vivienne; Thomson, Jessica; Street, Laura; Wong, Angela; Burns, Lauren; Flynn, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) on children’s development of speech and language at 3 years of age. Design A randomised controlled trial was conducted as part of the population-based Longitudinal study on Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI). Participants were randomly assigned to fitting with NLFC (Phonak Naida V SP or UP) or with conventional processing in hearing aids, prescribed by using either the NAL or the DSL formula. Standardized tests of speech production, receptive and expressive language were administered, and parent ratings were collected. All assessments were double-blinded. study sample Participants were 44 of the 450 children in the LOCHI cohort. Results Compared to children using conventional processing, receptive and expressive language was higher but receptive vocabulary and consonant articulation scores were lower for children who use NLFC. There was increased substitution of affricates by fricatives for children using NLFC, compared to children using conventional amplification. After allowing for the effect of multiple demographic variables, the difference in global language scores between groups was not significant (effect: 0.8 [confidence interval: −6.7, 8.3]). Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to support a difference in language ability between children using NLFC and those using conventional amplification. PMID:24350695

  18. Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge Using a Temporal Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanabe, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study addressed the role of speed as a factor in tests of second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge, presupposing that speed of performance is important in actual language use. Research questions were: (a) Do learners with a larger vocabulary size answer faster on an L2 vocabulary breadth test than smaller vocabulary sized learners?;…

  19. Vocabulary: Needed If More Children Are To Read Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Notes that vocabulary has long been recognized as a strong determinant of reading success. Discusses how children's vocabulary knowledge is largely determined by informal factors, such as parental interaction and other sources, such as the television. Addresses individual differences in vocabulary acquisition; amount of vocabulary needed for…

  20. Effects of Individualized Word Retrieval in Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Scheltinga, Femke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary instructions. Children performed extra word retrieval…

  1. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  2. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  3. Discerning lived spirituality: the reception of otherness.

    PubMed

    Walton, Martin Neal

    2013-06-01

    A previous article focused on an analysis of prominent conceptualizations of spirituality in health care. The encompassing character of those approaches was viewed as problematic because too little attention is paid to the distinctiveness and particularities of spiritual experience. This article argues that the criteria gleaned from the prior analysis provide an impetus for a constructive discernment proposal of lived spirituality. The experience of otherness is provides a central clue to an understanding of spirituality particularly by two key terms, receptivity and transformation, as central characterizations of lived spirituality. These terms are investigated as they embrace operational potential for chaplaincy care. The article concludes with a reflection on chaplaincy care as it relates to spiritual practice. PMID:24040742

  4. The reception of relativity in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Danian

    2007-09-01

    Having introduced the theory of relativity from Japan, the Chinese quickly and enthusiastically embraced it during the May Fourth Movement, virtually without controversy. This unique passion for and openness to relativity, which helped advance the study of theoretical physics in China in the 1930s, was gradually replaced by imported Soviet criticism after 1949. During the Cultural Revolution, radical Chinese ideologues sponsored organized campaigns against Einstein and relativity, inflicting serious damage on Chinese science and scientific education. China's economic reforms in the late 1970s empowered scientists and presented them with the opportunity to rehabilitate Einstein and call for social democracy. Einstein has since become the symbol in China of the unity of science and democracy, the two eminent objectives of the May Fourth Movement that remain to be achieved in full. Using the reception of relativity as a case study, the essay also discusses issues involving the historical study of modern Chinese science.

  5. The reception of relativity in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Danian

    2007-09-01

    Having introduced the theory of relativity from Japan, the Chinese quickly and enthusiastically embraced it during the May Fourth Movement, virtually without controversy. This unique passion for and openness to relativity, which helped advance the study of theoretical physics in China in the 1930s, was gradually replaced by imported Soviet criticism after 1949. During the Cultural Revolution, radical Chinese ideologues sponsored organized campaigns against Einstein and relativity, inflicting serious damage on Chinese science and scientific education. China's economic reforms in the late 1970s empowered scientists and presented them with the opportunity to rehabilitate Einstein and call for social democracy. Einstein has since become the symbol in China of the unity of science and democracy, the two eminent objectives of the May Fourth Movement that remain to be achieved in full. Using the reception of relativity as a case study, the essay also discusses issues involving the historical study of modern Chinese science. PMID:17970426

  6. Developmental Stages in Receptive Grammar Acquisition: A Processability Theory Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyl, Aafke; Housen, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a new look at the topic of developmental stages in the second language (L2) acquisition of morphosyntax by analysing receptive learner data, a language mode that has hitherto received very little attention within this strand of research (for a recent and rare study, see Spinner, 2013). Looking at both the receptive and productive…

  7. The Comparative Reception of Darwinism: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric…

  8. Teacher Receptivity to System-Wide Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moroz, Rose; Waugh, Russell F.

    2000-01-01

    Examines Western Australian high-school teachers' receptivity to a systemwide educational change, the use of (mandated) student-outcome statements. Teachers' receptivity is related to their beliefs about the change and to their attitudes and beliefs about its nonmonetary cost benefits, significant- other support, and comparison with the previous…

  9. Cross-National Policy Borrowing: Understanding Reception and Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2014-01-01

    The article examines two key concepts in research on policy borrowing and lending that are often used to explain why and how educational reforms travel across national boundaries: reception and translation. The studies on reception analyse the political, economic, and cultural reasons that account for the attractiveness of a reform from elsewhere.…

  10. Seeing, wanting, owning: the relationship between receptivity to tobacco marketing and smoking susceptibility in young people

    PubMed Central

    Feighery, E.; Borzekowski, D.; Schooler, C.; Flora, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the effect of the tobacco industry's marketing practices on adolescents by examining the relationship between their receptivity to these practices and their susceptibility to start smoking.
DESIGN—Paper-and-pencil surveys measuring association with other smokers, exposure to tobacco industry marketing strategies, experience with smoking, and resolve not to smoke in the future.
SETTING—25 randomly selected classrooms in five middle schools in San Jose, California.
SUBJECTS—571 seventh graders with an average age of 13 years and 8 months; 57% were female. Forty-five per cent of the students were Asian, 38% were Hispanic, 12% were white, and 5% were black.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Exposure to social influences, receptivity to marketing strategies, susceptibility to start smoking.
RESULTS—About 70% of the participants indicated at least moderate receptivity to tobacco marketing materials. Children who are more receptive are also more susceptible to start smoking. In addition to demographics and social influences, receptivity to tobacco marketing materials was found to be strongly associated with susceptibility.
CONCLUSIONS—Tobacco companies conduct marketing campaigns that effectively capture teenage attention and stimulate desire for their promotional items. These marketing strategies may function to move young teenagers from non-smoking status toward regular use of tobacco. Our results demonstrate that there is a clear association between tobacco marketing practices and youngsters' susceptibility to smoke. The findings, along with other research, provide compelling support for regulating the manner in which tobacco products are marketed, to protect young people from the tobacco industry's strategies to reach them.


Keywords: adolescents; advertising; smoking initiation PMID:9789929

  11. Mathematics Vocabulary and the Culturally Different Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbe, Douglas G.

    1985-01-01

    A study of mathematical vocabulary conducted with Navajo Indians in grade four is discussed. How students processed mathematical terms and concepts is described, with problems for Navajo students noted. Recommendations are included. (MNS)

  12. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  13. Fundamental Vocabulary Selection Based on Word Familiarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Kaname; Kanasugi, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeaki

    This paper proposes a new method for selecting fundamental vocabulary. We are presently constructing the Fundamental Vocabulary Knowledge-base of Japanese that contains integrated information on syntax, semantics and pragmatics, for the purposes of advanced natural language processing. This database mainly consists of a lexicon and a treebank: Lexeed (a Japanese Semantic Lexicon) and the Hinoki Treebank. Fundamental vocabulary selection is the first step in the construction of Lexeed. The vocabulary should include sufficient words to describe general concepts for self-expandability, and should not be prohibitively large to construct and maintain. There are two conventional methods for selecting fundamental vocabulary. The first is intuition-based selection by experts. This is the traditional method for making dictionaries. A weak point of this method is that the selection strongly depends on personal intuition. The second is corpus-based selection. This method is superior in objectivity to intuition-based selection, however, it is difficult to compile a sufficiently balanced corpora. We propose a psychologically-motivated selection method that adopts word familiarity as the selection criterion. Word familiarity is a rating that represents the familiarity of a word as a real number ranging from 1 (least familiar) to 7 (most familiar). We determined the word familiarity ratings statistically based on psychological experiments over 32 subjects. We selected about 30,000 words as the fundamental vocabulary, based on a minimum word familiarity threshold of 5. We also evaluated the vocabulary by comparing its word coverage with conventional intuition-based and corpus-based selection over dictionary definition sentences and novels, and demonstrated the superior coverage of our lexicon. Based on this, we conclude that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods for fundamental vocabulary selection.

  14. Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

  15. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  16. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  17. Improving Comprehension in Adolescents with Severe Receptive Language Impairments: A Randomized Control Trial of Intervention for Coordinating Conjunctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbels, Susan H.; Maric, Nataša; Murphy, Aoife; Turner, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little evidence exists for the effectiveness of therapy for children with receptive language difficulties, particularly those whose difficulties are severe and persistent. Aims: To establish the effectiveness of explicit speech and language therapy with visual support for secondary school-aged children with language impairments…

  18. Matthew Effects in Young Readers: Reading Comprehension and Reading Experience Aid Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Kate; Oakhill, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The authors report data from a longitudinal study of the reading development of children who were assessed in the years of their 8th, 11th, 14th, and 16th birthdays. They examine the evidence for Matthew effects in reading and vocabulary between ages 8 and 11 in groups of children identified with good and poor reading comprehension at 8 years.…

  19. Impacting Oral Language in Kindergarten through Sophisticated Vocabulary and the Kinesthetic Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopf, Sigrid D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes the details of a study that explored what possible effects might occur in the area of oral language skills when kindergarten-age children from low socioeconomic backgrounds are exposed to sophisticated vocabulary and are engaged actively through dramatization and movement with a school's existing literacy curriculum. A…

  20. Pause and Utterance Duration in Child-Directed Speech in Relation to Child Vocabulary Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marklund, Ulrika; Marklund, Ellen; Lacerda, Francisco; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna

    2015-01-01

    This study compares parental pause and utterance duration in conversations with Swedish speaking children at age 1;6 who have either a large, typical, or small expressive vocabulary, as measured by the Swedish version of the McArthur-Bates CDI. The adjustments that parents do when they speak to children are similar across all three vocabulary…

  1. Evaluation of a Principled Approach to Vocabulary Learning in Mainstream Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Pip; Vance, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that a significant number of children enter primary school with insufficient vocabulary knowledge. This study investigates whether a small group daily word learning programme delivered by the class teacher can improve word learning in young children. Eighteen children, aged five to six years, with English as an additional…

  2. The Impact of the "First Language First" Model on Vocabulary Development among Preschool Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the role of the "First Language First" model for preschool bilingual education in the development of vocabulary depth. The languages studied were Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among bilingual children aged 4-5 years in Israel. According to this model, the children's first language of…

  3. Lexical Development in Korean: Vocabulary Size, Lexical Composition, and Late Talking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Lee, Youn Mi Cathy; Oh, Kyung Ja; Kim, Young Ah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to compare vocabulary size, lexical composition, and late talking in large samples of Korean and U.S. children ages 18-35 months. Method: Data for 2,191 Korean children (211 children recruited "offline" through preschools, and 1,980 recruited "online" via the Internet) and 274 U.S.…

  4. Exploration of Mnemonics for ESL/EFL Vocabulary: Employing the Depth and Elaboration of Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Wenpeng; Young, Barbara Newman

    2015-01-01

    Sound, form, meaning, and usage are four essentials of a word. English is alphabetic in its writing system. A word's pronunciation is usually connected with its form; however, the relationship between sound and meaning has been controversial throughout the ages. Vocabulary mnemonics differ from each other in their primary focus of attention.…

  5. Distributed acoustic receptivity in laminar flow control configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan

    1992-01-01

    A model problem related to distributed receptivity to free-stream acoustic waves in laminar flow control (LFC) configurations is studied, within the Orr-Sommerfield framework, by a suitable extension of the Goldstein-Ruban theory for receptivity due to localized disturbances on the airfoil surface. The results, thus, complement the earlier work on the receptivity produced by local variations in the surface suction and/or surface admittance. In particular, we show that the cumulative effect of the distributed receptivity can be substantially larger than that of a single, isolated suction strip or slot. Furthermore, even if the receptivity is spread out over very large distances, the most effective contributions come from a relatively short region in vicinity of the lower branch of the neutral stability curve. The length scale of this region is intermediate to that of the mean of these two length scales. Finally, it is found that the receptivity is effectively dominated by a narrow band of Fourier components from the wall-suction and admittance distributions, roughly corresponding to a detuning of less than ten percent with respect to the neutral instability wavenumber at the frequency under consideration. The results suggest that the drop-off in receptivity magnitudes away from the resonant wavenumber is nearly independent of the frequency parameter.

  6. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimy, Ramin; Shams, Kiana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary test score. To achieve this aim, fifty Intermediate level students from Kish English Institute were randomly selected from among fifteen classes after administering the Oxford Placement Test (OPT). Then, an intermediate level…

  7. EFL Learners' Vocabulary Consolidation Strategy Use and Corresponding Performance on Vocabulary Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study describes English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' use of vocabulary consolidation strategies and explores the connection between strategy use and vocabulary learning outcomes. This study included 218 participants who were students from five freshman English classes at a university in Taiwan. Students' self-reports on their use of…

  8. A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

  9. The Effect of Using Vocabulary Flash Card on Iranian Pre-University Students' Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komachali, Maryam Eslahcar; Khodareza, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of using vocabulary flash card on Iranian pre-university students' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study comprised 50 female learners. They were randomly assigned into two homogeneous groups each consisting of 25 learners. The control group received the traditional treatment…

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size of ELT Students at EMU in Northern Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani; Pourshahian, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    This research study aimed at exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of 125 undergraduate English Language Teaching students at Eastern Mediterranean University. This research study was a correlational survey study of descriptive nature. The major findings of this study were as follows. First, the…

  11. The Effects of Techniques of Vocabulary Portfolio on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Baftani, Fahimeh Nasiri

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different techniques of vocabulary portfolio including word map, word wizard, concept wheel, visual thesaurus, and word rose on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production, a sample of 75 female EFL learners of Kish Day Language Institute in Karaj, Iran were selected. They were in five groups and each group received…

  12. What's in a Word? Using Content Vocabulary to "Generate" Growth in General Academic Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanigan, Kevin; Templeton, Shane; Hayes, Latisha

    2012-01-01

    The role of vocabulary knowledge in supporting students' comprehension and understanding of their content-area reading is critical. This article explores how content-area teachers can help students become aware of, understand, and apply generative knowledge about English words to grow and develop their vocabularies. Generative vocabulary…

  13. Vocabulary Notebook: A Digital Solution to General and Specific Vocabulary Learning Problems in a CLIL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazo, Plácido; Rodríguez, Romén; Fumero, Dácil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will introduce an innovative software platform that can be especially useful in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) context. This tool is called Vocabulary Notebook, and has been developed to solve all the problems that traditional (paper) vocabulary notebooks have. This tool keeps focus on the personalisation of…

  14. Effects of Four Vocabulary Exercises on Facilitating Learning Vocabulary Meaning, Form, and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to answer the questions concerning whether composition tasks or blank-filling tasks better facilitate vocabulary learning, which aspect of vocabulary knowledge is enhanced, whether the benefits can be retained over two weeks, and which task is more suitable to foreign language classrooms facing the challenge of time…

  15. Vocabulary Theatre: A Peer-Teaching Approach for Academic Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Elizabeth; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods counterbalanced study compared the gain score means of two different approaches to vocabulary acquisition--Vocabulary Theater (VT) and Teacher Directed Instruction (TDI) for 8th grade students from three schools in New York. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of a peer teaching approach on students' vocabulary…

  16. Comparing Multidimensional and Continuum Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: An Empirical Examination of the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jeffrey; Batty, Aaron Olaf; Bovee, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Second language vocabulary acquisition has been modeled both as multidimensional in nature and as a continuum wherein the learner's knowledge of a word develops along a cline from recognition through production. In order to empirically examine and compare these models, the authors assess the degree to which the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS;…

  17. Word knowledge in the crowd: Measuring vocabulary size and word prevalence in a massive online experiment.

    PubMed

    Keuleers, Emmanuel; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Brysbaert, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We use the results of a large online experiment on word knowledge in Dutch to investigate variables influencing vocabulary size in a large population and to examine the effect of word prevalence-the percentage of a population knowing a word-as a measure of word occurrence. Nearly 300,000 participants were presented with about 70 word stimuli (selected from a list of 53,000 words) in an adapted lexical decision task. We identify age, education, and multilingualism as the most important factors influencing vocabulary size. The results suggest that the accumulation of vocabulary throughout life and in multiple languages mirrors the logarithmic growth of number of types with number of tokens observed in text corpora (Herdan's law). Moreover, the vocabulary that multilinguals acquire in related languages seems to increase their first language (L1) vocabulary size and outweighs the loss caused by decreased exposure to L1. In addition, we show that corpus word frequency and prevalence are complementary measures of word occurrence covering a broad range of language experiences. Prevalence is shown to be the strongest independent predictor of word processing times in the Dutch Lexicon Project, making it an important variable for psycholinguistic research.

  18. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  19. Numerical Studies of Boundary-Layer Receptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Helen L.

    1995-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the acoustic receptivity process on a semi-infinite flat plate with a modified-super-elliptic (MSE) leading edge are performed. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in stream-function/vorticity form in a general curvilinear coordinate system. The steady basic-state solution is found by solving the governing equations using an alternating direction implicit (ADI) procedure which takes advantage of the parallelism present in line-splitting techniques. Time-harmonic oscillations of the farfield velocity are applied as unsteady boundary conditions to the unsteady disturbance equations. An efficient time-harmonic scheme is used to produce the disturbance solutions. Buffer-zone techniques have been applied to eliminate wave reflection from the outflow boundary. The spatial evolution of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves is analyzed and compared with experiment and theory. The effects of nose-radius, frequency, Reynolds number, angle of attack, and amplitude of the acoustic wave are investigated. This work is being performed in conjunction with the experiments at the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel under the direction of Professor William Saric. The simulations are of the same configuration and parameters used in the wind-tunnel experiments.

  20. Receptive females mitigate costs of sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Harano, T

    2015-02-01

    Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating.

  1. Paper and people: the work of the casualty reception clerk.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D

    1989-12-01

    This paper examines the exercise of discretion by casualty reception staff, focussing on the problems of accountability that arise when their judgements help shape the process of patient categorization that culminates in clinical diagnosis. Rules and guidelines which ostensibly relate to bureaucratic objectives, are applied in ways which reflect situational exigencies of reception work, and values embedded in organisational culture. But reception staff are reluctant to acknowledge the importance of their decisions, and, particularly where judgements relate to patient condition, present rule-use as a straightforward and certain activity in which interpretation plays little part. PMID:10304220

  2. Language Development in School-Age Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, A.; Abbeduto, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Girls with fragile X syndrome (FXS) have a wide range of cognitive and language abilities. The range of language outcomes experienced by girls with FXS, however, has been relatively unexplored. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine receptive and expressive language, with a focus on vocabulary and syntax, in a group of…

  3. Low-SES children's eyewitness memory: the effects of verbal labels and vocabulary skills.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yoojin; Kulkofsky, Sarah; Debaran, Francisco; Wang, Qi; Hart, Sybil L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the verbal labels procedure and vocabulary skills on low-socioeconomic status (SES) preschool children's eyewitness memory. Children (N = 176) aged 3-5 years witnessed a conflict event and were then questioned about it in either a standard or a verbal labels interview. Findings revealed that children with higher rather than lower vocabulary skills produced more complete and accurate memories. Children who were given the verbal labels interview recalled more information, which included both correct and incorrect details. Overall, the verbal labels procedure did not improve children's performance on direct questions, but children with low vocabulary skills answered direct questions more accurately if they were given the verbal labels interview than when they were not. Implications of the findings for memory performance of low-SES children are discussed.

  4. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms. PMID:27483739

  5. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  6. The Influence of Spelling Ability on Vocabulary Choices When Writing for Children With Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is a prerequisite to expressing vocabulary in writing. Research has shown that children with dyslexia are hesitant spellers when composing. This study aimed to determine whether the hesitant spelling of children with dyslexia, evidenced by frequent pausing, affects vocabulary choices when writing. A total of 31 children with dyslexia, mean age 9 years, were compared to typically developing groups of children: the first matched by age, the second by spelling ability. Oral vocabulary was measured and children completed a written and verbal compositional task. Lexical diversity comparisons were made across written and verbal compositions to highlight the constraint of having to select and spell words. A digital writing tablet recorded the writing. Children with dyslexia and the spelling-ability group made a high proportion of spelling errors and within-word pauses, and had a lower lexical diversity within their written compositions compared to their verbal compositions. The age-matched peers demonstrated the opposite pattern. Spelling ability and pausing predicted 53% of the variance in written lexical diversity of children with dyslexia, demonstrating the link between spelling and vocabulary when writing. Oral language skills had no effect. Lexical diversity correlated with written and verbal text quality for all groups. Practical implications are discussed and related to writing models.

  7. Interior view, anteroom of the postmaster general's reception hall; shown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, anteroom of the postmaster general's reception hall; shown here are two of the six aluminum statues of postal delivery men - New Post Office Building, Twelfth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Reception of longitudinal vector potential radiation with a plasma antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Robert K. Jr.

    2013-07-28

    To help resolve the long-running debate between physicists and engineers regarding the existence of the magnetic vector potential, herewith we describe an experiment demonstrating reception of time-harmonic vector potential radiation at 1.3 GHz.

  9. 45. Everett, Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN FROM RECEPTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Everett, Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN FROM RECEPTION HALL LOOKING EAST ACROSS ARRIVAL LOBBY FLOOR - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    View from the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Scene show NASA/JSC Director Aaron Cohen talking with NASA Administrator Richard H. Truly and his wife, Cody.

  11. Interior view of Gold Star Mothers' reception room from northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of Gold Star Mothers' reception room from northwest. Note c. 1935 furniture and fireplace with early electric grate. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Superintendent's Quarters, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  12. 115. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION AREA, DETAIL OF GRAINED RADIATOR CABINET - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 12. INTERIOR, SHOWING PART OF RECEPTION ROOM IN CENTER SECTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR, SHOWING PART OF RECEPTION ROOM IN CENTER SECTION. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort David A. Russell, Red Cross Building, Third Street between Randall Avenue & Tenth Cavalry Avenue, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  14. 10. INTERIOR, SHOWING RECEPTION ROOM IN CENTER SECTION, WITH MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR, SHOWING RECEPTION ROOM IN CENTER SECTION, WITH MAIN ENTRANCE AT RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Fort David A. Russell, Red Cross Building, Third Street between Randall Avenue & Tenth Cavalry Avenue, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  15. Lexical Processing in School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Semantics.

    PubMed

    Haebig, Eileen; Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) often have immature lexical-semantic knowledge; however, the organization of lexical-semantic knowledge is poorly understood. This study examined lexical processing in school-age children with ASD, SLI, and typical development, who were matched on receptive vocabulary. Children completed a lexical decision task, involving words with high and low semantic network sizes and nonwords. Children also completed nonverbal updating and shifting tasks. Children responded more accurately to words from high than from low semantic networks; however, follow-up analyses identified weaker semantic network effects in the SLI group. Additionally, updating and shifting abilities predicted lexical processing, demonstrating similarity in the mechanisms which underlie semantic processing in children with ASD, SLI, and typical development.

  16. Uterine Receptivity to Human Embryonic Implantation: Histology, Biomarkers, and Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanova, L; Hamilton, AE; Giudice, LC

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic implantation is a dynamic process of paracrine interactions between the maternal compartment and the conceptus and involves a receptive endometrium and a developmentally competent blastocyst. Herein, we review histology, clinical approaches, and the promise of transcriptomics in elucidating mechanisms underlying implantation and development of biomarkers of uterine receptivity - with an eye to diagnose and treat implantation-based disorders of miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, and infertility. PMID:18035563

  17. The Essential Complexity of Auditory Receptive Fields

    PubMed Central

    Thorson, Ivar L.; Liénard, Jean; David, Stephen V.

    2015-01-01

    Encoding properties of sensory neurons are commonly modeled using linear finite impulse response (FIR) filters. For the auditory system, the FIR filter is instantiated in the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF), often in the framework of the generalized linear model. Despite widespread use of the FIR STRF, numerous formulations for linear filters are possible that require many fewer parameters, potentially permitting more efficient and accurate model estimates. To explore these alternative STRF architectures, we recorded single-unit neural activity from auditory cortex of awake ferrets during presentation of natural sound stimuli. We compared performance of > 1000 linear STRF architectures, evaluating their ability to predict neural responses to a novel natural stimulus. Many were able to outperform the FIR filter. Two basic constraints on the architecture lead to the improved performance: (1) factorization of the STRF matrix into a small number of spectral and temporal filters and (2) low-dimensional parameterization of the factorized filters. The best parameterized model was able to outperform the full FIR filter in both primary and secondary auditory cortex, despite requiring fewer than 30 parameters, about 10% of the number required by the FIR filter. After accounting for noise from finite data sampling, these STRFs were able to explain an average of 40% of A1 response variance. The simpler models permitted more straightforward interpretation of sensory tuning properties. They also showed greater benefit from incorporating nonlinear terms, such as short term plasticity, that provide theoretical advances over the linear model. Architectures that minimize parameter count while maintaining maximum predictive power provide insight into the essential degrees of freedom governing auditory cortical function. They also maximize statistical power available for characterizing additional nonlinear properties that limit current auditory models. PMID:26683490

  18. The Essential Complexity of Auditory Receptive Fields.

    PubMed

    Thorson, Ivar L; Liénard, Jean; David, Stephen V

    2015-12-01

    Encoding properties of sensory neurons are commonly modeled using linear finite impulse response (FIR) filters. For the auditory system, the FIR filter is instantiated in the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF), often in the framework of the generalized linear model. Despite widespread use of the FIR STRF, numerous formulations for linear filters are possible that require many fewer parameters, potentially permitting more efficient and accurate model estimates. To explore these alternative STRF architectures, we recorded single-unit neural activity from auditory cortex of awake ferrets during presentation of natural sound stimuli. We compared performance of > 1000 linear STRF architectures, evaluating their ability to predict neural responses to a novel natural stimulus. Many were able to outperform the FIR filter. Two basic constraints on the architecture lead to the improved performance: (1) factorization of the STRF matrix into a small number of spectral and temporal filters and (2) low-dimensional parameterization of the factorized filters. The best parameterized model was able to outperform the full FIR filter in both primary and secondary auditory cortex, despite requiring fewer than 30 parameters, about 10% of the number required by the FIR filter. After accounting for noise from finite data sampling, these STRFs were able to explain an average of 40% of A1 response variance. The simpler models permitted more straightforward interpretation of sensory tuning properties. They also showed greater benefit from incorporating nonlinear terms, such as short term plasticity, that provide theoretical advances over the linear model. Architectures that minimize parameter count while maintaining maximum predictive power provide insight into the essential degrees of freedom governing auditory cortical function. They also maximize statistical power available for characterizing additional nonlinear properties that limit current auditory models. PMID:26683490

  19. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-03-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

  20. Is There a Core Vocabulary? Some Implications for Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Describes a set of criteria for selection of core vocabulary, with examples given from English. Suggests applications for such a vocabulary in grading reading materials and analyzing stylistics. (LMO)

  1. Support for non-locking parallel reception of packets belonging to a single memory reception FIFO

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2011-01-27

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. A plurality of DMA engine units are configured in a multiprocessor system to operate in parallel, one DMA engine unit for transferring a current packet received at a network reception queue to a memory location in a memory FIFO (rmFIFO) region of a memory. A control unit implements logic to determine whether any prior received packet destined for that rmFIFO is still in a process of being stored in the associated memory by another DMA engine unit of the plurality, and prevent the one DMA engine unit from indicating completion of storing the current received packet in the reception memory FIFO (rmFIFO) until all prior received packets destined for that rmFIFO are completely stored by the other DMA engine units. Thus, there is provided non-locking support so that multiple packets destined for a single rmFIFO are transferred and stored in parallel to predetermined locations in a memory.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Receptivity for a Transition Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collis, S. Scott; Joslin, R. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The cost of fuel to overcome turbulence induced viscous drag on a commercial airplane constitutes a significant fraction of the operating cost of an airline. Achieving laminar flow and maintaining it over a large portion of the wing can significantly reduce the viscous drag, and hence the cost. Design of such laminar-flow-control wings and their practical operation requires the ability to accurately and reliably predict the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The transition process begins with the conversion of environmental and surface disturbances into the instability waves of the flow by a process called receptivity. The goal of the current research project has been to improve the prediction of transition through a better understanding of the physics of receptivity. The initial objective of this work was to investigate the specific stability and receptivity characteristics of a particular experimental investigation of boundary layer receptivity at NASA Langley. Some simulation results using direct solutions of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations which modeled this experiment where presented in the 1999 APS DFD meeting. However, based on these initial investigations, it became clear that to cover the vast receptivity parameter space required for a practical transition prediction tool, more efficient methods would be required. Thus, the focus of this research was shifted from modeling this particular experiment to formulating and developing new techniques that could efficiently yet accurately predict receptivity for a wide range of disturbance conditions.

  3. From aardvark to ziggurat: A new tool for assessing children's use of rare vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jamie Mahurin; DeThorne, Laura; Petrill, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces a resource for examining children's use of low-frequency vocabulary and describes preliminary evidence of its validity. Using a corpus of >1400 transcripts from school-aged children, we derived a concordance of all words spoken by the children and generated a list of 2079 uncommon words we have called WERVE, the Wordlist for Expressive Rare Vocabulary Evaluation. Preliminary validity evidence for WERVE was examined through correlation analyses with WERVE results and other common language measures in a test sample of 112 children age 7 and 8 years. In addition, we replicated the correlation analyses using a sample of 38 eight-year-old children. WERVE results correlated strongly with established language sample measures and to a lesser but frequently significant degree with standardized test results. Results also showed developmental change from age 7 to age 8. Correlations ranged from medium to large. These results suggest that WERVE may be a useful tool for language sample researchers to explore.

  4. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  5. Decontextualized language input and preschoolers' vocabulary development.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meredith L

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses the importance of using decontextualized language, or language that is removed from the here and now including pretend, narrative, and explanatory talk, with preschool children. The literature on parents' use of decontextualized language is reviewed and results of a longitudinal study of parent decontextualized language input in relation to child vocabulary development are explained. The main findings are that parents who provide their preschool children with more explanations and narrative utterances about past or future events in the input have children with larger vocabularies 1 year later, even with quantity of parent input and child prior vocabulary skill controlled. Recommendations for how to engage children in decontextualized language conversations are provided.

  6. The Influence of Electronic Dictionaries on Vocabulary Knowledge Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Mojtaba; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning needs special strategies in language learning process. The use of dictionaries is a great help in vocabulary learning and nowadays the emergence of electronic dictionaries has added a new and valuable resource for vocabulary learning. The present study aims to explore the influence of Electronic Dictionaries (ED) Vs. Paper…

  7. Focus on the Forms: Recognition Practice in Chinese Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…

  8. In Search of Introductory Psychology's Classic Core Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Mitchell, Montserrat C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether there was a common vocabulary present within introductory psychology textbooks during the 1950s and if a classic core vocabulary exists. Reports that no common core existed in the textbooks during the 1950s, but there is a set of 100 classic vocabulary terms. (CMK)

  9. Vocabulary Mining for Information Retrieval: Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini; Ruiz, Miguel E.; Kraft, Donald H.; Chen, Jianhua

    2001-01-01

    Explains vocabulary mining in information retrieval and describes a framework for vocabulary mining that allows the use of rough set-based approximations even when documents and queries are described using weighted, or fuzzy, representations. Examines coordination between multiple vocabulary views and applies the framework to the Unified Medical…

  10. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Eunice; Chung, Edsoulla; Li, Eddy; Yeung, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an e-learning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and…

  11. Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimino, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

  12. Overlapping Vocabulary and Comprehension: Context Clues Complement Semantic Gradients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Scott C.; Flanigan, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Despite the clear and longstanding connection between meaning vocabulary and reading comprehension, programs designed to teach vocabulary have often had surprisingly little impact on overall reading ability. One possible reason for this small effect is that teaching methods may not make this vocabulary-to-comprehension connection explicit for the…

  13. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

  14. The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Na Young

    2013-01-01

    Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…

  15. Using Lemony Snicket to Bring Smiles to Your Vocabulary Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arter, Lisa Maxwell; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction is addressed on two levels in this article: 1) the importance of direct teaching and 2) using the books of a popular children's series as examples to support these vocabulary lessons. Also addressed are specific methods of turning classrooms into places where vocabulary instruction is effective and enjoyable. Elements of…

  16. The Effects of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth on English Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, that is, breadth of vocabulary (the number of words known) and depth of vocabulary (the richness of word knowledge), and their effects on different aspects of English reading in Chinese high school students learning English as a second language. Two hundred and…

  17. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

  18. Reliability Assessment for Two Versions of Vocabulary Levels Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Peiling; Fulcher, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    This article reports a reliability study of two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test at the 5000 word level. This study was motivated by a finding from an ongoing longitudinal study of vocabulary acquisition that Version A and Version B of Vocabulary Levels Test at the 5000 word level were not parallel. In order to investigate this issue,…

  19. Academic Vocabulary and Middle School English Learners: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna; Collins, Penny

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this experimental intervention study was to determine if evidence-based instructional strategies for general vocabulary words are effective with middle school English learner (EL) students and academic vocabulary words. Participants showed significantly more growth in their knowledge of academic vocabulary during the treatment…

  20. Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

  1. Investigating an Intelligent System for Vocabulary Learning through Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    While learners can acquire vocabulary through extensive reading (Pigada & Schmitt, 2006), research suggests that acquisition can be more effective when supplemented with targeted vocabulary activities (e.g., Paribakht & Wesche, 1997). Problems arise, however, in determining what vocabulary learners have acquired, and what items should be…

  2. Anatomical coupling among distributed cortical regions in youth varies as a function of individual differences in vocabulary abilities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Raznahan, Armin; Wallace, Gregory L; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Clasen, Liv S; Lerch, Jason P; Giedd, Jay N

    2014-05-01

    Patient lesion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided convincing evidence that a distributed brain network subserves word knowledge. However, little is known about the structural correlates of this network within the context of typical development and whether anatomical coupling in linguistically relevant regions of cortex varies as a function of vocabulary skill. Here we investigate the association between vocabulary and anatomical coupling in 235 typically developing youth (ages 6-19 years) using structural MRI. The study's primary aim was to evaluate whether higher vocabulary performance was associated with greater vertex-level cortical thickness covariation in distributed regions of cortex known to be associated with word knowledge. Results indicate that better vocabulary skills are associated with greater anatomical coupling in several linguistically relevant regions of cortex, including the left inferior parietal (temporal-parietal junction), inferior temporal, middle frontal, and superior frontal gyri and the right inferior frontal and precentral gyri. Furthermore, in high vocabulary scorers, stronger coupling is found among these regions. Thus, complementing patient and fMRI studies, this is the first investigation to highlight the relevance of anatomical covariance within the cortex to vocabulary skills in typically developing youth, further elucidating the distributed nature of neural systems subserving word knowledge.

  3. Anatomical coupling among distributed cortical regions in youth varies as a function of individual differences in vocabulary abilities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Raznahan, Armin; Wallace, Gregory L; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Clasen, Liv S; Lerch, Jason P; Giedd, Jay N

    2014-05-01

    Patient lesion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided convincing evidence that a distributed brain network subserves word knowledge. However, little is known about the structural correlates of this network within the context of typical development and whether anatomical coupling in linguistically relevant regions of cortex varies as a function of vocabulary skill. Here we investigate the association between vocabulary and anatomical coupling in 235 typically developing youth (ages 6-19 years) using structural MRI. The study's primary aim was to evaluate whether higher vocabulary performance was associated with greater vertex-level cortical thickness covariation in distributed regions of cortex known to be associated with word knowledge. Results indicate that better vocabulary skills are associated with greater anatomical coupling in several linguistically relevant regions of cortex, including the left inferior parietal (temporal-parietal junction), inferior temporal, middle frontal, and superior frontal gyri and the right inferior frontal and precentral gyri. Furthermore, in high vocabulary scorers, stronger coupling is found among these regions. Thus, complementing patient and fMRI studies, this is the first investigation to highlight the relevance of anatomical covariance within the cortex to vocabulary skills in typically developing youth, further elucidating the distributed nature of neural systems subserving word knowledge. PMID:23728856

  4. Operational Demands of AAC Mobile Technology Applications on Programming Vocabulary and Engagement During Professional and Child Interactions.

    PubMed

    Caron, Jessica; Light, Janice; Drager, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Typically, the vocabulary in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technologies is pre-programmed by manufacturers or by parents and professionals outside of daily interactions. Because vocabulary needs are difficult to predict, young children who use aided AAC often do not have access to vocabulary concepts as the need and interest arises in their daily interactions, limiting their vocabulary acquisition and use. Ideally, parents and professionals would be able to add vocabulary to AAC technologies "just-in-time" as required during daily interactions. This study compared the effects of two AAC applications for mobile technologies: GoTalk Now (which required more programming steps) and EasyVSD (which required fewer programming steps) on the number of visual scene displays (VSDs) and hotspots created in 10-min interactions between eight professionals and preschool-aged children with typical development. The results indicated that, although all of the professionals were able to create VSDs and add vocabulary during interactions with the children, they created more VSDs and hotspots with the app with fewer programming steps than with the one with more steps, and child engagement and programming participation levels were high with both apps, but higher levels for both variables were observed with the app with fewer programming steps than with the one with more steps. These results suggest that apps with fewer programming steps may reduce operational demands and better support professionals to (a) respond to the child's input, (b) use just-in-time programming during interactions,

  5. Development of a Tablet Application for the Screening of Receptive Vocabulary Skills in Multilingual Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Blanca; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Herrmann, Frank; Fricke, Silke

    2016-01-01

    For professionals working with multilingual children, detecting language deficits in a child's home language can present a challenge. This is largely due to the scarcity of standardized assessments in many children's home languages and missing normative data on multilingual language acquisition. A common approach is to translate existing English…

  6. The Relationship between Phonological Short-Term Memory, Receptive Vocabulary, and Fast Mapping in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Emily; Leitao, Suze; Claessen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often experience word-learning difficulties, which are suggested to originate in the early stage of word learning: fast mapping. Some previous research indicates significantly poorer fast mapping capabilities in children with SLI compared with typically developing (TD) counterparts, with…

  7. A Longitudinal View of the Receptive Vocabulary and Math Achievement of Young Children with Disabilities. NCSER 2011-3006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Elaine; Jenkins, Frank; Bitterman, Amy; Keller, Brad

    2011-01-01

    The Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS), which is funded by the U.S. Department of Education, is examining the characteristics of children receiving preschool special education, the services they receive, their transitions across educational levels, and their performance over time on assessments of academic and adaptive skills.…

  8. The Effect of Teaching Vocabulary through Semantic Mapping on EFL Learners' Awareness of the Affective Dimensions of Deep Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilforoushan, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of teaching vocabulary through semantic mapping on the awareness of two affective dimensions, evaluation and potency dimensions of deep vocabulary knowledge as well as the general vocabulary knowledge of EFL students. Sixty intermediate EFL female adult learners participated in this study; they were chosen among 90…

  9. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  10. Building Vocabulary to Build Literacy Skills: How to Help Children Build a Rich Vocabulary Day by Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.

    2006-01-01

    Language and vocabulary represent the very foundation of learning to read and write. Children who do not develop strong oral language skills and vocabulary in these early years will find it difficult to keep pace with their peers. Children use the natural medium of language for thinking. Those who acquire a substantial vocabulary are often able to…

  11. Homophily of Vocabulary Usage: Beneficial Effects of Vocabulary Similarity on Online Health Communities Participation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Albert; Hartzler, Andrea L.; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W.; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Online health communities provide popular platforms for individuals to exchange psychosocial support and form ties. Although regular active participation (i.e., posting to interact with other members) in online health communities can provide important benefits, sustained active participation remains challenging for these communities. Leveraging previous literature on homophily (i.e., “love of those who are like themselves”), we examined the relationship between vocabulary similarity (i.e., homophily of word usage) of thread posts and members’ future interaction in online health communities. We quantitatively measured vocabulary similarity by calculating, in a vector space model, cosine similarity between the original post and the first reply in 20,499 threads. Our findings across five online health communities suggest that vocabulary similarity is a significant predictor of members’ future interaction in online health communities. These findings carry practical implications for facilitating and sustaining online community participation through beneficial effects of homophily in the vocabulary of essential peer support. PMID:26958240

  12. Early noun vocabularies: do ontology, category structure and syntax correspond?

    PubMed

    Samuelson, L K; Smith, L B

    1999-11-01

    This paper examines children's early noun vocabularies and their interpretations of names for solid and non-solid things. Previous research in this area assumes that ontology, category organization and syntax correspond in the nouns children learn early such that categories of solid things are organized by shape similarity and named with count nouns and categories of non-solid things are organized by material similarity and named with mass nouns. In Experiment 1 we examine the validity of this assumption in a corpus of early-learned nouns and conclude that one side of the solidity-syntax-category organization mapping is favored. In our second experiment we examine the relation between early noun vocabulary development and novel word generalization. We find that children between 17 and 33 months of age do not systematically generalize names for solid things by shape similarity until they already know many nouns, and do not systematically generalize names for non-solid substances by material similarity. The implications for children's acquisition of the ontological distinction, count/mass syntax, and novel nouns are discussed. PMID:10536222

  13. Read my lips: The importance of the face in a computer-animated tutor for vocabulary learning by children with autism.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Dominic W; Bosseler, Alexis

    2006-09-01

    A computer-animated tutor, Baldi, has been successful in teaching vocabulary and grammar to children with autism and those with hearing problems. The present study assessed to what extent the face facilitated this learning process relative to the voice alone. Baldi was implemented in a Language Wizard/Tutor, which allows easy creation and presentation of a vocabulary lesson involving the association of pictures and spoken words. The lesson plan included both the receptive identification of pictures and the production of spoken words. A within-subject design with five children with autism followed an alternating treatment in which each child continuously learned to criterion sets of words with and without the face. The rate of learning was significantly faster and the retention was better with the face. The research indicates that at least some children with autism benefit from the face in learning new language within an automated program.

  14. Word Detectives: Solving the Mystery of Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Deborah A.; Formhals, Marilyn A.; Wheat, Jon G.

    This research addressed vocabulary knowledge, which refers to the understanding of words, the overall ideas and concepts being communicated, and the ability to use those words in the appropriate context. The targeted population consisted of students in kindergarten, first grade, and fourth grade. An analysis of School Improvement Plans revealed a…

  15. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  16. Notes on an Environmental Pollution Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    This vocabulary covering the field of environmental pollution was compiled by the staff of the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution. The view of the approach is to include an outline-classification all physical, life, and social science aspects of environmental pollution, trying to achieve a balance in the representation of each…

  17. Unknown Vocabulary Density and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsueh-Chao, Marcella Hu; Nation, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines what percentage of coverage of text is needed for unassisted reading for pleasure, where learners are able to read without the interruption of looking up words. Looks at the effect of three densities of unknown vocabulary on two measures of reading comprehension, a multiple-choice test and a cued written recall test. (Author/VWL)

  18. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…

  19. Channeling Children's Energy through Vocabulary Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares vocabulary development activities for young learners. These activities channel students' energy and make learning more effective and fun. The author stresses the importance of giving young learners a good language-learning experience, and the challenges of teaching young learners who are not literate in their L1.…

  20. Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2013-01-01

    Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary…

  1. In-Depth Study of Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixan, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary development is a crucial aspect of literacy. It is our duty as teachers to enrich the language of our students to better prepare them for a successful lifetime of communication. This paper offers several methods to enhance levels of speech in the classroom. Some of the techniques included are the use of repetitive reading, reading…

  2. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus -- Volume 2, Access Vocabulary -- contains an alphabetical listing of all Thesaurus terms (postable and nonpostable) and permutations of all multiword and pseudo-multiword terms. Also included are Other Words (non-Thesaurus terms) consisting of abbreviations, chemical symbols, etc. The permutations and Other Words provide 'access' to the appropriate postable entries in the Thesaurus.

  3. A Computer-Adaptive Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Maria Teresa Lopez-Mezquita

    2009-01-01

    Lexical competence is considered to be an essential step in the development and consolidation of a student's linguistic ability, and thus the reliable assessment of such competence turns out to be a fundamental aspect in this process. The design and construction of vocabulary tests has become an area of special interest, as it may provide teachers…

  4. How Do Raters Judge Spoken Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how raters come to their decisions when judging spoken vocabulary. Segmental rating was introduced to quantify raters' decision-making process. It is hoped that this simulated study brings fresh insight to future methodological considerations with spoken data. Twenty trainee raters assessed five Chinese…

  5. Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

    2010-01-01

    The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

  6. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  7. The Cognitive Vocabulary Approach to Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Janis M.; Buckelew-Martin, Elizabeth; Wood, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    English teachers face myriad demands every day that include not only helping students read literature in interesting and engaging ways but also attending to the needs of students challenged by the demands of more complex and sophisticated texts. Vocabulary learning is at the heart of this struggle for many students, especially for English language…

  8. Ways to Win at Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Nichols, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip identifies ways to "WIN" at vocabulary learning. Specifically, the approach conveys three morphological strategies in the mnemonic "WIN." These three strategies remind students to find smaller units of meaning within bigger words, look for those units in other words that they know, and notice the context. Each…

  9. Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feezell, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary…

  10. Vocabulary Support: Constructing (Not Obstructing) Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livers, Stefanie D.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    The language that students are learning in mathematics classrooms is intimately tied to the mathematics they are learning. The goal for any lesson or unit is for all students to be able to understand the mathematics they read or hear and be able to speak and write about that mathematics. Structured vocabulary placement can support that dual…

  11. Preservice Teachers' Development of Children's Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilienthal, Linda K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine preservice elementary teachers' knowledge of vocabulary instruction and their success in implementing it in their partner teachers' classrooms. Study participants were three preservice elementary teachers student teaching during the first of two student teaching blocks. One preservice teacher taught…

  12. Word Walk: Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blarney, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Storybook reading offers an ideal context for teaching young children new words. Text Talk is one method designed for teaching elementary students new words after reading. However, using the Text Talk vocabulary procedures with young children, the authors observed several challenges both for teachers' implementation and children's learning.…

  13. Shared Reading to Build Vocabulary and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The author presents four approaches to shared reading that he used with first through third graders in a high-needs, urban elementary school with a large population of students from immigrant homes. Using sociocultural and cognitive constructivist principles, the author shows how these approaches built students' academic vocabulary and…

  14. Vocabulary Uptake from Informal Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, James

    2008-01-01

    It is common to encourage foreign-language learners to use their language outside the classroom and to read books and papers, listen to songs and watch films in the foreign language. One of the benefits which are thought to accrue from these activities is that learners can build good vocabularies. It has even been argued that casual exposure to…

  15. Flip-a-Chip to Build Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Presents a word-game strategy that builds vocabulary and comprehension while motivating students. Concludes that activities like Flip-a-Chip (along with crossword puzzles and other forms of wordplay) have helped the author create a pleasantly literate environment in her classroom. (SG)

  16. Interactive Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Tripp, Sherry; Cox, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Word walls are designed to serve as visual scaffolds and are a common classroom tool used to support reading and language arts instruction. To support vocabulary development in science and support students who are ELLs, Husty and Jackson (2008) created interactive word walls that resemble semantic maps (Masters, Mori, and Mori 1993). Semantic maps…

  17. Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

  18. Gradient Phonological Inconsistency Affects Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, Kristin L.; Creel, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Learners frequently experience phonologically inconsistent input, such as exposure to multiple accents. Yet, little is known about the consequences of phonological inconsistency for language learning. The current study examines vocabulary acquisition with different degrees of phonological inconsistency, ranging from no inconsistency (e.g., both…

  19. Improving Vocabulary Acquisition with Multisensory Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alesio, Rosemary; Scalia, Maureen T.; Zabel, Renee M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to improve student vocabulary acquisition through a multisensory, direct instructional approach. The study involved three teachers and a target population of 73 students in second and seventh grade classrooms. The intervention was implemented from September through December of 2006 and analyzed in…

  20. Selecting Academic Vocabulary Words Worth Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna; Kiernan, Darl

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching tip is to share a new tool for identifying high-utility academic words from instructional texts. The Word and Phrase Tool, when paired with teacher knowledge about students and objectives, can help teachers promote the academic vocabulary development of their students.