Science.gov

Sample records for age related deterioration

  1. [Impact of thymic function in age-related immune deterioration].

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; de la Fuente, Mónica; Guerrero, Juan Miguel; Leal, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Age-related biological deterioration also includes immune system deterioration and, in consequence, a rise in the incidence and prevalence of infections and cancers, as well as low responses to vaccination strategies. Out of all immune cell subsets, T-lymphocytes seem to be involved in most of the age-related defects. Since T-lymphocytes mature during their passage through the thymus, and the thymus shows an age-related process of atrophy, thymic regression has been proposed as the triggering event of this immune deterioration in elderly people. Historically, it has been accepted that the young thymus sets the T-lymphocyte repertoire during the childhood, whereupon atrophy begins until the elderly thymus is a non-functional evolutionary trace. However, a rising body of knowledge points toward the thymus functioning during adulthood. In the elderly, higher thymic function is associated with a younger immune system, while thymic function failure is associated with all-cause mortality. Therefore, any new strategy focused on the improvement of the elderly quality of life, especially those trying to influence the immune system, should take into account, together with peripheral homeostasis, thymus function as a key element in slowing down age-related decline.

  2. Age-related deterioration of rod vision in mice.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Fan, Jie; Crouch, Rosalie K; Kefalov, Vladimir J

    2010-08-18

    Even in healthy individuals, aging leads to deterioration in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual field, and dark adaptation. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that drive the age-related changes of the retina and, more specifically, photoreceptors. According to one hypothesis, the age-related deterioration in rod function is due to the limited availability of 11-cis-retinal for rod pigment formation. To determine how aging affects rod photoreceptors and to test the retinoid-deficiency hypothesis, we compared the morphological and functional properties of rods of adult and aged B6D2F1/J mice. We found that the number of rods and the length of their outer segments were significantly reduced in 2.5-year-old mice compared with 4-month-old animals. Aging also resulted in a twofold reduction in the total level of opsin in the retina. Behavioral tests revealed that scotopic visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were decreased by twofold in aged mice, and rod ERG recordings demonstrated reduced amplitudes of both a- and b-waves. Sensitivity of aged rods determined from single-cell recordings was also decreased by 1.5-fold, corresponding to not more than 1% free opsin in these photoreceptors, and kinetic parameters of dim flash response were not altered. Notably, the rate of rod dark adaptation was unaffected by age. Thus, our results argue against age-related deficiency of 11-cis-retinal in the B6D2F1/J mouse rod visual cycle. Surprisingly, the level of cellular dark noise was increased in aged rods, providing an alternative mechanism for their desensitization.

  3. Effect of NCAM on aged-related deterioration in vision.

    PubMed

    Luke, Margaret Po-Shan; LeVatte, Terry L; O'Reilly, Amanda M; Smith, Benjamin J; Tremblay, François; Brown, Richard E; Clarke, David B

    2016-05-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is involved in developmental processes and age-associated cognitive decline; however, little is known concerning the effects of NCAM in the visual system during aging. Using anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays, we analyzed age-related changes in visual function of NCAM deficient (-/-) and wild-type mice. Anatomical analyses indicated that aging NCAM -/- mice had fewer retinal ganglion cells, thinner retinas, and fewer photoreceptor cell layers than age-matched controls. Electroretinogram testing of retinal function in young adult NCAM -/- mice showed a 2-fold increase in a- and b-wave amplitude compared with wild-type mice, but the retinal activity dropped dramatically to control levels when the animals reached 10 months. In behavioral tasks, NCAM -/- mice had no visual pattern discrimination ability and showed premature loss of vision as they aged. Together, these findings demonstrate that NCAM plays significant roles in the adult visual system in establishing normal retinal anatomy, physiology and function, and in maintaining vision during aging.

  4. DNA Damage: From Chronic Inflammation to Age-Related Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidou, Anna; Goulielmaki, Evi; Garinis, George A.

    2016-01-01

    To lessen the “wear and tear” of existence, cells have evolved mechanisms that continuously sense DNA lesions, repair DNA damage and restore the compromised genome back to its native form. Besides genome maintenance pathways, multicellular organisms may also employ adaptive and innate immune mechanisms to guard themselves against bacteria or viruses. Recent evidence points to reciprocal interactions between DNA repair, DNA damage responses and aspects of immunity; both self-maintenance and defense responses share a battery of common players and signaling pathways aimed at safeguarding our bodily functions over time. In the short-term, this functional interplay would allow injured cells to restore damaged DNA templates or communicate their compromised state to the microenvironment. In the long-term, however, it may result in the (premature) onset of age-related degeneration, including cancer. Here, we discuss the beneficial and unrewarding outcomes of DNA damage-driven inflammation in the context of tissue-specific pathology and disease progression. PMID:27826317

  5. Impact of age-related neuroglial cell responses on hippocampal deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Joseph O.; Rezaie, Payam; Gabbott, Paul L.; Stewart, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is one of the greatest risk factors for the development of sporadic age-related neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinflammation is a common feature of this disease phenotype. In the immunoprivileged brain, neuroglial cells, which mediate neuroinflammatory responses, are influenced by the physiological factors in the microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS). These physiological factors include but are not limited to cell-to-cell communication involving cell adhesion molecules, neuronal electrical activity and neurotransmitter and neuromodulator action. However, despite this dynamic control of neuroglial activity, in the healthy aged brain there is an alteration in the underlying neuroinflammatory response notably seen in the hippocampus, typified by astrocyte/microglia activation and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and signaling. These changes may occur without any overt concurrent pathology, however, they typically correlate with deteriorations in hippocamapal or cognitive function. In this review we examine two important phenomenons, firstly the relationship between age-related brain deterioration (focusing on hippocampal function) and underlying neuroglial response(s), and secondly how the latter affects molecular and cellular processes within the hippocampus that makes it vulnerable to age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25972808

  6. Tooth loss early in life accelerates age-related bone deterioration in mice.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Minori; Kondo, Hiroko; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo; Chen, Huayue; Kubo, Kin-ya

    2015-01-01

    Both osteoporosis and tooth loss are health concerns that affect many older people. Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease of the elderly, characterized by low bone mass and microstructural deterioration of bone tissue. Chronic mild stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Many studies showed that tooth loss induced neurological alterations through activation of a stress hormone, corticosterone, in mice. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that tooth loss early in life may accelerate age-related bone deterioration using a mouse model. Male senescence-accelerated mouse strain P8 (SAMP8) mice were randomly divided into control and toothless groups. Removal of the upper molar teeth was performed at one month of age. Bone response was evaluated at 2, 5 and 9 months of age. Tooth loss early in life caused a significant increase in circulating corticosterone level with age. Osteoblast bone formation was suppressed and osteoclast bone resorption was activated in the toothless mice. Trabecular bone volume fraction of the vertebra and femur was decreased in the toothless mice with age. The bone quality was reduced in the toothless mice at 5 and 9 months of age, compared with the age-matched control mice. These findings indicate that tooth loss early in life impairs the dynamic homeostasis of the bone formation and bone resorption, leading to reduced bone strength with age. Long-term tooth loss may have a cumulative detrimental effect on bone health. It is important to take appropriate measures to treat tooth loss in older people for preventing and/or treating senile osteoporosis.

  7. Age-Related Deterioration of Perineuronal Nets in the Primary Auditory Cortex of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brewton, Dustin H.; Kokash, Jamiela; Jimenez, Oliva; Pena, Eloy R.; Razak, Khaleel A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in inhibitory neurotransmission in sensory cortex may underlie deficits in sensory function. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix components that ensheath some inhibitory neurons, particularly parvalbumin positive (PV+) interneurons. PNNs may protect PV+ cells from oxidative stress and help establish their rapid spiking properties. Although PNN expression has been well characterized during development, possible changes in aging sensory cortex have not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that PNN+, PV+ and PV/PNN co-localized cell densities decline with age in the primary auditory cortex (A1). This hypothesis was tested using immunohistochemistry in two strains of mice (C57BL/6 and CBA/CaJ) with different susceptibility to age-related hearing loss and at three different age ranges (1–3, 6–8 and 14–24 months old). We report that PNN+ and PV/PNN co-localized cell densities decline significantly with age in A1 in both mouse strains. In the PNN+ cells that remain in the old group, the intensity of PNN staining is reduced in the C57 strain, but not the CBA strain. PV+ cell density also declines only in the C57, but not the CBA, mouse suggesting a potential exacerbation of age-effects by hearing loss in the PV/PNN system. Taken together, these data suggest that PNN deterioration may be a key component of altered inhibition in the aging sensory cortex, that may lead to altered synaptic function, susceptibility to oxidative stress and processing deficits. PMID:27877127

  8. Ethanol feeding enhances age-related deterioration of the rat hepatic mitochondrion

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Alan; Hershman, Stuart; Davies, Adrian; Sykora, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Chronic ethanol feeding damages the hepatic mitochondrion by increasing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) oxidation, lowering mtDNA yields and impairing mitochondrial respiration. These effects are also seen during aging. By employing a 21-day chronic feeding regimen, we investigated the effects of ethanol consumption on mtDNA content and mitochondrial respiration in 2-, 12-, and 24-mo-old male rats. Aging resulted in decreased mtDNA content, increased mtDNA damage (as indicated by inhibition of Taq polymerase progression), and a decline in state 3 respiration; effects that were further exacerbated by ethanol feeding. Additionally, ethanol consumption caused an increase in the levels of citrate synthase while not impacting mitochondrial protein content. In conclusion, ethanol and aging combine to cause deterioration in the structural and functional integrity of the hepatic mitochondrion. The additive effects of aging and ethanol feeding may have serious consequences for hepatic energy metabolism in aged animals, and their detrimental combination may serve as one of the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:16020655

  9. Resveratrol delays age-related deterioration and mimics transcriptional aspects of dietary restriction without extending lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Kevin J.; Baur, Joseph A.; Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Peshkin, Leonid; Price, Nathan L.; Labinskyy, Nazar; Swindell, William R.; Kamara, Davida; Minor, Robin K.; Perez, Evelyn; Jamieson, Hamish A.; Zhang, Yongqing; Dunn, Stephen R.; Sharma, Kumar; Pleshko, Nancy; Woollett, Laura A.; Csiszar, Anna; Ikeno, Yuji; Le Couteur, David; Elliott, Peter J.; Becker, Kevin G.; Navas, Placido; Ingram, Donald K.; Wolf, Norman S.; Ungvari, Zoltan; Sinclair, David A.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY A small molecule that safely mimics the ability of dietary restriction (DR) to delay age-related diseases in laboratory animals is greatly sought after. We and others have shown that resveratrol mimics effects of DR in lower organisms. In mice, we find that resveratrol induces gene expression patterns in multiple tissues that parallel those induced by DR and every-other-day feeding. Moreover, resveratrol-fed elderly mice show a marked reduction in signs of aging including reduced albuminuria, decreased inflammation and apoptosis in the vascular endothelium, increased aortic elasticity, greater motor coordination, reduced cataract formation, and preserved bone mineral density. However, mice fed a standard diet did not live longer when treated with resveratrol beginning at 12 months of age. Our findings indicate that resveratrol treatment has a range of beneficial effects in mice but does not increase the longevity of ad libitum-fed animals when started mid-life. PMID:18599363

  10. Deterioration of the Medial Olivocochlear Efferent System Accelerates Age-Related Hearing Loss in Pax2-Isl1 Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Chumak, Tetyana; Bohuslavova, Romana; Macova, Iva; Dodd, Nicole; Buckiova, Daniela; Fritzsch, Bernd; Syka, Josef; Pavlinkova, Gabriela

    2016-05-01

    The development, maturation, and maintenance of the inner ear are governed by temporal and spatial expression cascades of transcription factors that form a gene regulatory network. ISLET1 (ISL1) may be one of the major players in this cascade, and in order to study its role in the regulation of inner ear development, we produced a transgenic mouse overexpressing Isl1 under the Pax2 promoter. Pax2-regulated ISL1 overexpression increases the embryonic ISL1(+) domain and induces accelerated nerve fiber extension and branching in E12.5 embryos. Despite these gains in early development, the overexpression of ISL1 impairs the maintenance and function of hair cells of the organ of Corti. Mutant mice exhibit hyperactivity, circling behavior, and progressive age-related decline in hearing functions, which is reflected in reduced otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) followed by elevated hearing thresholds. The reduction of the amplitude of DPOAEs in transgenic mice was first detected at 1 month of age. By 6-9 months of age, DPOAEs completely disappeared, suggesting a functional inefficiency of outer hair cells (OHCs). The timing of DPOAE reduction coincides with the onset of the deterioration of cochlear efferent terminals. In contrast to these effects on efferents, we only found a moderate loss of OHCs and spiral ganglion neurons. For the first time, our results show that the genetic alteration of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent system induces an early onset of age-related hearing loss. Thus, the neurodegeneration of the MOC system could be a contributing factor to the pathology of age-related hearing loss.

  11. Identification of Mitochondrial Genome-Encoded Small RNAs Related to Egg Deterioration Caused by Postovulatory Aging in Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hao; Weber, Gregory M; Wei, Hairong; Yao, Jianbo

    2016-10-01

    Many factors have been reported to affect rainbow trout egg quality, among which, postovulatory aging is one of the most significant causes as reared rainbow trout do not usually volitionally oviposit the ovulated eggs. In order to uncover the genetic regulation underling egg deterioration caused by postovulatory aging in rainbow trout, mitochondrial genome-encoded small RNA (mitosRNAs) were analyzed from unfertilized eggs on Days 1, 7, and 14 postovulation with fertilization rates of 91.8, 73.4, and less than 50 %, respectively. A total of 248 mitosRNAs were identified from Illumina high-throughput sequencing of the small RNA libraries derived from the eggs of ten females. Ninety-eight of the small RNAs exhibited more than a threefold difference in expression between eggs from females exhibiting high fertilization rates at Day 1 and low fertilization rates at Day 14. The differentially expressed mitosRNAs were predominantly derived from mitochondrial D-loop, tRNA, rRNA, COII, and Cytb gene regions. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis was carried out for 14 differentially expressed mitosRNAs, of which, 12 were confirmed to be consistent with the sequencing reads. Further characterization of the differentially expressed mitosRNAs may lead to the development of new biomarkers for egg quality in rainbow trout.

  12. Growth differentiation factor 6 derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells reduces age-related functional deterioration in multiple tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hisamatsu, Daisuke; Ohno-Oishi, Michiko; Nakamura, Shiho; Mabuchi, Yo; Naka-Kaneda, Hayato

    2016-01-01

    The senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) has attracted attention as a mechanism that connects cellular senescence to tissue dysfunction, and specific SASP factors have been identified as systemic pro-aging factors. However, little is known about the age-dependent changes in the secretory properties of stem cells. Young, but not old, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are a well-known source of critical regenerative factors, but the identity of these factors remains elusive. In this study, we identified growth differentiation factor 6 (Gdf6; also known as Bmp13 and CDMP-2) as a regenerative factor secreted from young MSCs. The expression of specific secretory factors, including Gdf6, was regulated by the microRNA (miRNA) miR-17, whose expression declined with age. Upregulation of Gdf6 restored the osteogenic capacity of old MSCs in vitro and exerted positive effects in vivo on aging-associated pathologies such as reduced lymphopoiesis, insufficient muscle repair, reduced numbers of neural progenitors in the brain, and chronic inflammation. Our results suggest that manipulation of miRNA could enable control of the SASP, and that regenerative factors derived from certain types of young cells could be used to treat geriatric diseases. PMID:27311402

  13. Identification of mitochondrial genome-encoded small RNAs related to egg deterioration caused by post-ovulatory aging in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors have been reported to affect rainbow trout egg quality, among which, postovulatory aging is one of the most significant causes as reared rainbow trout do not usually volitionally oviposit the ovulated eggs. In order to uncover the genetic regulation underling egg deterioration caused by...

  14. Host genetics predict clinical deterioration in HCV-related cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    King, Lindsay Y; Johnson, Kara B; Zheng, Hui; Wei, Lan; Gudewicz, Thomas; Hoshida, Yujin; Corey, Kathleen E; Ajayi, Tokunbo; Ufere, Nneka; Baumert, Thomas F; Chan, Andrew T; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Fuchs, Bryan C; Chung, Raymond T

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the epidermal growth factor (EGF, rs4444903), patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3, rs738409) genes, and near the interleukin-28B (IL28B, rs12979860) gene are linked to treatment response, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis C. Whether these SNPs independently or in combination predict clinical deterioration in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis is unknown. We genotyped SNPs in EGF, PNPLA3, and IL28B from liver tissue from 169 patients with biopsy-proven HCV cirrhosis. We estimated risk of clinical deterioration, defined as development of ascites, encephalopathy, variceal hemorrhage, HCC, or liver-related death using Cox proportional hazards modeling. During a median follow-up of 6.6 years, 66 of 169 patients experienced clinical deterioration. EGF non-AA, PNPLA3 non-CC, and IL28B non-CC genotypes were each associated with increased risk of clinical deterioration in age, sex, and race-adjusted analysis. Only EGF non-AA genotype was independently associated with increased risk of clinical deterioration (hazard ratio [HR] 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-6.25) after additionally adjusting for bilirubin, albumin, and platelets. Compared to subjects who had 0-1 unfavorable genotypes, the HR for clinical deterioration was 1.79 (95%CI 0.96-3.35) for 2 unfavorable genotypes and 4.03 (95%CI 2.13-7.62) for unfavorable genotypes for all three loci (Ptrend<0.0001). In conclusion, among HCV cirrhotics, EGF non-AA genotype is independently associated with increased risk for clinical deterioration. Specific PNPLA3 and IL28B genotypes also appear to be associated with clinical deterioration. These SNPs have potential to identify patients with HCV-related cirrhosis who require more intensive monitoring for decompensation or future therapies preventing disease progression.

  15. Host Genetics Predict Clinical Deterioration in HCV-Related Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    King, Lindsay Y.; Johnson, Kara B.; Zheng, Hui; Wei, Lan; Gudewicz, Thomas; Hoshida, Yujin; Corey, Kathleen E.; Ajayi, Tokunbo; Ufere, Nneka; Baumert, Thomas F.; Chan, Andrew T.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Chung, Raymond T.

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the epidermal growth factor (EGF, rs4444903), patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3, rs738409) genes, and near the interleukin-28B (IL28B, rs12979860) gene are linked to treatment response, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis C. Whether these SNPs independently or in combination predict clinical deterioration in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis is unknown. We genotyped SNPs in EGF, PNPLA3, and IL28B from liver tissue from 169 patients with biopsy-proven HCV cirrhosis. We estimated risk of clinical deterioration, defined as development of ascites, encephalopathy, variceal hemorrhage, HCC, or liver-related death using Cox proportional hazards modeling. During a median follow-up of 6.6 years, 66 of 169 patients experienced clinical deterioration. EGF non-AA, PNPLA3 non-CC, and IL28B non-CC genotypes were each associated with increased risk of clinical deterioration in age, sex, and race-adjusted analysis. Only EGF non-AA genotype was independently associated with increased risk of clinical deterioration (hazard ratio [HR] 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31–6.25) after additionally adjusting for bilirubin, albumin, and platelets. Compared to subjects who had 0–1 unfavorable genotypes, the HR for clinical deterioration was 1.79 (95%CI 0.96–3.35) for 2 unfavorable genotypes and 4.03 (95%CI 2.13–7.62) for unfavorable genotypes for all three loci (Ptrend<0.0001). In conclusion, among HCV cirrhotics, EGF non-AA genotype is independently associated with increased risk for clinical deterioration. Specific PNPLA3 and IL28B genotypes also appear to be associated with clinical deterioration. These SNPs have potential to identify patients with HCV-related cirrhosis who require more intensive monitoring for decompensation or future therapies preventing disease progression. PMID:25504078

  16. INVESTIGATING PAVEMENT STRUCTURE DETERIORATION WITH A RELATIVE EVALUATION MODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Eigo; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Hashimoto, Takumi

    The deterioration of pavement structure is a complex phenomenon that follows the deterioration of both pavement surface and pavement sub-surface. In addition, the deterioration progress of pavement sub-surface affects the deterioration speed of pavement surface. The road pavement management is important to determine the optimal repair strategy which considers the deterioration of both pavement surface and sub-surface (hereafter call "pavement structure"). This study proposes pavement repair planning and strategies of 1) extraction of key management section of relative evaluation based on road inspection survey results, and 2) determination of decision-making repair methodologies based on pavement structural soundness survey by FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer) in key management sections. In addition, the National Highway Route 9 is the target area as empirical study to verify the methodology proposed in this study.

  17. Cognitive deterioration in adult epilepsy: Does accelerated cognitive ageing exist?

    PubMed

    Breuer, L E M; Boon, P; Bergmans, J W M; Mess, W H; Besseling, R M H; de Louw, A; Tijhuis, A G; Zinger, S; Bernas, A; Klooster, D C W; Aldenkamp, A P

    2016-05-01

    A long-standing concern has been whether epilepsy contributes to cognitive decline or so-called 'epileptic dementia'. Although global cognitive decline is generally reported in the context of chronic refractory epilepsy, it is largely unknown what percentage of patients is at risk for decline. This review is focused on the identification of risk factors and characterization of aberrant cognitive trajectories in epilepsy. Evidence is found that the cognitive trajectory of patients with epilepsy over time differs from processes of cognitive ageing in healthy people, especially in adulthood-onset epilepsy. Cognitive deterioration in these patients seems to develop in a 'second hit model' and occurs when epilepsy hits on a brain that is already vulnerable or vice versa when comorbid problems develop in a person with epilepsy. Processes of ageing may be accelerated due to loss of brain plasticity and cognitive reserve capacity for which we coin the term 'accelerated cognitive ageing'. We believe that the concept of accelerated cognitive ageing can be helpful in providing a framework understanding global cognitive deterioration in epilepsy.

  18. Identification of mitochondrial genome-encoded small RNAs related to egg quality deterioration caused by post-ovulatory aging in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous factors have been reported to affect rainbow trout egg quality, among which, post-ovulatory aging is one of the most significant causes as reared rainbow trout do not usually volitionally oviposit the ovulated eggs. Frequent examination of the stock is therefore required in order to reduce...

  19. Barley Seed Aging: Genetics behind the Dry Elevated Pressure of Oxygen Aging and Moist Controlled Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed aging under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of aging with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom (“OWB-D”), carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to aging in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec (“OWB-R”), carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 2832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD) treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature) revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions. PMID:27066038

  20. Barley Seed Aging: Genetics behind the Dry Elevated Pressure of Oxygen Aging and Moist Controlled Deterioration.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P C

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the "elevated partial pressure of oxygen" (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed aging under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of aging with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom ("OWB-D"), carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to aging in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec ("OWB-R"), carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 2832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD) treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature) revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions.

  1. The Effect of Spatial Working Memory Deterioration on Strategic Visuomotor Learning across Aging

    PubMed Central

    Uresti-Cabrera, Luis A.; Diaz, Rosalinda; Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of age-related cognitive changes in a visuomotor learning task that depends on strategic control and contrast it with the effect in a task principally depending on visuomotor recalibration. Methods. Participants performed a ball throwing task while donning either a reversing dove prism or a displacement wedge prism, which mainly depend on strategic control or visuomotor recalibration, respectively. Visuomotor performance was then analysed in relation to rule acquisition and reversal, recognition memory, visual memory, spatial planning, and spatial working memory with tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Results. The results confirmed previous works showing a detrimental effect of age on visuomotor learning. The analyses of the cognitive changes observed across age showed that both strategic control and visuomotor recalibration had significant negative correlations only with the number of errors in the spatial working memory task. However, when the effect of aging was controlled, the only significant correlation remaining was between the reversal adaptation magnitude and spatial working memory. Discussion. These results suggest that spatial working memory decline across aging could contribute to age-dependent deterioration in both visuomotor learning processes. However, spatial working memory integrity seems to affect strategic learning decline even after controlling for aging. PMID:26290623

  2. Hyperbilirubinemia Protects against Aging-Associated Inflammation and Metabolic Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Zelenka, Jaroslav; Zadinová, Marie; Haluzík, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mild constitutive hyperbilirubinemia is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Since these pathologies are associated with aging, inflammation, and oxidative stress, we investigated whether hyperbilirubinemia interferes with ROS homeostasis in cell cultures and with inflammation, senescence, and mitochondrial dysfunction in aged rats. Human embryonic kidney cells and rat primary fibroblasts showed a dose-dependent decrease in the ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione, intracellular H2O2 levels, and mitochondrial ROS production, with increasing bilirubin concentrations in the culture media. Compared to their normobilirubinemic siblings, aged hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats showed significantly smaller amounts of visceral fat, better glucose tolerance, and decreased serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-18. Simultaneously, livers from Gunn rats showed decreased expression of senescence markers and cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p16. Mitochondria from aged Gunn rats showed higher respiration and lower H2O2 production compared to controls. In conclusion, we demonstrated that mildly elevated serum bilirubin is generally associated with attenuation of oxidative stress and with better anthropometric parameters, decreased inflammatory status, increased glucose tolerance, fewer signs of cellular senescence, and enhanced mitochondrial function in aged rats. PMID:27547293

  3. Linguistic Deterioration in Alzheimer's Senile Dementia and in Normal Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Olga Beattie

    A study of language patterning as an indicator of higher cortical process focused on three matched comparison groups: normal pre-middle-aged, normal elderly, and elderly adults with senile dementia Alzheimer's type. In addition to tests of memory, level of cognitive function, and organic deficit, the formal aspects of language were analyzed in…

  4. Autophagy drives epidermal deterioration in a Drosophila model of tissue aging.

    PubMed

    Scherfer, Christoph; Han, Violet C; Wang, Yan; Anderson, Aimee E; Galko, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Organismal lifespan has been the primary readout in aging research. However, how longevity genes control tissue-specific aging remains an open question. To examine the crosstalk between longevity programs and specific tissues during aging, biomarkers of organ-specific aging are urgently needed. Since the earliest signs of aging occur in the skin, we sought to examine skin aging in a genetically tractable model. Here we introduce a Drosophila model of skin aging. The epidermis undergoes a dramatic morphological deterioration with age that includes membrane and nuclear loss. These changes were decelerated in a long-lived mutant and accelerated in a short-lived mutant. An increase in autophagy markers correlated with epidermal aging. Finally, the epidermis of Atg7 mutants retained younger characteristics, suggesting that autophagy is a critical driver of epidermal aging. This is surprising given that autophagy is generally viewed as protective during aging. Since Atg7 mutants are short-lived, the deceleration of epidermal aging in this mutant suggests that in the epidermis healthspan can be uncoupled from longevity. Because the aging readout we introduce here has an early onset and is easily visualized, genetic dissection using our model should identify other novel mechanisms by which lifespan genes feed into tissue-specific aging.

  5. Deterioration mechanisms in air-dry pea seeds during early aging.

    PubMed

    Veselova, Tatiana V; Veselovsky, Vladimir A; Obroucheva, Natalie V

    2015-02-01

    The deteriorative reactions underlying seed aging, namely, lipid peroxidation and non-enzymatic carbohydrate hydrolysis, were studied in pea seeds differing in quality. Aging air-dry seeds were subdivided to three fractions using the application to individual seeds of room temperature phosphorescence. These fractions were strong seeds (fraction I) producing normal seedlings, weak seeds (fraction II) producing mainly abnormal seedlings, and dead seeds (fraction III). Enzymatic processes cannot operate in dry seeds due to the absence of free water, and thus an analytical method was needed that does not require the addition of water. The content of lipid peroxidation products was similar in both strong and weak seeds; this excluded the possibility that lipid peroxidation induced the transition of strong to weak seeds during early aging. Lipid peroxidation was activated only in dying seeds. However, glucose content in weak seeds was much higher than in strong seeds, suggestive of non-enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates, probably of oligosaccharides, which utilized bound water in air-dry seeds. This process resulted in lowered water content in weak seeds. Therefore, associated with deterioration of air-dry seeds during early aging is the non-enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates, whereas lipid peroxidation is not the decisive event.

  6. Does age modify the association between physical work demands and deterioration of self-rated general health?

    PubMed

    Burr, Hermann; Pohrt, Anne; Rugulies, Reiner; Holtermann, Andreas; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2017-03-02

    Objective Due to the growing proportion of older employees in the work force in several countries, the importance of age in the association between work and health is becoming increasingly relevant. Few studies have investigated whether age modifies the association of physical work demands with health. We hypothesized that the association of demanding body postures with deteriorated self-rated health (SRH) is stronger among older employees than among younger employees. Method We analyzed three 5-year cohorts in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study comprising 8318 observations from 5204 employees (follow-up participation rate 83%) with good baseline SRH. Physical work demands were assessed as demanding body postures. Age was divided into tertiles; young (18-32 years), middle-aged (33-43 years) and old (44-59 among men and 44-54 years among women). Poor SRH ("fairly good", "poor", and "very poor") was measured with a single item. Log binomial regressions were stratified by gender. Effect modification (ie, interaction) was defined as deviation from additivity and examined by calculating the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). The reference group was employees aged 18-32 years with low physical exposure. Results When predicting deterioration of SRH, an interaction between demanding body postures and age was found among men [RERI: 0.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.16-1.34, regarding the age group 44-59 years] and among women (RERI: 0.84, 95% CI 0.19-1.34, for the age group 33-43 years; and 1.17, 95% CI 0.42-1.93, for the age group 44-54 years). Conclusion The study findings suggest that demanding body postures have a stronger impact on health among older compared to younger employees.

  7. Age-dependent deterioration of nuclear pore complexes causes a loss of nuclear integrity in postmitotic cells.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Maximiliano A; Raices, Marcela; Panowski, Siler H; Hetzer, Martin W

    2009-01-23

    In dividing cells, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) disassemble during mitosis and reassemble into the newly forming nuclei. However, the fate of nuclear pores in postmitotic cells is unknown. Here, we show that NPCs, unlike other nuclear structures, do not turn over in differentiated cells. While a subset of NPC components, like Nup153 and Nup50, are continuously exchanged, scaffold nucleoporins, like the Nup107/160 complex, are extremely long-lived and remain incorporated in the nuclear membrane during the entire cellular life span. Besides the lack of nucleoporin expression and NPC turnover, we discovered an age-related deterioration of NPCs, leading to an increase in nuclear permeability and the leaking of cytoplasmic proteins into the nucleus. Our finding that nuclear "leakiness" is dramatically accelerated during aging and that a subset of nucleoporins is oxidatively damaged in old cells suggests that the accumulation of damage at the NPC might be a crucial aging event.

  8. Age-dependent deterioration of nuclear pore complexes causes a loss of nuclear integrity in post-mitotic cells

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Maximiliano A.; Raices, Marcela; Panowski, Siler H.; Hetzer, Martin W.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY In dividing cells, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) disassemble during mitosis and reassemble into the newly forming nuclei. However, the fate of these multi-protein transport channels in post-mitotic cells, where the mitotic renewal of pores is absent, is unknown. Here we show that NPCs, unlike other nuclear structures, do not turn over in differentiated cells. While a subset of nuclear pore components, like Nup153 and Nup50, are continuously exchanged at the NPC, scaffold nucleoporins, like the Nup107/160 complex, are extremely long-lived and remain incorporated in the nuclear membrane during the entire lifespan of a cell. In addition to a lack of nucleoporin expression and NPC turnover, we discovered an age-related deterioration of NPCs leading to a loss of the nuclear permeability barrier and the leaking of cytoplasmic proteins into the nuclear compartment. Our finding that nuclear ‘leakiness’ is dramatically accelerated during aging and that a subset of nucleoporins are found to be oxidatively damaged in old cells, suggest that the accumulation of damage at the NPC structure might be a crucial event in age-related loss of nuclear integrity. PMID:19167330

  9. Deterioration of the Langerhans cell network of the human gingival epithelium with aging.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Walther David; Cavicchia, Juan Carlos

    2006-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the professional antigen-presenting cells responsible for initiating of the immune response. Langerhans cells (LCs) are a type of DC that is a permanent resident of the oral epithelium. LCs are organized conforming a network in such a way as to maximize their surface area for efficient apprehension of antigens. To detect age-related changes in the LCs network, fragments of gingival epithelium spontaneously accompanying dental removals were processed by immunohistochemistry. Monoclonal antibody CD1a followed by biotinized immunoglobulin-streptoavidin peroxidase were used to identify the LCs with the light microscope. LC density and LC types were analyzed according to their morphology and intraepithelial distribution. In the older age group (61-74 years) the density was significantly lower than in the younger age groups. Morphologically, LCs showed fewer dendritic-branching processes and had a rounded shape in the older age group. Present observations indicate that the LC network changes markedly with aging. These results suggest that immunological defense of the oral tissue might be compromised in old age.

  10. [Age related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Sayen, Alexandra; Hubert, Isabelle; Berrod, Jean-Paul

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a multifactorial disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is the first cause of blindness in patients over 50 in the western world. The disease has been traditionally classified into early and late stages with dry (atrophic) and wet (neovascular) forms: neovascular form is characterized by new blood vessels development under the macula (choroidal neovascularisation) which lead to a rapid decline of vision associated with metamorphopsia and requiring an urgent ophtalmological examination. Optical coherence tomography is now one of the most important part of the examination for diagnosis and treatment. Patient with age related maculopathy should consider taking a dietary supplement such that used in AREDS. The treatment of the wet ARMD has largely beneficied since year 2006 of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) molecules such as ranibizumab or bevacizumab given as repeated intravitreal injections. A systematic follow up each 4 to 8 week in required for several years. There is no effective treatment at the moment for dry AMD. For patients with binocular visual acuity under 60/200 rehabilitation includes low vision specialist, vision aids and psychological support.

  11. Age-dependent down-regulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 causes deterioration of canine sinoatrial node function.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianlin; Deng, Songbai; Pu, Di; Liu, Yajie; Xiao, Jun; She, Qiang

    2017-03-23

    The activity of pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node (SAN) is an indicator of normal sinus rhythm. Clinical studies have revealed that the dysfunction of the SAN progressively increases with aging. In this study, we determined the changes in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (HCN4) expression and the relationship between aging and canine SAN dysfunction. The results of cardiac electrophysiological determination revealed that the intrinsic heart rate decreased from 168 ± 11 beats min-1 in young canines to 120 ± 9 beats min-1 in adults and to 88 ± 9 beats min-1 in aged canines. The sinus node recovery time (SNRT) increased from 412 ± 32 ms in young canines to 620 ± 56 ms in adults and to 838 ± 120 ms in aged canines. Corrected SNRT (CSNRT) increased from 55 ± 12 ms in young canines to 117 ± 27 ms in adults and to 171 ± 37 ms in aged canines. These results indicated that SAN function deteriorated with aging in the canine heart. However, histological staining illustrated that fibrosis was not significantly increased with aging in canine SAN. Real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that the expression of HCN4 mRNA was downregulated in the elderly canine SAN. Similarly, we also verified that HCN4 protein expression within the SAN declined with aging via immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis. Taken together, our data show that electrical remodeling, related to the down-regulation of HCN4, is responsible for the gradually increased incidence of SAN dysfunction with aging. Our results provide further evidence for explaining the mechanisms of age-related deterioration in the SAN.

  12. Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Age-related Macular Degeneration About AMD Click for more ... a leading cause of vision loss among people age 60 and older. It causes damage to the ...

  13. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Levels Are Related to Cognitive Deterioration in an Elderly Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kazushi; Koide, Daisuke; Fujii, Kurumi; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Shoji; Iwata, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Aims The association between serum uric acid (UA) levels and cognitive function is controversial since UA can be a risk factor for cerebral ischemia as well as acting as a neuroprotective antioxidant. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 228 elderly participants and examined neuropsychological test results, clinical data as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging data. Patients Overall, 64 participants were diagnosed with cognitive deterioration. To control for the effect of sex differences, 2 independent sets of single-variable and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with quartiles divided into non-sex-specific and sex-specific cutoff values for UA. Results In non-sex-specific quartiles, the participants in the highest quartiles of UA levels were found to be at a significantly higher risk of cognitive deterioration than those in the lowest quartiles. In sex-specific quartiles, the highest quartile showed an increased risk of cognitive deterioration, and a greater than fourfold increase in the risk in the highest quartiles was confirmed using multivariate regression models. However, no significant association was observed between serum UA levels and the presence of white matter lesions. Conclusions Elevated serum UA levels were independently associated with cognitive deterioration. UA might have unknown adverse effects on cognitive function, other than causing vascular pathology. PMID:28203247

  14. Detection of age-dependent working memory deterioration in APP751SL mice.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Julie; Martel, Guillaume; Brayda-Bruno, Laurent; Noguès, Xavier; Micheau, Jacques

    2011-03-17

    Despite huge advances on Alzheimer's disease (AD) etiology, the clinical diagnosis remains the unique commonly used tool to detect the onset of the disease. For instance, epidemiological studies report that the combination of episodic and working memory disorders represents the most consistent sign of progression from mild cognitive impairment to AD. However, such working memory disorders failed to be observed early in transgenic mouse models of AD because the behavioral procedures used do not tackle properly crucial components of working memory. The aim of the present work was to assess early occurrence of working memory impairments in APP(751SL) mice. Therefore, we designed a new behavioral task in the water-maze, based on the principle of a delayed matching to place task, where spatial recognition was assessed for four different platform locations within a single session. First, we showed that dorsal hippocampal but not medial prefrontal cortex lesions in C57Bl6 mice induced a time-dependent impairment of spatial recognition. Then, the hippocampal-like memory alterations were reproduced in 7-8-month-old APP(751SL) mice but not in younger animals (5-6-month-old). We also demonstrated that these working memory deficits are related to progressive Aβ accumulation in the hippocampus, but not in the other selected brain structures.

  15. Volatile fingerprints of seeds of four species indicate the involvement of alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions in seed deterioration during ageing and desiccation stress.

    PubMed

    Colville, Louise; Bradley, Emma L; Lloyd, Antony S; Pritchard, Hugh W; Castle, Laurence; Kranner, Ilse

    2012-11-01

    The volatile compounds released by orthodox (desiccation-tolerant) seeds during ageing can be analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Comparison of three legume species (Pisum sativum, Lathyrus pratensis, and Cytisus scoparius) during artificial ageing at 60% relative humidity and 50 °C revealed variation in the seed volatile fingerprint between species, although in all species the overall volatile concentration increased with storage period, and changes could be detected prior to the onset of viability loss. The volatile compounds are proposed to derive from three main sources: alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions. Lipid peroxidation was confirmed in P. sativum seeds through analysis of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Volatile production by ageing orthodox seeds was compared with that of recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds of Quercus robur during desiccation. Many of the volatiles were common to both ageing orthodox seeds and desiccating recalcitrant seeds, with alcoholic fermentation forming the major source of volatiles. Finally, comparison was made between two methods of analysis; the first used a Tenax adsorbent to trap volatiles, whilst the second used solid phase microextraction to extract volatiles from the headspace of vials containing powdered seeds. Solid phase microextraction was found to be more sensitive, detecting a far greater number of compounds. Seed volatile analysis provides a non-invasive means of characterizing the processes involved in seed deterioration, and potentially identifying volatile marker compounds for the diagnosis of seed viability loss.

  16. Age-related eye disease.

    PubMed

    Voleti, Vinod B; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre

    2013-05-01

    As with many organs, compromised function of the eye is accompanied with age and has become increasingly prevalent with the aging population. When decreased visual loss becomes significant, patients' ability to perform activities of daily living becomes compromised. This decrease in function is met with morbidity and mortality, as well as a large socioeconomic burden throughout the world. This review summarizes the most common age-related eye diseases, including cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and age-related macular degeneration. Although our understanding of the genetic and biochemical pathways of these diseases is sill at its primitive stages, we have become able to help our patients improve the quality of life as they age.

  17. Progressive deterioration of thalamic nuclei relates to cortical network decline in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cobia, Derin J; Smith, Matthew J; Salinas, Ilse; Ng, Charlene; Gado, Mokhtar; Csernansky, John G; Wang, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Thalamic abnormalities are considered part of the complex pathophysiology of schizophrenia, particularly the involvement of specific thalamic nuclei. The goals of this study were to: introduce a novel atlas-based parcellation scheme for defining various thalamic nuclei; compare their integrity in a schizophrenia sample against healthy individuals at baseline and follow-up time points, as well as rates of change over time; examine relationships between the nuclei and abnormalities in known connected cortical regions; and finally, to determine if schizophrenia-related thalamic nuclei changes relate to cognitive functioning and clinical symptoms. Subjects were from a larger longitudinal 2-year follow-up study, schizophrenia (n=20) and healthy individuals (n=20) were group-matched for age, gender, and recent-alcohol use. We used high-dimensional brain mapping to obtain thalamic morphology, and applied a novel atlas-based method for delineating anterior, mediodorsal, and pulvinar nuclei. Results from cross sectional GLMs revealed group differences in bilateral mediodorsal and anterior nuclei, while longitudinal models revealed significant group-by-time interactions for the mediodorsal and pulvinar nuclei. Cortical correlations were the strongest for the pulvinar in frontal, temporal and parietal regions, followed by the mediodorsal nucleus in frontal regions, but none in the anterior nucleus. Thalamic measures did not correlate with cognitive and clinical scores at any time point or longitudinally. Overall, findings revealed a pattern of persistent progressive abnormalities in thalamic nuclei that relate to advancing cortical decline in schizophrenia, but not with measures of behavior.

  18. Age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Lim, Laurence S; Mitchell, Paul; Seddon, Johanna M; Holz, Frank G; Wong, Tien Y

    2012-05-05

    Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of blindness worldwide. With ageing populations in many countries, more than 20% might have the disorder. Advanced age-related macular degeneration, including neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet) and geographic atrophy (late dry), is associated with substantial, progressive visual impairment. Major risk factors include cigarette smoking, nutritional factors, cardiovascular diseases, and genetic markers, including genes regulating complement, lipid, angiogenic, and extracellular matrix pathways. Some studies have suggested a declining prevalence of age-related macular degeneration, perhaps due to reduced exposure to modifiable risk factors. Accurate diagnosis combines clinical examination and investigations, including retinal photography, angiography, and optical coherence tomography. Dietary anti-oxidant supplementation slows progression of the disease. Treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration incorporates intraocular injections of anti-VEGF agents, occasionally combined with other modalities. Evidence suggests that two commonly used anti-VEGF therapies, ranibizumab and bevacizumab, have similar efficacy, but possible differences in systemic safety are difficult to assess. Future treatments include inhibition of other angiogenic factors, and regenerative and topical therapies.

  19. [Age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Budzinskaia, M V

    2014-01-01

    The review provides an update on the pathogenesis and new treatment modalities for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The impact of polymorphism in particular genes, including complement factor H (CFH), age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2/LOC387715), and serine peptidase (HTRA1), on AMD development is discussed. Clinical presentations of different forms of exudative AMD, that is classic, occult, or more often mixed choroidal neovascularization, retinal angiomatous proliferation, and choroidal polypoidal vasculopathy, are described. Particular attention is paid to the results of recent clinical trials and safety issues around the therapy.

  20. Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. AMD is diagnosed based on characteristic retinal findings in individuals older than 50. Early detection and treatment are critical in increasing the likelihood of retaining good and functional vision.

  1. Age-Related Hearing Loss: Quality of Care for Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Korotky, Ha-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), known as presbycusis, is characterized by progressive deterioration of auditory sensitivity, loss of the auditory sensory cells, and central processing functions associated with the aging process. ARHL is the third most prevalent chronic condition in older Americans, after hypertension and arthritis, and is a…

  2. Age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Querques, Giuseppe; Avellis, Fernando Onofrio; Querques, Lea; Bandello, Francesco; Souied, Eric H

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: Is there any new knowledge about the pathogenesis and treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)? Results: We now understand better the biochemical and pathological pathways involved in the genesis of AMD. Treatment of exudative AMD is based on intravitreal injection of new antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs for which there does not yet exist a unique recognized strategy of administration. No therapies are actually available for atrophic AMD, despite some experimental new pharmacological approaches. Implementation: strategy of administration, safety of intravitreal injection PMID:21654887

  3. Age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Lily K; Eaton, Angie

    2013-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, and the prevalence of the disease increases exponentially with every decade after age 50 years. It is a multifactorial disease involving a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, metabolic, and functional factors. Besides smoking, hypertension, obesity, and certain dietary habits, a growing body of evidence indicates that inflammation and the immune system may play a key role in the development of the disease. AMD may progress from the early form to the intermediate form and then to the advanced form, where two subtypes exist: the nonneovascular (dry) type and the neovascular (wet) type. The results from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study have shown that for the nonneovascular type of AMD, supplementation with high-dose antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and β-carotene) and zinc is recommended for those with the intermediate form of AMD in one or both eyes or with advanced AMD or vision loss due to AMD in one eye. As for the neovascular type of the advanced AMD, the current standard of therapy is intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors. In addition, lifestyle and dietary modifications including improved physical activity, reduced daily sodium intake, and reduced intake of solid fats, added sugars, cholesterol, and refined grain foods are recommended. To date, no study has demonstrated that AMD can be cured or effectively prevented. Clearly, more research is needed to fully understand the pathophysiology as well as to develop prevention and treatment strategies for this devastating disease.

  4. The Deterioration Seen in Myelin Related Morphophysiology in Vanadium Exposed Rats is Partially Protected by Concurrent Iron Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Usende, Ifukibot Levi; Leitner, Dominque F; Neely, Elizabeth; Connor, James R; Olopade, James O

    2016-08-30

    Oligodendrocyte development and myelination occurs vigorously during the early post natal period which coincides with the period of peak mobilization of iron. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are easily disturbed by any agent that affects iron homeostasis and its assimilation into these cells. Environmental exposure to vanadium, a transition metal can disrupt this iron homeostasis. We investigated the interaction of iron deficiency and vanadium exposure on the myelination infrastructure and its related neurobehavioural phenotypes, and neurocellular profiles in developing rat brains. Control group (C) dams were fed normal diet while Group 2 (V) dams were fed normal diet and pups were injected with 3mg/kg body weight of sodium metavanadate daily from postnatal day (PND) 1-21. Group 3 (I+V) dams were fed iron deficient diet after delivery and pups injected with 3mg/kg body weight sodium metavanadate from PND1-21. Body and brain weights deteriorated in I+V relative to C and V while neurobehavioral deficit occurred more in V. Whereas immunohistochemical staining shows more astrogliosis and microgliosis indicative of neuroinflammation in I+V, more intense OPCs depletion and hypomyelination were seen in the V, and this was partially protected in I+V. In in vitro studies, vanadium induced glial cells toxicity was partially protected only at the LD 50 dose with the iron chelator, desferroxamine. The data indicate that vanadium promotes myelin damage and iron deficiency in combination with vanadium partially protects this neurotoxicological effects of vanadium.

  5. Epigenetics of Aging and Aging-related Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a wide range of human disorders, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Long thought to be an inexorable road toward decline and diseases, aging is in fact remarkably plastic. Such plasticity could be harnessed to approach age-related diseases from a novel perspective. Although many studies have focused on the genes that impact aging, the nongenetic regulation of aging is gaining increasing attention. Specifically, aging is associated with profound epigenetic changes, resulting in alterations of gene expression and disturbances in broad genome architecture and the epigenomic landscape. The potential reversibility of these epigenetic changes that occur as a hallmark of aging offers exciting opportunities to alter the trajectory of age-related diseases. This short review highlights key epigenetic players in the regulation of aging, as well as both future goals and challenges to the utilization of epigenetic strategies to delay and reverse the main diseases of aging. PMID:24833581

  6. Epigenetics of aging and aging-related disease.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Anne; Berger, Shelley L

    2014-06-01

    Aging is associated with a wide range of human disorders, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Long thought to be an inexorable road toward decline and diseases, aging is in fact remarkably plastic. Such plasticity could be harnessed to approach age-related diseases from a novel perspective. Although many studies have focused on the genes that impact aging, the nongenetic regulation of aging is gaining increasing attention. Specifically, aging is associated with profound epigenetic changes, resulting in alterations of gene expression and disturbances in broad genome architecture and the epigenomic landscape. The potential reversibility of these epigenetic changes that occur as a hallmark of aging offers exciting opportunities to alter the trajectory of age-related diseases. This short review highlights key epigenetic players in the regulation of aging, as well as both future goals and challenges to the utilization of epigenetic strategies to delay and reverse the main diseases of aging.

  7. Refractory Cryptococcus neoformans Meningoencephalitis in an Immunocompetent Patient: Paradoxical Antifungal Therapy-Induced Clinical Deterioration Related to an Immune Response to Cryptococcal Organisms.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hideto; Takayama, Ayami; Fujiki, Yohei; Ito, Takumi; Kitaoka, Haruko

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of refractory Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent woman. Her clinical symptoms did not improve with 6 months of antifungal therapy, and MRI abnormalities, indicating severe meningeal and cerebral inflammation, persisted despite a decreasing cryptococcal antigen titer. The patient continued to deteriorate despite antifungal therapy, and her condition clearly improved following treatment with adjunctive corticosteroid. We postulate that the paradoxical antifungal therapy-related clinical deterioration was due to an immune response to cryptococcal organisms, which responded to corticosteroids. These observations provide rationale for a further evaluation of corticosteroids in the management of select cases of C. neoformans central nervous system infection.

  8. Mitochondrial aging and age-related dysfunction of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Sobenin, Igor A; Revin, Victor V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in mitochondria are associated with decline in mitochondrial function. With advanced age, mitochondrial DNA volume, integrity and functionality decrease due to accumulation of mutations and oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In aged subjects, mitochondria are characterized by impaired function such as lowered oxidative capacity, reduced oxidative phosphorylation, decreased ATP production, significant increase in ROS generation, and diminished antioxidant defense. Mitochondrial biogenesis declines with age due to alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and inhibition of mitophagy, an autophagy process that removes dysfunctional mitochondria. Age-dependent abnormalities in mitochondrial quality control further weaken and impair mitochondrial function. In aged tissues, enhanced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis contributes to an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells. However, implementation of strategies such as caloric restriction and regular physical training may delay mitochondrial aging and attenuate the age-related phenotype in humans.

  9. Pathophysiology of ageing, longevity and age related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bürkle, Alexander; Caselli, Graziella; Franceschi, Claudio; Mariani, Erminia; Sansoni, Paolo; Santoni, Angela; Vecchio, Giancarlo; Witkowski, Jacek M; Caruso, Calogero

    2007-01-01

    On April 18, 2007 an international meeting on Pathophysiology of Ageing, Longevity and Age-Related Diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Several interesting topics on Cancer, Immunosenescence, Age-related inflammatory diseases and longevity were discussed. In this report we summarize the most important issues. However, ageing must be considered an unavoidable end point of the life history of each individual, nevertheless the increasing knowledge on ageing mechanisms, allows envisaging many different strategies to cope with, and delay it. So, a better understanding of pathophysiology of ageing and age-related disease is essential for giving everybody a reasonable chance for living a long and enjoyable final part of the life. PMID:17683521

  10. Age-related bone loss in the LOU/c rat model of healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Duque, Gustavo; Rivas, Daniel; Li, Wei; Li, Ailian; Henderson, Janet E; Ferland, Guylaine; Gaudreau, Pierrette

    2009-03-01

    Inbred albino Louvain (LOU) rats are considered a model of healthy aging due to their increased longevity in the absence of obesity and with a low incidence of common age-related diseases. In this study, we characterized the bone phenotype of male and female LOU rats at 4, 20 and 27 months of age using quantitative micro computed tomographic (mCT) imaging, histology and biochemical analysis of circulating bone biomarkers. Bone quality and morphometry of the distal femora, assessed by mCT, was similar in male and female rats at 4 months of age and deteriorated over time. Histochemical staining of undecalcified bone showed a significant reduction in cortical and trabecular bone by 20 months of age. The reduction in mineralized tissue was accompanied by reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts and a significant increase in marrow adiposity. Biochemical markers of bone turnover, C-telopeptide and osteocalcin, correlated with the age-related bone loss whereas the calciotropic hormones PTH and vitamin D remained unchanged over time. In summary, aged LOU rats exhibit low-turnover bone loss and marrow fat infiltration, which are the hallmarks of senile osteoporosis, and thus represent a novel model in which to study the molecular mechanisms leading to this disorder.

  11. Overcoming Age-Related Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agullo, Gloria Luque

    2006-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in foreign language (FL) teaching is the age at which language learning should start. Nowadays it is recognized that in second language contexts maturational constraints make an early start advisable, but there is still disagreement regarding the problem of when to start or the best way to learn in foreign…

  12. Obesity and related consequences to ageing.

    PubMed

    Jura, Magdalena; Kozak, Leslie P

    2016-02-01

    Obesity has become a major public health problem. Given the current increase in life expectancy, the prevalence of obesity also raises steadily among older age groups. The increase in life expectancy is often accompanied with additional years of susceptibility to chronic ill health associated with obesity in the elderly. Both obesity and ageing are conditions leading to serious health problems and increased risk for disease and death. Ageing is associated with an increase in abdominal obesity, a major contributor to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Obesity in the elderly is thus a serious concern and comprehension of the key mechanisms of ageing and age-related diseases has become a necessary matter. Here, we aimed to identify similarities underlying mechanisms related to both obesity and ageing. We bring together evidence that age-related changes in body fat distribution and metabolism might be key factors of a vicious cycle that can accelerate the ageing process and onset of age-related diseases.

  13. Nutrition and age-related eye diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision loss among the elderly is an important health problem. Approximately one person in three has some form of vision-reducing eye disease by the age of 65 [1]. Age-related cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma are the major diseases resulting in visu...

  14. What Is Age-Related Macular Degeneration?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Low Vision Age-Related Macular Degeneration Vision Simulator AMD Pictures and Videos: What Does Macular Degeneration ... degeneration as part of the body's natural aging process. There are different kinds of macular problems, but ...

  15. Age-related changes in the central auditory system.

    PubMed

    Ouda, Ladislav; Profant, Oliver; Syka, Josef

    2015-07-01

    Aging is accompanied by the deterioration of hearing that complicates our understanding of speech, especially in noisy environments. This deficit is partially caused by the loss of hair cells as well as by the dysfunction of the stria vascularis. However, the central part of the auditory system is also affected by processes accompanying aging that may run independently of those affecting peripheral receptors. Here, we review major changes occurring in the central part of the auditory system during aging. Most of the information that is focused on age-related changes in the central auditory system of experimental animals arises from experiments using immunocytochemical targeting on changes in the glutamic-acid-decarboxylase, parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin. These data are accompanied by information about age-related changes in the number of neurons as well as about changes in the behavior of experimental animals. Aging is in principle accompanied by atrophy of the gray as well as white matter, resulting in the enlargement of the cerebrospinal fluid space. The human auditory cortex suffers not only from atrophy but also from changes in the content of some metabolites in the aged brain, as shown by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition to this, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals differences between activation of the central auditory system in the young and old brain. Altogether, the information reviewed in this article speaks in favor of specific age-related changes in the central auditory system that occur mostly independently of the changes in the inner ear and that form the basis of the central presbycusis.

  16. Stimulatory effect of menaquinone-7 on bone formation in elderly female rat femoral tissues in vitro: prevention of bone deterioration with aging.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Yoshinori

    2002-12-01

    Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is vitamin K2 which is a series of vitamins with multiisoprene units at the 3-position of the naphthoquinone. MK-7 has been shown to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an animal model for osteoporosis. This study was undertaken to determine whether MK-7 has a stimulatory effect on bone components of elderly female rats in vitro. The femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues obtained from young (4 weeks old) or elderly (50 weeks old) female rats were cultured for 48 h in a Dullbecco's modified Eagle's medium (high glucose, 4.5%) supplemented with antibiotics and bovine serum albumin. Calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the diaphyseal and metaphyseal tissues obtained from elderly rats were significantly decreased as compared with those of young rats, indicating that aging causes a deterioration of bone formation. The presence of MK-7 (10(-6) or 10(-5) M) caused a significant increase in biochemical components in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues obtained from elderly rat in vitro. The anabolic effect of MK-7 (10(-6) or 10(-5) M) on the femoral calcium content was significantly enhanced in the presence of phytoestrogen genistein (10(-6) or 10(-5) M), suggesting that the mode of action of MK-7 differ from that of genistein. The effect of MK-7 (10(-5) M) in increasing calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and DNA content in the diaphyseal and metaphyseal tissues was completely abolished in the presence of cycloheximide (10(-6) M), an inhibitor of protein synthesis in vitro. These findings demonstrate that MK-7 has a stimulatory effect on bone formation in the femoral tissues of elderly female rats in vitro. MK-7 may have a preventive role for bone deterioration with aging.

  17. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  18. Age-related changes in triathlon performances.

    PubMed

    Lepers, R; Sultana, F; Bernard, T; Hausswirth, C; Brisswalter, J

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was two-fold: i) to analyse age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for Olympic and Ironman triathlons, and ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between the Olympic and Ironman triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top 10 males between 20 and 70 years of age (in 5 years intervals) were analysed for two consecutive world championships (2006 and 2007) for Olympic and Ironman distances. There was a lesser age-related decline in cycling performance (p<0.01) compared with running and swimming after 55 years of age for Olympic distance and after 50 years of age for Ironman distance. With advancing age, the performance decline was less pronounced (p<0.01) for Olympic than for Ironman triathlon in cycling (>55 years) and running (>50 years), respectively. In contrast, an age-related decline in swimming performance seemed independent of triathlon distance. The age-related decline in triathlon performance is specific to the discipline, with cycling showing less declines in performance with age than swimming and running. The magnitude of the declines in cycling and running performance at Ironman distance is greater than at Olympic distance, suggesting that task duration exerts an important influence on the magnitude of the age-associated changes in triathlon performance.

  19. Age-related aspects of addiction

    PubMed Central

    Koechl, Birgit; Unger, Annemarie; Fischer, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that substance use, abuse and addiction are not limited to a specific age group. Problems related to substance addiction are an important cause of morbidity in the population aged 65 and above, especially the abuse of prescription drugs and legal substances. A lack of evidence-based studies and tailored treatment options for the aging population is evident. Appropriate and effective health-care is an important goal to improve health-related quality of life of elderly people. Research in the increasingly aging population needs to include an age- and gender-sensitive approach. PMID:22722821

  20. Ageing as a price of cooperation and complexity: self-organization of complex systems causes the gradual deterioration of constituent networks.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Huba J M; Mihalik, Agoston; Nánási, Tibor; Ory, Bálint; Spiró, Zoltán; Soti, Csaba; Csermely, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The network concept is increasingly used for the description of complex systems. Here, we summarize key aspects of the evolvability and robustness of the hierarchical network set of macromolecules, cells, organisms and ecosystems. Listing the costs and benefits of cooperation as a necessary behaviour to build this network hierarchy, we outline the major hypothesis of the paper: the emergence of hierarchical complexity needs cooperation leading to the ageing (i.e. gradual deterioration) of the constituent networks. A stable environment develops cooperation leading to over-optimization, and forming an 'always-old' network, which accumulates damage, and dies in an apoptosis-like process. A rapidly changing environment develops competition forming a 'forever-young' network, which may suffer an occasional over-perturbation exhausting system resources, and causing death in a necrosis-like process. Giving a number of examples we demonstrate how cooperation evokes the gradual accumulation of damage typical to ageing. Finally, we show how various forms of cooperation and consequent ageing emerge as key elements in all major steps of evolution from the formation of protocells to the establishment of the globalized, modern human society.

  1. Overview of age-related ocular conditions.

    PubMed

    Akpek, Esen K; Smith, Roderick A

    2013-05-01

    The United States is an aging society. The number of Americans 65 years or older is expected to more than double over the next 40 years, from 40.2 million in 2010 to 88.5 million in 2050, with aging baby boomers accounting for most of the increase. As the society ages, the prevalence of age-related diseases, including diseases of the eye, will continue to increase. By 2020, age-related macular degeneration, one of the leading causes of vision loss, is expected to affect 2.95 million individuals in the United States. Likewise, the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma, estimated at 2.2 million in 2000, is projected to increase by 50%, to 3.36 million by 2020. As the eye ages, it undergoes a number of physiologic changes that may increase susceptibility to disease. Environmental and genetic factors are also major contributors to the development of age-related ocular diseases. This article reviews the physiology of the aging eye and the epidemiology and pathophysiology of 4 major age-related ocular diseases: age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and dry eye.

  2. Age-Related Changes in Creative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos-Ewoldsen, Beverly; Black, Sheila R.; Mccown, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related differences in cognitive processes were used to understand age-related declines in creativity. According to the Geneplore model (Finke, Ward, & Smith, 1992), there are two phases of creativity--generating an idea and exploring the implications of the idea--each with different underlying cognitive processes. These two phases are…

  3. The DrugAge database of aging-related drugs.

    PubMed

    Barardo, Diogo; Thornton, Daniel; Thoppil, Harikrishnan; Walsh, Michael; Sharifi, Samim; Ferreira, Susana; Anžič, Andreja; Fernandes, Maria; Monteiro, Patrick; Grum, Tjaša; Cordeiro, Rui; De-Souza, Evandro Araújo; Budovsky, Arie; Araujo, Natali; Gruber, Jan; Petrascheck, Michael; Fraifeld, Vadim E; Zhavoronkov, Alexander; Moskalev, Alexey; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2017-03-16

    Aging is a major worldwide medical challenge. Not surprisingly, identifying drugs and compounds that extend lifespan in model organisms is a growing research area. Here, we present DrugAge (http://genomics.senescence.info/drugs/), a curated database of lifespan-extending drugs and compounds. At the time of writing, DrugAge contains 1316 entries featuring 418 different compounds from studies across 27 model organisms, including worms, flies, yeast and mice. Data were manually curated from 324 publications. Using drug-gene interaction data, we also performed a functional enrichment analysis of targets of lifespan-extending drugs. Enriched terms include various functional categories related to glutathione and antioxidant activity, ion transport and metabolic processes. In addition, we found a modest but significant overlap between targets of lifespan-extending drugs and known aging-related genes, suggesting that some but not most aging-related pathways have been targeted pharmacologically in longevity studies. DrugAge is freely available online for the scientific community and will be an important resource for biogerontologists.

  4. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    PubMed

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion.

  5. X-82 to Treat Age-related Macular Degeneration

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-12

    Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD); Macular Degeneration; Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration; AMD; Macular Degeneration, Age-related, 10; Eye Diseases; Retinal Degeneration; Retinal Diseases

  6. Aging-Related Hormone Changes in Men

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Men's health Aging-related hormone changes in men — sometimes called male menopause — are different from those ... to erectile dysfunction and other sexual issues. Make healthy lifestyle choices. Eat a healthy diet and include physical ...

  7. Translational strategies in aging and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Armanios, Mary; de Cabo, Rafael; Mannick, Joan; Partridge, Linda; van Deursen, Jan; Villeda, Saul

    2015-12-01

    Aging is a risk factor for several of the world's most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Although our understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to the aging process and age-related disease is progressing through the use of model organisms, how to apply this knowledge in the clinic is less clear. In September, Nature Medicine, in collaboration with the Volkswagen Foundation, hosted a conference at the beautiful Herrenhausen Palace in Hannover, Germany with the goal of broadening our understanding of the aging process and its meaning as a 'risk factor' in disease. Here, several of the speakers at that conference answer questions posed by Nature Medicine.

  8. Relative age effect in Japanese male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect, a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese male athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 4,318 male athletes was evaluated from 12 sports: baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, golf, horse racing, rugby, American football, sumo, Ekiden (track and field in long distance), and badminton. They played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. The distribution of the birth dates was examined in each sport and showed significant relative age effect in baseball, soccer, volleyball, Ekiden, basketball, sumo, and horse racing, but not in all sports. The findings suggest that although the school year in Japan starts on April 1, significant relative age effects are observed in some sporting events.

  9. Age-Related Vestibular Loss: Current Understanding and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Qadeer; Seemungal, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular system sub-serves a number of reflex and perceptual functions, comprising the peripheral apparatus, the vestibular nerve, the brainstem and cerebellar processing circuits, the thalamic relays, and the vestibular cerebral cortical network. This system provides signals of self-motion, important for gaze and postural control, and signals of traveled distance, for spatial orientation, especially in the dark. Current evidence suggests that certain aspects of this multi-faceted system may deteriorate with age and sometimes with severe consequences, such as falls. Often the deterioration in vestibular functioning relates to how the signal is processed by brain circuits rather than an impairment in the sensory transduction process. We review current data concerning age-related changes in the vestibular system, and how this may be important for clinicians dealing with balance disorders. PMID:28066316

  10. Aging-related inflammation in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Greene, M A; Loeser, R F

    2015-11-01

    It is well accepted that aging is an important contributing factor to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). The mechanisms responsible appear to be multifactorial and may include an age-related pro-inflammatory state that has been termed "inflamm-aging." Age-related inflammation can be both systemic and local. Systemic inflammation can be promoted by aging changes in adipose tissue that result in increased production of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). Numerous studies have shown an age-related increase in blood levels of IL-6 that has been associated with decreased physical function and frailty. Importantly, higher levels of IL-6 have been associated with an increased risk of knee OA progression. However, knockout of IL-6 in male mice resulted in worse age-related OA rather than less OA. Joint tissue cells, including chondrocytes and meniscal cells, as well as the neighboring infrapatellar fat in the knee joint, can be a local source of inflammatory mediators that increase with age and contribute to OA. An increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators that include cytokines and chemokines, as well as matrix-degrading enzymes important in joint tissue destruction, can be the result of cell senescence and the development of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Further studies are needed to better understand the basis for inflamm-aging and its role in OA with the hope that this work will lead to new interventions targeting inflammation to reduce not only joint tissue destruction but also pain and disability in older adults with OA.

  11. Age-related and death-related differences in emotional complexity.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Spalter, Tal; Kavé, Gitit; Shmotkin, Dov

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to examine an aspect of emotional complexity as seen in covariation between retrospective judgments of positive and negative affects. We assume that individuals can experience positive affect independently of negative affect. Theories argue that emotional complexity increases in old age, but research shows mixed evidence. Additionally, emotional complexity has been shown to decrease in situations prevalent in old age, such as physical illness and disability. Integrating distinct effects of age and distance to death, we propose that emotional complexity may remain intact or even increase in old age, and yet it decreases in light of functional deterioration shortly before death. The current research examined whether emotional complexity decreases as a function of subjective perception of closeness to death (subjective survival probability) or actual closeness to death. We used 3 large-scale databases: 2 cross-sectional (SHARE, N = 17,437, mean age = 64; HRS, N = 6,032, mean age = 67) and 1 longitudinal (CALAS, N = 1,310, mean age at baseline = 83). Hierarchical multiple regressions and multilevel models showed that respondents who perceived themselves as closer to death or were actually closer to death showed lower emotional complexity (a stronger negative correlation between positive and negative affects). Age and emotional complexity were unrelated or positively related, depending on the sample. Findings remained the same after controlling for demographic characteristics, as well as physical and cognitive functioning. The results indicate that both subjective and objective closeness to death are associated with lower emotional complexity. This death-related decrease in emotional complexity is discussed within current theories of aging.

  12. Gender Relations and Applied Research on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-01-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…

  13. Pathophysiology of age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, Giuseppina; Chiappelli, Martina; De Martinis, Massimo; Franco, Vito; Ginaldi, Lia; Guiglia, Rosario; Licastro, Federico; Lio, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    A Symposium regarding the Pathophysiology of Successful and Unsuccessful Ageing was held in Palermo, Italy on 7-8 April 2009. Three lectures from that Symposium by G. Campisi, L. Ginaldi and F. Licastro are here summarized. Ageing is a complex process which negatively impacts on the development of various bodily systems and its ability to function. A long life in a healthy, vigorous, youthful body has always been one of humanity's greatest dreams. Thus, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of age-related diseases is urgently required to improve our understanding of maintaining good health in the elderly and to program possible therapeutic intervention. PMID:19737378

  14. Audience Design and Social Relations in Aging.

    PubMed

    Keller-Cohen, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    This study asks two questions: (1) Do older adults modify their language based on age of the listener (audience design)? (2) Does social contact affect audience design in older adults? Older adults (n = 34; mean age = 82) engaged in an instructions task with two fictive listeners (a child and an adult) to test these questions. Results show that older adults used a greater total number of propositions and rapport-building devices and a lower type-token ratio when giving instructions to the child compared to the adult listener. Adults with more social interactions used more propositions when talking to a child. In addition, satisfaction with interactions was significantly positively related to task-tracking devices and negatively related to rapport-building devices by older adults. These results suggest that audience design and social relations are worth further study in language maintenance in older age.

  15. Ophthalmology. Screening and treatment of age-related and pathologic vision changes.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, B P

    2001-12-01

    In the older adult, deterioration of normal vision is caused by age-related physiologic and pathologic changes. Vision impairment undermines quality of life by reducing independence, mobility, and the enjoyment that goes with seeing clearly. The most common causes of vision impairment are age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, cataract, and diabetic retinopathy. Key to successful management of vision impairment is early detection of signs and symptoms, patient education regarding preventive strategies, and swift medical or surgical intervention for established or emerging conditions. Vision rehabilitation is an important management option.

  16. [Pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Kaarniranta, Kai; Seitsonen, Sanna; Paimela, Tuomas; Meri, Seppo; Immonen, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a multiform disease of the macula, the region responsible for detailed central vision. In recent years, plenty of new knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease has been obtained, and the treatment of exudative macular degeneration has greatly progressed. The number of patients with age-related macular degeneration will multiply in the following decades, because knowledge of mechanisms of development of macular degeneration that could be subject to therapeutic measures is insufficient. Central underlying factors are genetic inheritance, exposure of the retina to chronic oxidative stress and accumulation of inflammation-inducing harmful proteins into or outside of retinal cells.

  17. [New aspects in age related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Turlea, C

    2012-01-01

    Being the leading cause of blindness in modern world Age Related Macular Degeneration has beneficiated in the last decade of important progress in diagnosis, classification and the discovery of diverse factors who contribute to the etiology of this disease. Treatments have arised who can postpone the irreversible evolution of the disease and thus preserve vision. Recent findings have identified predisposing genetic factors and also inflamatory and imunological parameters that can be modified trough a good and adequate prevention and therapy This articole reviews new aspects of patology of Age Related Macular Degeneration like the role of complement in maintaining inflamation and the role of oxidative stress on different structures of the retina.

  18. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety,…

  19. Depression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casten, Robin; Rovner, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of disability in the elderly, substantially degrades the quality of their lives, and is a risk factor for depression. Rates of depression in AMD are substantially greater than those found in the general population of older people, and are on par with those of other chronic and disabling…

  20. Inflammation and its role in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Anu; Paterno, Jussi J; Blasiak, Janusz; Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation is a cellular response to factors that challenge the homeostasis of cells and tissues. Cell-associated and soluble pattern-recognition receptors, e.g. Toll-like receptors, inflammasome receptors, and complement components initiate complex cellular cascades by recognizing or sensing different pathogen and damage-associated molecular patterns, respectively. Cytokines and chemokines represent alarm messages for leukocytes and once activated, these cells travel long distances to targeted inflamed tissues. Although it is a crucial survival mechanism, prolonged inflammation is detrimental and participates in numerous chronic age-related diseases. This article will review the onset of inflammation and link its functions to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is the leading cause of severe vision loss in aged individuals in the developed countries. In this progressive disease, degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) results in the death of photoreceptors, leading to a loss of central vision. The RPE is prone to oxidative stress, a factor that together with deteriorating functionality, e.g. decreased intracellular recycling and degradation due to attenuated heterophagy/autophagy, induces inflammation. In the early phases, accumulation of intracellular lipofuscin in the RPE and extracellular drusen between RPE cells and Bruch's membrane can be clinically detected. Subsequently, in dry (atrophic) AMD there is geographic atrophy with discrete areas of RPE loss whereas in the wet (exudative) form there is neovascularization penetrating from the choroid to retinal layers. Elevations in levels of local and systemic biomarkers indicate that chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of both disease forms.

  1. Statistical physics of age related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Family, Fereydoon; Mazzitello, K. I.; Arizmendi, C. M.; Grossniklaus, H. E.

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness beyond the age of 50 years. The most common pathogenic mechanism that leads to AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV is produced by accumulation of residual material caused by aging of retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). The RPE is a phagocytic system that is essential for renewal of photoreceptors (rods and cones). With time, incompletely degraded membrane material builds up in the form of lipofuscin. Lipofuscin is made of free-radical-damaged protein and fat, which forms not only in AMD, but also Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. The study of lipofuscin formation and growth is important, because of their association with cellular aging. We introduce a model of non-equilibrium cluster growth and aggregation that we have developed for studying the formation and growth of lipofuscin in the aging RPE. Our results agree with a linear growth of the number of lipofuscin granules with age. We apply the dynamic scaling approach to our model and find excellent data collapse for the cluster size distribution. An unusual feature of our model is that while small particles are removed from the RPE the larger ones become fixed and grow by aggregation.

  2. The age of astronomy-related organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.

    1999-03-01

    The age of currently active astronomy-related organizations is investigated from comprehensive and up-to-date samples. Results for professional institutions, associations, planetariums, and public observatories are commented, as well as specific distributions for astronomy-related publishers and software producers. Some events had a clear impact on the rate of foundation of astronomy-related organizations, such as World War I and II, the beginning of space exploration and the landing of man on the Moon, but not all of them affected in the same way Western Europe and North America. It is still premature to assess the impact of the end of the Cold War. A category such as the software producers would of course not exist nor prosper without the advent of the computer age and the subsequent electronic networking of the planet. Other aspects are discussed in the paper.

  3. Delayed Recognition of Deterioration of Patients in General Wards Is Mostly Caused by Human Related Monitoring Failures: A Root Cause Analysis of Unplanned ICU Admissions

    PubMed Central

    Driesen, Babiche E. J. M.; Merten, Hanneke; Ludikhuize, Jeroen; van der Spoel, Johannes I.; Kramer, Mark H. H.; Nanayakkara, Prabath W. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background An unplanned ICU admission of an inpatient is a serious adverse event (SAE). So far, no in depth-study has been performed to systematically analyse the root causes of unplanned ICU-admissions. The primary aim of this study was to identify the healthcare worker-, organisational-, technical,- disease- and patient- related causes that contribute to acute unplanned ICU admissions from general wards using a Root-Cause Analysis Tool called PRISMA-medical. Although a Track and Trigger System (MEWS) was introduced in our hospital a few years ago, it was implemented without a clear protocol. Therefore, the secondary aim was to assess the adherence to a Track and Trigger system to identify deterioration on general hospital wards in patients eventually transferred to the ICU. Methods Retrospective observational study in 49 consecutive adult patients acutely admitted to the Intensive Care Unit from a general nursing ward. 1. PRISMA-analysis on root causes of unplanned ICU admissions 2. Assessment of protocol adherence to the early warning score system. Results Out of 49 cases, 156 root causes were identified. The most frequent root causes were healthcare worker related (46%), which were mainly failures in monitoring the patient. They were followed by disease-related (45%), patient-related causes (7, 5%), and organisational root causes (3%). In only 40% of the patients vital parameters were monitored as was instructed by the doctor. 477 vital parameter sets were found in the 48 hours before ICU admission, in only 1% a correct MEWS was explicitly documented in the record. Conclusions This in-depth analysis demonstrates that almost half of the unplanned ICU admissions from the general ward had healthcare worker related root causes, mostly due to monitoring failures in clinically deteriorating patients. In order to reduce unplanned ICU admissions, improving the monitoring of patients is therefore warranted. PMID:27537689

  4. [Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)].

    PubMed

    Michels, Stephan; Kurz-Levin, Malaika

    2009-03-01

    Today age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause for legal blindness in western industrialized countries. The prevalence of this disease rises with increasing age. A multifactorial pathogenesis of AMD is postulated including genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors. The most relevant modifiable risk factor is smoking. Up to today there is no cure of this chronic disease. Prophylaxis, including a healthy diet and antioxidants as nutrional supplements for selected patients, aims to slow down the disease progression. Significant progress has been made in the treatment of the neovascular form of the disease using inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

  5. [Treatment options for age-related infertility].

    PubMed

    Belaisch-Allart, Joëlle

    2010-06-20

    There has been a consistent trend towards delayed childbearing in most Western countries. Treatment options for age-related infertility includes controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization (IVF). A sharp decline in pregnancy rate with advancing female age is noted with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) including IVF. Evaluation and treatment of infertility should not be delayed in women 35 years and older. No treatment other than oocyte donation has been shown to be effective for women over 40 and for those with compromised ovarian reserve, but its pratice is not easy in France hence the procreative tourism. As an increasing number of couples choose to postpone childbearing, they should be informed that maternal age is an important risk factor for failure to conceive.

  6. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-05: Using 2D Relative Gamma Analysis From EPID Image as a Predictor of Plan Deterioration Due to Anatomical Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Piron, O; Varfalvy, N; Archambault, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: One of the side effects of radiotherapy for head and neck (H&N) cancer is the patient’s anatomical changes. The changes can strongly affect the planned dose distribution. In this work, our goal is to demonstrate that relative analysis of EPID images is a fast and simple method to detect anatomical changes that can have a strong dosimetric impact on the treatment plan for H&N patients. Methods: EPID images were recorded at every beam and all fractions for 50 H&N patients. Of these, five patients that showed important anatomical changes were selected to evaluate dosimetric impacts of these changes and to correlate them with a 2D relative gamma analysis of EPID images. The planning CT and original contours were deformed onto CBCTs (one mid treatment and one at the end of treatment). By using deformable image registration, it was possible to map accurate CT numbers from the planning CT to the anatomy of the day obtained with CBCTs. Clinical treatment plan were then copied on the deformed dataset and dose was re-computed. In parallel, EPID images were analysed using the gamma index (3%3mm) relative to the first image. Results: It was possible to divide patients in two distinct, statistically different (p<0.001) categories using an average gamma index of 0.5 as a threshold. Below this threshold no significant dosimetric degradation of the plan are observed. Above this threshold two types of plan deterioration were seen: (1) target dose increases, but coverage remains adequate while dose to at least one OAR increases beyond tolerances; (2) the OAR doses remain low, but the target dose is reduced and coverage becomes inadequate. Conclusion: Relative analysis gamma of EPID images could indeed be a fast and simple method to detect anatomical changes that can potentially deteriorates treatment plan for H&N patients. This work was supported in part by Varian Medical System.

  7. Prevention of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Simon Chi Yan; Chan, Clement Wai Nang

    2010-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. Although effective treatment modalities such as anti-VEGF treatment have been developed for neovascular AMD, there is still no effective treatment for geographical atrophy, and therefore the most cost-effective management of AMD is to start with prevention. This review looks at current evidence on preventive measures targeted at AMD. Modalities reviewed include (1) nutritional supplements such as the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formula, lutein and zeaxanthin, omega-3 fatty acid, and berry extracts, (2) lifestyle modifications, including smoking and body-mass-index, and (3) filtering sunlight, i.e. sunglasses and blue-blocking intraocular lenses. In summary, the only proven effective preventive measures are stopping smoking and the AREDS formula. PMID:20862519

  8. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  9. Depression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Casten, Robin; Rovner, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of disability in the elderly, substantially degrades the quality of their lives, and is a risk factor for depression. Rates of depression in AMD are substantially greater than those found in the general population of older people, and are on par with those of other chronic and disabling diseases. This article discusses the effect of depression on vision-related disability in patients with AMD, suggests methods for screening for depression, and summarizes interventions for preventing depression in this high-risk group.

  10. Preventing painful age-related bone fractures

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michelle L; Chartier, Stephane R; Mitchell, Stefanie A

    2016-01-01

    Age-related bone fractures are usually painful and have highly negative effects on a geriatric patient’s functional status, quality of life, and survival. Currently, there are few analgesic therapies that fully control bone fracture pain in the elderly without significant unwanted side effects. However, another way of controlling age-related fracture pain would be to preemptively administer an osteo-anabolic agent to geriatric patients with high risk of fracture, so as to build new cortical bone and prevent the fracture from occurring. A major question, however, is whether an osteo-anabolic agent can stimulate the proliferation of osteogenic cells and build significant amounts of new cortical bone in light of the decreased number and responsiveness of osteogenic cells in aging bone. To explore this question, geriatric and young mice, 20 and 4 months old, respectively, received either vehicle or a monoclonal antibody that sequesters sclerostin (anti-sclerostin) for 28 days. From days 21 to 28, animals also received sustained administration of the thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), which labels the DNA of dividing cells. Animals were then euthanized at day 28 and the femurs were examined for cortical bone formation, bone mineral density, and newly borne BrdU+ cells in the periosteum which is a tissue that is pivotally involved in the formation of new cortical bone. In both the geriatric and young mice, anti-sclerostin induced a significant increase in the thickness of the cortical bone, bone mineral density, and the proliferation of newly borne BrdU+ cells in the periosteum. These results suggest that even in geriatric animals, anti-sclerostin therapy can build new cortical bone and increase the proliferation of osteogenic cells and thus reduce the likelihood of painful age-related bone fractures. PMID:27837171

  11. Age-related crosslink in skin collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, M.; Mechanic, G.

    1986-05-01

    A stable crosslinking amino acid was isolated from mature bovine skin collagen and its structure was identified as histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL) using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and /sup 1/H, /sup 13/C-NMR. This newly identified crosslink has a linkage between C-2 histidine and C-6 of lysine in the latter's portion of hydroxylysinonorleucine. Quantitative studies using various aged samples of cow and human skin collagen indicated that this acid-heat stable nonreducible compound was the major age-related crosslink. In case of cow skin collagen, for example, during early embryonic development (3 and 5 month old embryos) the content of HHL stayed less than 0.01 residue/mole of collagen, however from the middle of gestation period (7 month old embryo) through the maturation stage it showed rapid increase with age and reached approximately 0.5 residues/mole of collagen in the 3 year old animal. Small increments (up to 0.65 res/mole of collagen) were observed in the 9 year old cow. The amounts of the crosslink unlike pyridinoline do not decrease with aging. Similar patterns were observed in human skin collagen.

  12. Physics of Age Related Macular Degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Family, Fereydoon

    2009-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness beyond the age of 50 years. The most common pathogenic mechanism that leads to AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV is produced by accumulation of residual material caused by aging of retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). The RPE is a phagocytic system that is essential for renewal of photoreceptors (rods and cones). With time, incompletely degraded membrane material builds up in the form of lipofuscin. Lipofuscin is made of free-radical-damaged protein and fat, which forms not only in AMD, but also Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. The study of lipofuscin formation and growth is important, because of their association with cellular aging. In this talk I will discuss a model of non-equilibrium cluster growth that we have developed for studying the formation and growth of lipofuscin in AMD [K.I. Mazzitello, C.M. Arizmendi, Fereydoon Family, H. E. Grossniklaus, Physical Review E (2009)]. I will also present an overview of our theoretical and computational efforts in modeling some other aspects of the physics of AMD, including CNV and the breakdown of Bruch's membrane [Ongoing collaboration with Abbas Shirinifard and James A. Glazier, Biocomplexity Institute and Department of Physics, Indiana University, Y. Jiang, Los Alamos, and Hans E. Grossniklaus, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University].

  13. Mechanisms of age-related bone loss.

    PubMed

    Mosekilde, L

    2001-01-01

    The human skeleton is formed and modelled during childhood and youth through the influence of hormones and daily mechanical usage. Around the age of 20-25 years, the skeleton achieves its maximum mass and strength. Thereafter, and throughout adult life, bone is lost at an almost constant rate due to the dynamic bone turnover process: the remodelling process. During this process, small packets of bone are renewed by teams of bone cells coupled together in time and space. In an adult human skeleton there will be 1-2 million active remodelling sites at any time point. The vast number of turnover units combined with a slightly negative balance at the completion of each process leads to the age-related loss of bone mass mentioned above and, concomitantly, to loss of structural continuity and strength. The magnitude of this loss will be determined by hormonal factors, nutrition and mechanical usage. As a consequence of the remodelling process, the bone tissue of the skeleton will always be younger than the age of the individual. However, as a consequence of the remodelling process, osteopenia and osteoporotic fractures will also occur. In this article, the remodelling-induced changes in the human spine will be used as an example of ageing bone.

  14. Enriched childhood experiences moderate age-related motor and cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Megan J.; Saucier, Deborah M.; Metz, Gerlinde A.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with deterioration of skilled manual movement. Specifically, aging corresponds with increased reaction time, greater movement duration, segmentation of movement, increased movement variability, and reduced ability to adapt to external forces and inhibit previously learned sequences. Moreover, it is thought that decreased lateralization of neural function in older adults may point to increased neural recruitment as a compensatory response to deterioration of key frontal and intra-hemispheric networks, particularly of callosal structures. However, factors that mediate age-related motor decline are not well understood. Here we show that music training in childhood is associated with reduced age-related decline of bimanual and unimanual motor skills in a MIDI keyboard motor learning task. Compared to older adults without music training, older adults with more than a year of music training demonstrated proficient bimanual and unimanual movement, evidenced by enhanced speed and decreased movement errors. Further, this group demonstrated significantly better implicit learning in the weather prediction task, a non-motor task. The performance of older adults with music training in those tasks was comparable to young adults. Older adults, however, displayed greater verbal ability compared to young adults irrespective of a past history of music training. Our results indicate that music training early in life may reduce age-associated decline of neural motor and cognitive networks. PMID:23423702

  15. Dizziness and Imbalance in the Elderly: Age-related Decline in the Vestibular System

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Dizziness and imbalance are amongst the most common complaints in older people, and are a growing public health concern since they put older people at a significantly higher risk of falling. Although the causes of dizziness in older people are multifactorial, peripheral vestibular dysfunction is one of the most frequent causes. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most frequent form of vestibular dysfunction in the elderly, followed by Meniere’s disease. Every factor associated with the maintenance of postural stability deteriorates during aging. Age-related deterioration of peripheral vestibular function has been demonstrated through quantitative measurements of the vestibulo-ocular reflex with rotational testing and of the vestibulo-collic reflex with testing of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Age-related decline of vestibular function has been shown to correlate with the age-related decrease in the number of vestibular hair cells and neurons. The mechanism of age-related cellular loss in the vestibular endorgan is unclear, but it is thought that genetic predisposition and cumulative effect of oxidative stress may both play an important role. Since the causes of dizziness in older people are multi-factorial, management of this disease should be customized according to the etiologies of each individual. Vestibular rehabilitation is found to be effective in treating both unilateral and bilateral vestibular dysfunction. Various prosthetic devices have also been developed to improve postural balance in older people. Although there have been no medical treatments improving age-related vestibular dysfunction, new medical treatments such as mitochondrial antioxidants or caloric restriction, which have been effective in preventing age-related hearing loss, should be ienvestigated in the future. PMID:25657851

  16. Age-related changes in cutaneous sensation in the healthy human hand.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Jocelyn L; McNulty, Penelope A

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous sensation deteriorates with age. It is not known if this change is consistent over the entire hand or if sensation is affected by changes in skin mechanics. Cutaneous perceptual thresholds were tested at eight sites in the glabrous skin and two in the hairy skin of both hands in 70 subjects (20-88 years), five male and five female per decade, using calibrated von Frey filaments, two-point discrimination, and texture discrimination. Venous occlusion at the wrist (40 ± 10 mmHg) and moisturizer were used to alter skin mechanics. Cutaneous thresholds increased significantly with age (p < 0.001); von Frey thresholds were 0.04 g [0.02-0.07] (median and interquartile range) in the 20s and 0.16 g [0.04-0.4] in the 80s, with differences between hands for older females (p = 0.044) but not males. The pattern of changes in cutaneous sensation varied according to the site tested with smaller changes on the fingers compared to the palm. Two-point discrimination deteriorated with age (p = 0.046), but with no interaction between sex, handedness, or changes in skin mechanics. There were no significant differences for texture discrimination. Changes in skin mechanics improved cutaneous thresholds in the oldest males after moisturizing (p = 0.001) but not otherwise. These results emphasize the complex pattern of age-related deterioration in cutaneous sensation with differences between sexes, the hands, sites on the hand, and the mode of testing. As the index fingertip is not a sensitive indicator of sensory decline, the minimum assessment of age-related changes in cutaneous sensation should include both hands, and sites on the palm.

  17. Age-related eye disease and gender.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness is 285 millions, with 65% of visually impaired and 82% of all blind people being 50 years and older. Meta-analyses have shown that two out of three blind people are women, a gender discrepancy that holds true for both developed and developing countries. Cataract accounts for more than half of all blindness globally and gender inequity in access to cataract surgery is the major cause of the higher prevalence of blindness in women. In addition to gender differences in cataract surgical coverage, population-based studies on the prevalence of lens opacities indicate that women have a higher risk of developing cataract. Laboratory as well as epidemiologic studies suggest that estrogen may confer antioxidative protection against cataractogenesis, but the withdrawal effect of estrogen in menopause leads to increased risk of cataract in women. For the other major age-related eye diseases; glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, data are inconclusive. Due to anatomic factors, angle closure glaucoma is more common in women, whereas the dominating glaucoma type; primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is more prevalent in men. Diabetic retinopathy also has a male predominance and vascular/circulatory factors have been implied both in diabetic retinopathy and in POAG. For AMD, data on gender differences are conflicting although some studies indicate increased prevalence of drusen and neovascular AMD in women. To conclude, both biologic and socioeconomic factors must be considered when investigating causes of gender differences in the prevalence of age-related eye disease.

  18. Taste-related sensations in old age.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Annear, M J; Ikebe, K; Maeda, Y

    2017-03-02

    The sense of taste is important as it allows for assessment of nutritional value, safety and quality of foods as well as for food enjoyment and quality of life. Several factors are suggested to be associated with taste sensitivity, and higher prevalence of taste disorder has been reported among older adults. This review focused on the reported causes and correlates of taste decline in older adults, with the aim to consolidating existing evidence and identifying gaps and limitations. Using a scoping review methodology, we sought relevant literature from the last 20 years. Search terms included taste, gustatory sense, older adults and geriatric. Considered research was limited to reports that involved research participants over 60 years old, papers written in English, and manuscripts published after 1995. We have consolidated available evidences on the influences on taste-related sensations among international cohorts of older adults. Influences can be reflected under the topics of physiological changes in the sensory organs, physiological and behavioural variables related to taste sensation. This review identified three areas of historic and current research endeavour related to studies of taste sensation in older subjects: physiological changes in the sensory organs, factors related to the ageing of the individual and behavioural variables affecting taste-related sensation. Key limitations and gaps in the current literature include notable lack of consideration of potential confounding, mediating and moderating effects, while future research is indicated in the areas of measuring the quality of health and life. As global population ageing accelerates in the coming decades, maintaining taste sensations and sensitivity in older adults will be a key measure to ensuring quality of health and life.

  19. Pattern of normal age-related regional differences in white matter microstructure is modified by vascular risk.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Kristen M; Raz, Naftali

    2009-11-10

    Even successful aging is associated with regional brain shrinkage and deterioration of the cerebral white matter. Aging also brings about an increase in vascular risk, and vascular impairment may be a potential mechanism behind the observed patterns of aging. The goals of this study were to characterize the normal age differences in white matter integrity in several brain regions across the adult life span and to assess the modifying effect of vascular risk on the observed pattern of regional white matter integrity. We estimated fractional anisotropy and diffusivity of white matter in nine cerebral regions of interest in 77 healthy adults (19-84 years old). There was a widespread reduction of white matter anisotropy with age, and prefrontal and occipital regions evidenced the greatest age-related differences. Diffusivity increased with age, and the magnitude of age differences increased beginning with the middle of the fifth decade. Vascular risk factors modified age differences in white matter integrity. Clinically diagnosed and treated arterial hypertension was associated with reduced white matter anisotropy and increased diffusivity beyond the effects of age. In the normotensive participants, elevation of arterial pulse pressure (a surrogate of arterial stiffness) was linked to deterioration of the white matter integrity in the frontal regions. Although the causal role of vascular risk in brain aging is unclear, the observed pattern of effects suggests that vascular risk may drive the expansion of age-related white matter damage from anterior to posterior regions.

  20. Aging and factors related to running economy.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Timothy J; Manley, Michelle J; Aziz, Jason; Padham, Jamie L; MacKenzie, Allison M

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship that age has on factors affecting running economy (RE) in competitive distance runners. Fifty-one male and female subelite distance runners (Young [Y]: 18-39 years [n = 18]; Master [M]: 40-59 years [n = 22]; and Older [O]: 60-older [n = 11]) were measured for RE, step rate, lactate threshold (LT), VO2max, muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, power, and body composition. An RE test was conducted at 4 different velocities (161, 188, 215, and 241 m·min(-1)), with subjects running for 5 minutes at each velocity. The steady-state VO2max during the last minute of each stage was recorded and plotted vs. speed, and a regression equation was formulated. A 1 × 3 analysis of variance revealed no differences in the slopes of the RE regression lines among age groups (y = 0.1827x - 0.2974; R2 = 0.9511 [Y]; y = 0.1988x - 1.0416; R2 = 0.9697 [M]; y = 0.1727x + 3.0252; R2 = 0.9618 [O]). The VO2max was significantly lower in the O group compared to in the Y and M groups (Y = 64.1 ± 3.2; M = 56.8 ± 2.7; O = 44.4 ± 1.7 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The maximal heart rate and velocity @ LT were significantly different among all age groups (Y = 197 ± 4; M = 183 ± 2; O = 170 ± 6 b·min(-1) and Y = 289.7 ± 27.0; M = 251.5 ± 32.9; O = 212.3 ± 24.6 m·min(-1), respectively). The VO2max @ LT was significantly lower in the O group compared to in the Y and M groups (Y = 50.3 ± 2.0; M = 48.8 ± 2.9; O = 34.9 ± 3.2 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The O group was significantly lower than in the Y and M groups in flexibility, power, and upper body strength. Multiple regression analyses showed that strength and power were significantly related to running velocity. The results from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that age-related declines in running performance are associated with declines in maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory variables and declines in strength and power, not because of declines in running economy.

  1. Molecular Diagnostics of Ageing and Tackling Age-related Disease.

    PubMed

    Timmons, James A

    2017-01-01

    As average life expectancy increases there is a greater focus on health-span and, in particular, how to treat or prevent chronic age-associated diseases. Therapies which were able to control 'biological age' with the aim of postponing chronic and costly diseases of old age require an entirely new approach to drug development. Molecular technologies and machine-learning methods have already yielded diagnostics that help guide cancer treatment and cardiovascular procedures. Discovery of valid and clinically informative diagnostics of human biological age (combined with disease-specific biomarkers) has the potential to alter current drug-discovery strategies, aid clinical trial recruitment and maximize healthy ageing. I will review some basic principles that govern the development of 'ageing' diagnostics, how such assays could be used during the drug-discovery or development process. Important logistical and statistical considerations are illustrated by reviewing recent biomarker activity in the field of Alzheimer's disease, as dementia represents the most pressing of priorities for the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the chronic disease in humans most associated with age.

  2. Animal models of age related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Pennesi, Mark E; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J

    2012-08-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations.

  3. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations. PMID:22705444

  4. Medical bioremediation of age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Jacques M; Schloendorn, John; Rittmann, Bruce E; Alvarez, Pedro JJ

    2009-01-01

    Catabolic insufficiency in humans leads to the gradual accumulation of a number of pathogenic compounds associated with age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and macular degeneration. Removal of these compounds is a widely researched therapeutic option, but the use of antibodies and endogenous human enzymes has failed to produce effective treatments, and may pose risks to cellular homeostasis. Another alternative is "medical bioremediation," the use of microbial enzymes to augment missing catabolic functions. The microbial genetic diversity in most natural environments provides a resource that can be mined for enzymes capable of degrading just about any energy-rich organic compound. This review discusses targets for biodegradation, the identification of candidate microbial enzymes, and enzyme-delivery methods. PMID:19358742

  5. Age Metallicity Relation in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontizas, E.; Dapergolas, A.; Kontizas, M.; Nordström, B.; Andersen, J.; Prantzos, N.; Kaltcheva, N.

    The age metallicity relation (AMR) is known to be very important for understanding the chemical evolution in a galaxy. LMC, our nearest galaxy offers an ideal target for such studies, considering that with the SMC and our Galaxy are an interacting group, influencing each other's star formation rate and production of metals. An observing program for the determination of AMR from a study of small open LMC clusters using Stroemgren phorometry has been initiated. Three observing runs were granted with the 1.5m Danish Telescope at La Silla. We report on our search within 8 clusters, scattered all over the LMC to cover a wide spatial distribution and metallicity. CMDs using Stroemgren photometry have been produced, in order to find the age of the stellar content. The available isochrones used, although very few are able to give us a good age estimate. The calibration of the y, b, v, magnitudes and colours to metallicity used, is the one by Richter et al. (A&A, 1999), to obtain the adopted metallicities of the clusters. Although our sample is still small, a clear trend is observed in AMR showing a significant increase of metallicity with age. Comparison with previous AMRs from other investigations shows good agreement within the errors. The bursting model of chemical evolution by Pagel and Tautvaisiene (MNRAS, 1999) shows that the burst of star formation (SF) produces a change of slope in their AMRs from 2 Gyr to the present time, the burst assumed to occur from -0.4 dex to 0.0 dex. Although our sample is small the observed trend favours the expected change of the AMRs rather towards the 1 Gyr. Therefore our observations support a bursting model of chemical evolution. More obervations are needed and new theoretical models to strengthen these results. Finally it is found that all young metal rich clusters occupy the central LMC regions whereas the old metal poor ones are found in the LMC periphery giving evidence for a metallicity gradient as well. We would like to

  6. The neural architecture of age-related dual-task interferences

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewski, Witold X.; Yildiz, Ali; Beste, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In daily life elderly adults exhibit deficits when dual-tasking is involved. So far these deficits have been verified on a behavioral level in dual-tasking. Yet, the neuronal architecture of these deficits in aging still remains to be explored especially when late-middle aged individuals around 60 years of age are concerned. Neuroimaging studies in young participants concerning dual-tasking were, among others, related to activity in middle frontal (MFG) and superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and the anterior insula (AI). According to the frontal lobe hypothesis of aging, alterations in these frontal regions (i.e., SFG and MFG) might be responsible for cognitive deficits. We measured brain activity using fMRI, while examining age-dependent variations in dual-tasking by utilizing the PRP (psychological refractory period) test. Behavioral data showed an increasing PRP effect in late-middle aged adults. The results suggest the age-related deteriorated performance in dual-tasking, especially in conditions of risen complexity. These effects are related to changes in networks involving the AI, the SFG and the MFG. The results suggest that different cognitive subprocesses are affected that mediate the observed dual-tasking problems in late-middle aged individuals. PMID:25132818

  7. Age-related consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zaepfel, Alysia; Bjornstad, Petter; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2014-01-01

    The severity and frequency of childhood obesity has increased significantly over the past three to four decades. The health effects of increased body mass index as a child may significantly impact obese youth as they age. However, many of the long-term outcomes of childhood obesity have yet to be studied. This article examines the currently available longitudinal data evaluating the effects of childhood obesity on adult outcomes. Consequences of obesity include an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and its associated retinal and renal complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, asthma, orthopedic complications, psychiatric disease, and increased rates of cancer, among others. These disorders can start as early as childhood, and such early onset increases the likelihood of early morbidity and mortality. Being obese as a child also increases the likelihood of being obese as an adult, and obesity in adulthood also leads to obesity-related complications. This review outlines the evidence for childhood obesity as a predictor of adult obesity and obesity-related disorders, thereby emphasizing the importance of early intervention to prevent the onset of obesity in childhood.

  8. Design of Alarm Sound of Home Care Equipment Based on Age-related Auditory Sense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibano, Jun-Ichi; Tadano, Shigeru; Kaneko, Hirotaka

    A wide variety of home care equipment has been developed to support the independent lifestyle and care taking of elderly persons. Almost all of the equipment has an alarm designed to alert a care person or to sound a warning in case of an emergency. Due to the fact that aging human beings' senses physiologically, weaken and deteriorate, each alarm's sound must be designed to account for the full range of elderly person's hearing loss. Since the alarms are usually heard indoors, it is also necessary to evaluate the relationship between the basic characteristics of the sounds and living area's layout. In this study, we investigated the sounds of various alarms of the home care equipment based on both the age-related hearing characteristics of elderly persons and the propagation property of the sounds indoors. As a result, it was determined that the hearing characteristics of elderly persons are attuned to sounds which have a frequency from 700Hz to 1kHz, and it was learned that the indoor absorption ratio of sound is smallest when the frequency is 1kHz. Therefore, a frequency of 1kHz is good for the alarm sound of home care equipment. A flow chart to design the alarm sound of home care equipment was proposed, taking into account the extent of age-related auditory sense deterioration.

  9. Introduction to Aging, Cancer, and Age-related Diseases.

    PubMed

    Perry, Daniel P

    2010-06-01

    A rising tide of chronic age-dependent diseases, co-morbidities, and geriatric syndromes--a veritable Silver Tsunami--will soon present serious challenges for North America, Europe, Japan, and other industrialized nations. Meanwhile, a growing number of scientists, led by biogerontologists, maintain that the key to blunting the societal impact of large-scale decline and disability among older populations lies with better understanding and potential manipulation of biological mechanisms of aging itself. Well-characterized interventions that slow aging and extend health and vigor in animal models may be forerunners of technologies that preserve additional years of healthy productive life in humans. What will it take to validate these momentous insights from biogerontology and their potential applications for human populations? What are the points of resistance for key opinion leaders and policy makers? And how can biogerontologists make common cause with those outside the discipline to inform larger and more politically powerful audiences?

  10. Selective increases of extracellular brain concentrations of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in relation to deterioration of neurological status in acute (ischemic) liver failure.

    PubMed

    Michalak, A; Butterworth, R F

    1997-12-01

    Previous reports based on studies in brain tissue from humans and experimental animals suggest that aromatic amino acids (AAAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA's) accumulate in brain in acute liver failure. In order to assess these changes in relation to the severity of neurological impairment and to the degree of hyperammonemia, AAAs and BCAAs were measured in vivo by cerebral microdialysis in frontal cortex of rats at various stages during the development of hepatic encephalopathy due to acute liver failure resulting from portacaval anastomosis followed by hepatic artery ligation. Extracellular brain concentrations of AAAs and of valine and leucine were elevated 2 to 4-fold following hepatic devascularization and these increases were significantly correlated to arterial ammonia concentration (r= 0.71-0.84, p<0.05). Extracellular concentrations of tyrosine paralleled the deterioration of neurological status in acute liver failure rats. In view of their role as precursors of monoamine neurotransmitters, ammonia-induced alterations of intracellular/extracellular brain concentration ratios for AAAs could account for altered neuronal excitability and contribute to the encephalopathy characteristic of acute liver failure.

  11. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments.

  12. Age-related changes in pial arterial structure and blood flow in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Min; Sohn, Inkyung; Jung, Junyang; Jeong, Joo-Won; Park, Chan

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cerebral blood flow decreases are thought to deteriorate cognition and cause senescence, although the related mechanism is unclear. To investigate the relationships between aging and changes in cerebral blood flow and vasculature, we obtained fluorescence images of young (2-month-old) and old (12-month-old) mice using indocyanine green (ICG). First, we found that the blood flow in old mice's brains is lower than that in young mice and that old mice had more curved pial arteries and fewer pial artery junctions than young mice. Second, using Western blotting, we determined that the ratio of collagen to elastin (related to cerebral vascular wall distensibility) increased with age. Finally, we found that the peak ICG intensity and blood flow index decreased, whereas the mean transit time increased, with age in the middle cerebral artery and superior sagittal sinus. Age-related changes in pial arterial structure and composition, concurrent with the observed changes in the blood flow parameters, suggest that age-related changes in the cerebral vasculature structure and distensibility may induce altered brain blood flow.

  13. Age-related changes in wavelength discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Shinomori, Keizo; Schefrin, Brooke E.; Werner, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Wavelength discrimination functions (420 to 620–650 nm) were measured for four younger (mean 30.9 years) and four older (mean 72.5 years) observers. Stimuli consisted of individually determined isoluminant monochromatic lights (10 Td) presented in each half of a 2° circular bipartite field with use of a Maxwellian-view optical system. A spatial two-alternative forced-choice method was used in combination with a staircase procedure to determine discrimination thresholds across the spectrum. Small but consistent elevations in discrimination thresholds were found for older compared with younger observers. Because the retinal illuminance of the stimuli was equated across all observers, these age-related losses in discrimination are attributable to neural changes. Analyses of these data reveal a significant change in Weber fraction across adulthood for a chromatically opponent pathway receiving primarily antagonistic signals from middle-wavelength-sensitive and long-wavelength-sensitive cones but not for a short-wavelength-sensitive cone pathway. PMID:11205976

  14. Association of Age Related Macular Degeneration and Age Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Hassan; Pourakbari, Malihe Shahidi; Entezari, Morteza; Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and sensory neural hearing impairment (SHI). Methods: In this case-control study, hearing status of 46 consecutive patients with ARMD were compared with 46 age-matched cases without clinical ARMD as a control group. In all patients, retinal involvements were confirmed by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). All participants were examined with an otoscope and underwent audiological tests including pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech reception threshold (SRT), speech discrimination score (SDS), tympanometry, reflex tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR). Results: A significant (P = 0.009) association was present between ARMD, especially with exudative and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) components, and age-related hearing impairment primarily involving high frequencies. Patients had higher SRT and lower SDS against anticipated presbycusis than control subjects. Similar results were detected in exudative, CNV and scar patterns supporting an association between late ARMD with SRT and SDS abnormalities. ABR showed significantly prolonged wave I and IV latency times in ARMD (P = 0.034 and 0.022, respectively). Average latency periods for wave I in geographic atrophy (GA) and CNV, and that for wave IV in drusen patterns of ARMD were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.030, 0.007 and 0.050, respectively). Conclusion: The association between ARMD and age-related SHI may be attributed to common anatomical components such as melanin in these two sensory organs. PMID:27195086

  15. Neuroanatomical Substrates of Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    There are many reports of relations between age and cognitive variables and of relations between age and variables representing different aspects of brain structure and a few reports of relations between brain structure variables and cognitive variables. These findings have sometimes led to inferences that the age-related brain changes cause the…

  16. Age related macular degeneration and visual disability.

    PubMed

    Christoforidis, John B; Tecce, Nicola; Dell'Omo, Roberto; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Verolino, Marco; Costagliola, Ciro

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central blindness or low vision among the elderly in industrialized countries. AMD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among modifiable environmental risk factors, cigarette smoking has been associated with both the dry and wet forms of AMD and may increase the likelihood of worsening pre-existing AMD. Despite advances, the treatment of AMD has limitations and affected patients are often referred for low vision rehabilitation to help them cope with their remaining eyesight. The characteristic visual impairment for both forms of AMD is loss of central vision (central scotoma). This loss results in severe difficulties with reading that may be only partly compensated by magnifying glasses or screen-projection devices. The loss of central vision associated with the disease has a profound impact on patient quality of life. With progressive central visual loss, patients lose their ability to perform the more complex activities of daily living. Common vision aids include low vision filters, magnifiers, telescopes and electronic aids. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) is a new subspecialty emerging from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on the usual concepts of research, education, and services for visually impaired patients. Relatively few ophthalmologists practise LVR and fewer still routinely use prismatic image relocation (IR) in AMD patients. IR is a method of stabilizing oculomotor functions with the purpose of promoting better function of preferred retinal loci (PRLs). The aim of vision rehabilitation therapy consists in the achievement of techniques designed to improve PRL usage. The use of PRLs to compensate for diseased foveae has offered hope to these patients in regaining some function. However, in a recently published meta-analysis, prism spectacles were found to be unlikely to be of

  17. Age-related differences in experimental stroke: possible involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Nanlin; Kong, Xiangwei; Ye, Ruidong; Yang, Qianzi; Han, Junliang; Xiong, Lize

    2011-06-01

    Age is the single most important risk factor for cerebral stroke. Unfortunately, the effect of age on ischemic brain damage is less clear. In this study, we sought to examine the potential influence of aging on the histologic and functional outcomes after ischemia. Juvenile (4 weeks of age), young adult (4 months of age), mid-aged (11-12 months of age), and aged (18-19 months of age) mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. There was no remarkable difference of infarct volume on postoperative days 1 and 3. However, on postoperative day 7, aged mice exhibited significantly worsened infarct volume compared with juvenile and young mice. Intriguingly, the increase of infarct volume was most prominent in the striatal area rather than in cortex. Accordingly, aged mice displayed a slower and incomplete functional recovery after stroke. We further evaluated the effects of aging on the oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction following ischemia. Brain tissues were assayed for lipid, DNA, and protein peroxidation products, mitochondrial enzyme activities, mitochondrial membrane potential, production of reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant activities. Aging was associated with declined mitochondrial function and antioxidant detoxification following ischemia, thereby inducing a deteriorated oxidative damage. Regional subanalyses demonstrated that, in accordance with infarct area, the pro-oxidant/antioxidant imbalance occurred more prominently in subcortical areas. Collectively, these findings suggest mitochondria-mediated oxidative damage may be involved in the age-related aggravated injury in subcortical areas. Mitochondrial protection could be a promising target for neuroprotective therapy, especially in the aged population.

  18. Divergent Thinking and Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Aging can affect cognition in different ways. The extent to which aging affects divergent thinking is unclear. In this study, younger and older adults were compared at the performance on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in visual and verbal form. Results showed that older adults can think divergently as younger participants, although they…

  19. Growth factors, aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Priya; Longo, Valter D

    2016-06-01

    Simple organisms including yeast and flies with mutations in the IGF-1 and Tor-S6K pathways are dwarfs, are highly protected from toxins, and survive up to 3 times longer. Similarly, dwarf mice with deficiencies in the growth hormone-IGF-I axis are also long lived and protected from diseases. We recently reported that humans with Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency (GHRD) rarely develop cancer or diabetes. These findings are in agreement with the effect of defects in the Tor-S6K pathways in causing dwarfism and protection of DNA. Because protein restriction reduces both GHR-IGF-1 axis and Tor-S6K activity, we examined links between protein intake, disease, and mortality in over 6000 US subjects in the NHANES CDC database. Respondents aged 50-65 reporting a high protein intake displayed an increase in IGF-I levels, a 75% increased risk of overall mortality and a 3-4 fold increased risk of cancer mortality in agreement with findings in mouse experiments. These studies point to a conserved link between proteins and amino acids, GHR-IGF-1/insulin, Tor-S6k signaling, aging, and diseases.

  20. Age-related alterations in blood and colonic dendritic cell properties

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Lydia; Reddi, Durga; Hart, Ailsa L.; Fell, John M. E.; Al-Hassi, Hafid O.; Knight, Stella C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DC) determine initiation, type and location of immune responses and, in adults, show decreased Toll-like receptors and some increased cytokine levels on ageing. Few studies in children have characterised DC or explored DC-related mechanisms producing age-related immune changes. Results The pDC marker BDCA2 (but not CD123) was absent in pre-pubertal children and numbers of pDC decreased with age. Blood and colonic DC were more mature and activated in adults. Decrease in pDC numbers correlated with reduced GM-CSF levels with aging, but increasing IL-4 and IL-8 levels correlated with a more activated DC profile in blood. CXCL16 levels decreased with age. Methods Blood and colonic DC phenotypes were determined in healthy adults and children by flow cytometry and correlated with aging. Blood DC were divided into plasmacytoid (pDC) and myeloid (mDC) while only mDC were identified in colon. Serum cytokine levels were determined by multiplex cytokine assays and correlated with DC properties. Conclusions In children, lack of BDCA2, a receptor mediating antigen capture and inhibiting interferon induction, may be immunologically beneficial during immune development. Conversely, reduced pDC numbers, probably secondary to decreasing GM-CSF and increasing cytokine-induced maturation of DC are likely to determine deteriorating immunity with ageing. PMID:26942871

  1. Aging is not a disease: distinguishing age-related macular degeneration from aging.

    PubMed

    Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photoreceptors are steadily lost, Bruch's membrane thickens, the choroid thins, and hard drusen may form in the periphery. In AMD, many of these changes are exacerbated in addition to the development of disease-specific factors such as soft macular drusen. Para-inflammation, which can be thought of as an intermediate between basal and robust levels of inflammation, develops within the retina in an attempt to maintain ocular homeostasis, reflected by increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 coupled with shifts in macrophage plasticity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. In AMD, imbalances in the M1 and M2 populations together with activation of retinal microglia are observed and potentially contribute to tissue degeneration. Nonetheless, the retina persists in a state of chronic inflammation and increased expression of certain cytokines and inflammasomes is observed. Since not everyone develops AMD, the vital question to ask is how the body establishes a balance between normal age-related changes and the pathological phenotypes in AMD.

  2. Aging Changes in Retinal Microglia and their Relevance to Age-related Retinal Disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenxin; Wong, Wai T

    2016-01-01

    Age-related retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma, contain features of chronic retinal inflammation that may promote disease progression. However, the relationship between aging and neuroinflammation is unclear. Microglia are long-lived, resident immune cells of the retina, and mediate local neuroinflammatory reactions. We hypothesize that aging changes in microglia may be causally linked to neuroinflammatory changes underlying age-dependent retinal diseases. Here, we review the evidence for (1) how the retinal microglial phenotype changes with aging, (2) the factors that drive microglial aging in the retina, and (3) aging-related changes in microglial gene expression. We examine how these aspects of microglial aging changes may relate to pathogenic mechanisms of immune dysregulation driving the progression of age-related retinal disease. These relationships can highlight microglial aging as a novel target for the prevention and treatment of retinal disease.

  3. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    SciTech Connect

    Tashiro, Kanae; Shishido, Mayumi; Fujimoto, Keiko; Hirota, Yuko; Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa; Tanaka, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility.

  4. 8 Areas of Age-Related Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc 1. Brain: Memory and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) As adults age, many ... Researchers from 12 institutions, including the NIH's National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), recently announced the results ...

  5. Age-related elemental change in bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Eisa, M. H.; Jin, W.; Shen, H.; Mi, Y.; Gao, J.; Zhou, Y.; Yao, H.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-04-01

    To investigate age dependence of the bone element contents and structure, lumbar and femur from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were chosen for their more susceptibility to fracture. These rats were divided into to 5 age groups: 1, 4, 7, 11 and 25 month-age, corresponding human beings from the young to the old. The elements contents were detected by external Proton Induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) method was also applied to obtain information about calcium (Ca) and phosphor (P) structure. It was found that Ca content, Ca/P ratio, valance state of Ca and P and their coordinate structure remains unaltered with age variance, whereas the content of strontium (Sr) was significantly decreasing. Sr concentration may provide a new parameter for diagnosis of bone disorder.

  6. Relative Age Effect in Masters Sports: Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medic, Nikola; Starkes, Janet L.; Weir, Patricia L.; Young, Bradley W.; Grove, J. Robert

    2009-01-01

    The relative age effect refers to the performance-related advantage of being born early in a cohort or selection year. Until recently it was unknown whether the relative age effect generalizes across the lifespan. Medic, Starkes, and Young (2007) reasoned that the 5-year age categories that are widely used in masters-level sports to organize…

  7. Bodacious Berry, Potency Wood and the Aging Monster: Gender and Age Relations in Anti-Aging Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…

  8. Statins for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive late onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. Objectives The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2014), PubMed (January 1946 to June 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 June 2014. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who were either susceptible to or diagnosed as having early stages of AMD. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We did not perform meta-analysis due to heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes among the

  9. The relevance of aging-related changes in brain function to rehabilitation in aging-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M.; Nocera, Joe R.; Drucker, Jonathan H.; Tran, Stella M.; Butler, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on rehabilitation of aging-related diseases are rarely a design consideration in rehabilitation research. In this brief review we present strong coincidental evidence from these two fields suggesting that deficits in aging-related disease or injury are compounded by the interaction between aging-related brain changes and disease-related brain changes. Specifically, we hypothesize that some aphasia, motor, and neglect treatments using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in stroke patients may address the aging side of this interaction. The importance of testing this hypothesis and addressing the larger aging by aging-related disease interaction is discussed. Underlying mechanisms in aging that most likely are relevant to rehabilitation of aging-related diseases also are covered. PMID:26074807

  10. [Age-related muscle mass loss].

    PubMed

    Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena; Milczarczyk, Sylwia

    2006-01-01

    One of the signs of advancing age in humans is sarcopenia. The term is used to define the loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs with ageing. Sarcopenia contributes to the decreased capacity of independent living and increased amounts of traumas. Numbers of mechanisms are proposed as a cause of sarcopenia, including changes in protein metabolism, alterations in hormonal and neural functions, impaired regeneration after contraction-induced injuries, mitochondrial abnormalities, oxidative stress and apoptosis in skeletal muscle fibres. Further studies on the mechanisms leading to sarcopenia could provide the basis for prevention and establishment of therapeutic methods that would contribute to an increase in the standard of living among elderly people.

  11. Treatment of Childhood Idiopathic Language Deterioration with Valproate.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Gregory L.; Riviello, James J.

    2001-06-01

    Childhood idiopathic language deterioration is a rare condition in which children lose previously gained language skills. In some children this language deterioration occurs in association with behavioral seizures or EEG epileptiform activity. The effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs in this patient population is not known. Here we retrospectively reviewed records of 57 children with childhood idiopathic language deterioration associated with seizures or epileptiform activity on their EEG who received valproate for the purpose of treating their language impairment. In 22 of the children improvement in language skills was observed. In two children language returned to normal while in the other 20 the improvement was modest. Children who responded to valproate had an earlier age of onset of the aphasia than children who were nonresponders. Seizure type, EEG findings, developmental status, and presence or absence of a frequency-modulated auditory evoked potential were not related to response. This study demonstrates that valproate can be helpful in improving language function in some children with idiopathic language deterioration associated with seizures or epileptiform activity on the EEG.

  12. Age-Related Changes in Visual Pseudoneglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Remy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoneglect is a slight but consistent leftward attentional bias commonly observed in healthy young populations, purportedly explained by right hemispheric dominance. It has been suggested that normal aging might be associated with a decline of the right hemisphere. According to this hypothesis, a few studies have shown that elderly tend to…

  13. Age-related decline of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit expression in the auditory cortex of the mimetic aging rat model associated with the common deletion.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi; Hu, Yujuan; Peng, Wei; Sun, Yu; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xueyan; Huang, Xiang; Zhang, Honglian; Kong, Weijia

    2012-12-01

    The age-related deterioration in the central auditory system is well known to impair the abilities of sound localization and speech perception. However, the mechanisms involved in the age-related central auditory deficiency remain unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions accumulated with age in the auditory system. Also, a cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) deficiency has been proposed to be a causal factor in the age-related decline in mitochondrial respiratory activity. This study was designed to explore the changes of CcO activity and to investigate the possible relationship between the mtDNA common deletion (CD) and CcO activity as well as the mRNA expression of CcO subunits in the auditory cortex of D-galactose (D-gal)-induced mimetic aging rats at different ages. Moreover, we explored whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were involved in the changes of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded CcO subunits in the auditory cortex during aging. Our data demonstrated that d-gal-induced mimetic aging rats exhibited an accelerated accumulation of the CD and a gradual decline in the CcO activity in the auditory cortex during the aging process. The reduction in the CcO activity was correlated with the level of CD load in the auditory cortex. The mRNA expression of CcO subunit III was reduced significantly with age in the d-gal-induced mimetic aging rats. In contrast, the decline in the mRNA expression of subunits I and IV was relatively minor. Additionally, significant increases in the mRNA and protein levels of PGC-1α, NRF-1 and TFAM were observed in the auditory cortex of D-gal-induced mimetic aging rats with aging. These findings suggested that the accelerated accumulation of the CD in the auditory cortex may induce a substantial decline in CcO subunit III and lead to a significant decline in the Cc

  14. Age-related forgetting in locomotor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Malone, Laura A; Bastian, Amy J

    2016-02-01

    The healthy aging process affects the ability to learn and remember new facts and tasks. Prior work has shown that motor learning can be adversely affected by non-motor deficits, such as time. Here we investigated how age, and a dual task influence the learning and forgetting of a new walking pattern. We studied healthy younger (<30 yo) and older adults (>50 yo) as they alternated between 5-min bouts of split-belt treadmill walking and resting. Older subjects learned a new walking pattern at the same rate as younger subjects, but forgot some of the new pattern during the rest breaks. We tested if forgetting was due to reliance on a cognitive strategy that was not fully engaged after rest breaks. When older subjects performed a dual cognitive task to reduce strategic control of split-belt walking, their adaptation rate slowed, but they still forgot much of the new pattern during the rest breaks. Our results demonstrate that the healthy aging process is one component that weakens motor memories during rest breaks and that this phenomenon cannot be explained solely by reliance on a conscious strategy in older adults.

  15. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key points Results showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners. Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups. Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification. PMID:26336355

  16. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Connick, Mark J; Beckman, Emma M; Tweedy, Sean M

    2015-09-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key pointsResults showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners.Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups.Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification.

  17. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...

  18. Susceptibility of dry-cured tuna to oxidative deterioration and biogenic amines generation: I. Effect of NaCl content, antioxidant type and ageing.

    PubMed

    Roseiro, L C; Santos, C; Gonçalves, H; Serrano, C; Aleixo, C; Partidário, A; Lourenço, A R; Dias, M Abreu; da Ponte, D J B

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess lipid oxidation and biogenic amine (BA) development in "muxama", a dry-cured tuna muscle product, as affected by salt content, antioxidant type and ageing time. Overall, BA contents decreased with NaCl level (2785.1mgkg(-1), 1148.1mgkg(-1) and 307.7mgkg(-1)) and increased with ageing time (366.2mgkg(-1), 1711.8mgkg(-1) and 2959.2mgkg(-1) in the final product (T0), and after 1 (T1) and 3 (T3) months of ageing, respectively). Regardless of the test conditions, the most concentrated BA was always tyramine. For the ageing periods considered in the present study, malondialdehyde formation was affected by the NaCl level, with the saltiest samples exhibiting lower content. Rosemary and sage extracts represented promising technological options for preserving muxama from oxidation and to minimize the presence of a fishy flavour and odour, but this treatment may cause the colour to lose some of its redness and become less appealing.

  19. Validation of anti-aging drugs by treating age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2009-03-28

    Humans die from age-related diseases, which are deadly manifestations of the aging process. In order to extend life span, an anti-aging drug must delay age-related diseases. All together age-related diseases are the best biomarker of aging. Once a drug is used for treatment of any one chronic disease, its effect against other diseases (atherosclerosis, cancer, prostate enlargement, osteoporosis, insulin resistance, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, age-related macular degeneration) may be evaluated in the same group of patients. If the group is large, then the anti-aging effect could be validated in a couple of years. Startlingly, retrospective analysis of clinical and preclinical data reveals four potential anti-aging modalities.

  20. Differences between the sexes and age-related changes in orienteering speed.

    PubMed

    Bird, S; Balmer, J; Olds, T; Davison, R C

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the age and sex of the competitor on orienteering speed during competitive events. The results of the fastest three male and fastest three female competitors in each 5-year age band (21-79 years), from four national orienteering events, were analysed. The data for age and orienteering speed were log-transformed and regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between age and sex and orienteering speed. For comparison, data for the fastest Great Britain finisher in the 10,000-m track and 10-km cross-country events for age groups 40-69 years at the World Masters Championships were also analysed. The results showed that, before the age of 40 years, there was no substantial slowing in orienteering speed for males (0.5-4.2% per decade) but a moderate decline (4.7-10.0% per decade) for females. After the age of 45 years, the orienteering speed of males and females slowed by 13+/-2% and 16+/-4% per decade (mean +/- s), respectively, until around the age of 69, after which the deterioration was accentuated. The orienteering speed of the females was 81+/-4, 74+/-6 and 69+/-7% that of the males at ages 21, 45 and 65 years, respectively. The magnitudes of the age-related slowing of orienteering speed and of the difference in orienteering speed between males and females aged 45 years and over were greater than those reported for the other endurance running events. This may reflect the physical demands of running in orienteering terrain, tactical and cognitive aspects of the sport, or sociocultural aspects of the participating population.

  1. Age-related changes in adaptive macronutrient intake in swimming male and female Lou rats.

    PubMed

    Boghossian, S; Veyrat-Durebex, C; Alliot, J

    2000-05-01

    To evaluate the age-related changes in capacity to adjust the nutrient intake to needs, self-selecting male and female Lou/C/jall rats of 4, 6, 12, 16 and 23 months of age were submitted to a swimming exercise. They were given 6 consecutive days of moderate intensity training (3 x 15 minutes per day). Exercise and postexercise periods were compared with results from the pretraining period. During swimming, a body weight loss and a decrease in both caloric intake and fat selection were observed. This effect was more marked in older groups compared to 4 month-old groups. An increase in protein intake was observed in females, specially in older groups, whereas no effect was seen in males. The ability to increase caloric ingestion and regain weight during the postexercise period decreased with advancing age and was better in females than in males. We also showed an age-related effect on the recovery of initial nutrient intake rate that was more pronounced and more precocious for males. Moreover, males tended to decrease their protein intake, whereas females significantly increased it. The present findings suggest a decrease of capacity of adjusting feeding behavior to metabolic needs in aged rats, may be due to a deterioration of the central control of food intake.

  2. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Job listings, application forms & job-related information Meetings, Conferences & Events Upcoming & past scientific meetings & public events Partnering & Donations Guidance on partnering, guidelines for donations Search Email Page Print Page Health & Research A-Z ...

  3. iPSC technology to study human aging and aging-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Hui; Ding, Zhichao; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2012-12-01

    A global aging population, normally accompanied by a high incidence of aging-associated diseases, has prompted a renewed interest in basic research on human aging. Although encouraging progress has been achieved using animal models, the underlying fundamental mechanisms of aging remain largely unknown. Here, we review the human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based models of aging and aging-related diseases. These models seek to advance our knowledge of aging molecular mechanisms and help to develop strategies for treating aging-associated human diseases.

  4. The Role of RFamide-Related Peptide-3 in Age-Related Reproductive Decline in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Anna C.; Muroy, Sandra E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.; Bentley, George E.; Kaufer, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive senescence, the point in time when females cease to show estrous cyclicity, is associated with endocrine changes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. However, the mechanisms triggering this transition are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the top-down control of the transition from reproductive competence to a state of reproductive senescence, we investigated middle-aged female rats exhibiting varying degrees of reproductive decline, including individuals with normal cycles, irregular cycles, and complete cessation of cycles. We identified hormonal changes in the brain that manifest before ovarian cycles exhibit any deterioration. We found that females exhibit an increase in RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP3) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus in middle age prior to changes in estrous cycle length. This increase is transient and followed by subsequent decreases in kisspeptin (KiSS1) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression. Expression of RFRP3 and its receptor also increased locally in the ovaries with advancing age. While it is well known that aging is associated with decreased GnRH release and downstream disruption of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis, herein, we provide evidence that reproductive senescence is likely triggered by alterations in a network of regulatory neuropeptides upstream of the GnRH system. PMID:27445974

  5. Age Related Decline in Postural Control Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelmach, George E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied voluntary and reflexive mechanisms of postural control of young (N=8) and elderly (N=8) adults through measurement of reflexive reactions to large-fast and small-slow ankle rotation postural disturbances. Found reflexive mechanisms relatively intact for both groups although elderly appeared more disadvantaged when posture was under the…

  6. Age-related regulation of genes: slow homeostatic changes and age-dimension technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurachi, Kotoku; Zhang, Kezhong; Huo, Jeffrey; Ameri, Afshin; Kuwahara, Mitsuhiro; Fontaine, Jean-Marc; Yamamoto, Kei; Kurachi, Sumiko

    2002-11-01

    Through systematic studies of pro- and anti-blood coagulation factors, we have determined molecular mechanisms involving two genetic elements, age-related stability element (ASE), GAGGAAG and age-related increase element (AIE), a unique stretch of dinucleotide repeats (AIE). ASE and AIE are essential for age-related patterns of stable and increased gene expression patterns, respectively. Such age-related gene regulatory mechanisms are also critical for explaining homeostasis in various physiological reactions as well as slow homeostatic changes in them. The age-related increase expression of the human factor IX (hFIX) gene requires the presence of both ASE and AIE, which apparently function additively. The anti-coagulant factor protein C (hPC) gene uses an ASE (CAGGAG) to produce age-related stable expression. Both ASE sequences (G/CAGAAG) share consensus sequence of the transcriptional factor PEA-3 element. No other similar sequences, including another PEA-3 consensus sequence, GAGGATG, function in conferring age-related gene regulation. The age-regulatory mechanisms involving ASE and AIE apparently function universally with different genes and across different animal species. These findings have led us to develop a new field of research and applications, which we named “age-dimension technology (ADT)”. ADT has exciting potential for modifying age-related expression of genes as well as associated physiological processes, and developing novel, more effective prophylaxis or treatments for age-related diseases.

  7. Slowing Down: Age-Related Neurobiological Predictors of Processing Speed

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Processing speed, or the rate at which tasks can be performed, is a robust predictor of age-related cognitive decline and an indicator of independence among older adults. This review examines evidence for neurobiological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, which is guided in part by our source based morphometry findings that unique patterns of frontal and cerebellar gray matter predict age-related variation in processing speed. These results, together with the extant literature on morphological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, suggest that specific neural systems undergo declines and as a result slow processing speed. Future studies of processing speed – dependent neural systems will be important for identifying the etiologies for processing speed change and the development of interventions that mitigate gradual age-related declines in cognitive functioning and enhance healthy cognitive aging. PMID:21441995

  8. The Relative Age Effect among Female Brazilian Youth Volleyball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okazaki, Fabio H. A.; Keller, Birgit; Fontana, Fabio E.; Gallagher, Jere D.

    2011-01-01

    In sports, the relative age effect (RAE) refers to performance disadvantages of children born late in the competition year compared to those with birthdays soon after the cutoff date. This effect is derived from age grouping, a strategy commonly used in youth sport programs. The purpose of age grouping is to decrease possible cognitive, physical,…

  9. Age-Related Differences in Idiom Production in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Peggy S.; Hyun, Jungmoon; O'Connor Wells, Barbara; Anema, Inge; Goral, Mira; Monereau-Merry, Marie-Michelle; Rubino, Daniel; Kuckuk, Raija; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether idiom production was vulnerable to age-related difficulties, we asked 40 younger (ages 18-30) and 40 older healthy adults (ages 60-85) to produce idiomatic expressions in a story-completion task. Younger adults produced significantly more correct idiom responses (73%) than did older adults (60%). When older adults generated…

  10. Evolving concepts on the age-related changes in "muscle quality".

    PubMed

    Russ, David W; Gregg-Cornell, Kimberly; Conaway, Matthew J; Clark, Brian C

    2012-06-01

    The deterioration of skeletal muscle with advancing age has long been anecdotally recognized and has been of scientific interest for more than 150 years. Over the past several decades, the scientific and medical communities have recognized that skeletal muscle dysfunction (e.g., muscle weakness, poor muscle coordination, etc.) is a debilitating and life-threatening condition in the elderly. For example, the age-associated loss of muscle strength is highly associated with both mortality and physical disability. It is well-accepted that voluntary muscle force production is not solely dependent upon muscle size, but rather results from a combination of neurologic and skeletal muscle factors, and that biologic properties of both of these systems are altered with aging. Accordingly, numerous scientists and clinicians have used the term "muscle quality" to describe the relationship between voluntary muscle strength and muscle size. In this review article, we discuss the age-associated changes in the neuromuscular system-starting at the level of the brain and proceeding down to the subcellular level of individual muscle fibers-that are potentially influential in the etiology of dynapenia (age-related loss of muscle strength and power).

  11. Relative Age Effects in Dutch Adolescents: Concurrent and Prospective Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents’ school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration), and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS) of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls). Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001), our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention. PMID:26076384

  12. The role of hydrogen sulfide in aging and age-related pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Perridon, Bernard W.; Leuvenink, Henri G.D.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; van Goor, Harry; Bos, Eelke M.

    2016-01-01

    When humans grow older, they experience inevitable and progressive loss of physiological function, ultimately leading to death. Research on aging largely focuses on the identification of mechanisms involved in the aging process. Several proposed aging theories were recently combined as the ‘hallmarks of aging’. These hallmarks describe (patho-)physiological processes that together, when disrupted, determine the aging phenotype. Sustaining evidence shows a potential role for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the regulation of aging. Nowadays, H2S is acknowledged as an endogenously produced signaling molecule with various (patho-) physiological effects. H2S is involved in several diseases including pathologies related to aging. In this review, the known, assumed and hypothetical effects of hydrogen sulfide on the aging process will be discussed by reviewing its actions on the hallmarks of aging and on several age-related pathologies. PMID:27683311

  13. [Pharmacological therapy of age-related macular degeneration based on etiopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Tamás

    2015-11-15

    for the disease and are older than 50 years; (2) who have been diagnosed with unilateral age-related macular degeneration in order to prevent damage of the contralateral eye; (3) who have bilateral age-related macular degeneration in order to avert deterioration and in the hope of a potential improvement. However, randomised prospective clinical trials are still needed to elucidate the potential role of these drug treatments in the prevention and treatment of age-related macular degeneration.

  14. Age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Johanna; De Beukelaer, Sophie; Kraft, Antje; Ohl, Sven; Audebert, Heinrich J; Brandt, Stephan A

    2013-01-01

    Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view). To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age, and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game-experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media.

  15. Activation of NO-cGMP Signaling Rescues Age-Related Memory Impairment in Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Chihiro S.; Takahashi, Toshihumi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is a common feature and a debilitating phenotype of brain aging in many animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying AMI are still largely unknown. The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus is a useful experimental animal for studying age-related changes in learning and memory capability; because the cricket has relatively short life-cycle and a high capability of olfactory learning and memory. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying memory formation in crickets have been examined in detail. In the present study, we trained male crickets of different ages by multiple-trial olfactory conditioning to determine whether AMI occurs in crickets. Crickets 3 weeks after the final molt (3-week-old crickets) exhibited levels of retention similar to those of 1-week-old crickets at 30 min or 2 h after training; however they showed significantly decreased levels of 1-day retention, indicating AMI in long-term memory (LTM) but not in anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) in olfactory learning of crickets. Furthermore, 3-week-old crickets injected with a nitric oxide (NO) donor, a cyclic GMP (cGMP) analog or a cyclic AMP (cAMP) analog into the hemolymph before conditioning exhibited a normal level of LTM, the same level as that in 1-week-old crickets. The rescue effect by NO donor or cGMP analog injection was absent when the crickets were injected after the conditioning. For the first time, an NO donor and a cGMP analog were found to antagonize the age-related impairment of LTM formation, suggesting that deterioration of NO synthase (NOS) or molecules upstream of NOS activation is involved in brain-aging processes. PMID:27616985

  16. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation, and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune-privileged tissue as a result of its unique anatomic and physiologic properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate-immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergoes low levels of activation (parainflammation). In many cases, this parainflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration, this parainflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal parainflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors, and old age. Dysregulated parainflammation (chronic inflammation) in age-related macular degeneration damages the blood retina barrier, resulting in the breach of retinal-immune privilege, leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate-immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in age-related macular degeneration and explores the difference between beneficial parainflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of age-related macular degeneration.

  17. A Context for Teaching Aging-Related Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two points of view regarding age-related public programs (Medicaid, Medicare, Social Security): that of devolutionists who would curtail them and safety netters who maintain the government's role is indispensable. Uses Relative Deprivation theory as a framework for teaching public policy about aging. (SK)

  18. How Pervasive Are Relative Age Effects in Secondary School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobley, Stephen; McKenna, Jim; Baker, Joeseph; Wattie, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs; R. H. Barnsley, A. H. Thompson, & P. E. Barnsley, 1985) convey school attainment (dis)advantages depending on whether one is relatively older or younger within annually age-grouped cohorts. In the present study, the authors examined the pervasiveness of RAEs by examining (a) attainment in 4 secondary school…

  19. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school students…

  20. Unique Relations of Age and Delinquency with Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Context processing has significant empirical support as an explanation of age- and psychopathology-related deficiencies in cognitive control. We examined whether context processing generalizes to younger individuals who are in trouble with the law. We tested whether age and delinquency might have unique relations to context processing skills in…

  1. [Depression in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration].

    PubMed

    Narváez, Yamile Reveiz; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a cause for disability in the elderly since it greatly affects their quality of life and increases depression likelihood. This article discusses the negative effect depression has on patients with age-related macular degeneration and summarizes the interventions available for decreasing their depression index.

  2. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  3. The Digital Ageing Atlas: integrating the diversity of age-related changes into a unified resource.

    PubMed

    Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes.

  4. [Drinking water hardness and chronic degenerative diseases. III. Tumors, urolithiasis, fetal malformations, deterioration of the cognitive function in the aged and atopic eczema].

    PubMed

    Donato, F; Monarca, S; Premi, S; Gelatti, U

    2003-01-01

    For several decades a causal relation has been hypothesised between drinking water hardness and cardiovascular and other chronic degenerative diseases in humans. Only recently some epidemiological studies also investigated the association between the concentration of the minerals responsible for the hardness of drinking water (calcium and magnesium) and other chronic diseases. Some case-control studies carried out in Taiwan using aggregated data showed a possible protective effect of water hardness toward the risk of dying from various neoplasms, though more research is needed on the issue, possibly based on individual data, to draw definitive conclusions. There is a substantial evidence that consumption of water with high levels of calcium does not increase, and maybe reduces the risk of developing urinary stones of the most common type in developed countries (calcium oxalate), on the contrary, there is no conclusive evidence on the relation between water hardness and foetal malformations, cognitive functions in old men, diabetes and eczema.

  5. Knowledge discovery in ophthalmology: analysis of wet form of age-related macular degeneration treatment outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulińska, Magdalena; Tataj, Emanuel; Mulawka, Jan J.; Szaflik, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), according to epidemiological data, is a main reason of social blindness among elderly people in developed countries. There are two forms of AMD: dry and wet. The first one is of good prognosis with low possibility of serious visual deterioration, while the second one usually leads to quick and severe visual impairment. The aim of our investigations is to analyse results of so called real-life treatment of wet AMD. We analysed outcomes of our patients treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF drugs: Lucentis (61 patients) and Avastin (78 patients). We analysed changes in visual acuity (functional effect) and central retinal thickness (anatomic effect). Both drugs occurred to be efficient in treatment of wet form of AMD, however results were more satisfying in patients with better baseline visual acuity. In our approach we used R environment - an integrated suite of software facilities for data analysis and graphics.

  6. Undergraduate Students' Perceptions and Behaviors Related to the Aged and to Aging Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Weaver, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Aging education is relatively new to the university, and our understanding of the perspectives students bring to aging populations is correspondingly limited. This investigation surveys 546 students at a midsized, Midwestern university to explore students' views toward elders, toward serving elders, and toward the relevance of aging education for…

  7. Performance deterioration based on existing (historical) data; JT9D jet engine diagnostics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the collection and analysis of historical data pertaining to the deterioration of JT9D engine performance are presented. The results of analyses of prerepair and postrepair engine test stand performance data from a number of airlines to establish the individual as well as average losses in engine performance with respect to service use are included. Analysis of the changes in mechanical condition of parts, obtained by inspection of used gas-path parts of varying age, allowed preliminary assessments of component performance deterioration levels and identification of the causitive factors. These component performance estimates, refined by data from special engine back-to-back testing related to module performance restoration, permitted the development of preliminary models of engine component/module performance deterioration with respect to usage. The preliminary assessment of the causes of module performance deterioration and the trends with usage are explained, along with the role each module plays in overall engine performance deterioration. Preliminary recommendations with respect to operating and maintenance practices which could be adopted to control the level of performance deterioration are presented. The needs for additional component sensitivity testing as well as outstanding issues are discussed.

  8. Academic and Workplace-related Visual Stresses Induce Detectable Deterioration Of Performance, Measured By Basketball Trajectories and Astigmatism Impacting Athletes Or Students In Military Pilot Training.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Separate military establishments across the globe can confirm that a high percentage of their prospective pilots-in-training are no longer visually fit to continue the flight training portion of their programs once their academic coursework is completed. I maintain that the visual stress induced by those intensive protocols can damage the visual feedback mechanism of any healthy and dynamic system beyond its usual and ordinary ability to self-correct minor visual loss of acuity. This deficiency seems to be detectable among collegiate and university athletes by direct observation of the height of the trajectory arc of a basketball's flight. As a particular athlete becomes increasingly stressed by academic constraints requiring long periods of concentrated reading under highly static angular convergence of the eyes, along with unfavorable illumination and viewing conditions, eyesight does deteriorate. I maintain that induced astigmatism is a primary culprit because of the evidence of that basketball's trajectory! See the next papers!

  9. Whole-Body Vibration Training and Its Application to Age-Related Performance Decrements: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam; Griffiths, Katie; Babraj, John; Cobley, James N

    2016-02-01

    Middle age is associated with a pronounced decline in power and flexibility. Whilst whole-body vibration training (WBVT) improves performance in a range of populations, whether WBVT can improve muscle power and flexibility in a middle-aged population is not known. The present study aimed to determine the influence of 5 weeks progressive WBVT in middle-aged (45-55 years) and younger (20-30 years) recreationally active females. Participants in each age group were randomly allocated to an intervention (WBVT) or control group. The WBVT groups trained for 5 weeks on a vibration platform, while the control groups performed identical exercises, with no vibration. Prior to, and after, the 5-week study vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) and range of motion (ROM) performance were measured. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved VCMJ performance when compared to the control groups. This improvement was significantly (p = 0.001) greater in the middle-aged compared with the younger WBVT group. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved ROM irrespective of age. Taken together, these results suggest that WBVT can off-set age related performance decrements, which has therapeutic implications for musculoskeletal aging. Therefore, WBVT could be undertaken to minimise age-related performance deterioration in middle-aged female populations.

  10. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 reduces age-related alterations in the ultrastructure of the lacrimal gland

    PubMed Central

    Bakeeva, Lora E.; Eldarov, Chupalav M.; Vangely, Irina M.; Kolosova, Nataliya G.; Vays, Valeriya B.

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is an eye disorder affecting many people at an old age. Because dry eye syndrome is accelerated by aging, a useful approach to the prevention of this syndrome may be an intervention into the aging process. Previously, we showed that the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 delays manifestations of aging and inhibits the development of age-related diseases including dry eye syndrome. Nevertheless, the link between SkQ1's effects and its suppression of age-related changes in the lacrimal gland remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that dietary supplementation with SkQ1 (250 nmol/[kg body weight] daily) starting at age 1.5 months significantly alleviated the pathological changes in lacrimal glands of Wistar rats by age 24 months. By this age, lacrimal glands underwent dramatic deterioration of the ultrastructure that was indicative of irreversible disturbances in these glands' functioning. In contrast, in SkQ1-treated rats, the ultrastructure of the lacrimal gland was similar to that in much younger rats. Morphometric analysis of electron-microscopic specimens of lacrimal glands revealed the presence of numerous secretory granules in acinar cells and a significant increase in the number of operating intercalary ducts. Our results confirm that dietary supplementation with SkQ1 is a promising approach to healthy ageing and to prevention of aberrations in the lacrimal gland that underlie dry eye syndrome. PMID:27852065

  11. Aging Related Changes of Retina and Optic Nerve of Uromastyx aegyptia and Falco tinnunculus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a biological phenomenon that involves gradual degradation of the structure and function of the retina and optic nerve. To our knowledge, little is known about the aging-related ocular cell loss in avian (Falco tinnunculus) and reptilian species (Uromastyx aegyptia). A selected 90 animals of pup, middle, and old age U. aegyptia (reptilian) and F. tinnunculus (avian) were used. The retinae and optic nerves were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and assessments of neurotransmitters, antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismustase and glutathione s transferase), caspase-3 and -7, malonadialdhyde, and DNA fragmentation. Light and TEM observations of the senile specimens revealed apparent deterioration of retinal cell layers, especially the pigmented epithelium and photoreceptor outer segments. Their inclusions of melanin were replaced by lipofuscins. Also, vacuolar degeneration and demyelination of the optic nerve axons were detected. Concomitantly, there was a marked increase of oxidative stress involved reduction of neurotransmitters and antioxidant enzymes and an increase of lipid peroxidation, caspase-3 and -7, subG0/G1 apoptosis, and P53. We conclude that aging showed an inverse relationship with the neurotransmitters and antioxidant enzymes and a linear relationship of caspases, malondialdhyde, DNA apoptosis, and P53 markers of cell death. These markers reflected the retinal cytological alterations and lipofuscin accumulation within inner segments. PMID:24215233

  12. Age-Related Changes in 1/f Neural Electrophysiological Noise.

    PubMed

    Voytek, Bradley; Kramer, Mark A; Case, John; Lepage, Kyle Q; Tempesta, Zechari R; Knight, Robert T; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-09-23

    Aging is associated with performance decrements across multiple cognitive domains. The neural noise hypothesis, a dominant view of the basis of this decline, posits that aging is accompanied by an increase in spontaneous, noisy baseline neural activity. Here we analyze data from two different groups of human subjects: intracranial electrocorticography from 15 participants over a 38 year age range (15-53 years) and scalp EEG data from healthy younger (20-30 years) and older (60-70 years) adults to test the neural noise hypothesis from a 1/f noise perspective. Many natural phenomena, including electrophysiology, are characterized by 1/f noise. The defining characteristic of 1/f is that the power of the signal frequency content decreases rapidly as a function of the frequency (f) itself. The slope of this decay, the noise exponent (χ), is often <-1 for electrophysiological data and has been shown to approach white noise (defined as χ = 0) with increasing task difficulty. We observed, in both electrophysiological datasets, that aging is associated with a flatter (more noisy) 1/f power spectral density, even at rest, and that visual cortical 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related impairments in visual working memory. These results provide electrophysiological support for the neural noise hypothesis of aging. Significance statement: Understanding the neurobiological origins of age-related cognitive decline is of critical scientific, medical, and public health importance, especially considering the rapid aging of the world's population. We find, in two separate human studies, that 1/f electrophysiological noise increases with aging. In addition, we observe that this age-related 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related working memory decline. These results significantly add to this understanding and contextualize a long-standing problem in cognition by encapsulating age-related cognitive decline within a neurocomputational model of 1/f noise-induced deficits in

  13. Age-related changes in bone structure and strength in female and male BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Willinghamm, Mark D; Brodt, Michael D; Lee, Kristen L; Stephens, Abby L; Ye, Jiaxin; Silva, Matthew J

    2010-06-01

    Mice may be useful for studies of skeletal aging, but there are limited data on changes in bone structure and strength over their life span. We obtained bones from female and male BALB/c mice at ages 2, 4, 7, 12, and 20 months and evaluated their structural, densitometric, and mechanical properties. MicroCT of the mid-diaphysis of the femur and radius indicated that during skeletal growth (2-7 months) bone cross-sectional size (area, moment of inertia) increased rapidly; during aging (7-20 months) cortical area was maintained, while moment of inertia continued to increase. Bones from females were smaller than those from males at young ages but not at later ages. Changes in whole-bone stiffness and strength reflected the changes in bone size, with a rapid increase from 2 to 7 months, followed by little or no change. In contrast, energy-to-fracture declined with aging. Cortical tissue mineral density increased during growth and was maintained with aging. MicroCT of trabecular bone revealed age-related changes that were site-dependent. The proximal tibia showed a clear pattern of age-related decline in trabecular BV/TV, with progressive decreases after 4 months in both sexes; lumbar vertebra L5 had more modest age-related declines; in contrast, caudal vertebra Ca7 had increasing BV/TV with aging. Overall, we found no evidence that females had more pronounced age-related deterioration than males. We conclude that bones from aging female and male BALB/c mice exhibit many of the changes seen in humans and are therefore a clinically relevant model for studies of skeletal aging.

  14. Neuroanatomy accounts for age-related changes in risk preferences

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, Michael A.; Tymula, Agnieszka; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Glimcher, Paul W.; Levy, Ifat

    2016-01-01

    Many decisions involve uncertainty, or ‘risk', regarding potential outcomes, and substantial empirical evidence has demonstrated that human aging is associated with diminished tolerance for risky rewards. Grey matter volume in a region of right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) is predictive of preferences for risky rewards in young adults, with less grey matter volume indicating decreased tolerance for risk. That grey matter loss in parietal regions is a part of healthy aging suggests that diminished rPPC grey matter volume may have a role in modulating risk preferences in older adults. Here we report evidence for this hypothesis and show that age-related declines in rPPC grey matter volume better account for age-related changes in risk preferences than does age per se. These results provide a basis for understanding the neural mechanisms that mediate risky choice and a glimpse into the neurodevelopmental dynamics that impact decision-making in an aging population. PMID:27959326

  15. Epigenome-Wide Scans Identify Differentially Methylated Regions for Age and Age-Related Phenotypes in a Healthy Ageing Population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tsun-Po; Pidsley, Ruth; Nisbet, James; Glass, Daniel; Mangino, Massimo; Zhai, Guangju; Zhang, Feng; Valdes, Ana; Shin, So-Youn; Dempster, Emma L.; Murray, Robin M.; Grundberg, Elin; Hedman, Asa K.; Nica, Alexandra; Small, Kerrin S.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mill, Jonathan; Spector, Tim D.; Deloukas, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Age-related changes in DNA methylation have been implicated in cellular senescence and longevity, yet the causes and functional consequences of these variants remain unclear. To elucidate the role of age-related epigenetic changes in healthy ageing and potential longevity, we tested for association between whole-blood DNA methylation patterns in 172 female twins aged 32 to 80 with age and age-related phenotypes. Twin-based DNA methylation levels at 26,690 CpG-sites showed evidence for mean genome-wide heritability of 18%, which was supported by the identification of 1,537 CpG-sites with methylation QTLs in cis at FDR 5%. We performed genome-wide analyses to discover differentially methylated regions (DMRs) for sixteen age-related phenotypes (ap-DMRs) and chronological age (a-DMRs). Epigenome-wide association scans (EWAS) identified age-related phenotype DMRs (ap-DMRs) associated with LDL (STAT5A), lung function (WT1), and maternal longevity (ARL4A, TBX20). In contrast, EWAS for chronological age identified hundreds of predominantly hyper-methylated age DMRs (490 a-DMRs at FDR 5%), of which only one (TBX20) was also associated with an age-related phenotype. Therefore, the majority of age-related changes in DNA methylation are not associated with phenotypic measures of healthy ageing in later life. We replicated a large proportion of a-DMRs in a sample of 44 younger adult MZ twins aged 20 to 61, suggesting that a-DMRs may initiate at an earlier age. We next explored potential genetic and environmental mechanisms underlying a-DMRs and ap-DMRs. Genome-wide overlap across cis-meQTLs, genotype-phenotype associations, and EWAS ap-DMRs identified CpG-sites that had cis-meQTLs with evidence for genotype–phenotype association, where the CpG-site was also an ap-DMR for the same phenotype. Monozygotic twin methylation difference analyses identified one potential environmentally-mediated ap-DMR associated with total cholesterol and LDL (CSMD1). Our results suggest that in a

  16. Stem cell transplantation improves aging-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ikehara, Susumu; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a complex process of damage accumulation, and has been viewed as experimentally and medically intractable. The number of patients with age-associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer has increased recently. Aging-related diseases are related to a deficiency of the immune system, which results from an aged thymus and bone marrow cells. Intra bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) is a useful method to treat intractable diseases. This review summarizes findings that IBM-BMT can improve and treat aging-related diseases, including T2DM, osteoporosis and AD, in animal models. PMID:25364723

  17. The Role of Social Activity in Age-Cognition Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current project was to examine whether engaging in social activity may moderate or mediate the relation between age and cognitive functioning. A large age range sample of adults performed a variety of cognitive tests and completed a social activities questionnaire. Results did not support the moderator hypothesis, as age…

  18. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  19. Age-Related Differences in Moral Identity across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Murua, Lourdes Andrea; Jia, Fanli

    2016-01-01

    In this study, age-related differences in adults' moral identity were investigated. Moral identity was conceptualized a context-dependent self-structure that becomes differentiated and (re)integrated in the course of development and that involves a broad range of value-orientations. Based on a cross-sectional sample of 252 participants aged 14 to…

  20. Computer Use and the Relation between Age and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…

  1. Nutritional modulation of age-related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30-50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated wi...

  2. Birth Order, Age-Spacing, IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    1980-01-01

    Very close age spacing was an obstacle to high academic performance for later borns. In family relations and self-esteem, first borns scored better and performed in school as well as their potentially much more able younger siblings, regardless of age spacing. (Author)

  3. Age-Related Differences in Nonverbal Decoding Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebermann, Devorah A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports a study comparing the nonverbal decoding ability (under auditory, visual, and audio-visual conditions) of college age females with elderly females, in order to identify preliminary nonverbal differences which may be related to aging. Finds that the elderly were significantly less skilled in decoding nonverbal behaviors across all…

  4. The Age-related Positivity Effect and Tobacco Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Peters, Ellen; Ferketich, Amy K.; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study tested whether age is a factor in viewing time for tobacco warning labels. The approach drew from previous work demonstrating an age-related positivity effect, whereby older adults show preferences toward positive and away from negative stimuli. Methods Participants were 295 daily smokers from Appalachian Ohio (age range: 21–68). All participants took part in an eye-tracking paradigm that captured the attention paid to elements of health warning labels in the context of magazine advertisements. Participants also reported on their past cessation attempts and their beliefs about the dangers of smoking. Results Consistent with theory on age-related positivity, older age predicted weaker beliefs about smoking risks, but only among those with no past-year quit attempts. In support of our primary hypothesis, older age was also related to a lower percentage of time spent viewing tobacco warning labels, both overall (text + image) and for the graphic image alone. These associations remained after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day. Conclusions Overall, findings suggest that age is an important consideration for the design of future graphic warning labels and other tobacco risk communications. For older adults, warning labels may need to be tailored to overcome the age-related positivity effect. PMID:27617273

  5. BOLD Variability is Related to Dopaminergic Neurotransmission and Cognitive Aging.

    PubMed

    Guitart-Masip, Marc; Salami, Alireza; Garrett, Douglas; Rieckmann, Anna; Lindenberger, Ulman; Bäckman, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Dopamine (DA) losses are associated with various aging-related cognitive deficits. Typically, higher moment-to-moment brain signal variability in large-scale patterns of voxels in neocortical regions is linked to better cognitive performance and younger adult age, yet the physiological mechanisms regulating brain signal variability are unknown. We explored the relationship among adult age, DA availability, and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal variability, while younger and older participants performed a spatial working memory (SWM) task. We quantified striatal and extrastriatal DA D1 receptor density with [(11)C]SCH23390 and positron emission tomography in all participants. We found that BOLD variability in a neocortical region was negatively related to age and positively related to SWM performance. In contrast, BOLD variability in subcortical regions and bilateral hippocampus was positively related to age and slower responses, and negatively related to D1 density in caudate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, BOLD variability in neocortical regions was positively associated with task-related disengagement of the default-mode network, a network whose activation needs to be suppressed for efficient SWM processing. Our results show that age-related DA losses contribute to changes in brain signal variability in subcortical regions and suggest a potential mechanism, by which neocortical BOLD variability supports cognitive performance.

  6. Neuroanatomical substrates of age-related cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    There are many reports of relations between age and cognitive variables and of relations between age and variables representing different aspects of brain structure, and a few reports of relations between brain structure variables and cognitive variables. These findings have sometimes led to inferences that the age-related brain changes cause the age-related cognitive changes. Although this conclusion may well be true, it is widely recognized that simple correlations are not sufficient to warrant causal conclusions, and other types of correlational information, such as mediation and correlations between longitudinal brain changes and longitudinal cognitive changes, also have limitations with respect to causal inferences. These issues are discussed, and the existing results on relations of regional volume, white matter hyperintensities, and DTI measures of white matter integrity to age and to measures of cognitive functioning are reviewed. It is concluded that at the current time the evidence that these aspects of brain structure are neuroanatomical substrates of age-related cognitive decline is weak. The final section contains several suggestions concerned with measurement and methodology that may lead to stronger conclusions in the future. PMID:21463028

  7. The application of information theory for the research of aging and aging-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia

    2016-03-19

    This article reviews the application of information-theoretical analysis, employing measures of entropy and mutual information, for the study of aging and aging-related diseases. The research of aging and aging-related diseases is particularly suitable for the application of information theory methods, as aging processes and related diseases are multi-parametric, with continuous parameters coexisting alongside discrete parameters, and with the relations between the parameters being as a rule non-linear. Information theory provides unique analytical capabilities for the solution of such problems, with unique advantages over common linear biostatistics. Among the age-related diseases, information theory has been used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases (particularly using EEG time series for diagnosis and prediction), cancer (particularly for establishing individual and combined cancer biomarkers), diabetes (mainly utilizing mutual information to characterize the diseased and aging states), and heart disease (mainly for the analysis of heart rate variability). Few works have employed information theory for the analysis of general aging processes and frailty, as underlying determinants and possible early preclinical diagnostic measures for aging-related diseases. Generally, the use of information-theoretical analysis permits not only establishing the (non-linear) correlations between diagnostic or therapeutic parameters of interest, but may also provide a theoretical insight into the nature of aging and related diseases by establishing the measures of variability, adaptation, regulation or homeostasis, within a system of interest. It may be hoped that the increased use of such measures in research may considerably increase diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and the fundamental theoretical mathematical understanding of aging and disease.

  8. Aging and age-related diseases--from endocrine therapy to target therapy.

    PubMed

    Bao, Qi; Pan, Jie; Qi, Hangfei; Wang, Lu; Qian, Huan; Jiang, Fangzhen; Shao, Zheren; Xu, Fengzhi; Tao, Zhiping; Ma, Qi; Nelson, Peter; Hu, Xueqing

    2014-08-25

    Aging represents an important health issue not only for the individual, but also for society in general. Burdens associated with aging are expanding as longevity increases. This has led to an enhanced focus on issues related to aging and age-related diseases. Until recently, anti-aging endocrine-therapy has been largely limited to hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) that is associated with multiple side effects, including an increased risk of cancer. This has greatly limited the application of HRT in anti-aging therapy. Recently, the focus of anti-aging research has expanded from endocrine signaling pathways to effects on regulatory gene networks. In this regard, the GHRH-GH-IGF-1/Insulin, TOR-S6K1,NAD(+)-Sirtuin, P53, Klotho and APOE pathways have been linked to processes associated with age-related diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and neurodegenerative diseases, all of which directly influence health in aging, and represent key targets in anti-aging therapy.

  9. Aging assessment of reactor instrumentation and protection system components. Aging-related operating experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, A.C.; Hagen, E.W.

    1992-07-01

    A study of the aging-related operating experiences throughout a five-year period (1984--1988) of six generic instrumentation modules (indicators, sensors, controllers, transmitters, annunciators, and recorders) was performed as a part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The effects of aging from operational and environmental stressors were characterized from results depicted in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The data are graphically displayed as frequency of events per plant year for operating plant ages from 1 to 28 years to determine aging-related failure trend patterns. Three main conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) Instrumentation and control (I&C) modules make a modest contribution to safety-significant events: 17% of LERs issued during 1984--1988 dealt with malfunctions of the six I&C modules studied, and 28% of the LERs dealing with these I&C module malfunctions were aging related (other studies show a range 25--50%); (2) Of the six modules studied, indicators, sensors, and controllers account for the bulk (83%) of aging-related failures; and (3) Infant mortality appears to be the dominant aging-related failure mode for most I&C module categories (with the exception of annunciators and recorders, which appear to fail randomly).

  10. Health- and Disease-Related Biomarkers in Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Hilaire J.; Voss, Joachim G.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a synthesis of knowledge about healthy aging research in human beings and then synthesized nurse-led research in gerontology and geriatrics that use biomarkers. Healthy aging research has attracted considerable attention in the biomedical and basic sciences within the context of four major areas: (a) genetic variations as an expression of successful or unsuccessful aging; (b) caloric restriction as an intervention to slow the progression of aging; (c) immunological aging; (d) neurobiology of the aging brain. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify nurse-led geriatric-related biomarker research. Nurse researchers who have chosen to integrate biomarkers as part of their research studies have been working in six focal areas, which are reviewed: health promotion within risk populations, cancer, vascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, caregiving, and complementary therapies. The article provides a discussion of contributions to date, identifying existing gaps and future research opportunities. PMID:20077975

  11. Cellular senescence in aging and age-related disease: from mechanisms to therapy

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Bennett G; Durik, Matej; Baker, Darren J; van Deursen, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence, a process that imposes permanent proliferative arrest on cells in response to various stressors, has emerged as a potentially important contributor to aging and age-related disease, and it is an attractive target for therapeutic exploitation. A wealth of information about senescence in cultured cells has been acquired over the past half century; however, senescence in living organisms is poorly understood, largely because of technical limitations relating to the identification and characterization of senescent cells in tissues and organs. Furthermore, newly recognized beneficial signaling functions of senescence suggest that indiscriminately targeting senescent cells or modulating their secretome for anti-aging therapy may have negative consequences. Here we discuss current progress and challenges in understanding the stressors that induce senescence in vivo, the cell types that are prone to senesce, and the autocrine and paracrine properties of senescent cells in the contexts of aging and age-related diseases as well as disease therapy. PMID:26646499

  12. Cellular senescence in aging and age-related disease: from mechanisms to therapy.

    PubMed

    Childs, Bennett G; Durik, Matej; Baker, Darren J; van Deursen, Jan M

    2015-12-01

    Cellular senescence, a process that imposes permanent proliferative arrest on cells in response to various stressors, has emerged as a potentially important contributor to aging and age-related disease, and it is an attractive target for therapeutic exploitation. A wealth of information about senescence in cultured cells has been acquired over the past half century; however, senescence in living organisms is poorly understood, largely because of technical limitations relating to the identification and characterization of senescent cells in tissues and organs. Furthermore, newly recognized beneficial signaling functions of senescence suggest that indiscriminately targeting senescent cells or modulating their secretome for anti-aging therapy may have negative consequences. Here we discuss current progress and challenges in understanding the stressors that induce senescence in vivo, the cell types that are prone to senesce, and the autocrine and paracrine properties of senescent cells in the contexts of aging and age-related diseases as well as disease therapy.

  13. Relative age effects in Japanese baseball: an historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the existence of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, in Japanese professional baseball players born from 1911 to 1980. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. Thus, athletes were divided into four groups based on their month of birth; quarters Q1 (April-June), Q2 (July-September), Q3 (October-December), and Q4 (January-March of the following year). There were statistically biased distributions of birth dates among players born in the 1940s and subsequent decades (medium effects), and similar (but small) relative age effects were observed among players born in the 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s. The magnitude of the relative age effect changed with time, and socio-cultural factors such as international competition and media coverage may have contributed greatly to this effect.

  14. From lymphopoiesis to plasma cells differentiation, the age-related modifications of B cell compartment are influenced by "Inflamm-Ageing".

    PubMed

    Bulati, Matteo; Caruso, Calogero; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina

    2017-04-07

    Ageing is a complex process characterized by a general decline in physiological functions with increasing morbidity and mortality. The most important aspect of ageing is the chronic inflammatory status, named "inflamm-ageing", strictly associated with the deterioration of the immune function, termed "immunosenescence". Both are causes of increased susceptibility of elderly to infectious diseases, cancer, dementia, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmunity, and of a decreased response to vaccination. It has been widely demonstrated that ageing has a strong impact on the remodelling of the B cell branch of immune system. The first evident effect is the significant decrease in circulating B cells, primarily due to the reduction of new B cell coming from bone marrow (BM) progenitors, as inflammation directly impacts on B lymphopoiesis. Besides, in aged individuals, there is a shift from naïve to memory immunoglobulins production, accompanied by the impaired ability to produce high affinity protective antibodies against newly encountered antigens. This is accompanied by the increase of expanded clones of B cells, which correlates with poor health status. Age-related modifications also occur in naïve/memory B cells subsets. Indeed, in the elderly, there is a reduction of naïve B cells, accompanied by the expansion of memory B cells that show a senescence-associated phenotype. Finally, elderly show the impaired ability of memory B cells to differentiate into plasma cells. It can be concluded that inflammation is the leading cause of the age-related impairment of B cell compartment, which play certainly a key role in the development of age-related diseases. This makes study of B cells in the aged an important tool for monitoring immunosenescence, chronic inflammatory disorders and the effectiveness of vaccines or pharmacological therapies.

  15. CKD increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Wang, Jie Jin

    2008-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States and often coexists with chronic kidney disease. Both conditions share common genetic and environmental risk factors. A total of 1183 participants aged 54+ were examined in the population-based, prospective cohort Blue Mountains Eye Study (Australia) to determine if chronic kidney disease increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) based on the Cockcroft-Gault equation) was present in 24% of the population (286 of 1183). The 5-yr incidence of early age-related macular degeneration was 3.9% in participants with no/mild chronic kidney disease (35 of 897) and 17.5% in those with moderate chronic kidney disease (50 of 286). After adjusting for age, sex, cigarette smoking, hypertension, complement factor H polymorphism, and other risk factors, persons with moderate chronic kidney disease were 3 times more likely to develop early age-related macular degeneration than persons with no/mild chronic kidney disease (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 5.7, P < 0.0001). Each SD (14.8 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) decrease in Cockcroft-Gault estimated glomerular filtration rate was associated with a doubling of the adjusted risk for early age-related macular degeneration (odds ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 2.8, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, persons with chronic kidney disease have a higher risk of early age-related macular degeneration, suggesting the possibility of shared pathophysiologic mechanisms between the two conditions.

  16. ACCELERATED DETERIORATION OF ELASTOMERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    soluble metal salts , hydrazines and thiols on rates of oxidation and chain scission of polyisoprene. The metal compounds examined have no significant pro...pronounced pro oxidant effects. Most metal octanoates and naphthenates catalyze the decomposition of rubber hydroperoxides . The proportion of chain cleav...age and the rate of chain initiation vary with the metal. Thus, cobalt and manganese salts cause most rapid disappearance of peroxides but the former

  17. Non-parametric estimation of age-related centiles over wide age ranges.

    PubMed

    Pan, H Q; Goldstein, H; Yang, Q

    1990-01-01

    A new method for estimating age-related centile curves has been developed, which is suitable for measurement covering a wide age range. The method was used to calculate weight centile curves of 8995 children from birth to 6 years obtained by the Collaborating Centre for Physical Growth and Psychosocial Development of Children in Shanghai, China.

  18. Aging Affects Neural Synchronization to Speech-Related Acoustic Modulations

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Tine; Vercammen, Charlotte; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    As people age, speech perception problems become highly prevalent, especially in noisy situations. In addition to peripheral hearing and cognition, temporal processing plays a key role in speech perception. Temporal processing of speech features is mediated by synchronized activity of neural oscillations in the central auditory system. Previous studies indicate that both the degree and hemispheric lateralization of synchronized neural activity relate to speech perception performance. Based on these results, we hypothesize that impaired speech perception in older persons may, in part, originate from deviances in neural synchronization. In this study, auditory steady-state responses that reflect synchronized activity of theta, beta, low and high gamma oscillations (i.e., 4, 20, 40, and 80 Hz ASSR, respectively) were recorded in young, middle-aged, and older persons. As all participants had normal audiometric thresholds and were screened for (mild) cognitive impairment, differences in synchronized neural activity across the three age groups were likely to be attributed to age. Our data yield novel findings regarding theta and high gamma oscillations in the aging auditory system. At an older age, synchronized activity of theta oscillations is increased, whereas high gamma synchronization is decreased. In contrast to young persons who exhibit a right hemispheric dominance for processing of high gamma range modulations, older adults show a symmetrical processing pattern. These age-related changes in neural synchronization may very well underlie the speech perception problems in aging persons. PMID:27378906

  19. Tooth Size Variation Related to Age in Amboseli Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Galbany, Jordi; Dotras, Laia; Alberts, Susan C.; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    We measured the molar size from a single population of wild baboons from Amboseli (Kenya), both females (n = 57) and males (n = 50). All the females were of known age; the males represented a mix of known-age individuals (n = 31) and individuals with ages estimated to within 2 years (n = 19). The results showed a significant reduction in the mesiodistal length of teeth in both sexes as a function of age. Overall patterns of age-related change in tooth size did not change whether we included or excluded the individuals of estimated age, but patterns of statistical significance changed as a result of changed sample sizes. Our results demonstrate that tooth length is directly related to age due to interproximal wearing caused by M2 and M3 compression loads. Dental studies in primates, including both fossil and extant species, are mostly based on specimens obtained from osteological collections of varying origins, for which the age at death of each individual in the sample is not known. Researchers should take into account the phenomenon of interproximal attrition leading to reduced tooth size when measuring tooth length for ondontometric purposes. PMID:21325862

  20. Age related changes in steroid receptors on cultured lung fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Barile, F.A.; Bienkowski, R.S.

    1986-03-05

    The number of high affinity glucocorticoid receptors (Ro) on human fetal lung fibroblasts decreases as the cells age in vitro, and it has been suggested that these cell systems may be useful models of age-related changes in vivo. They examined the relation between change in Ro with in vitro aging and donor age. Confluent monolayers of lung fibroblasts at various population doubling levels (PDL), were incubated with (/sup 3/H)-dexamethasone ((/sup 3/H)Dex) either alone or with excess (.01 mM) Dex. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between radioactivity in cells incubated with and without unlabeled Dex; Scatchard plots were used to analyze the data. Ro, measured as fmol (/sup 3/H)Dex/10/sup 6/ cells, for two lines of human fetal cells (HFL-1 and MRC-5) decreased with increasing age in vitro. However, human newborn (CRL-1485) and adult (CCL-201) cells and fetal rabbit cells (FAB-290), showed increases in Ro with continuous passage. For each cell line, the affinity constant (K/sub d/) did not change significantly with passage. They conclude that the direction of changes in steroid receptor levels on cells aging in vitro is influenced by donor age and species. Caution should be used in applying results obtained from model systems to aging organisms.

  1. Age-related changes of serum lipoprotein oxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukiko Kawashima; Omaye, Stanley Teruo

    2004-01-23

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may be a prelude to atherogenesis and directly age related. To assess whether there may be relationship between age and plasma lipoprotein (LP) oxidation, we studied copper-mediated LP oxidation isolated from the blood of 2 months, 7 months, and 15 months old rats. We determined whether the susceptibility of LP to oxidation might be related to vitamin C levels in serum, vitamin E levels in LP, or the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of serum or LP. Serum vitamin C content was inversely related to age, malondialdehyde (MDA) propagation rate, and maximum change of MDA concentrations. However, there were no significant relationships between age and serum TAC, LP TAC, serum vitamin E, or the ratio of LP vitamin E to serum vitamin C content. The lag phase of MDA formation was significantly decreased with age and the ratio of LP vitamin E content to serum vitamin C content, increased with age. Maximum change of MDA concentration was positively correlated with the ratio of LP vitamin E contents to serum vitamin C concentration. Thus, as the rat ages, vitamin C status decreases with an increased LP susceptibility to oxidation. It is tempting to speculate that enhanced LP oxidation in older rats may reflect a reduced amount of recycling of LDL vitamin E by serum vitamin C.

  2. Age-related changes in ultra-triathlon performances

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The age-related decline in performance has been investigated in swimmers, runners and triathletes. No study has investigated the age-related performance decline in ultra-triathletes. The purpose of this study was to analyse the age-related declines in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time for both Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (11.4-km swimming, 540-km cycling and 126.6-km running) and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon (38-km swimming, 1,800-km cycling and 420-km running). Methods The age and performances of 423 male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes and 119 male Deca Iron ultra-triathletes were analysed from 1992 to 2010 using regression analyses and ANOVA. Results The mean age of the finishers was significantly higher for Deca Iron ultra-triathletes (41.3 ± 3.1 years) compared to a Triple Iron ultra-triathletes (38.5 ± 3.3 years) (P < 0.05). For both ultra-distances, the fastest overall race times were achieved between the ages of 25 and 44 years. Deca Iron ultra-triathletes achieved the same level of performance in swimming and cycling between 25 and 54 years of age. Conclusions The magnitudes of age-related declines in performance in the three disciplines of ultra-triathlon differ slightly between Triple and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. Although the ages of Triple Iron ultra-triathletes were on average younger compared to Deca Iron ultra-triathletes, the fastest race times were achieved between 25 and 44 years for both distances. Further studies should investigate the motivation and training of ultra-triathletes to gain better insights in ultra-triathlon performance. PMID:23849327

  3. Multifocal electroretinogram: age-related changes for different luminance levels

    PubMed Central

    Gerth, Christina; Garcia, Susan M.; Ma, Lei; Keltner, John L.; Werner, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Age-related changes in the first-order multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) responses were measured for two different luminance levels (200 and 700 cd·m−2). The relative contribution of optical and neural factors to senescent change in response was evaluated. Methods Data were obtained from one eye of each of 71 normal phakic subjects, age 9−80 years. The mfERG responses were recorded with the 7” stimulus-refractor unit (EDI) and VERIS 4.3 using the following protocol: bipolar contact lens, 103 hexagons, consecutive stimulation with 200 and 700 cd·m−2, pupils ≥6 mm, amplification of 105, filter cut-offs at 10 and 300 Hz. Results Age-correlated decreases in amplitude and response density and increases in P1 implicit time were found for both luminance levels. The mean response density (nV·deg−2) was higher for the 700 cd·m−2 stimulus, but the rate of change with age was not significantly different from that obtained with the 200 cd·m−2 stimulus. Implicit time was not significantly different for the two light levels, nor was the rate of change with age. The decrease in response density and the increase in implicit time with age were significant across all retinal regions, dividing the 50 deg stimulus into six concentric rings. Age-related change in response density was greatest for the central retina and decreased with increasing retinal eccentricity. Conclusion Log mfERG response changes linearly as a function of age. Analyses of the effects of reduced ocular media transmission and increased stray light, along with ancillary data obtained from pseudophakes, imply that age-related changes in the mfERG are due to both optical and neural factors. PMID:11935277

  4. Dietary Approaches that Delay Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Everitt, Arthur V; Hilmer, Sarah N; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Jamieson, Hamish A; Truswell, A Stewart; Sharma, Anita P; Mason, Rebecca S; Morris, Brian J; Le Couteur, David G

    2006-01-01

    Reducing food intake in lower animals such as the rat decreases body weight, retards many aging processes, delays the onset of most diseases of old age, and prolongs life. A number of clinical trials of food restriction in healthy adult human subjects running over 2–15 years show significant reductions in body weight, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure, which are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle interventions that lower energy balance by reducing body weight such as physical exercise can also delay the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In general, clinical trials are suggesting that diets high in calories or fat along with overweight are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and dementia. There is a growing literature indicating that specific dietary constituents are able to influence the development of age-related diseases, including certain fats (trans fatty acids, saturated, and polyunsaturated fats) and cholesterol for cardiovascular disease, glycemic index and fiber for diabetes, fruits and vegetables for cardiovascular disease, and calcium and vitamin D for osteoporosis and bone fracture. In addition, there are dietary compounds from different functional foods, herbs, and neutraceuticals such as ginseng, nuts, grains, and polyphenols that may affect the development of age-related diseases. Long-term prospective clinical trials will be needed to confirm these diet—disease relationships. On the basis of current research, the best diet to delay age-related disease onset is one low in calories and saturated fat and high in wholegrain cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables, and which maintains a lean body weight. Such a diet should become a key component of healthy aging, delaying age-related diseases and perhaps intervening in the aging process itself. Furthermore, there are studies suggesting that nutrition in childhood

  5. Age-related Alterations in the Dynamic Behavior of Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Damani, Mausam R.; Zhao, Lian; Fontainhas, Aurora M.; Amaral, Juan; Fariss, Robert N.; Wong, Wai T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Microglia, the primary resident immune cells of the CNS, exhibit dynamic behavior involving rapid process motility and cellular migration that is thought to underlie key functions of immune surveillance and tissue repair. Although age-related changes in microglial activation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases of aging, how dynamic behavior in microglia is influenced by aging is not fully understood. In this study, we employed live imaging of retinal microglia in situ to compare microglial morphology and behavioral dynamics in young and aged animals. We found that aged microglia in the resting state have significantly smaller and less branched dendritic arbors, and also slower process motilities, which likely compromise their ability to continuously survey and interact with their environment. We also found that dynamic microglial responses to injury were age-dependent. While young microglia responded to extracellular ATP, an injury-associated signal, by increasing their motility and becoming more ramified, aged microglia exhibited a contrary response, becoming less dynamic and ramified. In response to laser-induced focal tissue injury, aged microglia demonstrated slower acute responses with lower rates of process motility and cellular migration compared to young microglia. Interestingly, the longer term response of disaggregation from the injury site was retarded in aged microglia, indicating that senescent microglial responses, while slower to initiate, are more sustained. Together, these altered features of microglial behavior at rest and following injury reveal an age-dependent dysregulation of immune response in the CNS that may illuminate microglial contributions to age-related neuroinflammatory degeneration. PMID:21108733

  6. Life stress, glucocorticoid signaling, and the aging epigenome: Implications for aging-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Gassen, Nils C; Chrousos, George P; Binder, Elisabeth B; Zannas, Anthony S

    2017-03-01

    Life stress has been associated with accelerated cellular aging and increased risk for developing aging-related diseases; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. A highly relevant process that may underlie this association is epigenetic regulation. In this review, we build upon existing evidence to propose a model whereby exposure to life stress, in part via its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and the glucocorticoid signaling system, may alter the epigenetic landscape across the lifespan and, consequently, influence genomic regulation and function in ways that are conducive to the development of aging-related diseases. This model is supported by recent studies showing that life stressors and stress-related phenotypes can accelerate epigenetic aging, a measure that is based on DNA methylation prediction of chronological age and has been associated with several aging-related disease phenotypes. We discuss the implications of this model for the prevention and treatment of aging-related diseases, as well as the challenges and limitations of this line of research.

  7. Age-Related Effects of Advanced Glycation End Products (Ages) in Bone Matrix on Osteoclastic Resorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Gandhi, Chintan; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Appleford, Mark; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2015-12-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in bone extracellular matrix as people age. Previous studies have shown controversial results regarding the role of in situ AGEs accumulation in osteoclastic resorption. To address this issue, this study cultured human osteoclast cells directly on human cadaveric bone slices from different age groups (young and elderly) to warrant its relevance to in vivo conditions. The cell culture was terminated on the 3rd, 7th, and 10th day, respectively, to assess temporal changes in the number of differentiated osteoclasts, the number and size of osteoclastic resorption pits, the amount of bone resorbed, as well as the amount of matrix AGEs released in the medium by resorption. In addition, the in situ concentration of matrix AGEs at each resorption pit was also estimated based on its AGEs autofluorescent intensity. The results indicated that (1) osteoclastic resorption activities were significantly correlated with the donor age, showing larger but shallower resorption pits on the elderly bone substrates than on the younger ones; (2) osteoclast resorption activities were not significantly dependent on the in situ AGEs concentration in bone matrix, and (3) a correlation was observed between osteoclast activities and the concentration of AGEs released by the resorption. These results suggest that osteoclasts tend to migrate away from initial anchoring sites on elderly bone substrate during resorption compared to younger bone substrates. However, such behavior is not directly related to the in situ concentration of AGEs in bone matrix at the resorption sites.

  8. Awareness, Knowledge, and Concern about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…

  9. Human Aging Is a Metabolome-related Matter of Gender.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Maté, Ianire; Naudí, Alba; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Portero-Otín, Manuel; De la Fuente, Mónica; Pamplona, Reinald

    2016-05-01

    A molecular description of the mechanisms by which aging is produced is still very limited. Here, we have determined the plasma metabolite profile by using high-throughput metabolome profiling technologies of 150 healthy humans ranging from 30 to 100 years of age. Using a nontargeted approach, we detected 2,678 metabolite species in plasma, and the multivariate analyses separated perfectly two groups indicating a specific signature for each gender. In addition, there is a set of gender-shared metabolites, which change significantly during aging with a similar tendency. Among the identified molecules, we found vitamin D2-related compound, phosphoserine (40:5), monoacylglyceride (22:1), diacylglyceride (33:2), and resolvin D6, all of them decreasing with the aging process. Finally, we found three molecules that directly correlate with age and seven that inversely correlate with age, independently of gender. Among the identified molecules (6 of 10 according to exact mass and retention time), we found a proteolytic product (l-γ-glutamyl-l-leucine), which increased with age. On the contrary, a hydroxyl fatty acid (25-hydroxy-hexacosanoic), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid), two phospholipids (phosphocholine [42:9]and phosphoserine [42:3]) and a prostaglandin (15-keto-prostaglandin F2α) decreased with aging. These results suggest that lipid species and their metabolism are closely linked to the aging process.

  10. Glycosaminoglycans in the Human Cornea: Age-Related Changes

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Elena; Pacella, Fernanda; De Paolis, Giulio; Parisella, Francesca Romana; Turchetti, Paolo; Anello, Giulia; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate possible age-related changes in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the human cornea. The substances today called GAGs were previously referred to as mucopolysaccharides. METHODS Samples of human cornea were taken from 12 younger (age 21 ± 1.2) and 12 older (age 72 ± 1.6) male subjects. Samples were weighed, homogenized, and used for biochemical and molecular analyses. All the quantitative results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS The human cornea appears to undergo age-related changes, as evidenced by our biochemical and molecular results. The total GAG and hyaluronic acid counts were significantly higher in the younger subjects than in the older subjects. The sulfated heavy GAGs, such as chondroitin, dermatan, keratan, and heparan sulfate, were lower in the younger subjects than in the older subjects. DISCUSSION GAGs of the human cornea undergo numerous age-related changes. Their quantity is significantly altered in the elderly in comparison with younger subjects. GAGs play an important role in age-related diseases of the human cornea. PMID:25674020

  11. Deterioration of Library Collections Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Edwin E.

    1970-01-01

    Preservation should be considered as a by-product of accessibility and continued dissemination. Several suggestions for national organization of preservation and dissemination of deteriorating books, in both original and microform, are presented. (JS)

  12. Loss of Rictor with aging in osteoblasts promotes age-related bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Pinling; Song, Qiancheng; Yang, Cheng; Li, Zhen; Liu, Sichi; Liu, Bin; Li, Mangmang; Deng, Hongwen; Cai, Daozhang; Jin, Dadi; Liu, Anling; Bai, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblast dysfunction is a major cause of age-related bone loss, but the mechanisms underlying changes in osteoblast function with aging are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that osteoblasts in aged mice exhibit markedly impaired adhesion to the bone formation surface and reduced mineralization in vivo and in vitro. Rictor, a specific component of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) that controls cytoskeletal organization and cell survival, is downregulated with aging in osteoblasts. Mechanistically, we found that an increased level of reactive oxygen species with aging stimulates the expression of miR-218, which directly targets Rictor and reduces osteoblast bone surface adhesion and survival, resulting in a decreased number of functional osteoblasts and accelerated bone loss in aged mice. Our findings reveal a novel functional pathway important for age-related bone loss and support for miR-218 and Rictor as potential targets for therapeutic intervention for age-related osteoporosis treatment. PMID:27735936

  13. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of "nutritional frailty," which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutrient needs may be high. This review highlights the role of nutrition science in promoting healthy aging and in improving the prognosis in cases of age-related diseases. It serves to identify key knowledge gaps and implementation challenges to support adequate nutrition for healthy aging, including applicability of metrics used in body-composition and diet adequacy for older adults and mechanisms to reduce nutritional frailty and to promote diet resilience. This review also discusses management recommendations for several leading chronic conditions common in aging populations, including cognitive decline and dementia, sarcopenia, and compromised immunity to infectious disease. The role of health systems in incorporating nutrition care routinely for those aged ≥60 y and living independently and current actions to address nutritional status before hospitalization and the development of disease are discussed.

  14. Aging on a different scale – chronological versus pathology-related aging

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Jonker, Martijs J.; Vijg, Jan; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Breit, Timo M.; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-01-01

    In the next decades the elderly population will increase dramatically, demanding appropriate solutions in health care and aging research focusing on healthy aging to prevent high burdens and costs in health care. For this, research targeting tissue-specific and individual aging is paramount to make the necessary progression in aging research. In a recently published study we have attempted to make a step interpreting aging data on chronological as well as pathological scale. For this, we sampled five major tissues at regular time intervals during the entire C57BL/6J murine lifespan from a controlled in vivo aging study, measured the whole transcriptome and incorporated temporal as well as physical health aspects into the analyses. In total, we used 18 different age-related pathological parameters and transcriptomic profiles of liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain and created a database that can now be used for a broad systems biology approach. In our study, we focused on the dynamics of biological processes during chronological aging and the comparison between chronological and pathology-related aging. PMID:24131799

  15. Aging on a different scale--chronological versus pathology-related aging.

    PubMed

    Melis, Joost P M; Jonker, Martijs J; Vijg, Jan; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Breit, Timo M; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-10-01

    In the next decades the elderly population will increase dramatically, demanding appropriate solutions in health care and aging research focusing on healthy aging to prevent high burdens and costs in health care. For this, research targeting tissue-specific and individual aging is paramount to make the necessary progression in aging research. In a recently published study we have attempted to make a step interpreting aging data on chronological as well as pathological scale. For this, we sampled five major tissues at regular time intervals during the entire C57BL/6J murine lifespan from a controlled in vivo aging study, measured the whole transcriptome and incorporated temporal as well as physical health aspects into the analyses. In total, we used 18 different age-related pathological parameters and transcriptomic profiles of liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain and created a database that can now be used for a broad systems biology approach. In our study, we focused on the dynamics of biological processes during chronological aging and the comparison between chronological and pathology-related aging.

  16. Exploring the power of yeast to model aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana V; Vilaça, Rita; Santos, Cláudia N; Costa, Vítor; Menezes, Regina

    2017-02-01

    Aging is a multifactorial process determined by molecular, cellular and systemic factors and it is well established that advancing age is a leading risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, the close association of aging and neurodegenerative disorders has placed aging as the greatest social and economic challenge of the 21st century, and age-related diseases have also become a key priority for countries worldwide. The growing need to better understand both aging and neurodegenerative processes has led to the development of simple eukaryotic models amenable for mechanistic studies. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an unprecedented experimental model to study the fundamental aspects of aging and to decipher the intricacies of neurodegenerative disorders greatly because the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to human. Moreover, yeast offers several methodological advantages allowing a rapid and relatively easy way of establishing gene-protein-function associations. Here we review different aging theories, common cellular pathways driving aging and neurodegenerative diseases and discuss the major contributions of yeast to the state-of-art knowledge in both research fields.

  17. Discover the network mechanisms underlying the connections between aging and age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jialiang; Huang, Tao; Song, Won-min; Petralia, Francesca; Mobbs, Charles V.; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Yong; Schadt, Eric E.; Zhu, Jun; Tu, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Although our knowledge of aging has greatly expanded in the past decades, it remains elusive why and how aging contributes to the development of age-related diseases (ARDs). In particular, a global mechanistic understanding of the connections between aging and ARDs is yet to be established. We rely on a network modelling named “GeroNet” to study the connections between aging and more than a hundred diseases. By evaluating topological connections between aging genes and disease genes in over three thousand subnetworks corresponding to various biological processes, we show that aging has stronger connections with ARD genes compared to non-ARD genes in subnetworks corresponding to “response to decreased oxygen levels”, “insulin signalling pathway”, “cell cycle”, etc. Based on subnetwork connectivity, we can correctly “predict” if a disease is age-related and prioritize the biological processes that are involved in connecting to multiple ARDs. Using Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as an example, GeroNet identifies meaningful genes that may play key roles in connecting aging and ARDs. The top modules identified by GeroNet in AD significantly overlap with modules identified from a large scale AD brain gene expression experiment, supporting that GeroNet indeed reveals the underlying biological processes involved in the disease. PMID:27582315

  18. Relational learning and transitive expression in aging and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer D; D'Angelo, Maria C; Kamino, Daphne; Ostreicher, Melanie; Moses, Sandra N; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-02-01

    Aging has been associated with a decline in relational memory, which is critically supported by the hippocampus. By adapting the transitivity paradigm (Bunsey and Eichenbaum (1996) Nature 379:255-257), which traditionally has been used in nonhuman animal research, this work examined the extent to which aging is accompanied by deficits in relational learning and flexible expression of relational information. Older adults' performance was additionally contrasted with that of amnesic case DA to understand the critical contributions of the medial temporal lobe, and specifically, the hippocampus, which endures structural and functional changes in healthy aging. Participants were required to select the correct choice item (B versus Y) based on the presented sample item (e.g., A). Pairwise relations must be learned (A->B, B->C, C->D) so that ultimately, the correct relations can be inferred when presented with a novel probe item (A->C?Z?). Participants completed four conditions of transitivity that varied in terms of the degree to which the stimuli and the relations among them were known pre-experimentally. Younger adults, older adults, and DA performed similarly when the condition employed all pre-experimentally known, semantic, relations. Older adults and DA were less accurate than younger adults when all to-be-learned relations were arbitrary. However, accuracy improved for older adults when they could use pre-experimentally known pairwise relations to express understanding of arbitrary relations as indexed through inference judgments. DA could not learn arbitrary relations nor use existing knowledge to support novel inferences. These results suggest that while aging has often been associated with an emerging decline in hippocampal function, prior knowledge can be used to support novel inferences. However, in case DA, significant damage to the hippocampus likely impaired his ability to learn novel relations, while additional damage to ventromedial prefrontal and

  19. Glial dysfunction causes age-related memory impairment in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Daisuke; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Ueno, Kohei; Ueno, Taro; Saeki, Shinjiro; Matsuno, Motomi; Naganos, Shintaro; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Hirano, Yukinori; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Taoka, Masato; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Isobe, Toshiaki; Honda, Yoshiko; Kodama, Tohru; Masuda, Tomoko; Saitoe, Minoru

    2014-11-19

    Several aging phenotypes, including age-related memory impairment (AMI), are thought to be caused by cumulative oxidative damage. In Drosophila, age-related impairments in 1 hr memory can be suppressed by reducing activity of protein kinase A (PKA). However, the mechanism for this effect has been unclear. Here we show that decreasing PKA suppresses AMI by reducing activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), a glial metabolic enzyme whose amounts increase upon aging. Increased PC activity causes AMI through a mechanism independent of oxidative damage. Instead, increased PC activity is associated with decreases in D-serine, a glia-derived neuromodulator that regulates NMDA receptor activity. D-serine feeding suppresses both AMI and memory impairment caused by glial overexpression of dPC, indicating that an oxidative stress-independent dysregulation of glial modulation of neuronal activity contributes to AMI in Drosophila.

  20. Ageism, age relations, and garment industry work in Montreal.

    PubMed

    McMullin, J A; Marshall, V W

    2001-02-01

    This study examined the complexities of age relations at work. Garment workers believed that their fate was linked to ageism and that their work experience was discounted by management. Managers wanted to be rid of older workers because they commanded higher wages than younger workers. The issue was cost reduction, and age was implicated unintendedly. Still, managers seemed to use stereotypical images to discourage older workers and they did not organize work routines to facilitate the adaptation of them. Instead, they subcontracted the easy jobs, relying on the experience of the older employees for difficult work while not adapting the workplace. Theoretically, the authors argue that ageism and age discrimination can best be understood through a recognition of the importance of structured age relations and human agency.

  1. A "concrete view" of aging: event related potentials reveal age-related changes in basic integrative processes in language.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Meyer, Aaron M; Federmeier, Kara D

    2012-01-01

    Normal aging is accompanied by changes in both structural and functional cerebral organization. Although verbal knowledge seems to be relatively stable across the lifespan, there are age-related changes in the rapid use of that knowledge during on-line language processing. In particular, aging has been linked to reduce effectiveness in preparing for upcoming words and building an integrated sentence-level representation. The current study assessed whether such age-related changes extend even to much simpler language units, such as modification relations between a centrally presented adjective and a lateralized noun. Adjectives were used to elicit concrete and abstract meanings of the same, polysemous lexical items (e.g., "green book" vs. "interesting book"). Consistent with findings that lexical information is preserved with age, older adults, like younger adults, exhibited concreteness effects at the adjectives, with more negative responses to concrete adjectives over posterior (300-500 ms; N400) and frontal (300-900 ms) channels. However, at the noun, younger adults exhibited concreteness-based predictability effects linked to left hemisphere processing and imagery effects linked to right hemisphere processing, contingent on whether the adjectives and nouns formed a cohesive conceptual unit. In contrast, older adults showed neither effect, suggesting that they were less able to rapidly link the adjective-noun meaning to form an integrated conceptual representation. Age-related changes in language processing may thus be more pervasive than previously realized.

  2. Antioxidant response and related gene expression in aged oat seed.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingqi; Huo, Heqiang; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate deterioration of oat seeds during storage, we analyzed oxygen radicals, antioxidant enzyme activity, proline content, and gene transcript levels in oat seeds with different moisture contents (MCs; 4, 16, and 28% w/w) during storage for 0, 6, and 12 months (CK, LT-6, and LT-12 treatments, respectively) at 4°C. The germination percentage decreased significantly with higher seed MCs and longer storage duration. The concentrations of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide increased with seed MC increasing. The activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) may have had a complementary or interacting role to scavenge reactive oxygen species. As the storage duration extended, the proline content decreased in seeds with 4 and 16% MC and increased in 28%. These findings suggest that proline played the main role in adaptation to oxidative stress in seeds with higher MC (28%), while antioxidant enzymes played the main role in seeds with lower MCs (4%, 16%). In the gene transcript analyses, SOD1 transcript levels were not consistent with total SOD activity. The transcript levels of APX1 and CAT1 showed similar trends to those of APX and CAT activity. The transcript levels of P5CS1, which encodes a proline biosynthetic enzyme, increased with seed MC increasing in CK. Compared with changing of proline content in seeds stored 12 months, PDH1 transcript levels showed the opposite trend and maintained the lower levels in seeds of 16 and 28% MCs. The transcript level of P5CS1 was significantly affected by MC, and PDH1 could improve stress resistance for seed aging and maintain seed vigor during long-term storage.

  3. Common cell biologic and biochemical changes in aging and age-related diseases of the eye: Toward new therapeutic approaches to age-related ocular diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reviews of information about age related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, and glaucoma make it apparent that while each eye tissue has its own characteristic metabolism, structure and function, there are common perturbations to homeostasis that are associated with age-related dysfunction. The c...

  4. Age-Related and Sex-Related Differences in Hand and Pinch Grip Strength in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puh, Urska

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify age-related changes in hand grip strength and three types of pinch grip strength (key pinch, tip pinch, and palmar pinch) among male and female participants. The study included 199 healthy participants (100 females, 99 males) aged 20-79 years, who were divided into four age groups. The Baseline Hydraulic…

  5. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa’s ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics. PMID:26973593

  6. Learning and Aging Related Changes in Intrinsic Neuronal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Oh, M. Matthew; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Disterhoft, John F.

    2010-01-01

    A goal of many laboratories that study aging is to find a key cellular change(s) that can be manipulated and restored to a young-like state, and thus, reverse the age-related cognitive deficits. We have chosen to focus our efforts on the alteration of intrinsic excitability (as reflected by the postburst afterhyperpolarization, AHP) during the learning process in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We have consistently found that the postburst AHP is significantly reduced in hippocampal pyramidal neurons from young adults that have successfully learned a hippocampus-dependent task. In the context of aging, the baseline intrinsic excitability of hippocampal neurons is decreased and therefore cognitive learning is impaired. In aging animals that are able to learn, neuron changes in excitability similar to those seen in young neurons during learning occur. Our challenge, then, is to understand how and why excitability changes occur in neurons from aging brains and cause age-associated learning impairments. After understanding the changes, we should be able to formulate strategies for reversing them, thus making old neurons function more as they did when they were young. Such a reversal should rescue the age-related cognitive deficits. PMID:20552042

  7. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune privileged tissue due to its unique anatomical and physiological properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergo low levels of activation (para-inflammation). In many cases, this para-inflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), this para-inflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal para-inflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors and old age. Dysregulated para-inflammation (chronic inflammation) in AMD damages the blood retina barrier (BRB), resulting in the breach of retinal immune privilege leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in AMD, and explores the difference between beneficial para-inflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of AMD. PMID:26292978

  8. Age-related changes in head and eye coordination.

    PubMed

    Proudlock, Frank A; Shekhar, Himanshu; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-01-01

    The effect of ageing upon head movements during gaze shifts is unknown. We have investigated age-related changes in head and eye coordination in a group of healthy volunteers. Horizontal head and eye movements were recorded in 53 subjects, aged between 20 and 83 years, during the performance of saccades, antisaccades, smooth pursuit and a reading task. The subjects were divided into three groups, young subjects (20-40 years), middle-aged subjects (41-60 years) and older subjects (over 60 years). Logarithmic transformations of the head gain were significantly greater in the older subjects compared to the young subjects during the saccadic task (P=0.001), antisaccadic task (P=0.004), smooth pursuit at 20 degrees/s (P=0.001) and 40 degrees/s (P=0.005), but not reading. For saccadic and antisaccadic tasks, the increase in transformed head gain was non-linear with significant differences between older and middle-aged subjects but not middle-aged and young subjects. Head movement tendencies were highly consistent for related tasks. Head movement gain during gaze shifts significantly increases with age, which may contribute to dizziness and balance problems experienced by the elderly.

  9. Age-related similarities and differences in monitoring spatial cognition.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Robert; Moffat, Scott D

    2017-03-31

    Spatial cognitive performance is impaired in later adulthood but it is unclear whether the metacognitive processes involved in monitoring spatial cognitive performance are also compromised. Inaccurate monitoring could affect whether people choose to engage in tasks that require spatial thinking and also the strategies they use in spatial domains such as navigation. The current experiment examined potential age differences in monitoring spatial cognitive performance in a variety of spatial domains including visual-spatial working memory, spatial orientation, spatial visualization, navigation, and place learning. Younger and older adults completed a 2D mental rotation test, 3D mental rotation test, paper folding test, spatial memory span test, two virtual navigation tasks, and a cognitive mapping test. Participants also made metacognitive judgments of performance (confidence judgments, judgments of learning, or navigation time estimates) on each trial for all spatial tasks. Preference for allocentric or egocentric navigation strategies was also measured. Overall, performance was poorer and confidence in performance was lower for older adults than younger adults. In most spatial domains, the absolute and relative accuracy of metacognitive judgments was equivalent for both age groups. However, age differences in monitoring accuracy (specifically relative accuracy) emerged in spatial tasks involving navigation. Confidence in navigating for a target location also mediated age differences in allocentric navigation strategy use. These findings suggest that with the possible exception of navigation monitoring, spatial cognition may be spared from age-related decline even though spatial cognition itself is impaired in older age.

  10. Age-related differences in working memory updating components.

    PubMed

    Linares, Rocío; Bajo, M Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible age-related changes throughout childhood and adolescence in different component processes of working memory updating (WMU): retrieval, transformation, and substitution. A set of numerical WMU tasks was administered to four age groups (8-, 11-, 14-, and 21-year-olds). To isolate the effect of each of the WMU components, participants performed different versions of a task that included different combinations of the WMU components. The results showed an expected overall decrease in response times and an increase in accuracy performance with age. Most important, specific age-related changes in the retrieval component were found, demonstrating that the effect of retrieval on accuracy was larger in children than in adolescents or young adults. These findings indicate that the availability of representations from outside the focus of attention may change with age. Thus, the retrieval component of updating could contribute to the age-related changes observed in the performance of many updating tasks.

  11. Seismic Fragility Analysis of a Condensate Storage Tank with Age-Related Degradations

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C; Choun, Y-S; Kim, MK; Choi, I-K

    2011-04-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is conducting a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which includes the consideration of aging of structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The KAERI research project includes three specific areas that are essential to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA): (1) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, (2) seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and (3) a plant seismic risk analysis. Since 2007, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has entered into a collaboration agreement with KAERI to support its development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period. The goal of this collaboration endeavor is to assist KAERI to develop seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The research results of this multi-year collaboration will be utilized as input to seismic PRAs. This report describes the research effort performed by BNL for the Year 4 scope of work. This report was developed as an update to the Year 3 report by incorporating a major supplement to the Year 3 fragility analysis. In the Year 4 research scope, an additional study was carried out to consider an additional degradation scenario, in which the three basic degradation scenarios, i.e., degraded tank shell, degraded anchor bolts, and cracked anchorage concrete, are combined in a non-perfect correlation manner. A representative operational water level is used for this effort. Building on the same CDFM procedure implemented for the Year 3 Tasks, a simulation method was applied using optimum Latin Hypercube samples to characterize the deterioration behavior of the fragility capacity as a function of age-related degradations. The results are summarized in Section 5

  12. Age related prolactin secretion in men after fentanyl anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Giuseppe; Pulignano, Isabella; Schiappoli, Angelo; Cigognetti, Leonilde; Tritapepe, Luigi; Proietta, Maria

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of age in the hormonal response to opiate anaesthetic fentanyl. In 90 patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass, 59.6 +/- 9.2 years mean age, 35-81 age range, prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), human growth hormone (HGH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I), glucagon and insulin were measured in venous blood samples drawn from fasting patients immediately before, at 8 h in the morning, and 60 min after the induction of anaesthesia with 30 microg/kg intravenous fentanyl bolus, 30 min after a second 7 microg/kg fentanyl bolus. Results showed a higher 60 min PRL peak in older, >65 years, in respect to younger, < or =50 years, patients (57.6 +/- 23.3 vs. 40.6 +/- 13.8 microg/l, P<0.005), with a significant upward trend with age across the entire age span (r=0.32; P<0.002), while no difference by age was found for the basal concentrations. No differences were found between the respective basal and 60 min concentrations for the other hormones investigated. As expected, differences by age were found for FSH, higher in >65 and in 51-65-year-olds than in younger patients (for the basal values, respectively, P<0.02 and P<0.05); IGF I was lower in >65 in respect to < or =50 (P<0.02) and to 51-65-year-old patients (P<0.05), with a significant negative correlation with age (r=-0.33; P<0.005). The study shows an age related increase of PRL concentrations after fentanyl administration. It may be due to the reduction of the hypothalamic dopaminergic tone with aging. IGF I levels have been confirmed to be inversely correlated with age.

  13. Age-Related Changes in Trabecular Meshwork Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Mark E.; Nagi, Kundandeep S.; Bell, Nicholas P.; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A.; Feldman, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the normal aging effects on trabecular meshwork (TM) parameters using Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) images. Patients and Methods. One eye from 45 participants with open angles was imaged. Two independent readers measured TM area, TM length, and area and length of the TM interface shadow from 3 age groups (18–40, 41–60, and 61–80). Measurements were compared using stepwise regression analysis. Results. The average TM parameters were 0.0487 (±0.0092) mm2 for TM area, 0.5502 (±0.1033) mm for TM length, 0.1623 (±0.341) mm2 for TM interface shadow area, and 0.7755 (±0.1574) mm for TM interface shadow length. Interobserver reproducibility coefficients ranged from 0.45 (TM length) to 0.82 (TM area). TM area and length were not correlated with age. While the TM interface shadow length did not correlate with age, the TM interface shadow area increased with age. Race, sex, intraocular pressure, and gonioscopy score were not correlated with any TM parameters. Conclusion. Although the TM measurements were not correlated with age, the TM interface shadow area increased with age. Further study is required to determine whether there is any relationship between the age-related ASOCT findings of the TM interface shadow area and physiologic function. PMID:24163814

  14. Age-Related Changes in Electroencephalographic Signal Complexity.

    PubMed

    Zappasodi, Filippo; Marzetti, Laura; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Tecchio, Franca; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The study of active and healthy aging is a primary focus for social and neuroscientific communities. Here, we move a step forward in assessing electrophysiological neuronal activity changes in the brain with healthy aging. To this end, electroencephalographic (EEG) resting state activity was acquired in 40 healthy subjects (age 16-85). We evaluated Fractal Dimension (FD) according to the Higuchi algorithm, a measure which quantifies the presence of statistical similarity at different scales in temporal fluctuations of EEG signals. Our results showed that FD increases from age twenty to age fifty and then decreases. The curve that best fits the changes in FD values across age over the whole sample is a parabola, with the vertex located around age fifty. Moreover, FD changes are site specific, with interhemispheric FD asymmetry being pronounced in elderly individuals in the frontal and central regions. The present results indicate that fractal dimension well describes the modulations of brain activity with age. Since fractal dimension has been proposed to be related to the complexity of the signal dynamics, our data demonstrate that the complexity of neuronal electric activity changes across the life span of an individual, with a steady increase during young adulthood and a decrease in the elderly population.

  15. Age-Related Changes in Electroencephalographic Signal Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Zappasodi, Filippo; Marzetti, Laura; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Tecchio, Franca; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The study of active and healthy aging is a primary focus for social and neuroscientific communities. Here, we move a step forward in assessing electrophysiological neuronal activity changes in the brain with healthy aging. To this end, electroencephalographic (EEG) resting state activity was acquired in 40 healthy subjects (age 16–85). We evaluated Fractal Dimension (FD) according to the Higuchi algorithm, a measure which quantifies the presence of statistical similarity at different scales in temporal fluctuations of EEG signals. Our results showed that FD increases from age twenty to age fifty and then decreases. The curve that best fits the changes in FD values across age over the whole sample is a parabola, with the vertex located around age fifty. Moreover, FD changes are site specific, with interhemispheric FD asymmetry being pronounced in elderly individuals in the frontal and central regions. The present results indicate that fractal dimension well describes the modulations of brain activity with age. Since fractal dimension has been proposed to be related to the complexity of the signal dynamics, our data demonstrate that the complexity of neuronal electric activity changes across the life span of an individual, with a steady increase during young adulthood and a decrease in the elderly population. PMID:26536036

  16. Mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration and therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    van Lookeren Campagne, Menno; LeCouter, Jennifer; Yaspan, Brian L; Ye, Weilan

    2014-01-01

    As the age of the population increases in many nations, age-related degenerative diseases pose significant socioeconomic challenges. One of the key degenerative diseases that compromise quality of life is age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a multi-faceted condition that affects the central retina, which ultimately leads to blindness in millions of people worldwide. The pathophysiology and risk factors for AMD are complex, and the symptoms manifest in multiple related but distinct forms. The ability to develop effective treatments for AMD will depend on a thorough understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, risk factors, and driver molecular pathways, as well as the ability to develop useful animal models. This review provides an overview of the aforementioned aspects in AMD.

  17. Investigations Into Age-related Changes in the Human Mandible().

    PubMed

    Parr, Nicolette M; Passalacqua, Nicholas V; Skorpinski, Katie

    2017-03-02

    While changes in mandibular shape over time are not widely recognized by skeletal biologists, mandibular remodeling and associated changes in gross morphology may result from a number of causes related to mechanical stress such as antemortem tooth loss, changes in bite force, or alterations of masticatory performance. This study investigated the relationship between age-related changes and antemortem tooth loss in adult humans via dry bone measurements. This study examined 10 standard mandibular measurements as well as individual antemortem tooth loss scores using the Eichner Index from a total of 319 female and male individuals with ages ranging from 16 to 99 years. Results indicate that few mandibular measurements exhibited age-related changes, and most were affected by antemortem tooth loss.

  18. Age-related macular degeneration: current treatment and future options.

    PubMed

    Moutray, Tanya; Chakravarthy, Usha

    2011-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of visual impairment among older adults in the developed world. Epidemiological studies have revealed a number of genetic, ocular and environmental risk factors for this condition, which can be addressed by disease reduction strategies. We discuss the various treatment options for dry and exudative age-related macular degeneration available and explain how the recommended treatment depends on the exact type, location and extent of the degeneration. Currently, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition therapy is the best available treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration but is limited by the need for repeated intravitreal injections. The current treatment regime is being refined through research on optimal treatment frequency and duration and type of anti-VEGF drug. Different modes of drug delivery are being developed and in the future other methods of VEGF inhibition may be used.

  19. Age-related deficits in voluntary control over saccadic eye movements: consideration of electrical brain stimulation as a therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po Ling; Machado, Liana

    2016-05-01

    Sudden changes in our visual environment trigger reflexive eye movements, so automatically they often go unnoticed. Consequently, voluntary control over reflexive eye movements entails considerable effort. In relation to frontal-lobe deterioration, adult aging adversely impacts voluntary saccadic eye movement control in particular, which compromises effective performance of daily activities. Here, we review the nature of age-related changes in saccadic control, focusing primarily on the antisaccade task because of its assessment of 2 key age-sensitive control functions: reflexive saccade inhibition and voluntary saccade generation. With an ultimate view toward facilitating development of therapeutic strategies, we systematically review the neuroanatomy underpinning voluntary control over saccadic eye movements and natural mechanisms that kick in to compensate for age-related declines. We then explore the potential of noninvasive electrical brain stimulation to counteract aging deficits. Based on evidence that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation can confer a range of benefits specifically relevant to aging brains, we put forward this neuromodulation technique as a therapeutic strategy for improving voluntary saccadic eye movement control in older adults.

  20. ROS, Cell Senescence, and Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Davalli, Pierpaola; Mitic, Tijana; Caporali, Andrea; Lauriola, Angela; D'Arca, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The aging process worsens the human body functions at multiple levels, thus causing its gradual decrease to resist stress, damage, and disease. Besides changes in gene expression and metabolic control, the aging rate has been associated with the production of high levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and/or Reactive Nitrosative Species (RNS). Specific increases of ROS level have been demonstrated as potentially critical for induction and maintenance of cell senescence process. Causal connection between ROS, aging, age-related pathologies, and cell senescence is studied intensely. Senescent cells have been proposed as a target for interventions to delay the aging and its related diseases or to improve the diseases treatment. Therapeutic interventions towards senescent cells might allow restoring the health and curing the diseases that share basal processes, rather than curing each disease in separate and symptomatic way. Here, we review observations on ROS ability of inducing cell senescence through novel mechanisms that underpin aging processes. Particular emphasis is addressed to the novel mechanisms of ROS involvement in epigenetic regulation of cell senescence and aging, with the aim to individuate specific pathways, which might promote healthy lifespan and improve aging. PMID:27247702

  1. Hypermaintenance and hypofunction of aged spermatogonia: insight from age-related increase of Plzf expression.

    PubMed

    Ferder, Ianina C; Wang, Ning

    2015-06-30

    Like stem cells in other tissues, spermatogonia, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) at the foundation of differentiation hierarchy, undergo age-related decline in function. The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf) protein plays an essential role in spermatogonia maintenance by preventing their differentiation. To evaluate whether there is an age-related change in Plzf expression, we found that aged mouse testes exhibited a robust "Plzf overexpression" phenotype, in that they showed not only a higher frequency of Plzf-expressing cells but also an increased level of Plzf expression in these cells. Moreover, some Plzf-expressing cells in aged testes even aberrantly appeared in the differentiating spermatogonia compartment, which is usually low or negative for Plzf expression. Importantly, ectopic Plzf expression in F9 cells suppressed retinoic acid (RA)-induced Stra8 activation, a gene required for meiosis initiation. These data, together with our observation of a lack of meiosis-initiating spermatocytes associated with high Plzf-expressing spermatogonia in the aged testes, particularly in the degenerative seminiferous tubules, suggest that age-related increase in Plzf expression represents a novel molecular signature of spermatogonia aging by functionally arresting their differentiation.

  2. Cognitive Deterioration in Adults with Down Syndrome: Effects on the Individual, Caregivers, and Service Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Crayton, Lissa; Holland, Anthony; Hall, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (n=49) were assigned to three groups: those showing cognitive deterioration, those comparable in age, and those not showing cognitive deterioration but younger. Those experiencing cognitive deterioration were less likely to receive day services, had more impoverished life experiences, and required more support.…

  3. Normal tear protein profiles and age-related changes.

    PubMed Central

    McGill, J I; Liakos, G M; Goulding, N; Seal, D V

    1984-01-01

    The specific and non-specific tear proteins have been analysed by means of the ELISA technique to establish the normal and age-related values. There is a linear and related decline of lysozyme and lactoferrin with age, and a similar but unrelated reduction in tear volume. IgA levels gradually decline, while caeruloplasmin and IgG both increase after the fifth decade. The results suggest that tear IgG and caeruloplasmin are probably transudates from the serum, that IgA is secreted independently of tear volume, and that lysozyme and lactoferrin are secreted at the same site but independently of tear volume. PMID:6712908

  4. Age-related decline in emotional prosody discrimination: acoustic correlates.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Kingston, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    It is now accepted that older adults have difficulty recognizing prosodic emotion cues, but it is not clear at what processing stage this ability breaks down. We manipulated the acoustic characteristics of tones in pitch, amplitude, and duration discrimination tasks to assess whether impaired basic auditory perception coexisted with our previously demonstrated age-related prosodic emotion perception impairment. It was found that pitch perception was particularly impaired in older adults, and that it displayed the strongest correlation with prosodic emotion discrimination. We conclude that an important cause of age-related impairment in prosodic emotion comprehension exists at the fundamental sensory level of processing.

  5. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Subudhi, M.; Shier, W.; MacDougall, E. )

    1990-07-01

    An aging assessment of Westinghouse DS-series low-voltage air circuit breakers was performed as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The objectives of this study are to characterize age-related degradation within the breaker assembly and to identify maintenance practices to mitigate their effect. Since this study has been promulgated by the failures of the reactor trip breakers at the McGuire Nuclear Station in July 1987, results relating to the welds in the breaker pole lever welds are also discussed. The design and operation of DS-206 and DS-416 breakers were reviewed. Failure data from various national data bases were analyzed to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and mechanisms. Additional operating experiences from one nuclear station and two industrial breaker-service companies were obtained to develop aging trends of various subcomponents. The responses of the utilities to the NRC Bulletin 88-01, which discusses the center pole lever welds, were analyzed to assess the final resolution of failures of welds in the reactor trips. Maintenance recommendations, made by the manufacturer to mitigate age-related degradation were reviewed, and recommendations for improving the monitoring of age-related degradation are discussed. As described in Volume 2 of this NUREG, the results from a test program to assess degradation in breaker parts through mechanical cycling are also included. The testing has characterized the cracking of center-pole lever welds, identified monitoring techniques to determine aging in breakers, and provided information to augment existing maintenance programs. Recommendations to improve breaker reliability using effective maintenance, testing, and inspection programs are suggested. 13 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Amniotic Epithelial Cells: A New Tool to Combat Aging and Age-Related Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Di Germanio, Clara; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael; Barboni, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The number of elderly people is growing at an unprecedented rate and this increase of the aging population is expected to have a direct impact on the incidence of age-related diseases and healthcare-associated costs. Thus, it is imperative that new tools are developed to fight and slow age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is a promising strategy for the maintenance of health and function late in life; however, stem cell-based therapies face several challenges including rejection and tumor transformation. As an alternative, the placenta offers an extraordinary source of fetal stem cells, including the amniotic epithelial cells (AECs), which retain some of the characteristics of embryonic stem cells, but show low immunogenicity, together with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Because of these characteristics, AECs have been widely utilized in regenerative medicine. This perspective highlights different mechanisms triggered by transplanted AECs that could be potentially useful for anti-aging therapies, which include: Graft and differentiation for tissue regeneration in age-related settings, anti-inflammatory behavior to combat “inflammaging,” anti-tumor activity, direct lifespan and healthspan extension properties, and possibly rejuvenation in a manner reminiscent of heterochronic parabiosis. Here, we critically discuss benefits and limitation of AECs-based therapies in age-related diseases. PMID:27921031

  7. Age-Related Reversal of Postural Adjustment Characteristics During Motor Imagery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Physical and imagined movements show similar behavioral constraints and neurophysiological activation patterns. An inhibition mechanism is thought to suppress overt movement during motor imagery, but it does not effectively suppress autonomic or postural adjustments. Inhibitory processes and postural stability both deteriorate with age. Thus, older people’s balance is potentially vulnerable to interference from postural adjustments induced by thoughts about past or future actions. Here, young and older adults stood upright and executed or imagined manual reaching movements. Reported arm movement time (MT) of all participants increased with target distance. Older participants reported longer MT than young participants when executing arm movements, but not when imagining them. Older adults’ anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) postural sway was higher than young adults’ at baseline, but their AP sway fell below their baseline level during manual imagery. In contrast, young adults’ AP sway increased during imagery relative to their baseline. A similar tendency to reduce sway in the ML direction was also observed in older adults during imagery in a challenging stance. These results suggest that postural response during manual motor imagery reverses direction with age. Motor imagery and action planning are ubiquitous tasks, and older people are likely to spend more time engaged in them. The shift toward restricting body sway during these tasks is akin to a postural threat response, with the potential to interfere with balance during activities of daily living. PMID:27808526

  8. Progress and Prospects in Human Genetic Research into Age-Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Saiko; Ueda, Hiromi; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a complex, multifactorial disorder that is attributable to confounding intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The degree of impairment shows substantial variation between individuals, as is also observed in the senescence of other functions. This individual variation would seem to refute the stereotypical view that hearing deterioration with age is inevitable and may indicate that there is ample scope for preventive intervention. Genetic predisposition could account for a sizable proportion of interindividual variation. Over the past decade or so, tremendous progress has been made through research into the genetics of various forms of hearing impairment, including ARHI and our knowledge of the complex mechanisms of auditory function has increased substantially. Here, we give an overview of recent investigations aimed at identifying the genetic risk factors involved in ARHI and of what we currently know about its pathophysiology. This review is divided into the following sections: (i) genes causing monogenic hearing impairment with phenotypic similarities to ARHI; (ii) genes involved in oxidative stress, biologic stress responses, and mitochondrial dysfunction; and (iii) candidate genes for senescence, other geriatric diseases, and neurodegeneration. Progress and prospects in genetic research are discussed. PMID:25140308

  9. Aging-related dysregulation of dopamine and angiotensin receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Villar-Cheda, Begoña; Dominguez-Meijide, Antonio; Valenzuela, Rita; Granado, Noelia; Moratalla, Rosario; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L

    2014-07-01

    It is not known whether the aging-related decrease in dopaminergic function leads to the aging-related higher vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons and risk for Parkinson's disease. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in the inflammatory response, neuronal oxidative stress, and dopaminergic vulnerability via type 1 (AT1) receptors. In the present study, we observed a counterregulatory interaction between dopamine and angiotensin receptors. We observed overexpression of AT1 receptors in the striatum and substantia nigra of young adult dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-deficient mice and young dopamine-depleted rats, together with compensatory overexpression of AT2 receptors or compensatory downregulation of angiotensinogen and/or angiotensin. In aged rats, we observed downregulation of dopamine and dopamine receptors and overexpression of AT1 receptors in aged rats, without compensatory changes observed in young animals. L-Dopa therapy inhibited RAS overactivity in young dopamine-depleted rats, but was ineffective in aged rats. The results suggest that dopamine may play an important role in modulating oxidative stress and inflammation in the substantia nigra and striatum via the RAS, which is impaired by aging.

  10. [The relationship between the polymorphism of immunity genes and both aging and age-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Qing-Wei; Yu, Zhuo-Wei; Bao, Zhi-Jun; Ma, Yong-Xing

    2013-07-01

    Aging is acommon, progressive and irreversible state of multi-cell dysfunction. Immune aging mainly includes the declines of regenerative capacity and lymphoid lineage differentiation potential, the hyporesponsive to infection and vaccination, the hyperresponsive in the context of inflammatory pathology, and the increased risk of autoimmunity. The dysfunction of aged immune system accelerates the occurrence of aging and age-related diseases. The mutation of immunity genes that affect immune responses accelerates or slows aging process and age-related diseases. The frequencies of acquired immunity genes, such as immune protective HLA II DRB1*11 and DRB*16-associated haplotype, are increased in the longevity populations. The increased susceptibility of immune inflammatory response, morbidity and mortality in the elderly is often associated with decreased frequencies of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 -1082G allele, TNF-β1 haplotype cnd10T/C, cnd25G/G, -988C/C, -800G/A, low proinflammatory fator TNFa level related extended TNF-A genotype -1031C/C, -863C/A, -857C/C, IL-6-174 CC and IFN-γ+874 T allele as well. The innate immunity genes, such as highly expressed anti-inflammatory +896 G KIR4 allele, CCR5Δ32 variant, -765 C Cox-2 allele, -1708 G and 21 C 5-Lox alleles are detected in centenarians. In age-related diseases, a higher CMV-specific IgG antibody level in elderly individuals is associated with a decreased frequency of KIR haplotypes KIR2DS5 and A1B10 and an increased frequency of MBL2 haplotypes LYPB, LYQC and HYPD that result in the absence of MBL2 protein. The increased frequencies of CRP ATG haplotypes and CFH 402 His allele indicate high mortality in the elderly. In the present study, we review the advances in the polymorphism and haplotype of innate and adoptive immunity genes, and their association with both aging and age-related diseases. To strengthen the analysis of extended haplotypes, epigenetic studies of immunity genes and genetic study of

  11. Developments in age-related macular degeneration: Diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Steven R

    2009-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness of Americans over age 65 years. Severe loss of vision is usually due to exudative ARMD, of which there are about 200,000 new cases in the United States annually. Until recently, only a small fraction of patients benefited from treatment, but advances in the early diagnosis of the disease and major developments in therapy have substantially improved the prognosis of patients with ARMD. Because visual loss substantially reduces quality of life, effective management of ARMD will have increasing public health importance as the population ages. The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends that people over age 65 years should have a comprehensive eye examination every 1 to 2 years to check for cataracts, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and other conditions. Those who complain of difficulty reading, driving at night, or adapting from sunlight to indoor lighting might have macular degeneration.

  12. Hhip haploinsufficiency sensitizes mice to age-related emphysema.

    PubMed

    Lao, Taotao; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Yun, Jeong; Qiu, Weiliang; Guo, Feng; Huang, Chunfang; Mancini, John Dominic; Gupta, Kushagra; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Naing, Zun Zar Chi; Zhang, Li; Perrella, Mark A; Owen, Caroline A; Silverman, Edwin K; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-08-09

    Genetic variants in Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) have consistently been associated with the susceptibility to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary function levels, including the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), in general population samples by genome-wide association studies. However, in vivo evidence connecting Hhip to age-related FEV1 decline and emphysema development is lacking. Herein, using Hhip heterozygous mice (Hhip(+/-)), we observed increased lung compliance and spontaneous emphysema in Hhip(+/-) mice starting at 10 mo of age. This increase was preceded by increases in oxidative stress levels in the lungs of Hhip(+/-) vs. Hhip(+/+) mice. To our knowledge, these results provide the first line of evidence that HHIP is involved in maintaining normal lung function and alveolar structures. Interestingly, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine treatment in mice starting at age of 5 mo improved lung function and prevented emphysema development in Hhip(+/-) mice, suggesting that N-acetyl cysteine treatment limits the progression of age-related emphysema in Hhip(+/-) mice. Therefore, reduced lung function and age-related spontaneous emphysema development in Hhip(+/-) mice may be caused by increased oxidative stress levels in murine lungs as a result of haploinsufficiency of Hhip.

  13. Thalamic structures and associated cognitive functions: Relations with age and aging

    PubMed Central

    Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus, with its cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar connections, is a critical node in networks supporting cognitive functions known to decline in normal aging, including component processes of memory and executive functions of attention and information processing. The macrostructure, microstructure, and neural connectivity of the thalamus changes across the adult lifespan. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have demonstrated, regional thalamic volume shrinkage and microstructural degradation, with anterior regions generally more compromised than posterior regions. The integrity of selective thalamic nuclei and projections decline with advancing age, particularly those in thalamofrontal, thalamoparietal, and thalamolimbic networks. This review presents studies that assess the relations between age and aging and the structure, function, and connectivity of the thalamus and associated neural networks and focuses on their relations with processes of attention, speed of information processing, and working and episodic memory. PMID:25862940

  14. Aging-associated formaldehyde-induced norepinephrine deficiency contributes to age-related memory decline.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yufei; Jiang, Chun; Wan, You; Lv, Jihui; Jia, Jianping; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Xu; Tong, Zhiqian

    2015-08-01

    A norepinephrine (NE) deficiency has been observed in aged rats and in patients with Alzheimer's disease and is thought to cause cognitive disorder. Which endogenous factor induces NE depletion, however, is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of aging-associated formaldehyde (FA) on the inactivation of NE in vitro and in vivo, and on memory behaviors in rodents. The results showed that age-related DNA demethylation led to hippocampal FA accumulation, and when this occurred, the hippocampal NE content was reduced in healthy male rats of different ages. Furthermore, biochemical analysis revealed that FA rapidly inactivated NE in vitro and that an intrahippocampal injection of FA markedly reduced hippocampal NE levels in healthy adult rats. Unexpectedly, an injection of FA (at a pathological level) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, a NE depletor) can mimic age-related NE deficiency, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments, and spatial memory deficits in healthy adult rats. Conversely, an injection of NE reversed age-related deficits in both LTP and memory in aged rats. In agreement with the above results, the senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice also exhibited a severe deficit in LTP and memory associated with a more severe NE deficiency and FA accumulation, when compared with the age-matched, senescence-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Injection of resveratrol (a natural FA scavenger) or NE into SAMP8 mice reversed FA accumulation and NE deficiency and restored the magnitude of LTP and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that accumulated FA is a critical endogenous factor for aging-associated NE depletion and cognitive decline.

  15. Probing a nonequilibrium einstein relation in an aging colloidal glass.

    PubMed

    Abou, Bérengère; Gallet, François

    2004-10-15

    We present a direct experimental measurement of an effective temperature in a colloidal glass of laponite, using a micrometric bead as a thermometer. The nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation, in the particular form of a modified Einstein relation, is investigated with diffusion and mobility measurements of the bead embedded in the glass. We observe an unusual nonmonotonic behavior of the effective temperature: starting from the bath temperature, it is found to increase up to a maximum value, and then decrease back, as the system ages. We show that the observed deviation from the Einstein relation is related to the relaxation times previously measured in dynamic light scattering experiments.

  16. Age-related associative deficits and the isolation effect.

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    If all but one of the items in a list are similar (e.g., all black except one red), memory for the different item is enhanced (the isolation effect). Older adults generally show similar or smaller isolation effects compared to young adults, which has been attributed to age-related deficits in associative memory whereby older adults are less able to associate an isolated stimulus to its isolating feature. Experiment 1 examined the isolation effect for isolation based on spatial position, modality and color; in Experiment 2, the criterion for isolation was the associative relation between stimuli. The results consistently showed no differences between young and older participants in the magnitude of the isolation effect. Whilst age deficits in associative memory may act to reduce the isolation effect in older adults, age deficits in self-initiated processing and inhibitory functionality may counteract this reduction by enhancing the isolation effect in older adults.

  17. Age-related macular degeneration: Evidence of a major gene

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, S.; Warren, C.; Yang, H.

    1994-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of blindness in developing countries. It remains a very poorly understood disorder. Although environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, none have been firmly implicated. The purpose of this study was to use pedigree analysis to evaluate the possible role of a major gene as a determinant of familial aggregation. Information was collected regarding occupation, smoking, sun exposure, associated medical problems and family history. 50 probands with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and 39 age, race and sex-matched controls were included in the study. In the ARMD group 15/50 (30%) of probands reported a positive family history; 22 out of 222 first degree relatives over age 60 were reported to be affected. In the control groups, none of the 138 first degree relatives over age 50 had a history of ARMD. This difference is statistically significant (p = 0.0003), indicating that genetic factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ARMD. In the ARMD group more siblings as compared to parents (16/127 vs. 5/82) were affected. 5/50 (10%) of the ARMD probands also gave a history of a second degree relative affected with ARMD, compared to none known among the relatives of controls. Data from 50 pedigrees were analyzed by complex segregation analysis under a class A regressive logistic model using the REGD program implemented in the SAGE package. Preliminary results allow rejection of a polygenic model and suggest there is a major gene for ARMD in these families. The inheritance model most compatible with the observed familial aggregation is autosomal recessive. In conclusion, these results are suggestive of a major gene effect in the etiology of ARMD. Identification of a major gene effect is a first step to further pursue linkage analysis and to search for the gene(s) involved in the causation of ARMD.

  18. Mitochondrial function and dysfunction in the cell: its relevance to aging and aging-related disease.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, David G

    2002-11-01

    Mitochondria plays a complex multi-factorial role in the cell. In addition to their primary role in ATP generation, the organelles sequester calcium and both generate and detoxify reactive oxygen species. All these functions are intimately inter-linked through the central bioenergetic parameter of the proton electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Subtle changes in respiratory chain capacity, substrate supply, glutathione levels, cytoplasmic calcium and membrane potential occur in aging and in conditions predisposing towards neurodegenerative disease. These interactions are incompletely understood and in this review I present an overview of some of the current research in this area, and its possible relevance to aging and aging-related disease.

  19. Compromised respiratory adaptation and thermoregulation in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sic L; Wei, Zelan; Chigurupati, Srinivasulu; Tu, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are at the heart of the aging process and are thought to underpin age-related diseases. Mitochondria are not only the primary energy-generating system but also the dominant cellular source of metabolically derived ROS. Recent studies unravel the existence of mechanisms that serve to modulate the balance between energy metabolism and ROS production. Among these is the regulation of proton conductance across the inner mitochondrial membrane that affects the efficiency of respiration and heat production. The field of mitochondrial respiration research has provided important insight into the role of altered energy balance in obesity and diabetes. The notion that respiration and oxidative capacity are mechanistically linked is making significant headway into the field of aging and age-related diseases. Here we review the regulation of cellular energy and ROS balance in biological systems and survey some of the recent relevant studies that suggest that respiratory adaptation and thermodynamics are important in aging and age-related diseases.

  20. Gadd45 proteins: Relevance to aging, longevity and age-related pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Moskalev, Alexey A.; Smit-McBride, Zeljka; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail V.; Plyusnina, Ekaterina N.; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Budovsky, Arie; Tacutu, Robi; Fraifeld, Vadim E.

    2013-01-01

    The Gadd45 proteins have been intensively studied, in view of their important role in key cellular processes. Indeed, the Gadd45 proteins stand at the crossroad of the cell fates by controlling the balance between cell (DNA) repair, eliminating (apoptosis) or preventing the expansion of potentially dangerous cells (cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence), and maintaining the stem cell pool. However, the biogerontological aspects have not thus far received sufficient attention. Here we analyzed the pathways and modes of action by which Gadd45 members are involved in aging, longevity and age-related diseases. Because of their pleiotropic action, a decreased inducibility of Gadd45 members may have far-reaching consequences including genome instability, accumulation of DNA damage, and disorders in cellular homeostasis – all of which may eventually contribute to the aging process and age-related disorders (promotion of tumorigenesis, immune disorders, insulin resistance and reduced responsiveness to stress). Most recently, the dGadd45 gene has been identified as a longevity regulator in Drosophila. Although further wide-scale research is warranted, it is becoming increasingly clear that Gadd45s are highly relevant to aging, age-related diseases (ARDs) and to the control of life span, suggesting them as potential therapeutic targets in ARDs and pro-longevity interventions. PMID:21986581

  1. The Relative Age Effect in Elite Sport: The French Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delorme, Nicolas; Boiche, Julie; Raspaud, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is considered a common phenomenon in elite sport. However, it has not been examined systematically in previous research, and the mechanisms likely to generate or to limit such an effect are little understood. This paper investigates the prevalence of the RAE in French professional championship-level players, taking…

  2. Age-Related Health Stereotypes and Illusory Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madey, Scott F.; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment investigated how age-related health stereotypes affect people's judgments of younger and older patients' medical compliance. Previous research has shown that stereotypes of young adults include healthy components, but stereotypes of older adults include both healthy and unhealthy components (Hummert, 1990). We predicted that…

  3. The Experience of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Elaine Y. H.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Hassell, Jennifer B.; Keeffe, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative article describes the impact of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) among 15 participants: how a person makes sense of ARMD, the effect of ARMD on the person's quality of life, the psychological disturbances associated with the limitations of ARMD, and the influence of ARMD on social interactions. Such in-depth appreciation of…

  4. Treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration with dobesilate

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, P; Outeiriño, L A; Angulo, J; Giménez-Gallego, G

    2012-01-01

    The authors present anatomical and functional evidences of dry age-macular degeneration improvement, after intravitreal treatment with dobesilate. Main outcomes measures were normalisation of retinal structure and function, assessed by optical coherence tomography, fundus-monitored microperimetry, electrophysiology and visual acuity. The effect might be related to the normalisation of the outer retinal architecture. PMID:22729337

  5. Age-related changes in the center of mass velocity control during walking.

    PubMed

    Chong, Raymond K Y; Chastan, Nathalie; Welter, Marie-Laure; Do, Manh-Cuong

    2009-07-10

    During walking, the body center of mass oscillates along the vertical plane. Its displacement is highest at mid-swing and lowest at terminal swing during the transition to double support. Its vertical velocity (CoMv) has been observed to increase as the center of mass falls between mid- and late swing but is reduced just before double support. This suggests that braking of the center of mass is achieved with active neural control. We tested whether this active control deteriorates with aging (Experiment 1) and during a concurrent cognitive task (Experiment 2). At short steps of <0.4m, CoMv control was low and similar among all age groups. All groups braked the CoMv at longer steps of >0.4m but older subjects did so to a lesser extent. During the cognitive task, young subjects increased CoMv control (i.e. increase in CoMv braking) while maintaining step length and walking speed. Older subjects on the other hand, did not increase CoMv control but rather maintain it by reducing both step length and walking speed. These results suggest that active braking of the CoM during the transition to double support predominates in steps >0.4m. It could be a manifestation of the balance control system, since the braking occurs at late stance where body weight is being shifted to the contralateral side. The active braking mechanism also appears to require some attentional resource. In aging, reducing step length and speed are strategic to maintaining effective center of mass control during the transition to double support. However, the lesser degree of control in older adults indicates a true age-related deficit.

  6. The Correlation of Age and Postoperative Visual Acuity for Age-Related Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Cao, Xiaoguang; Hou, Xianru; Bao, Yongzhen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Clinically, what is the best time for age-related cataract (ARC) patients to receive surgeries and get the most benefits is important. We explored the relationship between age and presenting postoperative visual acuity (POVA) in patients from rural China. Methods. Three Lifeline Express Hospital Eye-Train missions of Peking University People's Hospital were chosen. At the first day after surgery, 3452 ARC eyes with the presenting POVA ≥ 6/60 were enrolled. The relationship between age and POVA was analyzed statistically. Results. In these three missions, there were more female patients than males; the ratio of females to males was 1.71. The average age of females was older than males. Overall, the percentages of patients with good visual outcomes (≥6/18) were significantly decreased with aging. Different regions had variations, but the trends were the same. There was weak linear correlation between age and POVA. The correlations of females were stronger than males in Yuncheng and Sanmenxia and weaker than males in Zhoukou. Conclusion. The good visual outcomes of presenting POVA were significantly decreased with aging and there were weak linear correlations between age and POVA in rural China. The linear correlation might be influenced by the difference of gender and region. PMID:26881225

  7. Age-related changes in cognitive conflict processing: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Mager, Ralph; Bullinger, Alex H; Brand, Serge; Schmidlin, Maria; Schärli, Heinz; Müller-Spahn, Franz; Störmer, Robert; Falkenstein, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Cognitive tasks involving conflicting stimuli and responses are associated with an early age-related decline in performance. Conflict and conflict-induced interference can be stimulus- or response-related. In classical stimulus-response compatibility tasks, such as the Stroop task, the event-related potential (ERP) usually reveals a greater negativity on incongruent versus congruent trials which has often been linked with conflict processing. However, it is unclear whether this negativity is related to stimulus- or response-related conflict, thus rendering the meaning of age-related changes inconclusive. In the present study, a modified Stroop task was used to focus on stimulus-related interference processes while excluding response-related interference. Since we intended to study work-relevant effects ERPs and performance were determined in young (about 30 years old) and middle-aged (about 50 years old) healthy subjects (total n=80). In the ERP, a broad negativity developed after incongruent versus congruent stimuli between 350 and 650 ms. An age-related increase of the latency and amplitude of this negativity was observed. These results indicate age-related alterations in the processing of conflicting stimuli already in middle age.

  8. The Global Deterioration Scale for assessment of primary degenerative dementia.

    PubMed

    Reisberg, B; Ferris, S H; de Leon, M J; Crook, T

    1982-09-01

    Cognitive decline associated with old age and consistent with the diagnosis of primary degenerative dementia is a unique clinical syndrome with characteristic phenomena and progression. The authors describe a Global Deterioration Scale for the assessment of primary degenerative dementia and delineation of its stages. The authors have used the Global Deterioration Scale successfully for more than 5 years and have validated it against behavioral, neuroanatomic, and neurophysiologic measures in patients with primary degenerative dementia.

  9. Age-related ultrasonic properties of breast tissue in vivo.

    PubMed

    Katz-Hanani, Ilana; Rothstein, Tamara; Gaitini, Diana; Gallimidi, Zahava; Azhari, Haim

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current work was to quantify the ultrasonic properties of the whole breast in vivo as a function of age. Forty-four women were scanned using a computerized ultrasonic scanner developed in our laboratory. Raster scans in two orthogonal views, mediolateral and craniocaudal, were obtained using the ultrasonic through-transmission method. By combining the information from the two views, we estimated two acoustic properties: speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. On the basis of the results, both the attenuation coefficient and the speed of sound follow a three-phase age-related pattern. During the first phase, which corresponds to ages 20 to 35 y, both properties decrease with time and then remain roughly unchanged until about 55 y. During the third phase corresponding to ages >55 y, values decrease again with time. The mean speed of sound decreases from 1504 ± 35 m/s at <30 y to 1452 ± 9 m/s at >60 y (p < 0.01), and the attenuation coefficient decreases from 1.27 ± 0.32 to 0.96 ± 0.13 dB/cm/MHz (p < 0.03), respectively. In conclusion, both the ultrasonic speed of sound and the attenuation coefficient of breast tissue are age related. Both parameters decrease during life, markedly during the first and third phases. These changes may be attributed to anatomic and physiologic changes associated with reproductivity and menopause.

  10. Mood, Memory and Movement: An Age-Related Neurodegenerative Complex?

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Boger, Heather; Emborg, Marina E.

    2009-01-01

    The following review was constructed as a concept paper based on a recent workshop on neurodegenerative disease sponsored by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the American Geriatric Society (AGS), and the John A. Hartford Foundation. The meeting was entitled “Thinking, moving and feeling: Common underlying mechanisms? 4th Annual Bedside-to-Bench Conference” and had the purpose to connect current basic and clinical findings on common brain-related alterations occurring with aging such as depression, movement disorders, and cognitive decline. Many prominent researchers expressed their opinion on aging and it was revealed that age-related brain dysfunction of any kind seems to share several risk factors and/or pathways. But can something be done to actively achieve “successful aging”? In this review, based largely on the workshop and current literature, we have summarized some of the current theories for depression, movement and cognitive impairment with aging, as well as potential preventive measures. We have also summarized the emerging need for relevant animal models and how these could be developed and utilized. PMID:20021382

  11. Thyroid function and aging: gender-related differences.

    PubMed

    da Costa, V M; Moreira, D G; Rosenthal, D

    2001-10-01

    The effects of aging on human or animal thyroid function are still not well defined. We evaluated some aspects of thyroid function during aging using an animal model (young and old Dutch-Miranda rats). In old rats of both genders, serum thyroxine (T4) decreased but serum thyrotrophin (TSH) remained unaltered, suggesting a disturbance in the pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism during aging. Serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) only decreased in old males, possibly because female rats are almost twice as efficient in hepatic T4 to T3 deiodination. Thyroidal T4-5'-deiodinase activity did not change much during aging, although it decreased slightly in males. Thyroidal iodothyronine-deiodinase type I mRNA expression but not total thyroidal enzymatic activity were higher in female than in male rats. Thus, ovarian/testicular hormones may modulate the expression and/or the activity of hepatic and thyroidal type I iodothyronine-deiodinase. Thyroperoxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) expression were higher in young male rats than in females. In males, TPO and Tg gene expression decreased with aging, suggesting that androgens might increase their expression. Our results showed that aging induces real changes in rat thyroid gland function and regulation, affecting at least pituitary, thyroid and liver functions. Furthermore, some of these changes were gender related, indicating that gonadal hormones may modulate thyroid gland function and regulation.

  12. Effects of Age-Related Macular Degeneration on Postural Sway

    PubMed Central

    Chatard, Hortense; Tepenier, Laure; Jankowski, Olivier; Aussems, Antoine; Allieta, Alain; Beydoun, Talal; Salah, Sawsen; Bucci, Maria P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on postural sway, and the influence of different visual conditions. The hypothesis of our study was that the impact of AMD will be different between unilateral and bilateral AMD subjects compared to age-matched healthy elderly. Methods: Postural stability was measured with a platform (TechnoConcept®) in 10 elderly unilateral AMD subjects (mean age: 71.1 ± 4.6 years), 10 elderly bilateral AMD subjects (mean age: 70.8 ± 6.1 years), and 10 healthy age-matched control subjects (mean age: 69.8 ± 6.3 years). Four visual conditions were tested: both eyes viewing condition (BEV), dominant eye viewing (DEV), non-dominant eye viewing (NDEV), and eyes closed (EC). We analyzed the surface area, the length, the mean speed, the anteroposterior (AP), and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP). Results: Bilateral AMD subjects had a surface area (p < 0.05) and AP displacement of the CoP (p < 0.01) higher than healthy elderly. Unilateral AMD subjects had more AP displacement of the CoP (p < 0.05) than healthy elderly. Conclusions: We suggest that ADM subjects could have poor postural adaptive mechanisms leading to increase their postural instability. Further studies will aim to improve knowledge on such issue and to develop reeducation techniques in these patients.

  13. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  14. The aging correlation (RH + t): Relative humidity (%) + temperature (deg C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    An aging correlation between corrosion lifetime, and relative humidity RH (%) and temperature t (C) has been reported in the literature. This aging correlation is a semi-log plot of corrosion lifetime on the log scale versus the interesting summation term RH(%) + t(C) on the linear scale. This empirical correlation was derived from observation of experimental data trends and has been referred to as an experimental law. Using electrical resistivity data of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) measured as a function of relative humidity and temperature, it was found that the electrical resistivity could be expressed as a function of the term RH(%) t(C). Thus, if corrosion is related to leakage current through an organic insulator, which, in turn, is a function of RH and t, then some partial theoretical validity for the correlation is indicated. This article describes the derivation of the term RH(%) t(C) from PVB electrical resistivity data.

  15. Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Katayoon B.; Handa, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly. While excellent treatment has emerged for neovascular disease, treatment for early AMD is lacking due to an incomplete understanding of the early molecular events. A prominent age-related change is the accumulation of neutral lipid in normal Bruch's membrane (BrM) throughout adulthood and also disease-related BrM accumulations called basal deposits and drusen. AMD lesion formation has thus been conceptualized as sharing mechanisms with atherosclerotic plaque formation, where low-density lipoprotein (LDL) retention within the arterial wall initiates a cascade of pathologic events. However, we do not yet understand how lipoproteins contribute to AMD. This paper explores how systemic and local production of lipoproteins might contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:21822496

  16. Age-related macular degeneration: Complement in action.

    PubMed

    van Lookeren Campagne, Menno; Strauss, Erich C; Yaspan, Brian L

    2016-06-01

    The complement system plays a key role in host-defense against common pathogens but must be tightly controlled to avoid inflammation and tissue damage. Polymorphisms in genes encoding two important negative regulators of the alternative complement pathway, complement factor H (CFH) and complement factor I (CFI), are associated with the risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of vision impairment in the ageing population. In this review, we will discuss the genetic basis of AMD and the potential impact of complement de-regulation on disease pathogenesis. Finally, we will highlight recent therapeutic approaches aimed at controlling complement activation in patients with AMD.

  17. Age-related hearing loss and ear morphology affect vertical but not horizontal sound-localization performance.

    PubMed

    Otte, Rik J; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Van Wanrooij, Marc M; Snik, Ad F M; Van Opstal, A John

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have attributed deterioration of sound localization in the horizontal (azimuth) and vertical (elevation) planes to an age-related decline in binaural processing and high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL). The latter might underlie decreased elevation performance of older adults. However, as the pinnae keep growing throughout life, we hypothesized that larger ears might enable older adults to localize sounds in elevation on the basis of lower frequencies, thus (partially) compensating their HFHL. In addition, it is not clear whether sound localization has already matured at a very young age, when the body is still growing, and the binaural and monaural sound-localization cues change accordingly. The present study investigated sound-localization performance of children (7-11 years), young adults (20-34 years), and older adults (63-80 years) under open-loop conditions in the two-dimensional frontal hemifield. We studied the effect of age-related hearing loss and ear size on localization responses to brief broadband sound bursts with different bandwidths. We found similar localization abilities in azimuth for all listeners, including the older adults with HFHL. Sound localization in elevation for the children and young adult listeners with smaller ears improved when stimuli contained frequencies above 7 kHz. Subjects with larger ears could also judge the elevation of sound sources restricted to lower frequency content. Despite increasing ear size, sound localization in elevation deteriorated in older adults with HFHL. We conclude that the binaural localization cues are successfully used well into later stages of life, but that pinna growth cannot compensate the more profound HFHL with age.

  18. Age-related lesions in the cerebrum in middle-aged female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Rinya; Yang, Xiuying; Saski, Yuji; Iwashige, Shuichiro; Tanigawa, Yohei; Yoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Nagaoka, Takaharu; Kamimura, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Horishi

    2010-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans is a progressive neurogenic disease that can be linked with such characteristic pathological findings in the cerebrum as senile plaques (SPs), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and neuronal loss. In the present study, the authors investigated the age-related morphological changes in 12 middle-aged and 12 young cynomolgus monkeys. Low numbers of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampal region in cynomolgus monkeys accompanied ageing, and there was a high number of microglial cells; however, no clearly neurotoxic abnormalities due to beta-amyloid were noted before the age of 20 years. The onset of SPs and CAA in the cerebrum in cynomolgus monkeys can occur before the age of 20 years. SPs were almost all categorized as diffuse plaques (DPs); they did not have amyloid cores and were unaccompanied by neuritic degeneration. In cynomolgus monkeys, SPs (DPs) occur before the appearance of CAA. From the above, it was concluded that cynomolgus monkeys showed pathological changes due to ageing similar to those related to Alzheimer's disease in humans, even before they were 20 years old.

  19. Innate immunity and inflammation in ageing: a key for understanding age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Licastro, Federico; Candore, Giuseppina; Lio, Domenico; Porcellini, Elisa; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Franceschi, Claudio; Caruso, Calogero

    2005-01-01

    The process of maintaining life for the individual is a constant struggle to preserve his/her integrity. This can come at a price when immunity is involved, namely systemic inflammation. Inflammation is not per se a negative phenomenon: it is the response of the immune system to the invasion of viruses or bacteria and other pathogens. During evolution the human organism was set to live 40 or 50 years; today, however, the immune system must remain active for much a longer time. This very long activity leads to a chronic inflammation that slowly but inexorably damages one or several organs: this is a typical phenomenon linked to ageing and it is considered the major risk factor for age-related chronic diseases. Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes and even sarcopenia and cancer, just to mention a few – have an important inflammatory component, though disease progression seems also dependent on the genetic background of individuals. Emerging evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory genotypes are related to unsuccessful ageing, and, reciprocally, controlling inflammatory status may allow a better chance of successful ageing. In other words, age-related diseases are "the price we pay" for a life-long active immune system: this system has also the potential to harm us later, as its fine tuning becomes compromised. Our immune system has evolved to control pathogens, so pro-inflammatory responses are likely to be evolutionarily programmed to resist fatal infections with pathogens aggressively. Thus, inflammatory genotypes are an important and necessary part of the normal host responses to pathogens in early life, but the overproduction of inflammatory molecules might also cause immune-related inflammatory diseases and eventually death later. Therefore, low responder genotypes involved in regulation of innate defence mechanisms, might better control inflammatory responses and age-related disease development, resulting in an increased chance of long life survival

  20. Neurophysiological correlates of aging-related muscle weakness

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, David A.; Bonnett, Corin; Gohar, Dina; Bayram, Mehmed; Wyant, Alexandria; Varnerin, Nicole; Mamone, Bernadett; Siemionow, Vlodek; Hou, Juliet; Machado, Andre; Yue, Guang H.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle weakness associated with aging implicates central neural degeneration. However, role of the primary motor cortex (M1) is poorly understood, despite evidence that gains in strength in younger adults are associated with its adaptations. We investigated whether weakness of biceps brachii in aging analogously relates to processes in M1. We enrolled 20 young (22.6 ± 0.87 yr) and 28 old (74.79 ± 1.37 yr) right-handed participants. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, representation of biceps in M1 was identified. We examined the effect of age and sex on strength of left elbow flexion, voluntary activation of biceps, corticospinal excitability and output, and short-interval intracortical and interhemispheric inhibition. Interhemispheric inhibition was significantly exaggerated in the old (P = 0.047), while strength tended to be lower (P = 0.075). Overall, women were weaker (P < 0.001). Processes of M1 related to strength or voluntary activation of biceps, but only in older adults. Corticospinal excitability was lower in weaker individuals (r = 0.38), and corticospinal output, intracortical inhibition and interhemispheric inhibition were reduced too in individuals who poorly activated biceps (r = 0.43, 0.54 and 0.38). Lower intracortical inhibition may reflect compensation for reduced corticospinal excitability, allowing weaker older adults to spread activity in M1 to recruit synergists and attempt to sustain motor output. Exaggerated interhemispheric inhibition, however, conflicts with previous evidence, potentially related to greater callosal damage in our older sample, our choice of proximal vs. distal muscle and differing influence of measurement of inhibition in rest vs. active states of muscle. Overall, age-specific relation of M1 to strength and muscle activation emphasizes that its adaptations only emerge when necessitated, as in a weakening neuromuscular system in aging. PMID:24027104

  1. Age-related decline in global form suppression.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas; Starman, Kornelija; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2015-12-01

    Visual selection of illusory 'Kanizsa' figures, an assembly of local elements that induce the percept of a whole object, is facilitated relative to configurations composed of the same local elements that do not induce a global form--an instance of 'global precedence' in visual processing. Selective attention, i.e., the ability to focus on relevant and ignore irrelevant information, declines with increasing age; however, how this deficit affects selection of global vs. local configurations remains unknown. On this background, the present study examined for age-related differences in a global-local task requiring selection of either a 'global' Kanizsa- or a 'local' non-Kanizsa configuration (in the presence of the respectively other configuration) by analyzing event-related lateralizations (ERLs). Behaviorally, older participants showed a more pronounced global-precedence effect. Electrophysiologically, this effect was accompanied by an early (150-225 ms) 'positivity posterior contralateral' (PPC), which was elicited for older, but not younger, participants, when the target was a non-Kanizsa configuration and the Kanizsa figure a distractor (rather than vice versa). In addition, timing differences in the subsequent (250-500 ms) posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) indicated that attentional resources were allocated faster to Kanizsa, as compared to non-Kanizsa, targets in both age groups, while the allocation of spatial attention seemed to be generally delayed in older relative to younger age. Our results suggest that the enhanced global-local asymmetry in the older age group originated from less effective suppression of global distracter forms on early processing stages--indicative of older observers having difficulties with disengaging from a global default selection mode and switching to the required local state of attentional resolution.

  2. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes

    PubMed Central

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C.; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  3. Age-related cognitive decline during normal aging: the complex effect of education.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Rosselli, M; Gómez, C

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education on cognitive decline during normal aging. An 806-subject sample was taken from five different Mexican regions. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. Subjects were grouped into four educational levels: illiterate, 1-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years of education, and four age ranges: 16-30, 31-50, 51-65, and 66-85 years. A brief neuropsychological test battery (NEUROPSI), standardized and normalized in Spanish, was administered. The NEUROPSI test battery includes assessment of orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, motor skills, and executive functions. In general, test scores were strongly associated with level of educational, and differences among age groups were smaller than differences among education groups. However, there was an interaction between age and education such as that among illiterate individuals scores of participants 31-50 years old were higher than scores of participants 16-30 years old for over 50% of the tests. Different patterns of interaction among educational groups were distinguished. It was concluded that: (a) The course of life-span changes in cognition are affected by education. Among individuals with a low level of education, best neuropsychological test performance is observed at an older age than among higher-educated subjects; and (b) there is not a single relationship between age-related cognitive decline and education, but different patterns may be found, depending upon the specific cognitive domain.

  4. NADPH oxidases: key modulators in aging and age-related cardiovascular diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Meijles, Daniel N.; Pagano, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress have long been linked to aging and diseases prominent in the elderly such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes and atrial fibrillation (AF). NADPH oxidases (Nox) are a major source of ROS in the vasculature and are key players in mediating redox signalling under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on the Nox-mediated ROS signalling pathways involved in the regulation of ‘longevity genes’ and recapitulate their role in age-associated vascular changes and in the development of age-related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This review is predicated on burgeoning knowledge that Nox-derived ROS propagate tightly regulated yet varied signalling pathways, which, at the cellular level, may lead to diminished repair, the aging process and predisposition to CVDs. In addition, we briefly describe emerging Nox therapies and their potential in improving the health of the elderly population. PMID:26814203

  5. Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Because foods provide many nutrients, which may interact with each other to modify risk for multifactorial diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sought to develop a composite scoring system to summarize the combined effect of multiple dietary nutrients on AMD risk. Th...

  6. Age-related differences in arithmetic strategy sequential effects.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I review a series of new findings concerning how age-related changes in strategic variations are modulated by sequential effects. Sequential effects refer to how strategy selection and strategy execution on current problems are influenced by which strategy is used on immediately preceding problems. Two sequential effects during strategy selection (i.e., strategy revisions and strategy perseverations) and during strategy execution (i.e., strategy switch costs and modulations of poorer strategy effects) are presented. I also discuss how these effects change with age during adulthood. These phenomena are important, as they shed light on arithmetic processes and how these processes change with age during adulthood. In particular, they speak to the role of executive control while participants select and execute arithmetic strategies. Finally, I discuss the implications of sequential effects for theories of strategies and of arithmetic.

  7. Relative ages of lava flows at Alba Patera, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Many large lava flows on the flanks of Alba Patera are astonishing in their volume and length. As a suite, these flows suggest tremendously voluminous and sustained eruptions, and provide dimensional boundary conditions typically a factor of 100 larger than terrestrial flows. One of the most striking features associated with Alba Patera is the large, radially oriented lava flows that exhibit a variety of flow morphologies. These include sheet flows, tube fed and tube channel flows, and undifferentiated flows. Three groups of flows were studied; flows on the northwest flank, southeast flank, and the intracaldera region. The lava flows discussed probably were erupted as a group during the same major volcanic episode as suggested by the data presented. Absolute ages are poorly constrained for both the individual flows and shield, due in part to disagreement as to which absolute age curve is representative for Mars. A relative age sequence is implied but lacks precision due to the closeness of the size frequency curves.

  8. Relations of age and personality dimensions to cognitive ability factors.

    PubMed

    Costa, P T; Fozard, J L; McCrae, R R; Bosśe, R

    1976-11-01

    The relation between three cognitive ability factors - Information Processing Ability (IPA), Manual Dexterity (MD), and Pattern Analysis Capability (PAC) - and three personality dimensions - Anxiety, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience - were examined in three age groups. Subjects were 969 male volunteers ranging in age from 25 to 82. Subjects high in anixety scored lower on all three cognitive factors; subjects open to experience scored higher on IPA and PAC; and introverted subjects scored higher on PAC. Most of these effects remained when the education and socio-economic status were held constant in covariance analyses. Older subjects performed less well than younger ones on MD and PAC, but not on IPA. While personality has some influence on cognitive performance, the declines with age in performance on some cognitive tasks are not mediated by personality.

  9. The role of epigenetics in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gemenetzi, M; Lotery, A J

    2014-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that epigenetic mechanisms influence gene expression and can explain how interactions between genetics and the environment result in particular phenotypes during development. The extent to which this epigenetic effect contributes to phenotype heritability in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is currently ill defined. However, emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic changes are relevant to AMD and as such provide an exciting new avenue of research for AMD. This review addresses information on the impact of posttranslational modification of the genome on the pathogenesis of AMD, such as DNA methylation changes affecting antioxidant gene expression, hypoxia-regulated alterations in chromatin structure, and histone acetylation status in relation to angiogenesis and inflammation. It also contains information on the role of non-coding RNA-mediated gene regulation in AMD at a posttranscriptional (before translation) level. Our aim was to review the epigenetic mechanisms that cause heritable changes in gene activity without changing the DNA sequence. We also describe some long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell, which are not necessarily heritable but remains to be defined in the future. Increasing understanding of the significance of common and rare genetic variants and their relationship to epigenetics and environmental influences may help in establishing methods to assess the risk of AMD. This in turn may allow new therapeutic interventions for the leading cause of central vision impairment in patients over the age of 50 years in developed countries. Search strategy We searched the MEDLINE/PubMed database following MeSH suggestions for articles including the terms: 'ocular epigenetic mechanisms', 'human disease epigenetics', and 'age-related macular degeneration genetics'. The headline used to locate related articles in PubMed was 'epigenetics in ocular disease', and to restrict search, we used the

  10. Age-Related Wayfinding Differences in Real Large-Scale Environments: Detrimental Motor Control Effects during Spatial Learning Are Mediated by Executive Decline?

    PubMed Central

    Taillade, Mathieu; Sauzéon, Hélène; Arvind Pala, Prashant; Déjos, Marie; Larrue, Florian; Gross, Christian; N’Kaoua, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate motor control activity (active vs. passive condition) with regards to wayfinding and spatial learning difficulties in large-scale spaces for older adults. We compared virtual reality (VR)-based wayfinding and spatial memory (survey and route knowledge) performances between 30 younger and 30 older adults. A significant effect of age was obtained on the wayfinding performances but not on the spatial memory performances. Specifically, the active condition deteriorated the survey measure in all of the participants and increased the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances. Importantly, the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances, after an active condition, were further mediated by the executive measures. All of the results relative to a detrimental effect of motor activity are discussed in terms of a dual task effect as well as executive decline associated with aging. PMID:23843992

  11. Nitroxide pharmaceutical development for age-related degeneration and disease

    PubMed Central

    Zarling, Jacob A.; Brunt, Vienna E.; Vallerga, Anne K.; Li, Weixing; Tao, Albert; Zarling, David A.; Minson, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Nitroxide small molecule agents are in development as preventative or therapeutic pharmaceutical drugs for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cardiovascular disease, which are two major diseases of aging. These aging diseases are associated with patient genetics, smoking, diet, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation. Nitroxide drugs preventing aging-, smoking-, high sugar or high fat diet-, or radiation- and other environmental-induced pathophysiological conditions in aging disease are reviewed. Tempol (TP), Tempol Hydroxylamine (TP-H), and TP-H prodrug (OT-551) are evaluated in (1) non-smokers versus smokers with cutaneous microvascular dysfunction, rapidly reversed by cutaneous TP; (2) elderly cancer patients at risk for radiation-induced skin burns or hair loss, prevented by topical TP; and (3) elderly smoker or non-smoker AMD patients at risk for vision loss, prevented by daily eye drops of OT-551. The human data indicates safety and efficacy for these nitroxide drugs. Both TP and TP-H topically penetrate and function in skin or mucosa, protecting and treating radiation burns and hair loss or smoking-induced cutaneous vascular dysfunction. TP and TP-H do not penetrate the cornea, while OT-551 does effectively penetrate and travels to the back of the eye, preserving visual acuity and preserving normal and low light luminance in dry AMD smokers and non-smoker patients. Topical, oral, or injectable drug formulations are discussed. PMID:26594225

  12. Oxidative modification of proteins: age-related changes.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, Bulbul; Chakravarti, Deb N

    2007-01-01

    Aging is a complex biological phenomenon which involves progressive loss of different physiological functions of various tissues of living organisms. It is the inevitable fate of life and is a major risk factor for death and different pathological disorders. Based on a wide variety of studies performed in humans as well as in various animal models and microbial systems, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to play a key role in the aging process. The production of ROS is influenced by cellular metabolic activities as well as environmental factors. ROS can react with all major biological macromolecules such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. Since, in general, proteins are the key molecules that play the ultimate role in various structural and functional aspects of living organisms, this review will focus on the age-related oxidative modifications of proteins as well as on mechanism for removal or repair of the oxidized proteins. The topics covered include protein oxidation as a marker of oxidative stress, experimental evidence indicating the role of ROS in protein oxidation, protein carbonyl content, enzymatic degradation of oxidized proteins, and effects of caloric restriction on protein oxidation in the context of aging. Finally, we will discuss different strategies which have been or can be undertaken to slow down the oxidative damage of proteins and the aging process.

  13. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01). Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05). In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age.

  14. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01). Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05). In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age. PMID:28245274

  15. Age-related differences in recovery from simulated jet lag.

    PubMed

    Moline, M L; Pollak, C P; Monk, T H; Lester, L S; Wagner, D R; Zendell, S M; Graeber, R C; Salter, C A; Hirsch, E

    1992-02-01

    Six healthy young men and eight early middle-aged men were isolated from environmental time cues for 15 days. For the first 6-7 days (one or two nights adaptation, four nights baseline), their sleep and meals were scheduled to approximate their habitual patterns. Their daily routines were then shifted 6 hours earlier by terminating the sixth or seventh sleep episode 6 hours early. The new schedules were followed for the next 8 or 9 days. Important age-related differences in adjustment to this single 6-hour schedule shift were found. For the first 4-day interval after the shift, middle-aged subjects had larger increases of waking time during the sleep period and earlier termination of sleep than young subjects. They also reported larger decreases in alertness and well-being and larger increases in sleepiness, weariness and effort required to perform daily functions. The rate of adjustment of the circadian core temperature rhythm to the new schedule did not differ between groups. These results suggest that the symptoms reported by the middle-aged subjects may be due mainly to difficulty maintaining sleep at early times of the circadian day. The compensatory response to sleep deprivation may also be less robust in middle-aged individuals traveling eastbound.

  16. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups in dogs, focusing on basal-like triple-negative cancer in particular. In this study, 181 samples from dogs with malignant mammary carcinoma from the 5 most common breeds and 2 age groups in Korea were analyzed. Histological classification and molecular subtyping, including assessment of immunohistochemical findings, were carried out. Twenty-five of 28 (89.3%) triple-negative carcinomas were identified as basal-like triple-negative carcinomas. Analysis of associations of classified factors revealed that the shih tzu breed (9/25, 36.0%) and advanced-age (19/25, 76.0%) groups were characterized by higher prevalence of basal-like triple-negative tumors with diverse histological types and of a higher grade. These results suggest that breed- and age-related differences can be identified in canine mammary carcinoma and, notably, in the shih tzu breed and at older ages. Further investigation of these distinguishing characteristics of the shih tzu breed is warranted. PMID:27127342

  17. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups in dogs, focusing on basal-like triple-negative cancer in particular. In this study, 181 samples from dogs with malignant mammary carcinoma from the 5 most common breeds and 2 age groups in Korea were analyzed. Histological classification and molecular subtyping, including assessment of immunohistochemical findings, were carried out. Twenty-five of 28 (89.3%) triple-negative carcinomas were identified as basal-like triple-negative carcinomas. Analysis of associations of classified factors revealed that the shih tzu breed (9/25, 36.0%) and advanced-age (19/25, 76.0%) groups were characterized by higher prevalence of basal-like triple-negative tumors with diverse histological types and of a higher grade. These results suggest that breed- and age-related differences can be identified in canine mammary carcinoma and, notably, in the shih tzu breed and at older ages. Further investigation of these distinguishing characteristics of the shih tzu breed is warranted.

  18. Nitroxide pharmaceutical development for age-related degeneration and disease.

    PubMed

    Zarling, Jacob A; Brunt, Vienna E; Vallerga, Anne K; Li, Weixing; Tao, Albert; Zarling, David A; Minson, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Nitroxide small molecule agents are in development as preventative or therapeutic pharmaceutical drugs for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cardiovascular disease, which are two major diseases of aging. These aging diseases are associated with patient genetics, smoking, diet, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation. Nitroxide drugs preventing aging-, smoking-, high sugar or high fat diet-, or radiation- and other environmental-induced pathophysiological conditions in aging disease are reviewed. Tempol (TP), Tempol Hydroxylamine (TP-H), and TP-H prodrug (OT-551) are evaluated in (1) non-smokers versus smokers with cutaneous microvascular dysfunction, rapidly reversed by cutaneous TP; (2) elderly cancer patients at risk for radiation-induced skin burns or hair loss, prevented by topical TP; and (3) elderly smoker or non-smoker AMD patients at risk for vision loss, prevented by daily eye drops of OT-551. The human data indicates safety and efficacy for these nitroxide drugs. Both TP and TP-H topically penetrate and function in skin or mucosa, protecting and treating radiation burns and hair loss or smoking-induced cutaneous vascular dysfunction. TP and TP-H do not penetrate the cornea, while OT-551 does effectively penetrate and travels to the back of the eye, preserving visual acuity and preserving normal and low light luminance in dry AMD smokers and non-smoker patients. Topical, oral, or injectable drug formulations are discussed.

  19. THE AGE OF ELLIPTICALS AND THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Schombert, James; Rakos, Karl E-mail: karl.rakos@chello.at

    2009-07-10

    Using new narrowband color observations of early-type galaxies in clusters, we reconstruct the color-magnitude relation (CMR) with a higher degree of accuracy than previous work. We then use the spectroscopically determined ages and metallicities from three samples, combined with multimetallicity spectral energy distribution models, to compare predicted colors for galaxies with young ages (less than 8 Gyr) with the known CMR. We find that the CMR cannot by reproduced by the spectroscopically determined ages and metallicities in any of the samples despite the high internal accuracies to the spectroscopic indices. In contrast, using only the (Fe) index to determine [Fe/H], and assuming a mean age of 12 Gyr for a galaxy's stellar population, we derive colors that exactly match not only the color zero point of the CMR but also its slope. We consider the source of young age estimates, the H{beta} index, and examine the conflict between red continuum colors and large H{beta} values in galaxy spectra. We conclude that our current understanding of stellar populations is insufficient to correctly interpret H{beta} values.

  20. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Palma, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Sebastiani, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease. PMID:23209345

  1. Mechanism of inflammation in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Palma, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Sebastiani, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease.

  2. Exploring age-related brain degeneration in meditation practitioners.

    PubMed

    Luders, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that meditation practices are associated with substantial psychological as well as physiological benefits. In searching for the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial impact of meditation, studies have revealed practice-induced alterations of neurotransmitters, brain activity, and cognitive abilities, just to name a few. These findings not only imply a close link between meditation and brain structure, but also suggest possible modulating effects of meditation on age-related brain atrophy. Given that normal aging is associated with significant loss of brain tissue, meditation-induced growth and/or preservation might manifest as a seemingly reduced brain age in meditators (i.e., cerebral measures characteristic of younger brains). Surprisingly, there are only three published studies that have addressed the question of whether meditation diminishes age-related brain degeneration. This paper reviews these three studies with respect to the brain attributes studied, the analytical strategies applied, and the findings revealed. The review concludes with an elaborate discussion on the significance of existing studies, implications and directions for future studies, as well as the overall relevance of this field of research.

  3. Auditory white noise reduces age-related fluctuations in balance.

    PubMed

    Ross, J M; Will, O J; McGann, Z; Balasubramaniam, R

    2016-09-06

    Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white noise has previously been shown to reduce postural sway variability in healthy young adults. In the present experiment, we examined this treatment in young adults and typically aging older adults. We measured postural sway of healthy young adults and adults over the age of 65 years during silence and auditory white noise, with and without vision. Our results show reduced postural sway variability in young and older adults with auditory noise, even in the absence of vision. We show that vision and noise can reduce sway variability for both feedback-based and exploratory balance processes. In addition, we show changes with auditory noise in nonlinear patterns of sway in older adults that reflect what is more typical of young adults, and these changes did not interfere with the typical random walk behavior of sway. Our results suggest that auditory noise might be valuable for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes in older adults with typical age-related balance variability.

  4. Age-related BMAL1 change affects mouse bone marrow stromal cell proliferation and osteo-differentiation potential

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yijia; Xu, Xiaomei; Tan, Zhen; Ye, Cui; Chen, Yangxi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Aging people's bone regeneration potential is always impaired. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) contain progenitors of osteoblasts. Donor age may affect MSCs’ proliferation and differentiation potential, but the genomic base is still unknown. Due to recent research's indication that a core circadian component, brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 protein (BMAL1), has a role in premature aging, we investigated the normal aging mechanism in mice with their MSCs and Bmal1 gene/protein level. Material and methods 1, 6 and 16 month old C57BL/6 mice were used and the bone marrow stromal cells were gained and cultured at early passage. Bmal1 gene and protein level were detected in these cells. Marrow stromal cells were also induced to differentiate to osteoblasts or adipocytes. Three groups of mice MSCs were compared on proliferation by flow cytometry, on cell senescence by SA-β-gal expression and after osteo-induction on osteogenic potential by the expression of osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN). Results Bmal1 gene and protein level as well as S-phase fraction of the cell cycle decreased in MSCs along with the aging process. At the same time, SA-β-gal+ levels increased, especially in the aged mice MSCs. When induced to be osteogenic, Osx gene expression and ALP activity declined in the mid-age and aged mice MSCs, while OCN protein secretion deteriorated in the aged mice MSCs. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that mouse MSCs changed with their proliferation and osteo-differentiation abilities at different aging stages, and that Bmal1 is related to the normal aging process in MSCs. PMID:22457671

  5. Cognitive Difficulty Intensifies Age-related Changes in Anterior Frontal Hemodynamics: Novel Evidence from Near-infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bierre, Kirstin L; Lucas, Samuel J E; Guiney, Hayley; Cotter, James D; Machado, Liana

    2017-02-01

    Alongside age-related brain deterioration, cognitive functioning declines, particularly for more demanding tasks. Past research indicates that, to offset this decline, older adults exhibit hemodynamic changes consistent with recruitment of more anterior brain regions. However, the nature of the hemodynamic changes remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we used near-infrared spectroscopy in 36 young adults (aged 18-30 years) and 36 older adults (aged 60-72 years) to assess anterior frontal hemodynamic responses to engagement in three cognitive tasks of increasing difficulty. Behavioral results for all three tasks confirmed aging deficits (evidenced by slower reaction times and reduced accuracy rates) that progressively increased with task difficulty. Hemodynamic results showed opposing effects in young versus older adults, with oxygenated and total hemoglobin decreasing in young but increasing in older adults, particularly during the harder tasks. Also, tissue oxygenation increased only in older adults during the harder tasks. Among the older adults only, anterior frontal hemodynamic changes correlated with better cognitive performance, indicating that they were compensatory in nature. These findings provide novel evidence of age-related anterior frontal hemodynamic changes that intensify with cognitive demands and compensate for performance deficits.

  6. Idiom understanding in adulthood: examining age-related differences.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pei-Fang; Nippold, Marilyn A

    2014-03-01

    Idioms are figurative expressions such as hold your horses, kick the bucket, and lend me a hand, which commonly occur in everyday spoken and written language. Hence, the understanding of these expressions is essential for daily communication. In this study, we examined idiom understanding in healthy adults in their 20s, 40s, 60s and 80s (n=30 per group) to determine if performance would show an age-related decline. Participants judged their own familiarity with a set of 20 idioms, explained the meaning of each, described a situation in which the idiom could be used, and selected the appropriate interpretation from a set of choices. There was no evidence of an age-related decline on any tasks. Rather, the 60s group reported greater familiarity and offered better explanations than did the 20s group. Moreover, greater familiarity with idioms was associated with better understanding in adults.

  7. Versatile Functions of Caveolin-1 in Aging-related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kim Cuc Thi

    2017-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a trans-membrane protein that is a major component of the caveolae structure on the plasma membrane. Cav-1 is involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, endocytosis, and in particular it has been implied in cellular senescence. Here we review current knowledge about Cav-1 in cellular signaling and discuss the role of Cav-1 in aging-related diseases. PMID:28184336

  8. Complement pathway biomarkers and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gemenetzi, M; Lotery, A J

    2016-01-01

    In the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ‘inflammation model', local inflammation plus complement activation contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. Multiple genetic associations have now been established correlating the risk of development or progression of AMD. Stratifying patients by their AMD genetic profile may facilitate future AMD therapeutic trials resulting in meaningful clinical trial end points with smaller sample sizes and study duration. PMID:26493033

  9. Vitreomacular traction and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Green-Simms, Amy E; Bakri, Sophie J

    2011-05-01

    The interaction between the vitreous and the internal limiting membrane of the retina is important in the pathoetiology of numerous ocular disease processes. Recent studies have focused on the vitreo-retinal interface in the context of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), linking vitreo-retinal adhesion to exudative AMD in particular. This review summarizes our knowledge of vitreous anatomy and recent investigations regarding vitreomacular adhesion and AMD.

  10. Supervised Recognition of Age-Related Spanish Temporal Phrases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galicia-Haro, Sofia N.; Gelbukh, Alexander F.

    This paper reports research on temporal expressions shaped by a common temporal expression for a period of years modified by an adverb of time. From a Spanish corpus we found that some of those phrases are age-related expressions. To determine automatically the temporal phrases with such meaning we analyzed a bigger sample obtained from the Internet. We analyzed these examples to define the relevant features to support a learning method. We present some preliminary results when a decision tree is applied.

  11. Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: review and update.

    PubMed

    Velilla, Sara; García-Medina, José Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Pons-Vázquez, Sheila; Pinazo-Durán, M Dolores; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arévalo, J Fernando; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health.

  12. Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Velilla, Sara; García-Medina, José Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo; Pons-Vázquez, Sheila; Pinazo-Durán, M. Dolores; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arévalo, J. Fernando; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health. PMID:24368940

  13. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient's home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  14. DNA damage and repair in telomeres: relation to aging.

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, P A; Rampino, N J; Bohr, V A

    1995-01-01

    We have established a method for the detection of DNA damage and its repair in human telomeres, the natural ends of chromosomes which are necessary for replication and critical for chromosomal stability. We find that ultraviolet light-induced pyrimidine dimers in telomeric DNA are repaired less efficiently than endogenous genes but more efficiently than inactive, noncoding regions. We have also measured telomeric length, telomeric DNA damage, and its repair in relation to the progression of aging. Telomeres are shorter in fibroblasts from an old donor compared to fibroblasts from a young donor, shortest in cells from a patient with the progeroid disorder Werner syndrome, and relatively long in fibroblasts from a patient with Alzheimer disease. Telomeric DNA repair efficiency is lower in cells from an old donor than in cells from a young donor, normal in Alzheimer cells, and slightly lower in Werner cells. It is possible that this decline in telomeric repair with aging is of functional significance to an age-related decline in genomic stability. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7816828

  15. Impact of age related macular degeneration on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Hassell, J B; Lamoureux, E L; Keeffe, J E

    2006-01-01

    Aims To describe the impact of age related macular degeneration (AMD) on quality of life and explore the association with vision, health, and demographic variables. Methods Adult participants diagnosed with AMD and with impaired vision (visual acuity <6/12) were assessed with the Impact of Vision Impairment (IVI) questionnaire. Participants rated the extent that vision restricted participation in activities affecting quality of life and completed the Short Form General Health Survey (SF‐12) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results The mean age of the 106 participants (66% female) was 83.6 years (range 64–98). One quarter had mild vision impairment, (VA<6/12–6/18) and 75% had moderate or severely impaired vision. Participants reported from at least “a little” concern on 23 of the 32 IVI items including reading, emotional health, mobility, and participation in relevant activities. Those with mild and moderate vision impairment were similarly affected but significantly different from those with severe vision loss (p<0.05). Distance vision was associated with IVI scores but not age, sex, or duration of vision loss. Conclusion AMD affects many quality of life related activities and not just those related to reading. Referral to low vision care services should be considered for people with mild vision loss and worse. PMID:16622089

  16. Imaging geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Göbel, Arno P; Fleckenstein, Monika; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Brinkmann, Christian K; Holz, Frank G

    2011-01-01

    Advances in retinal imaging technology have largely contributed to the understanding of the natural history, prognostic markers and disease mechanisms of geographic atrophy (GA) due to age-related macular degeneration. There is still no therapy available to halt or slow the disease process. In order to evaluate potential therapeutic effects in interventional trials, there is a need for precise quantification of the GA progression rate. Fundus autofluorescence imaging allows for accurate identification and segmentation of atrophic areas and currently represents the gold standard for evaluating progressive GA enlargement. By means of high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, distinct microstructural alterations related to GA can be visualized.

  17. Cumulative Lead Exposure and Age-related Hearing Loss: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Elmarsafawy, Sahar; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Huiling; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Although lead has been associated with hearing loss in occupational settings and in children, little epidemiologic research has been conducted on the impact of cumulative lead exposure on age-related hearing loss in the general population. We determined whether bone lead levels, a marker of cumulative lead exposure, are associated with decreased hearing ability in 448 men from the Normative Aging Study, seen between 1962 and 1996 (2,264 total observations). Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured at 0.25 to 8 kHz and pure tone averages (PTA) (mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) were computed. Tibia and patella lead levels were measured using K x-ray fluorescence between 1991 and 1996. In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders including occupational noise, patella lead levels were significantly associated with poorer hearing thresholds at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz and PTA. The odds of hearing loss significantly increased with patella lead levels. We also found significant positive associations between tibia lead and the rate change in hearing thresholds at 1, 2, and 8 kHz and PTA in longitudinal analyses. Our results suggest that chronic low-level lead exposure may be an important risk factor for age-related hearing loss and reduction of lead exposure could help prevent or delay development of age-related hearing loss. PMID:20638461

  18. Age-related changes to the production of linguistic prosody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Daniel R.

    The production of speech prosody (the rhythm, pausing, and intonation associated with natural speech) is critical to effective communication. The current study investigated the impact of age-related changes to physiology and cognition in relation to the production of two types of linguistic prosody: lexical stress and the disambiguation of syntactically ambiguous utterances. Analyses of the acoustic correlates of stress: speech intensity (or sound-pressure level; SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), key word/phrase duration, and pause duration revealed that both young and older adults effectively use these acoustic features to signal linguistic prosody, although the relative weighting of cues differed by group. Differences in F0 were attributed to age-related physiological changes in the laryngeal subsystem, while group differences in duration measures were attributed to relative task complexity and the cognitive-linguistic load of these respective tasks. The current study provides normative acoustic data for older adults which informs interpretation of clinical findings as well as research pertaining to dysprosody as the result of disease processes.

  19. Potential role of retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin accumulation in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Katz, Martin L

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of severe visual impairment in developed countries. The vision loss associated with AMD is the result of degenerative changes in the central region of the retina called the macula. Maintenance of normal structure and function of the macular retina, and of the remainder of the retina as well, is critically dependent on the supporting role of the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Impairment of normal RPE functions is known to result in retinal degeneration and loss of visual function. Thus, it has been hypothesized that the retinal degeneration that characterizes AMD is secondary to age-related deterioration in RPE support functions. Like many other postmitotic cell types, the RPE accumulates autofluorescent lysosomal storage bodies (lipofuscin) during senescence. In human eyes, lipofuscin comes to occupy a substantial fraction of the RPE cytoplasmic volume in the elderly. Does this lipofuscin accumulation contribute to the development of AMD? This question is a specific case of the broader question of whether lipofuscin accumulation in general is detrimental to cells. Unfortunately, definitive data do not exist to allow these questions to be answered. Although a correlation between RPE lipofuscin content and AMD has been reported, a cause-and-effect relationship between RPE lipofuscin accumulation and the development of this disease has not been established. It has been reported that a mutation in a gene encoding a photoreceptor-specific protein results in massive RPE lipofuscin accumulation and early-onset macular degeneration. However, again the accelerated RPE lipofuscin accumulation has not been shown to be the cause of the accompanying macular degeneration. The lack of a definitive link between RPE lipofuscin accumulation and AMD illustrates one of the biggest challenges remaining in lipofuscin research-determining whether lipofuscin accumulation per se has an impact on cell function.

  20. Influence of Age-Related Versus Non-Age-Related Renal Dysfunctionon Survival in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Testani, Jeffrey M.; Brisco, Meredith A.; Han, Gang; Laur, Olga; Kula, Alexander J.; Cheng, Susan J.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2013-01-01

    Normal aging results in a predictable decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and low GFR is associated with worsened survival. If this survival disadvantage is directly caused by the low GFR, as opposed to the disease causing the low GFR, the risk should be similar regardless of the underlying mechanism. Our objective was to determine if age related declines in estimated GFR (eGFR) carry the same prognostic importance as disease attributable losses in patients with ventricular dysfunction. We analyzed the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) limited data set (n=6337). The primary analysis focused on determining if the eGFR mortality relationship differed by the extent the eGFR was consistent with normal ageing. Mean eGFR was 65.7 ± 19.0ml/min/1.73m2. Across the range of age in the population (27 to 80 years), baseline eGFR decreased by 0.67 ml/min/1.73m2 per year (95% CI 0.63 to 0.71). The risk of death associated with eGFR was strongly modified by the degree to which the low eGFR could be explained by aging (p interaction <0.0001). For example, in a model incorporating the interaction, uncorrected eGFR was no longer significantly related to mortality (adjusted HR=1.0 per 10 ml/min/1.73m2, 95% CI 0.97–1.1, p=0.53) whereas a disease attributable decrease in eGFR above the median carried significant risk (adjusted HR=2.8, 95% CI 1.6–4.7, p<0.001). In conclusion, in the setting of LV dysfunction, renal dysfunction attributable to normal aging had a limited risk for mortality, suggesting that the mechanism underlying renal dysfunction is critical in determining prognosis. PMID:24216124

  1. THE ENERGY-REDOX AXIS IN AGING AND AGE-RELATED NEURODEGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Li-Peng; Garcia, Jerome V.; Han, Derick; Cadenas, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Decrease in mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity is a feature of the aging process that accompanies redox alterations, such as increased generation of mitochondrial oxidants, altered GSH status, and increased protein oxidation. The decrease in mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity and altered redox status should be viewed as a concerted process that embodies the mitochondrial energy – redox axis and is linked through various mechanisms including: (a) an inter-convertible reducing equivalents pool (i.e., NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H) and (b) redox-mediated protein post-translational modifications involved in energy metabolism. The energy–redox axis provides the rationale for therapeutic approaches targeted to each or both component(s) of the axis that effectively preserves or improve mitochondrial function and that have implications for aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19716388

  2. Small molecule SIRT1 activators for the treatment of aging and age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Basil P.; Sinclair, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in mice have identified single molecules that can delay multiple diseases of aging and extend lifespan. In theory, such molecules could prevent dozens of diseases simultaneously, significantly extending healthy years of life. In this review we discuss recent advances, controversies, opportunities, and challenges surrounding the development of SIRT1 activators, molecules with the potential to delay aging and age-related diseases. Sirtuins comprise a family of NAD+-dependent deacylases that are central to the body’s response to diet and exercise. New studies indicate that both natural and synthetic sirtuin activating compounds (STACs) work via a common allosteric mechanism to stimulate sirtuin activity, thereby conferring broad health benefits in rodents, primates, and possibly humans. The fact that the two-thirds of people in the USA who consume multiple dietary supplements consume resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, underscores the importance of understanding the biochemical mechanism, physiological effects, and safety of STACs. PMID:24439680

  3. The effect of normal aging and age-related macular degeneration on perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Astle, Andrew T.; Blighe, Alan J.; Webb, Ben S.; McGraw, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether perceptual learning could be used to improve peripheral word identification speed. The relationship between the magnitude of learning and age was established in normal participants to determine whether perceptual learning effects are age invariant. We then investigated whether training could lead to improvements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Twenty-eight participants with normal vision and five participants with AMD trained on a word identification task. They were required to identify three-letter words, presented 10° from fixation. To standardize crowding across each of the letters that made up the word, words were flanked laterally by randomly chosen letters. Word identification performance was measured psychophysically using a staircase procedure. Significant improvements in peripheral word identification speed were demonstrated following training (71% ± 18%). Initial task performance was correlated with age, with older participants having poorer performance. However, older adults learned more rapidly such that, following training, they reached the same level of performance as their younger counterparts. As a function of number of trials completed, patients with AMD learned at an equivalent rate as age-matched participants with normal vision. Improvements in word identification speed were maintained at least 6 months after training. We have demonstrated that temporal aspects of word recognition can be improved in peripheral vision with training across a range of ages and these learned improvements are relatively enduring. However, training targeted at other bottlenecks to peripheral reading ability, such as visual crowding, may need to be incorporated to optimize this approach. PMID:26605694

  4. Relative ages and the geologic evolution of Martian terrain units

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    Existing Martian relative age chronologies rely entirely or predominantly on Mariner 9 images, extrapolated numbers of craters, and craters < 10 km in diameter. All of these factors produce uncertainties in the resulting cumulative size, frequency distribution curves from which the chronologies are derived. Data used in this study include craters greater than or equal to 8-km diameter mapped from Viking 1:2M photomosaics. Crater size/frequency distribution curves were determined for a variety of Martian terrain units using the relative plotting technique. Approximately 60% of the Martian surface dates from the period of heavy bombardment, including not only the heavily cratered uplands and intercrater plains of the southern highlands but also units commonly assigned to younger periods, such as many of the small volcanic constructs. Size/frequency distributions of ridged plains show unquestionably that these plains date from near the end of heavy bombardment, solving the controversy over the relationship of these units to the period of heavy bombardment. The remaining 40% of the surface has formed since the end of heavy bombardment. The northern plains are divided into a number of regional units and a range of formation ages is found for these localized regions. More regions are studied than in previous chronologic studies, resulting in better definitions of age relationship among units and determination of contemporaneous and non-contemporaneous units.

  5. A behavioural dynamic model of the relative age effect.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Kawika; Addona, Vittorio; Yates, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between date of birth and success in a variety of sports, including hockey, is well established. This phenomenon is known as the relative age effect (RAE). We model the RAE in Canadian youth hockey as a positive feedback loop where an initial age advantage is reinforced through additional training and playing opportunities based on perceived skill superiority. The same causal mechanism leads to a higher quit rate for relatively younger players. Our model effectively replicates the birth month distribution of Canadian National Hockey League players (R2 = 86.79%) when driven by Canadian birth distributions. We use this model to evaluate three policies that aim to lessen the RAE. All of the policies reduce the RAE with a significant delay. The most effective policy is a combination of providing additional support to age disadvantaged children and rotating the cut-off date for youth leagues between January 1st and July 1st annually. In equilibrium, this approach leads to a 96% reduction in the RAE compared to the base case.

  6. Neural Alterations in Acquired Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Mudar, Raksha A; Husain, Fatima T

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions in older adults. Growing evidence suggests that hearing loss is associated with reduced cognitive functioning and incident dementia. In this mini-review, we briefly examine literature on anatomical and functional alterations in the brains of adults with acquired age-associated hearing loss, which may underlie the cognitive consequences observed in this population, focusing on studies that have used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and event-related electroencephalography. We discuss structural and functional alterations observed in the temporal and frontal cortices and the limbic system. These neural alterations are discussed in the context of common cause, information-degradation, and sensory-deprivation hypotheses, and we suggest possible rehabilitation strategies. Although, we are beginning to learn more about changes in neural architecture and functionality related to age-associated hearing loss, much work remains to be done. Understanding the neural alterations will provide objective markers for early identification of neural consequences of age-associated hearing loss and for evaluating benefits of intervention approaches.

  7. Age, sex, and nitrazepam kinetics: relation to antipyrine disposition.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, D J; Abernethy, D R; Locniskar, A; Ochs, H R; Harmatz, J S; Shader, R I

    1985-12-01

    Forty healthy men and women 19 to 80 years old received a single 10 mg oral dose of the 7-nitro benzodiazepine nitrazepam. Nitrazepam plasma concentrations were measured during the next 72 hours. Among men, the elderly had a larger volume of distribution (Varea) than did younger subjects (1.96 vs. 1.63 L/kg; P less than 0.05); because clearance did not change with age (0.84 vs. 0.95 ml/min/kg), the prolonged t1/2 in elderly men (28 vs. 20 hours; P less than 0.01) was a result of the larger Varea. Elderly and young women did not differ in nitrazepam Varea (2.58 vs. 2.55 L/kg), t1/2 (26 vs. 27 hours), or total clearance (1.19 vs. 1.09 ml/min/kg). The nitrazepam free fraction in plasma (18% to 19% unbound) was not related to age or sex. Among 18 subjects who also received antipyrine, the clearance of nitrazepam and antipyrine were not correlated (r = 0.23). Thus age minimally influences nitrazepam clearance (accomplished mainly by nitroreduction), which in turn is not significantly related to antipyrine oxidizing capacity.

  8. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in aging and age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Marishka K.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum(ER) is a multifunctional organelle within which protein folding, lipid biosynthesis, and calcium storage occurs. Perturbations such as energy or nutrient depletion, disturbances in calcium or redox status that disrupt ER homeostasis lead to the misfolding of proteins, ER stress and up-regulation of several signaling pathways coordinately called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is characterized by the induction of chaperones, degradation of misfolded proteins and attenuation of protein translation. The UPR plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and thus is central to normal physiology. However, sustained unresolved ER stress leads to apoptosis. Aging linked declines in expression and activity of key ER molecular chaperones and folding enzymes compromise proper protein folding and the adaptive response of the UPR. One mechanism to explain age associated declines in cellular functions and age-related diseases is a progressive failure of chaperoning systems. In many of these diseases, proteins or fragments of proteins convert from their normally soluble forms to insoluble fibrils or plaques that accumulate in a variety of organs including the liver, brain or spleen. This group of diseases, which typically occur late in life includes Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, type II diabetes and a host of less well known but often equally serious conditions such as fatal familial insomnia. The UPR is implicated in many of these neurodegenerative and familial protein folding diseases as well as several cancers and a host of inflammatory diseases including diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease and arthritis. This review will discuss age-related changes in the ER stress response and the role of the UPR in age-related diseases. PMID:22934019

  9. [Management of age-related macular degeneration. An update].

    PubMed

    García Lozano, Isabel; López García, Santiago; Elosua de Juán, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of legal blindness in people over 50 in developed countries. It is a multifactorial disease resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, and the age is the only worldwide admitted risk factor. The socioeconomic impact of the disease reaches enormous proportions, if we take into account the high cost of the available antiangiogenic therapy, the strict schedule of medical visits that it requires, and the impairment that it gives rise to. The response to treatment and the visual outcomes improve with early management of the retinal lesions, thus the early diagnosis of the disease in its initial phases, based on self-control with an Amsler grid and with regular ophthalmologic assessments, is essential.

  10. Age-related changes in conditioned flavor preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Renteria, Adam F; Silbaugh, Bryant C; Tolentino, Jerlyn C; Gilbert, Paul E

    2008-03-17

    Age-related changes have been documented in regions of the brain shown to process reward information. However, few studies have examined the effects of aging on associative memory for reward. The present study tested 7- and 24-month-old rats on a conditioned flavor preference task. Half of the rats in each age group received an unsweetened grape-flavored solution (CS-) on odd-numbered days and a sweetened cherry-flavored solution (CS+) on even-numbered days. The remaining rats in each age group received a sweetened grape-flavored solution (CS+) on odd-numbered days and an unsweetened cherry-flavored solution (CS-) on even-numbered days. During the acquisition phase of testing, the designated solution (CS+ or CS-) was presented to each rat for 15 min daily across six consecutive days. On the preference phase, each rat received unsweetened cherry and unsweetened grape-flavored solutions simultaneously for 15 min daily across four consecutive days. The 7-month-old rats showed a significant preference for the flavor that was previously sweetened during the acquisition phase (CS+) compared to the previously unsweetened solution (CS-) when the two unsweetened solutions were presented simultaneously during the preference phase of testing. In contrast, the 24-month-old rats did not show a preference and consumed roughly equal amounts of the previously sweetened (CS+) and unsweetened (CS-) solutions. Thus, the data suggest that the ability to form flavor-reward associations declines with increasing age, resulting in impaired conditioned flavor preference.

  11. The genetics of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gorin, M B; Breitner, J C; De Jong, P T; Hageman, G S; Klaver, C C; Kuehn, M H; Seddon, J M

    1999-11-03

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is increasingly recognized as a complex genetic disorder in which one or more genes contribute to an individual's susceptibility for developing the condition. Twin and family studies as well as population-based genetic epidemiologic methods have convincingly demonstrated the importance of genetics in AMD, though the extent of heritability, the number of genes involved, and the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of the condition remain unresolved. The extent to which other hereditary macular dystrophies such as Stargardts disease, familial radial drusen (malattia leventinese), Best's disease, and peripherin/RDS-related dystrophy are related to AMD remains unclear. Alzheimer's disease, another late onset, heterogeneous degenerative disorder of the central nervous system, offers a valuable model for identifying the issues that confront AMD genetics.

  12. Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG): harmonized evaluation strategy.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Ferrer, Isidro; Grinberg, Lea T; Alafuzoff, Irina; Attems, Johannes; Budka, Herbert; Cairns, Nigel J; Crary, John F; Duyckaerts, Charles; Ghetti, Bernardino; Halliday, Glenda M; Ironside, James W; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R; Munoz, David G; Murray, Melissa E; Nelson, Peter T; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Trojanowski, John Q; Ansorge, Olaf; Arzberger, Thomas; Baborie, Atik; Beach, Thomas G; Bieniek, Kevin F; Bigio, Eileen H; Bodi, Istvan; Dugger, Brittany N; Feany, Mel; Gelpi, Ellen; Gentleman, Stephen M; Giaccone, Giorgio; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Heale, Richard; Hof, Patrick R; Hofer, Monika; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A; Ince, Paul; Kofler, Julia; Kövari, Enikö; Kril, Jillian J; Mann, David M; Matej, Radoslav; McKee, Ann C; McLean, Catriona; Milenkovic, Ivan; Montine, Thomas J; Murayama, Shigeo; Lee, Edward B; Rahimi, Jasmin; Rodriguez, Roberta D; Rozemüller, Annemieke; Schneider, Julie A; Schultz, Christian; Seeley, William; Seilhean, Danielle; Smith, Colin; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Toledo, Jon B; Tolnay, Markus; Troncoso, Juan C; Vinters, Harry V; Weis, Serge; Wharton, Stephen B; White, Charles L; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woulfe, John M; Yamada, Masahito; Dickson, Dennis W

    2016-01-01

    Pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes is a frequent, but poorly characterized feature of the aging brain. Its etiology is uncertain, but its presence is sufficiently ubiquitous to merit further characterization and classification, which may stimulate clinicopathological studies and research into its pathobiology. This paper aims to harmonize evaluation and nomenclature of aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG), a term that refers to a morphological spectrum of astroglial pathology detected by tau immunohistochemistry, especially with phosphorylation-dependent and 4R isoform-specific antibodies. ARTAG occurs mainly, but not exclusively, in individuals over 60 years of age. Tau-immunoreactive astrocytes in ARTAG include thorn-shaped astrocytes at the glia limitans and in white matter, as well as solitary or clustered astrocytes with perinuclear cytoplasmic tau immunoreactivity that extends into the astroglial processes as fine fibrillar or granular immunopositivity, typically in gray matter. Various forms of ARTAG may coexist in the same brain and might reflect different pathogenic processes. Based on morphology and anatomical distribution, ARTAG can be distinguished from primary tauopathies, but may be concurrent with primary tauopathies or other disorders. We recommend four steps for evaluation of ARTAG: (1) identification of five types based on the location of either morphologies of tau astrogliopathy: subpial, subependymal, perivascular, white matter, gray matter; (2) documentation of the regional involvement: medial temporal lobe, lobar (frontal, parietal, occipital, lateral temporal), subcortical, brainstem; (3) documentation of the severity of tau astrogliopathy; and (4) description of subregional involvement. Some types of ARTAG may underlie neurological symptoms; however, the clinical significance of ARTAG is currently uncertain and awaits further studies. The goal of this proposal is to raise awareness of

  13. Age-related differences in pulmonary effects of acute and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce adverse pulmonary and systemic health effects. Importantly, children and older persons are considered at-risk populations for O3-induced dysfunction, yet the mechanisms accounting for the age-related pulmonary responses to O3 are uncertain. In this study, we examined age-related susceptibility to O3 using 1 mo (adolescent), 4 mo (young adult), 12 mo (adult) and 24 mo (senescent) male Brown Norway rats exposed to filtered air or O3 (0.25and 1.00 ppm), 6 h/day, two days/week for 1 week (acute) or 13 weeks (subchronic). Ventilatory function, assessed by whole-body plethysmography, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biomarkers of injury and inflammation were used to examine O3-induced pulmonary effects.Relaxation time declined in all ages following the weekly exposures; however, this effect persisted only in the 24 mo rats following a five days recovery, demonstrating an inability to induce adaptation commonly seen with repeated O3 exposures. PenH was increased in all groups with an augmented response in the 4 mo rats following the subchronic O3 exposures. O3 led to increased breathing frequency and minute volume in the 1 and 4 mo animals. Markers ofpulmonary permeability were increased in all age groups. Elevations in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity and lung inflammation following an acute O3 exposure were noted in only the 1 and 4 mo rats, which likely received an increased effective O3 dose. These data demonstrate that ado

  14. Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG): harmonized evaluation strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Isidro; Grinberg, Lea T.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Attems, Johannes; Budka, Herbert; Cairns, Nigel J.; Crary, John F.; Duyckaerts, Charles; Ghetti, Bernardino; Halliday, Glenda M.; Ironside, James W.; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Munoz, David G.; Murray, Melissa E.; Nelson, Peter T.; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Trojanowski, John Q.; Ansorge, Olaf; Arzberger, Thomas; Baborie, Atik; Beach, Thomas G.; Bieniek, Kevin F.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Bodi, Istvan; Dugger, Brittany N.; Feany, Mel; Gelpi, Ellen; Gentleman, Stephen M.; Giaccone, Giorgio; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Heale, Richard; Hof, Patrick R.; Hofer, Monika; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A.; Ince, Paul; Kofler, Julia; Kövari, Enikö; Kril, Jillian J.; Mann, David M.; Matej, Radoslav; McKee, Ann C.; McLean, Catriona; Milenkovic, Ivan; Montine, Thomas J.; Murayama, Shigeo; Lee, Edward B.; Rahimi, Jasmin; Rodriguez, Roberta D.; Rozemüller, Annemieke; Schneider, Julie A.; Schultz, Christian; Seeley, William; Seilhean, Danielle; Smith, Colin; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Toledo, Jon B.; Tolnay, Markus; Troncoso, Juan C.; Vinters, Harry V.; Weis, Serge; Wharton, Stephen B.; White, Charles L.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woulfe, John M.; Yamada, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    Pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes is a frequent, but poorly characterized feature of the aging brain. Its etiology is uncertain, but its presence is sufficiently ubiquitous to merit further characterization and classification, which may stimulate clinicopathological studies and research into its pathobiology. This paper aims to harmonize evaluation and nomenclature of aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG), a term that refers to a morphological spectrum of astroglial pathology detected by tau immunohistochemistry, especially with phosphorylation-dependent and 4R isoform-specific antibodies. ARTAG occurs mainly, but not exclusively, in individuals over 60 years of age. Tau-immunoreactive astrocytes in ARTAG include thorn-shaped astrocytes at the glia limitans and in white matter, as well as solitary or clustered astrocytes with perinuclear cytoplasmic tau immunoreactivity that extends into the astroglial processes as fine fibrillar or granular immunopositivity, typically in gray matter. Various forms of ARTAG may coexist in the same brain and might reflect different pathogenic processes. Based on morphology and anatomical distribution, ARTAG can be distinguished from primary tauopathies, but may be concurrent with primary tauopathies or other disorders. We recommend four steps for evaluation of ARTAG: (1) identification of five types based on the location of either morphologies of tau astrogliopathy: subpial, subependymal, perivascular, white matter, gray matter; (2) documentation of the regional involvement: medial temporal lobe, lobar (frontal, parietal, occipital, lateral temporal), subcortical, brainstem; (3) documentation of the severity of tau astrogliopathy; and (4) description of subregional involvement. Some types of ARTAG may underlie neurological symptoms; however, the clinical significance of ARTAG is currently uncertain and awaits further studies. The goal of this proposal is to raise awareness of

  15. Age-related neuromuscular function during drop jumps.

    PubMed

    Hoffrén, M; Ishikawa, M; Komi, P V

    2007-10-01

    Muscle- and movement-specific fascicle-tendon interaction affects the performance of the neuromuscular system. This interaction is unknown among elderly and consequently contributes to the lack of understanding the age-related problems on neuromuscular control. The present experiment studied the age specificity of fascicle-tendon interaction of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle in drop jump (DJ) exercises. Twelve young and thirteen elderly subjects performed maximal squat jumps and DJs with maximal rebound effort on a sledge apparatus. Ankle and knee joint angles, reaction force, and electromyography (EMG) from the soleus (Sol), GM, and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were measured together with the GM fascicle length by ultrasonography. The results showed that the measured ankle joint stiffness (AJS) during the braking phase correlated positively with the rebound speed in both age groups and that both parameters were significantly lower in the elderly than in young subjects. In both groups, the AJS correlated positively with averaged EMG (aEMG) in Sol during the braking phase and was further associated with GM activation (r = 0.55, P < 0.01) and TA coactivation (TA/GM r = -0.4 P < 0.05) in the elderly subjects. In addition, compared with the young subjects, the elderly subjects showed significantly lower GM aEMG in the braking phase and higher aEMG in the push-off phase, indicating less utilization of tendinous tissue (TT) elasticity. These different activation patterns are in line with the mechanical behavior of GM showing significantly less fascicle shortening and relative TT stretching in the braking phase in the elderly than in the young subjects. These results suggest that age-specific muscle activation patterns as well as mechanical behaviors exist during DJs.

  16. The role of epigenetics in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gemenetzi, M; Lotery, A J

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that epigenetic mechanisms influence gene expression and can explain how interactions between genetics and the environment result in particular phenotypes during development. The extent to which this epigenetic effect contributes to phenotype heritability in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is currently ill defined. However, emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic changes are relevant to AMD and as such provide an exciting new avenue of research for AMD. This review addresses information on the impact of posttranslational modification of the genome on the pathogenesis of AMD, such as DNA methylation changes affecting antioxidant gene expression, hypoxia-regulated alterations in chromatin structure, and histone acetylation status in relation to angiogenesis and inflammation. It also contains information on the role of non-coding RNA-mediated gene regulation in AMD at a posttranscriptional (before translation) level. Our aim was to review the epigenetic mechanisms that cause heritable changes in gene activity without changing the DNA sequence. We also describe some long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell, which are not necessarily heritable but remains to be defined in the future. Increasing understanding of the significance of common and rare genetic variants and their relationship to epigenetics and environmental influences may help in establishing methods to assess the risk of AMD. This in turn may allow new therapeutic interventions for the leading cause of central vision impairment in patients over the age of 50 years in developed countries. Search strategy We searched the MEDLINE/PubMed database following MeSH suggestions for articles including the terms: ‘ocular epigenetic mechanisms', ‘human disease epigenetics', and ‘age-related macular degeneration genetics'. The headline used to locate related articles in PubMed was ‘epigenetics in ocular disease', and to restrict search, we used

  17. Hypoxia-Inducible Histone Lysine Demethylases: Impact on the Aging Process and Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is an environmental stress at high altitude and underground conditions but it is also present in many chronic age-related diseases, where blood flow into tissues is impaired. The oxygen-sensing system stimulates gene expression protecting tissues against hypoxic insults. Hypoxia stabilizes the expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α), which controls the expression of hundreds of survival genes related to e.g. enhanced energy metabolism and autophagy. Moreover, many stress-related signaling mechanisms, such as oxidative stress and energy metabolic disturbances, as well as the signaling cascades via ceramide, mTOR, NF-κB, and TGF-β pathways, can also induce the expression of HIF-1α protein to facilitate cell survival in normoxia. Hypoxia is linked to prominent epigenetic changes in chromatin landscape. Screening studies have indicated that the stabilization of HIF-1α increases the expression of distinct histone lysine demethylases (KDM). HIF-1α stimulates the expression of KDM3A, KDM4B, KDM4C, and KDM6B, which enhance gene transcription by demethylating H3K9 and H3K27 sites (repressive epigenetic marks). In addition, HIF-1α induces the expression of KDM2B and KDM5B, which repress transcription by demethylating H3K4me2,3 sites (activating marks). Hypoxia-inducible KDMs support locally the gene transcription induced by HIF-1α, although they can also control genome-wide chromatin landscape, especially KDMs which demethylate H3K9 and H3K27 sites. These epigenetic marks have important role in the control of heterochromatin segments and 3D folding of chromosomes, as well as the genetic loci regulating cell type commitment, proliferation, and cellular senescence, e.g. the INK4 box. A chronic stimulation of HIF-1α can provoke tissue fibrosis and cellular senescence, which both are increasingly present with aging and age-related diseases. We will review the regulation of HIF-1α-dependent induction of KDMs and clarify their role in

  18. The Theory Behind the Age-Related Positivity Effect

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Andrew E.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    The “positivity effect” refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather and Carstensen, 2005) scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people. PMID:23060825

  19. Nutritional influences on age-related skeletal muscle loss.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ailsa A

    2014-02-01

    Age-related muscle loss impacts on whole-body metabolism and leads to frailty and sarcopenia, which are risk factors for fractures and mortality. Although nutrients are integral to muscle metabolism the relationship between nutrition and muscle loss has only been extensively investigated for protein and amino acids. The objective of the present paper is to describe other aspects of nutrition and their association with skeletal muscle mass. Mechanisms for muscle loss relate to imbalance in protein turnover with a number of anabolic pathways of which the mechanistic TOR pathway and the IGF-1-Akt-FoxO pathways are the most characterised. In terms of catabolism the ubiquitin proteasome system, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation, oxidation and insulin resistance are among the major mechanisms proposed. The limited research associating vitamin D, alcohol, dietary acid-base load, dietary fat and anti-oxidant nutrients with age-related muscle loss is described. Vitamin D may be protective for muscle loss; a more alkalinogenic diet and diets higher in the anti-oxidant nutrients vitamin C and vitamin E may also prevent muscle loss. Although present recommendations for prevention of sarcopenia focus on protein, and to some extent on vitamin D, other aspects of the diet including fruits and vegetables should be considered. Clearly, more research into other aspects of nutrition and their role in prevention of muscle loss is required.

  20. The Relative Age Effect in Youth Soccer Players from Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez Diaz Del Campo, David; Pastor Vicedo, Juan Carlos; Gonzalez Villora, Sixto; Contreras Jordan, Onofre Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of Relative Age Effect (RAE) at youth level in both elite and amateur Spanish soccer clubs, and also to carry out an analysis providing with information on how this effect has evolved in recent years. We have obtained information on the youth teams of the 20 clubs belonging to the Spanish Professional Football League (LFP) in two separate seasons (2005-2006 and 2008-2009) as well as data on five youth academies belonging to amateur clubs. The collected data revealed an over- representation of players born in the first months of the selection year in all groups of analysis (Elite 2005-2006, Elite 2008-2009 and Amateurs), although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the Spanish population. The results showed a reduction in RAE from the 2005-2006 season to the 2008-2009 season. The following variables - playing position, the number of years each player has spent in their specific age group and the category of the team at each club were shown not to have influence on the extent of RAE. Key points There was RAE in all groups analyzed, although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the general population. RAE is more evident in the Elite groups than in the Amateur probably because of the detection process, which is more thorough in the Elite groups. Playing position, number of years in their specific age group and category of the team did not have any influence on the extent of RAE. Any attempts to prevent RAE should be based on a stable sport policy and the implication of all the stakeholders in the system. All of them should think in the development of a player as a long-term project. PMID:24149685

  1. Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children.

    PubMed

    Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake

    2014-09-01

    We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood.

  2. Effects of Vitreomacular Adhesion on Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eui Chun; Koh, Hyoung Jun

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we review the association between vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meta-analyses have shown that eyes with neovascular AMD are twice as likely to have VMA as normal eyes. VMA in neovascular AMD may induce inflammation, macular traction, decrease in oxygenation, sequestering of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and other cytokines or may directly stimulate VEGF production. VMA may also interfere with the treatment effects of anti-VEGF therapy, which is the standard treatment for neovascular AMD, and releasing VMA can improve the treatment response to anti-VEGF treatment in neovascular AMD. We also reviewed currently available methods of relieving VMA. PMID:26425354

  3. Relative Age Effect in UEFA Championship Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    González-Víllora, Sixto; Pastor-Vicedo, Juan C.; Cordente, David

    2015-01-01

    Relative Age Effect (RAE) is the breakdown by both age grouping and dates of birth of athletes. In the past 20 years the existence of this effect has been shown with higher or smaller impact in multiple sports, including soccer. The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of RAE in European soccer players. The sample included 841 elite soccer players who were participants in the UEFA European Soccer Championship in different categories. The professional category (n = 368), U-19 (n = 144) and U-17 (n = 145) were in 2012, and U-21 was in 2011 (n = 184). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Levene test recommended the use of nonparametric statistics. The results obtained by the square test ( the Kruskal-Wallis test and Cohen’s effect sizes revealed the existence of RAE (χ2 = 17.829, p < 0.001; d = 0.30), with the size of their different effects depending on their category or qualifying round achieved by the national team and the existence of significance in the observed differences by category. Therefore, we could continue examining RAE which is present in elite soccer, and could be considered a factor that influences performance of the national teams tested. RAE was not evident in the professional teams analysed, however it was present in the three lower categories analysed (youth categories), with its influence being greater on younger age categories (U-17). PMID:26557207

  4. A twin study on age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, S M

    1994-01-01

    A prospective twin study on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) recruited 83 monozygotic pairs, 28 dizygotic pairs, and one triplet set from 1986 through 1993. Zygosity was determined by genetic testing of red cell markers, HLA antigens, or specific DNA loci. There were no twin pairs in which I collected data on only one twin. To decrease ascertainment bias, after 1991 the recruitment notice did not mention AMD, and I did not ask about a history of eye disease before the eye examination. Because of this, twin pairs recruited from 1986 through 1991 were statistically analyzed separately from those after January 1, 1992. From 1986 through 1991, 23 twin pairs were recruited; 11 monozygotic and 2 dizygotic pairs had nonAMD retinal changes or no retinal abnormalities, 9 monozygotic pairs with AMD were all concordant, and 1 dizygotic pair was discordant for basal laminar drusen. The concordance rate of AMD did not differ significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (P = .10) for 1986 through 1991. In 1992 and 1993, 88 twin pairs and one triplet set were recruited; 49 monozygotic and 19 dizygotic pairs had nonAMD retinal changes or no retinal abnormalities, 14 monozygotic pairs with AMD were all concordant, and 2 of 7 dizygotic pairs were concordant for AMD. The nonidentical triplets (1 with and 2 without AMD) were categorized as one of the discordant dizygotic pairs in the statistical evaluation. In nontwin age-matched (within 2 or 5 years of age) or age- and sex-matched sibling pairs the concordance rate of AMD ranged from 16% to 25%. The concordance rate of AMD was significantly higher in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins (P = .001) for 1992 and 1993. The concordance rate was higher for monozygotic twin pairs recruited in 1992 and 1993 than in any of the four subsets of nontwin age-method or age- and sex-matched sibling pairs (P < .0001). Overall, from 1986 through 1993, 23 of 23 monozygotic and 2 of 8 dizygotic twin pairs were concordant for AMD

  5. Age-related differences in perceptuomotor procedural learning in children.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Caroline; Catale, Corinne; Schmitz, Xavier; Quertemont, Etienne; Meulemans, Thierry

    2013-10-01

    Procedural learning is generally considered to proceed in a series of phases, with cognitive resources playing an important role during the initial step. From a developmental perspective, little is known about the development of procedural learning or the role played by explicit cognitive processes during learning. The main objectives of this study were (a) to determine whether procedural learning performance improves with age by comparing groups of 7-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults and (b) to investigate the role played by executive functions during the acquisition in these three age groups. The 76 participants were assessed on a computerized adaptation of the mirror tracing paradigm. Results revealed that the youngest children had more difficulty in adapting to the task (they were slower and committed more errors at the beginning of the learning process) than 10-year-olds, but despite this age effect observed at the outset, all children improved performance across trials and transferred their skill to a different figure as well as adults. Correlational analyses showed that inhibition abilities play a key role in the performance of 10-year-olds and adults at the beginning of the learning but not in that of 7-year-olds. Overall, our results suggest that the age-related differences observed in our procedural learning task are at least partly due to the differential involvement of inhibition abilities, which may facilitate learning (so long as they are sufficiently developed) during the initial steps of the learning process; however, they would not be a necessary condition for skill learning to occur.

  6. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. Methods The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. Results The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the

  7. Nutritional Modulation of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Weikel, Karen A; Taylor, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30–50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated with AMD are in excess of $340 billion US (American-Health-Assistance-Foundation, 2012). The majority of AMD patients in the United States are not eligible for clinical treatments (Biarnes et al., 2011; Klein et al., 2011). Preventive interventions through dietary modulation are attractive strategies because many studies suggest a benefit of micro and macronutrients with respect to AMD, as well as other age-related debilities, and with few, if any, adverse effects (Chiu, 2011). Preservation of vision would enhance quality of life for millions of elderly people, and alleviate the personal and public health financial burden of AMD (Frick et al., 2007; Wood et al., 2011). Observational studies indicate that maintaining adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. with 2 servings/wk of fish) or a low glycemic index diet may be particularly beneficial for early AMD and that higher levels of carotenoids may be protective, most probably, against neovascular AMD. Intervention trials are needed to better understand the full effect of these nutrients and/or combinations of nutrients on retinal health. Analyses that describe effects of a nutrient on onset and/or progress of AMD are valuable because they indicate the value of a nutrient to arrest AMD at the early stages. This comprehensive summary provides essential information about the value of nutrients with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progress of AMD and can serve as a guide until data from ongoing intervention trials are available. PMID:22503690

  8. Genetic risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Maryam; Armstrong, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in individuals older than 65 years of age. It is a multifactorial disorder and identification of risk factors enables individuals to make lifestyle choices that may reduce the risk of disease. Collaboration between geneticists, ophthalmologists, and optometrists suggests that genetic risk factors play a more significant role in AMD than previously thought. The most important genes are associated with immune system modulation and the complement system, e.g., complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB), factor C3, and serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPING1). Genes associated with membrane transport, e.g., ATP-binding cassette protein (ABCR) and voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma 3 (CACNG3), the vascular system, e.g., fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), fibulin-5, lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL1) and selectin-P (SELP), and with lipid metabolism, e.g., apolipoprotein E (APOE) and hepatic lipase (LIPC) have also been implicated. In addition, several other genes exhibit some statistical association with AMD, e.g., age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2 (ARMS2) and DNA excision repair protein gene (ERCC6) but more research is needed to establish their significance. Modifiable risk factors for AMD should be discussed with patients whose lifestyle and/or family history place them in an increased risk category. Furthermore, calculation of AMD risk using current models should be recommended as a tool for patient education. It is likely that AMD management in future will be increasingly influenced by assessment of genetic risk as such screening methods become more widely available.

  9. Age related macular degeneration and drusen: neuroinflammation in the retina.

    PubMed

    Buschini, Elisa; Piras, Antonio; Nuzzi, Raffaele; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2011-09-15

    Inflammation protects from dangerous stimuli, restoring normal tissue homeostasis. Inflammatory response in the nervous system ("neuroinflammation") has distinct features, which are shared in several diseases. The retina is an immune-privileged site, and the tight balance of immune reaction can be disrupted and lead to age-related macular disease (AMD) and to its peculiar sign, the druse. Excessive activation of inflammatory and immunological cascade with subsequent induction of damage, persistent activation of resident immune cells, accumulation of byproducts that exceeds the normal capacity of clearance giving origin to a chronic local inflammation, alterations in the activation of the complement system, infiltration of macrophages, T-lymphocytes and mast-cells from the bloodstream, participate in the mechanisms which originate the drusen. In addition, aging of the retina and AMD involve also para-inflammation, by which immune cells react to persistent stressful stimuli generating low-grade inflammation, aimed at restoring function and maintaining tissue homeostasis by varying the set point in relation to the new altered conditions. This mechanism is also seen in the normal aging retina, but, in the presence of noxious stimuli as in AMD, it can become chronic and have an adverse outcome. Finally, autophagy may provide new insights to understand AMD pathology, due to its contribution in the removal of defective proteins. Therefore, the AMD retina can represent a valuable model to study neuroinflammation, its mechanisms and therapy in a restricted and controllable environment. Targeting these pathways could represent a new way to treat and prevent both exudative and dry forms of AMD.

  10. Nutritional modulation of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Weikel, Karen A; Chiu, Chung-Jung; Taylor, Allen

    2012-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30-50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated with AMD are in excess of $340 billion US (American-Health-Assistance-Foundation, 2012). The majority of AMD patients in the United States are not eligible for clinical treatments (Biarnes et al., 2011; Klein et al., 2011). Preventive interventions through dietary modulation are attractive strategies because many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macronutrients with respect to AMD, as well as other age-related debilities, and with few, if any, adverse effects (Chiu, 2011). Preservation of vision would enhance quality of life for millions of elderly people, and alleviate the personal and public health financial burden of AMD (Frick et al., 2007; Wood et al., 2011). Observational studies indicate that maintaining adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. with 2 servings/week of fish) or a low glycemic index diet may be particularly beneficial for early AMD and that higher levels of carotenoids may be protective, most probably, against neovascular AMD. Intervention trials are needed to better understand the full effect of these nutrients and/or combinations of nutrients on retinal health. Analyses that describe effects of a nutrient on onset and/or progress of AMD are valuable because they indicate the value of a nutrient to arrest AMD at the early stages. This comprehensive summary provides essential information about the value of nutrients with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progress of AMD and can serve as a guide until data from ongoing intervention trials are available.

  11. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Scientometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramin, Shahrokh; Soheilian, Masoud; Habibi, Gholamreza; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Gharebaghi, Reza; Heidary, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a major cause of central blindness among working aged adults across the world. Systematic research planning on any subject, including ARMD is in need of solid data regarding previous efforts in this field and to identify the gaps in the research. This study aimed to elucidate the most important trends, directions, and gap in this subject. The data extracted from the Institute for Scientific Information were used to perform a bibliometric analysis of the scientific productions (1993–2013) about ARMD. Specific parameters related to ARMD were analyzed to obtain a view of the topic’s structure, history, and document relationships. Additionally, the trends and authors in the most influential publications were analyzed. The number of articles in this field was found constantly increasing. Most highly cited articles addressed genetic epidemiology and clinical research topics in this field. During the past 3 years, there has been a trend toward biomarker research. Through performing the first scientometric survey on ARMD research, we analyzed the characteristics of papers and the trends in scientific production. We also identified some of the critical gaps in the current research efforts that would help in large-scale research strategic planning. PMID:26060829

  12. Flavonoids and Age Related Disease: Risk, benefits and critical windows

    PubMed Central

    Prasain, JK; Carlson, SH; Wyss, JM

    2010-01-01

    Plant derived products are consumed by a large percentage of the population to prevent, delay and ameliorate disease burden; however, relatively little is known about the efficacy, safety and underlying mechanisms of these traditional health products, especially when taken in concert with pharmaceutical agents. The flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites that are common in the diet and appear to provide some health benefits. While flavonoids are primarily derived from soy, many are found in fruits, nuts and more exotic sources, e.g., kudzu. Perhaps the strongest evidence for the benefits of flavonoids in diseases of aging relates to their effect on components of the metabolic syndrome. Flavonoids from soy, grape seed, kudzu and other sources all lower arterial pressure in hypertensive animal models and in a limited number of tests in humans. They also decrease the plasma concentration of lipids and buffer plasma glucose. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant actions, central nervous system effects, gut transport alterations, fatty acid sequestration and processing, PPAR activation and increases in insulin sensitivity. In animal models of disease, dietary flavonoids also demonstrate a protective effect against cognitive decline, cancer and metabolic disease. However, research also indicates that the flavonoids can be detrimental in some settings and, therefore, are not universally safe. Thus, as the population ages, it is important to determine the impact of these agents on prevention/attenuation of disease, including optimal exposure (intake, timing/duration) and potential contraindications. PMID:20181448

  13. Age-Related Changes in Demand–Withdraw Communication Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Sarah R.; Haase, Claudia M.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Demand–withdraw communication is a set of conflict-related behaviors in which one partner blames or pressures while the other partner withdraws or avoids. The present study examined age-related changes in these behaviors longitudinally over the course of later life stages. One hundred twenty-seven middle-aged and older long-term married couples were observed at 3 time points across 13 years as they engaged in a conversation about an area of relationship conflict. Husbands’ and wives’ demand–withdraw behaviors (i.e., blame, pressure, withdrawal, avoidance) were objectively rated by trained coders at each time point. Data were analyzed using dyad-level latent growth curve models in a structural equation modeling framework. For both husbands and wives, the results showed a longitudinal pattern of increasing avoidance behavior over time and stability in all other demand and withdraw behaviors. This study supports the notion that there is an important developmental shift in the way that conflict is handled in later life. PMID:23913982

  14. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  15. Age Related Incidence and Early Outcomes of Hip Fractures: A Prospective Cohort Study of 1177 patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Associated with the increase in the aging population, there is an increase in the incidence of hip fractures worldwide. Outcome following such fractures is affected by age of the patient. This study aims to assess the incidence and early outcome of hip fractures, comparing between different age groups. Methods Data of hip fractures collected over a period of five years was analysed. Patients were divided into three groups, group A (patients under the age of 64), group B (patients between 65 and 84 years of age), and group C (patients over the age of 85). Results Of the 1177 patients included in the study, there were 90 patients in group A, 702 patients in group B and 385 patients in group C. There was a female preponderance across all age groups, and this increased as age advanced (p < 0.0001). A significantly larger number of older patients lived alone and needed aids to walk before the injury (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the type of fracture across the three groups (p = 0.13). A higher proportion of the elderly with intracapsular fractures were treated by replacement arthroplasty. Older patients who had internal fixation of intracapsular fractures had a better walking ability at 4 months. The overall deterioration in mobility was greater in older patients (p < 0.0001). Mortality was higher in older patients. Conclusions Hip fractures are more common among females irrespective of age group. Older patients have a higher mortality and a greater deterioration of walking ability after such injuries. Internal fixation of intracapsular fractures have demonstrated satisfactory early outcome in the immediate period. This could be attributed to retention of native bone, better propioception and shorter operation time. PMID:21261942

  16. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in aging and dementia: detection of age-related cognitive changes and prediction of cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Woodard, John L; Sugarman, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows for dynamic observation of the neural substrates of cognitive processing, which makes it a valuable tool for studying brain changes that may occur with both normal and pathological aging. fMRI studies have revealed that older adults frequently exhibit a greater magnitude and extent activation of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal compared to younger adults. This additional activation may reflect compensatory recruitment associated with functional and structural deterioration of neural resources. Increased activation has also been associated with several risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), including the apolipoprotein ε4 allele. Longitudinal studies have also demonstrated that fMRI may have predictive utility in determining which individuals are at the greatest risk of developing cognitive decline. This chapter will review the results of a number of task-activated fMRI studies of older adults, focusing on both healthy aging and neuropathology associated with AD. We also discuss models that account for cognitive aging processes, including the hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD) and scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) models. Finally, we discuss methodological issues commonly associated with fMRI research in older adults.

  17. The burden of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Schmier, Jordana K; Jones, Mechelle L; Halpern, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    As age-related macular degeneration (AMD) becomes more prevalent as a result of longer life expectancy and the number of elderly people worldwide, it will become increasingly important to understand its potential health and economic impact for appropriate healthcare planning. This review identified published literature on costs and resource use associated with AMD. Despite the increasing prevalence of AMD, the worldwide burden of illness is unknown. Several studies of direct medical costs, both those associated with ophthalmic care and those associated with other care, have been conducted and have identified increased medical care associated with AMD. Direct non-medical costs include the cost for vision aids; while these costs may be substantial, they are difficult to quantify as no comprehensive sources track the distribution or use of vision aids. Because AMD is uncommon among people of working age, there is less concern regarding the impact of indirect (workplace) costs among AMD patients. However, indirect costs are incurred by caregivers who leave the workforce early or change their work patterns in order to provide assistance to AMD patients; the magnitude of caregiver-related costs is unknown. The cost effectiveness of some interventions for AMD has been explored. Supplementation with zinc and antioxidants for non-exudative (dry) AMD has been shown to result in an acceptable cost per QALY and is considered cost effective. Studies suggest that laser photocoagulation is cost effective but that photodynamic therapy with verteporfin appears to be cost effective only among patients with good visual acuity at baseline or when models extend longer than 5 years. Further research is needed to integrate the information on various components of AMD-related costs into a comprehensive burden of illness estimate and to evaluate basic utility assumptions in existing models.

  18. 40 CFR 1042.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measurements on which you base the deterioration factor. (2) If you determine your deterioration factors based...-existing test data, or with new emission measurements. Apply these deterioration factors to determine... on emission measurements from similar highway, stationary, or nonroad engines (including...

  19. Ageing and apoE change DHA homeostasis: relevance to age-related cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Marie; Plourde, Mélanie; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological studies fairly convincingly suggest that higher intakes of fatty fish and n-3 fatty acids are associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). DHA in plasma is normally positively associated with DHA intake. However, despite being associated with lower fish and DHA intake, unexpectedly, plasma (or brain) DHA is frequently not lower in AD. This review will highlight some metabolic and physiological factors such as ageing and apoE polymorphism that influence DHA homeostasis. Compared with young adults, blood DHA is often slightly but significantly higher in older adults without any age-related cognitive decline. Higher plasma DHA in older adults could be a sign that their fish or DHA intake is higher. However, our supplementation and carbon-13 tracer studies also show that DHA metabolism, e.g. transit through the plasma, apparent retroconversion and β-oxidation, is altered in healthy older compared with healthy young adults. ApoE4 increases the risk of AD, possibly in part because it too changes DHA homeostasis. Therefore, independent of differences in fish intake, changing DHA homeostasis may tend to obscure the relationship between DHA intake and plasma DHA which, in turn, may contribute to making older adults more susceptible to cognitive decline despite older adults having similar or sometimes higher plasma DHA than in younger adults. In conclusion, recent development of new tools such as isotopically labelled DHA to study DHA metabolism in human subjects highlights some promising avenues to evaluate how and why DHA metabolism changes during ageing and AD.

  20. Metabolomics of human brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Naudí, Alba; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2014-07-01

    Neurons in the mature human central nervous system (CNS) perform a wide range of motor, sensory, regulatory, behavioral, and cognitive functions. Such diverse functional output requires a great diversity of CNS neuronal and non-neuronal populations. Metabolomics encompasses the study of the complete set of metabolites/low-molecular-weight intermediates (metabolome), which are context-dependent and vary according to the physiology, developmental state, or pathologic state of the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. Therefore, the use of metabolomics can help to unravel the diversity-and to disclose the specificity-of metabolic traits and their alterations in the brain and in fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the current applications of metabolomics in studies of CNS aging and certain age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurometabolomics will increase knowledge of the physiologic and pathologic functions of neural cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a metabolic context.

  1. Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in retinal aging and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Christine A.; Johnson, Mark; Huang, Jiahn-Dar; Rudolf, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The largest risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is advanced age. With aging, there is a striking accumulation of neutral lipids in Bruch's membrane (BrM) of normal eye that continues through adulthood. This accumulation has the potential to significantly impact the physiology of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). It also ultimately leads to the creation of a lipid wall at the same locations where drusen and basal linear deposit, the pathognomonic extracellular, lipid-containing lesions of ARMD, subsequently form. Here, we summarize evidence obtained from light microscopy, ultrastructural studies, lipid histochemistry, assay of isolated lipoproteins, and gene expression analysis. These studies suggest that lipid deposition in BrM is at least partially due to accumulation of esterified cholesterol-rich, apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein particles produced by the RPE. Furthermore, we suggest that the formation of ARMD lesions and their aftermath may be a pathological response to the retention of a sub-endothelial apolipoprotein B lipoprotein, similar to a widely accepted model of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (Tabas, I., K. J. Williams, and J. Borén. 2007. Subendothelial lipoprotein retention as the initiating process in atherosclerosis: update and therapeutic implications. Circulation. 116:1832–1844). This view provides a conceptual basis for the development of novel treatments that may benefit ARMD patients in the future. PMID:19797256

  2. Parabiosis for the study of age-related chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Eggel, Alexander; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Summary Modern medicine wields the power to treat large numbers of diseases and injuries most of us would have died from just a hundred years ago. In view of this tremendous achievement, it can seem as if progress has slowed, and we have been unable to impact the most devastating diseases of our time. Chronic diseases of age such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, or Alzheimer’s disease turn out to be of a complexity that may require transformative ideas and paradigms to understand and treat them. Parabiosis, which mimics aspects of the naturally occurring shared blood supply in conjoined twins in humans and certain animals, may just have the power to be such a transformative experimental paradigm. Forgotten and now shunned in many countries, it has contributed to major breakthroughs in tumor biology, endocrinology, and transplantation research in the past century, and a set of new studies in the US and Britain report stunning advances in stem cell biology and tissue regeneration using parabiosis between young and old mice. We review here briefly the history of parabiosis and discuss its utility to study physiological and pathophysiological processes. We argue that parabiosis is a technique that should enjoy wider acceptance and application, and that policies should be revisited especially if one is to study complex age-related, chronic disorders. PMID:24496774

  3. Ocular surface temperature in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sodi, Andrea; Matteoli, Sara; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Finocchio, Lucia; Corvi, Andrea; Menchini, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The ocular surface temperature (OST) of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272). OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  4. Age-related synthesis of glucocorticoids in thymocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao Shengjun Chen Liying; Okret, Sam; Jondal, Mikael

    2008-10-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are primarily synthesized in the adrenal glands but an ectopic production has also been reported in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract and in thymic epithelial cells (TEC). Here we show that thymocytes express genes encoding for all enzymes required for de novo GC synthesis and produce the hormone as demonstrated by both a GC specific reporter assay and a corticosterone specific ELISA assay. Interestingly, GC synthesis is detectable in cells from young mice (4 weeks) and thereafter increases during aging (14-22 weeks) together with an increased gene expression of the rate-limiting enzymes StAR and CYP11A1. Hormone production occurred at a thymocyte differentiation stage characterized by being double positive for the CD4 and CD8 surface markers but was found to be unrelated to CD69 expression, a marker for thymocytes undergoing positive selection. No GC synthesis was found in resting or anti-CD3 activated CD4 and CD8 positive T cells isolated from the spleen. Thymocyte-derived GC had an anti-proliferative effect on a GR-transfected cell line and induced apoptosis in thymocytes. The age- and differentiation stage-related GC synthesis in thymocytes may play a role in the involution process that the thymus gland undergoes.

  5. Therapeutic Modalities of Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mavija, Milka; Alimanovic, Emina; Jaksic, Vesna; Kasumovic, Sanja Sefic; Cekic, Sonja; Stamenkovic, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible serious vision damage in persons over 50 years of age. In treating AMD many medicaments are applied such as inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have been very carefully included over the last few years after a series of study research. Aims: To analyze the past methods of treatment, discuss emerging therapies which could advance the treatment of exudative AMD. The past anti-VEGF therapies require frequent repetitions of administration, with uncertain visual acuity recovery, as not all patients react to anti-VEGF therapy. Consequently, there is a need to find out additional therapies which could improve the treatment of exudative AMD. The real aim in the treating of AMD is to prevent CNV development. Methods: A survey of the current clinical research and results in the field of the present and future treatments of exudative AMD. Results: There are many areas of research into new methods of the exudative AMD treatment. Conclusion: The future therapies for exudative AMD treatment have a potential not only to reduce the frequency of administration and follow-up visits, but also to improve effects of treatment by targeting additional ways of CNV development, increasing the aptitude of target binding and extending durability of treatment. PMID:25568535

  6. Object crowding in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Julian M.; Chung, Susana T. L.; Tjan, Bosco S.

    2017-01-01

    Crowding, the phenomenon of impeded object identification due to clutter, is believed to be a key limiting factor of form vision in the peripheral visual field. The present study provides a characterization of object crowding in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) measured at the participants' respective preferred retinal loci with binocular viewing. Crowding was also measured in young and age-matched controls at the same retinal locations, using a fixation-contingent display paradigm to allow unlimited stimulus duration. With objects, the critical spacing of crowding for AMD participants was not substantially different from controls. However, baseline contrast energy thresholds in the noncrowded condition were four times that of the controls. Crowding further exacerbated deficits in contrast sensitivity to three times the normal crowding-induced contrast energy threshold elevation. These findings indicate that contrast-sensitivity deficit is a major limiting factor of object recognition for individuals with AMD, in addition to crowding. Focusing on this more tractable deficit of AMD may lead to more effective remediation and technological assistance. PMID:28129416

  7. Age-related changes in the efficacy of crystalloid cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Magovern, J A; Pae, W E; Waldhausen, J A

    1991-09-01

    Recent work has shown that multi-dose St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegia solution (STHC) may not provide reliable protection of the neonatal myocardium. We have used an isolated working heart model to study the age-related development of this observation. Sets of eight hearts from 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-week-old rabbits were subjected to 90 min of ischemia at 10 degrees C. STHC was infused at 30-min intervals in a dose of 10 ml/kg. There were no differences in the preservation of ATP stores during ischemia among the groups. The percentage recovery of preischemic mean aortic pressure, left atrial pressure, and heart rate were not different among groups, but the percentage recovery of aortic flow (AF) (expressed as means +/- standard error of the mean) was significantly lower in the 2- and 4-week hearts (44.1 +/- 8.2 and 66.2 +/- 7.7%) than in the 6- and 8-week hearts (93.0 +/- 6.4 and 97.6 +/- 4.7%). We have confirmed that the use of multi-dose STHC impairs recovery of ventricular function in the neonatal rabbit heart. This effect, however, diminishes rapidly as the immature animal develops and is not present by 6 weeks of age. Additional experimentation is necessary to identify those aspects of the developing myocardium that account for these observations.

  8. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sodi, Andrea; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Corvi, Andrea; Menchini, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The ocular surface temperature (OST) of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272). OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:25436140

  9. Effects of Age and Location in Chinese Relative Clauses Processing.

    PubMed

    He, Wenguang; Xu, Na; Ji, Runqing

    2017-02-24

    Three experiments investigated Chinese relative clause processing with children, youths and elders using sentence-picture matching and self-paced reading methods. In Experiment 1, we found that object-extracted clause were easier to comprehend than subject-extracted clause , and object-modified relative clause (i.e., object-modified subject-extracted clause[Formula: see text]object-modified object-extracted clause) were difficult to comprehend than subject modified relative clause (subject-modified subject-extracted clause[Formula: see text]subject-modified object-extracted clause). Importantly, this paper also found 5-6.5 ages may be critical for children to comprehend RCs in Chinese. Experiment 2 also showed that S-ORCs were easier to comprehend than S-SRCs for youths and elders. Further, elders have more difficulty comprehending RCs than youths. Experiment 3 indicated that there were no significant differences in difficulty between O-SRCs and O-ORCs, and no differences were found between youths and elders. In general, our findings gave support to predictions of working memory-based theory, and also indicated that RCs processing has an intricate course. Many factors such as syntactic, language specificity, experience, personality, must all be considered in sentence processing.

  10. [Dementia and lifestyle-related diseases in Japanese aging society].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko

    2011-05-01

    Recently, the number of elderly patients with dementia has been increasing in Japan because of both the extension of average life expectancy and a considerable rise in the incidence of dementia with age. For these reasons, dementia in Japan has become common, and more than half of all cases are Alzheimer disease. This disease has typically been considered to be a degenerative disorder due to genetic abnormalities, but recent epidemiological studies have indicated that lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity in midlife could accelerate the dementing process, via either vascular changes in cerebral infarction or Alzheimer-related pathological changes with plaque and tangle formations which result in dementia in later life. Furthermore, several studies have suggested that a high intake of vegetables and fish, an active daily life, and lifelong education might positively influence cognitive function as neuroprotective factors. Therefore, we should try to prevent dementia based on the clinical and hygienic management of the lifestyles and lifestyle-related diseases, even in the youth.

  11. The genetics of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Guymer, Robyn

    2001-07-01

    AIM: To review the genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The pathogenesis of AMD, the leading cause of severe visual disability and blindness in our community, remains unknown. However, AMD is regarded as a genetic disease where family history of AMD is a significant risk factor for the disease. Understanding the genetic factors associated with AMD offers the greatest chance for understanding the underlying disease processes. METHODS: Through a review of the literature and the use of original research findings, the current knowledge of the genetics of AMD is explored. CONCLUSION: AMD is increasing in prevalence and remains a major challenge for eye heath providers. Finding the genes that are associated with AMD offers the greatest chance for the development of preventative strategies and treatments.

  12. [Molecular genetic basis of age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, É V; Churashov, S V; Kamilova, T A

    2013-01-01

    Visual loss due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is caused by one or both forms of advanced disease: "wet" (neovascular) or "dry" (geographic atrophy). Immune system plays a central role in pathogenesis and progression of both AMD forms. Main genetic polymorphisms associated with risk of AMD development and progression were found to be genes that regulate inflammation especially in complement factor H gen (1q31 locus) and 10q26 locus (PLEKHAI/ARMS2/HTRA1). Association of response to treatment and genotype was shown in patients with AMD. Complete characterization of both common and rare alleles that influence AMD risk is necessary for accurate determination of individual genetic risk as well as identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention.

  13. Gene Therapies for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Pechan, Peter; Wadsworth, Samuel; Scaria, Abraham

    2014-12-18

    Pathological neovascularization is a key component of the neovascular form (also known as the wet form) of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Several preclinical studies have shown that antiangiogenesis strategies are effective for treating neovascular AMD in animal models. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the main inducers of ocular neovascularization, and several clinical trials have shown the benefits of neutralizing VEGF in patients with neovascular AMD or diabetic macular edema. In this review, we summarize several preclinical and early-stage clinical trials with intraocular gene therapies, which have the potential to reduce or eliminate the repeated intravitreal injections that are currently required for the treatment of neovascular AMD.

  14. Highly penetrant alleles in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    den Hollander, Anneke I; de Jong, Eiko K

    2014-11-06

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies have identified several common genetic variants associated with AMD, which together account for 15%-65% of the heritability of AMD. Multiple hypotheses to clarify the unexplained portion of genetic variance have been proposed, such as gene-gene interactions, gene-environment interactions, structural variations, epigenetics, and rare variants. Several studies support a role for rare variants with large effect sizes in the pathogenesis of AMD. In this work, we review the methods that can be used to detect rare variants in common diseases, as well as the recent progress that has been made in the identification of rare variants in AMD. In addition, the relevance of these rare variants for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of AMD is highlighted.

  15. Gene-Diet Interactions in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Sheldon; Taylor, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a prevalent blinding disease, accounting for roughly 50 % of blindness in developed nations. Very significant advances have been made in terms of discovering genetic susceptibilities to AMD as well as dietary risk factors. To date, nutritional supplementation is the only available treatment option for the dry form of the disease known to slow progression of AMD. Despite an excellent understanding of genes and nutrition in AMD, there is remarkably little known about gene-diet interactions that may identify efficacious approaches to treat individuals. This review will summarize our current understanding of gene-diet interactions in AMD with a focus on animal models and human epidemiological studies.

  16. Molecular pathology of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Patel, Mrinali; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of AMD remain largely unclear, a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors is thought to exist. AMD pathology is characterized by degeneration involving the retinal photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch’s membrane, as well as, in some cases, alterations in choroidal capillaries. Recent research on the genetic and molecular underpinnings of AMD brings to light several basic molecular pathways and pathophysiological processes that might mediate AMD risk, progression, and/or response to therapy. This review summarizes, in detail, the molecular pathological findings in both humans and animal models, including genetic variations in CFH, CX3CR1, and ARMS2/HtrA1, as well as the role of numerous molecules implicated in inflammation, apoptosis, cholesterol trafficking, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress. PMID:19026761

  17. Wearable diagnostic system for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mohaghegh, N; Zadeh, E Ghafar; Magierowski, S

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel head-mounted point-of-care diagnostic system for detection and continuous monitoring of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). This wearable embedded open-source platform enables accurate monitoring of AMD by taking advantage of multiple standard graphical interface techniques such as Amsler Grid, Threshold Amsler Grid, Macular Computerized Psychophysical Test and Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PHP). Here, we describe the proposed multi-Grid or so-called NGRID software and elaborate on the hardware prototype. This prototype includes a commercially available Oculus HMD incorporated with a single board computer. As the first step towards a fully integrated wearable system, this paper successfully proves the functionality of head-mounted graphical interface device ready for a live demonstration. Participants can experience this device and take a 10-minute AMD eye-exam. Furthermore, NGRID has been approved and permitted for an in-hospital clinical trial.

  18. Rapid Assessment of Age-Related Differences in Standing Balance

    PubMed Central

    Kalisch, Tobias; Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Noth, Sebastian; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R.

    2011-01-01

    As life expectancy continues to rise, in the future there will be an increasing number of older people prone to falling. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for comprehensive testing of older individuals to collect data and to identify possible risk factors for falling. Here we use a low-cost force platform to rapidly assess deficits in balance under various conditions. We tested 21 healthy older adults and 24 young adults during static stance, unidirectional and rotational displacement of their centre of pressure (COP). We found an age-related increase in postural sway during quiet standing and a reduction of maximal COP displacement in unidirectional and rotational displacement tests. Our data show that even low-cost computerized assessment tools allow for the comprehensive testing of balance performance in older subjects. PMID:21629742

  19. Update on geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Biarnés, Marc; Monés, Jordi; Alonso, Jordi; Arias, Luis

    2011-07-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main cause of legal blindness in older patients in developed countries, and geographic atrophy (GA) represents the advanced form of dry AMD. Although it accounts for one third of the cases of late AMD and is responsible for 20% of the cases of severe visual loss due to the disorder. GA currently lacks effective treatment, whereas antiangiogenic therapies have been shown to be successful in managing choroidal neovascularization, the other form of late AMD. Recent advances in GA epidemiology, etiology, genetics, and imaging techniques have renewed the interest in this entity, which is a cause of progressive visual loss even in treated patients with neovascular AMD. This knowledge has triggered many clinical trials targeting different molecules shown to be associated with the disease, and it is hoped that this research will translate into effective drugs for GA in the near future.

  20. Targeting MAPK Signaling in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kyosseva, Svetlana V.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness affecting elderly people in the world. AMD is a complex multifactorial disease associated with demographic, genetics, and environmental risk factors. It is well established that oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play critical roles in the pathogenesis of AMD. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are activated by diverse extracellular stimuli, including growth factors, mitogens, hormones, cytokines, and different cellular stressors such as oxidative stress. They regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. This review addresses the novel findings from human and animal studies on the relationship of MAPK signaling with AMD. The use of specific MAPK inhibitors may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of this debilitating eye disease. PMID:27385915

  1. Radiation Therapy for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Kishan, Amar U.; Modjtahedi, Bobeck S.; Morse, Lawrence S.; Lee, Percy

    2013-03-01

    In the enormity of the public health burden imposed by age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), much effort has been directed toward identifying effective and efficient treatments. Currently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections have demonstrated considerably efficacy in treating neovascular ARMD, but patients require frequent treatment to fully benefit. Here, we review the rationale and evidence for radiation therapy of ARMD. The results of early photon external beam radiation therapy are included to provide a framework for the sequential discussion of evidence for the usage of stereotactic radiation therapy, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The evidence suggests that these 3 modern modalities can provide a dose-dependent benefit in the treatment of ARMD. Most importantly, preliminary data suggest that all 3 can be used in conjunction with anti-VEGF therapeutics, thereby reducing the frequency of anti-VEGF injections required to maintain visual acuity.

  2. Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Intracrine Biology: An Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Re, Richard N.

    2016-01-01

    This laboratory has studied the intracellular actions of angiotensin II and other signaling proteins that can act in the intracellular space—peptides/proteins we have called intracrines. Moreover, we have suggested that general principles of intracrine action exist and can help explain the progression of some chronic degenerative diseases such as diabetic nephropathy and congestive heart failure. Here, a similar analysis is carried out in the case of age-related macular degeneration. We propose that intracrine mechanisms are operative in this disorder. In particular, we hypothesize that intracrine loops involving renin, angiotensin II, transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein-4, and p53, among other factors, are involved. If this analysis is correct, it suggests a commonality of mechanism linking chronic progressive renal diseases, congestive heart failure, and macular degeneration. PMID:27999510

  3. Highly Penetrant Alleles in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    den Hollander, Anneke I.; de Jong, Eiko K.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies have identified several common genetic variants associated with AMD, which together account for 15%–65% of the heritability of AMD. Multiple hypotheses to clarify the unexplained portion of genetic variance have been proposed, such as gene–gene interactions, gene–environment interactions, structural variations, epigenetics, and rare variants. Several studies support a role for rare variants with large effect sizes in the pathogenesis of AMD. In this work, we review the methods that can be used to detect rare variants in common diseases, as well as the recent progress that has been made in the identification of rare variants in AMD. In addition, the relevance of these rare variants for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of AMD is highlighted. PMID:25377141

  4. Endogenous longevity, biological deterioration and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Sanso, Marcos; Aísa, Rosa M

    2006-05-01

    The identification of the types of bidirectional interactions that take place between longevity and economic growth in the long-run is carried out by means of the integration of human capital accumulation, innovation in medical technology, a health goods sector, and individual decisions on health and longevity in a dynamic general equilibrium set-up. In this context, in which individual agents decide not only on their "quality" of life but also on its "quantity", the mere process of biological deterioration, that is to say, the continuous loss of health goods effectiveness in maintaining a given level of health as individuals age, provides the reason for an additional, and new, engine of growth.

  5. Gene Therapy for Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Constable, Ian Jeffery; Blumenkranz, Mark Scott; Schwartz, Steven D; Barone, Sam; Lai, Chooi-May; Rakoczy, Elizabeth Piroska

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate safety and signals of efficacy of gene therapy with subretinal rAAV.sFlt-1 for wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD). A phase 1 dose-escalating single-center controlled unmasked human clinical trial was followed up by extension of the protocol to a phase 2A single-center trial. rAAV.sFlt-1 vector was used to deliver a naturally occurring anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agent, sFlt-1, into the subretinal space. In phase 1, step 1 randomized 3 subjects to low-dose rAAV.sFlt-1 (1 × 10 vector genomes) and 1 subject to the control arm; step 2 randomized an additional 3 subjects to treatment with high-dose rAAV.sFlt-1 (1 × 10 vector genomes) and 1 subject to the control arm. Follow-up studies demonstrated that rAAV.sFlt-1 was well tolerated with a favorable safety profile in these elderly subjects with wet AMD. Subretinal injection was highly reproducible, and no drug-related adverse events were reported. Procedure-related adverse events were mild and self-resolving. Two phakic patients developed cataract and underwent cataract surgery. Four of the 6 patients responded better than the small control group in this study and historical controls in terms of maintaining vision and a relatively dry retina with zero ranibizumab retreatments per annum. Two patients required 1 ranibizumab injection over the 52-week follow-up period. rAAV.sFlt-1 gene therapy may prove to be a potential adjunct or alternative to conventional intravitreal injection for patients with wet AMD by providing extended delivery of a naturally occurring antiangiogenic protein.

  6. Age-related changes in contrast gain related to the M and P pathways

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sarah L.; Werner, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Neural contributions to the age-related reduction in spatial vision are incontrovertible. Whether there are differential age-related changes in the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) pathways across the life span has not been tested extensively. We studied psychophysically the contrast gain signature of the M and P pathways for 13 younger and 13 older observers. Two separate paradigms thought to separate the M and P pathways based on their contrast gain signature were used. A four-square array was presented as an increment or decrement on a background of 115 Td for 35 ms, with one test square presented at a slightly higher or lower retinal illumination. Using a four-alternative forced-choice procedure, the observer's task was to choose the unique square. The two paradigms differed only in the pretrial adaptation and inter-stimulus array. Data were fitted with models of contrast discrimination derived from the unique contrast gain signatures. The fitted models indicate a change in the discrimination functions with age for both the M and P pathways, revealing a shift in the contrast gain slope. Results indicate that both M and P pathways undergo age-related changes, but functional losses appear greater for the P pathway under the conditions tested. PMID:20465324

  7. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate ameliorates age-related spatial memory deterioration by increasing serum ketone body production as a complementary energy source for neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Yamamoto, Tomiya; Yaku, Keisuke; Hirota, Shiori; Takenaka, Shigeo; Kawabe, Kouichi; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2016-09-25

    1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) is naturally obtained from the rhizomes and seeds of Alpinia galangal. Here, we examined the effect of ACA on learning and memory in senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8). In mice that were fed a control diet containing 0.02% ACA for 25 weeks, the learning ability in the Morris water maze test was significantly enhanced in comparison with mice that were fed the control diet alone. In the Y-maze test, SAMP8 mice showed decreased spontaneous alterations in comparison with senescence-accelerated resistant/1 (SAMR1) mice, a homologous control, which was improved by ACA pretreatment. Serum metabolite profiles were obtained by GC-MS analysis, and each metabolic profile was plotted on a 3D score plot. Based upon the diagram, it can be seen that the distribution areas for the three groups were completely separate. Furthermore, the contents of β-hydroxybutyric acid and palmitic acid in the serum of SAMP8-ACA mice were higher than those of SAMP8-control mice and SAMR1-control mice. We also found that SAMR1 mice did not show histological abnormalities, whereas histological damage in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in SAMP8-control mice was observed. However, SAMP8-ACA mice were observed in a similar manner as SAMR1 mice. These findings confirm that ACA increases the serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyric acid and palmitic acid levels and thus these fuels might contribute to the maintenance of the cognitive performance of SAMP8 mice.

  8. Age-Related Differences in Lexical Access Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Rebecca; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary size has been suggested as a useful measure of “verbal abilities” that correlates with speech recognition scores. Knowing more words is linked to better speech recognition. How vocabulary knowledge translates to general speech recognition mechanisms, how these mechanisms relate to offline speech recognition scores, and how they may be modulated by acoustical distortion or age, is less clear. Age-related differences in linguistic measures may predict age-related differences in speech recognition in noise performance. We hypothesized that speech recognition performance can be predicted by the efficiency of lexical access, which refers to the speed with which a given word can be searched and accessed relative to the size of the mental lexicon. We tested speech recognition in a clinical German sentence-in-noise test at two signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), in 22 younger (18–35 years) and 22 older (60–78 years) listeners with normal hearing. We also assessed receptive vocabulary, lexical access time, verbal working memory, and hearing thresholds as measures of individual differences. Age group, SNR level, vocabulary size, and lexical access time were significant predictors of individual speech recognition scores, but working memory and hearing threshold were not. Interestingly, longer accessing times were correlated with better speech recognition scores. Hierarchical regression models for each subset of age group and SNR showed very similar patterns: the combination of vocabulary size and lexical access time contributed most to speech recognition performance; only for the younger group at the better SNR (yielding about 85% correct speech recognition) did vocabulary size alone predict performance. Our data suggest that successful speech recognition in noise is mainly modulated by the efficiency of lexical access. This suggests that older adults’ poorer performance in the speech recognition task may have arisen from reduced efficiency in lexical access

  9. Age-Related Differences in Lexical Access Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Rebecca; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary size has been suggested as a useful measure of "verbal abilities" that correlates with speech recognition scores. Knowing more words is linked to better speech recognition. How vocabulary knowledge translates to general speech recognition mechanisms, how these mechanisms relate to offline speech recognition scores, and how they may be modulated by acoustical distortion or age, is less clear. Age-related differences in linguistic measures may predict age-related differences in speech recognition in noise performance. We hypothesized that speech recognition performance can be predicted by the efficiency of lexical access, which refers to the speed with which a given word can be searched and accessed relative to the size of the mental lexicon. We tested speech recognition in a clinical German sentence-in-noise test at two signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), in 22 younger (18-35 years) and 22 older (60-78 years) listeners with normal hearing. We also assessed receptive vocabulary, lexical access time, verbal working memory, and hearing thresholds as measures of individual differences. Age group, SNR level, vocabulary size, and lexical access time were significant predictors of individual speech recognition scores, but working memory and hearing threshold were not. Interestingly, longer accessing times were correlated with better speech recognition scores. Hierarchical regression models for each subset of age group and SNR showed very similar patterns: the combination of vocabulary size and lexical access time contributed most to speech recognition performance; only for the younger group at the better SNR (yielding about 85% correct speech recognition) did vocabulary size alone predict performance. Our data suggest that successful speech recognition in noise is mainly modulated by the efficiency of lexical access. This suggests that older adults' poorer performance in the speech recognition task may have arisen from reduced efficiency in lexical access; with an

  10. Age-Related Differences in Evaluating Developmental Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustafic, Maida; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the hypothesis that the evaluation of developmental stability changes across adulthood. Results of Study 1 ("N" = 119) supported the expectation that older adults ("M"[subscript age] = 65.29 years)--compared to younger ("M"[subscript age] = 23.38 years) and middle-aged adults…

  11. Age-Related Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of Adult Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Barlow, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses effects of age and sex on certain acoustic properties of speech, given conflicting findings on such effects reported in prior research. The speech of 27 younger adults (15 women, 12 men; mean age 25.5 years) and 59 older adults (32 women, 27 men; mean age 75.2 years) was evaluated for identification of differences for sex and…

  12. Drusen maculopathy: a risk factor for visual deterioration.

    PubMed

    Algvere, Peep V; Kvanta, Anders; Seregard, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of visual loss after the age of 65, displays a degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and photoreceptors in the retinal centre (macula). The central macula (fovea) that contains mostly cone photoreceptors mediates the high visual acuity. Drusen maculopathy may lead to visual deterioration. Drusen are extracellular deposits of debris that accumulate on Bruch's membrane. Drusen attract inflammatory, immunological and vasoactive stimuli. RPE and photoreceptor cells overlying drusen exhibit biochemical and morphological signs of degeneration. Strong and intermittent light exposure (photons) induces the formation of free radicals in the very high oxygen tension milieu of the retina. The negative effects of irradiation stimulate accumulation of lipofuscin in RPE and photoreceptor cells leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death. A hydrophobic barrier is built up in Bruch's membrane reducing diffusion to the choroid. Hereditary and inflammatory factors modify the risk for AMD. There is a genetic dysregulation of the complement system leading to inappropriate complement activation. The genetic polymorphism of complement factor H (CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibilty 2 (ARMS2) increase the risk of progression to advanced AMD. The photoelectric effect creates free radicals, resulting in a continuous increase of lipofuscin formation and impairing mitochondrial activity. In addition, inflammation and complement dysregulation contribute to the formation of drusen and vasoproliferative reactions with neovascularization. Antioxidants neutralize reactive oxygen species and reduce lipofuscin accumulation in RPE and photoreceptor cells. For prophylactic treatment of drusen maculopathy, high doses of antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, lutein, zeaxanthine and zinc are used according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS 2). The risk of developing advanced AMD was

  13. Emphysema, Airflow Limitation and Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Knudtson, Michael D.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Barr, R. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the relationships of lung function and emphysema, measured with spirometry and computed tomography (CT) scan, to early AMD in a multi-ethnic sample of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese. Methods and Design 3,399 persons aged 45–84 years residing in six United States communities participating in a period cross-sectional study. AMD was measured from digital retinal photographs at the second Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) examination. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio were measured at the third or fourth MESA examination. Percent emphysema was measured from cardiac CT scans at baseline. Apical and basilar lung segments were defined as the cephalad or caudal regions of the lung on the cardiac CT scan. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship of lung function and structure to AMD controlling for age, gender, and other factors. Results The prevalence of early AMD was 3.7%. Early AMD was not associated with FEV1 (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI], and P value, 0.82, 0.58–1.15, P=0.25), FEV1/ FVC ratio (0.92, 0.76–1.12, 0.43), percent emphysema (1.13, 0.91–1.40, 0.26) and apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema (1.14, 0.95–1.37, 0.17). Associations were stronger in smokers. Apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema was significantly associated with early AMD among ever smokers (1.28, 1.02–1.60, 0.03). Associations were not modified by race/ethnicity. Conclusions Lung function and emphysema on CT scan were not cross-sectionally associated with AMD; this might be explained by the relatively low smoking exposure in this cohort. PMID:20385944

  14. Systemic complement activation in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Hendrik P N; Charbel Issa, Peter; Walier, Maja; Janzer, Stefanie; Pollok-Kopp, Beatrix; Börncke, Florian; Fritsche, Lars G; Chong, Ngaihang V; Fimmers, Rolf; Wienker, Thomas; Holz, Frank G; Weber, Bernhard H F; Oppermann, Martin

    2008-07-02

    Dysregulation of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement cascade has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. To further test the hypothesis that defective control of complement activation underlies AMD, parameters of complement activation in blood plasma were determined together with disease-associated genetic markers in AMD patients. Plasma concentrations of activation products C3d, Ba, C3a, C5a, SC5b-9, substrate proteins C3, C4, factor B and regulators factor H and factor D were quantified in patients (n = 112) and controls (n = 67). Subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms in factor H (CFH), factor B-C2 (BF-C2) and complement C3 (C3) genes which were previously found to be associated with AMD. All activation products, especially markers of chronic complement activation Ba and C3d (p<0.001), were significantly elevated in AMD patients compared to controls. Similar alterations were observed in factor D, but not in C3, C4 or factor H. Logistic regression analysis revealed better discriminative accuracy of a model that is based only on complement activation markers Ba, C3d and factor D compared to a model based on genetic markers of the complement system within our study population. In both the controls' and AMD patients' group, the protein markers of complement activation were correlated with CFH haplotypes.This study is the first to show systemic complement activation in AMD patients. This suggests that AMD is a systemic disease with local disease manifestation at the ageing macula. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for an association of systemic activation of the alternative complement pathway with genetic variants of CFH that were previously linked to AMD susceptibility.

  15. Stochastic modeling of deterioration in nuclear power plant components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xianxun

    2007-12-01

    The risk-based life-cycle management of engineering systems in a nuclear power plant is intended to ensure safe and economically efficient operation of energy generation infrastructure over its entire service life. An important element of life-cycle management is to understand, model and forecast the effect of various degradation mechanisms affecting the performance of engineering systems, structures and components. The modeling of degradation in nuclear plant components is confounded by large sampling and temporal uncertainties. The reason is that nuclear systems are not readily accessible for inspections due to high level of radiation and large costs associated with remote data collection methods. The models of degradation used by industry are largely derived from ordinary linear regression methods. The main objective of this thesis is to develop more advanced techniques based on stochastic process theory to model deterioration in engineering components with the purpose of providing more scientific basis to life-cycle management of aging nuclear power plants. This thesis proposes a stochastic gamma process (GP) model for deterioration and develops a suite of statistical techniques for calibrating the model parameters. The gamma process is a versatile and mathematically tractable stochastic model for a wide variety of degradation phenomena, and another desirable property is its nonnegative, monotonically increasing sample paths. In the thesis, the GP model is extended by including additional covariates and also modeling for random effects. The optimization of age-based replacement and condition-based maintenance strategies is also presented. The thesis also investigates improved regression techniques for modeling deterioration. A linear mixed-effects (LME) regression model is presented to resolve an inconsistency of the traditional regression models. The proposed LME model assumes that the randomness in deterioration is decomposed into two parts: the unobserved

  16. Aging and associative recognition: A view from the DRYAD model of age-related memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Aaron S

    2016-02-01

    How do we best characterize the memory deficits that accompany aging? A popular hypothesis, articulated originally by Naveh-Benjamin (2000) and reviewed in the accompanying article by Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016), suggests that older adults are selectively deficient in establishing associations between to-be-learned memoranda and as a result have deficits in memory for sources or contexts. An alternative proposal, called density of representations yields age-related deficits (DRYAD) and outlined in recent articles by Benjamin (2010) and colleagues (Benjamin, Diaz, Matzen, & Johnson, 2012), attributes disproportionate deficits in memory to a global, rather than a selective, deficit of memory. In an attempt to adjudicate between these competing positions, Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016) discussed 2 sets of experimental data that they claim speak against the global deficit model. Here I review some general principles of how the global-deficit view is applied to experimental paradigms and demonstrate that even a simplified form of DRYAD can comfortably accommodate the critical findings cited by Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin. I also evaluate aspects of their results that may be problematic for DRYAD and describe ways in which DRYAD's account of associative recognition can be falsified. I end with a discussion of the complementary strengths and weaknesses of the 2 approaches and consider ways in which the associative deficit hypothesis and DRYAD might work more profitably together than apart.

  17. Dosimetric implications of age related glandular changes in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, J. R.; Kotre, C. J.

    2000-03-01

    The UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme is currently organized to routinely screen women between the ages of 50 and 64, with screening for older women available on request. The lower end of this age range closely matches the median age for the menopause (51 years), during which significant changes in the composition of the breast are known to occur. In order to quantify the dosimetric effect of these changes, radiographic factors and compressed breast thickness data for a cohort of 1258 women aged between 35 and 79 undergoing breast screening mammography have been used to derive estimates of breast glandularity and mean glandular dose (MGD), and examine their variation with age. The variation of mean radiographic exposure factors with age is also investigated. The presence of a significant number of age trial women within the cohort allowed an extended age range to be studied. Estimates of MGD including corrections for breast glandularity based on compressed breast thickness only, compressed breast thickness and age and for each individual woman are compared with the MGD based on the conventional assumption of a 50:50 adipose/glandular composition. It has been found that the use of the conventional 50:50 assumption leads to overestimates of MGD of up to 13% over the age range considered. By using compressed breast thickness to estimate breast glandularity, this error range can be reduced to 8%, whilst age and compressed breast thickness based glandularity estimates result in an error range of 1%.

  18. Relations between Concurrent Longitudinal Changes in Cognition, Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health and Everyday Function in Normally Aging Octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens. PMID:27551749

  19. Oxidative stress, innate immunity, and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Peter X; Stiles, Travis; Douglas, Christopher; Ho, Daisy; Fan, Wei; Du, Hongjun; Xiao, Xu

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD is characterized by the appearance of soft drusen, as well as pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These soft, confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD: geographic atrophy (GA, or dry AMD) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV, or wet AMD). Both forms of AMD result in a similar clinical progression in terms of loss of central vision. The exact mechanism for developing early AMD, as well as triggers responsible for progressing to advanced stage of disease, is still largely unknown. However, significant evidence exists demonstrating a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as causes of AMD progression. Multiple genes and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found associated with AMD, including various genes involved in the complement pathway, lipid metabolism and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Of the known genetic contributors to disease risk, the CFH Y402H and HTRA1/ARMS polymorphisms contribute to more than 50% of the genetic risk for AMD. Environmentally, oxidative stress plays a critical role in many aging diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease and AMD. Due to the exposure to sunlight and high oxygen concentration, the oxidative stress burden is higher in the eye than other tissues, which can be further complicated by additional oxidative stressors such as smoking. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating suggesting that functional abnormalities of the innate immune system incurred via high risk genotypes may be contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD by altering the inflammatory homeostasis in the eye, specifically in the handling of oxidation products. As the eye in non-pathological instances maintains a low level of inflammation despite the presence of a relative abundance of potentially inflammatory molecules, we have

  20. Age-related macular degeneration: beyond anti-angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kent, David L

    2014-01-06

    Recently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies for neovascular age-related macular degeneration have been developed. These agents, originally developed for their anti-angiogenic mechanism of action, probably also work through an anti-permeability effect in preventing or reducing the amount of leakage from submacular neovascular tissue. Other treatment modalities include laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy with verteporfin, and submacular surgery. In reality, these latter treatments can be similarly categorized as anti-angiogenic because their sole aim is destroying or removing choroidal neovascularization (CNV). At the cellular level, CNV resembles stereotypical tissue repair that consists of several matricellular components in addition to neovascularization. In the retina, the clinical term CNV is a misnomer since the term may more appropriately be referred to as aberrant submacular repair. Furthermore, CNV raises a therapeutic conundrum: To complete or correct any reparative process in the body, angiogenesis becomes an essential component. Anti-angiogenic therapy, in all its guises, arrests repair and causes the hypoxic environment to persist, thus fueling pro-angiogenesis and further development of CNV as a component of aberrant repair. However, we realize that anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy preserves vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration, albeit temporarily and therefore, repeated treatment is needed. More importantly, however, anti-angiogenic therapy demonstrates that we can at the very least tolerate neovascular tissue beneath the macula and preserve vision in contrast to our historical approach of total vascular destruction. In this clinical scenario, it may be possible to look beyond anti-angiogenesis if our goal is facilitating submacular repair without destroying the neurosensory retina. Thus, in this situation of neovascular tolerance, it may be timely to consider treatments that facilitate

  1. Oxidative stress, innate immunity, and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Peter X.; Stiles, Travis; Douglas, Christopher; Ho, Daisy; Fan, Wei; Du, Hongjun; Xiao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD is characterized by the appearance of soft drusen, as well as pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These soft, confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD: geographic atrophy (GA, or dry AMD) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV, or wet AMD). Both forms of AMD result in a similar clinical progression in terms of loss of central vision. The exact mechanism for developing early AMD, as well as triggers responsible for progressing to advanced stage of disease, is still largely unknown. However, significant evidence exists demonstrating a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as causes of AMD progression. Multiple genes and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found associated with AMD, including various genes involved in the complement pathway, lipid metabolism and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Of the known genetic contributors to disease risk, the CFH Y402H and HTRA1/ARMS polymorphisms contribute to more than 50% of the genetic risk for AMD. Environmentally, oxidative stress plays a critical role in many aging diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and AMD. Due to the exposure to sunlight and high oxygen concentration, the oxidative stress burden is higher in the eye than other tissues, which can be further complicated by additional oxidative stressors such as smoking. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating suggesting that functional abnormalities of the innate immune system incurred via high risk genotypes may be contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD by altering the inflammatory homeostasis in the eye, specifically in the handling of oxidation products. As the eye in non-pathological instances maintains a low level of inflammation despite the presence of a relative abundance of potentially inflammatory molecules, we have

  2. Carnosine and Related Peptides: Therapeutic Potential in Age-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cararo, José H; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patricia F; Ferreira, Gustavo da C

    2015-01-01

    Imidazole dipeptides (ID), such as carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), are compounds widely distributed in excitable tissues of vertebrates. ID are also endowed of several biochemical properties in biological tissues, including antioxidant, bivalent metal ion chelating, proton buffering, and carbonyl scavenger activities. Furthermore, remarkable biological effects have been assigned to such compounds in age-related human disorders and in patients whose activity of serum carnosinase is deficient or undetectable. Nevertheless, the precise biological role of ID is still to be unraveled. In the present review we shall discuss some evidences from clinical and basic studies for the utilization of ID as a drug therapy for age-related human disorders. PMID:26425391

  3. Stereotactic radiotherapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Mahdy; Kurz, Maximilian; Holzhey, Annekatrin; Melchert, Corinna; Rades, Dirk; Grisanti, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is a new approach to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The INTREPID trial suggested that SRT could reduce the frequency of regular intravitreal injections (IVIs) with antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs, which are necessary to control disease activity. However, the efficacy of SRT in nAMD and resulting morphological changes have not been validated under real-life circumstances, an issue, which we would like to address in this retrospective analysis. Patients who met the INTREPID criteria for best responders were eligible for SRT. A total of 32 eyes of 32 patients were treated. Thereafter, patients were examined monthly for 12 months and received pro re nata IVI of aflibercept or ranibizumab. Outcome measures were: mean number of injections, best-corrected visual acuity, and morphological changes of the outer retina-choroid complex as well as patient safety. Mean number of IVI decreased by almost 50% during the 12 months after SRT compared to the year before, whereas visual acuity increased by one line (logMAR). Morphological evaluation showed that most changes affect outer retinal layers. Stereotactic radiotherapy significantly reduced IVI retreatment in nAMD patients under real-life circumstances. Therefore, SRT might be the first step to stop visual loss as a result of IVI undertreatment, which is a major risk. PMID:28033280

  4. Activity loss and depression in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of severe vision loss in older persons and is associated with high rates of disability and depression. The authors evaluated 51 patients with bilateral AMD to investigate the interrelationships of disease severity, disability, and depression and focused on loss of valued activities as an emblematic disabling consequence of AMD. They characterized depression by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score, a syndromal state based on the CES-D, and as a level of distress (Index of Affective Suffering; IAS). Thirty subjects (58.8%) had loss of a valued, discretionary activity. They had worse visual acuity and more depressive symptoms and were represented in higher IAS levels than other subjects. Visual acuity was significantly correlated with IAS levels, but not with CES-D scores or syndromal depression. A regression model demonstrated that activity loss mediated the relationship between visual acuity and IAS level. Affective distress occurs in AMD, largely to the extent that valued activities are relinquished because of vision loss. IAS levels best illuminated this relationship, suggesting the value of this dimension of affective functioning in studies of the consequences of chronic disease.

  5. Fundus Autofluorescence in Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Angelica; Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Assaad, Nagi; Kalloniatis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) provides detailed insight into the health of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). This is highly valuable in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as RPE damage is a hallmark of the disease. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise current clinical descriptions regarding the appearance of AMD using FAF and to integrate these findings into a chair-side reference. A wide variety of FAF patterns have been described in AMD, which is consistent with the clinical heterogeneity of the disease. In particular, FAF imaging in early to intermediate AMD has the capacity to reveal RPE alterations in areas that appear normal on funduscopy, which aids in the stratification of cases and may have visually significant prognostic implications. It can assist in differential diagnoses and also represents a reliable, sensitive method for distinguishing reticular pseudodrusen. FAF is especially valuable in the detection, evaluation, and monitoring of geographic atrophy and has been used as an endpoint in clinical trials. In neovascular AMD, FAF reveals distinct patterns of classic choroidal neovascularization noninvasively and may be especially useful for determining which eyes are likely to benefit from therapeutic intervention. FAF represents a rapid, effective, noninvasive imaging method that has been underutilized, and incorporation into the routine assessment of AMD cases should be considered. However, the practicing clinician should also be aware of the limitations of the modality, such as in the detection of foveal involvement and in the distinction of phenotypes (hypo-autofluorescent drusen from small areas of geographic atrophy). PMID:27668639

  6. Cellular models and therapies for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Forest, David L.; Johnson, Lincoln V.; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex neurodegenerative visual disorder that causes profound physical and psychosocial effects. Visual impairment in AMD is caused by the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells and the light-sensitive photoreceptor cells that they support. There is currently no effective treatment for the most common form of this disease (dry AMD). A new approach to treating AMD involves the transplantation of RPE cells derived from either human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. Multiple clinical trials are being initiated using a variety of cell therapies. Although many animal models are available for AMD research, most do not recapitulate all aspects of the disease, hampering progress. However, the use of cultured RPE cells in AMD research is well established and, indeed, some of the more recently described RPE-based models show promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms of AMD and for screening drug candidates. Here, we discuss innovative cell-culture models of AMD and emerging stem-cell-based therapies for the treatment of this vision-robbing disease. PMID:26035859

  7. Fundus autofluorescence in exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Peng, Q; Dong, Y; Zhao, P Q

    2013-12-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in patients with wet (exudative) age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Color fundus photographs, fundus fluorescein angiograms, indocyanine green angiograms, and FAF images were obtained from 61 patients (72 eyes) with exudative AMD. The FAF results for different patterns of exudative AMD were compared to those revealed by other fundus images. Of the 72 eyes evaluated, which were classified into three patterns based on the results of fundus fluorescein angiography, 68 had abnormal FAF. Forty-six eyes (63.9%) had classic wet AMD with abnormal FAF. Among these, 10 exhibited a slightly decreased FAF with near-normal or background FAF signal at the center of the lesion area; 36 demonstrated not only decreased FAF at the center of the lesion but also an increased FAF signal toward the lesion edge. Sixteen eyes (22.2%) had occult wet AMD, of which 12 exhibited heterogeneous fluorescence at the lesion site; 4 yielded normal FAF images. Ten eyes (13.9%) had a mixed pattern of wet AMD with abnormal FAF. FAF imaging suggested that the areas of blood and exudates decreased; however, fluorescence angiography revealed that lesions with hyperfluorescence had background or slightly increased FAF. These results showed that various patterns of wet AMD exhibit different autofluorescence characteristics. These represent the functional and metabolic features of retinal pigment epithelial cells. Therefore, FAF can be used to monitor disease development and evaluate the severity and prognosis of AMD.

  8. Age-related hearing loss increases cross-modal distractibility.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Bendixen, Alexandra; Thiel, Christiane M

    2014-10-01

    Recent electrophysiological studies have provided evidence that changes in multisensory processing in auditory cortex cannot only be observed following extensive hearing loss, but also in moderately hearing-impaired subjects. How the reduced auditory input affects audio-visual interactions is however largely unknown. Here we used a cross-modal distraction paradigm to investigate multisensory processing in elderly participants with an age-related high-frequency hearing loss as compared to young and elderly subjects with normal hearing. During the experiment, participants were simultaneously presented with independent streams of auditory and visual input and were asked to categorize either the auditory or visual information while ignoring the other modality. Unisensory sequences without any cross-modal input served as control conditions to assure that all participants were able to perform the task. While all groups performed similarly in these unisensory conditions, hearing-impaired participants showed significantly increased error rates when confronted with distracting cross-modal stimulation. This effect could be observed in both the auditory and the visual task. Supporting these findings, an additional regression analysis indicted that the degree of high-frequency hearing loss significantly modulates cross-modal visual distractibility in the auditory task. These findings provide new evidence that already a moderate sub-clinical hearing loss, a common phenomenon in the elderly population, affects the processing of audio-visual information.

  9. Seven New Loci Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genomewide association study, examining >17,100 advanced AMD cases and >60,000 controls of European and Asian ancestry. We identified 19 genomic loci associated with AMD with p<5×10−8 and enriched for genes involved in regulation of complement activity, lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Our results include 7 loci reaching p<5×10−8 for the first time, near the genes COL8A1/FILIP1L, IER3/DDR1, SLC16A8, TGFBR1, RAD51B, ADAMTS9/MIR548A2, and B3GALTL. A genetic risk score combining SNPs from all loci displayed similar good ability to distinguish cases and controls in all samples examined. Our findings provide new directions for biological, genetic and therapeutic studies of AMD. PMID:23455636

  10. Gene transfer for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Campochiaro, Peter A

    2011-05-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease that has two phases: a degenerative phase often referred to as nonneovascular AMD (non-NVAMD) or dry AMD and a phase dominated by growth of new blood vessels in the subretinal space, referred to as NVAMD or wet AMD. Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of NVAMD have led to new drug therapies that have provided major benefits to patients. However, those treatments require frequent intraocular injections that in many patients must be continued indefinitely to maintain visual benefits. Gene transfer to augment expression of endogenous antiangiogenic proteins is an alternative approach that has the potential to provide long-term stability in patients with NVAMD. Studies in animal models that mimic aspects of NVAMD have identified several possible transgenes, and a clinical trial in patients with advanced NVAMD has suggested that the approach may be feasible. Many important questions remain, but the rationale and preliminary data are compelling. The results of two ongoing clinical trials may answer several of the questions and help direct future research.

  11. Reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Ruth Esther

    2014-08-01

    Historically, drusen, which are recognized as the hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), have been described in terms of size, margins, and texture, and several studies have emphasized the importance of large soft drusen particularly when combined with focal pigmentary irregularities in determining the risk of progression to neovascular AMD. However, recent developments in imaging over the past decade have revealed a further distinct phenotype strongly associated with the development of late AMD, namely, reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) or reticular drusen. Reticular pseudodrusen appear as yellowish interlacing networks in the fundus and, although visible on color photography, are better visualized using infrared imaging or spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Studies correlating spectral domain optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy have shown that RPD are subretinal deposits located internal to the retinal pigment epithelium in contrast to traditional drusen, which are located external to the retinal pigment epithelium. As multiple longitudinal studies have revealed RPD are strong predictors for progression to both neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy, the interest in understanding the role that RPD play in the pathogenesis of AMD has grown. This review focuses on the current literature concerning RPD and considers what is currently known regarding their epidemiology, risk factors, appearance in both retinal imaging and histology, impact on visual function, relationship to other AMD lesions, and association with the development of late AMD.

  12. Automatic age-related macular degeneration detection and staging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; van de Ven, Johannes P. H.; van Ginneken, Bram; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2013-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, which mainly affects older people and leads to permanent loss of vision in advanced stages of the disease. AMD grading of non-advanced AMD patients allows risk assessment for the development of advanced AMD and enables timely treatment of patients, to prevent vision loss. AMD grading is currently performed manually on color fundus images, which is time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we propose a supervised classification method to distinguish patients at high risk to develop advanced AMD from low risk patients and provide an exact AMD stage determination. The method is based on the analysis of the number and size of drusen on color fundus images, as drusen are the early characteristics of AMD. An automatic drusen detection algorithm is used to detect all drusen. A weighted histogram of the detected drusen is constructed to summarize the drusen extension and size and fed into a random forest classifier in order to separate low risk from high risk patients and to allow exact AMD stage determination. Experiments showed that the proposed method achieved similar performance as human observers in distinguishing low risk from high risk AMD patients, obtaining areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.929 and 0.934. A weighted kappa agreement of 0.641 and 0.622 versus two observers were obtained for AMD stage evaluation. Our method allows for quick and reliable AMD staging at low costs.

  13. Seven new loci associated with age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Lars G; Chen, Wei; Schu, Matthew; Yaspan, Brian L; Yu, Yi; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zack, Donald J; Arakawa, Satoshi; Cipriani, Valentina; Ripke, Stephan; Igo, Robert P; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Sim, Xueling; Weeks, Daniel E; Guymer, Robyn H; Merriam, Joanna E; Francis, Peter J; Hannum, Gregory; Agarwal, Anita; Armbrecht, Ana Maria; Audo, Isabelle; Aung, Tin; Barile, Gaetano R; Benchaboune, Mustapha; Bird, Alan C; Bishop, Paul N; Branham, Kari E; Brooks, Matthew; Brucker, Alexander J; Cade, William H; Cain, Melinda S; Campochiaro, Peter A; Chan, Chi-Chao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chew, Emily Y; Chin, Kimberly A; Chowers, Itay; Clayton, David G; Cojocaru, Radu; Conley, Yvette P; Cornes, Belinda K; Daly, Mark J; Dhillon, Baljean; Edwards, Albert O; Evangelou, Evangelos; Fagerness, Jesen; Ferreyra, Henry A; Friedman, James S; Geirsdottir, Asbjorg; George, Ronnie J; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Neel; Hagstrom, Stephanie A; Harding, Simon P; Haritoglou, Christos; Heckenlively, John R; Holz, Frank G; Hughes, Guy; Ioannidis, John P A; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Joseph, Peronne; Jun, Gyungah; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Katsanis, Nicholas; N Keilhauer, Claudia; Khan, Jane C; Kim, Ivana K; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Kovach, Jaclyn L; Kozak, Igor; Lee, Clara J; Lee, Kristine E; Lichtner, Peter; Lotery, Andrew J; Meitinger, Thomas; Mitchell, Paul; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Moore, Anthony T; Morgan, Denise J; Morrison, Margaux A; Myers, Chelsea E; Naj, Adam C; Nakamura, Yusuke; Okada, Yukinori; Orlin, Anton; Ortube, M Carolina; Othman, Mohammad I; Pappas, Chris; Park, Kyu Hyung; Pauer, Gayle J T; Peachey, Neal S; Poch, Olivier; Priya, Rinki Ratna; Reynolds, Robyn; Richardson, Andrea J; Ripp, Raymond; Rudolph, Guenther; Ryu, Euijung; Sahel, José-Alain; Schaumberg, Debra A; Scholl, Hendrik P N; Schwartz, Stephen G; Scott, William K; Shahid, Humma; Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Silvestri, Giuliana; Sivakumaran, Theru A; Smith, R Theodore; Sobrin, Lucia; Souied, Eric H; Stambolian, Dwight E; Stefansson, Hreinn; Sturgill-Short, Gwen M; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Truitt, Barbara J; Tsironi, Evangelia E; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vijaya, Lingam; Vingerling, Johannes R; Vithana, Eranga N; Webster, Andrew R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Winkler, Thomas W; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Alan F; Zelenika, Diana; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Ling; Zhang, Kang; Klein, Michael L; Hageman, Gregory S; Lathrop, G Mark; Stefansson, Kari; Allikmets, Rando; Baird, Paul N; Gorin, Michael B; Wang, Jie Jin; Klaver, Caroline C W; Seddon, Johanna M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Iyengar, Sudha K; Yates, John R W; Swaroop, Anand; Weber, Bernhard H F; Kubo, Michiaki; Deangelis, Margaret M; Léveillard, Thierry; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Haines, Jonathan L; Farrer, Lindsay A; Heid, Iris M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2013-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate the understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genome-wide association study, including >17,100 advanced AMD cases and >60,000 controls of European and Asian ancestry. We identified 19 loci associated at P < 5 × 10(-8). These loci show enrichment for genes involved in the regulation of complement activity, lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Our results include seven loci with associations reaching P < 5 × 10(-8) for the first time, near the genes COL8A1-FILIP1L, IER3-DDR1, SLC16A8, TGFBR1, RAD51B, ADAMTS9 and B3GALTL. A genetic risk score combining SNP genotypes from all loci showed similar ability to distinguish cases and controls in all samples examined. Our findings provide new directions for biological, genetic and therapeutic studies of AMD.

  14. Two age-related accumulation profiles of toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Yasuda, Yuichi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the body burden levels of toxic metals in Japanese, five toxic metal concentrations in scalp hair samples from 28,424 subjects from infant to elderly were determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The geometric mean of hair mercury concentrations showed a high-significant age-correlated increase (r = 0.341, p < 0.0001) with a peak at the 6th decade of life and then decreased with further aging in both sexes. The mean mercury concentrations in male adults were significantly higher than those in female (p < 0.001), indicating the gender difference (male > female) in mercury accumulation. Arsenic also showed a similar accumulation profile with age dependency and gender difference in adult subjects. In contrast, cadmium, lead and aluminium exhibited another type of accumulation profile: the highest burden level was observed in infants aged 0-3 years old for every element in both sexes. In addition, cadmium was found to have a character accumulating in aged females, with significant age-dependency (r = 0.134, p < 0.0001) and gender difference (female > male). These findings suggest that toxic metals are classified into two families on the basis of their accumulation profiles, and that the three elements of mercury, arsenic and cadmium which accumulate age-dependently in adults, may play a role in aging process and higher burden with them may lead to acceleration of aging.

  15. Observations related to chronologic and gynecologic age in pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Felice, M. E.; James, M.; Shragg, P.; Hollingsworth, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    A low chronologic age (less than or equal to 15 years) and low gynecologic age (less than or equal to 2 years) have been considered factors that increase medical complications among adolescent pregnant women. Gynecologic age (GA) is defined in this study as age in years at conception minus age at menarche. Two hundred twelve consecutive pregnant teenagers were followed prospectively in the Teen OB Clinic at the University of California, San Diego Medical Center, between August 1978 and July 1981. The clinic population consisted of 37.3 percent Whites, 35.8 percent Hispanics, 20.8 percent Blacks, and 6.1 percent other (mostly Indochinese). Sixty-eight percent of the patients were funded by MediCal. The patient population was divided by chronological age (CA) at conception into those 15 years or less or 16 years or older. A low chronological age was found to be a significant risk factor for premature rupture of membranes. Teenagers with a low gynecologic age (less than or equal to 2) had a lower mean pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index (Kg/M2) than teenagers with a higher gynecologic age. In this study, we did not find that a low CA or GA was correlated with a higher frequency of pregnancy-induced hypertension, prenatal medical problems, obstetrical problems at labor or delivery, or an excessive number of low-birthweight infants. PMID:6523906

  16. 29 CFR 1926.432 - Environmental deterioration of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental deterioration of equipment. 1926.432 Section 1926.432 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical Safety-Related Maintenance and...

  17. Primary age-related tauopathy (PART): a common pathology associated with human aging

    PubMed Central

    Crary, John F.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Schneider, Julie A.; Abisambra, Jose F.; Abner, Erin L.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Arnold, Steven E.; Attems, Johannes; Beach, Thomas G.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Gearing, Marla; Grinberg, Lea T.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A.; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Knopman, David S.; Kofler, Julia; Kukull, Walter A.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann; Montine, Thomas J.; Murray, Melissa E.; Neltner, Janna H.; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Seeley, William W.; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Shelanski, Michael L.; Stein, Thor; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar R.; Toledo, Jonathan B.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; White, Charles L.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woltjer, Randall L.; Yamada, Masahito; Nelson, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    We recommend a new term, “primary age-related tauopathy” (PART), to describe a pathology that is commonly observed in the brains of aged individuals. Many autopsy studies have reported brains with neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) that are indistinguishable from those of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the absence of amyloid (Aβ) plaques. For these “NFT+/Aβ−” brains, for which formal criteria for AD neuropathologic changes are not met, the NFT are mostly restricted to structures in the medial temporal lobe, basal forebrain, brainstem, and olfactory areas (bulb and cortex). Symptoms in persons with PART usually range from normal to amnestic cognitive changes, with only a minority exhibiting profound impairment. Because cognitive impairment is often mild, existing clinicopathologic designations, such as “tangle-only dementia” and “tangle-predominant senile dementia”, are imprecise and not appropriate for most subjects. PART is almost universally detectable at autopsy among elderly individuals, yet this pathological process cannot be specifically identified pre-mortem at the present time. Improved biomarkers and tau imaging may enable diagnosis of PART in clinical settings in the future. Indeed, recent studies have identified a common biomarker profile consisting of temporal lobe atrophy and tauopathy without evidence of Aβ accumulation. For both researchers and clinicians, a revised nomenclature will raise awareness of this extremely common pathologic change while providing a conceptual foundation for future studies. Prior reports that have elucidated features of the pathologic entity we refer to as PART are discussed, and working neuropathological diagnostic criteria are proposed. PMID:25348064

  18. Age-related differences in white matter integrity and cognitive function are related to APOE status

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, despite growing evidence that ε4 increases cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine these relationships in a group of community-dwelling cognitively normal older adults. Data were obtained from a sample of 126 individuals (ages 52–92) that included 32 ε4 heterozygotes, 6 ε4 homozygotes, and 88 non-carriers. Two measures of diffusion, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), were obtained from six brain regions – frontal white matter, lateral parietal white matter, the centrum semiovale, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the temporal stem white matter – and were used to predict composite scores of cognitive function in two domains, executive function and memory function. Results indicated that ADC and FA differed with increasing age in all six brain regions, and these differences were significantly greater for ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Importantly, after controlling for age, diffusion measures predicted cognitive function in a region-specific way that was also influenced by ε4 status. Regardless of APOE status, frontal ADC and FA independently predicted executive function scores for all participants, while temporal lobe ADC additionally predicted executive function for ε4 carriers, but not noncarriers. Memory scores were predicted by temporal lobe ADC but not frontal diffusion for all participants, and this relationship was significantly stronger in ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Taken together, age and temporal lobe ADC accounted for a striking 53% of the variance in memory scores within the ε4 carrier

  19. Age-Related Evolution Patterns in Online Handwriting

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing age from handwriting (HW) has important applications, as it is key to distinguishing normal HW evolution with age from abnormal HW change, potentially triggered by neurodegenerative decline. We propose, in this work, an original approach for online HW style characterization based on a two-level clustering scheme. The first level generates writer-independent word clusters from raw spatial-dynamic HW information. At the second level, each writer's words are converted into a Bag of Prototype Words that is augmented by an interword stability measure. This two-level HW style representation is input to an unsupervised learning technique, aiming at uncovering HW style categories and their correlation with age. To assess the effectiveness of our approach, we propose information theoretic measures to quantify the gain on age information from each clustering layer. We have carried out extensive experiments on a large public online HW database, augmented by HW samples acquired at Broca Hospital in Paris from people mostly between 60 and 85 years old. Unlike previous works claiming that there is only one pattern of HW change with age, our study reveals three major aging HW styles, one specific to aged people and the two others shared by other age groups. PMID:27752277

  20. Mechanisms of aging-related proteinopathies in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Aging is the most important risk factor for human neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Pathologically, these diseases are characterized by the deposition of specific protein aggregates in neurons and glia, representing the impairment of neuronal proteostasis. However, the mechanism by which aging affects the proteostasis system and promotes protein aggregation remains largely unknown. The short lifespan and ample genetic resources of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) have made this species a favorite model organism for aging research, and the development of proteinopathy models in this organism has helped us to understand how aging processes affect protein aggregation and neurodegeneration. Here, we review the recent literature on proteinopathies in C. elegans models and discuss the insights we have gained into the mechanisms of how aging processes are integrated into the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27713398

  1. Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: a comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.

    PubMed

    Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber number, fiber type distribution and muscle specific tension), in men and male rodents at similar relative age. It appears that muscle aging in male F344*BN rat resembles that in men most; 32-35-month-old rats exhibit similar signs of muscle weakness to those of 70-80-yr-old men, and the decline in 36-38-month-old rats is similar to that in men aged over 80 yrs. For male C57BL/6 mice, age-related decline in muscle force generating capacity seems to occur only at higher relative age than in men. We conclude that the effects on determinants of muscle force differ between species as well as within species, but qualitatively show the same pattern as that observed in men.

  2. Wet age related macular degeneration management and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Alexandru, Malciolu Radu; Alexandra, Nica Maria

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is referred to as the leading cause of irreversible visual loss in developed countries, with a profound effect on the quality of life. The neovascular form of AMD is characterized by the formation of subretinal choroidal neovascularization, leading to sudden and severe visual loss. Research has identified the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as an important pathophysiological component in neovascular AMD and its intraocular inhibition as one of the most efficient therapies in medicine. The introduction of anti-VEGF as a standard treatment in wet AMD has led to a great improvement in the prognosis of patients, allowing recovery and maintenance of visual function in the vast majority of cases. However, the therapeutic benefit is accompanied by a difficulty in maintaining the treatment schedule due to the increase in the amount of patients, stress of monthly assessments, as well as the associated economic burden. Therefore, treatment strategies have evolved from fixed monthly dosing, to individualized regimens, aiming for comparable results, with fewer injections. One such protocol is called "pro re nata", or "treat and observe". Patients are given a loading dose of 3 monthly injections, followed by an as-needed decision to treat, based on the worsening of visual acuity, clinical evidence of the disease activity on fundoscopy, or OCT evidence of retinal thickening in the presence of intra or subretinal fluid. A different regimen is called "treat and extend", in which the interval between injections is gradually increased, once the disease stabilization is achieved. This paper aims to review the currently available anti-VEGF agents--bevacizumab, ranibizumab, aflibercept, and the aforementioned treatment strategies.

  3. New Treatment Greatly Improves Prognosis for Patients with AMD (Age-Related Macular Degeneration)

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Age-related Macular Degeneration New Treatment Greatly Improves Prognosis for Patients with AMD ... Eye Institute Photo Courtesy of: NEI In a new study of nearly 650 people with age-related ...

  4. How to Prevent Microfilm from Deteriorating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrie, Milton I.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests optimum environmental conditions (temperature, humidity), microfilm reader specifications, and handling, cleaning, repairing, and storing procedures to prevent the early deterioration of microfilm. (MBR)

  5. Effect of chronic piracetam on age-related changes of cross-maze exploration in mice.

    PubMed

    Salimov, R; Salimova, N; Shvets, L; Shvets, N

    1995-11-01

    Normal aging is known to deteriorate memory, spatial orientation, and perceptual recognition. Experiment 1 examined behavioral manifestations of aging by using a cross-maze exploration test in 2-, 6-, and 10-month-old hybrid mice (CBA x C57BL). A decrease in explorative patrolling and an increase in arm reentries, a latency to start and a total time of exploration were found in 10-month-old mice. In Experiment 2, administration of the cognition enhancer piracetam (2-oxo-1-pirrolidone acetamide) (400 mg/kg, IP, once a day for 10 days) enhanced arm patrolling and decreased reentries in 10-month-old mice to the level displayed by the 2-month-old animals. The results suggest that the cross-maze test may be useful for a preliminary screening of antisenescent drugs.

  6. Crosscutting relations and relative ages of ridges and faults in the Tharsis region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, T. R.; Maxwell, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a detailed photogeologic analysis and classification of ridge-fault cross-cutting relationships on ridged plains units of the Tharsis region is reported. The problems involved in using the morphology of ridge-fault intersections to determine relative timing of structural events are discussed. The implications of using intersection angles as well as morphology to determine possible age relationships for the tectonic history of the region are presented. It is concluded that the major ridge-forming events in the Tharsis region were roughly coincident with, and possibly prior to, the extensional events that produced the faulting of the Tempe and Mareotis regions, the Coprates and Memnonia regions, and the rifting of the Valles Marineris. The compressional events that formed most of the ridges are restricted in time both by their relationship to regional extensional events and by the age of the units on which they formed.

  7. Age-related changes in meat tenderness and tissue pentosidine: effect of diet restriction and aminoguanidine in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Kenney, P B; Klandorf, H

    1999-09-01

    The nonenzymatic glycosylation of tissue protein contributes to the formation of crosslinks that leads to structural and functional deterioration in the long-lived tissue protein, collagen. The accumulation of these crosslinks thus contributes to the objectionable toughness of meat from aged animals, decreases its economic value, and limits its use in whole muscle foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of diet restriction and the crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), on reducing the accumulation of crosslinks, thereby improving meat tenderness in broiler breeder hens. The glycoxidation product, pentosidine, was also measured in skin (Ps) to determine whether changes in its concentrations correlated with the changes in shear value (SV). Chicks (n = 450) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups from 8 to 125 wk after hatch: ad libitum (AL), diet restricted (DR), AL and DR groups supplemented with 400 ppm AG each (AL+AG and DR+AG, respectively). Shear value was measured with an Instron Universal Mechanical Machine. Skin pentosidine was isolated by reverse phase HPLC. There was an age-related, linear increase in SV (P<0.0001, r = 0.96), which correlated (r = 0.86) with the age-related increase in Ps in AL hens. Diet restriction retarded SV (P<0.0001) over the sampling period. In general, SV values for AL+AG were similar to those measured in DR, whereas no additive effect was observed for AG in DR birds. It was concluded that there was a linear increase in meat toughness (SV) with age that correlates with the accumulation of Ps, and that the decline in meat tenderness can be retarded by DR or AG. Secondly, the effect of DR on accumulation of Ps was so pronounced that AG supplementation did not further enhance this effect.

  8. Factors related to onset age of Huntington disease.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, R H; Madden, J J; Teague, J L; Falek, A

    1982-01-01

    One prominent feature of Huntington disease (HD) is the variable age at which the characteristic neurological or psychiatric symptoms appear. Ages of manifestation varying from 4 to 65 years are found in a sample of 95 HD pedigrees compiled since 1968 from the Southeastern United States. Significant parent-child correlations of age of onset indicate consistency of onset age within nuclear families. However, an average intrafamily range of 9 years and an average intrapedigree range of 12 years reveal substantial variability of onset age within these groups. Of the nine cases of juvenile-onset HD identified in this sample, seven were of paternal descent. The preponderance of juvenile patients inheriting the HD gene from a father confirms similar findings from other studies. In addition, a trend toward earlier onset in all offspring of paternal transmission suggests that the juvenile-onset phenomenon is only the tail of a shift in the curve of onset ages for this group. A trend toward earlier onset in successive generations was noted. This "anticipation" may reflect the finding that persons of early onset in prior generations are selectively nonreproductive as a result of manifestation of the disorder. By identifying familial factors influencing onset age of HD, it may be possible to more effectively evaluate environmental factors that influence the onset of the disorder. PMID:6211092

  9. Does job insecurity deteriorate health?

    PubMed

    Caroli, Eve; Godard, Mathilde

    2016-02-01

    This paper estimates the causal effect of perceived job insecurity - that is, the fear of involuntary job loss - on health in a sample of men from 22 European countries. We rely on an original instrumental variable approach on the basis of the idea that workers perceive greater job security in countries where employment is strongly protected by the law and more so if employed in industries where employment protection legislation is more binding; that is, in induastries with a higher natural rate of dismissals. Using cross-country data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey, we show that, when the potential endogeneity of job insecurity is not accounted for, the latter appears to deteriorate almost all health outcomes. When tackling the endogeneity issue by estimating an instrumental variable model and dealing with potential weak-instrument issues, the health-damaging effect of job insecurity is confirmed for a limited subgroup of health outcomes; namely, suffering from headaches or eyestrain and skin problems. As for other health variables, the impact of job insecurity appears to be insignificant at conventional levels.

  10. [Age-related characteristics of structural support for ovarian function].

    PubMed

    Koval'skiĭ, G B

    1984-12-01

    Histoenzymological assay was used to investigate various structures of the ovaries of rats of two groups aged 3-4 and 12-14 months during estral cycle. The activity of 3 beta-, 17 beta- and 20 alpha-steroid dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD and NADP-diaphorases, esterase, acid and alkaline phosphatases was studied. It has been shown that transport alterations in the microcirculation including the hematofollicular barrier play, the leading part in age-dependent depression of reproductive and endocrine functions. Ageing rats demonstrated no linkage between endothelial, thecal and granular cells, which points to the injury of the histophysiological mechanisms of the follicular system integration.

  11. Oxidative stress and epigenetic regulation in ageing and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Cencioni, Chiara; Spallotta, Francesco; Martelli, Fabio; Valente, Sergio; Mai, Antonello; Zeiher, Andreas M; Gaetano, Carlo

    2013-08-28

    Recent statistics indicate that the human population is ageing rapidly. Healthy, but also diseased, elderly people are increasing. This trend is particularly evident in Western countries, where healthier living conditions and better cures are available. To understand the process leading to age-associated alterations is, therefore, of the highest relevance for the development of new treatments for age-associated diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer and cardiovascular accidents. Mechanistically, it is well accepted that the accumulation of intracellular damage determined by reactive oxygen species (ROS) might orchestrate the progressive loss of control over biological homeostasis and the functional impairment typical of aged tissues. Here, we review how epigenetics takes part in the control of stress stimuli and the mechanisms of ageing physiology and physiopathology. Alteration of epigenetic enzyme activity, histone modifications and DNA-methylation is, in fact, typically associated with the ageing process. Specifically, ageing presents peculiar epigenetic markers that, taken altogether, form the still ill-defined "ageing epigenome". The comprehension of mechanisms and pathways leading to epigenetic modifications associated with ageing may help the development of anti-ageing therapies.

  12. Neural correlates of cognitive aging during the perception of facial age: the role of relatively distant and local texture information

    PubMed Central

    Komes, Jessica; Schweinberger, Stefan R.; Wiese, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) research revealed that older relative to younger adults show reduced inversion effects in the N170 (with more negative amplitudes for inverted than upright faces), suggestive of impairments in face perception. However, as these studies used young to middle-aged faces only, this finding may reflect preferential processing of own- relative to other-age faces rather than age-related decline. We conducted an ERP study in which young and older participants categorized young and old upright or inverted faces by age. Stimuli were presented either unfiltered or low-pass filtered at 30, 20, or 10 cycles per image (CPI). Response times revealed larger inversion effects, with slower responses for inverted faces, for young faces in young participants. Older participants did not show a corresponding effect. ERPs yielded a trend toward reduced N170 inversion effects in older relative to younger adults independent of face age. Moreover, larger inversion effects for young relative to old faces were detected, and filtering resulted in smaller N170 amplitudes. The reduced N170 inversion effect in older adults may reflect age-related changes in neural correlates of face perception. A smaller N170 inversion effect for old faces may indicate that facial changes with age hamper early face perception stages. PMID:26441790

  13. Age-Related Psychophysical Changes and Low Vision

    PubMed Central

    Dagnelie, Gislin

    2013-01-01

    When considering the burden of visual impairment on aging individuals and society at large, it is important to bear in mind that vision changes are a natural aspect of aging. In this article, we consider vision changes that are part of normal aging, the prevalence of abnormal vision changes caused by disorders of the visual system, and the anticipated incidence and impact of visual impairment as the US population ages. We then discuss the services available to reduce the impact of vision loss, and the extent to which those services can and should be improved, not only to be better prepared for the anticipated increase in low vision over the coming decades, but also to increase the awareness of interactions between visual impairment and comorbidities that are common among the elderly. Finally, we consider how to promote improved quality, availability, and acceptance of low vision care to lessen the impact of visual impairment on individuals, and its burden on society. PMID:24335074

  14. Primary and secondary haemostasis changes related to aging.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Cesar; Palomo, Iván; Fuentes, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Life expectancy has increased in many countries as a result the world's population is aging. The projections indicate that the proportion of the elderly in a few decades will increase significantly. Aging carries with it a series of physiological changes; one of them is an imbalance in the hemostatic system. Thus the levels or activity of various proteins involved, such as most coagulation factors, natural anticoagulants and the fibrinolytic system are altered so that the hemostatic balance leans toward thrombosis. Also, platelet activity suggests a state of abnormal activation (P-selectin, beta thromboglobulin and platelet factor). In this review we will systematically examine the alterations in the hemostatic components that occur during aging. Therefore, understanding these hemostatic changes could contribute to developing strategies for the proper management of health in old age.

  15. Does eating particular diets alter risk of age-related macular degeneration in users of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study supplements?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Recent information suggests that the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) supplement, enhanced intake of omega-3 fatty acids, and diminishing dietary glycemic index (dGI) are protective against advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Dietary information was collected a...

  16. Evidence of aging effects on certain safety-related components

    SciTech Connect

    Magleby, H.L.; Atwood, C.L.; MacDonald, P.E.; Edson, J.L.; Bramwell, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    In response to interest shown by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Principal Working Group I (PWG- 1) of the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) conducted a generic study on the effects of aging of active components in nuclear power plants. (This focus on active components is consistent with PWG-l`s mandate; passive components are primarily within the mandate of PWG-3.) Representatives from France, Sweden, Finland, Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom participated in the study by submitting reports documenting aging studies performed in their countries. This report consists of summaries of those reports, along with a comparison of the various statistical analysis methods used in the studies. The studies indicate that with some exceptions, active components generally do not present a significant aging problem in nuclear power plants. Design criteria and effective preventative maintenance programs, including timely replacement of components, are effective in mitigating potential aging problems. However, aging studies (such as qualitative and statistical analyses of failure modes and maintenance data) are an important part of efforts to identify and solve potential aging problems. Solving these problems typically includes such strategies as replacing suspect components with improved components, and implementing improved maintenance programs.

  17. Dietary and genetic effects on age-related loss of gene silencing reveal epigenetic plasticity of chromatin repression during aging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Tobias, Ethan; Wood, Jason G; Whitaker, Rachel; Neretti, Nicola; Helfand, Stephen L

    2013-11-01

    During aging, changes in chromatin state that alter gene transcription have been postulated to result in expression of genes that are normally silenced, leading to deleterious age-related effects on cellular physiology. Despite the prevalence of this hypothesis, it is primarily in yeast that loss of gene silencing with age has been well documented. We use a novel position effect variegation (PEV) reporter in Drosophila melanogaster to show that age-related loss of repressive heterochromatin is associated with loss of gene silencing in metazoans and is affected by Sir2, as it is in yeast. The life span-extending intervention, calorie restriction (CR), delays the age-related loss of gene silencing, indicating that loss of gene silencing is a component of normal aging. Diet switch experiments show that such flies undergo a rapid change in their level of gene silencing, demonstrating the epigenetic plasticity of chromatin during aging and highlighting the potential role of diet and metabolism in chromatin maintenance, Thus, diet and related interventions may be of therapeutic importance for age-related diseases, such as cancer.

  18. Network condition simulator for benchmarking sewer deterioration models.

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, A; Hug, T; Rieckermann, J; Maurer, M

    2011-10-15

    An accurate description of aging and deterioration of urban drainage systems is necessary for optimal investment and rehabilitation planning. Due to a general lack of suitable datasets, network condition models are rarely validated, and if so with varying levels of success. We therefore propose a novel network condition simulator (NetCoS) that produces a synthetic population of sewer sections with a given condition-class distribution. NetCoS can be used to benchmark deterioration models and guide utilities in the selection of appropriate models and data management strategies. The underlying probabilistic model considers three main processes: a) deterioration, b) replacement policy, and c) expansions of the sewer network. The deterioration model features a semi-Markov chain that uses transition probabilities based on user-defined survival functions. The replacement policy is approximated with a condition-class dependent probability of replacing a sewer pipe. The model then simulates the course of the sewer sections from the installation of the first line to the present, adding new pipes based on the defined replacement and expansion program. We demonstrate the usefulness of NetCoS in two examples where we quantify the influence of incomplete data and inspection frequency on the parameter estimation of a cohort survival model and a Markov deterioration model. Our results show that typical available sewer inventory data with discarded historical data overestimate the average life expectancy by up to 200 years. Although NetCoS cannot prove the validity of a particular deterioration model, it is useful to reveal its possible limitations and shortcomings and quantifies the effects of missing or uncertain data. Future developments should include additional processes, for example to investigate the long-term effect of pipe rehabilitation measures, such as inliners.

  19. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was…

  20. Sociological effects on vocal aging: Age related F0 effects in two languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Kyoko

    2005-04-01

    Listeners can estimate the age of a speaker fairly accurately from their speech (Ptacek and Sander, 1966). It is generally considered that this perception is based on physiologically determined aspects of the speech. However, the degree to which it is due to conventional sociolinguistic aspects of speech is unknown. The current study examines the degree to which fundamental frequency (F0) changes due to advanced aging across two language groups of speakers. It also examines the degree to which the speakers associate these changes with aging in a voice disguising task. Thirty native speakers each of English and Japanese, taken from three age groups, read a target phrase embedded in a carrier sentence in their native language. Each speaker also read the sentence pretending to be 20-years younger or 20-years older than their own age. Preliminary analysis of eighteen Japanese speakers indicates that the mean and maximum F0 values increase when the speakers pretended to be younger than when they pretended to be older. Some previous studies on age perception, however, suggested that F0 has minor effects on listeners' age estimation. The acoustic results will also be discussed in conjunction with the results of the listeners' age estimation of the speakers.

  1. Affect Trumps Age: A Person-in-Context Relational View of Age and Motivation in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfenninger, Simone E.; Singleton, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings (see, for example, Muñoz and Singleton, 2011) indicate that age of onset is not a strong determinant of instructed foreign language (FL) learners' achievement and that age is intricately connected with social and psychological factors shaping the learner's overall FL experience. The present study, accordingly, takes a…

  2. Macular xanthophylls, lipoprotein-related genes, and age-related macular degeneration1234

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Euna; Neuringer, Martha; SanGiovanni, John Paul

    2014-01-01

    Plant-based macular xanthophylls (MXs; lutein and zeaxanthin) and the lutein metabolite meso-zeaxanthin are the major constituents of macular pigment, a compound concentrated in retinal areas that are responsible for fine-feature visual sensation. There is an unmet need to examine the genetics of factors influencing regulatory mechanisms and metabolic fates of these 3 MXs because they are linked to processes implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this work we provide an overview of evidence supporting a molecular basis for AMD-MX associations as they may relate to DNA sequence variation in AMD- and lipoprotein-related genes. We recognize a number of emerging research opportunities, barriers, knowledge gaps, and tools offering promise for meaningful investigation and inference in the field. Overviews on AMD- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)–related genes encoding receptors, transporters, and enzymes affecting or affected by MXs are followed with information on localization of products from these genes to retinal cell types manifesting AMD-related pathophysiology. Evidence on the relation of each gene or gene product with retinal MX response to nutrient intake is discussed. This information is followed by a review of results from mechanistic studies testing gene-disease relations. We then present findings on relations of AMD with DNA sequence variants in MX-associated genes. Our conclusion is that AMD-associated DNA variants that influence the actions and metabolic fates of HDL system constituents should be examined further for concomitant influence on MX absorption, retinal tissue responses to MX intake, and the capacity to modify MX-associated factors and processes implicated in AMD pathogenesis. PMID:24829491

  3. The Stealth Gerontology [TM] Program: Training Teachers to Infuse Aging and Age-Related Content into Public School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruski, Linda A.; Plaetke, Rosemarie; Cheryl L.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Lichtenstein, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Preparing youngsters for an aging society requires teachers who keep pace with health science research. The Stealth Gerontology [TM] program educates teachers regarding aging-related issues. The design and assessment of the program are reported in this paper. Teachers attended sessions including direct instruction and hands-on participation (e.g.,…

  4. The Stealth Gerontologytm Program[TM]: Training Teachers to Infuse Aging and Age-Related Content into Public School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruski, Linda A.; Plaetke, Rosemarie; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Lichtenstein, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Preparing youngsters for an aging society requires teachers who keep pace with health science research. The Stealth Gerontology[TM] program educates teachers regarding aging-related issues. The design and assessment of the program are reported in this paper. Teachers attended sessions including direct instruction and hands-on participation (e.g.,…

  5. The Difference that Age Makes: Cultural Factors that Shape Older Adults' Responses to Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogk, Marja

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that approaching vision loss from age-related macular degeneration from a sociocultural perspective, specifically considering perceptions of aging, blindness, disability, and generational viewpoints and norms, may be critical to understanding older adults' responses to vision loss and visual rehabilitation.

  6. 40 CFR 1033.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... analysis, explain why this is appropriate and include a statement that all data, analyses, evaluations, and... deterioration factors as described in this section, either with an engineering analysis, with pre-existing test data, or with new emission measurements. The deterioration factors are intended to reflect...

  7. 40 CFR 1033.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... analysis, explain why this is appropriate and include a statement that all data, analyses, evaluations, and... deterioration factors as described in this section, either with an engineering analysis, with pre-existing test data, or with new emission measurements. The deterioration factors are intended to reflect...

  8. Age-related oxidative stress compromises endosomal proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Cannizzo, Elvira S; Clement, Cristina C; Morozova, Kateryna; Valdor, Rut; Kaushik, Susmita; Almeida, Larissa N; Follo, Carlo; Sahu, Ranjit; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Macian, Fernando; Santambrogio, Laura

    2012-07-26

    A hallmark of aging is an imbalance between production and clearance of reactive oxygen species and increased levels of oxidatively damaged biomolecules. Herein, we demonstrate that splenic and nodal antigen-presenting cells purified from aging mice accumulate oxidatively modified proteins with side-chain carbonylation, advanced glycation end products, and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, we show that the endosomal accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins interferes with the efficient processing of exogenous antigens and degradation of macroautophagy-delivered proteins. In support of a causative role for oxidized products in the inefficient immune response, a decrease in oxidative stress improved the adaptive immune response to immunizing antigens. These findings underscore a previously unrecognized negative effect of age-dependent changes in cellular proteostasis on the immune response.

  9. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Lovat, L B

    1996-01-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  10. Age-related differences in stepping performance during step cycle-related removal of vision.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G J; Hollands, M A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are age-related changes in the ability of individuals to use vision to plan (feedforward control) and guide (on-line control) foot placement during locomotion. This aim was achieved by constraining the availability of vision and comparing the effects on the stepping performances of older and young adults during a precision stepping task. We experimentally controlled the availability of visual information such that: (1) vision was only available during each stance phase of the targeting limb, (2) vision was only available during each swing phase of the targeting limb or (3) vision was always available. Our visual manipulations had relatively little effect on younger adults' stepping performance as demonstrated by their missing the target on less than 10% of occasions. However, there were clear visual condition-related differences in older adults' stepping performance. When vision was only available during the stance phase of the targeting limb, older adults demonstrated significantly larger foot placement error and associated task failure rate (23%) than trials in which vision was always available (10%). There was an even greater increase in older adults' foot placement error and task failure rate (42%) during trials in which vision was only available in the swing phase than the other visual conditions. These findings suggest that older adults need vision at particular times during the step cycle, to effectively pre-plan future stepping movements. We discuss the evidence that these age-related changes in performance reflect decline in visual and visuomotor CNS pathways.

  11. Tocotrienol rich fraction reverses age-related deficits in spatial learning and memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Taridi, Nursiati Mohamad; Abd Rani, Nazirah; Abd Latiff, Azian; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Mazlan, Musalmah

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the effect of vitamin E on brain function. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on behavioral impairment and oxidative stress in aged rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats (young: 3-months-old; aged: 21-months-old) were treated with either the control (olive oil) or TRF (200 mg/kg) for 3 months. Behavioral studies were performed using the open field test and Morris water maze (MWM) task. Blood was taken for assessment of DNA damage, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity. Brains were also collected to measure vitamin E levels. Results showed that aged rats exhibited reduced exploratory activity, enhanced anxiety and decreased spatial learning and memory compared with young rats. DNA damage and plasma MDA were increased, and vitamin E levels in plasma and brain were reduced in aged rats. Aged rats supplemented with TRF showed a markedly reduced level of anxiety, improved spatial learning and memory, reduced amount and severity of DNA damage, a reduced level of MDA, and increased levels of antioxidant enzyme activity and plasma/brain vitamin E compared with age-matched controls. In conclusion, TRF supplementation reverses spatial learning and memory decline and decreases oxidative stress in aged rats.

  12. Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in relation to age and use of pedelecs.

    PubMed

    Boele-Vos, M J; Commandeur, J J F; Twisk, D A M

    2016-12-16

    To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in a field experiment. Two instrumented bicycles, a conventional bicycle and a pedelec, were used. Mental workload of cyclists in two age groups - 30-45 years and 65 years and over - was measured by means of a secondary cognitive task requiring the detection and reaction to visual stimuli on a cycle route that varied in physical effort and task complexity. We expected physical effort to impair performance on the secondary task in complex traffic sections and not in simple sections, and that this impairment would be greater for older cyclists because of age related reduced muscle strength than for younger cyclists. We expected this impairment to be smaller if a pedelec was used. If such would be the case, this would indicate pedelecs to be beneficial for this older age group, because of a lower mental workload. Our study confirmed that increased physical effort in complex traffic sections deteriorated the detection of relevant stimuli in both age groups. Overall, older cyclists had longer reaction times and lower hit rates than younger cyclists. Mental workloads of cyclists are basically the same when cycling on a conventional bicycle or on a pedelec. In theory, pedelecs may be beneficial to reduce physical effort in cycling in order to maintain enough mental capacity to handle complex traffic situations. However, this study did not demonstrate these benefits. As pedelecs are often used for longer trips, by elderly with low muscle strength, future studies should also explore the effect of higher physical effort over longer periods of time, and also specifically in elderly with low muscle strength.

  13. Safety and Tolerability Study of AAV2-sFLT01 in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-20

    Macular Degeneration; Age-Related Maculopathies; Age-Related Maculopathy; Maculopathies, Age-Related; Maculopathy, Age-Related; Retinal Degeneration; Retinal Neovascularization; Gene Therapy; Therapy, Gene; Eye Diseases

  14. Age-Related Patient Preferences for Physician Communication Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hair, H. Dan; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between patient age and preference for physician communication style in 303 adults. Results showed that, while most patients prefer a high degree of both information and affect, older patients prefer a low-information/high affect strategy. Results may indicate the presence of receiver apprehension in elderly patients.…

  15. Age-Related Differences in complex Monitoring Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    of- a low density oF active eccrine sweat glands in this age group and not necessarily an indication of lower autonomic arousal. If this is the case...and T. E. Bowman: Comparisons of Sweat Gland Counts, Electrodermal Activity, and liabitua- tion Behavior in Young and Old Groups of Subjects

  16. Age-Related Variability in Cortical Activity during Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridriksson, Julius; Morrow, K. Leigh; Moser, Dana; Baylis, Gordon C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the extent of cortical activity during overt picture naming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Participants comprised 20 healthy, adult participants with ages ranging from 20 to 82 years. While undergoing fMRI, participants completed a picture-naming task consisting of 60…

  17. Age-related radiological imaging in children with acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Mohammad; Mastin, Suzanne T; Richard, George A

    2002-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) using clinical and laboratory parameters is often difficult in children. The aims of this retrospective study were twofold. Firstly, to correlate the clinical and laboratory manifestations of APN with the results of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan in different age groups. Secondly, to compare the DMSA renal scan, renal ultrasonography (RUS), and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in patients with clinical APN. The DMSA renal scan was utilized as the gold standard for renal involvement. We determined the sensitivity of these tests in febrile urinary tract infections (UTI) in three age groups: group I less than 2 years; group II 2-8 years; group III older than 8 years. During the period January 1992 through December 1998, 222 children presented with a febrile UTI. All patients had a DMSA renal scan, 208 had contrast VCUG, and 163 had RUS. The clinical and laboratory manifestation of pyelonephritis correlated better with a positive DMSA renal scan in the older children than in the younger children; 85% of the DMSA renal scans were positive in group III; 69% in group II; 48% in group I (P<0.001). Vesicoureteral reflux detected by contrast VCUG was more prevalent in the younger age groups. Although high grades of reflux (grade IV-V) correlated better with a positive DMSA renal scan, it did not reach a level of statistical significance (P>0.05). RUS did not correlate with a positive DMSA renal scan in any age group.

  18. Examining the Relation between Hearing Loss and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefferly, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A decline in social engagement has a negative impact on numerous elements considered critical for successful aging. Because many social and productive activities require effective communication skills for individuals to remain fully engaged, it was hypothesized that self-perceived hearing problems limit the frequency of engagement in social and…

  19. Relative importance of aerobic versus resistance training for healthy aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review will focus on the importance of aerobic and resistance modes of physical activity for healthy aging as supported by findings in 2007. In line with public health recommendations, several studies in 2007 employed an exercise paradigm that combined both modes of physical activity. While a...

  20. AGING-RELATED CARBARYL EFFECTS IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid increase in older adults in the population highlights the importance ofunderstanding the role of aging in susceptibility to environmental contaminants. Aspart of a larger research program on life-stage susceptibility, this experiment determined the effect of the carbama...

  1. [Age-related characteristics of experimental hypothyroidism in rats].

    PubMed

    Hromakova, I A; Zil'berman, S Ts; Konovalenko, O O

    2002-01-01

    The rate of both the synthesis of liver and plasma proteins and RNA-1 and RNA-2 polymerase activities in liver were studied in rats of various ages at experimental hypothyroidism. There has been marked more significant decrease in plasma protein synthesis with age. Both the rate of liver and plasma protein synthesis have been shown to be reduced at experimental hypothyroidism but synthesis of plasma proteins was inhibited to a greater extent. Considerable changes were observed neither in liver and plasma protein synthesis nor in the balance between these two groups of the protein synthesis in old rats. RNA-1 and RNA-2 polymerase activities decreased at hypothyroidism. At all ages the activity of bound enzymes decreased to a larger extent as compared to free forms. The activity of RNA-polymerase 2 was more inhibited than that of RNA-polymerase 1. Reducing protein- and RNA-synthetic processes in the liver with age correlated with the peculiarities of the carbohydrate metabolism: in those young animals with an impaired glucose tolerance the inhibitory effect of hypothyroidism on the intensity of protein and RNA synthesis was more potent as compared to old animals.

  2. Age-Related Differences in Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lea, Eunkyoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2013-01-01

    Korean adolescents experience considerable stress because of an educational system that focuses primarily on college entrance examinations, pressure for academic achievement, and a competitive atmosphere in school. The main purpose of this study was to explore age differences in the construct of Korean adolescents' academic burnout. Once…

  3. Vision rehabilitation for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Park, W

    1999-01-01

    Though the numbers of patients with ARMD are high, associated referrals for vision rehabilitation are not. Practitioners need to refer patients with age-related maculopathy when medical and surgical treatment are no longer possible, and patients need to be educated to that fact. The impact of improving activities of daily living may be monumental and benefits society as a whole. People who are visually impaired are often ill-prepared to deal with the substantial adjustment involved, further stressing their entire support system. It may not be safe for visual and systemic reasons for older adults to cook, clean, and maintain their home. Poor vision contributes to the already increased risk of falls and subsequent fractures in these patients. Individuals who may have already been told they can no longer drive now face the possibility of being unable to live in their houses. Their independence may be threatened dramatically and abruptly. All these circumstances contribute to anxiety and depression. Patients with ARMD need to be educated about their disease process (teaching that can never be assumed to have been initiated). They need to be educated that they will not go completely blind and that, with assistance, they can accomplish a great deal. With today's technology, it is not difficult to help visually impaired individuals with ARMD, unless they are not referred or lack motivation. The primary complaint of an individual with ARMD is recognition of central detail. This affects all activities of daily living, and patient performance is subject to the duration and severity of the disease (including the size, density, and location of the central scotoma) and to their understanding of the disease. Rubin and coworkers, found that slow reading performance of patients with a dense central scotoma might reflect inherent limitations of peripheral retina for complex visual tasks. ARMD in most cases lends itself to magnification that enlarges the object beyond the blind spot

  4. Nutritional interventions protect against age-related deficits in behavior: from animals to humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks. Similar changes in behavior occur in humans with age, and the development of methods to retard or reverse these age-related neuronal and behavioral deficits could increase healthy aging and decrease health care costs. In the present s...

  5. Critical Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species in Age-Related Impairment in Ischemia-Induced Neovascularization by Regulating Stem and Progenitor Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Yuen Ting

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate bone marrow microenvironment for stem and progenitor cells functions including self-renewal, differentiation, and cell senescence. In response to ischemia, ROS also play a critical role in mediating the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from the bone marrow to the sites of ischemic injury, which contributes to postnatal neovascularization. Aging is an unavoidable biological deteriorative process with a progressive decline in physiological functions. It is associated with increased oxidative stress and impaired ischemia-induced neovascularization. This review discusses the roles of ROS in regulating stem and progenitor cell function, highlighting the impact of unbalanced ROS levels on EPC dysfunction and the association with age-related impairment in ischemia-induced neovascularization. Furthermore, it discusses strategies that modulate the oxidative levels of stem and progenitor cells to enhance the therapeutic potential for elderly patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:26697140

  6. Relation of arterial stiffness with gestational age and birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Y; Wong, K; Lam, B.; Tsoi, N

    2004-01-01

    Background: The cardiovascular risk of individuals who are born small as a result of prematurity remains controversial. Given the previous findings of stiffer peripheral conduit arteries in growth restricted donor twins in twin–twin transfusion syndrome regardless of gestational age, we hypothesised that among children born preterm, only those with intrauterine growth retardation are predisposed to an increase in cardiovascular risks. Aim: To compare brachioradial arterial stiffness and systemic blood pressure (BP) among children born preterm and small for gestational age (group 1, n = 15), those born preterm but having birth weight appropriate for gestational age (group 2, n = 36), and those born at term with birth weight appropriate for gestational age (group 3, n = 35). Methods: Systemic BP was measured by an automated device (Dinamap), while stiffness of the brachioradial arterial segment was assessed by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV). The birth weight was adjusted for gestational age and expressed as a z score for analysis. Results: The 86 children were studied at a mean (SD) age of 8.2 (1.7) years. Subjects from group 1, who were born at 32.3 (2.0) weeks' gestation had a significantly lower z score of birth weight (-2.29 (0.63), p<0.001), compared with those from groups 2 and 3. They had a significantly higher mean blood pressure (p<0.001) and their diastolic blood pressure also tended to be higher (p = 0.07). Likewise, their brachioradial PWV, and hence arterial stiffness, was the highest of the three groups (p<0.001). While subjects from group 2 were similarly born preterm, their PWV was not significantly different from that of group 3 subjects (p = 1.00) and likewise their z score of birth weight did not differ (-0.01 (0.71) v -0.04 (1.1), p = 1.00). Brachioradial PWV correlated significantly with systolic (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), diastolic (r = 0.38, p<0.001), and mean (0.47, p<0.001) BP, and with z score of birth weight (r = -0.43, p<0

  7. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  8. Relative age effect and soccer refereeing: a 'strategic adaptation' of relatively younger children?

    PubMed

    Delorme, Nicolas; Radel, Rémi; Raspaud, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggested that the relative age effect (RAE) has a psychological influence on children and their decision to engage in a particular sport. Relatively younger children seem to have lower self-esteem. Indeed, because of the disadvantages of being younger, it is assumed that these players experience more situations of failure and inferiority. Because of these negative performance cues, it is likely that these young players feel less competent, which eventually leads to a higher dropout rate. These children can also decide to participate in sports in which physical attributes are less important. This shift from one sport to another can be interpreted as a 'strategic adaptation'. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate whether refereeing could be another form of 'strategic adaptation'. If a child chooses a specific sport but then does not feel competent enough to be a player, refereeing might be an alternate path followed to stay in the environment of a sport they like. Given the minimal age limits for refereeing, two hypotheses were formulated: (1) 'reversed' RAE would be observed in district referees younger than 18 years old and (2) no RAE would be observed in district referees older than 18 years old, regional referees and national referees. The birthdates of all official male soccer referees (n=13,952) were collected from the federation database. Results show that the distribution of all district referees was significantly unbalanced (χ(2)=18.73, df=3, P<0.001) with an over-representation of individuals who were born in the second half of the competitive year. As expected, this imbalance was exclusively located in district referees of 18 years old and less (χ(2)=8.03, df=3, P<0.05), while the distribution was uniform for adults (χ(2)=5.17, df=3, P<0.16). Concerning regional referees (χ(2)=2.09, df=3, P<0.554) and national referees (χ(2)=3.75, df=3, P<0.290), the results also provide support for our initial hypothesis as uniform

  9. Walking while memorizing: age-related differences in compensatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, K Z; Lindenberger, U; Freund, A M; Baltes, P B

    2001-05-01

    This study investigated predictions of the life-span theory of selection, optimization, and compensation, focusing on different patterns of task priority during dual-task performance in younger and older adults. Cognitive (memorizing) and sensorimotor (walking a narrow track) performance were measured singly, concurrently, and when task difficulty was manipulated. Use of external aids was measured to provide another index of task priority. Before dual-task testing, participants received extensive training with each component task and external aid. Age differences in dual-task costs were greater in memory performance than walking, suggesting that older adults prioritized walking over memory. Further, when given a choice of compensatory external aids to use, older adults optimized walking, whereas younger adults optimized memory performance. The results have broad implications for systemic theories of cognitive and sensorimotor aging, and the costs and benefits of assistive devices and environmental support for older populations.

  10. Age-related Oxidative Stress Compromises Endosomal Proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cannizzo, Elvira S.; Clement, Cristina C.; Morozova, Kateryna; Valdor, Rut; Kaushik, Susmita; Almeida, Larissa N.; Follo, Carlo; Sahu, Ranjit; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Macian, Fernando; Santambrogio, Laura

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of aging is an imbalance between production and clearance of reactive oxygen species and increased levels of oxidatively damaged biomolecules. Herein we demonstrate that splenic and nodal antigen presenting cells purified from old mice accumulate oxidatively modified proteins with side chain carbonylation, advanced glycation end products and lipid peroxidation. We show further that the endosomal accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins interferes with the efficient processing of exogenous antigens and degradation of macroautophagy-delivered proteins. In support of a causative role for oxidized products in the inefficient immune response, a decrease in oxidative stress improved the adaptive immune response to immunizing antigens. These findings underscore a previously unrecognized negative effect of age-dependent changes in cellular proteostasis on the immune response. PMID:22840404

  11. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  12. College Students' Attitudes towards Age-Related Changes in Physical Appearance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Allison; Agliata, Daniel; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with young adults' concerns about age related changes in body image and their anticipated impact on psychosocial functioning. One hundred and sixty-seven college students completed the Body Image and Aging Survey, designed to assess age related issues in body image, the Peer Dieting Survey,…

  13. Age-Related Differences in Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance among Female Masters Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, Gail M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated age-related differences in muscular strength and muscular endurance among 73 female masters swimmers aged 24 to 71 years. While an age-related decline in muscular strength was apparent, the results failed to reveal a similar trend for endurance, suggesting that swimming influences endurance more than strength among women.…

  14. [Aging-related changes of the female pelvic floor].

    PubMed

    Scheiner, David; Betschart, Cornelia; Perucchini, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The pelvic floor as lower closure of the abdominal cavity has to withstand the abdominal pressure. Meanwhile, the pelvic floor has to allow physiologic functions like micturition, defecation, sexual function and reproduction. But while pregnancy and vaginal delivery damage the pelvic floor directly, chronic stress like caugh, heavy lifting, or obesity lead to a chronic overstraining of the pelvic floor. Aging, structural changes, and possibly estrogen deficiency have a negative impact on the pelvic floor.

  15. Age-related changes in dynamic moduli of ovine vitreous.

    PubMed

    Colter, Jourdan; Williams, Alex; Moran, Patrick; Coats, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    Multiple rheological studies have characterized the dynamic material properties of adult vitreous, but no studies have investigated vitreous properties in the immature eye. In this study, premature, infant and adult ovine vitreous specimens were tested in shear to identify differences in dynamic moduli with age. Significant inertial artifact and rapid degradation of the vitreous ex vivo hindered the ability to accurately collect dynamic data through standard oscillation protocols. Therefore, dynamic moduli were calculated by converting relaxation spectrum data to the retardation spectrum, resulting in the calculation of the storage (G') and loss (G") moduli from the first few milliseconds of creep testing when tissue degradation and inertia is minimal. The technique was validated against two synthetic materials that span the viscoelastic spectrum. G' and G" of the primarily viscous synthetic material (polystyrene, tanδ=0.61) and G' of the primarily elastic material (agar, tanδ=0.06) were not significantly different than those calculated from dynamic oscillatory testing (p<0.05). G" of agar was overestimated (4-39%) with the interconversion technique due to creep ringing. Ovine vitreous was primarily viscous (tanδ=1.31), so this technique was used to evaluate changes in dynamic moduli with age. G' and G" for adult vitreous was 2-4 times and 1.5-2 times lower, respectively, than infant vitreous, corresponding to the structural breakdown of the vitreous with age. The dynamic moduli of premature vitreous was lower than infant and adult, likely due to premature development of the vitreal structure. These data suggest that significant differences exist between the viscoelastic response of infant and adult vitreous, and computational models of the pediatric eye will require appropriate age and rate material properties of vitreous.

  16. Basketball Performance Is Related to Maturity and Relative Age in Elite Adolescent Players.

    PubMed

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gravina, Leyre; Zubero, Jaime; Seco, Jesús; Gil, Susana M; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon

    2016-05-01

    During a national championship, the anthropometric, physiological, and maturation characteristics of 13- to 14-year-old players of elite basketball teams and their association with sport performance were analyzed. Body parameters (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, and lengths) were measured and physiological capacities assessed by sprint (20 m) and jump tests (i.e., countermovement jump with arm swing). Chronological age (CA) and maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity; YAPHV) were calculated, and then predicted age at peak height velocity, as the difference between CA and YAPHV. Game performance was assessed with point averages and the performance index rating (PIR). The birth-date distribution of players was biased, those born early in the selection year outnumbering those born later. Anthropometric analysis indicated that players who performed better had longer body lengths. Physiological testing showed that semi-finalists had better sprint performance than quarter-finalists and those players with greater jump capacity scored more points. Early maturation and advanced maturity status were also associated with better PIR and scored points per game. Multiple blockwise regression analysis showed that, among the factors analyzed, YAPHV was the best predictor of basketball performance. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of elite basketball players. Consequently, boys who are born in the second half of the year and/or late maturing tend to be marginalized or totally excluded, and not given the chance to play under equal conditions; their careers may then be held back by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience.

  17. The Laboratory Rat: Relating Its Age With Human's

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-01-01

    By late 18th or early 19th century, albino rats became the most commonly used experimental animals in numerous biomedical researches, as they have been recognized as the preeminent model mammalian system. But, the precise correlation between age of laboratory rats and human is still a subject of debate. A number of studies have tried to detect these correlations in various ways, But, have not successfully provided any proper association. Thus, the current review attempts to compare rat and human age at different phases of their life. The overall findings indicate that rats grow rapidly during their childhood and become sexually mature at about the sixth week, but attain social maturity 5-6 months later. In adulthood, every day of the animal is approximately equivalent to 34.8 human days (i.e., one rat month is comparable to three human years). Numerous researchers performed experimental investigations in albino rats and estimated, in general, while considering their entire life span, that a human month resembles every-day life of a laboratory rat. These differences signify the variations in their anatomy, physiology and developmental processes, which must be taken into consideration while analyzing the results or selecting the dose of any research in rats when age is a crucial factor. PMID:23930179

  18. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted.

  19. Aging and wisdom: age-related changes in economic and social decision making

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kenneth Teck Kiat; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    World life expectancy is increasing and many populations will begin to age rapidly. The impeding prevalence of a greater number of older people living longer lives will have significant social and economic implications. It is important to understand how older people make economic and social decisions. Aging can be associated with a “phenomenon of decline” and also greater wisdom. This paper seeks to examine the relationship between wisdom and aging. It reviews and connects the behavioral sciences and neuroscience literature on age differences in the following social and economic decision making domains that represent subcomponents of wisdom: (1) prosocial behavior in experimental economic games and competitive situations; (2) resolving social conflicts; (3) emotional homeostasis; (4) self-reflection; (5) dealing effectively with uncertainty in the domains of risk, ambiguity and intertemporal choice. Overall, we find a lack of research into how older people make economic and social decisions. There is, however, some evidence that older adults outperform young adults on certain subcomponents of wisdom, but the exact relationship between old age and each subcomponent remains unclear. A better understanding of these relationships holds the potential to alleviate a wide range of mental health problems, and has broad implications for social policies aimed at the elderly. PMID:26150788

  20. Telomere length in epidemiology: a biomarker of aging, age-related disease, both, or neither?

    PubMed

    Sanders, Jason L; Newman, Anne B

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein caps flanking DNA. They are shortened by cell division and oxidative stress and are lengthened by the enzyme telomerase and DNA exchange during mitosis. Short telomeres induce cellular senescence. As an indicator of oxidative stress and senescence (2 processes thought to be fundamental to aging), telomere length is hypothesized to be a biomarker of aging. This hypothesis has been tested for more than a decade with epidemiologic study methods. In cross-sectional studies, researchers have investigated whether leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with demographic, behavioral, and health variables. In prospective studies, baseline LTL has been used to predict mortality and occasionally other adverse health outcomes. Conflicting data have generated heated debate about the value of LTL as a biomarker of overall aging. In this review, we address the epidemiologic data on LTL and demonstrate that shorter LTL is associated with older age, male gender, Caucasian race, and possibly atherosclerosis; associations with other markers of health are equivocal. We discuss the reasons for discrepancy across studies, including a detailed review of methods for measuring telomere length as they apply to epidemiology. Finally, we conclude with questions about LTL as a biomarker of aging and how epidemiology can be used to answer these questions.

  1. Aging and wisdom: age-related changes in economic and social decision making.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kenneth Teck Kiat; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    World life expectancy is increasing and many populations will begin to age rapidly. The impeding prevalence of a greater number of older people living longer lives will have significant social and economic implications. It is important to understand how older people make economic and social decisions. Aging can be associated with a "phenomenon of decline" and also greater wisdom. This paper seeks to examine the relationship between wisdom and aging. It reviews and connects the behavioral sciences and neuroscience literature on age differences in the following social and economic decision making domains that represent subcomponents of wisdom: (1) prosocial behavior in experimental economic games and competitive situations; (2) resolving social conflicts; (3) emotional homeostasis; (4) self-reflection; (5) dealing effectively with uncertainty in the domains of risk, ambiguity and intertemporal choice. Overall, we find a lack of research into how older people make economic and social decisions. There is, however, some evidence that older adults outperform young adults on certain subcomponents of wisdom, but the exact relationship between old age and each subcomponent remains unclear. A better understanding of these relationships holds the potential to alleviate a wide range of mental health problems, and has broad implications for social policies aimed at the elderly.

  2. Intranasal Insulin Improves Age-Related Cognitive Deficits and Reverses Electrophysiological Correlates of Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Maimaiti, Shaniya; Anderson, Katie L.; DeMoll, Chris; Brewer, Lawrence D.; Rauh, Benjamin A.; Gant, John C.; Blalock, Eric M.; Porter, Nada M.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral insulin resistance is a key component of metabolic syndrome associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. While the impact of insulin resistance is well recognized in the periphery, it is also becoming apparent in the brain. Recent studies suggest that insulin resistance may be a factor in brain aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) whereby intranasal insulin therapy, which delivers insulin to the brain, improves cognition and memory in AD patients. Here, we tested a clinically relevant delivery method to determine the impact of two forms of insulin, short-acting insulin lispro (Humalog) or long-acting insulin detemir (Levemir), on cognitive functions in aged F344 rats. We also explored insulin effects on the Ca2+-dependent hippocampal afterhyperpolarization (AHP), a well-characterized neurophysiological marker of aging which is increased in the aged, memory impaired animal. Low-dose intranasal insulin improved memory recall in aged animals such that their performance was similar to that seen in younger animals. Further, because ex vivo insulin also reduced the AHP, our results suggest that the AHP may be a novel cellular target of insulin in the brain, and improved cognitive performance following intranasal insulin therapy may be the result of insulin actions on the AHP. PMID:25659889

  3. Normalisation against Circadian and Age-Related Disturbances Enables Robust Detection of Gene Expression Changes in Liver of Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca Costa, Sara S.; Wegmann, Daniel; Ripperger, Jürgen A.

    2017-01-01

    The expression of some genes is affected by age. To detect such age-related changes, their expression levels are related to constant marker genes. However, transcriptional noise increasing with advancing age renders difficult the identification of real age-related changes because it may affect the marker genes as well. Here, we report a selection procedure for genes appropriate to normalise the mouse liver transcriptome under various conditions including age. These genes were chosen from an initial set of 16 candidate genes defined based on a RNA-sequencing experiment and published literature. A subset of genes was selected based on rigorous statistical assessment of their variability using both RNA-sequencing and Nanostring hybridization experiments. The robustness of these marker genes was then verified by the analysis of 130 publicly available data sets using the mouse liver transcriptome. Altogether, a set of three genes, Atp5h, Gsk3β, and Sirt2 fulfilled our strict selection criteria in all assessments, while four more genes, Nono, Tprkb, Tspo, and Ttr passed all but one assessment and were included into the final set of marker genes to enhance robustness of normalisation against outliers. Using the geometric mean of expression of the genes to normalise Nanostring hybridization experiments we reliably identified age-related increases in the expression of Casein kinase 1δ and 1ϵ, and Sfpq, while the expression of the glucose transporter Glut2 decreased. The age-related changes were verified by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. As conclusion, proper normalisation enhances the robustness of quantitative methods addressing age-related changes of a transcriptome. PMID:28068403

  4. Normalisation against Circadian and Age-Related Disturbances Enables Robust Detection of Gene Expression Changes in Liver of Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Fonseca Costa, Sara S; Wegmann, Daniel; Ripperger, Jürgen A

    2017-01-01

    The expression of some genes is affected by age. To detect such age-related changes, their expression levels are related to constant marker genes. However, transcriptional noise increasing with advancing age renders difficult the identification of real age-related changes because it may affect the marker genes as well. Here, we report a selection procedure for genes appropriate to normalise the mouse liver transcriptome under various conditions including age. These genes were chosen from an initial set of 16 candidate genes defined based on a RNA-sequencing experiment and published literature. A subset of genes was selected based on rigorous statistical assessment of their variability using both RNA-sequencing and Nanostring hybridization experiments. The robustness of these marker genes was then verified by the analysis of 130 publicly available data sets using the mouse liver transcriptome. Altogether, a set of three genes, Atp5h, Gsk3β, and Sirt2 fulfilled our strict selection criteria in all assessments, while four more genes, Nono, Tprkb, Tspo, and Ttr passed all but one assessment and were included into the final set of marker genes to enhance robustness of normalisation against outliers. Using the geometric mean of expression of the genes to normalise Nanostring hybridization experiments we reliably identified age-related increases in the expression of Casein kinase 1δ and 1ϵ, and Sfpq, while the expression of the glucose transporter Glut2 decreased. The age-related changes were verified by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. As conclusion, proper normalisation enhances the robustness of quantitative methods addressing age-related changes of a transcriptome.

  5. The microbiota and microbiome in aging: potential implications in health and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Heidi J; Quagliarello, Vincent J

    2015-04-01

    Advances in bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing allow for characterization of the human commensal bacterial community (microbiota) and its corresponding genome (microbiome). Surveys of healthy adults reveal that a signature composite of bacteria characterizes each unique body habitat (e.g., gut, skin, oral cavity, vagina). A myriad of clinical changes, including a basal proinflammatory state (inflamm-aging), that directly interface with the microbiota of older adults and enhance susceptibility to disease accompany aging. Studies in older adults demonstrate that the gut microbiota correlates with diet, location of residence (e.g., community dwelling, long-term care settings), and basal level of inflammation. Links exist between the microbiota and a variety of clinical problems plaguing older adults, including physical frailty, Clostridium difficile colitis, vulvovaginal atrophy, colorectal carcinoma, and atherosclerotic disease. Manipulation of the microbiota and microbiome of older adults holds promise as an innovative strategy to influence the development of comorbidities associated with aging.

  6. Genetic evidence for common pathways in human age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Simon C; Dong, Xiao; Vijg, Jan; Suh, Yousin

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the single largest risk factor for chronic disease. Studies in model organisms have identified conserved pathways that modulate aging rate and the onset and progression of multiple age-related diseases, suggesting that common pathways of aging may influence age-related diseases in humans as well. To determine whether there is genetic evidence supporting the notion of common pathways underlying age-related diseases, we analyzed the genes and pathways found to be associated with five major categories of age-related disease using a total of 410 genomewide association studies (GWAS). While only a small number of genes are shared among all five disease categories, those found in at least three of the five major age-related disease categories are highly enriched for apoliprotein metabolism genes. We found that a more substantial number of gene ontology (GO) terms are shared among the 5 age-related disease categories and shared GO terms include canonical aging pathways identified in model organisms, such as nutrient-sensing signaling, translation, proteostasis, stress responses, and genome maintenance. Taking advantage of the vast amount of genetic data from the GWAS, our findings provide the first direct evidence that conserved pathways of aging simultaneously influence multiple age-related diseases in humans as has been demonstrated in model organisms. PMID:26077337

  7. Aflibercept for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Salman; Clearfield, Elizabeth; Soliman, Mohamed Kamel; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Baldwin, Andrew J; Hanout, Mostafa; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Sepah, Yasir J; Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background Central vision loss caused by age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. Neovascular AMD is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Growth of new blood vessels in patients with neovascular AMD is driven by a complex process that involves a signal protein called vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). Anti-VEGF drugs that block this protein include ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept. Objectives To assess and compare the effectiveness and safety of intravitreal injections of aflibercept versus ranibizumab, bevacizumab, or sham for treatment of patients with neovascular AMD. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (Issue 11, 2015), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2015), PubMed (1948 to November 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to November 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (last searched December 4, 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic search for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on November 30, 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which aflibercept monotherapy was compared with ranibizumab, bevacizumab, or sham for participants with neovascular AMD who were treatment-naive. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration for screening, data abstraction, and study assessment. Two review authors

  8. Age-related changes in cellular protection, purification, and inflammation-related gene expression: role of dietary phytonutrients.

    PubMed

    Mastaloudis, Angela; Wood, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Oxidative injury and inflammation are intimately involved in the aging process and the development of age-related diseases. To date, most nutritional antiaging strategies have focused solely on the delivery of exogenous antioxidants to combat the negative effects of aging. A promising new strategy is to identify nutrients and phytochemicals that can directly target intrinsic cytoprotective mechanisms, including modulation of the expression of (1) genes involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics, (2) genes involved in the synthesis and regulation of intrinsic antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, (3) genes involved in the regulation of inflammation, and (4) vitagenes. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the age-related changes in gene expression related to oxidative stress, detoxification, and inflammatory processes, and to discuss natural compounds with the potential to oppose age-related changes in gene expression related to these processes, which therefore may be suitable for use in human antiaging research.

  9. Professor Age and Research Assistant Ratings of Passive-Avoidant and Proactive Leadership: The Role of Age-Related Work Concerns and Age Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacher, Hannes; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in general, older professors are rated to have more passive-avoidant leadership styles than younger professors by their research assistants. The current study investigated professors' age-related work concerns and research assistants' favorable age stereotypes as possible explanations for this finding. Data came…

  10. Cognition enhancers in age-related cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Riedel, W J; Jolles, J

    1996-04-01

    A review of recently published studies on the effect of cognition enhancers in non-demented human study participants is presented. The heterogeneity of the therapeutic target, age-associated cognitive decline, can be improved by separately treating groups in whom age-extrinsic factors may underlie cognitive pathology. Standardisation of cognitive assessments is necessary, since many different tests are applied to answer the same question. Modelling cognitive dysfunction, either by pharmacological or nonpharmacological means, in humans is highly recommended since it allows hypotheses to be tested in a clearly operationalised way. Predictive validity of the currently applied models for the clinical situation remains a problem, however. The scopolamine (hyoscine) model has, to a reasonable extent, predictive validity for the cholinergic agents. The results of 67 single-dose studies and 30 multiple-dose studies are summarised. All single-dose studies and 14 multiple-dose studies were carried out in young or elderly human volunteers. In 45 of 81 volunteer studies, models of cognitive dysfunction were employed. The scopolamine model was the most used (n = 21); the other studies induced cognitive dysfunction by means of benzodiazepines (8), hypoxia (7), alcohol (5) and sleep-deprivation (4). The remaining 16 multiple-dose studies were clinical trials of a duration varying between 2 weeks and 1 year (average duration was 14 weeks). In these trials, the effects of cognition enhancers were assessed in elderly people in whom impairment of memory, psychomotor performance or cognitive function was determined. These included age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) and age-associated cognitive decline (AACD). There were many studies in which the cognition enhancing properties of substances in humans were reliably demonstrated. The cognition enhancing properties of substances that are widely used, such as caffeine, nicotine and vitamins, may already be active against AACD. New

  11. Microbiologically induced deterioration of concrete - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shiping; Jiang, Zhenglong; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sanchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically induced deterioration (MID) causes corrosion of concrete by producing acids (including organic and inorganic acids) that degrade concrete components and thus compromise the integrity of sewer pipelines and other structures, creating significant problems worldwide. Understanding of the fundamental corrosion process and the causal agents will help us develop an appropriate strategy to minimize the costs in repairs. This review presents how microorganisms induce the deterioration of concrete, including the organisms involved and their colonization and succession on concrete, the microbial deterioration mechanism, the approaches of studying MID and safeguards against concrete biodeterioration. In addition, the uninvestigated research area of MID is also proposed. PMID:24688488

  12. Epiphyseal fusion in Pan troglodytes relative to dental age.

    PubMed

    Brimacombe, Conrad S; Kuykendall, Kevin L; Nystrom, Pia

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies on different aspects of chimpanzee growth and development have documented dental eruption and development, long bone and somatic growth, and to a lesser extent, skeletal fusion. Such data are useful in comparative and evolutionary studies of growth and some aspects of life history evolution in apes and early hominids. However, few studies have integrated dental development and other aspects of skeletal development, and none of these have been able to incorporate a large study sample. This study documents dental mineralization and skeletal epiphyseal fusion in a mixed-sex sample of 155 Pan troglodytes skeletons, and aims to: a) document the pattern of dental and skeletal developmental in chimpanzees; b) compare male and female developmental patterns in chimpanzees; and c) compare these chimpanzee developmental patterns to general patterns of dental and skeletal development in published human studies. The analysis of both dental and skeletal development in this sample demonstrates clearly that dental development is complete before the fusion of the many skeletal epiphyses, in contrast to the pattern observed in humans. Age estimates for individuals were calculated using previously published regression equations for dental development and used to estimate fusion ages. These appear to be accurate in that our estimates are similar to published ranges. These data improve our understanding about chimpanzee dental and skeletal development and provide a basis for further comparison between extant apes and humans, as well as those extinct species represented by fossil partial skeletons.

  13. Developmental origin of age-related coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ke; Díaz-Trelles, Ramon; Liu, Qiaozhen; Diez-Cuñado, Marta; Scimia, Maria-Cecilia; Cai, Wenqing; Sawada, Junko; Komatsu, Masanobu; Boyle, Joseph J.; Zhou, Bin; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Mercola, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Aim Age and injury cause structural and functional changes in coronary artery smooth muscle cells (caSMCs) that influence the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Although paracrine signalling is widely believed to drive phenotypic changes in caSMCs, here we show that developmental origin within the fetal epicardium can have a profound effect as well. Methods and results Fluorescent dye and transgene pulse-labelling techniques in mice revealed that the majority of caSMCs are derived from Wt1+, Gata5-Cre+ cells that migrate before E12.5, whereas a minority of cells are derived from a later-emigrating, Wt1+, Gata5-Cre− population. We functionally evaluated the influence of early emigrating cells on coronary artery development and disease by Gata5-Cre excision of Rbpj, which prevents their contribution to coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Ablation of the Gata5-Cre+ population resulted in coronary arteries consisting solely of Gata5-Cre− caSMCs. These coronary arteries appeared normal into early adulthood; however, by 5–8 months of age, they became progressively fibrotic, lost the adventitial outer elastin layer, were dysfunctional and leaky, and animals showed early mortality. Conclusion Taken together, these data reveal heterogeneity in the fetal epicardium that is linked to coronary artery integrity, and that distortion of the coronaries epicardial origin predisposes to adult onset disease. PMID:26054850

  14. Closed-Loop Rehabilitation of Age-Related Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in older adults, as a result of both the natural aging process and neurodegenerative disease. Although medical advancements have successfully prolonged the human lifespan, the challenge of remediating cognitive aging remains. The authors discuss the current state of cognitive therapeutic interventions and then present the need for development and validation of more powerful neurocognitive therapeutics. They propose that the next generation of interventions be implemented as closed-loop systems that target specific neural processing deficits, incorporate quantitative feedback to the individual and clinician, and are personalized to the individual’s neurocognitive capacities using real-time performance-adaptive algorithms. This approach should be multimodal and seamlessly integrate other treatment approaches, including neurofeedback and transcranial electrical stimulation. This novel approach will involve the generation of software that engages the individual in an immersive and enjoyable game-based interface, integrated with advanced biosensing hardware, to maximally harness plasticity and assure adherence. Introducing such next-generation closed-loop neurocognitive therapeutics into the mainstream of our mental health care system will require the combined efforts of clinicians, neuroscientists, bioengineers, software game developers, and industry and policy makers working together to meet the challenges and opportunities of translational neuroscience in the 21st century. PMID:25520029

  15. Pupillary behavior in relation to wavelength and age

    PubMed Central

    Lobato-Rincón, Luis-Lucio; Cabanillas-Campos, Maria del Carmen; Bonnin-Arias, Cristina; Chamorro-Gutiérrez, Eva; Murciano-Cespedosa, Antonio; Sánchez-Ramos Roda, Celia

    2014-01-01

    Pupil light reflex can be used as a non-invasive ocular predictor of cephalic autonomic nervous system integrity. Spectral sensitivity of the pupil's response to light has, for some time, been an interesting issue. It has generally, however, only been investigated with the use of white light and studies with monochromatic wavelengths are scarce. This study investigates the effects of wavelength and age within three parameters of the pupil light reflex (amplitude of response, latency, and velocity of constriction) in a large sample of younger and older adults (N = 97), in mesopic conditions. Subjects were exposed to a single light stimulus at four different wavelengths: white (5600°K), blue (450 nm), green (510 nm), and red (600 nm). Data was analyzed appropriately, and, when applicable, using the General Linear Model (GLM), Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), Student's t-test and/or ANCOVA. Across all subjects, pupillary response to light had the greatest amplitude and shortest latency in white and green light conditions. In regards to age, older subjects (46–78 years) showed an increased latency in white light and decreased velocity of constriction in green light compared to younger subjects (18–45 years old). This study provides data patterns on parameters of wavelength-dependent pupil reflexes to light in adults and it contributes to the large body of pupillometric research. It is hoped that this study will add to the overall evaluation of cephalic autonomic nervous system integrity. PMID:24795595

  16. Age-related changes in emotional face processing across childhood and into young adulthood: evidence from event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Vergés, Alvaro; Kujawa, Autumn; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Monk, Christopher S.; Phan, K. Luan

    2016-01-01

    Socio-emotional processing is an essential part of development, and age-related changes in its neural correlates can be observed. The late positive potential (LPP) is a measure of motivated attention that can be used to assess emotional processing; however, changes in the LPP elicited by emotional faces have not been assessed across a wide age range in childhood and young adulthood. We used an emotional face matching task to examine behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) in 33 youth aged 7 to 19 years old. Younger children were slower when performing the matching task. The LPP elicited by emotional faces but not control stimuli (geometric shapes) decreased with age; by contrast, an earlier ERP (the P1) decreased with age for both faces and shapes, suggesting increased efficiency of early visual processing. Results indicate age-related attenuation in emotional processing that may stem from increased efficiency and regulatory control when performing a socio-emotional task. PMID:26220144

  17. The Impact of Enhanced He and CNONa Abundances on Globular Cluster Relative Age-Dating Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Franch, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Aparicio, Antonio; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2010-05-01

    The impact that unrecognized differences in the chemical patterns of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) have on their relative age determinations is studied. The two most widely used relative age-dating methods, horizontal and vertical, together with the more recent relative MS-fitting method, were carefully analyzed on a purely theoretical basis. The BaSTI library was adopted to perform the present analysis. We find that relative ages derived using the horizontal and vertical methods are largely dependent on the initial He content and heavy element distribution. Unrecognized cluster-to-cluster chemical abundance differences can lead to an error in the derived relative ages as large as ~0.5 (or ~6 Gyr if an age of 12.8 Gyr is adopted for normalization) and even larger for some extreme cases. It is shown that the relative MS-fitting method is by far the age-dating technique for which undetected cluster-to-cluster differences in the He abundance have less impact. Present results are used in order to pose constraints on the maximum possible spread in the He and CNONa elements abundances on the basis of the estimates—taken from the literature—of the GGCs relative age dispersion obtained with the various relative age-dating techniques. Finally, it is shown that the age-metallicity relation found for young GGCs by the GC Treasury program is a real age sequence and cannot be produced by variations in the He and/or heavy element distribution.

  18. Dormancy as exaptation to protect mimetic seeds against deterioration before dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Novembre, Ana D. L. C.; Rodrigues, Ricardo R.; Marcos Filho, Júlio

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Mimetic seeds simulate the appearance of fleshy fruits and arilled seeds without producing nutritive tissues as a reward for seed dispersers. In this strategy of seed dispersal, seeds may remain attached to the mother plant for long periods after maturity, increasing their availability to naïve seed dispersers. The hypothesis that seed coat impermeability in many tropical Fabaceae with mimetic seeds serves as an exaptation to protect the seeds from deterioration and rotting while awaiting dispersal was investigated. Methods Seed coat impermeability was evaluated in five mimetic-seeded species of tropical Fabaceae in south-eastern Brazil (Abarema langsdorffii, Abrus precatorius, Adenanthera pavonina, Erythrina velutina and Ormosia arborea) and in Erythrina speciosa, a ‘basal’ species in its genus, which has monochromatic brown seeds and no mimetic displays. Seed hardness was evaluated as a defence against accelerated ageing (humid chamber at 41 °C for 144 h). Seed development and physiological potential of O. arborea was evaluated and the effect of holding mature seeds in pods on the mother plant in the field for a period of 1 year under humid tropical conditions was compared with seeds stored under controlled conditions (15 °C and 40 % relative air humidity). Key Results All five mimetic-seeded species, and E. speciosa, showed strong coat impermeability, which protected the seeds against deterioration in accelerated ageing. Most O. arborea seeds only became dormant 2 months after pod dehiscence. Germination of seeds after 1 year on the plant in a humid tropical climate was 56 %, compared with 80 % for seeds stored in controlled conditions (15 °C, 45 % relative humidity). Seedling shoot length after 1 year did not differ between seed sources. Conclusions Dormancy acts in mimetic-seeded species as an exaptation to reduce seed deterioration, allowing an increase in their effective dispersal period and mitigating the losses incurred by low

  19. Ageing-related changes in Mycoplasma canadense membranes.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, G E; Sotomayor, C P

    1992-01-01

    Fluidity and composition of cell membranes during progre