Science.gov

Sample records for age related effects

  1. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice.

    PubMed

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J

    2016-01-01

    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  2. Relative age effect in Japanese male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect, a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese male athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 4,318 male athletes was evaluated from 12 sports: baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, golf, horse racing, rugby, American football, sumo, Ekiden (track and field in long distance), and badminton. They played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. The distribution of the birth dates was examined in each sport and showed significant relative age effect in baseball, soccer, volleyball, Ekiden, basketball, sumo, and horse racing, but not in all sports. The findings suggest that although the school year in Japan starts on April 1, significant relative age effects are observed in some sporting events. PMID:22185072

  3. Relative age effect in Japanese male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect, a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese male athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 4,318 male athletes was evaluated from 12 sports: baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, golf, horse racing, rugby, American football, sumo, Ekiden (track and field in long distance), and badminton. They played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. The distribution of the birth dates was examined in each sport and showed significant relative age effect in baseball, soccer, volleyball, Ekiden, basketball, sumo, and horse racing, but not in all sports. The findings suggest that although the school year in Japan starts on April 1, significant relative age effects are observed in some sporting events.

  4. Birthdate and Performance: The Relative Age Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, Roger H.

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the concept of "relative age" and to review recent research findings that have demonstrated that relative age is related to a variety of academic and athletic performance measures. The paper is divided into six parts: (1) the relative age concept; (2) relative age and achievement in sports; (3) relative age…

  5. Relative Age Effect in Masters Sports: Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medic, Nikola; Starkes, Janet L.; Weir, Patricia L.; Young, Bradley W.; Grove, J. Robert

    2009-01-01

    The relative age effect refers to the performance-related advantage of being born early in a cohort or selection year. Until recently it was unknown whether the relative age effect generalizes across the lifespan. Medic, Starkes, and Young (2007) reasoned that the 5-year age categories that are widely used in masters-level sports to organize…

  6. Age-Related Changes in the Misinformation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Rachel; Hayne, Harlene

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments examined relation between age-related changes in retention and age-related changes in the misinformation effect. Found large age-related retention differences when participants were interviewed immediately and after 1 day, but after 6 weeks, differences were minimal. Exposure to misleading information increased commission errors.…

  7. The Relative Age Effect among Female Brazilian Youth Volleyball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okazaki, Fabio H. A.; Keller, Birgit; Fontana, Fabio E.; Gallagher, Jere D.

    2011-01-01

    In sports, the relative age effect (RAE) refers to performance disadvantages of children born late in the competition year compared to those with birthdays soon after the cutoff date. This effect is derived from age grouping, a strategy commonly used in youth sport programs. The purpose of age grouping is to decrease possible cognitive, physical,…

  8. Relative Age Effects in Dutch Adolescents: Concurrent and Prospective Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents’ school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration), and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS) of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls). Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001), our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention. PMID:26076384

  9. How Pervasive Are Relative Age Effects in Secondary School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobley, Stephen; McKenna, Jim; Baker, Joeseph; Wattie, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs; R. H. Barnsley, A. H. Thompson, & P. E. Barnsley, 1985) convey school attainment (dis)advantages depending on whether one is relatively older or younger within annually age-grouped cohorts. In the present study, the authors examined the pervasiveness of RAEs by examining (a) attainment in 4 secondary school subjects,…

  10. Relative age effects in Japanese baseball: an historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the existence of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, in Japanese professional baseball players born from 1911 to 1980. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. Thus, athletes were divided into four groups based on their month of birth; quarters Q1 (April-June), Q2 (July-September), Q3 (October-December), and Q4 (January-March of the following year). There were statistically biased distributions of birth dates among players born in the 1940s and subsequent decades (medium effects), and similar (but small) relative age effects were observed among players born in the 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s. The magnitude of the relative age effect changed with time, and socio-cultural factors such as international competition and media coverage may have contributed greatly to this effect.

  11. Relative age effects in Japanese baseball: an historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the existence of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, in Japanese professional baseball players born from 1911 to 1980. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. Thus, athletes were divided into four groups based on their month of birth; quarters Q1 (April-June), Q2 (July-September), Q3 (October-December), and Q4 (January-March of the following year). There were statistically biased distributions of birth dates among players born in the 1940s and subsequent decades (medium effects), and similar (but small) relative age effects were observed among players born in the 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s. The magnitude of the relative age effect changed with time, and socio-cultural factors such as international competition and media coverage may have contributed greatly to this effect. PMID:24422356

  12. Do weight categories prevent athletes from relative age effect?

    PubMed

    Delorme, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether weight categories prevent young athletes from being exposed to a relative age effect. The dates of birth of all French female (n = 727) and male (n = 5440) amateur boxers who participated in the 2010-2011 season were collected from the federation database. The dates of birth of all French male professional boxers (n = 354) were also collected. The results show an absence of a relative age effect among French female and male amateur boxers. The results also show an absence of this phenomenon among French male professional boxers. The male 18-18+ age category reveal an inverse relative age effect. This inverse relative age effect might be interpreted as the result of a strategic adaptation from relatively younger children who shift from one sport to another where there are weight categories in order to ensure fair competition. The results of this study suggest that the weight category system is a possible solution within the relative age effect phenomenon.

  13. The Relative Age Effect in Elite Sport: The French Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delorme, Nicolas; Boiche, Julie; Raspaud, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is considered a common phenomenon in elite sport. However, it has not been examined systematically in previous research, and the mechanisms likely to generate or to limit such an effect are little understood. This paper investigates the prevalence of the RAE in French professional championship-level players, taking…

  14. Age-related differences in arithmetic strategy sequential effects.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I review a series of new findings concerning how age-related changes in strategic variations are modulated by sequential effects. Sequential effects refer to how strategy selection and strategy execution on current problems are influenced by which strategy is used on immediately preceding problems. Two sequential effects during strategy selection (i.e., strategy revisions and strategy perseverations) and during strategy execution (i.e., strategy switch costs and modulations of poorer strategy effects) are presented. I also discuss how these effects change with age during adulthood. These phenomena are important, as they shed light on arithmetic processes and how these processes change with age during adulthood. In particular, they speak to the role of executive control while participants select and execute arithmetic strategies. Finally, I discuss the implications of sequential effects for theories of strategies and of arithmetic.

  15. Age-Related Tissue Stiffening: Cause and Effect

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Tissue elasticity is severely compromised in aging skin, lungs, and blood vessels. In the vascular and pulmonary systems, respectively, loss of mechanical function is linked to hypertension, which in turn is a risk factor for heart and renal failure, stroke, and aortic aneurysms, and to an increased risk of mortality as a result of acute lung infections. Recent Advances Although cellular mechanisms were thought to play an important role in mediating tissue aging, the reason for the apparent sensitivity of elastic fibers to age-related degradation remained unclear. We have recently demonstrated that compared with type I collagen, a key component of the elastic fiber system, the cysteine-rich fibrillin microfibril is highly susceptible to direct UV exposure in a cell-free environment. We hypothesized therefore that, as a consequence of both their remarkable longevity and cysteine-rich composition, many elastic fiber-associated components will be susceptible to the accumulation of damage by both direct UV radiation and reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidation. Critical Issues Although elastic fiber remodeling is a common feature of aging dynamic tissues, the inaccessibility of most human tissues has hampered attempts to define the molecular causes. Clinical Care Relevance Although, currently, the localized repair of damaged elastic fibers may be effected by the topical application of retinoids and some cosmetic products, future studies may extend the application of systemic transforming growth factor β antagonists, which can prevent cardiovascular remodeling in murine Marfan syndrome, to aging humans. Acellular mechanisms may be key mediators of elastic fiber remodeling and hence age-related tissue stiffening. PMID:24527318

  16. Relative Age Effect in UEFA Championship Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    González-Víllora, Sixto; Pastor-Vicedo, Juan C.; Cordente, David

    2015-01-01

    Relative Age Effect (RAE) is the breakdown by both age grouping and dates of birth of athletes. In the past 20 years the existence of this effect has been shown with higher or smaller impact in multiple sports, including soccer. The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of RAE in European soccer players. The sample included 841 elite soccer players who were participants in the UEFA European Soccer Championship in different categories. The professional category (n = 368), U-19 (n = 144) and U-17 (n = 145) were in 2012, and U-21 was in 2011 (n = 184). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Levene test recommended the use of nonparametric statistics. The results obtained by the square test ( the Kruskal-Wallis test and Cohen’s effect sizes revealed the existence of RAE (χ2 = 17.829, p < 0.001; d = 0.30), with the size of their different effects depending on their category or qualifying round achieved by the national team and the existence of significance in the observed differences by category. Therefore, we could continue examining RAE which is present in elite soccer, and could be considered a factor that influences performance of the national teams tested. RAE was not evident in the professional teams analysed, however it was present in the three lower categories analysed (youth categories), with its influence being greater on younger age categories (U-17). PMID:26557207

  17. Sex differences in relative age effects among Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect (RAE), a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese female athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 1,335 female athletes were evaluated from six sports: softball, soccer, volleyball, basketball, badminton, and track and field (long distance), and compared with male athletes. All athletes played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. Distribution of the birth dates in each female sport showed a significant RAE only in volleyball. For males, significant RAEs were observed in baseball, soccer, and track and field. Findings suggest that the determinants of RAEs in sports may differ between males and females. PMID:23033755

  18. Sex differences in relative age effects among Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect (RAE), a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese female athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 1,335 female athletes were evaluated from six sports: softball, soccer, volleyball, basketball, badminton, and track and field (long distance), and compared with male athletes. All athletes played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. Distribution of the birth dates in each female sport showed a significant RAE only in volleyball. For males, significant RAEs were observed in baseball, soccer, and track and field. Findings suggest that the determinants of RAEs in sports may differ between males and females.

  19. The Theory Behind the Age-Related Positivity Effect

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Andrew E.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    The “positivity effect” refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather and Carstensen, 2005) scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people. PMID:23060825

  20. Effects of Vitreomacular Adhesion on Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eui Chun; Koh, Hyoung Jun

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we review the association between vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meta-analyses have shown that eyes with neovascular AMD are twice as likely to have VMA as normal eyes. VMA in neovascular AMD may induce inflammation, macular traction, decrease in oxygenation, sequestering of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and other cytokines or may directly stimulate VEGF production. VMA may also interfere with the treatment effects of anti-VEGF therapy, which is the standard treatment for neovascular AMD, and releasing VMA can improve the treatment response to anti-VEGF treatment in neovascular AMD. We also reviewed currently available methods of relieving VMA. PMID:26425354

  1. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. Methods The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. Results The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the

  2. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  3. Age-related cognitive decline during normal aging: the complex effect of education.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Rosselli, M; Gómez, C

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education on cognitive decline during normal aging. An 806-subject sample was taken from five different Mexican regions. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. Subjects were grouped into four educational levels: illiterate, 1-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years of education, and four age ranges: 16-30, 31-50, 51-65, and 66-85 years. A brief neuropsychological test battery (NEUROPSI), standardized and normalized in Spanish, was administered. The NEUROPSI test battery includes assessment of orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, motor skills, and executive functions. In general, test scores were strongly associated with level of educational, and differences among age groups were smaller than differences among education groups. However, there was an interaction between age and education such as that among illiterate individuals scores of participants 31-50 years old were higher than scores of participants 16-30 years old for over 50% of the tests. Different patterns of interaction among educational groups were distinguished. It was concluded that: (a) The course of life-span changes in cognition are affected by education. Among individuals with a low level of education, best neuropsychological test performance is observed at an older age than among higher-educated subjects; and (b) there is not a single relationship between age-related cognitive decline and education, but different patterns may be found, depending upon the specific cognitive domain. PMID:14590204

  4. Evidence of aging effects on certain safety-related components

    SciTech Connect

    Magleby, H.L.; Atwood, C.L.; MacDonald, P.E.; Edson, J.L.; Bramwell, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    In response to interest shown by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Principal Working Group I (PWG- 1) of the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) conducted a generic study on the effects of aging of active components in nuclear power plants. (This focus on active components is consistent with PWG-l`s mandate; passive components are primarily within the mandate of PWG-3.) Representatives from France, Sweden, Finland, Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom participated in the study by submitting reports documenting aging studies performed in their countries. This report consists of summaries of those reports, along with a comparison of the various statistical analysis methods used in the studies. The studies indicate that with some exceptions, active components generally do not present a significant aging problem in nuclear power plants. Design criteria and effective preventative maintenance programs, including timely replacement of components, are effective in mitigating potential aging problems. However, aging studies (such as qualitative and statistical analyses of failure modes and maintenance data) are an important part of efforts to identify and solve potential aging problems. Solving these problems typically includes such strategies as replacing suspect components with improved components, and implementing improved maintenance programs.

  5. Age-related priming effects in social judgments.

    PubMed

    Hess, T M; McGee, K A; Woodburn, S M; Bolstad, C A

    1998-03-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in the impact of previously activated (and thus easily accessible) trait-related information on judgments about people. The authors hypothesized that age-related declines in the efficiency of controlled processing mechanisms during adulthood would be associated with increased susceptibility to judgment biases associated with such information. In each study, different-aged adults made impression judgments about a target, and assimilation of these judgments to trait constructs activated in a previous, unrelated task were examined. Consistent with the authors' hypotheses, older adults were likely to form impressions that were biased toward the primed trait constructs. In contrast, younger adults exhibited greater awareness of the primed information and were more likely to correct for its perceived influence, especially when distinctive contextual cues regarding the source of the primes were available. PMID:9533195

  6. AGING-RELATED CARBARYL EFFECTS IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid increase in older adults in the population highlights the importance ofunderstanding the role of aging in susceptibility to environmental contaminants. Aspart of a larger research program on life-stage susceptibility, this experiment determined the effect of the carbama...

  7. The effect of normal aging and age-related macular degeneration on perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Astle, Andrew T.; Blighe, Alan J.; Webb, Ben S.; McGraw, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether perceptual learning could be used to improve peripheral word identification speed. The relationship between the magnitude of learning and age was established in normal participants to determine whether perceptual learning effects are age invariant. We then investigated whether training could lead to improvements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Twenty-eight participants with normal vision and five participants with AMD trained on a word identification task. They were required to identify three-letter words, presented 10° from fixation. To standardize crowding across each of the letters that made up the word, words were flanked laterally by randomly chosen letters. Word identification performance was measured psychophysically using a staircase procedure. Significant improvements in peripheral word identification speed were demonstrated following training (71% ± 18%). Initial task performance was correlated with age, with older participants having poorer performance. However, older adults learned more rapidly such that, following training, they reached the same level of performance as their younger counterparts. As a function of number of trials completed, patients with AMD learned at an equivalent rate as age-matched participants with normal vision. Improvements in word identification speed were maintained at least 6 months after training. We have demonstrated that temporal aspects of word recognition can be improved in peripheral vision with training across a range of ages and these learned improvements are relatively enduring. However, training targeted at other bottlenecks to peripheral reading ability, such as visual crowding, may need to be incorporated to optimize this approach. PMID:26605694

  8. Effects of Age and Age-Related Hearing Loss on the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Kelly; Ross, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    It is well documented that aging adversely affects the ability to perceive time-varying acoustic cues. Here we review how physiological measures are being used to explore the effects of aging (and concomitant hearing loss) on the neural representation of temporal cues. Also addressed are the implications of current research findings on the…

  9. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  10. Working memory in middle-aged males: age-related brain activation changes and cognitive fatigue effects.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Elissa B; Evers, Elisabeth A T; de Groot, Renate H M; Backes, Walter H; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on cognitively demanding tasks (compared to a control condition). Results showed a main effect of age on left dorsolateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortex activation during WM encoding; greater activation was evident in middle-aged than young adults regardless of WM load or fatigue condition. An interaction effect was found in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC); WM load-dependent activation was elevated in middle-aged compared to young in the control condition, but did not differ in the fatigue condition due to a reduction in activation in middle-aged in contrast to an increase in activation in the young group. These findings demonstrate age-related activation differences and differential effects of fatigue on activation in young and middle-aged adults.

  11. Dietary and genetic effects on age-related loss of gene silencing reveal epigenetic plasticity of chromatin repression during aging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Tobias, Ethan; Wood, Jason G; Whitaker, Rachel; Neretti, Nicola; Helfand, Stephen L

    2013-11-01

    During aging, changes in chromatin state that alter gene transcription have been postulated to result in expression of genes that are normally silenced, leading to deleterious age-related effects on cellular physiology. Despite the prevalence of this hypothesis, it is primarily in yeast that loss of gene silencing with age has been well documented. We use a novel position effect variegation (PEV) reporter in Drosophila melanogaster to show that age-related loss of repressive heterochromatin is associated with loss of gene silencing in metazoans and is affected by Sir2, as it is in yeast. The life span-extending intervention, calorie restriction (CR), delays the age-related loss of gene silencing, indicating that loss of gene silencing is a component of normal aging. Diet switch experiments show that such flies undergo a rapid change in their level of gene silencing, demonstrating the epigenetic plasticity of chromatin during aging and highlighting the potential role of diet and metabolism in chromatin maintenance, Thus, diet and related interventions may be of therapeutic importance for age-related diseases, such as cancer.

  12. A New Factor in UK Students' University Attainment: The Relative Age Effect Reversal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon J.; Stott, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study relative age effects (RAEs) in a selected sample of university students. The majority of education systems across the globe adopt age-related cut-off points for eligibility. This strategy has received criticism for (dis)advantaging those older children born closer to the "cut-off" date for…

  13. Relative Age Effects in Mathematics and Reading: Investigating the Generalizability across Students, Time and Classes

    PubMed Central

    Thoren, Katharina; Heinig, Elisa; Brunner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A child's age in comparison to the age of her or his classmates (relative age) has been found to be an influential factor on academic achievement, particularly but not exclusively at the beginning of formal schooling. However, few studies have focused on the generalizability of relative age effects. To close this gap, the present study analyzes the generalizability across students with and without immigrant backgrounds, across three student cohorts that entered school under a changing law of school enrollment, and across classes. To this end, we capitalized on representative large-scale data sets from three student cohorts attending public schools in Berlin, the capital of Germany. We analyzed the data using a multilevel framework. Our results for the overall student sample indicate relative age effects for reading and mathematics in favor of the relatively older students in Grade 2 that become somewhat smaller in size in Grade 3. By Grade 8, relative age effects had vanished in reading and had even reversed in favor of the relatively young in mathematics. Furthermore, relative age effects were not found to be systematically different among students with and without immigrant backgrounds, student cohorts, or across classes. Taken together, these results empirically underscore the broad generalizability of the findings as found for the overall student population and replicate the pattern of findings on relative effects as identified by the majority of previous studies. PMID:27242593

  14. Relative Age Effects in Mathematics and Reading: Investigating the Generalizability across Students, Time and Classes.

    PubMed

    Thoren, Katharina; Heinig, Elisa; Brunner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A child's age in comparison to the age of her or his classmates (relative age) has been found to be an influential factor on academic achievement, particularly but not exclusively at the beginning of formal schooling. However, few studies have focused on the generalizability of relative age effects. To close this gap, the present study analyzes the generalizability across students with and without immigrant backgrounds, across three student cohorts that entered school under a changing law of school enrollment, and across classes. To this end, we capitalized on representative large-scale data sets from three student cohorts attending public schools in Berlin, the capital of Germany. We analyzed the data using a multilevel framework. Our results for the overall student sample indicate relative age effects for reading and mathematics in favor of the relatively older students in Grade 2 that become somewhat smaller in size in Grade 3. By Grade 8, relative age effects had vanished in reading and had even reversed in favor of the relatively young in mathematics. Furthermore, relative age effects were not found to be systematically different among students with and without immigrant backgrounds, student cohorts, or across classes. Taken together, these results empirically underscore the broad generalizability of the findings as found for the overall student population and replicate the pattern of findings on relative effects as identified by the majority of previous studies.

  15. Relative Age Effects in Mathematics and Reading: Investigating the Generalizability across Students, Time and Classes.

    PubMed

    Thoren, Katharina; Heinig, Elisa; Brunner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A child's age in comparison to the age of her or his classmates (relative age) has been found to be an influential factor on academic achievement, particularly but not exclusively at the beginning of formal schooling. However, few studies have focused on the generalizability of relative age effects. To close this gap, the present study analyzes the generalizability across students with and without immigrant backgrounds, across three student cohorts that entered school under a changing law of school enrollment, and across classes. To this end, we capitalized on representative large-scale data sets from three student cohorts attending public schools in Berlin, the capital of Germany. We analyzed the data using a multilevel framework. Our results for the overall student sample indicate relative age effects for reading and mathematics in favor of the relatively older students in Grade 2 that become somewhat smaller in size in Grade 3. By Grade 8, relative age effects had vanished in reading and had even reversed in favor of the relatively young in mathematics. Furthermore, relative age effects were not found to be systematically different among students with and without immigrant backgrounds, student cohorts, or across classes. Taken together, these results empirically underscore the broad generalizability of the findings as found for the overall student population and replicate the pattern of findings on relative effects as identified by the majority of previous studies. PMID:27242593

  16. Age-Related Changes in Predictive Capacity Versus Internal Model Adaptability: Electrophysiological Evidence that Individual Differences Outweigh Effects of Age.

    PubMed

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Philipp, Markus; Alday, Phillip M; Kretzschmar, Franziska; Grewe, Tanja; Gumpert, Maike; Schumacher, Petra B; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical predictive coding has been identified as a possible unifying principle of brain function, and recent work in cognitive neuroscience has examined how it may be affected by age-related changes. Using language comprehension as a test case, the present study aimed to dissociate age-related changes in prediction generation versus internal model adaptation following a prediction error. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured in a group of older adults (60-81 years; n = 40) as they read sentences of the form "The opposite of black is white/yellow/nice." Replicating previous work in young adults, results showed a target-related P300 for the expected antonym ("white"; an effect assumed to reflect a prediction match), and a graded N400 effect for the two incongruous conditions (i.e. a larger N400 amplitude for the incongruous continuation not related to the expected antonym, "nice," versus the incongruous associated condition, "yellow"). These effects were followed by a late positivity, again with a larger amplitude in the incongruous non-associated versus incongruous associated condition. Analyses using linear mixed-effects models showed that the target-related P300 effect and the N400 effect for the incongruous non-associated condition were both modulated by age, thus suggesting that age-related changes affect both prediction generation and model adaptation. However, effects of age were outweighed by the interindividual variability of ERP responses, as reflected in the high proportion of variance captured by the inclusion of by-condition random slopes for participants and items. We thus argue that - at both a neurophysiological and a functional level - the notion of general differences between language processing in young and older adults may only be of limited use, and that future research should seek to better understand the causes of interindividual variability in the ERP responses of older adults and its relation to cognitive performance. PMID

  17. Coach Selections and the Relative Age Effect in Male Youth Ice Hockey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, David J.; Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Young, Bradley W.

    2013-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs; when relatively older children possess participation and performance advantages over relatively younger children) are frequent in male team sports. One possible explanation is that coaches select players based on physical attributes, which are more likely witnessed in relatively older athletes. Purpose: To determine if…

  18. Association of relative age effects in sports with number of years in school.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the association of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, with a high school versus university background in Japanese professional soccer and baseball players. The number of athletes born in the first quarter (April-June) was larger than the number born in the fourth quarter (January-March) for both soccer and baseball; however, the magnitude of the relative age effect differed with years in school. The skew of birth dates was stronger among players who only graduated high school than those who graduated university or college. This phenomenon was confirmed in both baseball and soccer players. The findings suggest relative age effects in professional sports to be related to years of age and years in school. PMID:23033753

  19. Association of relative age effects in sports with number of years in school.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the association of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, with a high school versus university background in Japanese professional soccer and baseball players. The number of athletes born in the first quarter (April-June) was larger than the number born in the fourth quarter (January-March) for both soccer and baseball; however, the magnitude of the relative age effect differed with years in school. The skew of birth dates was stronger among players who only graduated high school than those who graduated university or college. This phenomenon was confirmed in both baseball and soccer players. The findings suggest relative age effects in professional sports to be related to years of age and years in school.

  20. Talking Relative Age Effects: A Fictional Analysis Based on Scientific Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    During the past 30 years, there has been a considerable amount of scientific attention dedicated to the reported age discrimination which occurs in youth and elite sport. The purpose of this paper is to examine the notion of relative age effects (RAEs) through a slightly different lens. This paper therefore presents a fictional conversation…

  1. The Relative Age Effect and the Development of Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Angus; Barnsley, Roger; Battle, James

    2004-01-01

    A recent paper has demonstrated a relationship between suicide during the teen years and the age, relative to one's classmates, at which these individuals entered school. This represents the latest, and perhaps most important, of a series of studies that have focused on the effects of grouping children by age of entry into particular activities.…

  2. The relative age effect and success in German elite U-17 soccer teams.

    PubMed

    Augste, Claudia; Lames, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether there is empirical evidence for advantages in performance of soccer teams because of their relative age. The practice of selecting youth players according to their momentary performance leads to relative age effects, which in turn lead to inefficient talent selection. We used the median of the birth dates as a measure of the effect size of the relative age effect and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to assess its significance. For the 2008-2009 season, birth dates in the three German U-17 first leagues for soccer were examined (911 players). More than half of the 41 teams differed significantly from the distribution of the corresponding German cohort. There was a significant correlation between the relative age effect and success defined by teams' final rankings (Spearman's ρ = 0.328, P = 0.036). Regression analyses revealed that with a median of birth dates one month earlier the team is expected to finish 1.035 ranks better. Accordingly, selecting early born athletes is an important aspect of success in youth soccer. However, teams with no relative age effect are able to compete in the league, having the benefit to promote players with a better perspective for long and successful careers at an adult age.

  3. Age-related effects on spatial memory across viewpoint changes relative to different reference frames.

    PubMed

    Montefinese, Maria; Sulpizio, Valentina; Galati, Gaspare; Committeri, Giorgia

    2015-07-01

    Remembering object positions across different views is a fundamental competence for acting and moving appropriately in a large-scale space. Behavioural and neurological changes in elderly subjects suggest that the spatial representations of the environment might decline compared to young participants. However, no data are available on the use of different reference frames within topographical space in aging. Here we investigated the use of allocentric and egocentric frames in aging, by asking young and older participants to encode the location of a target in a virtual room relative either to stable features of the room (allocentric environment-based frame), or to an unstable objects set (allocentric objects-based frame), or to the viewer's viewpoint (egocentric frame). After a viewpoint change of 0° (absent), 45° (small) or 135° (large), participants judged whether the target was in the same spatial position as before relative to one of the three frames. Results revealed a different susceptibility to viewpoint changes in older than young participants. Importantly, we detected a worst performance, in terms of reaction times, for older than young participants in the allocentric frames. The deficit was more marked for the environment-based frame, for which a lower sensitivity was revealed as well as a worst performance even when no viewpoint change occurred. Our data provide new evidence of a greater vulnerability of the allocentric, in particular environment-based, spatial coding with aging, in line with the retrogenesis theory according to which cognitive changes in aging reverse the sequence of acquisition in mental development. PMID:25037856

  4. The potential effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gard, Tim; Hölzel, Britta K; Lazar, Sara W

    2014-01-01

    With a rapidly aging society it becomes increasingly important to counter normal age-related decline in cognitive functioning. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training programs may have the potential to counteract this decline. On the basis of a growing body of research that shows that meditation has positive effects on cognition in younger and middle-aged adults, meditation may be able to offset normal age-related cognitive decline or even enhance cognitive function in older adults. In this paper, we review studies investigating the effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline. We searched the Web of Science (1900 to present), PsycINFO (1597 to present), MEDLINE (1950 to present), and CABI (1910 to present) to identify original studies investigating the effects of meditation on cognition and cognitive decline in the context of aging. Twelve studies were included in the review, six of which were randomized controlled trials. Studies involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and reported preliminary positive effects on attention, memory, executive function, processing speed, and general cognition. However, most studies had a high risk of bias and small sample sizes. Reported dropout rates were low and compliance rates high. We conclude that meditation interventions for older adults are feasible, and preliminary evidence suggests that meditation can offset age-related cognitive decline.

  5. The potential effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Tim; Hölzel, Britta K.; Lazar, Sara W.

    2014-01-01

    With a rapidly aging society it becomes increasingly important to counter normal age-related decline in cognitive functioning. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training programs may have the potential to counteract this decline. On the basis of a growing body of research that shows that meditation has positive effects on cognition in younger and middle-aged adults, meditation may be able to offset normal age-related cognitive decline or even enhance cognitive function in older adults. In this paper, we review studies investigating the effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline. We searched the Web of Science (1900 to present), PsycINFO (1597 to present), MEDLINE (1950 to present), and CABI (1910 to present) to identify original studies investigating the effects of meditation on cognition and cognitive decline in the context of aging. Twelve studies were included in the review, six of which were randomized controlled trials. Studies involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and reported preliminary positive effects on attention, memory, executive function, processing speed, and general cognition. However, most studies had a high risk of bias and small sample sizes. Reported dropout rates were low and compliance rates high. We conclude that meditation interventions for older adults are feasible, and preliminary evidence suggests that meditation can offset age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24571182

  6. Protective effect of myostatin gene deletion on aging-related muscle metabolic decline.

    PubMed

    Chabi, B; Pauly, M; Carillon, J; Carnac, G; Favier, F B; Fouret, G; Bonafos, B; Vanterpool, F; Vernus, B; Coudray, C; Feillet-Coudray, C; Bonnieu, A; Lacan, D; Koechlin-Ramonatxo, C

    2016-06-01

    While myostatin gene deletion is a promising therapy to fight muscle loss during aging, this approach induces also skeletal muscle metabolic changes such as mitochondrial deficits, redox alteration and increased fatigability. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of aging on these features in aged wild-type (WT) and mstn knockout (KO) mice. Moreover, to determine whether an enriched-antioxidant diet may be useful to prevent age-related disorders, we orally administered to the two genotypes a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase for 12 weeks. We reported that mitochondrial functional abnormalities persisted (decreased state 3 and 4 of respiration; p<0.05) in skeletal muscle from aged KO mice; however, differences with WT mice were attenuated at old age in line with reduced difference on running endurance between the two genotypes. Interestingly, we showed an increase in glutathione levels, associated with lower lipid peroxidation levels in KO muscle. Enriched antioxidant diet reduced the aging-related negative effects on maximal aerobic velocity and running limit time (p<0.05) in both groups, with systemic adaptations on body weight. The redox status and the hypertrophic phenotype appeared to be beneficial to KO mice, mitigating the effect of aging on the skeletal muscle metabolic remodeling.

  7. Relative Age Effects on Physical Education Attainment and School Sport Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobley, Stephen; Abraham, Colin; Baker, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Background: The "Relative Age Effect" (RAE) has consistently been demonstrated to influence attainment in various contexts. In education, RAE appears to provide an advantage to those born during initial months of an academic year, compared with those born in later months. A similar effect has been noted in many sports, with those born shortly…

  8. An Examination of the Relative Age Effect in Developmental Girls' Hockey in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kristy L.; Weir, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that athletes may be provided with greater opportunities for success depending on the position of their birthdate in a sport's selection year. While the effect has been well established in men's sports, less is known about women's sports. This study examined the RAE in developmental girls'…

  9. Age-Related Changes in Predictive Capacity Versus Internal Model Adaptability: Electrophysiological Evidence that Individual Differences Outweigh Effects of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Philipp, Markus; Alday, Phillip M.; Kretzschmar, Franziska; Grewe, Tanja; Gumpert, Maike; Schumacher, Petra B.; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical predictive coding has been identified as a possible unifying principle of brain function, and recent work in cognitive neuroscience has examined how it may be affected by age–related changes. Using language comprehension as a test case, the present study aimed to dissociate age-related changes in prediction generation versus internal model adaptation following a prediction error. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured in a group of older adults (60–81 years; n = 40) as they read sentences of the form “The opposite of black is white/yellow/nice.” Replicating previous work in young adults, results showed a target-related P300 for the expected antonym (“white”; an effect assumed to reflect a prediction match), and a graded N400 effect for the two incongruous conditions (i.e. a larger N400 amplitude for the incongruous continuation not related to the expected antonym, “nice,” versus the incongruous associated condition, “yellow”). These effects were followed by a late positivity, again with a larger amplitude in the incongruous non-associated versus incongruous associated condition. Analyses using linear mixed-effects models showed that the target-related P300 effect and the N400 effect for the incongruous non-associated condition were both modulated by age, thus suggesting that age-related changes affect both prediction generation and model adaptation. However, effects of age were outweighed by the interindividual variability of ERP responses, as reflected in the high proportion of variance captured by the inclusion of by-condition random slopes for participants and items. We thus argue that – at both a neurophysiological and a functional level – the notion of general differences between language processing in young and older adults may only be of limited use, and that future research should seek to better understand the causes of interindividual variability in the ERP responses of older adults and its relation to

  10. Effects of chronic estrogen treatment on modulating age-related bone loss in female mice.

    PubMed

    Syed, Farhan A; Mödder, Ulrike Il; Roforth, Matthew; Hensen, Ira; Fraser, Daniel G; Peterson, James M; Oursler, Merry Jo; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-11-01

    While female mice do not have the equivalent of a menopause, they do undergo reproductive senescence. Thus, to dissociate the effects of aging versus estrogen deficiency on age-related bone loss, we sham-operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized and estrogen-replaced female C57/BL6 mice at 6 months of age and followed them to age 18 to 22 months. Lumbar spines and femurs were excised for analysis, and bone marrow hematopoietic lineage negative (lin-) cells (enriched for osteoprogenitor cells) were isolated for gene expression studies. Six-month-old intact control mice were euthanized to define baseline parameters. Compared with young mice, aged/sham-operated mice had a 42% reduction in lumbar spine bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), and maintaining constant estrogen levels over life in ovariectomized/estrogen-treated mice did not prevent age-related trabecular bone loss at this site. By contrast, lifelong estrogen treatment of ovariectomized mice completely prevented the age-related reduction in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and thickness at the tibial diaphysis present in the aged/sham-operated mice. As compared with cells from young mice, lin- cells from aged/sham-operated mice expressed significantly higher mRNA levels for osteoblast differentiation and proliferation marker genes. These data thus demonstrate that, in mice, age-related loss of cortical bone in the appendicular skeleton, but not loss of trabecular bone in the spine, can be prevented by maintaining constant estrogen levels over life. The observed increase in osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation marker gene expression in progenitor bone marrow cells from aged versus young mice may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to ongoing bone loss. PMID:20499336

  11. Influential Factors on the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Kornexl, Elmar; Raschner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group) of the same age (10-13 years) and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age disadvantages if they already present the same level of physical performance and maturational status as those born at the beginning of the year. The height and weight of ski racers born at the beginning of the year were significantly higher compared to the non-athletes, and ski racers born in relative age quarter 1 were taller and heavier compared to the ski racers of the other quarters. This indicates that the anthropometric characteristics influence the selection process in alpine ski racing, and that relatively older athletes are more likely to be selected if they exhibit advanced anthropometric characteristics.

  12. Influential Factors on the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Kornexl, Elmar; Raschner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group) of the same age (10-13 years) and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age disadvantages if they already present the same level of physical performance and maturational status as those born at the beginning of the year. The height and weight of ski racers born at the beginning of the year were significantly higher compared to the non-athletes, and ski racers born in relative age quarter 1 were taller and heavier compared to the ski racers of the other quarters. This indicates that the anthropometric characteristics influence the selection process in alpine ski racing, and that relatively older athletes are more likely to be selected if they exhibit advanced anthropometric characteristics. PMID:26252793

  13. Age-Related Decline in Brain Resources Modulates Genetic Effects on Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Lindenberger, Ulman; Nagel, Irene E.; Chicherio, Christian; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Bäckman, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging. Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008), who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed. (150 of 150 words) PMID:19225597

  14. The Relative Age Effect and the Influence on Performance in Youth Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key points The relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski

  15. The relative age effect and the influence on performance in youth alpine ski racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski

  16. Relative age effect in sport: comment on Alburquerque, et al. (2012).

    PubMed

    González-Víllora, Sixto; Pastor-Vicedo, Juan Carlos

    2012-12-01

    Relative age effect (RAE) describes the long-lived performance effects associated with systematic age differences of athletes in sports where competition is organized according to age cohorts. This phenomenon has been studied in many different sports, across widely varying samples and other factors such as anthropometric and fitness characteristics, career stage, competition or selection level cultural-societal trends, elite participation, gender, laterality, leadership development, in performance achievement and participation rates, in success and dropout, player nationality, playing position or self-selection. The relative age effect is not independent of other important factors, such as birthplace, gender, professional/amateur sport, or family socioeconomic factors. Most studies have looked at the advantage in performance that athletes who were born near the end of the year have, because they are relatively older and more developed than those in their competition cohort who have birthdays earlier in the year. RAEs of different magnitudes have been found depending on factors such as sex (males show larger effects than women) and type of sport (professional and majority sports have larger effects than amateur and minor sports). For these reasons the effect is regarded as a significant influence in the development of athletes' careers, and the acquisition of sports skills. The present article briefly summarizes evidence that may help explain how RAE influences the maintenance and development of sport expertise. PMID:23409600

  17. Relative age effect in sport: comment on Alburquerque, et al. (2012).

    PubMed

    González-Víllora, Sixto; Pastor-Vicedo, Juan Carlos

    2012-12-01

    Relative age effect (RAE) describes the long-lived performance effects associated with systematic age differences of athletes in sports where competition is organized according to age cohorts. This phenomenon has been studied in many different sports, across widely varying samples and other factors such as anthropometric and fitness characteristics, career stage, competition or selection level cultural-societal trends, elite participation, gender, laterality, leadership development, in performance achievement and participation rates, in success and dropout, player nationality, playing position or self-selection. The relative age effect is not independent of other important factors, such as birthplace, gender, professional/amateur sport, or family socioeconomic factors. Most studies have looked at the advantage in performance that athletes who were born near the end of the year have, because they are relatively older and more developed than those in their competition cohort who have birthdays earlier in the year. RAEs of different magnitudes have been found depending on factors such as sex (males show larger effects than women) and type of sport (professional and majority sports have larger effects than amateur and minor sports). For these reasons the effect is regarded as a significant influence in the development of athletes' careers, and the acquisition of sports skills. The present article briefly summarizes evidence that may help explain how RAE influences the maintenance and development of sport expertise.

  18. Relative age effect in youth soccer: analysis of the FIFA U17 World Cup competition.

    PubMed

    Williams, J H

    2010-06-01

    This investigation sought to determine if a relative age effect exists in the FIFA U17 World Cup competition. Birthdates of players competing in the most recent six competitions, from 1997 to 2007 were examined. For all competitions, the distributions of birth months were significantly different than expected with more players born in the early months of the year compared with the later months. For the entire cohort of players, 40% were born in the first quarter of the year while only 16% were born in the last 3 months. A small portion of this effect seems to be due to physical stature of the players. This relative age effect held for all FIFA-designated geographical zones except for Africa. The African region displayed a reverse relative age effect with a relatively large portion of players born in the later part of the year, particularly in December of the age appropriate year. The results of this investigation show that at the highest level of youth soccer, there is a strong bias toward inclusion of players born early in the selection year.

  19. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  20. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  1. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  2. Relative Age Effects Are a Developmental Problem in Tennis: But Not Necessarily when You're Left-Handed!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loffing, Florian; Schorer, Jorg; Cobley, Steve P.

    2010-01-01

    Relative Age Effects (RAEs), describing attainment inequalities as a result of interactions between biological age and age-grouping procedures, have been demonstrated across many sports contexts. This study examined whether an additional individual characteristic (i.e., handedness) mediated RAEs in tennis. Relative age and handedness distributions…

  3. Relative-age effect on competition outcomes at the World Youth and World Junior Athletics Championships.

    PubMed

    Hollings, Stephen C; Hume, Patria A; Hopkins, Will G

    2014-01-01

    The relative-age effect refers to a higher frequency of athletes with birthdates earlier in the competitive year. Track and field athletics has a 2-year competitive cycle at youth and junior levels that could make it particularly susceptible to the effect. We have therefore investigated the effect in athletics event finalists (first to eighth place) at the 2008 Junior Championships (men and women aged ≤ 19 years; n=1479) and the 2009 Youth Championships (boys and girls aged 16-17 years; n=1445). Counts of finalists differing in age by 1 year were estimated with Poisson regression and compared as factor effects (with ×/÷ 90% confidence limits and assessment of magnitude). The factor effects were: junior men 2.1 (×/÷ 1.4, large); junior women 1.7 (×/÷ 1.4, moderate); youth boys 3.7 (×/÷ 1.4, very large); youth girls 2.1 (×/÷ 1.3, large). Analysis by event group indicated the age effect was greatest in youth boys' sprints & hurdles (4.0, ×/÷ 1.7, very large), throws (7.2, ×/÷ 2.3, very large) and jumps (5.6, ×/÷ 1.9, very large), whereas it was smallest in junior men's throws (1.4, ×/÷ 1.4, small) and youth girls' jumps (1.4, ×/÷ 1.4, small). In conclusion, the marked relative-age effects in athletics must exclude some talented younger athletes from youth and junior championships and presumably discourage them from continuing to senior championships. The consequences are a lower overall standard of performance and, for some athletes, termination of involvement in athletics before realising their full potential. An alternative structure and calendar is needed to make youth and junior athletics championships more equitable.

  4. The Role of a Relative Age Effect in the 12th Winter European Youth Olympic Festival in 2015.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Schnitzer, Martin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to define the role of the relative age effect in the 12th Winter European Youth Olympic Festival 2015. The birth dates of all 899 participants and anthropometric data of 655 participants were analyzed. A significant relative age effect was present in the total sample and among the male athletes but not in the female athletes. Additionally, a significant relative age effect was present in strength- and endurance-related sports but not in technique-related sports. Statistically significantly more older athletes won medals. Relative age had a strong influence on participation in strength- and endurance-related sports as well as on performance.

  5. A relative age effect in men's but not women's professional baseball: 1943-1954.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael M; Pandya, Kalyani

    2011-08-01

    Birthdates of professional female and male baseball players active from 1943 to 1954 (the beginning and final years for professional female leagues) were matched for year of birth and league years and then compared by birth quarters, with a cutoff date beginning August 1. A relative age effect was noted for males, as there was a significantly different distribution of players across birth quarter, but there was no such effect for female professionals. Since players were matched for birth year and league play, the difference was unlikely to be due to seasonality differences in birth. Instead, the absence of a "relative age" effect for female players can be attributed to the absence of organized adolescent baseball for girls prior to the establishment of professional baseball leagues for women. PMID:22049668

  6. A relative age effect in men's but not women's professional baseball: 1943-1954.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael M; Pandya, Kalyani

    2011-08-01

    Birthdates of professional female and male baseball players active from 1943 to 1954 (the beginning and final years for professional female leagues) were matched for year of birth and league years and then compared by birth quarters, with a cutoff date beginning August 1. A relative age effect was noted for males, as there was a significantly different distribution of players across birth quarter, but there was no such effect for female professionals. Since players were matched for birth year and league play, the difference was unlikely to be due to seasonality differences in birth. Instead, the absence of a "relative age" effect for female players can be attributed to the absence of organized adolescent baseball for girls prior to the establishment of professional baseball leagues for women.

  7. Effects of glucocorticoids on age-related impairments of hippocampal structure and function in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Long; Hu, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Yun; Machida, Takeo; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2008-02-01

    Effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) on maze-learning performances and hippocampal morphology were observed in male C57BL/6Cr mice. Correlations between aging, GCs and maze-learning performances were also studied. (2) Eight-arm radial maze was used in maze-learning tests. Learning performance was assessed by the parameters of time of getting all the bait, number of reentry errors into the already-entered arm with bait, and number of missed entries into an unbaited arm. Brain sections, 8 mum thick, were Nissl-stained with cresyl violet or stained immunocytochemically with antibodies against neurofilaments. (3) With aging, normal pyramidal cells decreased gradually in amount, and degenerating cells increased since the age of 18 months, accompanied with the maze-learning deficit. Here we have suggested that these changes were associated with the age-related deficits in adaptation tolerance of neurons to stress. In addition, the age-related deficits in plasticity of hippocampal neurons to GCs in young mice (3 months of age) resulted in an increase in plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations, degeneration of hippocampal pyramidal cells, as well as maze-learning deficits. (4) In conclusion, our data indicated that CORT caused the degeneration of hippocampal pyramidal cells and the impairment of memory.

  8. Effects of physical training on age-related balance and postural control.

    PubMed

    Lelard, T; Ahmaidi, S

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we review the effects of physical activity on balance performance in the elderly. The increase in the incidence of falls with age reflects the disorders of balance-related to aging. We are particularly interested in age-related changes in the balance control system as reflected in different static and dynamic balance tests. We report the results of studies demonstrating the beneficial effects of physical activity on postural balance. By comparing groups of practitioners of different physical activities, it appears that these effects on postural control depend on the type of activity and the time of practice. Thus, we have focused in the present review on "proprioceptive" and "strength" activities. Training programs offering a combination of several activities have demonstrated beneficial effects on the incidence of falls, and we present and compare the effects of these two types of training activities. It emerges that there are differential effects of programs of activities: while all activities improve participants' confidence in their ability, the "proprioceptive" activities rather improve performance in static tasks, while "strength" activities tend to improve performance in dynamic tasks. These effects depend on the targeted population and will have a greater impact on the frailest subjects. The use of new technologies in the form of "exergames" may also be proposed in home-based exercises.

  9. Effect of Bcl-2 rs956572 polymorphism on age-related gray matter volume changes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mu-En; Huang, Chu-Chung; Yang, Albert C; Tu, Pei-Chi; Yeh, Heng-Liang; Hong, Chen-Jee; Chen, Jin-Fan; Liou, Ying-Jay; Lin, Ching-Po; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2013-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic protein B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) gene is a major regulator of neural plasticity and cellular resilience. Recently, the Bcl-2 rs956572 single nucleotide polymorphism was proposed to be a functional allelic variant that modulates cellular vulnerability to apoptosis. Our cross-sectional study investigated the genetic effect of this Bcl-2 polymorphism on age-related decreases in gray matter (GM) volume across the adult lifespan. Our sample comprised 330 healthy volunteers (191 male, 139 female) with a mean age of 56.2±22.0 years (range: 21-92). Magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping of the Bcl-2 rs956572 were performed for each participant. The differences in regional GM volumes between G homozygotes and A-allele carriers were tested using optimized voxel-based morphometry. The association between the Bcl-2 rs956572 polymorphism and age was a predictor of regional GM volumes in the right cerebellum, bilateral lingual gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus. We found that the volume of these five regions decreased with increasing age (all P<.001). Moreover, the downward slope was steeper among the Bcl-2 rs956572 A-allele carriers than in the G-homozygous participants. Our data provide convergent evidence for the genetic effect of the Bcl-2 functional allelic variant in brain aging. The rs956572 G-allele, which is associated with significantly higher Bcl-2 protein expression and diminished cellular sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis, conferred a protective effect against age-related changes in brain GM volume, particularly in the cerebellum. PMID:23437205

  10. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs.

  11. Age-related effects on perceptual and semantic encoding in memory.

    PubMed

    Kuo, M C C; Liu, K P Y; Ting, K H; Chan, C C H

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the age-related subsequent memory effect (SME) in perceptual and semantic encoding using event-related potentials (ERPs). Seventeen younger adults and 17 older adults studied a series of Chinese characters either perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining whether the depicted object makes sounds). The two tasks had similar levels of difficulty. The participants made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Younger adults performed better in both conditions, with significant SMEs detected in the time windows of P2, N3, P550, and late positive component (LPC). In the older group, SMEs were observed in the P2 and N3 latencies in both conditions but were only detected in the P550 in the semantic condition. Between-group analyses showed larger frontal and central SMEs in the younger sample in the LPC latency regardless of encoding type. Aging effect appears to be stronger on influencing perceptual than semantic encoding processes. The effects seem to be associated with a decline in updating and maintaining representations during perceptual encoding. The age-related decline in the encoding function may be due in part to changes in frontal lobe function.

  12. Age-related effects on perceptual and semantic encoding in memory.

    PubMed

    Kuo, M C C; Liu, K P Y; Ting, K H; Chan, C C H

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the age-related subsequent memory effect (SME) in perceptual and semantic encoding using event-related potentials (ERPs). Seventeen younger adults and 17 older adults studied a series of Chinese characters either perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining whether the depicted object makes sounds). The two tasks had similar levels of difficulty. The participants made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Younger adults performed better in both conditions, with significant SMEs detected in the time windows of P2, N3, P550, and late positive component (LPC). In the older group, SMEs were observed in the P2 and N3 latencies in both conditions but were only detected in the P550 in the semantic condition. Between-group analyses showed larger frontal and central SMEs in the younger sample in the LPC latency regardless of encoding type. Aging effect appears to be stronger on influencing perceptual than semantic encoding processes. The effects seem to be associated with a decline in updating and maintaining representations during perceptual encoding. The age-related decline in the encoding function may be due in part to changes in frontal lobe function. PMID:24374080

  13. Effects of aging on P300 between late young-age and early middle-age adulthood: an electroencephalogram event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Bourisly, Ali K

    2016-09-28

    The aim of this study was to identify age-related changes of P300 peak amplitude and P300 latency between closely separated nonsenile age groups (late young-aged adults and early middle-aged adults) and to investigate whether or not P300 has the potential to be used as a measure of cognitive aging even among nonsenile age groups. Twenty-eight adults (25-55 years old) completed an event-related potential oddball task. The elicitation of both P300 peak amplitude and P300 latency indicated age-related changes of P300. The results of the study showed that the P300 target peak amplitude was significantly larger in late young age compared with early middle age and that P300 target latency was also significantly delayed in early middle age compared with late young age. The results of this work contribute toward research efforts on a consensus on how aging affects event-related potential and/or P300. The main conclusions are that there exist significant age-related P300 changes even between closely separated, relatively younger, and nonsenile age groups, and that P300 has the potential to be used as a measure for cognitive aging even in nonsenile adults.

  14. The need to consider relative age effects in women's talent development process.

    PubMed

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2014-06-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to age differences among athletes in the same selection year. This study analyzed birth date distributions of 301,428 female athletes (aged 10-20 yr.) in Swiss Youth sports and the subgroup (n = 1,177) of the National Talent Development Program (TDP) in individual sports. Comparisons showed significant RAEs in the distribution of athletes' birth dates in alpine skiing, tennis, athletics, fencing, and snowboarding. Significant "reverse" RAEs with an overrepresentation of athletes at the end of the year were found in table tennis. In the TDP, significant RAEs were found in alpine skiing and tennis. No RAEs were detected in athletics. In table tennis, fencing, and snowboarding, "reverse" RAEs were found. Clearly, RAEs are complex and vary across individual sports for females.

  15. Influences of competition level, gender, player nationality, career stage and playing position on relative age effects.

    PubMed

    Schorer, J; Cobley, S; Büsch, D; Bräutigam, H; Baker, J

    2009-10-01

    Relative age, referring to the chronological age differences between individuals within annually age-grouped cohorts, is regarded as influential to an athlete's development, constraining athletic skill acquisition. While many studies have suggested different mechanisms for this effect, they have typically examined varying sports, precluding an examination of the possible inter-play between factors. Our three studies try to bridge this gap by investigating several moderators for relative age effects (RAEs) in one sport. Handball is a sport with position-specific demands, high cultural relevance and a performance context with established developmental structures and levels of representation for males and females. In Study 1, we investigated the influence of competition level and gender on RAEs before adulthood. In Study 2, elite participation, player nationality and stage of career are considered during adulthood. In Study 3, playing position and laterality (i.e., right vs left handedness) are investigated as moderators. Collectively, the results emphasize the complex inter-play of direct and indirect influences on RAEs in sports, providing evidence toward explaining how RAEs influence the development and maintenance of expertise.

  16. Analysis of the Relative Age Effect in Elite Youth Judo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, David H

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate relative age effects (RAEs) in elite youth judo athletes from different chronological age groups, between sexes, and across weight categories. Data from 1542 place winners of the cadet (under 17 y, 2009-2013) and junior judo world championships (under 20/21 y, 1990-2013) were separated by birth month into quarters (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4). The observed values were compared with expected annual age distributions using χ2 analyses, and odd ratios (OR) were used to evaluate effect sizes between quarters. The observed frequency of place winners was significantly different from the expected frequency for the age-group and sex comparisons and all body-mass groups (P < .05) with the exception of the extra-light categories (P = .572). When comparing Q1 with Q4 (OR, 95% confidence interval), small effect sizes were observed for cadets (1.72, 1.12-2.66), juniors (1.54, 1.23-1.94), males (1.75, 1.32-2.33), females (1.39, 1.03-1.87), and the light- (1.79, 1.21-2.64) and middle-weight (1.80, 1.20-2.70) categories. RAEs are apparent in cadet and junior judo athletes. Thus, coaches and administrators should consider the potential for physical and/or competitive advantages while adopting strategies that encourage long-term participation in youth judo athletes. PMID:25710189

  17. Analysis of the Relative Age Effect in Elite Youth Judo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, David H

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate relative age effects (RAEs) in elite youth judo athletes from different chronological age groups, between sexes, and across weight categories. Data from 1542 place winners of the cadet (under 17 y, 2009-2013) and junior judo world championships (under 20/21 y, 1990-2013) were separated by birth month into quarters (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4). The observed values were compared with expected annual age distributions using χ2 analyses, and odd ratios (OR) were used to evaluate effect sizes between quarters. The observed frequency of place winners was significantly different from the expected frequency for the age-group and sex comparisons and all body-mass groups (P < .05) with the exception of the extra-light categories (P = .572). When comparing Q1 with Q4 (OR, 95% confidence interval), small effect sizes were observed for cadets (1.72, 1.12-2.66), juniors (1.54, 1.23-1.94), males (1.75, 1.32-2.33), females (1.39, 1.03-1.87), and the light- (1.79, 1.21-2.64) and middle-weight (1.80, 1.20-2.70) categories. RAEs are apparent in cadet and junior judo athletes. Thus, coaches and administrators should consider the potential for physical and/or competitive advantages while adopting strategies that encourage long-term participation in youth judo athletes.

  18. Relative Age Effect in Mind Games: The Evidence from Elite Chess.

    PubMed

    Breznik, Kristijan; Law, Kris M Y

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to investigate the factors affecting superior intellectual performance, and it has been proposed that a possible biological marker for superior intellectual performance is the month of birth. In this study, birth details of chess players were obtained from the official international chess federation website. The rating lists of top junior female chess players ("Girls" category), top junior male chess players ("Boys"), top female chess players ("Female"), and top male chess players ("Male") were collected between July 2000 and August 2015. The birth months of each player that appeared in the top rating list were categorized into quarters. Additionally, relative age of chess players was calculated. Results supported the existence of the relative age effect in chess in all categories although a "reverse" RAE was found in the "Male" category. PMID:27166336

  19. Relative Age Effect in Mind Games: The Evidence from Elite Chess.

    PubMed

    Breznik, Kristijan; Law, Kris M Y

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to investigate the factors affecting superior intellectual performance, and it has been proposed that a possible biological marker for superior intellectual performance is the month of birth. In this study, birth details of chess players were obtained from the official international chess federation website. The rating lists of top junior female chess players ("Girls" category), top junior male chess players ("Boys"), top female chess players ("Female"), and top male chess players ("Male") were collected between July 2000 and August 2015. The birth months of each player that appeared in the top rating list were categorized into quarters. Additionally, relative age of chess players was calculated. Results supported the existence of the relative age effect in chess in all categories although a "reverse" RAE was found in the "Male" category.

  20. Variations in relative age effects in individual sports: skiing, figure skating and gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph; Janning, Christina; Wong, Harmonie; Cobley, Stephen; Schorer, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    In many sports, policy-makers and administrators employ annual cohorts to reduce differences between athletes during childhood and youth. Although well-intended, unintended relative age effects (RAEs) usually occur. RAEs refer to the specific selection, participation and attainment disadvantages associated with participants' birthdates relative to an arbitrary 'cutoff' date used to group participants within annual age groups. To date, we have little understanding of RAEs in individual sports. In this article, Study 1 considered the presence of RAEs in 1474 ski jumping, 7501 cross-country skiing, 15,565 alpine skiing, 4179 snowboarders and 713 Nordic combined athletes. Chi-square analyses revealed significant RAEs for most of these contexts across sexes. In Study 2, RAEs in the aesthetic sports of figure skating (n=502) and female gymnastics (n=612) were considered. There was no effect for the figure skaters and an atypical effect for the gymnasts. The significant effects across most ski sports coupled with the null effects in figure skating and atypical effect in gymnastics suggest that sport-specific contextual factors are important elements in understanding the mechanisms of RAEs, although further work is necessary to validate these findings. PMID:24444205

  1. Effects of aging on task- and stimulus-related cerebral attention networks.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Sophie; Majerus, Steve; Bastin, Christine; Collette, Fabienne; Jaspar, Mathieu; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Salmon, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Interactions between a dorsal attention network (DAN) and a ventral attention cerebral network (VAN) have been reported in young participants during attention or short-term memory (STM) tasks. Because it remains an underinvestigated question, age effects on DAN and VAN activity and their functional balance were explored during performance of an STM task. Older and younger groups showed similar behavioral patterns of results. At the cerebral level, DAN activation increased as a function of increasing STM load in both groups, suggesting preserved activity in DAN during healthy aging. Age-related over-recruitment in regions of the DAN in the higher task load raised the question of compensation attempt versus less efficient use of neural resources in older adults. Lesser decrease of VAN activation with increasing load and decreased stimulus-driven activation in the VAN, especially in the higher load, in older participants suggested age-related reduced response in the VAN. However, functional connectivity measures showed that VAN was still functionally connected to the DAN in older participants. PMID:27318136

  2. Aging effects on selective attention-related electroencephalographic patterns during face encoding.

    PubMed

    Deiber, M-P; Rodriguez, C; Jaques, D; Missonnier, P; Emch, J; Millet, P; Gold, G; Giannakopoulos, P; Ibañez, V

    2010-11-24

    Previous electrophysiological studies revealed that human faces elicit an early visual event-related potential (ERP) within the occipito-temporal cortex, the N170 component. Although face perception has been proposed to rely on automatic processing, the impact of selective attention on N170 remains controversial both in young and elderly individuals. Using early visual ERP and alpha power analysis, we assessed the influence of aging on selective attention to faces during delayed-recognition tasks for face and letter stimuli, examining 36 elderly and 20 young adults with preserved cognition. Face recognition performance worsened with age. Aging induced a latency delay of the N1 component for faces and letters, as well as of the face N170 component. Contrasting with letters, ignored faces elicited larger N1 and N170 components than attended faces in both age groups. This counterintuitive attention effect on face processing persisted when scenes replaced letters. In contrast with young, elderly subjects failed to suppress irrelevant letters when attending faces. Whereas attended stimuli induced a parietal alpha band desynchronization within 300-1000 ms post-stimulus with bilateral-to-right distribution for faces and left lateralization for letters, ignored and passively viewed stimuli elicited a central alpha synchronization larger on the right hemisphere. Aging delayed the latency of this alpha synchronization for both face and letter stimuli, and reduced its amplitude for ignored letters. These results suggest that due to their social relevance, human faces may cause paradoxical attention effects on early visual ERP components, but they still undergo classical top-down control as a function of endogenous selective attention. Aging does not affect the face bottom-up alerting mechanism but reduces the top-down suppression of distracting letters, possibly impinging upon face recognition, and more generally delays the top-down suppression of task-irrelevant information

  3. Relationship between the relative age effect and anthropometry, maturity and performance in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Gil, Susana Maria; Badiola, Aduna; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Gravina, Leyre; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Lekue, Jose Antonio; Granados, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the relative age effect (RAE) has been widely reported; however, its underlying causes have not yet been determined. With this in mind, the present study examined if anthropometry and performance were different amongst older and younger soccer players born in the same year. Eighty-eight young soccer players participated in the study (age 9.75 ± 0.30). Anthropometric measurements, physical tests (sprint, agility, endurance test, jump and hand dynamometry) and the estimation of the maturity status were carried out. Most players (65.9%) were born in the first half of the year. Older players were taller (P < 0.05), had longer legs (P < 0.01) and a larger fat-free mass (P < 0.05). Maturity offset was smaller in the older boys (P < 0.05); however, age at peak height velocity was similar. Older boys performed better in velocity and agility (P < 0.05) and particularly in the overall score of performance (P < 0.01). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that chronological age was the most important variable in the agility test and the overall score, after the skinfolds (negative effect). We report differences in anthropometry and physical performance amongst older and younger pre-pubertal soccer players. These differences may underlie the RAE.

  4. Quantification of the relative age effect in three indices of physical performance.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Taylor, Matthew J; Voss, Christine; Ogunleye, Ayodele A; Cohen, Daniel D; Parry, David A

    2013-12-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) describes the relationship between an individual's birth month and their level of attainment in sports. There is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for selection in age-grouped sports, and it is hypothesized that such relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. There is, however, little empirical evidence of any such advantage. This study investigated whether schoolchildren's physical performance differed according to which quarter of the school year they were born in. Mass, stature, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and power were measured in 10 to 16 year olds (n = 8,550, 53% male). We expressed test performance as age- and sex-specific z-scores based on reference data with age rounded down to the nearest whole year and also as units normalized for body mass. We then compared these values between yearly birth quarters. There were no significant main effects for differences in anthropometric measures in either sex. Girls born in the first quarter of the school year were significantly stronger than those born at other times when handgrip was expressed as a z-score. As z-scores, all measures were significantly higher in boys born in either the first or second yearly quarters. Relative to body mass, cardiorespiratory fitness was higher in boys born in the first quarter and power was higher in those born in the second quarter. The RAE does not appear to significantly affect girls' performance test scores when they are expressed as z-score or relative to body mass. Boys born in the first and second quarters of the year had a significant physical advantage over their relatively younger peers. These findings have practical bearing if coaches use fitness tests for talent identification and team selection. Categorizing test performance based on rounded down values of whole-year age may disadvantage children born later in the selection year. These

  5. Quantification of the relative age effect in three indices of physical performance.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Taylor, Matthew J; Voss, Christine; Ogunleye, Ayodele A; Cohen, Daniel D; Parry, David A

    2013-12-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) describes the relationship between an individual's birth month and their level of attainment in sports. There is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for selection in age-grouped sports, and it is hypothesized that such relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. There is, however, little empirical evidence of any such advantage. This study investigated whether schoolchildren's physical performance differed according to which quarter of the school year they were born in. Mass, stature, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and power were measured in 10 to 16 year olds (n = 8,550, 53% male). We expressed test performance as age- and sex-specific z-scores based on reference data with age rounded down to the nearest whole year and also as units normalized for body mass. We then compared these values between yearly birth quarters. There were no significant main effects for differences in anthropometric measures in either sex. Girls born in the first quarter of the school year were significantly stronger than those born at other times when handgrip was expressed as a z-score. As z-scores, all measures were significantly higher in boys born in either the first or second yearly quarters. Relative to body mass, cardiorespiratory fitness was higher in boys born in the first quarter and power was higher in those born in the second quarter. The RAE does not appear to significantly affect girls' performance test scores when they are expressed as z-score or relative to body mass. Boys born in the first and second quarters of the year had a significant physical advantage over their relatively younger peers. These findings have practical bearing if coaches use fitness tests for talent identification and team selection. Categorizing test performance based on rounded down values of whole-year age may disadvantage children born later in the selection year. These

  6. Effects of semantic relatedness on age-related associative memory deficits: the role of theta oscillations.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Garcia, Maite; Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes

    2012-07-16

    Growing evidence suggests that age-related deficits in associative memory are alleviated when the to-be-associated items are semantically related. Here we investigate whether this beneficial effect of semantic relatedness is paralleled by spatio-temporal changes in cortical EEG dynamics during incidental encoding. Young and older adults were presented with faces at a particular spatial location preceded by a biographical cue that was either semantically related or unrelated. As expected, automatic encoding of face-location associations benefited from semantic relatedness in the two groups of age. This effect correlated with increased power of theta oscillations over medial and anterior lateral regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and lateral regions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in both groups. But better-performing elders also showed increased brain-behavior correlation in the theta band over the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) as compared to young adults. Semantic relatedness was, however, insufficient to fully eliminate age-related differences in associative memory. In line with this finding, poorer-performing elders relative to young adults showed significant reductions of theta power in the left IFG that were further predictive of behavioral impairment in the recognition task. All together, these results suggest that older adults benefit less than young adults from executive processes during encoding mainly due to neural inefficiency over regions of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). But this associative deficit may be partially compensated for by engaging preexistent semantic knowledge, which likely leads to an efficient recruitment of attentional and integration processes supported by the left PPC and left anterior PFC respectively, together with neural compensatory mechanisms governed by the right VLPFC.

  7. Athletic performance and birth month: is the relative age effect more than just selection bias?

    PubMed

    Sandercock, G R H; Ogunleye, A A; Parry, D A; Cohen, D D; Taylor, M J D; Voss, C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if month of birth affects performance in 3 tests of physical function in children and adolescents. We measured cardiorespiratory fitness, handgrip strength and lower-body power expressed them relative to (whole year) age then compared scores between calendar year birth-months. We also expressed test performance as the likelihood of achieving criterion-referenced fitness standards. There were significant main effects of birth-month for cardiorespiratory fitness (F=4.54, p<0.001), strength (F=6.81, p<0.001) and power (F=3.67, p<0.001). Children born in November were fitter and more powerful than those born at other times, particularly the summer months (April, May and June). October-born children were stronger than those born in all months except September and November. This relationship was evident despite controlling for decimal age and despite no significant inter-month differences in anthropometric characteristics.There is a clear physical advantage for those born in the autumn and this may explain some of the bias in sports selection attributed to the relative age effect, particularly when the British school-year (September) cut-off is used.

  8. Relative age effect and Yo-Yo IR1 in youth soccer.

    PubMed

    Deprez, D; Vaeyens, R; Coutts, A J; Lenoir, M; Philippaerts, R

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate the presence of a relative age effect and the influence of birth quarter on anthropometric characteristics, an estimation of biological maturity and performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 in 606 elite, Flemish youth soccer players. The sample was divided into 5 chronological age groups (U10-U19), each subdivided into 4 birth quarters. Players had their APHV estimated and height, weight and Yo-Yo IR1 performance were assessed. Differences between quarters were investigated using uni- and multivariate analyses. Overall, significantly (P<0.001) more players were born in the first quarter (37.6%) compared to the last (13.2%). Further, no significant differences in anthropometric variables and Yo-Yo IR1 performance were found between the 4 birth quarters. However, there was a trend for players born in the first quarter being taller and heavier than players born in the fourth quarter. Players born in the last quarter tended to experience their peak in growth earlier, this may have enabled them to compete physically with their relatively older peers. Our results indicated selection procedures which are focused on the formation of strong physical and physiological homogeneous groups. Relative age and individual biological maturation should be considered when selecting adolescent soccer players.

  9. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  10. Two-year citations of JAPPL original articles: evidence of a relative age effect.

    PubMed

    Soares de Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares; Ramalho de Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho; de Oliveira Brito, Letícia Vargas; da Matta, Thiago Torres; Viana, Bruno Ferreira; de Souza, Cintia Pereira; Guerreiro, Renato de Carvalho; de Carvalho Guerreiro, Renato; Slama, Fabian Antonio; Portugal, Eduardo da Matta Mello; da Matta Mello Portugal, Eduardo

    2012-05-01

    Several indicators have been used to analyze scientific journals, with the impact factor and the number of citations in a 2-yr calendar time frame (2-YRC) being the most common factors. However, considering that the Journal of Applied Physiology (JAPPL) appears monthly and that calculations of these indicators are based on citations of papers published in previous years, we hypothesized that articles published at the beginning of the year would be cited more in the 2-YRC compared with those appearing in the last issues of the year, a phenomena known as a relative age effect. Our objective was to confirm the existence of a relative age effect in the 2-YRC for original articles published in JAPPL. From 2005 to 2008, a total of 1,726 original articles were published, according to the Web of Science, and 9,973 citations in 2-YRC, varying from 0 to 45, with a mean of 5.78 for individual papers. Although there were no differences in the number of original articles published in a given month (P = 0.99), the 2-YRC varied considerably throughout the year, being higher for those earlier issues of the year, as shown by the linear regression analysis (r(2) = 0.76; P < 0.001). The 2-YRC began at 6.62 during the first 3 mo of the year, dropping by 10% at each 3-mo period. In summary, the longer an article has been out there, the more citations it collects. The relative age effect is a potential confounding variable for the assessment and interpretation of 2-YRC (using calendar years) from JAPPL original articles.

  11. Age-related cataract.

    PubMed

    Asbell, Penny A; Dualan, Ivo; Mindel, Joel; Brocks, Dan; Ahmad, Mehdi; Epstein, Seth

    Cataract, opacification of the lens, is one of the commonest causes of loss of useful vision, with an estimated 16 million people worldwide affected. Several risk factors have been identified in addition to increasing age--genetic composition, exposure to ultraviolet light, and diabetes. However, no method to halt the formation of a cataractous lens has been shown to be effective. Nevertheless, advances in surgical removal of cataracts, including small-incision surgery, use of viscoelastics, and the development of intraocular lenses, have made treatment very effective and visual recovery rapid in most cases. Despite these advances, cataract continues to be a leading public-health issue that will grow in importance as the population increases and life expectancy is extended worldwide. PMID:15708105

  12. Modeling the mechanical behavior of vertebral trabecular bone: effects of age-related changes in microstructure.

    PubMed

    Silva, M J; Gibson, L J

    1997-08-01

    Age-related reductions in the thickness and number of trabeculae in vertebral trabecular bone have been documented by several workers, yet the relative effects of these changes on mechanical properties are not known. We developed a two-dimensional model of human vertebral trabecular bone and investigated its mechanical behavior using finite element analysis. The stress-strain behavior, failure mode, and strain distributions predicted using the model were consistent with those observed for vertebral trabecular bone under compressive loading. Random reductions in the number of trabeculae reduced the modulus and strength of the models two to five times more than uniform reductions in the thickness of trabeculae that caused the same loss of bone volume. For example, randomly removing longitudinal trabeculae to achieve a reduction in density of 10% reduced the strength by approximately 70%, whereas removing the same amount of bone by uniformly reducing the thickness of the longitudinal trabeculae only reduced the strength by approximately 20%. For a simulation of aged bone, in which the thickness and number of trabeculae were reduced concurrently, the strength was 23% of its intact ("young") value. When the bone mass of the aged model was restored to its intact level by increasing the thickness but not the number of trabeculae, the strength increased by 60%, but was still only 37% of its intact value. These combined findings, based on a two-dimensional, idealized model of vertebral trabecular bone, illustrate the importance of maintaining trabecular number and suggest that it may not be possible to restore bone strength following a period of advanced bone loss if a substantial number of trabeculae have been resorbed. Thus, until treatments exist that can increase trabecular number, the most effective treatment strategy is to prevent the degradation of bone strength by maintaining the number of trabeculae at a healthy level.

  13. The relative age effect in young French basketball players: a study on the whole population.

    PubMed

    Delorme, N; Raspaud, M

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study is to test the presence of the relative age effect (RAE) and to examine height in an overall population of the young French basketball players from 7 to 18 years old, male (n=151 259) and female (n=107 101). For the boys as for the girls, the results show a statistically significant RAE in all age categories. The effect seems more pronounced during puberty. As far as the height is concerned, players born during quarters 1 and 2 are always significantly taller than those born during quarter 4, apart from the 17-year-old female players. These results require a new look at the methodology in the statistical calculation and the interpretation of RAE. A study wanting to give a precise measurement of this effect will have to take as the expected theoretical distribution the whole population of licensed players in the corresponding years, rather than one on the global population of the country. This will avoid the hasty conclusion that an asymmetric distribution of dates of birth of professional players would be due to RAE, whereas in reality it would be representative of one existing in the population of licensed players.

  14. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  15. The Effects of Varying Contextual Demands on Age-related Positive Gaze Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Soo Rim; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on the age-related positivity effect and its role in visual attention, discrepancies remain regarding whether one’s full attention is required for age-related differences to emerge. The present study took a new approach to this question by varying the contextual demands of emotion processing. This was done by adding perceptual distractions, such as visual and auditory noise, that could disrupt attentional control. Younger and older participants viewed pairs of happy–neutral and fearful–neutral faces while their eye movements were recorded. Facial stimuli were shown either without noise, embedded in a background of visual noise (low, medium, or high), or with simultaneous auditory babble. Older adults showed positive gaze preferences, looking toward happy faces and away from fearful faces; however, their gaze preferences tended to be influenced by the level of visual noise. Specifically, the tendency to look away from fearful faces was not present in conditions with low and medium levels of visual noise, but was present where there were high levels of visual noise. It is important to note, however, that in the high-visual-noise condition, external cues were present to facilitate the processing of emotional information. In addition, older adults’ positive gaze preferences disappeared or were reduced when they first viewed emotional faces within a distracting context. The current results indicate that positive gaze preferences may be less likely to occur in distracting contexts that disrupt control of visual attention. PMID:26030774

  16. Age-Related Impairments in the Revision of Syntactic Misanalyses: Effects of Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Debra A.; Koh, Christine K.; Kjelgaard, Margaret M.; Bruce, Stephanie; Speer, Shari R.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether young and older adults differ in comprehending sentences that contain temporary syntactic closure ambiguities. Experiment 1 examined age-related differences using the Auditory Moving Window (AMW) task, in which sentences were presented in a segment-by-segment self-paced fashion. Experiment 2 examined age-related…

  17. Progressive Bidirectional Age-Related Changes in Default Mode Network Effective Connectivity across Six Decades

    PubMed Central

    Li, Karl; Laird, Angela R.; Price, Larry R.; McKay, D. Reese; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C.; Fox, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of regions that is tonically engaged during the resting state and exhibits task-related deactivation that is readily reproducible across a wide range of paradigms and modalities. The DMN has been implicated in numerous disorders of cognition and, in particular, in disorders exhibiting age-related cognitive decline. Despite these observations, investigations of the DMN in normal aging are scant. Here, we used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired during rest to investigate age-related changes in functional connectivity of the DMN in 120 healthy normal volunteers comprising six, 20-subject, decade cohorts (from 20–29 to 70–79). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess age-related changes in inter-regional connectivity within the DMN. SEM was applied both using a previously published, meta-analytically derived, node-and-edge model, and using exploratory modeling searching for connections that optimized model fit improvement. Although the two models were highly similar (only 3 of 13 paths differed), the sample demonstrated significantly better fit with the exploratory model. For this reason, the exploratory model was used to assess age-related changes across the decade cohorts. Progressive, highly significant changes in path weights were found in 8 (of 13) paths: four rising, and four falling (most changes were significant by the third or fourth decade). In all cases, rising paths and falling paths projected in pairs onto the same nodes, suggesting compensatory increases associated with age-related decreases. This study demonstrates that age-related changes in DMN physiology (inter-regional connectivity) are bidirectional, progressive, of early onset and part of normal aging. PMID:27378909

  18. Progressive Bidirectional Age-Related Changes in Default Mode Network Effective Connectivity across Six Decades.

    PubMed

    Li, Karl; Laird, Angela R; Price, Larry R; McKay, D Reese; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C; Fox, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of regions that is tonically engaged during the resting state and exhibits task-related deactivation that is readily reproducible across a wide range of paradigms and modalities. The DMN has been implicated in numerous disorders of cognition and, in particular, in disorders exhibiting age-related cognitive decline. Despite these observations, investigations of the DMN in normal aging are scant. Here, we used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired during rest to investigate age-related changes in functional connectivity of the DMN in 120 healthy normal volunteers comprising six, 20-subject, decade cohorts (from 20-29 to 70-79). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess age-related changes in inter-regional connectivity within the DMN. SEM was applied both using a previously published, meta-analytically derived, node-and-edge model, and using exploratory modeling searching for connections that optimized model fit improvement. Although the two models were highly similar (only 3 of 13 paths differed), the sample demonstrated significantly better fit with the exploratory model. For this reason, the exploratory model was used to assess age-related changes across the decade cohorts. Progressive, highly significant changes in path weights were found in 8 (of 13) paths: four rising, and four falling (most changes were significant by the third or fourth decade). In all cases, rising paths and falling paths projected in pairs onto the same nodes, suggesting compensatory increases associated with age-related decreases. This study demonstrates that age-related changes in DMN physiology (inter-regional connectivity) are bidirectional, progressive, of early onset and part of normal aging. PMID:27378909

  19. Aging, frailty and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Fulop, T; Larbi, A; Witkowski, J M; McElhaney, J; Loeb, M; Mitnitski, A; Pawelec, G

    2010-10-01

    The concept of frailty as a medically distinct syndrome has evolved based on the clinical experience of geriatricians and is clinically well recognizable. Frailty is a nonspecific state of vulnerability, which reflects multisystem physiological change. These changes underlying frailty do not always achieve disease status, so some people, usually very elderly, are frail without a specific life threatening illness. Current thinking is that not only physical but also psychological, cognitive and social factors contribute to this syndrome and need to be taken into account in its definition and treatment. Together, these signs and symptoms seem to reflect a reduced functional reserve and consequent decrease in adaptation (resilience) to any sort of stressor and perhaps even in the absence of extrinsic stressors. The overall consequence is that frail elderly are at higher risk for accelerated physical and cognitive decline, disability and death. All these characteristics associated with frailty can easily be applied to the definition and characterization of the aging process per se and there is little consensus in the literature concerning the physiological/biological pathways associated with or determining frailty. It is probably true to say that a consensus view would implicate heightened chronic systemic inflammation as a major contributor to frailty. This review will focus on the relationship between aging, frailty and age-related diseases, and will highlight possible interventions to reduce the occurrence and effects of frailty in elderly people. PMID:20559726

  20. Stratified at Seven: In-Class Ability Grouping and the Relative Age Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    There is an established body of evidence indicating that a pupil's relative age within their school year cohort is associated with academic attainment throughout compulsory education. In England, autumn-born pupils consistently attain at higher levels than summer-born pupils. Analysis here investigates a possible channel of this relative age…

  1. Age-related differences in susceptibility to toxic effects of valproic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Espandiari, Parvaneh; Zhang, Jun; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Miller, Terry J; Knapton, Alan; Herman, Eugene H; Beger, Richard D; Hanig, Joseph P

    2008-07-01

    A multi-age rat model was evaluated as a means to identify a potential age-related difference in liver injury following exposure to valproic acid (VPA), a known pediatric hepatotoxic agent. Different age groups of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (10-, 25-, 40-, 80-day-old) were administered VPA at doses of 160, 320, 500 or 650 mg kg(-1) (i.p.) for 4 days. Animals from all age groups developed toxicity after treatment with VPA; however, the patterns of toxicity were dissimilar within each age group. The high dose of VPA caused significant lethality in 10- and 25-day-old rats. All doses of VPA caused decrease in the platelet counts (10-, 25-day-old rats) and the rate of growth (40-day-old rats) and increases in the urine creatine concentration (high dose, 80-day-old rats). VPA induced hepatic and splenic alterations in all age groups. The most severe lesions were found mostly in 10- and 80-day-old rats. Significant changes in blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were observed in 10-day-old pups after treatment with low doses of VPA. The highest VPA dose caused significant decreases in the levels of serum total protein (40- and 80-day-old rats). Principal component analysis of spectra derived from terminal urine samples of all age groups showed that each age group clusters separately. In conclusion, this study showed that the vulnerability profile of each age group was different indicating that a multi-age pediatric animal model is appropriate to assess more completely age-dependent changes in drug toxicity.

  2. Aging memory for pictures: using high-density event-related potentials to understand the effect of aging on the picture superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Ally, Brandon A; Waring, Jill D; Beth, Ellen H; McKeever, Joshua D; Milberg, William P; Budson, Andrew E

    2008-01-31

    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to explain these findings. The early frontal effect, parietal effect, and late frontal effect were all indistinguishable between older and younger adults for pictures. In contrast, for words, the early frontal and parietal effects were significantly diminished for the older adults compared to the younger adults. These two old/new effects have been linked to familiarity and recollection, respectively, and the authors speculate that these processes are impaired for word-based memory in the course of healthy aging. The findings of this study suggest that pictures allow older adults to compensate for their impaired memorial processes, and may allow these memorial components to function more effectively in older adults. PMID:17981307

  3. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1991-12-31

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  4. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C. ); Aggarwal, S.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  5. An Event Related Potentials Study of the Effects of Age, Load and Maintenance Duration on Working Memory Recognition.

    PubMed

    Pinal, Diego; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Age-related decline in cognitive capacities has been attributed to a generalized slowing of processing speed and a reduction in working memory (WM) capacity. Nevertheless, it is unclear how age affects visuospatial WM recognition and its underlying brain electrical activity. Whether age modulates the effects of memory load or information maintenance duration, which determine the limits of WM, remains also elusive. In this exploratory study, performance in a delayed match to sample task declined with age, particularly in conditions with high memory load. Event related potentials analysis revealed longer N2 and P300 latencies in old than in young adults during WM recognition, which may reflect slowing of stimulus evaluation and classification processes, respectively. Although there were no differences between groups in N2 or P300 amplitudes, the latter was more homogeneously distributed in old than in young adults, which may indicate an age-related increased reliance in frontal vs parietal resources during WM recognition. This was further supported by an age-related reduced posterior cingulate activation and increased superior frontal gyrus activation revealed through standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography. Memory load and maintenance duration effects on brain activity were similar in both age groups. These behavioral and electrophysiological results add evidence in support of age-related decline in WM recognition theories, with a slowing of processing speed that may be limited to stimulus evaluation and categorization processes--with no effects on perceptual processes--and a posterior to anterior shift in the recruitment of neural resources. PMID:26569113

  6. Coaches' implicit associations between size and giftedness: implications for the relative age effect.

    PubMed

    Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-established phenomenon in education and sports. Coaches have been assumed to be important social agents of RAE via biased selection decisions in favour of children with maturation advantages. In the present research, we used the Implicit Association Test to investigate automatic associations between body size and a player's domain-specific giftedness amongst youth baseball (N = 18) and youth soccer coaches (N = 34). We found medium to strong automatic associations between body size and player giftedness (baseball: MD = 0.62; soccer: MD = 0.51). Specifically, taller players were associated with positive performance-related attributes, whereas smaller players were associated with negative attributes. The results are in line with theories of grounded cognition by showing that the abstract concept of "sport giftedness" is partly grounded in the perception of physical height amongst youth sports coaches. We argue that this grounded cognition has the potential to influence coaches' selection decisions and in turn account for RAE as coaches are biased towards physically more matured players, even when no apparent performance advantage is evident.

  7. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Ulbricht, Alexander; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test: 1) whether the relative age effect (RAE) was prevalent in young (U12-U18) German male tennis players; 2) the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3) whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811), all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB) (n = 120.851), players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165), regional (n = 381) and national (n = 57) squads (11-17 years old), as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%), regional (38.1%) and national (42.1%) players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics. Key points RAEsexist in the selection of youth tennis players in Germany, a greater percentage of players analyzed was born in the 1st quarter compared to all licensed tennis players in the country, and more pronounced with an increased competition level in youth players. Players born later in the selection year and still selected in elite squads were likely to be similar across a range of physical fitness attributes compared with those born earlier in the year. The selection process should be reevaluated and changed to reduce the impact of RAEs on tennis players. PMID:26336351

  8. Age-related changes in the neuropeptide Y effects on murine lymphoproliferation and interleukin-2 production.

    PubMed

    Medina, S; Del Río, M; Hernanz, A; De la Fuente, M

    2000-09-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) modulates several aspects of the immune response but it is not known whether NPY responsiveness is altered with aging. In this work, the in vitro effect of NPY at concentrations ranging from 10(-)(14) M to 10(-)(7) M on lymphoproliferation has been studied in spleen, axillary node and thymus leukocytes from young, adult, mature and old BALB/c mice. The spontaneous proliferation of spleen lymphocytes from young mice was significantly stimulated by NPY. In response to the mitogen Con A, lymphoproliferation and IL-2 release by lymphocytes were inhibited significantly by NPY, these effects disappearing with aging. The results show that NPY is a modulator of lymphoproliferation and that this effect disappears progressively with age. Moreover, this regulatory role of NPY may be carried out through a decrease in IL-2 production.

  9. Age-related behavioral effects of methomyI in Brown Norway rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methomyl is a cholinesterase-inhibiting carbamate pesticide that is used in the field on cotton and a variety of fruits and vegetables. Concerns have been raised generally about age-related differences in susceptibility to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, especially for chil...

  10. Effects of a computer-based cognitive exercise program on age-related cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Bozoki, Andrea; Radovanovic, Mirjana; Winn, Brian; Heeter, Carrie; Anthony, James C

    2013-01-01

    We developed a 'senior friendly' suite of online 'games for learning' with interactive calibration for increasing difficulty, and evaluated the feasibility of a randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that seniors aged 60-80 can improve key aspects of cognitive ability with the aid of such games. Sixty community-dwelling senior volunteers were randomized to either an online game suite designed to train multiple cognitive abilities, or to a control arm with online activities that simulated the look and feel of the games but with low level interactivity and no calibration of difficulty. Study assessment included measures of recruitment, retention and play-time. Cognitive change was measured with a computerized assessment battery administered just before and within two weeks after completion of the six-week intervention. Impediments to feasibility included: limited access to in-home high-speed internet, large variations in the amount of time devoted to game play, and a reluctance to pursue more challenging levels. Overall analysis was negative for assessed performance (transference effects) even though subjects improved on the games themselves. Post hoc analyses suggest that some types of games may have more value than others, but these effects would need to be replicated in a study designed for that purpose. We conclude that a six-week, moderate-intensity computer game-based cognitive intervention can be implemented with high-functioning seniors, but the effect size is relatively small. Our findings are consistent with Owen et al. (2010), but there are open questions about whether more structured, longer duration or more intensive 'games for learning' interventions might yield more substantial cognitive improvement in seniors.

  11. Age-related differences in gap detection: Effects of task difficulty and cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kelly C.; Eckert, Mark A.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in gap detection for younger and older adults have been shown to vary with the complexity of the task or stimuli, but the factors that contribute to these differences remain unknown. To address this question, we examined the extent to which age-related differences in processing speed and workload predicted age-related differences in gap detection. Gap detection thresholds were measured for 10 younger and 11 older adults in two conditions that varied in task complexity but used identical stimuli: (1) gap location fixed at the beginning, middle, or end of a noise burst and (2) gap location varied randomly from trial to trial from the beginning, middle, or end of the noise. We hypothesized that gap location uncertainty would place increased demands on cognitive and attentional resources and result in significantly higher gap detection thresholds for older but not younger adults. Overall, gap detection thresholds were lower for the middle location as compared to beginning and end locations and were lower for the fixed than the random condition. In general, larger age-related differences in gap detection were observed for more challenging conditions. That is, gap detection thresholds for older adults were significantly larger for the random condition than for the fixed condition when the gap was at the beginning and end locations but not the middle. In contrast, gap detection thresholds for younger adults were not significantly different for the random and fixed condition at any location. Subjective ratings of workload indicated that older adults found the gap-detection task more mentally demanding than younger adults. Consistent with these findings, results of the Purdue Pegboard and Connections tests revealed age-related slowing of processing speed. Moreover, age group differences in workload and processing speed predicted gap detection in younger and older adults when gap location varied from trial to trial; these associations were not observed when gap

  12. [Presbycusis - Age Related Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Fischer, N; Weber, B; Riechelmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to age related degeneration of inner ear structures. It can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder with environmental and genetic factors. The molecular, electrophysiological and histological damage at different levels of the inner ear cause a progressive hearing loss, which usually affects the high frequencies of hearing. The resulting poor speech recognition has a negative impact on cognitive, emotional and social function in older adults. Recent investigations revealed an association between hearing impairment and social isolation, anxiety, depression and cognitive decline in elderly. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosis and treating hearing loss in the elderly population. Hearing aids are the most commonly used devices for treating presbycusis. The technical progress of implantable hearing devices allows an effective hearing rehabilitation even in elderly with severe hearing loss. However, most people with hearing impairments are not treated adequately. PMID:27392191

  13. Differences in age-related effects on brain volume in Down syndrome as compared to Williams syndrome and typical development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) are reported to experience early onset of brain aging. However, it is not well understood how pre-existing neurodevelopmental effects versus neurodegenerative processes might be contributing to the observed pattern of brain atrophy in younger adults with DS. The aims of the current study were to: (1) to confirm previous findings of age-related changes in DS compared to adults with typical development (TD), (2) to test for an effect of these age-related changes in a second neurodevelopmental disorder, Williams syndrome (WS), and (3) to identify a pattern of regional age-related effects that are unique to DS. Methods High-resolution T1-weighted MRI of the brains of subjects with DS, WS, and TD controls were segmented, and estimates of regional brain volume were derived using FreeSurfer. A general linear model was employed to test for age-related effects on volume between groups. Secondary analyses in the DS group explored the relationship between brain volume and neuropsychological tests and APOE. Results Consistent with previous findings, the DS group showed significantly greater age-related effects relative to TD controls in total gray matter and in regions of the orbitofrontal cortex and the parietal cortex. Individuals with DS also showed significantly greater age-related effects on volume of the left and right inferior lateral ventricles (LILV and RILV, respectively). There were no significant differences in age-related effects on volume when comparing the WS and TD groups. In the DS group, cognitive tests scores measuring signs of dementia and APOE ϵ4 carrier status were associated with LILV and RILV volume. Conclusions Individuals with DS demonstrated a unique pattern of age-related effects on gray matter and ventricular volume, the latter of which was associated with dementia rating scores in the DS group. Results may indicate that early onset of brain aging in DS is primarily due to DS

  14. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  15. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  16. Effects of Geroprotectors on Age-Related Changes in Proteolytic Digestive Enzyme Activities at Different Lighting Conditions.

    PubMed

    Morozov, A V; Khizhkin, E A; Svechkina, E B; Vinogradova, I A; Ilyukha, V A; Anisimov, V N; Khavinson, V Kh

    2015-10-01

    We studied the effect of melatonin and epithalon on age-related changes in proteolytic digestive enzyme activity in the pancreas and gastric mucosa of rats kept under different lighting conditions. In rats kept under standard illumination, pepsin activity and the total proteolytic activity in the stomach and pancreas increased by the age of 12 months, but then decreased. Constant and natural lighting disturbed the age dynamics of proteolytic digestive enzyme activity. Administration of melatonin and epithalon to animals exposed to constant lighting restored age dynamics of pepsin activity and little affected total proteolytic activity.

  17. Age related effects in children taking the computerized assessment of response bias and word memory test.

    PubMed

    Courtney, John C; Dinkins, Juliet P; Allen, Lyle M; Kuroski, Katherine

    2003-06-01

    The assessment of effort is a fundamental component of test performance analysis, since effort determines whether a psychological evaluation is valid. The assessment of effort in children has proven problematic. This may be related to the variable and inconsistent nature of children's developing self-regulatory systems, and the fact that measures commonly used to assess effort were standardized on adults. If one uses effort measures designed for adults to assess children, then one must presume that the maintenance of effort in children is comparable to the same behavior in adults. However, because children's executive functioning, including their abilities to self-regulate, attend, concentrate, and to engage in various cognitive activities improve with time (Barkley, 1997, pp. 209-234), our hypothesis is that young children's effort regulation is dissimilar to that of adults, and the presumption of similarity is implausible. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age is a significant influence upon young children's performances on the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (CARB) and Word Memory Test (WMT). Statistical analysis suggests that younger children (those under 10 years of age) tended to produce poorer performance on these instruments. Younger children's scores differed significantly from children ages 10 and older. Children 11 years and older produced CARB and WMT results similar to adult participants, suggesting a viability for adult normative comparisons with children in this age range. The current investigation concluded that children's maintenance of effort appears to be significantly related to age and reading ability level. Consequently, the use of current adult-based norms with the CARB and WMT, without regard for a child's developmental status and other contextual factors such as the child's ability to read, appears ill-advised especially with children under 11 years of age. PMID:12815513

  18. Age-related effects on circadian phase in the sleep of patients with depression and insomnia.

    PubMed

    Xian, Hong; Gonzalez, Carlos; Deych, Elena; Farris, Suzan; Ding, Jimin; Shannon, William; McCall, W Vaughn

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether an age-related phase advance was present in 60 patients with depression and insomnia (mean age 41.5 [12.5] years) using diaries and 5 weekdays of actigraphy. Actigraphy was analyzed with functional data analysis. The low point of activity (bathyphase) for each subject was fitted by cosine function with 24-hr cycle time. Linear regression analysis revealed that increasing age was associated with earlier bedtimes (p < 0.001), shorter sleep latencies (p < 0.05), and earlier bathyphase (p < 0.001). These findings are consistent with prior reports of age-dependent phase-advances in sleep behavior in self-reported good sleepers and reinforce the premise that individualized behavioral therapy of older persons with insomnia may require prescription of earlier bedtimes and earlier rise times than would be employed in younger persons with insomnia. Further, we demonstrate that aging of the sleep system, at least as reflected in actigraphy, occurs as early as the third decade.

  19. AGE-RELATED EFFECT ON THE CONCENTRATION OF COLLAGEN CROSSLINKS IN HUMAN OSTEONAL AND INTERSTITIAL BONE TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Jeffry S.; Roy, Anuradha; Acuna, Rae L.; Gayle, Heather J.; Reyes, Michael J.; Tyler, Jerrod H.; Dean, David D.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2007-01-01

    Collagen crosslinks are important to the quality of bone and may be contributors to the age-related increase in bone fracture. This study was performed to investigate whether age and gender effects on collagen crosslinks are similar in osteonal and interstitial bone tissues. Forty human cadaveric femurs were collected and divided into two age groups: Middle aged (42–63 years of age) and Elderly (69–90 years of age) with ten males and ten females in each group (n = 10). Micro-cores of bone tissue from both secondary osteons (newly formed) and interstitial regions (biologically old) in the medial quadrant of the diaphysis were extracted using a custom-modified, computer numerical controlled machine. The bone specimens were then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography to determine the effects of age and gender on the concentration of mature, enzymatic crosslinks (hydroxylysyl-pyridinoline – HP and lysylpyridinoline – LP) and a non-enzymatic crosslink (pentosidine – PE) at these two bony sites. The results indicate that age has a significant effect on the concentration of LP and PE, while gender has a significant effect on HP and LP. In addition, the concentration of the crosslinks in the secondary osteons is significantly different from that in the interstitial bone regions. These results suggest that the rate of non-enzymatic crosslinking may increase while the formation of maturate enzymatic crosslinks may decrease with age. Such changes could potentially reduce the inherent quality of the bone tissue in the elderly skeleton. PMID:16962838

  20. The relative age effect in the German Football TID Programme: biases in motor performance diagnostics and effects on single motor abilities and skills in groups of selected players.

    PubMed

    Votteler, Andreas; Höner, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the disturbing effects of relative age on the talent identification process in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. The bias in the selection rate was examined via the extent of relative age effects. The bias in motor performance diagnostics was analysed by comparing the motor performance of selected players with normal motor development. The mechanisms underlying the relative age biases in motor performance were examined by modelling the direct and indirect effects of relative age on single motor performance tests for sprint, running agility, dribbling and ball passing and control. Data from 10,130 selected football players from the U12 to U15 age groups were collected in autumn 2010. The birth distribution differed significantly from the reference population with approximately 61% of the players born in the first half of the year. The selection probability was approximately two times higher for players born in the first quarter of the year than for players born in the last quarter. Revised motor performance diagnostics showed better results on average for relatively younger players. Path analysis revealed significant direct and indirect relative age effects for physiologically demanding tests and almost no effects for technically demanding tests. Large sample sizes allowed high resolution in relative age with additional informational content and multivariate modelling of the complex relationships among relative age, physical development and motor performance. The results are discussed on how relative age affects the effectiveness and fairness of talent identification and development processes.

  1. Age-related impairments in the revision of syntactic misanalyses: effects of prosody.

    PubMed

    Titone, Debra A; Koh, Christine K; Kjelgaard, Margaret M; Bruce, Stephanie; Speer, Shari R; Wingfield, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether young and older adults differ in comprehending sentences that contain temporary syntactic closure ambiguities. Experiment 1 examined age-related differences using the Auditory Moving Window (AMW) task, in which sentences were presented in a segment-by-segment self-paced fashion. Experiment 2 examined age-related differences using a sentence recall task, in which sentences were presented in their entirety. Sentences were constructed to have cooperating prosody (i.e., where prosody is consistent with the syntactic boundaries), baseline prosody (i.e., where prosody is ambiguous in the syntactically ambiguous region), and conflicting prosody (i.e., where cross-splicing relocates the prosodic phrase break at a misleading point in syntactic structure). The results showed that both young and older adults make comparable use of prosodic information to interpret temporary syntactic ambiguities, although younger adults may make use of this information more quickly than older adults. In addition, older adults appeared to be less able than young adults to revise initial syntactic misinterpretations caused by conflicting prosodic information. These results are interpreted with respect to age-related impairments in the allocation of working memory resources and inefficient inhibitory function during spoken language processing.

  2. The effect of age on relational encoding as revealed by hippocampal functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Foster, Chris M; Picklesimer, Milton E; Mulligan, Neil W; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2016-10-01

    The neural processes mediating cognition occur in networks distributed throughout the brain. The encoding and retrieval of relational memories, memories for multiple items or multifeatural events, is supported by a network of brain regions, particularly the hippocampus. The hippocampal coupling hypothesis suggests that the hippocampus is functionally connected with the default mode network (DMN) during retrieval, but during encoding, decouples from the DMN. Based on prior research suggesting that older adults are less able to modulate between brain network states, we tested the hypothesis that older adults' hippocampus would show functional connectivity with the DMN during relational encoding. The results suggest that, while the hippocampus is functionally connected to some regions of the DMN during relational encoding in both younger and older adults, older adults show additional DMN connectivity. Such age-related changes in network modulation appear not to be mediated by compensatory processes, but rather to reflect a form of neural inefficiency, most likely due to reduced inhibition. PMID:27496142

  3. Confidant Relations of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tigges, Leann M.; And Others

    The confidant relationship is a qualitatively distinct dimension of the emotional support system of the aged, yet the composition of the confidant network has been largely neglected in research on aging. Persons (N=940) 60 years of age and older were interviewed about their socio-environmental setting. From the enumeration of their relatives,…

  4. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Feelings of Energy in Relation to Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Hudson, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A crossover experiment was performed to determine whether age and sex, or their interaction, affect the impact of acute aerobic exercise on vigor-activity (VA). We also tested whether changes in VA mediated exercise effects on performance on various cognitive tasks. Sixty-eight physically inactive volunteers participated in exercise and TV-watching control conditions. They completed the VA subscale of the Profile of Mood States immediately before and 2 min after the intervention in each condition. They also performed the Trail Making Test 3 min after the intervention in each condition. Statistical analyses produced a condition . age . sex interaction characterized by a higher mean VA gain value in the exercise condition (compared with the VA gain value in the TV-watching condition) for young female participants only. In addition, the mediational analyses revealed that changes in VA fully mediated the effects of exercise on TMT-Part A performance.

  5. Age-related effects of X-ray irradiation on mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Casciati, Arianna; Dobos, Katalin; Antonelli, Francesca; Benedek, Anett; Kempf, Stefan J.; Bellés, Montserrat; Balogh, Andrea; Tanori, Mirella; Heredia, Luis; Atkinson, Michael J.; von Toerne, Christine; Azimzadeh, Omid; Saran, Anna; Sáfrány, Geza; Benotmane, Mohammed A.; Linares-Vidal, M. Victoria; Tapio, Soile; Lumniczky, Katalin; Pazzaglia, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic irradiation of pediatric and adult patients can profoundly affect adult neurogenesis, and cognitive impairment manifests as a deficit in hippocampal-dependent functions. Age plays a major role in susceptibility to radiation, and younger children are at higher risk of cognitive decay when compared to adults. Cranial irradiation affects hippocampal neurogenesis by induction of DNA damage in neural progenitors, through the disruption of the neurogenic microenvironment, and defective integration of newborn neurons into the neuronal network. Our goal here was to assess cellular and molecular alterations induced by cranial X-ray exposure to low/moderate doses (0.1 and 2 Gy) in the hippocampus of mice irradiated at the postnatal ages of day 10 or week 10, as well as the dependency of these phenomena on age at irradiation. To this aim, changes in the cellular composition of the dentate gyrus, mitochondrial functionality, proteomic profile in the hippocampus, as well as cognitive performance were evaluated by a multidisciplinary approach. Our results suggest the induction of specific alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis, microvascular density and mitochondrial functions, depending on age at irradiation. A better understanding of how irradiation impairs hippocampal neurogenesis at low and moderate doses is crucial to minimize adverse effects of therapeutic irradiation, contributing also to radiation safety regulations. PMID:27057631

  6. [Age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Garcia Layana, A

    1998-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the occidental world. Patients suffering this process have an important reduction on their quality of life being handicapped to read, to write, to recognise faces of their friends, or even to watch the television. One of the main problems of that disease is the absence of an effective treatment able to revert the process. Laser treatment is only useful in a limited number of patients, and even in these cases recurrent lesions are frequent. These facts and the progressive ageing of our society establish the ARMD as one of the biggest aim of medical investigations for the next century, and currently is focus of attention in the most industrialised countries. One of the most promising pieces of research is focused in the investigation of the risk factors associated with the age-related macular degeneration, in order to achieve a prophylactic treatment avoiding its appearance. Diet elements such as fat ingestion or reduced antioxidant intakes are being investigated as some of these factors, what open a new possibility for a prophylactic treatment. Finally, research is looking for new therapeutic modalities such as selective radiotherapy in order to improve or maintain the vision of these patients.

  7. Age-Related Differences in Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: Effects of Estrogen Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Korzick, D.H.; Lancaster, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite conflicting evidence for the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy in cardioprotection of postmenopausal women, numerous studies have demonstrated reductions in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury following chronic or acute exogenous estradiol (E2) administration in adult male and female, gonad-intact and gonadectomized animals. It has become clear that ovariectomized adult animals may not accurately represent the combined effects of age and E2 deficiency on reductions in ischemic tolerance seen in the postmenopausal females. E2 is known to regulate the transcription of several cardioprotective genes. Acute, non-genomic E2 signaling can also activate many of the same signaling pathways recruited in cardioprotection. Alterations in cardioprotective gene expression or cardioprotective signal transduction are therefore likely to result within the context of aging and E2 deficiency, and may help explain the reduced ischemic tolerance and loss of cardioprotection in the senescent female heart. Quantification of the mitochondrial proteome as it adapts to advancing age and E2 deficiency may also represent a key experimental approach to uncover proteins associated with disruptions in cardiac signaling contributing to age-associated declines in ischemic tolerance. These alterations have important ramifications for understanding the increased morbidity and mortality due to ischemic cardiovascular disease seen in postmenopausal females. Functional perturbations that occur in mitochondrial respiration and Ca2+ sensitivity with age-associated E2 deficiency may also allow for the identification of alternative therapeutic targets for reducing I/R injury and treatment of the leading cause of death in postmenopausal women. PMID:23525672

  8. Relearning in the Elderly: Age-Related Effects on the Size of Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Hoeven, Nienke; de Bot, Kees

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study on learning new and relearning forgotten words of French as a foreign language in young (mean age 22.4), middle-aged (mean age 50.3), and elderly speakers (mean age 76.0). The three age groups performed similarly on relearning old words, but the younger learners were significantly better at learning new words. Data…

  9. Early discrimination of Atlantic salmon smolt age: Time course of the relative effectiveness of body size and shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstein, J.H.; Letcher, B.H.; Obedzinski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the relative effectiveness of morphological measurements and body size in predicting the smolt age of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and to determine the time course of body size and shape differences between smolt ages. Analyses were conducted on age-0 to age-2 fish that were stocked as fry in the West Brook, Massachusetts and on laboratory-raised age-0 to age-1 fish. Using both body size and shape, we could partition the age-0 fish collected during fall into future early or late smolts, although the predictive ability of body shape was somewhat weaker than that of body size, especially in the laboratory. Classification success averaged 81% (size) and 79% (shape) in the field and 85% (size) and 73% (shape) in the laboratory. Despite differences in smolt age between the field and the laboratory, the relative timing of growth rate differences between future early and late smolts was similar in the field and the laboratory and peaked at 50-60% of development from fry to smolt. While body shape differed between early and late smolts well before smoltification, it did not improve classification based on size alone.

  10. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study.

    PubMed

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population. PMID:27313602

  11. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population. PMID:27313602

  12. [Fibronectin, aging and related pathologies].

    PubMed

    Labat-Robert, J; Chevalier, X

    1991-01-01

    It could be demonstrated that plasma and tissue fibronectin (FN) increase with age. Some age dependent diseases as diabetes, osteoarthritis and Werner syndrome produce also an increase of tissue fibronectin biosynthesis. Plasma fibronectin decreases in diabetes and in breast cancer. Alternative splicing of the FN gene appears also to vary with age and in some related pathologies. Nutritional status and UV light also influence FN biosynthesis. It appears therefore that the determination of plasma FN and its isoforms as well as the study of tissue FN may be of interest for the study of chronological aging and related pathologies. PMID:1835421

  13. Age-related differences in pulmonary effects of acute and subchronic episodic ozone exposures in Brown Norway rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce adverse pulmonary and systemic health effects. Importantly, children and older persons are considered at-risk populations for O3-induced dysfunction, yet the mechanisms accounting for the age-related pulmonary responses to O3 are uncertain. In this s...

  14. Telomere length variations in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Saliha; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are gene sequences present at chromosomal ends and are responsible for maintaining genome integrity. Telomere length is maximum at birth and decreases progressively with advancing age and thus is considered as a biomarker of chronological aging. This age associated decrease in the length of telomere is linked to various ageing associated diseases like diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, cancer etc. and their associated complications. Telomere length is a result of combined effect of oxidative stress, inflammation and repeated cell replication on it, and thus forming an association between telomere length and chronological aging and related diseases. Thus, decrease in telomere length was found to be important in determining both, the variations in longevity and age-related diseases in an individual. Ongoing and progressive research in the field of telomere length dynamics has proved that aging and age-related diseases apart from having a synergistic effect on telomere length were also found to effect telomere length independently also. Here a short description about telomere length variations and its association with human aging and age-related diseases is reviewed.

  15. The effectiveness of unitization in mitigating age-related relational learning impairments depends on existing cognitive status

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Maria C.; Smith, Victoria M.; Kacollja, Arber; Zhang, Felicia; Binns, Malcolm A.; Barense, Morgan D.; Ryan, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Binding relations among items in the transverse patterning (TP) task is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus and its extended network. Older adults have impaired TP learning, corresponding to age-related reductions in hippocampal volumes. Unitization is a training strategy that can mitigate TP impairments in amnesia by reducing reliance on hippocampal-dependent relational binding and increasing reliance on fused representations. Here we examined whether healthy older adults and those showing early signs of cognitive decline would also benefit from unitization. Although both groups of older adults had neuropsychological performance within the healthy range, their TP learning differed both under standard and unitized training conditions. Healthy older adults with impaired TP learning under standard training benefited from unitized training. Older adults who failed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) showed greater impairments under standard conditions, and showed no evidence of improvement with unitization. These individuals’ failures to benefit from unitization may be a consequence of early deficits not seen in older adults who pass the MoCA. PMID:27049878

  16. The effectiveness of unitization in mitigating age-related relational learning impairments depends on existing cognitive status.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Maria C; Smith, Victoria M; Kacollja, Arber; Zhang, Felicia; Binns, Malcolm A; Barense, Morgan D; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2016-11-01

    Binding relations among items in the transverse patterning (TP) task is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus and its extended network. Older adults have impaired TP learning, corresponding to age-related reductions in hippocampal volumes. Unitization is a training strategy that can mitigate TP impairments in amnesia by reducing reliance on hippocampal-dependent relational binding and increasing reliance on fused representations. Here we examined whether healthy older adults and those showing early signs of cognitive decline would also benefit from unitization. Although both groups of older adults had neuropsychological performance within the healthy range, their TP learning differed both under standard and unitized training conditions. Healthy older adults with impaired TP learning under standard training benefited from unitized training. Older adults who failed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) showed greater impairments under standard conditions, and showed no evidence of improvement with unitization. These individuals' failures to benefit from unitization may be a consequence of early deficits not seen in older adults who pass the MoCA.

  17. Triple nanoemulsion potentiates the effects of topical treatments with microencapsulated retinol and modulates biological processes related to skin aging *

    PubMed Central

    Afornali, Alessandro; de Vecchi, Rodrigo; Stuart, Rodrigo Makowiecky; Dieamant, Gustavo; de Oliveira, Luciana Lima; Brohem, Carla Abdo; Feferman, Israel Henrique Stokfisz; Fabrício, Lincoln Helder Zambaldi; Lorencini, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The sum of environmental and genetic factors affects the appearance and function of the skin as it ages. The identification of molecular changes that take place during skin aging provides biomarkers and possible targets for therapeutic intervention. Retinoic acid in different formulations has emerged as an alternative to prevent and repair age-related skin damage. OBJECTIVES To understand the effects of different retinoid formulations on the expression of genes associated with biological processes that undergo changes during skin aging. METHODS Ex-vivo skin samples were treated topically with different retinoid formulations. The modulation of biological processes associated with skin aging was measured by Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). RESULTS A formulation containing microencapsulated retinol and a blend of active ingredients prepared as a triple nanoemulsion provided the best results for the modulation of biological, process-related genes that are usually affected during skin aging. CONCLUSION This association proved to be therapeutically more effective than tretinoin or microencapsulated retinol used singly. PMID:24474102

  18. Video games as a means to reduce age-related cognitive decline: attitudes, compliance, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a "brain fitness" game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants' ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why. PMID:23378841

  19. Video games as a means to reduce age-related cognitive decline: attitudes, compliance, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a "brain fitness" game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants' ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why.

  20. Video Games as a Means to Reduce Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Attitudes, Compliance, and Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Walter R.; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P.; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J.; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a “brain fitness” game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants’ ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why. PMID:23378841

  1. Effects of Chamomilla recutita flavonoids on age-related liver sphingolipid turnover in rats.

    PubMed

    Babenko, Nataliya A; Shakhova, Elena G

    2006-01-01

    The increased sphingolipid turnover in the liver is associated with elevation of free radical production and state of chronic inflammation at old age. Plant polyphenols are reported to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present paper, the lipids contents and ceramide production in the liver and hepatocytes as well as the correction of sphingolipid metabolism at old age using the mixture of Chamomilla recutita flavonoids (chamiloflan) or apigenin-7-glucoside or luteolin-7-glucoside alone have been investigated. To study the sphingolipids turnover, the [14C]serine-pre-labeled hepatocytes and [14C-methyl]- or [14C]palmitate-pre-labeled sphingomyelin (SM) and ceramide were used. The ceramide content was higher in the liver and hepatocytes of 24- and 27-28-month-old animals as compared to adult 3-month-old Wistar rats. An addition of flavonoids to the culture medium did not influence significantly on the lipids contents and metabolism in the isolated hepatocytes. The administration of flavonoids to old rats decreased the elevated neutral and acid SMases activities and ceramide mass and did not affect both the lipid content in the liver of adult animals and ceramide conversion to the sphingosine or SM. These results suggest that the SMases play a key role in the flavonoid-induced decrease of ceramide levels in the liver of old rats. PMID:16183236

  2. Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitkötter, Julian; Marschner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is suggested for soil amelioration and carbon sequestration, based on its assumed role as the key factor for the long-term fertility of Terra preta soils. Several studies have shown that certain biochar properties can undergo changes through ageing processes, especially regarding charge characteristics. However, only a few studies determined the changes of different biochars under the same incubation conditions and in different soils. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes of pine chip (PC)- and corn digestate (CD)-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 400 or 600 °C during 100 days of laboratory incubation in a historical kiln soil and an adjacent control soil. Separation between soil and biochar was ensured by using mesh bags. Especially, changes in charge characteristics depended on initial biochar properties affected by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and on soil properties affected by historic charcoal production. While the cation exchange capacity (CEC) markedly increased for both CD biochars during incubation, PC biochars showed no or only slight increases in CEC. Corresponding to the changes in CEC, ageing of biochars also increased the amount of acid functional groups with increases being in average about 2-fold higher in CD biochars than in PC biochars. Further and in contrast to other studies, the surface areas of biochars increased during ageing, likely due to ash leaching and degradation of tar residues. Changes in CEC and surface acidity of CD biochars were more pronounced after incubation in the control soil, while surface area increase was higher in the kiln soil. Since the two acidic forest soils used in this this study did not greatly differ in physical or chemical properties, the main process for inducing these differences in the buried biochar most likely is related to the differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although the kiln soil contained about 50% more soil organic carbon due to the presence of charcoal

  3. The protective effect of lipoic acid on selected cardiovascular diseases caused by age-related oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Skibska, Beata; Goraca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be the primary cause of many cardiovascular diseases, including endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Oxidative stress increases during the aging process, resulting in either increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production or decreased antioxidant defense. The increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease is directly related to age. Aging is also associated with oxidative stress, which in turn leads to accelerated cellular senescence and organ dysfunction. Antioxidants may help lower the incidence of some pathologies of cardiovascular diseases and have antiaging properties. Lipoic acid (LA) is a natural antioxidant which is believed to have a beneficial effect on oxidative stress parameters in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  4. The Protective Effect of Lipoic Acid on Selected Cardiovascular Diseases Caused by Age-Related Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Goraca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be the primary cause of many cardiovascular diseases, including endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Oxidative stress increases during the aging process, resulting in either increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production or decreased antioxidant defense. The increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease is directly related to age. Aging is also associated with oxidative stress, which in turn leads to accelerated cellular senescence and organ dysfunction. Antioxidants may help lower the incidence of some pathologies of cardiovascular diseases and have antiaging properties. Lipoic acid (LA) is a natural antioxidant which is believed to have a beneficial effect on oxidative stress parameters in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system. PMID:25949771

  5. Age-related aspects of addiction

    PubMed Central

    Koechl, Birgit; Unger, Annemarie; Fischer, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that substance use, abuse and addiction are not limited to a specific age group. Problems related to substance addiction are an important cause of morbidity in the population aged 65 and above, especially the abuse of prescription drugs and legal substances. A lack of evidence-based studies and tailored treatment options for the aging population is evident. Appropriate and effective health-care is an important goal to improve health-related quality of life of elderly people. Research in the increasingly aging population needs to include an age- and gender-sensitive approach. PMID:22722821

  6. Galactic Globular Cluster Relative Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angeli, Francesca; Piotto, Giampaolo; Cassisi, Santi; Busso, Giorgia; Recio-Blanco, Alejandra; Salaris, Maurizio; Aparicio, Antonio; Rosenberg, Alfred

    2005-07-01

    We present accurate relative ages for a sample of 55 Galactic globular clusters. The ages have been obtained by measuring the difference between the horizontal branch and the turnoff in two internally photometrically homogeneous databases. The mutual consistency of the two data sets has been assessed by comparing the ages of 16 globular clusters in common between the two databases. We have also investigated the consistency of our relative age determination within the recent stellar model framework. All clusters with [Fe/H]<-1.7 are found to be old and coeval, with the possible exception of two objects, which are marginally younger. The age dispersion for the metal-poor clusters is 0.6 Gyr (rms), consistent with a null age dispersion. Intermediate-metallicity clusters (-1.7<[Fe/H]<-0.8) are on average 1.5 Gyr younger than the metal-poor ones, with an age dispersion of 1.0 Gyr (rms) and a total age range of ~3 Gyr. About 15% of the intermediate-metallicity clusters are coeval with the oldest clusters. All the clusters with [Fe/H]>-0.8 are ~1 Gyr younger than the most metal-poor ones, with a relatively small age dispersion, although the metal-rich sample is still too small to allow firmer conclusions. There is no correlation of the cluster age with the galactocentric distance. We briefly discuss the implication of these observational results for the formation history of the Galaxy. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555, and on observations made at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, and with the Isaac Newton Group Telescopes.

  7. Effect of long-term treatment with rasagiline on cognitive deficits and related molecular cascades in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, Orly; Badinter, Felix; Amit, Tamar; Bar-Am, Orit; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of prolonged treatment with the selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, novel anti-parkinsonian drug, rasagiline (Azilect) in aged animals. Our findings from behavioral experiments demonstrated that long-term treatment of aged mice with rasagiline (0.2 mg/kg) exerted significant beneficial effects on mood-related dysfunction and spatial learning and memory functions. At this dose of rasagiline, chronic drug administration significantly inhibited monoamine oxidase-B activity and caused an increase in striatal dopamine and serotonin levels, while decreasing their metabolism. In addition, rasagiline treatment elevated striatal mRNA expression levels of dopamine receptors D1 and D2. Furthermore, we found that rasagiline upregulated expression levels of the synaptic plasticity markers brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase-B receptor, and synapsin-1, increased Bcl-2 to Bax antiapoptotic ratio and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme, catalase in brain of aged mice. The present study demonstrated that long-term treatment with rasagiline could affect behavioral deficits in aged mice and upregulate various neuroprotective parameters in the aging brain, indicating that the drug may have therapeutic potential for treatment of age-associated neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Assessment of polygenic effects links primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Wang, Jie Jin; Vote, Brendan J.; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L.; Isaacs, Timothy; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A.; Constable, Ian J.; Mitchell, Paul; Hewitt, Alex W.; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Several loci have been mapped using genome-wide association studies. Until very recently, there was no recognized overlap in the genetic contribution to AMD and POAG. At genome-wide significance level, only ABCA1 harbors associations to both diseases. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of POAG and AMD using genome-wide array data. We estimated the heritability for POAG (h2g = 0.42 ± 0.09) and AMD (h2g = 0.71 ± 0.08). Removing known loci for POAG and AMD decreased the h2g estimates to 0.36 and 0.24, respectively. There was evidence for a positive genetic correlation between POAG and AMD (rg = 0.47 ± 0.25) which remained after removing known loci (rg = 0.64 ± 0.31). We also found that the genetic correlation between sexes for POAG was likely to be less than 1 (rg = 0.33 ± 0.24), suggesting that differences of prevalence among genders may be partly due to heritable factors. PMID:27241461

  9. Effects of normal aging on event-related potentials and oscillatory brain activity during a haptic repetition priming task.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Manuel; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2012-03-01

    This study reports neural repetition effects in young and older adults while performing a haptic repetition priming task consisting in the detection of the bilateral symmetry of familiar objects. To examine changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) and induced brain oscillations of object repetition priming with aging, we recorded EEGs of healthy groups of young (n=14; mean age=29.93 years) and older adults (n=15; mean age=66.4). Both groups exhibited similar behavioral haptic priming across repetitions, although young adults responded faster than the older group. Young and older adults showed ERP repetition enhancement at the 500-900 ms time window. In contrast, only the young participants showed ERP repetition suppression at the 1200-1500 ms segment. The results from the induced oscillations showed more positive amplitudes in young than in older adults at theta, alpha and beta frequencies (4-30 Hz). In addition, we found amplitude modulation related to stimulus repetition in the upper alpha and low beta sub-bands only in young adults (1250-1750 ms).The results suggest that although behavioral priming is spared with age, normal aging affects ERPs and oscillatory responses when performing an incidental priming symmetry detection task with haptically explored objects. PMID:22155374

  10. AGE-RELATED EFFECTS OF TOLUENE ON THE MOTOR ACTIVITY OF BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Senescence raises many uncertainties regarding susceptibility to environmental exposures. Compromises in reserve and repair mechanisms, and alterations in metabolic capacity, may make the aging population more susceptible to environmental contaminants. Additionally, increased var...

  11. Improving effects of long-term growth hormone treatment on monoaminergic neurotransmission and related behavioral tests in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Susana; Garau, Celia; Aparicio, Sara; Moranta, David; Barceló, Pere; Ramis, Margarita; Tresguerres, Jesús A F; Rial, Rubén

    2010-12-01

    An age-related decline in cognitive functions and physical performance has been associated with reductions in growth hormone (GH) secretion and brain neurotransmitter function. In vivo experiments were performed to study the long-term effects of exogenously administered GH on the central monoaminergic neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline and behavioral tests in old Wistar rats. The accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) after decarboxylase inhibition was used as a measure of the rate of tryptophan and tyrosine hydroxylation in vivo. Also, the content of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline and some metabolites was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the hippocampus and striatum, brain regions involved in adult memory processing and motor coordination. The age-related decline observed in all the neurochemical parameters in control rats was significantly reversed after repeated subcutaneous administration of GH (2 mg/kg per day, 4 weeks). Thus, GH treatment exerted a long-term effect on serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline neurotransmission by enhancing neurotransmitter synthesis and metabolism in aged rats. The results obtained after examining working memory tasks in the eight-radial maze and motor ability in the Rotarod treadmill in aged rats were consistent with these neurochemical data; both tests were significantly improved after chronic GH treatment. Overall, these in vivo findings suggest that the positive effects induced by GH on serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline neurotransmitters might explain, at least in part, the effects of chronic GH treatment in improving cognitive and motor ability in aged rats, and could aid in preventing or delaying deficits in monoamines associated with learning or motor disabilities. PMID:21208059

  12. Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. AMD is diagnosed based on characteristic retinal findings in individuals older than 50. Early detection and treatment are critical in increasing the likelihood of retaining good and functional vision.

  13. Age-related Effects of Varying Ammonia Concentrations on Hematophysiological Variables in Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the response of different aged birds of the same genetic strain exposed to ammonia (NH3) at set concentrations on blood gases, electrolytes, and acid-base balance under environmentally controlled conditions. The experiment consisted of a 4 × 4 factorial with a randomized design. ...

  14. Effect of Relative Humidity and Temperature on Photochemical Aging of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizkorodov, S.; Brady, M. V.; Hinks, M. L.; Lignell, H.; Bertram, A. K.; Song, M.; Laskin, A.; Laskin, J.; Lin, P.

    2014-12-01

    The viscosity of secondary organic aerosol material (SOM) is known to depend sensitively on both temperature and relative humidity (RH). This work investigates the effect of these two important environmental variables on photochemical processes occurring inside model SOM. The experiments are designed to test the hypothesis that an increased SOM viscosity, resulting from either lower temperatures or decreased RH, should slow down the rates of photochemical processes in the organic matrix by constraining molecular motion inside the matrix. Photolysis of a probe molecule, 2,4-dinitrophenol, dispersed in SOM made produced through oxidation of alpha-pinene and limonene by ozone is investigated with absorption spectroscopy methods under controlled humidity and temperature. Viscosity of SOM is directly measured using "bead-mobility" technique and "poke-flow" techniques. Finally, the products of 2,4-dinitrophenol are analyzed by liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry methods. The experiments suggest that the presence of water strongly affects photodegradation rates of organic compounds contained in the SOM matrix. Given the paramount role of photochemistry in driving the chemical reactions in the environment, these results will have significant implications for predicting lifetimes of photolabile atmospheric organic compounds trapped in organic particles.

  15. The relation of chronic cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus to perceived health, and the moderating effects of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sai Yin; Mak, Kwok Kei; Thomas, G Neil; Schooling, Mary; Fielding, Richard; Janus, Edward D; Lam, Tai Hing

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates the relation of five chronic cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus (DM) to perceived health, and the moderating effects of sex and age. In a community-based cross-sectional telephone survey in Hong Kong, 7730 Chinese aged 25-74 were interviewed in 1994-1996. The odds ratio for poor perceived health associated with each condition was calculated adjusting for age, sex and education. Subjects free from the six conditions were treated as the comparison group. Hypertension, angina, DM, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were significantly associated with poor perceived health. The odds ratio of poor perceived health was significantly greater in men than in women for having more than one condition among DM, CHD and stroke (p=0.02), and insignificantly greater for stroke, CHD and angina. The odds ratios were significantly greater in the young (25-39) versus the old (60-74) for DM (p=0.008) in men and women combined, and for having either DM, CHD or stroke in men (p=0.02). These findings suggest that the relation of DM, CHD and stroke with poor perceived health tends to be stronger in men and younger adults. These findings have implications for health care workers and home carers who need to appreciate that the same condition may have a different perceived impact on persons of different sex and age, and be sensitive to their varying needs.

  16. Age-related changes in meat tenderness and tissue pentosidine: effect of diet restriction and aminoguanidine in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Kenney, P B; Klandorf, H

    1999-09-01

    The nonenzymatic glycosylation of tissue protein contributes to the formation of crosslinks that leads to structural and functional deterioration in the long-lived tissue protein, collagen. The accumulation of these crosslinks thus contributes to the objectionable toughness of meat from aged animals, decreases its economic value, and limits its use in whole muscle foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of diet restriction and the crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), on reducing the accumulation of crosslinks, thereby improving meat tenderness in broiler breeder hens. The glycoxidation product, pentosidine, was also measured in skin (Ps) to determine whether changes in its concentrations correlated with the changes in shear value (SV). Chicks (n = 450) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups from 8 to 125 wk after hatch: ad libitum (AL), diet restricted (DR), AL and DR groups supplemented with 400 ppm AG each (AL+AG and DR+AG, respectively). Shear value was measured with an Instron Universal Mechanical Machine. Skin pentosidine was isolated by reverse phase HPLC. There was an age-related, linear increase in SV (P<0.0001, r = 0.96), which correlated (r = 0.86) with the age-related increase in Ps in AL hens. Diet restriction retarded SV (P<0.0001) over the sampling period. In general, SV values for AL+AG were similar to those measured in DR, whereas no additive effect was observed for AG in DR birds. It was concluded that there was a linear increase in meat toughness (SV) with age that correlates with the accumulation of Ps, and that the decline in meat tenderness can be retarded by DR or AG. Secondly, the effect of DR on accumulation of Ps was so pronounced that AG supplementation did not further enhance this effect.

  17. The Relative Age Effect in Spanish Female Soccer Players. Influence of the Competitive Level and a Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Vaeyens, Roel; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2015-06-27

    The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs) in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035) of five different competitive levels in the 2010-2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively), and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively) teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification.

  18. The Relative Age Effect in Spanish Female Soccer Players. Influence of the Competitive Level and a Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Vaeyens, Roel; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2015-06-27

    The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs) in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035) of five different competitive levels in the 2010-2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively), and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively) teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification. PMID:26240656

  19. Age-related atrial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gramley, Felix; Lorenzen, Johann; Knackstedt, Christian; Rana, Obaida R; Saygili, Erol; Frechen, Dirk; Stanzel, Sven; Pezzella, Francesco; Koellensperger, Eva; Weiss, Christian; Münzel, Thomas; Schauerte, Patrick

    2009-03-01

    Many age-related diseases are associated with, and may be promoted by, cardiac fibrosis. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, hypoxia-induced factor (HIF), and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) system have been implicated in fibrogenesis. Thus, we investigated whether age is related to these systems and to atrial fibrosis. Right atrial appendages (RAA) obtained during heart surgery (n = 115) were grouped according to patients' age (<50 years, 51-60 years, 61-70 years, or >70 years). Echocardiographic ejection fractions (EF) and fibrosis using Sirius-red-stained histological sections were determined. TGF-beta was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and hypoxia-related factors [HIF1 alpha, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-receptor, CD34 (a surrogate marker for microvessel density), the factor inhibiting HIF (FIH), and prolyl hydroxylase 3 (PHD 3)] were detected by immunostaining. MMP-2 and -9 activity were determined zymographically, and mRNA levels of their common tissue inhibitor TIMP-1 were determined by RT-PCR. Younger patients (<50 years) had significantly less fibrosis (10.1% +/- 4.4% vs 16.6% +/- 8.3%) than older individuals (>70 years). While HIF1 alpha, FIH, the VEGF-receptor, and CD34 were significantly elevated in the young, TGF-beta and PHD3 were suppressed in these patients. MMP-2 and -9 activity was found to be higher while TIMP-1 levels were lower in older patients. Statistical analysis proved age to be the only factor influencing fibrogenesis. With increasing age, RAAs develop significantly more fibrosis. An increase of fibrotic and decrease of hypoxic signalling and microvessel density, coupled with differential expression of MMPs and TIMP-1 favouring fibrosis may have helped promote atrial fibrogenesis. PMID:19234766

  20. Age-Related Effects of Study Time Allocation on Memory Performance in a Verbal and a Spatial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Lacy E.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that study time allocation partially mediates age relations on memory performance in a verbal task. To identify whether this applied to a different material modality, participants ages 20-87 completed a spatial task in addition to a traditional verbal task. In both the verbal and the spatial task, increased age was…

  1. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    PubMed

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion.

  2. Practicality of intermittent fasting in humans and its effect on oxidative stress and genes related to aging and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wegman, Martin P; Guo, Michael H; Bennion, Douglas M; Shankar, Meena N; Chrzanowski, Stephen M; Goldberg, Leslie A; Xu, Jinze; Williams, Tiffany A; Lu, Xiaomin; Hsu, Stephen I; Anton, Stephen D; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Brantly, Mark L

    2015-04-01

    Caloric restriction has consistently been shown to extend life span and ameliorate aging-related diseases. These effects may be due to diet-induced reactive oxygen species acting to up-regulate sirtuins and related protective pathways, which research suggests may be partially inhibited by dietary anti-oxidant supplementation. Because caloric restriction is not sustainable long term for most humans, we investigated an alternative dietary approach, intermittent fasting (IF), which is proposed to act on similar biological pathways. We hypothesized that a modified IF diet, where participants maintain overall energy balance by alternating between days of fasting (25% of normal caloric intake) and feasting (175% of normal), would increase expression of genes associated with aging and reduce oxidative stress and that these effects would be suppressed by anti-oxidant supplementation. To assess the tolerability of the diet and to explore effects on biological mechanisms related to aging and metabolism, we recruited a cohort of 24 healthy individuals in a double-crossover, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Study participants underwent two 3-week treatment periods-IF and IF with anti-oxidant (vitamins C and E) supplementation. We found strict adherence to study-provided diets and that participants found the diet tolerable, with no adverse clinical findings or weight change. We detected a marginal increase (2.7%) in SIRT3 expression due to the IF diet, but no change in expression of other genes or oxidative stress markers analyzed. We also found that IF decreased plasma insulin levels (1.01 μU/mL). Although our study suggests that the IF dieting paradigm is acceptable in healthy individuals, additional research is needed to further assess the potential benefits and risks. PMID:25546413

  3. Potential therapeutic effects of the MTOR inhibitors for preventing ageing and progeria‐related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Evangelisti, Camilla; Cenni, Vittoria

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is an highly conserved signal transduction axis involved in many cellular processes, such as cell growth, survival, transcription, translation, apoptosis, metabolism, motility and autophagy. Recently, this signalling pathway has come to the attention of the scientific community owing to the unexpected finding that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin, an antibiotic with immunosuppressant and chemotherapeutic properties, extends lifespan in diverse animal models. Moreover, rapamycin has been reported to rescue the cellular phenotype in a progeroid syndrome [Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS)] that recapitulates most of the traits of physiological ageing. The promising perspectives raised by these results warrant a better understanding of mTOR signalling and the potential applications of mTOR inhibitors to counteract ageing‐associated diseases and increase longevity. This review is focused on these issues. PMID:26952863

  4. Influence of Age on the Relative Biological Effectiveness of Carbon Ion Radiation for Induction of Rat Mammary Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Daino, Kazuhiro; Kokubo, Toshiaki; Doi, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Daisuke; Nishimura, Yukiko; Okutani, Tomomi; Takabatake, Masaru; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The risk of developing secondary cancer after radiotherapy, especially after treatment of childhood cancers, remains a matter of concern. The high biological effects of carbon-ion radiation have enabled powerful radiotherapy, yet the approach is commonly restricted to the treatment of adults. Susceptibility of the fetus to particle radiation–induced cancer is also unclear. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of carbon-ion irradiation in childhood on breast carcinogenesis. Methods and Materials: We irradiated female Sprague-Dawley rats of various ages (embryonic days 3, 13, and 17 and 1, 3, 7, and 15 weeks after birth) with {sup 137}Cs γ rays or a 290-MeV/u monoenergetic carbonion beam (linear energy transfer, 13 keV/μm). All animals were screened weekly for mammary carcinoma by palpation until they were 90 weeks old. Results: Irradiation of fetal and mature (15-week-old) rats with either radiation source at a dose of 0.2 or 1 Gy did not substantially increase the hazard ratio compared with the nonirradiated group. Dose responses (0.2-2.0 Gy) to γ rays were similar among the groups of rats irradiated 1, 3, and 7 weeks after birth. The effect of carbon ions increased along with the age at the time of irradiation, indicating relative biological effectiveness values of 0.2 (−0.3, 0.7), 1.3 (1.0, 1.6), and 2.8 (1.8, 3.9) (mean and 95% confidence interval) for animals that were 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings imply that carbonion therapy may be associated with a risk of secondary breast cancer in humans, the extent of which may depend on the age of the patient at the time of irradiation.

  5. Relative age effect and performance in the U16, U18 and U20 European Basketball Championships.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Haritz; Torres-Unda, Jon; Gil, Susana María; Irazusta, Jon

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to determine the association of relative age and performance of young elite basketball players. The distribution of the birth dates, heights, positions, classification and performance of the male and female participants (n = 2395) of the U16, U18 and U20 European Basketball Championships were analysed. We found an over-representation of players born during the initial months of the year in all groups, with the relative age effect being more evident in players of the U16 and U18 groups, than of the U20 teams, particularly in male squads. Nevertheless, in the U20 championships, those teams that had the oldest players performed the best. In all championships, the oldest participants played more minutes. In addition, relatively older male players scored better in total points and in performance index rating when results were normalised to played time. This effect was not found for female players. Regarding playing position, different distributions of birth dates were observed due to each position's physical requirements. Thus, basketball coaches and managers should keep these results in mind when they select players because if not, they might subject players who are born towards the end of the year to a negative selection bias.

  6. Academic Self-Concept and Emotion Relations: Domain Specificity and Age Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Cronjaeger, Hanna; Frenzel, Anne C.; Ludtke, Oliver; Hall, Nathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations between academic self-concepts and the emotions of enjoyment, pride, anxiety, anger, and boredom as experienced in mathematics, physics, German, and English classes (N=1710; grades 8 and 11). In line with our hypotheses derived from appraisal-based emotion theories and self-efficacy research,…

  7. On the Role of Experience and Age-Related Effects: Evidence from the Spanish CP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuza, Alejandro; Frank, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines and compares the extent to which advanced L2 learners of Spanish and Spanish heritage speakers acquire the syntactic and semantic properties that regulate the grammatical representation of double complementizer questions in Spanish, a CP-related structure not present in English. Results from an aural sentence completion…

  8. Age-related effects on event-related brain potentials in a congruence/incongruence judgment color-word Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Zurrón, Montserrat; Lindín, Mónica; Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Díaz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We examined the event-related brain potentials elicited by color-word stimuli in a Stroop task in which healthy participants (young and old) had to judge whether the meaning and the color of the stimulus were congruent or incongruent. The Stroop effect occurred in both age groups, with longer reaction times in the older group than in the young group for both types of stimuli, but no difference in the number of errors made by either group. Although the N2 and P3b latencies were longer in the older than in the younger group, there were no differences between groups in the latencies of earlier event-related potential components, and therefore the age-related processing slowing is not generalized. The frontal P150 amplitude was larger, and the parietal P3b amplitude was smaller, in the older than in the younger group. Furthermore, the P3b amplitude was maximal at frontal locations in older participants and at parietal locations in young participants. The age-related increase in perceptual resources and the posterior-to-anterior shift in older adults support adaptive reorganization of the neural networks involved in the processing of this Stroop-type task. PMID:24987369

  9. Relative age and birthplace effect in Japanese professional sports: a quantitative evaluation using a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model.

    PubMed

    Ishigami, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Relative age effect (RAE) in sports has been well documented. Recent studies investigate the effect of birthplace in addition to the RAE. The first objective of this study was to show the magnitude of the RAE in two major professional sports in Japan, baseball and soccer. Second, we examined the birthplace effect and compared its magnitude with that of the RAE. The effect sizes were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model with the number of players as dependent variable. The RAEs were 9.0% and 7.7% per month for soccer and baseball, respectively. These estimates imply that children born in the first month of a school year have about three times greater chance of becoming a professional player than those born in the last month of the year. Over half of the difference in likelihoods of becoming a professional player between birthplaces was accounted for by weather conditions, with the likelihood decreasing by 1% per snow day. An effect of population size was not detected in the data. By investigating different samples, we demonstrated that using quarterly data leads to underestimation and that the age range of sampled athletes should be set carefully. PMID:25917193

  10. Relative age and birthplace effect in Japanese professional sports: a quantitative evaluation using a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model.

    PubMed

    Ishigami, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Relative age effect (RAE) in sports has been well documented. Recent studies investigate the effect of birthplace in addition to the RAE. The first objective of this study was to show the magnitude of the RAE in two major professional sports in Japan, baseball and soccer. Second, we examined the birthplace effect and compared its magnitude with that of the RAE. The effect sizes were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model with the number of players as dependent variable. The RAEs were 9.0% and 7.7% per month for soccer and baseball, respectively. These estimates imply that children born in the first month of a school year have about three times greater chance of becoming a professional player than those born in the last month of the year. Over half of the difference in likelihoods of becoming a professional player between birthplaces was accounted for by weather conditions, with the likelihood decreasing by 1% per snow day. An effect of population size was not detected in the data. By investigating different samples, we demonstrated that using quarterly data leads to underestimation and that the age range of sampled athletes should be set carefully.

  11. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged males.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Elissa B; de Groot, Renate H M; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno C I; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick J

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed in an effort to enhance cognitive performance. However, little is known about the usefulness of caffeine with regard to memory enhancement, with previous studies showing inconsistent effects on memory performance. We aimed to determine the effect of caffeine on working memory (WM) load-related activation during encoding, maintenance and retrieval phases of a WM maintenance task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 20 healthy, male, habitual caffeine consumers aged 40-61 years were administered 100 mg of caffeine in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants were scanned in a non-withdrawn state following a workday during which caffeinated products were consumed according to individual normal use (range = 145-595 mg). Acute caffeine administration was associated with increased load-related activation compared to placebo in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during WM encoding, but decreased load-related activation in the left thalamus during WM maintenance. These findings are indicative of an effect of caffeine on the fronto-parietal network involved in the top-down cognitive control of WM processes during encoding and an effect on the prefrontal cortico-thalamic loop involved in the interaction between arousal and the top-down control of attention during maintenance. Therefore, the effects of caffeine on WM may be attributed to both a direct effect of caffeine on WM processes, as well as an indirect effect on WM via arousal modulation. Behavioural and fMRI results were more consistent with a detrimental effect of caffeine on WM at higher levels of WM load, than caffeine-related WM enhancement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  12. On the Labor-Supply Effects of Age-Related Income Maintenance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James P.

    1975-01-01

    The model deals with channels through which income transfer programs are likely to affect working hours of family members and a method of estimating the labor-supply reactions to income maintenance programs. Labor-supply effects are functions of the duration of a family's participation and the relevant importance of male market investment.…

  13. Synergistic effects of free radical scavengers and cochlear vasodilators: a new otoprotective strategy for age-related hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Juan Carlos; Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Melgar-Rojas, Pedro; Valero, María Llanos; Gabaldón-Ull, María Cruz; Miller, Josef M.; Juiz, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The growing increase in age-related hearing loss (ARHL), with its dramatic reduction in quality of life and significant increase in health care costs, is a catalyst to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent or reduce this aging-associated condition. In this regard, there is extensive evidence that excessive free radical formation along with diminished cochlear blood flow are essential factors involved in mechanisms of other stress-related hearing loss, such as that associated with noise or ototoxic drug exposure. The emerging view is that both play key roles in ARHL pathogenesis. Therapeutic targeting of excessive free radical formation and cochlear blood flow regulation may be a useful strategy to prevent onset of ARHL. Supporting this idea, micronutrient-based therapies, in particular those combining antioxidants and vasodilators like magnesium (Mg2+), have proven effective in reducing the impact of noise and ototoxic drugs in the inner ear, therefore improving auditory function. In this review, the synergistic effects of combinations of antioxidant free radicals scavengers and cochlear vasodilators will be discussed as a feasible therapeutic approach for the treatment of ARHL. PMID:26029103

  14. Synergistic effects of free radical scavengers and cochlear vasodilators: a new otoprotective strategy for age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan Carlos; Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Melgar-Rojas, Pedro; Valero, María Llanos; Gabaldón-Ull, María Cruz; Miller, Josef M; Juiz, José M

    2015-01-01

    The growing increase in age-related hearing loss (ARHL), with its dramatic reduction in quality of life and significant increase in health care costs, is a catalyst to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent or reduce this aging-associated condition. In this regard, there is extensive evidence that excessive free radical formation along with diminished cochlear blood flow are essential factors involved in mechanisms of other stress-related hearing loss, such as that associated with noise or ototoxic drug exposure. The emerging view is that both play key roles in ARHL pathogenesis. Therapeutic targeting of excessive free radical formation and cochlear blood flow regulation may be a useful strategy to prevent onset of ARHL. Supporting this idea, micronutrient-based therapies, in particular those combining antioxidants and vasodilators like magnesium (Mg(2+)), have proven effective in reducing the impact of noise and ototoxic drugs in the inner ear, therefore improving auditory function. In this review, the synergistic effects of combinations of antioxidant free radicals scavengers and cochlear vasodilators will be discussed as a feasible therapeutic approach for the treatment of ARHL.

  15. An Event-Related Potential Investigation of the Effects of Age on Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, David A. S.; Sozda, Christopher N.; Dotson, Vonetta M.; Perlstein, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared young and older adults on behavioral and neural correlates of three attentional networks (alerting, orienting, and executive control). Nineteen young and 16 older neurologically-healthy adults completed the Attention Network Test (ANT) while behavioral data (reaction time and error rates) and 64-channel event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired. Significant age-related RT differences were observed across all three networks; however, after controlling for generalized slowing, only the alerting network remained significantly reduced in older compared with young adults. ERP data revealed that alerting cues led to enhanced posterior N1 responses for subsequent attentional targets in young adults, but this effect was weakened in older adults. As a result, it appears that older adults did not benefit fully from alerting cues, and their lack of subsequent attentional enhancements may compromise their ability to be as responsive and flexible as their younger counterparts. N1 alerting deficits were associated with several key neuropsychological tests of attention that were difficult for older adults. Orienting and executive attention networks were largely similar between groups. Taken together, older adults demonstrated behavioral and neural alterations in alerting, however, they appeared to compensate for this reduction, as they did not significantly differ in their abilities to use spatially informative cues to aid performance (e.g., orienting), or successfully resolve response conflict (e.g., executive control). These results have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of age-related changes in attentional networks. PMID:27242511

  16. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: upregulation, age-related effects and associations with drug use

    PubMed Central

    Melroy-Greif, W. E.; Stitzel, J. A.; Ehringer, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that exogenously bind nicotine. Nicotine produces rewarding effects by interacting with these receptors in the brain’s reward system. Unlike other receptors, chronic stimulation by an agonist induces an upregulation of receptor number that is not due to increased gene expression in adults; while upregulation also occurs during development and adolescence there have been some opposing findings regarding a change in corresponding gene expression. These receptors have also been well studied with regard to human genetic associations and, based on evidence suggesting shared genetic liabilities between substance use disorders, numerous studies have pointed to a role for this system in comorbid drug use. This review will focus on upregulation of these receptors in adulthood, adolescence and development, as well as the findings from human genetic association studies which point to different roles for these receptors in risk for initiation and continuation of drug use. PMID:26351737

  17. Age-Related Visual and Kinesthetic Encoding Effects on Spatial Memory of a Maze-Like Floor Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.; And Others

    As part of an experimental research program on lifespan naturalistic and laboratory memory for spatial representation, investigators examined interactions between the effects of visual and kinesthetic encoding and age on memory for space using a modification of the Sinnott (1987) human maze paradigm. It was hypothesized that an age effect favoring…

  18. Prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors: Moderating effects of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Lanfranchi, M-C; Maïano, C; Morin, A J S; Therme, P

    2014-08-01

    Very few studies examined the prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (DEABs) among adolescents involved in sport practice, and their results are mixed and inconclusive. These inconsistencies are most likely due to their methodological heterogeneity and to the fact that none of these studies took into consideration the potentially relevant characteristics of the sport practice context. This study attempts to answer this limitation among French adolescents not involved or involved in various sports contexts defined based on their organization, leanness-centration, and competitive level. Participants were 335 adolescents involved in sport practice, and 435 adolescents not involved in any form of regular sport practice. The DEABs were measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Global results do not showed any significant association between the status of the participants and DEAB. However, these results drastically changed when we considered the potential moderating role of sex and age on these relations. Indeed, sports involvement in general, and involvement in leanness and competitive sports were found to exert sex- and age-differentiated effects on the risks of presenting clinically significant levels of DEAB. This study suggests the importance of monitoring, preventive, and early intervention mechanisms within the context of practice, particularly for adolescent girls. PMID:23336350

  19. Combined effects of physical exercise and education on age-related cortical thinning in cognitively normal individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin San; Shin, Hee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Jang, Young Kyoung; Jung, Na-Yeon; Lee, Juyoun; Kim, Yeo Jin; Chun, Phillip; Yang, Jin-Ju; Lee, Jong-Min; Kang, Mira; Park, Key-Chung; Na, Duk L.; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between self-reported physical exercise and cortical thickness in a large sample of cognitively normal individuals. We also determined whether a combination of physical exercise and education had more protective effects on age-related cortical thinning than either parameter alone. A total of 1,842 participants were included in this analysis. Physical exercise was assessed using a questionnaire regarding intensity, frequency, and duration. Cortical thickness was measured using a surface-based method. Longer duration of exercise (≥1 hr/day), but not intensity or frequency, was associated with increased mean cortical thickness globally (P-value = 0.013) and in the frontal regions (P-value = 0.007). In particular, the association of exercise with cortical thinning had regional specificity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal, precuneus, left postcentral, and inferior parietal regions. The combination of higher exercise level and higher education level showed greater global and frontal mean thickness than either parameter alone. Testing for a trend with the combination of high exercise level and high education level confirmed this finding (P-value = 0.001–0.003). Our findings suggest that combined exercise and education have important implications for brain health, especially considering the paucity of known protective factors for age-related cortical thinning. PMID:27063336

  20. Prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors: Moderating effects of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Lanfranchi, M-C; Maïano, C; Morin, A J S; Therme, P

    2014-08-01

    Very few studies examined the prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (DEABs) among adolescents involved in sport practice, and their results are mixed and inconclusive. These inconsistencies are most likely due to their methodological heterogeneity and to the fact that none of these studies took into consideration the potentially relevant characteristics of the sport practice context. This study attempts to answer this limitation among French adolescents not involved or involved in various sports contexts defined based on their organization, leanness-centration, and competitive level. Participants were 335 adolescents involved in sport practice, and 435 adolescents not involved in any form of regular sport practice. The DEABs were measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Global results do not showed any significant association between the status of the participants and DEAB. However, these results drastically changed when we considered the potential moderating role of sex and age on these relations. Indeed, sports involvement in general, and involvement in leanness and competitive sports were found to exert sex- and age-differentiated effects on the risks of presenting clinically significant levels of DEAB. This study suggests the importance of monitoring, preventive, and early intervention mechanisms within the context of practice, particularly for adolescent girls.

  1. Age-related change in the multiple unit activity of the rat brain parietal cortex and the effect of centrophenoxine.

    PubMed

    Roy, D; Singh, R

    1988-01-01

    In this study, spontaneous multiple unit activity (MUA, action potentials derived simultaneously from a number of neurons in a given brain region) was recorded through electrodes chronically implanted in the parietal cerebral cortex of the rats of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 26 months of age (cross-sectional study). Electrophysiological recordings were obtained from unrestrained conscious rats using standard techniques. The results indicated that multiple unit activity was decreased with aging (senescence). Maximum firing rate (MUA counts) was found at the age of 3 months. At 6 months of age, the MUA was decreased by about 30%, while during 6 to 12 months of age the activity seemed to remain unchanged. At 26 months of age the firing rate was, however, further decreased (about 40%). Centrophenoxine administration led to an increase in MUA in the rats of 12 and 26 months of age. The results, thus, further showed that centrophenoxine, a nootropic drug known for its antiaging effects in experimental animals as well as in humans, also manifested beneficial effects electrophysiologically. The data presented in this work are new and significant, since although age effects on gross electrophysiological signals (EEG, evoked potentials, etc.) are known, the aging changes in cellular level electrophysiological signals (action potentials) have not been generally studied particularly in conscious animals.

  2. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: "Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?" Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods with

  3. Effect of IP3R3 and NPY on age-related declines in olfactory stem cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Cuihong; Hegg, Colleen C

    2015-02-01

    Losing the sense of smell because of aging compromises health and quality of life. In the mouse olfactory epithelium, aging reduces the capacity for tissue homeostasis and regeneration. The microvillous cell subtype that expresses both inositol trisphosphate receptor type 3 (IP3R3) and the neuroproliferative factor neuropeptide Y (NPY) is critical for regulation of homeostasis, yet its role in aging is undefined. We hypothesized that an age-related decline in IP3R3 expression and NPY signaling underlie age-related homeostatic changes and olfactory dysfunction. We found a decrease in IP3R3(+) and NPY(+) microvillous cell numbers and NPY protein and a reduced sensitivity to NPY-mediated proliferation over 24 months. However, in IP3R3-deficient mice, there was no further age-related reduction in cell numbers, proliferation, or olfactory function compared with wild type. The proliferative response was impaired in aged IP3R3-deficient mice when injury was caused by satratoxin G, which induces IP3R3-mediated NPY release, but not by bulbectomy, which does not evoke NPY release. These data identify IP3R3 and NPY signaling as targets for improving recovery following olfactotoxicant exposure.

  4. Effects of aging in the expression of NOD-like receptors and inflammasome-related genes in oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, J L; Kirakodu, S; Novak, M J; Exposto, C R; Stromberg, A J; Shen, S; Orraca, L; Gonzalez-Martinez, J; Gonzalez, O A

    2016-02-01

    The molecular changes underlying the higher risk of chronic inflammatory disorders during aging remain incompletely understood. Molecular variations in the innate immune response related to recognition and interaction with microbes at mucosal surfaces could be involved in aging-related inflammation. We developed an ontology analysis of 20 nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and seven inflammasome-related genes (IRGs) in healthy and inflamed/periodontitis oral mucosal tissues from young, adolescent, adult, and aged non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) using the GeneChip(®) Rhesus Macaque Genome array. Validation of some of the significant changes was done by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression of NLRB/NAIP, NLRP12, and AIM2 increased with aging in healthy mucosa whereas NLRC2/NOD2 expression decreased. Although higher expression levels of some NLRs were generally observed with periodontitis in adult mucosal tissues (e.g. NLRB/NAIP, NLRP5, and NLRX1), various receptors (e.g. NLRC2/NOD2 and NLRP2) and the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC, exhibited a significant reduction in expression in aged periodontitis tissues. Accordingly, the expression of NLR-activated innate immune genes, such as HBD3 and IFNB1, was impaired in aged but not adult periodontitis tissues. Both adult and aged tissues showed significant increase in interleukin-1β expression. These findings suggest that the expression of a subset of NLRs appears to change with aging in healthy oral mucosa, and that aging-related oral mucosal inflammation could involve an impaired regulation of the inflammatory and antimicrobial response associated with downregulation of specific NLRs and IRGs. PMID:26197995

  5. Common SIRT1 variants modify the effect of abdominal adipose tissue on aging-related lung function decline.

    PubMed

    Curjuric, Ivan; Imboden, Medea; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Gerbase, Margaret W; Haun, Margot; Keidel, Dirk; Kumar, Ashish; Pons, Marco; Rochat, Thierry; Schikowski, Tamara; Schindler, Christian; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Kronenberg, Florian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M

    2016-06-01

    Lung function is an independent predictor of mortality and serves as an aging marker in never smokers. The protein sirtuin-1 of gene SIRT1 has profound anti-inflammatory effects and regulates metabolic pathways. Its suggested longevity effects on lower organisms remain poorly studied in humans. In 1132 never smokers of the population-based SAPALDIA cohort, we investigated associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs730821, rs10997868, rs10823116) of SIRT1 and aging-related lung function decline over 11 years in terms of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 % of FVC (FEF25-75) using multiple linear regression models. Interactions between the SIRT1 SNPs and adiposity parameters (body mass index (BMI), its change and weight gain) were tested by including multiplicative interaction terms into the models. SIRT1 polymorphisms exhibited no main effects, but modified the association between obesity measures and FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75 decline (p = 0.009-0.046). Per risk allele, FEV1/FVC decline was accelerated up to -0.5 % (95 % CI -1.0 to 0 %) and -0.7 % (-1.3 to -0.2 %) over interquartile range increases in BMI (2.4 kg/m(2)) or weight (6.5 kg), respectively. For FEF25-75 decline, corresponding estimates were -57 mL/s (-117 to 4 mL/s) and -76 mL/s (-1429 to -9 mL/s). Interactions were not present in participants with genetically lowered C-reactive protein concentrations. Genetic variation in SIRT1 might therefore affect lung function and human longevity by modifying subclinical inflammation arising from abdominal adipose tissue. PMID:27125385

  6. Age-related modifications in steering behaviour: effects of base-of-support constraints at the turn point.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Maxime R; Fuller, Jason R; Adkin, Allan L; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of altering the base of support (BOS) at the turn point on anticipatory locomotor adjustments during voluntary changes in travel direction in healthy young and older adults. Participants were required to walk at their preferred pace along a 3-m straight travel path and continue to walk straight ahead or turn 40 degrees to the left or right for an additional 2-m. The starting foot and occasionally the gait starting point were adjusted so that participants had to execute the turn using a cross-over step with a narrow BOS or a lead-out step with a wide BOS. Spatial and temporal gait variables, magnitudes of angular segmental movement, and timing and sequencing of body segment reorientation were similar despite executing the turn with a narrow or wide BOS. A narrow BOS during turning generated an increased step width in the step prior to the turn for both young and older adults. Age-related changes when turning included reduced step velocity and step length for older compared to young adults. Age-related changes in the timing and sequencing of body segment reorientation prior to the turn point were also observed. A reduction in walking speed and an increase in step width just prior to the turn, combined with a delay in motion of the center of mass suggests that older adults used a more cautious combined foot placement and hip strategy to execute changes in travel direction compared to young adults. The results of this study provide insight into mobility constraints during a common locomotor task in older adults.

  7. Age-related effects of smoking on coronary artery disease assessed by gray scale and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soo-Jin; Mintz, Gary S; Weisz, Giora; Mehran, Roxana; Rabbani, LeRoy E; Verheye, Stefan; Serruys, Patrick W; Xu, Ke; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2015-04-15

    Although smoking is a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis, the age-related impact on lesion morphology has not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the age-related impact of smoking on the extent of atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling. In Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree, 687 patients with acute coronary syndrome underwent 3-vessel gray scale and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound imaging of 3,185 nonculprit lesions. In 207 patients ≤65 years, current (smoking within 1 month) and former (no smoking for >1 month) smokers showed significantly smaller normalized volumes of external elastic membrane (EEM), lumen, and P + M (plaque + media) compared with nonsmokers. At the minimal lumen area site, current and former smokers had significantly smaller EEM, lumen, and P + M areas than nonsmokers. Conversely, in 480 patients >65 years, current smokers had greater normalized P + M volumes than nonsmokers with no difference in normalized EEM or lumen volumes. Finally, in patients >65 years (but not in patients ≤65 years), current smokers showed more plaque ruptures (4.7% vs 1.8%, p = 0.05) and echolucent plaques (8.3% vs 3.9%, p = 0.05) compared with nonsmokers. On multivariable analysis, a history of smoking (combining current and former smoking) predicted smaller normalized EEM volumes compared with nonsmokers ≤65 years. In conclusion, in patients ≤65 years, but not in patients >65 years, smoking had a vascular constrictive effect that contributed to severe luminal stenosis. Conversely, smokers >65 years had more plaque with greater plaque instability. PMID:25726380

  8. Age-related effects of smoking on coronary artery disease assessed by gray scale and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soo-Jin; Mintz, Gary S; Weisz, Giora; Mehran, Roxana; Rabbani, LeRoy E; Verheye, Stefan; Serruys, Patrick W; Xu, Ke; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2015-04-15

    Although smoking is a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis, the age-related impact on lesion morphology has not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the age-related impact of smoking on the extent of atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling. In Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree, 687 patients with acute coronary syndrome underwent 3-vessel gray scale and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound imaging of 3,185 nonculprit lesions. In 207 patients ≤65 years, current (smoking within 1 month) and former (no smoking for >1 month) smokers showed significantly smaller normalized volumes of external elastic membrane (EEM), lumen, and P + M (plaque + media) compared with nonsmokers. At the minimal lumen area site, current and former smokers had significantly smaller EEM, lumen, and P + M areas than nonsmokers. Conversely, in 480 patients >65 years, current smokers had greater normalized P + M volumes than nonsmokers with no difference in normalized EEM or lumen volumes. Finally, in patients >65 years (but not in patients ≤65 years), current smokers showed more plaque ruptures (4.7% vs 1.8%, p = 0.05) and echolucent plaques (8.3% vs 3.9%, p = 0.05) compared with nonsmokers. On multivariable analysis, a history of smoking (combining current and former smoking) predicted smaller normalized EEM volumes compared with nonsmokers ≤65 years. In conclusion, in patients ≤65 years, but not in patients >65 years, smoking had a vascular constrictive effect that contributed to severe luminal stenosis. Conversely, smokers >65 years had more plaque with greater plaque instability.

  9. Work related injury among aging women.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tracie; Legarde, Brittany; Kim, Sunhun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-02-01

    This article reports the experiences of women aged 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker's compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women aged 55 to 75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues' conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women's experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  10. Work Related Injury among Aging Women

    PubMed Central

    LeGarde, Brittany; Kim, SungHun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the experiences of women age 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker’s compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American and non-Hispanic White women ages 55–75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues’ conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women’s experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  11. Longitudinal patterns in flathead catfish relative abundance and length at age within a large river: Effects of an urban gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Makinster, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) relative abundance and growth in the 274 km long Kansas River to determine if population dynamics of catfish are related to urbanization. Electrofishing was conducted at 462 random sites throughout the river in summer, 2005-2006 to collect fish. Relative abundance of age 1 fish (???200mm), subadult (>200-400mm) and adult fish (>400 mm) ranged from 0.34 to 14.67 fish h-1, mean length at age 1 was 165 (range: 128-195) mm total length (TL) and mean length at age 3 was 376 mm TL (range: 293-419mm TL). The proportion of land use within 200 m of the river edge was between 0 and 0.54 urban. River reaches with high relative abundance of age 1 flathead catfish had high relative abundance of subadult and adult catfish. River reaches with fast flathead catfish growth to age 1 had fast growth to age 3. High urban land use and riprap in the riparian area were evident in river reaches near the heavily populated Kansas City and Topeka, Kansas, USA. Reaches with increased number of log jams and islands had decreased riparian agriculture. Areas of low urbanization had faster flathead catfish growth (r = 0.67, p = 0.005). Relative abundance of flathead catfish was higher in more agricultural areas (r = -0.57, p = 0.02). Changes in land use in riverine environments may alter population dynamics of a fish species within a river. Spatial differences in population dynamics need to be considered when evaluating riverine fish populations. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of senescent lens epithelial cells on the severity of age-related cortical cataract in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiuli; Qin, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiexin; Yu, Yinhui; Tang, Qiaomei; Lyu, Danni; Zhang, Lifang; Chen, Zhijian; Yao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aging of lens progenitor cell has been repeatedly proposed to play a key role in age-related cataracts (ARCs), but the mechanism is far from being understood. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between aging of lens progenitor/epithelial cells and the 4 subtypes of ARCs in humans. Lens capsules, which were collected from ARC patients during surgery, were divided into 3 groups according to the age of patients (50–60, 60–80, and >80 years). The expressions of lens progenitor cell-related markers Sox2, Abcg2, and Ki67 were first examined in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) in situ. Then, the percentage of senescent and SA-β-gal+ HLECs isolated from lens capsules were quantified. Finally, the potential relationships between the percentage of senescent (and SA-β-gal+) HLECs and the severity of ARCs were analyzed. Ki67+, Sox2+, and Abcg2+ HLECs in lens capsules were clearly more abundant in young people than in patients older than 50 years, and they were almost absent in patients older than 60 years. The percentage of primary HLECs with aging morphology increased with age, consistent with the results of SA-β-gal+ primary HLECs. Only cortical cataract classification was found to be strongly related to the percentage of SA-β-gal+ and senescent HLECs. Our study gave the initial evidence on the dynamical change of lens stem/progenitor cells in human lens capsule with age and suggested that lens progenitor/epithelial cell aging is important in the severity of cortical cataracts. PMID:27336873

  13. Influences of player nationality, playing position, and height on relative age effects at women's under-17 FIFA World Cup.

    PubMed

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young male soccer players who are born early in a cohort are overrepresented on elite soccer teams. Selection advantages such as this have been termed 'relative age effects' (RAEs). Few studies have examined RAEs in elite women's youth soccer. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of RAEs in the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) U-17 Women's World Cup competition and their link to playing positions. In the entire cohort of 672 players, we found significant RAEs in the geographical zones of Europe and North and Central America, no RAEs in the zones of Asia, Oceania, and South America, and significant inverse RAEs in the zone of Africa. Additionally, significant RAEs were found for goalkeepers and defenders from Europe and North and Central America. Inverse RAEs occurred for African goalkeepers, defenders, and strikers. Goalkeepers of all zones were significantly taller than players of all other playing positions. The results of this study show that remarkable RAEs do exist at elite women's youth soccer. Similar to men's soccer, there is a bias toward the inclusion of relatively older players, and a link between RAEs and playing positions.

  14. Computational assessment of effective dose and patient specific doses for kilovoltage stereotactic radiosurgery of wet age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, Justin Mitchell

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss and a major health problem for people over the age of 50 in industrialized nations. The current standard of care, ranibizumab, is used to help slow and in some cases stabilize the process of AMD, but requires frequent invasive injections into the eye. Interest continues for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), an option that provides a non-invasive treatment for the wet form of AMD, through the development of the IRay(TM) (Oraya Therapeutics, Inc., Newark, CA). The goal of this modality is to destroy choroidal neovascularization beneath the pigment epithelium via delivery of three 100 kVp photon beams entering through the sclera and overlapping on the macula delivering up to 24 Gy of therapeutic dose over a span of approximately 5 minutes. The divergent x-ray beams targeting the fovea are robotically positioned and the eye is gently immobilized by a suction-enabled contact lens. Device development requires assessment of patient effective dose, reference patient mean absorbed doses to radiosensitive tissues, and patient specific doses to the lens and optic nerve. A series of head phantoms, including both reference and patient specific, was derived from CT data and employed in conjunction with the MCNPX 2.5.0 radiation transport code to simulate treatment and evaluate absorbed doses to potential tissues-at-risk. The reference phantoms were used to evaluate effective dose and mean absorbed doses to several radiosensitive tissues. The optic nerve was modeled with changeable positions based on individual patient variability seen in a review of head CT scans gathered. Patient specific phantoms were used to determine the effect of varying anatomy and gaze. The results showed that absorbed doses to the non-targeted tissues were below the threshold levels for serious complications; specifically the development of radiogenic cataracts and radiation induced optic neuropathy (RON). The effective dose

  15. Age-related effects of bilateral frontal eye fields lesions on rapid eye movements during REM sleep in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan; Liu, Ning; Zeng, Tao; Tian, Shaohua; Chen, Nanhui; Zhou, Yifeng; Ma, Yuanye

    2004-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) is one of the most characteristic features of REM sleep, but the mechanisms underlying its regulation remain unclear. The present study aims to investigate whether the frontal eye field (FEF) is involved in the regulation of the rapid eye movements during REM sleep. To address this question, we ablated the FEF in four rhesus monkeys and observed the effects of the lesions on sleep architecture. After lesions, two adult monkeys did not show any lesion effect. However, in the other two adolescent monkeys, both the total duration and percentage of the rapid eye movements during REM sleep were decreased moderately. The result suggests that the relation between the FEF and the regulation of the rapid eye movements during REM sleep may be affected by age factor, also indicating that both the functions of the FEF and the mechanisms underlying the control of rapid eye movements during REM sleep might not be the same throughout the whole life span of an animal. PMID:15265590

  16. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: "Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?" Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods with

  17. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: “Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?” Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods

  18. The Cardioprotective Effect of Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) Is Strongly Related to Age and Gender in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Lin, Ze-Bang; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Chen, Yang-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xi; Ou, Zhi-Jun; Ou, Jing-Song

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E (VitE) only prevented cardiovascular diseases in some patients and the mechanisms remain unknown. VitE levels can be affected by aging and gender. We hypothesize that age and gender can influence VitE’s cardioprotective effect. Mice were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender, and each group of mice were divided into a control group and a VitE group. The mice were administered water or VitE for 21 days; Afterward, the cardiac function and myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were measured after myocardial ischemia reperfusion(MI/R). VitE may significantly improved cardiac function in young male mice and aged female mice by enhancing ERK1/2 activity and reducing JNK activity. Enhanced expression of HSP90 and Bcl-2 were also seen in young male mice. No changes in cardiac function and cardiac proteins were detected in aged male mice and VitE was even liked to exert a reverse effect in cardiac function in young mice by enhancing JNK activity and reducing Bcl-2 expression. Those effects were in accordance with the changes of myocardial infarction size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in each group of mice. VitE may reduce MI/R injury by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis in young male mice and aged female mice but not in aged male mice. VitE was possibly harmful for young female mice, shown as increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis after MI/R. Thus, we speculated that the efficacy of VitE in cardiac protection was associated with age and gender. PMID:26331272

  19. Age-related decline in multiple unit action potentials of CA3 region of rat hippocampus: correlation with lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin concentration and the effect of centrophenoxine.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D; Maurya, A K; Singh, R

    1993-01-01

    Changes in lipid peroxidation, lipofuscin concentration, and multiple unit activity (MUA recorded in conscious animals) in the CA3 region were studied in the hippocampus of male Wistar rats aged 4, 8, 16, and 24 months. The lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin concentration were increased with age. The MUA, however, declined with age. Correlational analyses were performed for the four age groups to determine the relationship between the age-associated decline in MUA with the age-related alterations in lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin concentrations. The age-related increase in lipid peroxidation correlated positively with the age-associated increase in lipofuscin concentration. The age-related increases in lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin concentration correlated negatively with the changes in MUA. Since lipid peroxidation may affect neuronal electrophysiology, our data suggested that age-related increase in lipid peroxidation may contribute to an age-associated decline in neuronal electrical activity. Centrophenoxine effects were studied on the three above-mentioned age-associated changes in the hippocampus. The drug had no effect on all three parameters in 4- and 8-month-old rats. In 16- and 24-month-old rats, however, the drug significantly increased the MUA but concomitantly decreased lipofuscin concentration and lipid peroxidation. Correlational analyses of the data on MUA, lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin concentration from the centrophenoxine-treated animals showed that the drug-induced diminution in both lipofuscin and lipid peroxidation was significantly correlated with the drug-induced increase in MUA. The differential effect of the drug in younger (4-8 months) and older (16-24 months) animals indicated that the stimulation of MUA was clearly associated with concomitant decrease in lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin concentration.

  20. Age-Related Wayfinding Differences in Real Large-Scale Environments: Detrimental Motor Control Effects during Spatial Learning Are Mediated by Executive Decline?

    PubMed Central

    Taillade, Mathieu; Sauzéon, Hélène; Arvind Pala, Prashant; Déjos, Marie; Larrue, Florian; Gross, Christian; N’Kaoua, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate motor control activity (active vs. passive condition) with regards to wayfinding and spatial learning difficulties in large-scale spaces for older adults. We compared virtual reality (VR)-based wayfinding and spatial memory (survey and route knowledge) performances between 30 younger and 30 older adults. A significant effect of age was obtained on the wayfinding performances but not on the spatial memory performances. Specifically, the active condition deteriorated the survey measure in all of the participants and increased the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances. Importantly, the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances, after an active condition, were further mediated by the executive measures. All of the results relative to a detrimental effect of motor activity are discussed in terms of a dual task effect as well as executive decline associated with aging. PMID:23843992

  1. Assessment of age-related changes in heritability and IGF-1 gene effect on circulating IGF-1 levels.

    PubMed

    Franco, Liran; Williams, Frances M K; Trofimov, Svetlana; Malkin, Ida; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Spector, Timothy; Livshits, Gregory

    2014-06-01

    It is well established that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) circulating levels correlate with age and that heritability and influence of IGF-1 gene variation on IGF-1 levels also well-known. However, the influence of age on the genetic factors determining IGF-1 levels is not clear. In this study, we compared heritability estimates between younger (<52 years) and older (>52 years) twins and tested: (a) whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lying within 100 kbp of the IGF-1 gene are also associated with IGF-1 variation and (b) whether associated SNPs show interaction with age on IGF-1 levels. To achieve these aims, we measured plasma levels of IGF-1 and genotyped 18 SNPs with minor allele frequency >0.1 in a large sample, 4,471 UK female twins. Heritability explained 42 % of IGF-1 variation adjusted for age and in unadjusted sample was independent of age. Ten SNPs in four haploblocks showed significant association with IGF-1 levels, with p = 0.01-0.0005. The most distal SNP was located up to 90 kbp from the IGF-1 gene. When their age-dependent effects were examined, one SNP, rs855203, showed significant (p = 0.0009) age-dependent interaction effect on IGF-1 levels variation. This is the first study to test the age × genotype interaction in IGF-1 levels. The genomic region marked by rs855203 may consequently be of significance for further molecular and pharmacogenetic research, in particular in advanced age. PMID:24493200

  2. Age-related autocrine diabetogenic effects of transgenic resistin in spontaneously hypertensive rats: gene expression profile analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, Jan; Maxová, Martina; Kazdová, Ludmila; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Seidman, Christine E.; Eminaga, Seda; Gorham, Joshua; Wang, Jiaming; Kurtz, Theodore W.

    2011-01-01

    Increased circulating levels of resistin have been proposed as a possible link between obesity and insulin resistance; however, many of the potential metabolic effects of resistin remain to be investigated, including systemic versus local resistin action. We investigated potential autocrine effects of resistin on lipid and glucose metabolism in 2- and 16-mo-old transgenic spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) expressing a nonsecreted form of mouse resistin under control of the aP2 promoter. To search for possible molecular mechanisms, we compared gene expression profiles in adipose tissue in 6-wk-old transgenic SHR versus control rats, before development of insulin resistance, by digital transcriptional profiling using high-throughput sequencing. Both young and old transgenic rats showed moderate expression of the resistin transgene in adipose tissue but had serum resistin levels similar to control SHR and undetectable levels of transgenic resistin in the circulation. Young transgenic rats exhibited mild glucose intolerance. In contrast, older transgenic rats displayed marked glucose intolerance in association with near total resistance of adipose tissue to insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids (6 ± 2 vs. 77 ± 19 nmol glucose·g−1·2 h−1, P < 0.00001). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed calcium signaling, Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2)-mediated oxidative stress response, and actin cytoskeletal signaling canonical pathways as those most significantly affected. Analysis using DAVID software revealed oxidative phosphorylation, glutathione metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling as top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. These results suggest that with increasing age autocrine effects of resistin in fat tissue may predispose to diabetes in part by impairing insulin action in adipose tissue. PMID:21285283

  3. Evidence of an Age Related Threshold Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) on Neuropsychological Functioning in a Native American Population

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Richard F.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L.; Morse, Gayle S.; Tarbell, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been suspected for some time of having adverse effects on neuropsychological functioning in humans. While there is evidence of slowing of cognitive function in children associated with exposure to PCBs, the evidence of comparable effects on adults is far less well understood. We report here on the neuropsychological evaluation of 277 Native American adults, ranging in age from 18 -79, who were exposed to PCBs by way of environmental contamination in the St. Lawrence region of upstate New York. PCB body burden was estimated by 101 PCB congeners and neuropsychological functioning was assessed by a battery of 18 tests. Spline regression models were fitted to the latent variables of memory, motor function, and higher-order executive functioning. After adjusting for age, gender, and education the analyses revealed a threshold effect of PCBs at approximately 2 ppb. An age-by-PCB interaction effect was also observed for several variables which suggests that the threshold effect was largely confined to the age range of 40-79 and was not observable in the 18-40 year old group. Implications of these results are discussed in comparison to previously published similar work with adults and in terms of its potential clinical meaningfulness. PMID:19041090

  4. The effects of ranibizumab injections on fluorescein angiographic findings and visual acuity recovery in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gungel, Hulya; Osmanbasoglu, Ozen Ayranci; Altan, Cigdem; Baylancicek, Deniz Oygar; Pasaoglu, Isil Basgil

    2014-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study reported here was to evaluate the effect of ranibizumab on retinal circulation times and vessel caliber and to analyze the correlation of these factors with visual acuity (VA) prognosis in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Subjects and methods This prospective cohort study included 52 eyes of 46 patients (mean age 73.5 years [standard deviation 7.7]; 28 males, 18 females). The study parameters were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT) (pre- and posttreatment: for 3 months after the last injection), retinal circulation times, diameter of retinal arteriole (DRA), and diameter of retinal vein (DRV) (pre- and posttreatment: after a loading dose of three consecutive injections of ranibizumab with a 4-week interval in the initial phase). The pretreatment, posttreatment measurements, and their differences were recorded for analyses. The injections were repeated when needed. Eyes were grouped into one of two groups according to VA recovery: Group 1, cases showing significant recovery of VA (n=21, 37%), and Group 2, cases showing preservation of VA (n=22, 42%) and deterioration of VA (n=11, 21%). Differences were compared statistically in and between groups. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the correlation of these parameters with VA recovery. Results There was a significant reduction in DRA (P=0.007) and CMT levels (P<0.001) in both study groups after treatment. When the two groups were compared, the differences in pretreatment values of DRA (P=0.001), DRV (P=0.017), CMT (P=0.039), and mean BCVA (P=0.00) were found to be statistically significant. Posttreatment changes in DRA (P=0.013) and mean CMT (P=0.010) were found to be factors related to VA recovery by logistic regression analysis. Conclusion Our findings reveal that ranibizumab treatment is associated with decrease in DRA, CMT, and significant improvement in VA recovery. Further, taking into account the cases

  5. Pathophysiology of ageing, longevity and age related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bürkle, Alexander; Caselli, Graziella; Franceschi, Claudio; Mariani, Erminia; Sansoni, Paolo; Santoni, Angela; Vecchio, Giancarlo; Witkowski, Jacek M; Caruso, Calogero

    2007-01-01

    On April 18, 2007 an international meeting on Pathophysiology of Ageing, Longevity and Age-Related Diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Several interesting topics on Cancer, Immunosenescence, Age-related inflammatory diseases and longevity were discussed. In this report we summarize the most important issues. However, ageing must be considered an unavoidable end point of the life history of each individual, nevertheless the increasing knowledge on ageing mechanisms, allows envisaging many different strategies to cope with, and delay it. So, a better understanding of pathophysiology of ageing and age-related disease is essential for giving everybody a reasonable chance for living a long and enjoyable final part of the life. PMID:17683521

  6. Overcoming Age-Related Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agullo, Gloria Luque

    2006-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in foreign language (FL) teaching is the age at which language learning should start. Nowadays it is recognized that in second language contexts maturational constraints make an early start advisable, but there is still disagreement regarding the problem of when to start or the best way to learn in foreign…

  7. QTL influencing baseline hematocrit in the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J lineage: age-related effects.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Frank; Blizard, David A; Lionikas, Arimantas; Lang, Dena H; Vandenbergh, David J; Stout, Joseph T; Strauss, James A; McClearn, Gerald E; Vogler, George P

    2006-06-01

    Baseline serum hematocrit varies substantially in the population. While additive genetic factors account for a large part of this variability, little is known about the genetic architecture underlying the trait. Because hematocrit levels vary with age, it is plausible that quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence the phenotype also show an age-specific profile. To investigate this possibility, hematocrit was measured in three different age cohorts of mice (150, 450, and 750 days) of the C57BL/6J (B6) and the DBA2/J (D2) lineage. QTL were searched in the B6D2F(2) intercross and the BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains. The effects of these QTL were explored across the different age groups. On the phenotypic level, baseline serum hematocrit declines with age in a sex-specific manner. In the B6D2F(2) intercross, suggestive QTL that influence the phenotype were located on Chromosomes (Chr) 1, 2, 7, 11, 13, and 16. With the exception of the QTL on Chr 2, all of these QTL exerted their largest effect at 750 days. The QTL on Chr 1, 2, 7, 11 and 16 were confirmed in the BXD RIs in a sex- and age-specific manner. Linkage analysis in the BXD RIs revealed an additional significant QTL on Chr 19. Baseline serum hematocrit is influenced by several QTL that appear to vary with the age and sex of the animal. These QTL primarily overlap with QTL that have been shown to regulate hematopoietic stem cell phenotypes.

  8. Preventive effect of Vaccinium uliginosum L. extract and its fractions on age-related macular degeneration and its action mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sun-Myung; Lee, Bom-Lee; Guo, Yuan-Ri; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss and blindness among the elderly. Although the pathogenesis of this disease remains still obscure, several researchers have report that death of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) caused by excessive accumulation of A2E is crucial determinants of AMD. In this study, the preventive effect of Vaccinium uliginosum L. (V.U) extract and its fractions on AMD was investigated in blue light-irradiated human RPE cell (ARPE-19 cells). Blue light-induced RPE cell death was significantly inhibited by the treatment of V.U extract or its fraction. To identify the mechanism, FAB-MS analysis revealed that V.U inhibits the photooxidation of N-retinyl-N-retinylidene ethanolamine (A2E) induced by blue light in cell free system. Moreover, monitoring by quantitative HPLC also revealed that V.U extract and its fractions reduced intracellular accumulation of A2E, suggesting that V.U extract and its fractions inhibit not only blue light-induced photooxidation, but also intracellular accumulation of A2E, resulting in RPE cell survival after blue light exposure. A2E-laden cell exposed to blue light induced apoptosis by increasing the cleaved form of caspase-3, Bax/Bcl-2. Additionally, V.U inhibited by the treatment of V.U extract or quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranoside. These results suggest that V.U extract and its fractions have preventive effect on blue light-induced damage in RPE cells and AMD.

  9. Effects of Vitreomacular Traction on Ranibizumab Treatment Response in Eyes with Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang Hoon; Chin, Hee Seung; Kim, Na Rae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of vitreomacular traction (VMT) on ranibizumab treatment response for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A retrospective review of 85 eyes of 85 patients newly diagnosed with neovascular AMD was conducted. Patients were eligible if they had received more than three consecutive monthly ranibizumab (0.50 mg) treatments and ophthalmic evaluations. Patients were classified into a VMT (+) group or VMT (-) group according to optical coherence tomography imaging. Best corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness (CRT) measurements were obtained at three and six months after initial injection. Results One month after the third injection, mean visual acuity (VA) increases of 6.36 and 9.87 letters were observed in the VMT (+) and VMT (-) groups, respectively. The corresponding mean CRT values decreased by 70.29 µm and 121.68 µm, respectively. A total 41 eyes were identified as eligible for a subsequent fourth injection; 71.1% of patients (27 eyes) in the VMT (+) group but only 29.8% of patients in the VMT (-) group needed a subsequent fourth injection. Follow-up was extended to six months for 42 of the 85 enrolled patients (49.4%). The trends in VA and optical coherence tomography were found to be maintained at six-month follow-up. Conclusions VA and CRT appeared to be more improved after ranibizumab treatment in the VMT (-) group compared to the VMT (+) group. VMT might antagonize the effect of ranibizumab treatment in a subpopulation of AMD patients. PMID:26635456

  10. Effect of ozone on degradation and mRNA levels of Rubisco in relation to potato leaf age

    SciTech Connect

    Eckardt, N.A.; Pell, E.J. )

    1993-05-01

    Leaf senescence is characterized by loss of the major photosynthetic enzyme, Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco). Exposure to ozone (O[sub 3]) is often associated with a premature decline in the quantity of this enzyme. Declines in Rubisco quantity could arise through inhibition of synthesis or enhancement of degradation. Several experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of O[sub 3] on these events in immature and mature leaves of potato. The effect of O[sub 3] on Rubisco synthesis was investigated indirectly by measuring the relative quantities of mRNA for the rubisco large (rbcL) and small (rbcS) subunits following a 5 hour exposure to 0.309 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] O[sup 3] or charcoal-filtered air. O[sup 3] treatment was associated with a significant loss in rbcS mRNA in immature and mature potato leaves sampled immediately following the exposure. After the O[sup 3] exposure, a set of plants was placed in the dark at 30 C for two days. Levels of rbcS mRNA declined rapidly during the first twelve hours of dark incubation, thus declines in Rubisco quantity following two days of dark incubation were ascribed to degradation. Enhanced degradation due to O[sub 3] during the dark incubation was observed in the mature leaves, but not in the immature leaves. We conclude that O[sub 3] can cause both inhibited synthesis and enhanced degradation of Rubisco, and the response in dependent on leaf age.

  11. [Treatment options for age-related infertility].

    PubMed

    Belaisch-Allart, Joëlle

    2010-06-20

    There has been a consistent trend towards delayed childbearing in most Western countries. Treatment options for age-related infertility includes controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization (IVF). A sharp decline in pregnancy rate with advancing female age is noted with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) including IVF. Evaluation and treatment of infertility should not be delayed in women 35 years and older. No treatment other than oocyte donation has been shown to be effective for women over 40 and for those with compromised ovarian reserve, but its pratice is not easy in France hence the procreative tourism. As an increasing number of couples choose to postpone childbearing, they should be informed that maternal age is an important risk factor for failure to conceive. PMID:20623902

  12. Radiation-Related Treatment Effects across the Age Spectrum: Differences and Similarities or What The Old and Young Can Learn From Each Other

    PubMed Central

    Krasin, Matthew J.; Constine, Louis S.; Friedman, Debra; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation related effects in children and adults limit the delivery of effective radiation doses and result in long-term morbidity affecting function and quality of life. Improvements in our understanding of the etiology and biology of these effects, including the influence of clinical variables, dosimetric factors, and the underlying biologic processes has made treatment safer and more efficacious. However, the approach to studying and understanding these effects differs between children and adults. By using the pulmonary and skeletal organ systems as examples, comparisons are made across the age spectrum for radiation related effects including pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, osteonecrosis and fracture. Methods for dosimetric analysis, incorporation of imaging and biology as well a length of follow-up are compared, contrasted and discussed for both organ systems in children and adults. Better understanding of each age specific approach and how it differs may improve our ability to study late effects of radiation across the ages PMID:19959028

  13. Nutrition and age-related eye diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision loss among the elderly is an important health problem. Approximately one person in three has some form of vision-reducing eye disease by the age of 65 [1]. Age-related cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma are the major diseases resulting in visu...

  14. Age-related differences in effective connectivity of brain regions involved in Japanese kanji processing with homophone judgment task.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chiao-Yi; Koh, Jia Ying Serene; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Nakai, Toshiharu; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel

    2014-08-01

    Reading is a complex process involving neural networks in which connections may be influenced by task demands and other factors. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic causal modeling to examine age-related influences on left-hemispheric kanji reading networks. During a homophone judgment task, activation in the middle frontal gyrus, and dorsal and ventral inferior frontal gyri were identified, representing areas involved in orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing, respectively. The young adults showed a preference for a semantically-mediated pathway from orthographic inputs to the retrieval of phonological representations, whereas the elderly preferred a direct connection from orthographic inputs to phonological lexicons prior to the activation of semantic representations. These sequential pathways are in line with the lexical semantic and non-semantic routes in the dual-route cascaded model. The shift in reading pathways accompanied by slowed reaction time for the elderly might suggest age-related declines in the efficiency of network connectivity. PMID:24893344

  15. Comparing the Effectiveness of Bevacizumab to Ranibizumab in Patients with Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The BRAMD Study

    PubMed Central

    Dijkman, G.; Hooymans, J. M.; Verbraak, F. D.; Hoyng, C. B.; Dijkgraaf, M. G. W.; Peto, T.; Vingerling, J. R.; Schlingemann, R. O.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effectiveness of bevacizumab and ranibizumab in the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Multicentre, randomized, controlled, double-masked clinical trial in 327 patients. The non-inferiority margin was 4 letters. Patients Patients ≥ 60 years of age with primary or recurrent sub- or juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to AMD with a total area of CNV < 12 disc areas and a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) score between 20 and 78 letters on an EDTRS like chart in the study eye. Methods Monthly intravitreal injections with 1.25 mg bevacizumab or 0.5 mg ranibizumab were given during one year. Intention to treat with last observation carried forward analysis was performed. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome was the change in BCVA in the study eye from baseline to 12 months. Results The mean gain in BCVA was 5.1 (±14.1) letters in the bevacizumab group (n = 161) and 6.4 (±12.2) letters in the ranibizumab group (n = 166) (p = 0.37). The lower limit of the 95% confidence interval of the difference in BCVA gain was 3.72. The response to bevacizumab was more varied; 24% of patients showed a gain of ≥15 letters, 11% a loss of ≥15 letters and 65% a gain or loss < 15 letters compared to 19%, 5% and 76% respectively for ranibizumab (p = 0.038). No significant differences in absolute CRT and CRT change (p = 0.13) or in the presence of subretinal or intraretinal fluid (p = 0.14 and 0.10, respectively) were observed. However, the presence of any fluid on SD-OCT (subretinal and/or intraretinal) differed significantly (p = 0.020), with definite fluid on SD-OCT in 45% of the patients for bevacizumab versus 31% for ranibizumab. The occurrence of serious adverse events and adverse events was similar, with 34 SAEs and 256 AEs in the bevacizumab group and 37 SAEs and 299 AEs in the ranibizumab group (p = 0.87 and p = 0.48, respectively). Conclusions Bevacizumab was not inferior to ranibizumab. The

  16. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...

  17. The effects of technological advances on outcomes for elderly persons with exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Frank A; Hanrahan, Brian W

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the major cause of blindness among US elderly. Developing effective therapies for this disease has been difficult. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of introducing new therapies for treating exudative ARMD on vision of the affected population and other outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having ARMD. DESIGN The study used data from a 5% sample of Medicare claims and enrollment data with a combination of a regression discontinuity design and propensity score matching to assess the effects on the introduction or receipt of new technologies on study outcomes during a 2-year follow-up period. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS The analysis was based on longitudinal data for the United States, January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2011, for Medicare beneficiaries with fee-for-service coverage. The sample was limited to beneficiaries 68 years or older newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD as indicated by beneficiaries having no claims with this diagnosis in a 3-year look-back period. EXPOSURES The comparisons with vision outcomes were after vs before the introduction of photodynamic therapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. The comparisons for depression and long-term care facility admission were between beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD who received photodynamic therapy or anti-VEGF therapy compared with beneficiaries having the diagnosis who received no therapy for this disease. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Onset of decrease in vision, vision loss or blindness, depression, and admission to a long-term care facility. RESULTS Among beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD, the introduction of anti-VEGF therapy reduced vision loss by 41% (95% CI, 52%-68%) and onset of severe vision loss and blindness by 46% (95% CI, 47%-63%). Such beneficiaries who received anti-VEGF therapy and were not admitted to a long-term care facility during the look

  18. Effects of maternal ageing on ICSI outcomes and embryo development in relation to oocytes morphological characteristics of birefringent structures.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Cem; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Sakinci, Mehmet; Ercan, Cihangir Mutlu

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morphological characteristics of the older reproductive aged women's oocytes and to reveal the influence of these characteristics on intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. The oocytes of women older than 35 years of age were evaluated retrospectively. Non-invasive polarization microscopy (PolScope) examinations of mature oocytes were performed by measurement of meiotic spindles' length, area and retardance and zona pellucida thickness and retardance. Fertilization and conception competence and the correlation with the birefringent structures were assessed. Two hundred and thirteen mature oocytes from 54 women were evaluated with a PolScope. Length of the meiotic spindle was shown to be related to fertilization success of women with advanced maternal age. In conclusion, the PolScope is a useful device used to identify the oocyte quality. Quantitative measurements of meiotic spindle parameters may be valuable for the selection of high-quality oocytes that have the potential for embryo development in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory of women older than 35 years of age who are mostly poor responders.

  19. Long noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-03-01

    Aging is the universal, intrinsic, genetically-controlled, evolutionarily-conserved and time-dependent intricate biological process characterised by the cumulative decline in the physiological functions and their coordination in an organism after the attainment of adulthood resulting in the imbalance of neurological, immunological and metabolic functions of the body. Various biological processes and mechanisms along with altered levels of mRNAs and proteins have been reported to be involved in the progression of aging. It is one of the major risk factors in the patho-physiology of various diseases and disorders. Recently, the discovery of pervasive transcription of a vast pool of heterogeneous regulatory noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including small ncRNAs (sncRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), in the mammalian genome have provided an alternative way to study and explore the missing links in the aging process, its mechanism(s) and related diseases in a whole new dimension. The involvement of small noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases have been extensively studied and recently reviewed. However, lncRNAs, whose function is far less explored in relation to aging, have emerged as a class of major regulators of genomic functions. Here, we have described some examples of known as well as novel lncRNAs that have been implicated in the progression of the aging process and age-related diseases. This may further stimulate research on noncoding RNAs and the aging process.

  20. Long noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-03-01

    Aging is the universal, intrinsic, genetically-controlled, evolutionarily-conserved and time-dependent intricate biological process characterised by the cumulative decline in the physiological functions and their coordination in an organism after the attainment of adulthood resulting in the imbalance of neurological, immunological and metabolic functions of the body. Various biological processes and mechanisms along with altered levels of mRNAs and proteins have been reported to be involved in the progression of aging. It is one of the major risk factors in the patho-physiology of various diseases and disorders. Recently, the discovery of pervasive transcription of a vast pool of heterogeneous regulatory noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including small ncRNAs (sncRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), in the mammalian genome have provided an alternative way to study and explore the missing links in the aging process, its mechanism(s) and related diseases in a whole new dimension. The involvement of small noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases have been extensively studied and recently reviewed. However, lncRNAs, whose function is far less explored in relation to aging, have emerged as a class of major regulators of genomic functions. Here, we have described some examples of known as well as novel lncRNAs that have been implicated in the progression of the aging process and age-related diseases. This may further stimulate research on noncoding RNAs and the aging process. PMID:26655093

  1. Effects of paternal age and offspring cognitive ability in early adulthood on the risk of schizophrenia and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Holger J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B; Ehrenstein, Vera; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-12-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) are both associated with the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in young adult offspring. We hypothesized that the offspring SSD risk gradient associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ. We investigated joint and separate associations of paternal age and offspring IQ with the risk of SSD. We used IQ routinely measured at conscription in Danish males (n=138,966) from cohorts born in 1955-84 and in 1976-1993 and followed them from a year after the conscription through 2010. We used Cox regression to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of SSD. During the follow-up, 528 men developed SSD (incidence rate [IR] 5.2 and 8.6 per 10,000 person-years in the first and second cohorts, respectively). APA was associated with higher risk of SSD (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.10-1.60 per a ten-year increase in paternal age). A higher IQ was associated with lower SSD risk (IRR, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.74 per one SD increase). The IR of SSD was higher among persons who were draft-exempt for health reasons (<20% of the men). Overall, there was little evidence of lower premorbid IQ in APA-related SSD (individuals who developed SSD and were also offspring of older fathers). Our results do not support the notion that risk gradient for offspring SSD associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ.

  2. The Effect of Aging in Inhibitory Control of Major Depressive Disorder Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing-Wei; Xu, Jing; Chang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Elderly depressed patients manifest pronounced executive dysfunction compared with younger subjects with depressive disorder. Aging-related brain changes may result in executive dysfunction in geriatric depression. We investigated the neural correlates of inhibitory control processing in depressed subjects at different ages using event-related potentials (ERPs). A equiprobable visual Go/Nogo task was used in 19 young (27.4 ± 5.0 years) and 18 elderly (70.8 ± 6.9 years) depressed subjects and their age-matched healthy controls (20 young subjects, 26.2 ± 3.7 years, and 18 elderly subjects, 68.1 ± 4.8 years). The responses were based on two types of equilateral triangular figures of upright (Go) and inverted triangle (Nogo). The elderly subjects exhibited later N2 and P3 latencies, and larger Go-N2 and P3 amplitudes, compared with the younger subjects. Further, the elderly controls displayed smaller P3 in the central and parietal regions, and yielded larger Nogo-P3 amplitude in the frontal region compared with younger controls. While the young depressed patients yielded smaller P3 amplitude than the controls across frontal, central and parietal regions, elderly depressed patients yielded smaller P3 than the elderly controls only in the frontal region. Our results suggest that the inhibitory control subprocesses are differentially affected by depression and aging. The stimulus response speed and the effort intensity of inhibition control are specifically impaired in the elderly depressed patients. And the diminished amplitudes of frontal P3 in the elderly depression imply a frontal dysfunction mechanism. PMID:27065830

  3. Verification of the mediation effect of recovery resilience according to the relation between elderly users' participation in exercise rehabilitation program and their successful aging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min-Soo

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to verify the mediation effect of recovery resilience according to the relation between Senior Citizen Community Center (SCCC) elderly users' participation in exercise rehabilitation programs and their successful aging. Toward that end, 400 65-yr or older participants and non-participants in SCCCs' exercise rehabilitation programs, living in Incheon, were sampled. Of their answered questionnaires, 35 copies which were deemed low-reliability, duplicated, and inadequately specified were excluded from the analysis. And, the other data were coded through computers, and underwent a descriptive statistical analysis (DSA) and a standard multiple regression analysis (SMRA) using Windows SPSS/PC+21.0 Version statistical program. Thus it was firstly found that elderly people's participation or non-participation in exercise rehabilitation programs partially influenced their recovery resilience and successful aging. The participants group, compared with the non-participants group, had greater recovery resilience and experienced successful aging. Second, the relation between the degree of participation in exercise rehabilitation programs, recovery resilience and successful aging revealed that the longer and the more frequent the participation in exercise rehabilitation programs was, the greater the recovery resilience was and the more successful aging was. Third, the verification of the mediation effect of recovery resilience in the relation between the program participation degree and the successful aging revealed that, compared with those of the model of direct effects of independent variables and dependent variables, the recovery resilience-mediated model's verification power and explanation power were greater. PMID:25426471

  4. The relevance of aging-related changes in brain function to rehabilitation in aging-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M.; Nocera, Joe R.; Drucker, Jonathan H.; Tran, Stella M.; Butler, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on rehabilitation of aging-related diseases are rarely a design consideration in rehabilitation research. In this brief review we present strong coincidental evidence from these two fields suggesting that deficits in aging-related disease or injury are compounded by the interaction between aging-related brain changes and disease-related brain changes. Specifically, we hypothesize that some aphasia, motor, and neglect treatments using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in stroke patients may address the aging side of this interaction. The importance of testing this hypothesis and addressing the larger aging by aging-related disease interaction is discussed. Underlying mechanisms in aging that most likely are relevant to rehabilitation of aging-related diseases also are covered. PMID:26074807

  5. Neuropharmacology of depression in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Gareri, Pietro; De Fazio, Pasquale; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2002-02-01

    Depression in the elderly is nowadays a predominant health care problem, mainly due to the progressive aging of the population. It results from psychosocial stress, polypathology, as well as some biochemical changes which occur in the aged brain and can lead to cognitive impairments, increased symptoms from medical illness, higher utilization of health care services and increased rates of suicide and non-suicide mortality. Depression may be also caused by a various number of drugs currently administered; this is remarkable especially in elderly people, where polypathology is often associated with polypharmacotherapy. However, the pathogenesis of geriatric depression is not well understood; major depression may arise from dysfunction of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Some clinical observations also suggest that striato-frontal dysfunction is associated with late life depression. A number of hypotheses have been made, focusing that mood disturbances are probably linked to a disturbed central metabolism of monoamines 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline and dopamine; however most of this knowledge is derived from animal models. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are age-related diseases associated to decreased activity or brain lesions in the orbital frontal cortex and basal ganglia. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the dysfunction of one or more of the cortical basal ganglia-thalamic neuronal loops are involved in the pathophysiology of primary and secondary depression. This dysfunction may be mediated by decreased serotonin release and probably, also by reduction in serotonin receptors. Development of novel approaches such as dynamic brain imaging methods, together with indirect knowledge coming from the effects of new antidepressants, will increase the understanding of neurochemistry of depression in old age. PMID:12039452

  6. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  7. Age-related protective effect of deprenyl on changes in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes and antioxidant defense enzymes activities in cerebellar tissue in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    James, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidants are free radical scavengers and protect living organisms against oxidative damage to tissues. Experimental evidence implicates oxygen-derived free radicals as important causative agents of aging and the present study was designed to evaluate the age-related effects of deprenyl on the antioxidant defense in the cerebellum of male Wistar rats. Experimental rats of three age groups (6, 12, and 18 months old) were administered with liquid deprenyl (2 mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 15 days i.p) and levels of diagnostic marker enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase) in plasma, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and antiperoxidative enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the cerebellar tissue were determined. Intraperitonial administration of deprenyl (2 mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 15 days) significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the age-related alterations noted in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes plasma of experimental animals. Deprenyl also exerted an antioxidant effect against aging process by hindering lipid peroxidation to an extent. Moderate rise in the levels of reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes was also observed. The results of the present investigation indicated that the protective potential of deprenyl was probably due to the increase of the activity of the free radical scavenging enzymes or to a counteraction of free radicals by its antioxidant nature or to a strengthening of neuronal membrane by its membrane-stabilizing action. Histopathological observations also confirmed the protective effect of deprenyl against the age-related aberrations in rat cerebellum. These data on the effect of deprenyl on parameters of normal aging provides new additional

  8. Variants near CHRNA3/5 and APOE have age- and sex-related effects on human lifespan.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Peter K; Fischer, Krista; Schraut, Katharina E; Campbell, Harry; Esko, Tõnu; Wilson, James F

    2016-03-31

    Lifespan is a trait of enormous personal interest. Research into the biological basis of human lifespan, however, is hampered by the long time to death. Using a novel approach of regressing (272,081) parental lifespans beyond age 40 years on participant genotype in a new large data set (UK Biobank), we here show that common variants near the apolipoprotein E and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 5 genes are associated with lifespan. The effects are strongly sex and age dependent, with APOE ɛ4 differentially influencing maternal lifespan (P=4.2 × 10(-15), effect -1.24 years of maternal life per imputed risk allele in parent; sex difference, P=0.011), and a locus near CHRNA3/5 differentially affecting paternal lifespan (P=4.8 × 10(-11), effect -0.86 years per allele; sex difference P=0.075). Rare homozygous carriers of the risk alleles at both loci are predicted to have 3.3-3.7 years shorter lives.

  9. Immunology of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ambati, Jayakrishna; Atkinson, John P.; Gelfand, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in aged individuals. Recent advances have highlighted the essential role of immune processes in the development, progression and treatment of AMD. In this Review we discuss recent discoveries related to the immunological aspects of AMD pathogenesis. We outline the diverse immune cell types, inflammatory activators and pathways that are involved. Finally, we discuss the future of inflammation-directed therapeutics to treat AMD in the growing aged population. PMID:23702979

  10. Effects of breast milk and milk formula on synthesized speech sound-induced event-related potentials at 3 and 6 months of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of breast milk and milk formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on speech processing were investigated by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to synthesized /pa/ and /ba/ (oddball paradigm, 80%:20%) at 3 and 6 months of age. Behavioral assessment was also ob...

  11. Consequences of Age-Related Cognitive Declines

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Adult age differences in a variety of cognitive abilities are well documented, and many of those abilities have been found to be related to success in the workplace and in everyday life. However, increased age is seldom associated with lower levels of real-world functioning, and the reasons for this lab-life discrepancy are not well understood. This article briefly reviews research concerned with relations of age to cognition, relations of cognition to successful functioning outside the laboratory, and relations of age to measures of work performance and achievement. The final section discusses several possible explanations for why there are often little or no consequences of age-related cognitive declines in everyday functioning. PMID:21740223

  12. Age-Related Differences and Cognitive Correlates of Self-Reported and Direct Navigation Performance: The Effect of Real and Virtual Test Conditions Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Taillade, Mathieu; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Sauzéon, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of aging on direct navigation measures and self-reported ones according to the real-virtual test manipulation. Navigation (wayfinding tasks) and spatial memory (paper-pencil tasks) performances, obtained either in real-world or in virtual-laboratory test conditions, were compared between young (n = 32) and older (n = 32) adults who had self-rated their everyday navigation behavior (SBSOD scale). Real age-related differences were observed in navigation tasks as well as in paper-pencil tasks, which investigated spatial learning relative to the distinction between survey-route knowledge. The manipulation of test conditions (real vs. virtual) did not change these age-related differences, which are mostly explained by age-related decline in both spatial abilities and executive functioning (measured with neuropsychological tests). In contrast, elderly adults did not differ from young adults in their self-reporting relative to everyday navigation, suggesting some underestimation of navigation difficulties by elderly adults. Also, spatial abilities in young participants had a mediating effect on the relations between actual and self-reported navigation performance, but not for older participants. So, it is assumed that the older adults carried out the navigation task with fewer available spatial abilities compared to young adults, resulting in inaccurate self-estimates.

  13. Age-Related Differences and Cognitive Correlates of Self-Reported and Direct Navigation Performance: The Effect of Real and Virtual Test Conditions Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Taillade, Mathieu; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Sauzéon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of aging on direct navigation measures and self-reported ones according to the real-virtual test manipulation. Navigation (wayfinding tasks) and spatial memory (paper-pencil tasks) performances, obtained either in real-world or in virtual-laboratory test conditions, were compared between young (n = 32) and older (n = 32) adults who had self-rated their everyday navigation behavior (SBSOD scale). Real age-related differences were observed in navigation tasks as well as in paper-pencil tasks, which investigated spatial learning relative to the distinction between survey-route knowledge. The manipulation of test conditions (real vs. virtual) did not change these age-related differences, which are mostly explained by age-related decline in both spatial abilities and executive functioning (measured with neuropsychological tests). In contrast, elderly adults did not differ from young adults in their self-reporting relative to everyday navigation, suggesting some underestimation of navigation difficulties by elderly adults. Also, spatial abilities in young participants had a mediating effect on the relations between actual and self-reported navigation performance, but not for older participants. So, it is assumed that the older adults carried out the navigation task with fewer available spatial abilities compared to young adults, resulting in inaccurate self-estimates. PMID:26834666

  14. The effects of environmental enrichment and age-related differences on inhibitory avoidance in zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Manuel, Remy; Gorissen, Marnix; Stokkermans, Mitchel; Zethof, Jan; Ebbesson, Lars O E; van de Vis, Hans; Flik, Gert; van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-04-01

    The inhibitory avoidance paradigm allows the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory formation in zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton). For zebrafish, the physiology and behavior associated with this paradigm are as yet poorly understood. We therefore assessed the effects of environmental enrichment and fish age on inhibitory avoidance learning. Fish raised in an environmentally enriched tank showed decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploration. Enrichment greatly reduced inhibitory avoidance in 6-month (6M)- and 12-month (12 M)-old fish. Following inhibitory avoidance, telencephalic mRNA levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna), neurogenic differentiation (neurod), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript 4 (cart4), and cannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1) were lower in enriched-housed fish, while the ratios of mineralocorticoid receptor (nr3c2)/glucocorticoid receptor α [nr3c1(α)] and glucocorticoid receptor β [nr3c1(β)]/glucocorticoid receptor α [nr3c1(α)] were higher. This was observed for 6M-old fish only, not for 24-month (24 M) old fish. Instead, 24 M-old fish showed delayed inhibitory avoidance, no effects of enrichment, and reduced expression of neuroplasticity genes. Overall, our data show strong differences in inhibitory avoidance behavior between zebrafish of different ages and a clear reduction in avoidance behavior following housing under environmental enrichment.

  15. The effect of high and very low fluorescent light exposure levels on age-related cataract in a pigmented mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Wolf, N S; Penn, P E

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the effect of fluorescent light on the timing and severity of age-related cataracts in a fully pigmented mouse strain, the (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1, that normally develops slowly progressing age-related cataracts only beyond middle age. Two groups of 56 animals each were exposed, respectively, either to a daily range of 66-222 foot candles (FC) or to 1 FC of standard fluorescent lighting for a period beginning at 5 weeks of age and ending at 33.5 months (by which time approximately 65% of the colony had died). Contrary to previous reports involving albino rats or mice and a strain of pigmented but cataract-prone transgenic mice, the two groups of animals in this experiment did not differ for cataract development in time of first occurrence, rate of advancement, or degree of severity. It was concluded that genetic predisposition, based on levels of oxidative free radical production vs antioxidant enzyme and repair enzyme protection in the lens, was probably the major factor governing the rate and degree of age-related cataract development in these animals. The effect of relatively intense life-long fluorescent light exposure was so minimal as not to be manifested in this strain of mice under the conditions of this experiment. Remarkably, maintaining the one group of mice in semi-darkness from 5 weeks of age to beyond their mean lifespans did nothing to delay or reduce the incidence or severity of their age-related cataracts. PMID:11428861

  16. Effects of aging and involuntary capture of attention on event-related potentials associated with the processing of and the response to a target stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess whether aging modulates the effects of involuntary capture of attention by novel stimuli on performance, and on event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with target processing (N2b and P3b) and subsequent response processes (stimulus-locked Lateralized Readiness Potential -sLRP- and response-locked Lateralized Readiness Potential -rLRP-). An auditory-visual distraction-attention task was performed by 77 healthy participants, divided into three age groups (Young: 21–29, Middle-aged: 51–64, Old: 65–84 years old). Participants were asked to attend to visual stimuli and to ignore auditory stimuli. Aging was associated with slowed reaction times, target stimulus processing in working memory (WM, longer N2b and P3b latencies) and selection and preparation of the motor response (longer sLRP and earlier rLRP onset latencies). In the novel relative to the standard condition we observed, in the three age groups: (1) a distraction effect, reflected in a slowing of reaction times, of stimuli categorization in WM (longer P3b latency), and of motor response selection (longer sLRP onset latency); (2) a facilitation effect on response preparation (later rLRP onset latency), and (3) an increase in arousal (larger amplitudes of all ERPs evaluated, except for N2b amplitude in the Old group). A distraction effect on the stimulus evaluation processes (longer N2b latency) were also observed, but only in middle-aged and old participants, indicating that the attentional capture slows the stimulus evaluation in WM from early ages (from 50 years onwards, without differences between middle-age and older adults), but not in young adults. PMID:25294999

  17. Diverse age-related effects of Bacopa monnieri and donepezil in vitro on cytokine production, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intracellular targets in splenocytes of F344 male rats.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, Hannah P; Singh, Ran Vijay; Mishra, Miti; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2013-02-01

    Aged people are more prone to developing neurodegenerative and infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer due to impairment of neuroendocrine-immune functions. Neuronal degeneration and immunosuppression aided by increased generation of reactive oxygen species combined with loss of antioxidant enzyme activities promote the aging process. Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), an Ayurvedic herb, and donepezil, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, have been used to reverse cognitive dysfunctions in several neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro incubation of lymphocytes from spleens of young (3-month-old), early middle-aged (8- to 9-month-old), and old (18-month-old) F344 rats with brahmi (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 1%) and donepezil (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml) on Concanavalin (Con A)-induced proliferation of T lymphocytes and cytokine production, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. In addition, the effects of these compounds on the expression of intracellular signaling pathway markers (ERK, p-ERK, CREB, p-CREB, Akt and p-Akt), nitric oxide (NO) production, and the extent of lipid peroxidation were measured in the splenocytes. Age-related decline in Con A-induced proliferation of T lymphocytes was not reversed by treatment with brahmi and donepezil but donepezil alone further reduced the lymphocyte proliferation in young rats. Lower doses of brahmi treatment reversed the age-related decrease in Con A-induced IL-2 and IFN-γ production by the splenocytes while their production by splenocytes was suppressed by treatment with donepezil in the young and early middle-aged rats. An age-associated decline in the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST was evident in the lymphocytes of spleen. Brahmi enhanced CAT activity of lymphocytes in all the age groups while donepezil increased SOD

  18. Age-related changes in the effects of stress in pregnancy on infant motor development by maternal report: The Queensland Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Stapleton, Helen; Cobham, Vanessa; King, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of a natural disaster (a sudden onset flood) as a stressor in pregnancy on infant fine and gross motor development at 2, 6, and 16 months of age. Whether the timing of the stressor in pregnancy or sex of the infant moderated the impact of the prenatal maternal stress on motor development was also explored. Mothers' objective experiences of the flood, emotional reactions and distress, and their cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed retrospectively. Infants' fine and gross motor skills were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, and results showed age-related changes in the effects of prenatal maternal stress on these domains. At 2 months, higher levels of prenatal maternal stress was positively related to infant motor development, yet at 6 and 16 months of age there was a negative association, particularly if flood exposure occurred later in pregnancy and if mothers had negative cognitive appraisals of the event. Results also showed differential effects of the maternal stress responses to the floods on infants' fine and gross motor development at each age and that infant sex did not buffer these effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 640-659, 2016. PMID:27004939

  19. Effect of Normal Aging and of Mild Cognitive Impairment on Event-Related Potentials to a Stroop Color-Word Task.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Goicoa, Marta; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Díaz, Fernando; Zurrón, Montserrat

    2016-04-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 84 adults (51 to 87 years old) with the aim of exploring the effects of aging (middle-aged and older groups) and cognitive status (healthy or with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI) on the neural functioning associated with stimulus and response processing in a Stroop color-word task. An interference (or Stroop) effect was observed in the Reaction Time (RT), and the RT and number of errors results were consistent with the age-related decline in performance. Cognitive status did not affect the behavioral performance of the task, but age and cognitive status affected several ERP parameters. Aging was associated with a) slowing of the neural processing of the stimuli (P150, N2, and P3b latencies were longer), b) greater activation of the motor cortex for response preparation (LRP-R amplitude was larger), and c) use of more neural resources for cognitive control of stimuli (N2 amplitude was larger to the congruent and incongruent stimuli than to the colored X-strings, in the older group). Independent of age, aMCI dedicated more neural resources to processing the irrelevant dimension of the stimulus (they showed a greater difference than the control participants between the P3b amplitude to the colored X-strings and to the congruent/incongruent stimuli) and showed a deficit in the selection and preparation of the motor response (with smaller LRP-S and LRP-R amplitudes). Furthermore, the middle-aged aMCI participants evaluated and classified both congruent and incongruent stimuli more slowly (they showed longer P3b latencies) relative to middle-aged controls.

  20. Effect of Normal Aging and of Mild Cognitive Impairment on Event-Related Potentials to a Stroop Color-Word Task.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Goicoa, Marta; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Díaz, Fernando; Zurrón, Montserrat

    2016-04-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 84 adults (51 to 87 years old) with the aim of exploring the effects of aging (middle-aged and older groups) and cognitive status (healthy or with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI) on the neural functioning associated with stimulus and response processing in a Stroop color-word task. An interference (or Stroop) effect was observed in the Reaction Time (RT), and the RT and number of errors results were consistent with the age-related decline in performance. Cognitive status did not affect the behavioral performance of the task, but age and cognitive status affected several ERP parameters. Aging was associated with a) slowing of the neural processing of the stimuli (P150, N2, and P3b latencies were longer), b) greater activation of the motor cortex for response preparation (LRP-R amplitude was larger), and c) use of more neural resources for cognitive control of stimuli (N2 amplitude was larger to the congruent and incongruent stimuli than to the colored X-strings, in the older group). Independent of age, aMCI dedicated more neural resources to processing the irrelevant dimension of the stimulus (they showed a greater difference than the control participants between the P3b amplitude to the colored X-strings and to the congruent/incongruent stimuli) and showed a deficit in the selection and preparation of the motor response (with smaller LRP-S and LRP-R amplitudes). Furthermore, the middle-aged aMCI participants evaluated and classified both congruent and incongruent stimuli more slowly (they showed longer P3b latencies) relative to middle-aged controls. PMID:27079705

  1. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of nutritional supplementation on visual function in normal, and age-related macular disease affected eyes: design and methodology [ISRCTN78467674

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Hannah; Eperjesi, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Background Age-related macular disease is the leading cause of blind registration in the developed world. One aetiological hypothesis involves oxidation, and the intrinsic vulnerability of the retina to damage via this process. This has prompted interest in the role of antioxidants, particularly the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, in the prevention and treatment of this eye disease. Methods The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to determine the effect of a nutritional supplement containing lutein, vitamins A, C and E, zinc, and copper on measures of visual function in people with and without age-related macular disease. Outcome measures are distance and near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, colour vision, macular visual field, glare recovery, and fundus photography. Randomisation is achieved via a random number generator, and masking achieved by third party coding of the active and placebo containers. Data collection will take place at nine and 18 months, and statistical analysis will employ Student's t test. Discussion A paucity of treatment modalities for age-related macular disease has prompted research into the development of prevention strategies. A positive effect on normals may be indicative of a role of nutritional supplementation in preventing or delaying onset of the condition. An observed benefit in the age-related macular disease group may indicate a potential role of supplementation in prevention of progression, or even a degree reversal of the visual effects caused by this condition. PMID:14594455

  2. Metabonomics evaluations of age-related changes in the urinary compositions of male Sprague Dawley rats and effects of data normalization methods on statistical and quantitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schnackenberg, Laura K; Sun, Jinchun; Espandiari, Parvaneh; Holland, Ricky D; Hanig, Joseph; Beger, Richard D

    2007-01-01

    Background Urine from male Sprague-Dawley rats 25, 40, and 80 days old was analyzed by NMR and UPLC/MS. The effects of data normalization procedures on principal component analysis (PCA) and quantitative analysis of NMR-based metabonomics data were investigated. Additionally, the effects of age on the metabolic profiles were examined by both NMR and UPLC/MS analyses. Results The data normalization factor was shown to have a great impact on the statistical and quantitative results indicating the need to carefully consider how to best normalize the data within a particular study and when comparing different studies. PCA applied to the data obtained from both NMR and UPLC/MS platforms reveals similar age-related differences. NMR indicated many metabolites associated with the Krebs cycle decrease while citrate and 2-oxoglutarate, also associated with the Krebs cycle, increase in older rats. Conclusion This study compared four different normalization methods for the NMR-based metabonomics spectra from an age-related study. It was shown that each method of normalization has a great effect on both the statistical and quantitative analyses. Each normalization method resulted in altered relative positions of significant PCA loadings for each sample spectra but it did not alter which chemical shifts had the highest loadings. The greater the normalization factor was related to age, the greater the separation between age groups was observed in subsequent PCA analyses. The normalization factor that showed the least age dependence was total NMR intensity, which was consistent with UPLC/MS data. Normalization by total intensity attempts to make corrections due to dietary and water intake of the individual animal, which is especially useful in metabonomics evaluations of urine. Additionally, metabonomics evaluations of age-related effects showed decreased concentrations of many Krebs cycle intermediates along with increased levels of oxidized antioxidants in urine of older rats

  3. Age-related preferences and age weighting health benefits.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the relevance of age in the paradigm of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The first section outlines two rationales for incorporating age weights into QALYs. One of them is based on efficiency concerns; and the other on equity concerns. Both of these are theoretical constructs. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of published empirical support for such age weighting. The second section is a brief survey of nine empirical studies that elicited age-related preferences from the general public. Six of these quantified the strength of the preferences, and these are discussed in more detail in the third section. The analysis distinguishes three kinds of age-related preference: productivity ageism, utilitarian ageism and egalitarian ageism. The relationship between them and their relevance to the two different rationales for age weighting are then explored. It is concluded that, although there is strong prima facie evidence of public support for both types of age weighting, the empirical evidence to support any particular set of weights is at present weak. PMID:10048783

  4. Nocturnal hyperthermia induced by social stress in male tree shrews: relation to low testosterone and effects of age.

    PubMed

    Kohlhause, Susan; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Schlumbohm, Christina; Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele

    2011-10-24

    Stress is known to elevate core body temperature (CBT). We recorded CBT in a diurnal animal, the male tree shrew, during a one-week control period and a one-week period of social stress using a telemetric system. During the stress period, when animals were confronted with a dominant male for about 1h daily, CBT was increased throughout the day. We analyzed CBT during the night when animals were left undisturbed and displayed no locomotor activity. To determine whether nocturnal hyperthermia may be related to stress-induced changes in hormonal status, we measured testosterone, noradrenalin and cortisol in the animals' morning urine. The daily social stress increased the mean nocturnal temperature by 0.37 °C. Urinary testosterone was reduced during the stress period, and there was a significant negative correlation between testosterone and the area under the curve (AUC) of the nocturnal CBT. This means that stress-induced hyperthermia was strongest in the animals with the lowest testosterone concentrations. As expected, urinary noradrenalin was elevated during the stress week but a positive correlation with the AUC data was only found for animals younger than 12 months. Cortisol was also increased during the stress week but there were no correlations with nocturnal hyperthermia. However, the stress-induced increases in noradrenalin and cortisol correlated with each other. Furthermore, there were no correlations between the stress-induced increase in nocturnal CBT and body weight reduction or locomotor activity during the light phase. Interestingly, the extent of nocturnal hyperthermia depended on the animals' ages: In animals younger than 12 months, stress increased the AUC by 48%, in animals aged between 12 and 24 months, stress increased the AUC by 36%, and older animals showed only a 7% increase. However, testosterone was not significantly reduced in the older animals. The present data reveal an interrelation between the extent of stress-induced nocturnal

  5. X-82 to Treat Age-related Macular Degeneration

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD); Macular Degeneration; Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration; AMD; Macular Degeneration, Age-related, 10; Eye Diseases; Retinal Degeneration; Retinal Diseases

  6. Curcumin, inflammation, ageing and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Sikora, E; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Mario

    2010-01-17

    A Symposium regarding the Pathophysiology of Successful and Unsuccessful Ageing was held in Palermo, Italy between April 7 and 8th 2009. Here the lecture by Sikora with some input from the chairpersons Scapagnini and Barbagallo is summarized. Ageing is manifested by the decreasing health status and increasing probability to acquire age-related disease such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, metabolic disorders and others. They are likely caused by low grade inflammation driven by oxygen stress and manifested by the increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, encoded by genes activated by the transcription factor NF-kappaB. It is believed that ageing is plastic and can be slowed down by caloric restriction as well as by some nutraceuticals. Accordingly, slowing down ageing and postponing the onset of age-related diseases might be achieved by blocking the NF-kappaB-dependent inflammation. In this review we consider the possibility of the spice curcumin, a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent possibly capable of improving the health status of the elderly.

  7. Translational strategies in aging and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Armanios, Mary; de Cabo, Rafael; Mannick, Joan; Partridge, Linda; van Deursen, Jan; Villeda, Saul

    2015-12-01

    Aging is a risk factor for several of the world's most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Although our understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to the aging process and age-related disease is progressing through the use of model organisms, how to apply this knowledge in the clinic is less clear. In September, Nature Medicine, in collaboration with the Volkswagen Foundation, hosted a conference at the beautiful Herrenhausen Palace in Hannover, Germany with the goal of broadening our understanding of the aging process and its meaning as a 'risk factor' in disease. Here, several of the speakers at that conference answer questions posed by Nature Medicine.

  8. Translational strategies in aging and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Armanios, Mary; de Cabo, Rafael; Mannick, Joan; Partridge, Linda; van Deursen, Jan; Villeda, Saul

    2015-12-01

    Aging is a risk factor for several of the world's most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Although our understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to the aging process and age-related disease is progressing through the use of model organisms, how to apply this knowledge in the clinic is less clear. In September, Nature Medicine, in collaboration with the Volkswagen Foundation, hosted a conference at the beautiful Herrenhausen Palace in Hannover, Germany with the goal of broadening our understanding of the aging process and its meaning as a 'risk factor' in disease. Here, several of the speakers at that conference answer questions posed by Nature Medicine. PMID:26646495

  9. [Depression in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration].

    PubMed

    Narváez, Yamile Reveiz; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a cause for disability in the elderly since it greatly affects their quality of life and increases depression likelihood. This article discusses the negative effect depression has on patients with age-related macular degeneration and summarizes the interventions available for decreasing their depression index. PMID:26572116

  10. [Depression in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration].

    PubMed

    Narváez, Yamile Reveiz; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a cause for disability in the elderly since it greatly affects their quality of life and increases depression likelihood. This article discusses the negative effect depression has on patients with age-related macular degeneration and summarizes the interventions available for decreasing their depression index.

  11. Medical bioremediation of age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Jacques M; Schloendorn, John; Rittmann, Bruce E; Alvarez, Pedro JJ

    2009-01-01

    Catabolic insufficiency in humans leads to the gradual accumulation of a number of pathogenic compounds associated with age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and macular degeneration. Removal of these compounds is a widely researched therapeutic option, but the use of antibodies and endogenous human enzymes has failed to produce effective treatments, and may pose risks to cellular homeostasis. Another alternative is "medical bioremediation," the use of microbial enzymes to augment missing catabolic functions. The microbial genetic diversity in most natural environments provides a resource that can be mined for enzymes capable of degrading just about any energy-rich organic compound. This review discusses targets for biodegradation, the identification of candidate microbial enzymes, and enzyme-delivery methods. PMID:19358742

  12. Age related changes in age of starting to smoke.

    PubMed

    Weinkam, J J; Sterling, T D

    1990-01-01

    The Average Age of Starting to Smoke (AASS) has been reported to decline for younger birth cohorts. That apparent decline has been used to support a conclusion of an increase in smoking among younger individuals. However, in some cases the apparent decline is an artifact of the method of computation which arises when the quantity being averaged is related to a quantity used to classify subjects for comparison. In one other case, a second type of error arises because the distribution of smoking initiation with age changed in such a way that the proportion of individuals taking up smoking at older ages declined more rapidly than the proportion starting at younger ages. In fact, comparison of the 1970 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to the 1979/80 NHIS shows a uniform decrease in starting to smoke among teens and preteens. Examples are discussed which show that estimates of possible disease related factors actually experienced by a cohort are possible only if other suitable data are available for comparable representative sections of the population at different time periods and for different ages.

  13. Age related changes in age of starting to smoke.

    PubMed

    Weinkam, J J; Sterling, T D

    1990-01-01

    The Average Age of Starting to Smoke (AASS) has been reported to decline for younger birth cohorts. That apparent decline has been used to support a conclusion of an increase in smoking among younger individuals. However, in some cases the apparent decline is an artifact of the method of computation which arises when the quantity being averaged is related to a quantity used to classify subjects for comparison. In one other case, a second type of error arises because the distribution of smoking initiation with age changed in such a way that the proportion of individuals taking up smoking at older ages declined more rapidly than the proportion starting at younger ages. In fact, comparison of the 1970 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to the 1979/80 NHIS shows a uniform decrease in starting to smoke among teens and preteens. Examples are discussed which show that estimates of possible disease related factors actually experienced by a cohort are possible only if other suitable data are available for comparable representative sections of the population at different time periods and for different ages. PMID:2303843

  14. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations. PMID:22705444

  15. Are age-related differences between young and older adults in an affective working memory test sensitive to the music effects?

    PubMed

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo; Nucci, Massimo; Sciore, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM) Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words), are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults' performance in WM, we examined whether listening to music could enhance the benefit of emotional material, with respect to neutral words, on WM performance decreasing the age-related difference between younger and older adults. In particular, the effect of two types of music (Mozart vs. Albinoni), which differ in tempo, arousal and mood induction, on age-related differences in an affective version of the Operation WM Span task was analyzed. Results showed no effect of music on the WM test regardless of the emotional content of the music (Mozart vs. Albinoni). However, a valence effect for the words in the WM task was found with a higher number of negative words recalled with respect to positive and neutral ones in both younger and older adults. When individual differences in terms of accuracy in the processing phase of the Operation Span task were considered, only younger low-performing participants were affected by the type music, with the Albinoni condition that lowered their performance with respect to the Mozart condition. Such a result suggests that individual differences in WM performance, at least when young adults are considered, could be affected by the type of music. Altogether, these findings suggest that complex span tasks, such as WM tasks, along with age-related differences are not sensitive to music effects. PMID:25426064

  16. Are age-related differences between young and older adults in an affective working memory test sensitive to the music effects?

    PubMed

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo; Nucci, Massimo; Sciore, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM) Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words), are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults' performance in WM, we examined whether listening to music could enhance the benefit of emotional material, with respect to neutral words, on WM performance decreasing the age-related difference between younger and older adults. In particular, the effect of two types of music (Mozart vs. Albinoni), which differ in tempo, arousal and mood induction, on age-related differences in an affective version of the Operation WM Span task was analyzed. Results showed no effect of music on the WM test regardless of the emotional content of the music (Mozart vs. Albinoni). However, a valence effect for the words in the WM task was found with a higher number of negative words recalled with respect to positive and neutral ones in both younger and older adults. When individual differences in terms of accuracy in the processing phase of the Operation Span task were considered, only younger low-performing participants were affected by the type music, with the Albinoni condition that lowered their performance with respect to the Mozart condition. Such a result suggests that individual differences in WM performance, at least when young adults are considered, could be affected by the type of music. Altogether, these findings suggest that complex span tasks, such as WM tasks, along with age-related differences are not sensitive to music effects.

  17. Are age-related differences between young and older adults in an affective working memory test sensitive to the music effects?

    PubMed Central

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo; Nucci, Massimo; Sciore, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM) Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words), are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults’ performance in WM, we examined whether listening to music could enhance the benefit of emotional material, with respect to neutral words, on WM performance decreasing the age-related difference between younger and older adults. In particular, the effect of two types of music (Mozart vs. Albinoni), which differ in tempo, arousal and mood induction, on age-related differences in an affective version of the Operation WM Span task was analyzed. Results showed no effect of music on the WM test regardless of the emotional content of the music (Mozart vs. Albinoni). However, a valence effect for the words in the WM task was found with a higher number of negative words recalled with respect to positive and neutral ones in both younger and older adults. When individual differences in terms of accuracy in the processing phase of the Operation Span task were considered, only younger low-performing participants were affected by the type music, with the Albinoni condition that lowered their performance with respect to the Mozart condition. Such a result suggests that individual differences in WM performance, at least when young adults are considered, could be affected by the type of music. Altogether, these findings suggest that complex span tasks, such as WM tasks, along with age-related differences are not sensitive to music effects. PMID:25426064

  18. Age-related consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zaepfel, Alysia; Bjornstad, Petter; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2014-01-01

    The severity and frequency of childhood obesity has increased significantly over the past three to four decades. The health effects of increased body mass index as a child may significantly impact obese youth as they age. However, many of the long-term outcomes of childhood obesity have yet to be studied. This article examines the currently available longitudinal data evaluating the effects of childhood obesity on adult outcomes. Consequences of obesity include an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and its associated retinal and renal complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, asthma, orthopedic complications, psychiatric disease, and increased rates of cancer, among others. These disorders can start as early as childhood, and such early onset increases the likelihood of early morbidity and mortality. Being obese as a child also increases the likelihood of being obese as an adult, and obesity in adulthood also leads to obesity-related complications. This review outlines the evidence for childhood obesity as a predictor of adult obesity and obesity-related disorders, thereby emphasizing the importance of early intervention to prevent the onset of obesity in childhood. PMID:24434909

  19. Age-related consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zaepfel, Alysia; Bjornstad, Petter; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2014-01-01

    The severity and frequency of childhood obesity has increased significantly over the past three to four decades. The health effects of increased body mass index as a child may significantly impact obese youth as they age. However, many of the long-term outcomes of childhood obesity have yet to be studied. This article examines the currently available longitudinal data evaluating the effects of childhood obesity on adult outcomes. Consequences of obesity include an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and its associated retinal and renal complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, asthma, orthopedic complications, psychiatric disease, and increased rates of cancer, among others. These disorders can start as early as childhood, and such early onset increases the likelihood of early morbidity and mortality. Being obese as a child also increases the likelihood of being obese as an adult, and obesity in adulthood also leads to obesity-related complications. This review outlines the evidence for childhood obesity as a predictor of adult obesity and obesity-related disorders, thereby emphasizing the importance of early intervention to prevent the onset of obesity in childhood.

  20. Gender Relations and Applied Research on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-01-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…

  1. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments

  2. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments.

  3. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions

    PubMed Central

    De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; De Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I]) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]). We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total). Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation), in the middle (after 24 sessions), and at the end (after 48 sessions) of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion, language tests should be routinely adopted in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects, and long-term-care institutions need to include regular sensorimotor, social, and cognitive stimulation as a public health policy for elderly persons. PMID:24600211

  4. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; De Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I]) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]). We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total). Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation), in the middle (after 24 sessions), and at the end (after 48 sessions) of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion, language tests should be routinely adopted in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects, and long-term-care institutions need to include regular sensorimotor, social, and cognitive stimulation as a public health policy for elderly persons. PMID:24600211

  5. Effects of intermittent fasting on age-related changes on Na,K-ATPase activity and oxidative status induced by lipopolysaccharide in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Kinoshita, Paula Fernanda; Yshii, Lidia Mitiko; Marques Orellana, Ana Maria; Böhmer, Ana Elisa; de Sá Lima, Larissa; Alves, Rosana; Andreotti, Diana Zukas; Marcourakis, Tania; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2015-05-01

    Chronic neuroinflammation is a common characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling is linked to glutamate-nitric oxide-Na,K-ATPase isoforms pathway in central nervous system (CNS) and also causes neuroinflammation. Intermittent fasting (IF) induces adaptive responses in the brain that can suppress inflammation, but the age-related effect of IF on LPS modulatory influence on nitric oxide-Na,K-ATPase isoforms is unknown. This work compared the effects of LPS on the activity of α1,α2,3 Na,K-ATPase, nitric oxide synthase gene expression and/or activity, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, 3-nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in CNS of young and older rats submitted to the IF protocol for 30 days. LPS induced an age-related effect in neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in rat hippocampus that was linked to changes in α2,3-Na,K-ATPase activity, 3-nitrotyrosine proteins, and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression. IF induced adaptative cellular stress-response signaling pathways reverting LPS effects in rat hippocampus of young and older rats. The results suggest that IF in both ages would reduce the risk for deficits on brain function and neurodegenerative disorders linked to inflammatory response in the CNS. PMID:25818175

  6. Age related diastolic function in amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Amato; Alvino, Federico; Antonelli, Giovanni; Cassano, Francesco Emmanuel; De Vito, Raffaella; Cameli, Matteo; Mondillo, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    Diastolic function get worse with increasing age. Aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aerobic training on diastolic function with increasing age with speckle tracking echocardiography. We enrolled 125 amateur swimmers (AG), divided in three groups at increasing age: young athletes, adult athletes (AG2), old athletes (AG3). We enrolled 95 sedentary controls (SG) age-matched with athletes and divided into three groups: young sedentary group, adult sedentary group (SG2) and old sedentary group (SG3). AG had better diastolic function than SG. AG showed lower left ventricular twist than controls. E/A ratio got worse at increasing of age in all population (r = -0.34; p < 0.001); particularly in SG2 and SG3 there was a worsening of diastolic function respect to diastolic function of AG2 and AG3; in fact E/A ratio decreased with aging. Furthermore in SG E/A ratio showed a linear correlation with age (r = -0.54; p < 0.001); in AG this correlation was lost. Therefore the training and age were independent predictor of E/A (respectively β = -0.27; p = 0.004; β = -0.24, p = 0.008). Regular and aerobic training may minimize aging changes of diastolic function. This training-effect may play a key role to preserve diastolic filling in older athletes. PMID:25795025

  7. Audience Design and Social Relations in Aging.

    PubMed

    Keller-Cohen, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    This study asks two questions: (1) Do older adults modify their language based on age of the listener (audience design)? (2) Does social contact affect audience design in older adults? Older adults (n = 34; mean age = 82) engaged in an instructions task with two fictive listeners (a child and an adult) to test these questions. Results show that older adults used a greater total number of propositions and rapport-building devices and a lower type-token ratio when giving instructions to the child compared to the adult listener. Adults with more social interactions used more propositions when talking to a child. In addition, satisfaction with interactions was significantly positively related to task-tracking devices and negatively related to rapport-building devices by older adults. These results suggest that audience design and social relations are worth further study in language maintenance in older age. PMID:25651591

  8. Age-dependent effects of esculetin on mood-related behavior and cognition from stressed mice are associated with restoring brain antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Martín-Aragón, Sagrario; Villar, Ángel; Benedí, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dietary antioxidants might exert an important role in the aging process by relieving oxidative damage, a likely cause of age-associated brain dysfunctions. This study aims to investigate the influence of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin), a naturally occurring antioxidant in the diet, on mood-related behaviors and cognitive function and its relation with age and brain oxidative damage. Behavioral tests were employed in 11-, 17- and 22-month-old male C57BL/6J mice upon an oral 35day-esculetin treatment (25mg/kg). Activity of antioxidant enzymes, GSH and GSSG levels, GSH/GSSG ratio, and mitochondrial function were analyzed in brain cortex at the end of treatment in order to assess the oxidative status related to mouse behavior. Esculetin treatment attenuated the increased immobility time and enhanced the diminished climbing time in the forced swim task elicited by acute restraint stress (ARS) in the 11- and 17-month-old mice versus their counterpart controls. Furthermore, ARS caused an impairment of contextual memory in the step-through passive avoidance both in mature adult and aged mice which was partially reversed by esculetin only in the 11-month-old mice. Esculetin was effective to prevent the ARS-induced oxidative stress mostly in mature adult mice by restoring antioxidant enzyme activities, augmenting the GSH/GSSG ratio and increasing cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in cortex. Modulation of the mood-related behavior and cognitive function upon esculetin treatment in a mouse model of ARS depends on age and is partly due to the enhancement of redox status and levels of COX activity in cortex.

  9. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. PMID:26370651

  10. Phylogeny of Aging and Related Phenoptotic Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Libertini, G

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of aging as adaptive, i.e. as a phenomenon genetically determined and modulated, and with an evolutionary advantage, implies that aging, as any physiologic mechanism, must have phylogenetic connections with similar phenomena. This review tries to find the phylogenetic connections between vertebrate aging and some related phenomena in other species, especially within those phenomena defined as phenoptotic, i.e. involving the death of one or more individuals for the benefit of other individuals. In particular, the aim of the work is to highlight and analyze similarities and connections, in the mechanisms and in the evolutionary causes, between: (i) proapoptosis in prokaryotes and apoptosis in unicellular eukaryotes; (ii) apoptosis in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes; (iii) aging in yeast and in vertebrates; and (iv) the critical importance of the DNA subtelomeric segment in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. In short, there is strong evidence that vertebrate aging has clear similarities and connections with phenomena present in organisms with simpler organization. These phylogenetic connections are a necessary element for the sustainability of the thesis of aging explained as an adaptive phenomenon, and, on the contrary, are incompatible with the opposite view of aging as being due to the accumulation of random damages of various kinds.

  11. Phylogeny of Aging and Related Phenoptotic Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Libertini, G

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of aging as adaptive, i.e. as a phenomenon genetically determined and modulated, and with an evolutionary advantage, implies that aging, as any physiologic mechanism, must have phylogenetic connections with similar phenomena. This review tries to find the phylogenetic connections between vertebrate aging and some related phenomena in other species, especially within those phenomena defined as phenoptotic, i.e. involving the death of one or more individuals for the benefit of other individuals. In particular, the aim of the work is to highlight and analyze similarities and connections, in the mechanisms and in the evolutionary causes, between: (i) proapoptosis in prokaryotes and apoptosis in unicellular eukaryotes; (ii) apoptosis in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes; (iii) aging in yeast and in vertebrates; and (iv) the critical importance of the DNA subtelomeric segment in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. In short, there is strong evidence that vertebrate aging has clear similarities and connections with phenomena present in organisms with simpler organization. These phylogenetic connections are a necessary element for the sustainability of the thesis of aging explained as an adaptive phenomenon, and, on the contrary, are incompatible with the opposite view of aging as being due to the accumulation of random damages of various kinds. PMID:26638678

  12. Developing a Correction to Remove Systematic Bias in U-Pb LA-ICP-MS Zircon Ages Related to Zircon "Matrix Effects"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, W. A.; Angelo, T. V.; Guest, B.

    2014-12-01

    For more than a decade the occurrence of systematic discrepancies between the U-Pb ages of zircons determined by LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS has been acknowledged. Trace element concentrations, crystallographic orientation and damage to the crystal lattice by radioactive decay have all been cited as possible causes for the discrepancy termed the "matrix effect". Recent studies have concluded that differences in Laser Induced Elemental Fractionation (LIEF) between zircon reference materials results from variations in the ablation rate between the primary reference, which is used to build a model for LIEF during data reduction, and the unknowns. These variations are likely related to physical differences in the crystal lattice caused by alpha particle ejection. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the ablation rate for ~200 individual ablation pits in a variety of reference materials using an optical profilometer. Our data demonstrate a clear relationship between delta age (the difference between the age calculated by LA-ICP-MS and the accepted ID-TIMS age, expressed as a percentage) and ablation rate. The relationship between calculated alpha dosage for each ablation and delta age is less clear. This suggests that the zircon's thermal history may play an important role in controlling ablation rate through annealing of crystal lattice defects. However, alpha dosage is readily quantifiable during routine zircon U-Pb analyses and therefore its relationship to delta age may provide a useful first order correction to remove systematic biases from U-Pb ages. Raman spectroscopy could provide a more robust measure of radiation damage in the zircon lattice and could help to refine our understanding of the processes involved.

  13. Age-related impairments in skeletal muscle PDH phosphorylation and plasma lactate are indicative of metabolic inflexibility and the effects of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Consitt, Leslie A; Saxena, Gunjan; Saneda, Alicson; Houmard, Joseph A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether plasma lactate and skeletal muscle glucose regulatory pathways, specifically PDH dephosphorylation, are impaired during hyperinsulinemic conditions in middle- to older-aged individuals and determine whether exercise training could improve key variables responsible for skeletal muscle PDH regulation. Eighteen young (19-29 yr; n = 9 males and 9 females) and 20 middle- to older-aged (57-82 yr; n = 10 males and 10 females) individuals underwent a 2-h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Plasma samples were obtained at baseline and at 30, 50, 90, and 120 min for analysis of lactate, and skeletal muscle biopsies were performed at 60 min for analysis of protein associated with glucose metabolism. In response to insulin, plasma lactate was elevated in aged individuals when normalized to insulin action. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of skeletal muscle PDH on serine sites 232, 293, and 300 decreased in young individuals only. Changes in insulin-stimulated PDH phosphorylation were positively related to changes in plasma lactate. No age-related differences were observed in skeletal muscle phosphorylation of LDH, GSK-3α, or GSK-3β in response to insulin or PDP1, PDP2, PDK2, PDK4, or MPC1 total protein. Twelve weeks of endurance- or strength-oriented exercise training improved insulin-stimulated PDH dephosphorylation, which was related to a reduced lactate response. These findings suggest that impairments in insulin-induced PDH regulation in a sedentary aging population contribute to impaired glucose metabolism and that exercise training is an effective intervention for treating metabolic inflexibility. PMID:27221120

  14. Depression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casten, Robin; Rovner, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of disability in the elderly, substantially degrades the quality of their lives, and is a risk factor for depression. Rates of depression in AMD are substantially greater than those found in the general population of older people, and are on par with those of other chronic and disabling…

  15. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety,…

  16. Statistical physics of age related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Family, Fereydoon; Mazzitello, K. I.; Arizmendi, C. M.; Grossniklaus, H. E.

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness beyond the age of 50 years. The most common pathogenic mechanism that leads to AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV is produced by accumulation of residual material caused by aging of retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). The RPE is a phagocytic system that is essential for renewal of photoreceptors (rods and cones). With time, incompletely degraded membrane material builds up in the form of lipofuscin. Lipofuscin is made of free-radical-damaged protein and fat, which forms not only in AMD, but also Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. The study of lipofuscin formation and growth is important, because of their association with cellular aging. We introduce a model of non-equilibrium cluster growth and aggregation that we have developed for studying the formation and growth of lipofuscin in the aging RPE. Our results agree with a linear growth of the number of lipofuscin granules with age. We apply the dynamic scaling approach to our model and find excellent data collapse for the cluster size distribution. An unusual feature of our model is that while small particles are removed from the RPE the larger ones become fixed and grow by aggregation.

  17. The age of astronomy-related organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.

    1999-03-01

    The age of currently active astronomy-related organizations is investigated from comprehensive and up-to-date samples. Results for professional institutions, associations, planetariums, and public observatories are commented, as well as specific distributions for astronomy-related publishers and software producers. Some events had a clear impact on the rate of foundation of astronomy-related organizations, such as World War I and II, the beginning of space exploration and the landing of man on the Moon, but not all of them affected in the same way Western Europe and North America. It is still premature to assess the impact of the end of the Cold War. A category such as the software producers would of course not exist nor prosper without the advent of the computer age and the subsequent electronic networking of the planet. Other aspects are discussed in the paper.

  18. Effects of Age and Sex on Values Obtained by RAPDx® Pupillometer, and Determined the Standard Values for Detecting Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect

    PubMed Central

    Satou, Tsukasa; Goseki, Toshiaki; Asakawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of age and sex on the amplitude and latency scores obtained by the RAPDx® pupillometer, and to determine the standard values for detecting relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in healthy subjects. Methods The study was conducted on 84 healthy subjects (52 males, 32 females), who had no ophthalmic diseases other than refractive errors with a mean age of 32 years. The amplitude and latency scores of the males were compared to that of females and also among the different age groups. The correlations between the amplitude and latency scores and age were determined. The standard values with the 90%, 95%, and 99% prediction intervals of the measured values were also calculated. Results The differences in the amplitude and latency scores between the sexes were not significant. In addition, both scores were not significantly related with age. The mean amplitude score for all subjects with prediction intervals of 90%, 95%, and 99% was 0.02 (−0.26 to 0.30, −0.32 to 0.35, and −0.42 to 0.46, respectively); the latency score was −0.02 (−0.24 to 0.20, −0.28 to 0.25, and −0.37 to 0.33, respectively). Conclusions RAPD is not present when the absolute values of the amplitude score and latency scores, measured by the RAPDx® pupillometer, are ≤ 0.2 log units. RAPD is present when either of the values are ≥ 0.5 log units. Translational Relevance Results of this study can be used for detection of RAPD in the clinic and it will be the basic data of RAPDx® pupillometer for future research. PMID:27152248

  19. Effect of Alzheimer's Disease Risk Variant rs3824968 at SORL1 on Regional Gray Matter Volume and Age-Related Interaction in Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chu-Chung; Liu, Mu-En; Kao, Hung-Wen; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Yang, Albert C.; Wang, Ying-Hsiu; Chen, Tong-Ru; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Lin, Ching-Po

    2016-01-01

    Sortilin receptor 1 (SORL1) is involved in cellular trafficking of amyloid precursor protein and plays an essential role in amyloid-beta peptide generation in Alzheimer disease (AD). The major A allele in a SORL1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs3824968, is associated with an increased AD risk. However, the role of SORL1 rs3824968 in the normal ageing process has rarely been examined in relation to brain structural morphology. This study investigated the association between SORL1 rs3824968 and grey matter (GM) volume in a nondemented Chinese population of 318 adults within a wide age range (21–92 years). Through voxel-based morphometry, we found that participants carrying SORL1 allele A exhibited significantly smaller GM volumes in the right posterior cingulate, left middle occipital, medial frontal, and superior temporal gyri. Considerable interaction between age and SORL1 suggested a detrimental and accelerated ageing effect of allele A on putamen. These findings provide evidence that SORL1 rs3824968 modulates regional GM volume and is associated with brain trajectory during the adult lifespan. PMID:26996954

  20. The effects of providing lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback on community college smokers' perceived smoking-related health risks, worries and desire to quit.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of providing lung age, as assessed via a lung function test (spirometry), and respiratory symptoms feedback on college smokers' perceived smoking-related risks, worries and desire to quit. We also investigated whether smokers reacted defensively to this feedback. One hundred and twenty-four smokers were randomized to either receive lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback (intervention group) or a brochure containing facts about smoking only (control group). Perceived risks, worries and desire to quit did not differ between groups. In both groups, worries, but not perceived risks, were correlated with a stronger desire to quit. With increasing lung age, smokers rated the feedback as less relevant and reported exerting less effort breathing in and out while undergoing spirometry. The latter two outcomes were associated with less worry. These findings suggest that lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback does not translate readily into appreciable changes in motivation to quit as well as do other often reported mediators of change (e.g., perceived risks and worries). PMID:16824688

  1. [Age-related changes of the brain].

    PubMed

    Paltsyn, A A; Komissarova, S V

    2015-01-01

    The first morphological signs of aging of the brain are found in the white matter already at a young age (20-40 years), and later (40-50 years) in a gray matter. After the 40-50 years appear and in subsequently are becoming more pronounced functional manifestations of morphological changes: the weakening of sensory-motor and cognitive abilities. While in principle this dynamic of age-related changes is inevitable, the rate of their development to a large extent determined by the genetic characteristics and lifestyle of the individual. According to modem concepts age-related changes in the number of nerve cells are different in different parts of the brain. However, these changes are not large and are not the main cause of senile decline brain. The main processes that contribute to the degradation of the brain develop as in the bodies of neurons and in neuropil. In the bodies of neurons--it is a damage (usually decrease) of the level of expression of many genes, and especially of the genes determining cell communication. In neuropil: reduction in the number of synapses and the strength of synaptic connections, reduction in the number of dendritic spines and axonal buttons, reduction in the number and thickness of the dendritic branches, demyelination of axons. As the result of these events, it becomes a violation of the rate of formation and rebuilding neuronal circuits. It is deplete associative ability, brain plasticity, and memory. PMID:27116888

  2. Glycation: the angiogenic paradox in aging and age-related disorders and diseases.

    PubMed

    Roca, F; Grossin, N; Chassagne, P; Puisieux, F; Boulanger, E

    2014-05-01

    Angiogenesis is generally a quiescent process which, however, may be modified by different physiological and pathological conditions. The "angiogenic paradox" has been described in diabetes because this disease impairs the angiogenic response in a manner that differs depending on the organs involved and disease evolution. Aging is also associated with pro- and antiangiogenic processes. Glycation, the post-translational modification of proteins, increases with aging and the progression of diabetes. The effect of glycation on angiogenesis depends on the type of glycated proteins and cells involved. This complex link could be responsible for the "angiogenic paradox" in aging and age-related disorders and diseases. Using diabetes as a model, the present work has attempted to review the age-related angiogenic paradox, in particular the effects of glycation on angiogenesis during aging.

  3. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  4. Syntactic processing with aging: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Kemmer, Laura; Coulson, Seana; De Ochoa, Esmeralda; Kutas, Marta

    2004-05-01

    To assess age-related changes in simple syntactic processing with normal aging, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by grammatical number violations as individuals read sentences for comprehension were analyzed. Violations were found to elicit a P600 of equal amplitude and latency regardless of an individual's age. Instead, advancing age was associated with a change in the scalp distribution of the P600 effect, being less asymmetric and more frontal (though still with a parietal maximum) in older than younger adults. Our results thus show that the brain's response to simple syntactic violations, unlike those reported for simple binary categorizations and simple semantic violations, is neither slowed nor diminished in amplitude by age. At the same time, the brain's processing of these grammatical number violations did engage at least somewhat different brain regions as a function of age, suggesting a qualitative change rather than any simple quantitative change in speed of processing.

  5. [Epidemiology of age related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Leveziel, N; Delcourt, C; Zerbib, J; Dollfus, H; Kaplan, J; Benlian, P; Coscas, G; Souied, E H; Soubrane, G

    2009-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a multifactorial and polygenic disease and is the main cause of vision loss in developed countries. The environmental factors of ARMD can modify prevalence and incidence of this disease. This article is a review of the main environmental factors currently recognized as at risk or protective factor for ARMD. Modification of these factors is of crucial importance because it could delay the onset of exudative or atrophic forms of the disease. PMID:19515460

  6. The Effects of Math Anxiety on Post-Secondary Developmental Students as Related to Achievement, Gender, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Having taught developmental mathematics for a number of years, the author is keenly aware of the effects of math anxiety on developmental math students. Math-anxious students complain of such things as nervousness, inability to concentrate, a blank mind, and a feeling of sickness when they are confronted with taking a math test. Math anxiety is…

  7. Age Effects and Temporal Trends in HPV-Related and HPV-Unrelated Oral Cancer in the United States: A Multistage Carcinogenesis Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Andrew F; Eisenberg, Marisa C; Meza, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Differences in prognosis in HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral (oropharyngeal and oral cavity) squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and increasing incidence of HPV-related cancers have spurred interest in demographic and temporal trends in OSCC incidence. We leverage multistage clonal expansion (MSCE) models coupled with age-period-cohort (APC) epidemiological models to analyze OSCC data in the SEER cancer registry (1973-2012). MSCE models are based on the initiation-promotion-malignant conversion paradigm in carcinogenesis and allow for interpretation of trends in terms of biological mechanisms. APC models seek to differentiate between the temporal effects of age, period, and birth cohort on cancer risk. Previous studies have looked at the effect of period and cohort on tumor initiation, and we extend this to compare model fits of period and cohort effects on each of tumor initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion rates. HPV-related, HPV-unrelated except oral tongue, and HPV-unrelated oral tongue sites are best described by placing period and cohort effects on the initiation rate. HPV-related and non-oral-tongue HPV-unrelated cancers have similar promotion rates, suggesting similar tumorigenesis dynamics once initiated. Estimates of promotion rates at oral tongue sites are lower, corresponding to a longer sojourn time; this finding is consistent with the hypothesis of an etiology distinct from HPV or alcohol and tobacco use. Finally, for the three subsite groups, men have higher initiation rates than women of the same race, and black people have higher promotion than white people of the same sex. These differences explain part of the racial and sex differences in OSCC incidence.

  8. Age Effects and Temporal Trends in HPV-Related and HPV-Unrelated Oral Cancer in the United States: A Multistage Carcinogenesis Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Andrew F; Eisenberg, Marisa C; Meza, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Differences in prognosis in HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral (oropharyngeal and oral cavity) squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and increasing incidence of HPV-related cancers have spurred interest in demographic and temporal trends in OSCC incidence. We leverage multistage clonal expansion (MSCE) models coupled with age-period-cohort (APC) epidemiological models to analyze OSCC data in the SEER cancer registry (1973-2012). MSCE models are based on the initiation-promotion-malignant conversion paradigm in carcinogenesis and allow for interpretation of trends in terms of biological mechanisms. APC models seek to differentiate between the temporal effects of age, period, and birth cohort on cancer risk. Previous studies have looked at the effect of period and cohort on tumor initiation, and we extend this to compare model fits of period and cohort effects on each of tumor initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion rates. HPV-related, HPV-unrelated except oral tongue, and HPV-unrelated oral tongue sites are best described by placing period and cohort effects on the initiation rate. HPV-related and non-oral-tongue HPV-unrelated cancers have similar promotion rates, suggesting similar tumorigenesis dynamics once initiated. Estimates of promotion rates at oral tongue sites are lower, corresponding to a longer sojourn time; this finding is consistent with the hypothesis of an etiology distinct from HPV or alcohol and tobacco use. Finally, for the three subsite groups, men have higher initiation rates than women of the same race, and black people have higher promotion than white people of the same sex. These differences explain part of the racial and sex differences in OSCC incidence. PMID:26963717

  9. Effect of irradiation on neovascularization in rat skinfold chambers: Implications for clinical trials of low-dose radiotherapy for wet-type age-related macular degeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Katsuyoshi . E-mail: k-hori@idac.tohoku.ac.jp; Saito, Sachiko; Tamai, Makoto

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: Wet-type age-related macular degeneration is a refractory eye disease that involves choroidal neovascularization. Randomized controlled trials of low-dose radiotherapy for this disease performed in Japan showed that, at 12 months of follow-up, visual acuity was significantly well preserved and the neovascular membrane size decreased. Because understanding the effect of irradiation on new vascular networks is an important prerequisite for clinical trials, we used a rat skinfold chamber technique to investigate X-ray-induced changes in neovasculature microcirculation. Methods and materials: Neovascularization was induced in rat skinfold chambers via polyvinyl chloride resin plates. Neovessels were irradiated in a single 10-Gy dose, after which, changes in vascular density, blood velocity, tissue blood flow, and interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), were measured. Results: Vascular density, tissue blood flow, and IFP measurements in resin-induced inflammatory tissue were much higher than those measurements in normal tissue. Although overall blood velocity was low and sluggish or blood-flow stasis occurred in the neovascular network, after a single 10-Gy dose of radiation, the velocity increased, stasis improved markedly, and many dilated vessels narrowed. Thereafter, vascular density, blood flow, and IFP significantly decreased and approached normal values. Conclusion: These findings may help explain clinical results related to radiotherapy-induced changes in neovascular membranes in age-related macular degeneration. Both vascular morphology and vascular function in inflammatory tissue returned to normal, without vessel destruction, after an appropriate radiation dose.

  10. Modulation of manual preference induced by lateralized practice diffuses over distinct motor tasks: age-related effects

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Rosana M.; Coelho, Daniel B.; Teixeira, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of use of the non-preferred left hand to practice different motor tasks on manual preference in children and adults. Manual preference was evaluated before, immediately after and 20 days following practice. Evaluation was made with tasks of distinct levels of complexity requiring reaching and manipulation of cards at different eccentricities in the workspace. Results showed that left hand use in adults induced increased preference of that hand at the central position when performing the simple task, while left hand use by the children induced increased preference of the left hand at the rightmost positions in the performance of the complex task. These effects were retained over the rest period following practice. Kinematic analysis showed that left hand use during practice did not lead to modification of intermanual performance asymmetry. These results indicate that modulation of manual preference was a consequence of higher frequency of use of the left hand during practice rather than of change in motor performance. Findings presented here support the conceptualization that confidence on successful performance when using a particular limb generates a bias in hand selection, which diffuses over distinct motor tasks. PMID:25538656

  11. Physics of Age Related Macular Degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Family, Fereydoon

    2009-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness beyond the age of 50 years. The most common pathogenic mechanism that leads to AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV is produced by accumulation of residual material caused by aging of retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). The RPE is a phagocytic system that is essential for renewal of photoreceptors (rods and cones). With time, incompletely degraded membrane material builds up in the form of lipofuscin. Lipofuscin is made of free-radical-damaged protein and fat, which forms not only in AMD, but also Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. The study of lipofuscin formation and growth is important, because of their association with cellular aging. In this talk I will discuss a model of non-equilibrium cluster growth that we have developed for studying the formation and growth of lipofuscin in AMD [K.I. Mazzitello, C.M. Arizmendi, Fereydoon Family, H. E. Grossniklaus, Physical Review E (2009)]. I will also present an overview of our theoretical and computational efforts in modeling some other aspects of the physics of AMD, including CNV and the breakdown of Bruch's membrane [Ongoing collaboration with Abbas Shirinifard and James A. Glazier, Biocomplexity Institute and Department of Physics, Indiana University, Y. Jiang, Los Alamos, and Hans E. Grossniklaus, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University].

  12. Growth factors, aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Priya; Longo, Valter D

    2016-06-01

    Simple organisms including yeast and flies with mutations in the IGF-1 and Tor-S6K pathways are dwarfs, are highly protected from toxins, and survive up to 3 times longer. Similarly, dwarf mice with deficiencies in the growth hormone-IGF-I axis are also long lived and protected from diseases. We recently reported that humans with Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency (GHRD) rarely develop cancer or diabetes. These findings are in agreement with the effect of defects in the Tor-S6K pathways in causing dwarfism and protection of DNA. Because protein restriction reduces both GHR-IGF-1 axis and Tor-S6K activity, we examined links between protein intake, disease, and mortality in over 6000 US subjects in the NHANES CDC database. Respondents aged 50-65 reporting a high protein intake displayed an increase in IGF-I levels, a 75% increased risk of overall mortality and a 3-4 fold increased risk of cancer mortality in agreement with findings in mouse experiments. These studies point to a conserved link between proteins and amino acids, GHR-IGF-1/insulin, Tor-S6k signaling, aging, and diseases. PMID:26883276

  13. Epigenome-Wide Scans Identify Differentially Methylated Regions for Age and Age-Related Phenotypes in a Healthy Ageing Population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tsun-Po; Pidsley, Ruth; Nisbet, James; Glass, Daniel; Mangino, Massimo; Zhai, Guangju; Zhang, Feng; Valdes, Ana; Shin, So-Youn; Dempster, Emma L.; Murray, Robin M.; Grundberg, Elin; Hedman, Asa K.; Nica, Alexandra; Small, Kerrin S.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mill, Jonathan; Spector, Tim D.; Deloukas, Panos

    2012-01-01

    small set of genes DNA methylation may be a candidate mechanism of mediating not only environmental, but also genetic effects on age-related phenotypes. PMID:22532803

  14. GENETICS OF HUMAN AGE RELATED DISORDERS.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, I; Thukral, N; Hasija, Y

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological phenomenon. The incidence of age related disorders (ARDs) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, dementia, osteoporosis, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases increase rapidly with aging. ARDs are becoming a key social and economic trouble for the world's elderly population (above 60 years), which is expected to reach 2 billion by 2050. Advancement in understanding of genetic associations, particularly through genome wide association studies (GWAS), has revealed a substantial contribution of genes to human aging and ARDs. In this review, we have focused on the recent understanding of the extent to which genetic predisposition may influence the aging process. Further analysis of the genetic association studies through pathway analysis several genes associated with multiple ARDs have been highlighted such as apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cadherin 13 (CDH13), CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1 (CDKAL-1), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), indicating that these genes could play a pivotal role in ARD causation. These genes were found to be significantly enriched in Jak-STAT signalling pathway, asthma and allograft rejection. Further, interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin (INS), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), estrogen receptor1 (ESR1), transforming growth factor, beta 1(TGFB1) and calmodulin 1 (CALM1) were found to be highly interconnected in network analysis. We believe that extensive research on the presence of common genetic variants among various ARDs may facilitate scientists to understand the biology behind ARDs causation. PMID:26856084

  15. Effect of vitreomacular adhesion and vitreous gel on age-related reduction of macular thickness: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Kazuyuki; Hangai, Masanori; Furukawa, Mariko; Ogino, Nobuchika

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of vitreomacular adhesion (VMA), vitreomacular separation (VMS) and absence of vitreous gel due to vitrectomy on macular thickness measured in the spectral domain optical coherence tomographic (SD-OCT) images. Design A longitudinal, retrospective, observational study. Setting Secondary multicentre study. Participants 218 eyes of 218 healthy patients and 119 vitrectomised eyes of 119 patients were studied. The healthy individuals were classified into a VMA group (54 eyes) and a VMS group (164 eyes), while the vitrectomised patients were classified into an internal limiting membrane (ILM)-on group (26 eyes) and an ILM-off group (93 eyes). In all participants, 2 Cirrus HD-OCT recordings were made with an average interval of 36 months (range 24–60 months). Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the rate of change in macular thickness in the central sector. The secondary outcomes were the rates of change in macular thickness in the inner 4 sectors. Results The annual rate of change in the macular thickness of the central sector was 0.76±1.8 µm/year in the VMA group, −0.58±2.3 µm/year in the VMS group, −1.57±1.9 µm/year in the ILM-on group and −0.86±3.1 µm/year in the ILM-off group. There was a significant difference between the rate of the central sector thickness change in the VMA and VMS groups (p=0.0001). The presence of VMA was a significant factor associated with an increase in the central sector thickness (p=0.0055). When the healthy and ILM-on groups were compared, the rate of decrease in the central sector thickness was faster in the ILM-on group (p=0.0043). Multiple regression analyses showed that not peeling the ILM during the vitrectomy was a significant factor associated with a decrease in the central sector thickness (p=0.044). Conclusions The presence of a VMA and a vitreous gel may help restrain the macular thickness reduction. PMID:27694490

  16. PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, ameliorates age-related renal injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Nim; Lim, Ji Hee; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Hyung Wook; Park, Cheol Whee; Chang, Yoon Sik; Choi, Bum Soon

    2016-08-01

    The kidney ages quickly compared with other organs. Expression of senescence markers reflects changes in the energy metabolism in the kidney. Two important issues in aging are mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a member of the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARα plays a major role as a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in various processes. In this study, 18-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups, the control group (n=7) and the fenofibrate-treated group (n=7) was fed the normal chow plus fenofibrate for 6months. The PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, improved renal function, proteinuria, histological change (glomerulosclerosis and tubular interstitial fibrosis), inflammation, and apoptosis in aging mice. This protective effect against age-related renal injury occurred through the activation of AMPK and SIRT1 signaling. The activation of AMPK and SIRT1 allowed for the concurrent deacetylation and phosphorylation of their target molecules and decreased the kidney's susceptibility to age-related changes. Activation of the AMPK-FOXO3a and AMPK-PGC-1α signaling pathways ameliorated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that activation of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling may have protective effects against age-related renal injury. Pharmacological targeting of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling molecules may prevent or attenuate age-related pathological changes in the kidney. PMID:27130813

  17. Aging Effects in Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Chistos C.; McManus, Hugh L.

    1999-01-01

    Simulation of composites degradation due to aging are described. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. Aging effects at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are evaluated, to determine failure of any kind. The results obtained show substantial ply stress built up as a result of aging accompanied by comparable laminate strength degradation in matrix dominated composite strengths.

  18. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J M; Bivalacqua, T J; Lagoda, G A; Burnett, A L; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 'young' (4-month-old) and 'aged' (19-month-old) rats were treated with a BH(4) precursor sepiapterin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle for 4 days. After 1-day washout, erectile function was assessed in response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Endothelial dysfunction (eNOS uncoupling) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) were measured by conducting western blot in penes samples. Erectile response was significantly reduced in aged rats, whereas eNOS uncoupling and TBARS production were significantly increased in the aged rat penis compared with young rats. Sepiapterin significantly improved erectile response in aged rats and prevented increase in TBARS production, but did not affect eNOS uncoupling in the penis of aged rats. These findings suggest that aging induces eNOS uncoupling in the penis, resulting in increased oxidative stress and ED. PMID:21289638

  19. The suprachiasmatic nucleus: age-related decline in biological rhythms.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takahiro J; Takasu, Nana N; Nakamura, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with changes in sleep duration and quality, as well as increased rates of pathologic/disordered sleep. While several factors contribute to these changes, emerging research suggests that age-related changes in the mammalian central circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) may be a key factor. Prior work from our group suggests that circadian output from the SCN declines because of aging. Furthermore, we have previously observed age-related infertility in female mice, caused by a mismatch between environmental light-dark cycles and the intrinsic, internal biological clocks. In this review, we address regulatory mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms in mammals and summarize recent literature describing the effects of aging on the circadian system.

  20. Managed care implications of age-related ocular conditions.

    PubMed

    Cardarelli, William J; Smith, Roderick A

    2013-05-01

    The economic costs of age-related ocular diseases and vision loss are increasing rapidly as our society ages. In addition to the direct costs of treating age-related eye diseases, elderly persons with vision loss are at significantly increased risk for falls and fractures, experiencing social isolation, and suffering from an array of comorbid medical conditions compared with individuals with normal vision. Recent studies estimate the total economic burden (direct and indirect costs) of adult vision impairment in the United States at $51.4 billion. This figure is expected to increase as the baby boomer generation continues to age. While a number of highly effective new therapies have caused a paradigm shift in the management of several major age-related ocular diseases in recent years, these treatments come at a substantial cost. This article reviews the economic burdens and treatment-related costs of 4 major ocular diseases of aging-glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and dry eye disease-and the implications for managed care.

  1. Aging assessment of reactor instrumentation and protection system components. Aging-related operating experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, A.C.; Hagen, E.W.

    1992-07-01

    A study of the aging-related operating experiences throughout a five-year period (1984--1988) of six generic instrumentation modules (indicators, sensors, controllers, transmitters, annunciators, and recorders) was performed as a part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The effects of aging from operational and environmental stressors were characterized from results depicted in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The data are graphically displayed as frequency of events per plant year for operating plant ages from 1 to 28 years to determine aging-related failure trend patterns. Three main conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) Instrumentation and control (I&C) modules make a modest contribution to safety-significant events: 17% of LERs issued during 1984--1988 dealt with malfunctions of the six I&C modules studied, and 28% of the LERs dealing with these I&C module malfunctions were aging related (other studies show a range 25--50%); (2) Of the six modules studied, indicators, sensors, and controllers account for the bulk (83%) of aging-related failures; and (3) Infant mortality appears to be the dominant aging-related failure mode for most I&C module categories (with the exception of annunciators and recorders, which appear to fail randomly).

  2. Statins for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive late onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. Objectives The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2014), PubMed (January 1946 to June 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 June 2014. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who were either susceptible to or diagnosed as having early stages of AMD. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We did not perform meta-analysis due to heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes among the

  3. Statins for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive late onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. Objectives The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2014), PubMed (January 1946 to June 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 June 2014. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who were either susceptible to or diagnosed as having early stages of AMD. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We did not perform meta-analysis due to heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes among the

  4. Early age-related changes in episodic memory retrieval as revealed by event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Cécile; Clochon, Patrice; Denise, Pierre; Rauchs, Géraldine; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2009-01-28

    Familiarity is better preserved than recollection in ageing. The age at which changes first occur and the slope of the subsequent decline, however, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in episodic memory, by using event-related potentials (ERPs) in young (m=24), middle-aged (m=58) and older (m=70) adults. Although behavioural performance did not change before the age of 65 years, changes in ERP correlates were already present in the middle-aged adults. The ERP correlates of recollection and monitoring processes were the first to be affected by ageing, with a linear decrease as age increased. Conversely, the ERP correlate of familiarity remained unchanged, at least up to the age of 65 years. These results suggest a differential time course for the age effects on episodic retrieval. PMID:19104457

  5. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, JM; Bivalacqua, TJ; Lagoda, GA; Burnett, AL; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 ‘young’ (4-month-old) and ‘aged’ (19-month-old) rats were treated with a BH4 precursor sepiapterin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle for 4 days. After 1-day washout, erectile function was assessed in response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Endothelial dysfunction (eNOS uncoupling) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) were measured by conducting western blot in penes samples. Erectile response was significantly reduced in aged rats, whereas eNOS uncoupling and TBARS production were significantly increased in the aged rat penis compared with young rats. Sepiapterin significantly improved erectile response in aged rats and prevented increase in TBARS production, but did not affect eNOS uncoupling in the penis of aged rats. These findings suggest that aging induces eNOS uncoupling in the penis, resulting in increased oxidative stress and ED. PMID:21289638

  6. Epigenetic modification of PKMζ rescues aging-related cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Xue, Yan-Xue; Han, Ying; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Deng, Jia-Hui; Chen, Na; Bao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Fei-Long; Cao, Lin-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Shi, Jie; Song, Wei-Hong; Lu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Cognition is impacted by aging. However, the mechanisms that underlie aging-associated cognitive impairment are unclear. Here we showed that cognitive decline in aged rats was associated with changes in DNA methylation of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) in the prelimbic cortex (PrL). PKMζ is a crucial molecule involved in the maintenance of long-term memory. Using different behavioral models, we confirmed that aged rats exhibited cognitive impairment in memory retention test 24 h after training, and overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL rescued cognitive impairment in aged rats. After fear conditioning, the protein levels of PKMζ and the membrane expression of GluR2 increased in the PrL in young and adult rats but not in aged rats, and the levels of methylated PKMζ DNA in the PrL decreased in all age groups, whereas the levels of unmethylated PKMζ DNA increased only in young and adult rats. We also found that environmentally enriched housing reversed the hypermethylation of PKMζ and restored cognitive performance in aged rats. Inactivation of PKMζ prevented the potentiating effects of environmental enrichment on memory retention in aged rats. These results indicated that PKMζ might be a potential target for the treatment of aging-related cognitive impairment, suggesting a potential therapeutic avenue.

  7. Epigenetic modification of PKMζ rescues aging-related cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Xue, Yan-Xue; Han, Ying; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Deng, Jia-Hui; Chen, Na; Bao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Fei-Long; Cao, Lin-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Shi, Jie; Song, Wei-Hong; Lu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cognition is impacted by aging. However, the mechanisms that underlie aging-associated cognitive impairment are unclear. Here we showed that cognitive decline in aged rats was associated with changes in DNA methylation of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) in the prelimbic cortex (PrL). PKMζ is a crucial molecule involved in the maintenance of long-term memory. Using different behavioral models, we confirmed that aged rats exhibited cognitive impairment in memory retention test 24 h after training, and overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL rescued cognitive impairment in aged rats. After fear conditioning, the protein levels of PKMζ and the membrane expression of GluR2 increased in the PrL in young and adult rats but not in aged rats, and the levels of methylated PKMζ DNA in the PrL decreased in all age groups, whereas the levels of unmethylated PKMζ DNA increased only in young and adult rats. We also found that environmentally enriched housing reversed the hypermethylation of PKMζ and restored cognitive performance in aged rats. Inactivation of PKMζ prevented the potentiating effects of environmental enrichment on memory retention in aged rats. These results indicated that PKMζ might be a potential target for the treatment of aging-related cognitive impairment, suggesting a potential therapeutic avenue. PMID:26926225

  8. Age Effects and Temporal Trends in HPV-Related and HPV-Unrelated Oral Cancer in the United States: A Multistage Carcinogenesis Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Andrew F.; Eisenberg, Marisa C.; Meza, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Differences in prognosis in HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral (oropharyngeal and oral cavity) squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and increasing incidence of HPV-related cancers have spurred interest in demographic and temporal trends in OSCC incidence. We leverage multistage clonal expansion (MSCE) models coupled with age—period—cohort (APC) epidemiological models to analyze OSCC data in the SEER cancer registry (1973–2012). MSCE models are based on the initiation—promotion—malignant conversion paradigm in carcinogenesis and allow for interpretation of trends in terms of biological mechanisms. APC models seek to differentiate between the temporal effects of age, period, and birth cohort on cancer risk. Previous studies have looked at the effect of period and cohort on tumor initiation, and we extend this to compare model fits of period and cohort effects on each of tumor initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion rates. HPV-related, HPV-unrelated except oral tongue, and HPV-unrelated oral tongue sites are best described by placing period and cohort effects on the initiation rate. HPV-related and non-oral-tongue HPV-unrelated cancers have similar promotion rates, suggesting similar tumorigenesis dynamics once initiated. Estimates of promotion rates at oral tongue sites are lower, corresponding to a longer sojourn time; this finding is consistent with the hypothesis of an etiology distinct from HPV or alcohol and tobacco use. Finally, for the three subsite groups, men have higher initiation rates than women of the same race, and black people have higher promotion than white people of the same sex. These differences explain part of the racial and sex differences in OSCC incidence. PMID:26963717

  9. Procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod ameliorate age-related antioxidant deficit in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiqu; Rong, Shuang; Xie, Bijun; Sun, Zhida; Zhang, Li; Wu, Hailei; Yao, Ping; Hao, Liping; Liu, Liegang

    2010-03-01

    The alleviative effect of procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod (LSPC) on oxidative stress in various tissues was evaluated by determining the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in heart, liver, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle, and serum in aged rats. Aging led to antioxidant deficit in various tissues in this study, which is confirmed by remarkable increased lipid peroxidation, whereas the change patterns of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and GSH were diverse in various tissues of aged rats. LSPC treatment (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) modified the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx as well as GSH content alteration in these tissues, which reversed the age-related antioxidant deficit in aged rats. However, the regulatory patterns on the activities of these enzymes and GSH content by LSPC treatment were different according to the tissues in aged rats.

  10. Age-related behavorial changes in methomyl effects on the behavior of labroatory rats: Comparison of operant behavior nad motor activity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid increase in older adults in the population highlights the importance of understanding the role of aging in susceptibility to environmental contaminants. Methomyl is a cholinesteraseinhibiting carbamate pesticide used on a variety of produce. Although the effects of pest...

  11. Age-related differences in updating working memory.

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, M; Brédart, S; Beerten, A

    1994-02-01

    Age-related differences in updating working memory were investigated in two experiments using a running memory task. In the first experiment, the task of the young and elderly subjects was to watch strings of four to 10 consonants and then to recall serially the four most recent items. Results revealed no age effect. A second experiment was then carried out using a memory load that was close to memory span: lists of six to 12 consonants were presented and subjects had to recall the last six items. Age interacted with list length but not with serial position. This dissociation is discussed in terms of Baddeley's (1986) model.

  12. Effect of Supplemental Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Serum, Macular Pigmentation, and Visual Performance in Patients with Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yang-Mu; Dou, Hong-Liang; Huang, Fei-Fei; Xu, Xian-Rong; Zou, Zhi-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the 2-year effect of multiple doses of lutein/zeaxanthin on serum, macular pigmentation, and visual performance on patients with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. In this randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial, 112 early AMD patients randomly received either 10 mg lutein, 20 mg lutein, a combination of lutein (10 mg) and zeaxanthin (10 mg), or placebo daily for 2 years. Serum concentration of lutein/zeaxanthin, macular pigment optical density (MPOD), visual functions including best-spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), flash recovery time (FRT), and vision-related quality of life (VFQ25) was quantified. Results. Serum lutein concentration and MPOD significantly increased in all the active treatment groups. Supplementation with 20 mg lutein was the most effective in increasing MPOD and CS at 3 cycles/degree for the first 48 weeks. However, they both significantly increased to the same peak value following supplementation with either 10 mg or 20 mg lutein during the intervention. No statistical changes of BCVA or FRT were observed during the trial. Conclusions. Long-term lutein supplementation could increase serum lutein concentration, MPOD, and visual sensitivities of early AMD patients. 10 mg lutein daily might be an advisable long-term dosage for early AMD treatment. PMID:25815324

  13. Age related degradation in operating nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, R.A.; Davis, J.A.; Banic, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The aging issues being addressed for today`s operating commercial nuclear power plants encompass a wide spectrum of components, complexities, and reasons for concern. Issues include such things as the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of boiling water reactor (BWR) internals, the degradation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) Alloy 600 components by primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) to those associated with significant portions of piping systems, such as service water systems. a discussion of the regulatory activity and action associated with the above issues is provided. Proactive NRC/Industry programs for inspection and repair or replacement of affected components are essential for continued operation of these nuclear reactors. These programs are also essential as licensees consider license extensions for their facilities. These plants are licensed for 40 years and can be granted an extension for an additional 20 years of operation if all of the NRC rules and regulations are met. Proper handling of potential age related problems will be a key consideration in the granting of a license extension.

  14. [Epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Brandl, C; Stark, K J; Wintergerst, M; Heinemann, M; Heid, I M; Finger, R P

    2016-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main cause of blindness in industrialized societies. Population-based epidemiological investigations generate important data on prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and future trends. This review summarizes the most important epidemiological studies on AMD with a focus on their transferability to Germany including existing evidence for the main risk factors for AMD development and progression. Future tasks, such as the standardization of grading systems and the use of recent retinal imaging technology in epidemiological studies are discussed. In Germany, epidemiological data on AMD are scarce. However, the need for epidemiological research in ophthalmology is currently being addressed by several recently started population-based studies. PMID:27541733

  15. Inflammation in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Ema; Campbell, Matthew; Kiang, Anna-Sophia; Humphries, Marian; Doyle, Sarah L; Humphries, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness in elderly individuals in the developed world, affecting 30-50 million people worldwide. AMD primarily affects the macular region of the retina that is responsible for the majority of central, color and daytime vision. The presence of drusen, extracellular protein aggregates that accumulate under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is a major pathological hallmark in the early stages of the disease. The end stage 'dry' and 'wet' forms of the disease culminate in vision loss and are characterized by focal degeneration of the RPE and cone photoreceptors, and choroidal neovascularization (CNV), respectively. Being a multifactorial and genetically heterogeneous disease, the pathophysiology of AMD remains unclear, yet, there is ample evidence supporting immunological and inflammatory processes. Here, we review the recent literature implicating some of these immune processes in human AMD and in animal models. PMID:24664703

  16. Age-related macular degeneration: current treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hubschman, Jean Pierre; Reddy, Shantan; Schwartz, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Although important progress has been made in understanding age-related macular degeneration (AMD), management of the disease continues to be a challenge. AMD research has led to a widening of available treatment options and improved prognostic perspectives. This essay reviews these treatment options. Design: Interpretative essay. Methods: Literature review and interpretation. Results: Current treatments to preserve vision in patients with non-exudative AMD include antioxidant vitamins and mineral supplementations. Exudative AMD is currently most often treated monthly with anti-VEGF intravitreal injections. However, investigators are beginning to experiment with combination therapy and surgical approaches in an attempt to limit the number of treatment and reduce the financial burden on the health care system. Conclusion: By better understanding the basis and pathogenesis of AMD, newer therapies will continue to be developed that target specific pathways in patients with AMD, with the hoped for outcome of better management of the disease and improved visual acuity. PMID:19668560

  17. The Marmoset as a Model of Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tardif, Suzette D.; Mansfield, Keith G.; Ratnam, Rama; Ross, Corinna N.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2013-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is poised to become a standard nonhuman primate aging model. With an average lifespan of 5 to 7 years and a maximum lifespan of 16.5 years, marmosets are the shortest-lived anthropoid primates. They display age-related changes in pathologies that mirror those seen in humans, such as cancer, amyloidosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. They also display predictable age-related differences in lean mass, calf circumference, circulating albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Features of spontaneous sensory and neurodegenerative change—for example, reduced neurogenesis, β-amyloid deposition in the cerebral cortex, loss of calbindin D28k binding, and evidence of presbycusis—appear between the ages of 7 and 10 years. Variation among colonies in the age at which neurodegenerative change occurs suggests the interesting possibility that marmosets could be specifically managed to produce earlier versus later occurrence of degenerative conditions associated with differing rates of damage accumulation. In addition to the established value of the marmoset as a model of age-related neurodegenerative change, this primate can serve as a model of the integrated effects of aging and obesity on metabolic dysfunction, as it displays evidence of such dysfunction associated with high body weight as early as 6 to 8 years of age. PMID:21411858

  18. Health habits in relation to aging.

    PubMed

    McGlone, F B; Kick, E

    1978-11-01

    A review of the literature and a study of 52 patients of the 80+ age group confirmed the premise that good health habits have a positive effect on the quantity and quality of life. Not all persons can live beyond 80, but those who do can lead a better life if they live properly. A profile of these 52 subjects aged 80 or older revealed that they were of average size or thin, and of a happy temperament; they ate well and regularly, slept adequately, avoided excessive amounts of alcohol, did not smoke, used drugs sparingly, and led an active life, physically and mentally. Also, it was apparent that the rugged elderly can withstand the impact of a major illness or a surgical operation with associated anesthesia. The following factors are important for longevity: 1) pick the right grandparents, 2) keep active physically and mentally, 3) eat properly, 4) stay thin, 5) drink alcohol moderately if at all, and 6) do not smoke. PMID:701699

  19. Age-related alterations in retinal neurovascular and inflammatory transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Van Kirk, Colleen A.; VanGuilder, Heather D.; Young, Megan; Farley, Julie A.; Sonntag, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Vision loss is one of the most common complications of aging, even in individuals with no diagnosed ocular disease. Increasing age induces structural alterations and functional impairments in retinal neurons and microvasculature linked to the activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways. Commonalities between the effects of aging and those observed with diabetes, including visual impairment, vascular dysfunction, and increased inflammatory response, have led to the hypothesis that diabetes-associated pathologies reflect an “advanced aging” phenotype. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of aging on retinal mRNA expression of neurovascular and inflammatory transcripts previously demonstrated to be regulated with diabetes. Methods The relative expression of 36 genes of interest previously identified as consistently regulated with diabetes was assessed in retinas of Young (3 month), Adult (12 month), and Aged (26 month) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway (F1) hybrid rats using quantitative PCR. Serum samples obtained at sacrifice were assayed to determine serum glucose levels. Results Eleven inflammation- and microvascular-related genes previously demonstrated to be upregulated in young diabetic rats (complement component 1 s subcomponent [C1s], chitinase 3-like 1 [Chi3L1], endothelin 2 [Edn2], guanylate nucleotide binding protein 2 [Gbp2], glial fibrillary acidic protein [Gfap], intracellular adhesion molecule 1 [Icam1], janus kinase 3 [Jak3], lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor [Litaf], complement 1-inhibitor [Serping1], signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [Stat3], tumor necrosis factor receptor subfamily member 12a [Tnfrsf12a]) demonstrated progressively increasing retinal expression in aged normoglycemic rats. Additionally, two neuronal function–related genes (glutamate receptor ionotropic NMDA 2A [Grin2a] and polycomb group ring finger 1 [Pcgf1]) and one inflammation-related gene (pigment epithelium-derived growth

  20. The Experience of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Elaine Y. H.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Hassell, Jennifer B.; Keeffe, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative article describes the impact of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) among 15 participants: how a person makes sense of ARMD, the effect of ARMD on the person's quality of life, the psychological disturbances associated with the limitations of ARMD, and the influence of ARMD on social interactions. Such in-depth appreciation of…

  1. Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Volume, Bolus Viscosity, and Gustation on Swallowing Apnea Onset Relative to Lingual Bolus Propulsion Onset in Normal Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiss, Susan G.; Strauss, Monica; Treole, Kathleen; Stuart, Andrew; Boutilier, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the normal relation of swallowing apnea (SA) onset relative to lingual bolus propulsion along with factors that may alter this relation. Forty adults, composed of 10 men and 10 women in each of 2 age groups (i.e., 20-30 and 63-79 years) participated. SA onset was assessed during 5- and 20-ml bolus volumes…

  2. Secondary Analyses of the Effects of Lutein/Zeaxanthin on Age-Related Macular Degeneration Progression AREDS2 Report No.3

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Emily Y.; Clemons, Traci E.; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Danis, Ronald P; Ferris, Frederick L.; Elman, Michael J.; Antoszyk, Andrew; Ruby, Alan; Orth, David; Bressler, Susan B.; Fish, Gary; Hubbard, Baker; Klein, Michael; Chandra, Suresh; Blodi, Barbara; Domalpally, Amitha; Friberg, Thomas; Wong, Wai; Rosenfeld, Philip; Agron, Elvira; Toth, Cynthia; Bernstein, Paul; Sperduto, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation for treatment of age-related macular degeneration contains vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and zinc with copper. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) assessed the value of substituting lutein/zeaxanthin in the AREDS formulation because of the demonstrated risk of lung cancer from beta-carotene in smokers and former smokers. As previously reported in a secondary analysis, AREDS2 participants taking lutein/zeaxanthin with or without omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty 3 acids had a slightly lower progression rate to late AMD than participants not taking lutein/zeaxanthin. Objective To further examine the effect of lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation on progression to late AMD. Design, Setting, Participants AREDS2, a multicenter, double-masked randomized trial, of 4203 participants, aged 50 to 85 years, at risk for developing late AMD; 66% had bilateral large drusen and 34% had large drusen and late AMD in one eye. Interventions In addition to taking the original or a variation of the AREDS supplement, participants were randomly assigned in a factorial design to one of the following four groups: placebo, lutein/zeaxanthin (10mg/2mg), omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty 3 acids (1.0 g), or the combination. Main Outcome Measures Documented development of late AMD by central, masked grading of annual retinal photographs or by treatment history. Results In exploratory analysis of lutein/zeaxanthin vs. no lutein/zeaxanthin, the HR the development of late AMD was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82–0.99), p=0.04. Exploratory analyses of direct comparison of lutein/zeaxanthin vs. beta-carotene showed HRs: 0.82 (95% CI: 0.69–0.96), p=0.02 for development of late AMD, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.64–0.94) p=0.01 for development of neovascular AMD, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.70–1.26), p=0.67 for development of central geographic atrophy. In analyses restricted to eyes with bilateral large drusen at baseline, the direct comparison of lutein

  3. Effects of age-related differences in femoral loading and bone mineral density on strains in the proximal femur during controlled walking.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L

    2013-10-01

    Maintenance of healthy bone mineral density (BMD) is important for preventing fractures in older adults. Strains experienced by bone in vivo stimulate remodeling processes, which can increase or decrease BMD. However, there has been little study of age differences in bone strains. This study examined the relative contributions of age-related differences in femoral loading and BMD to age-related differences in femoral strains during walking using gait analysis, static optimization, and finite element modeling. Strains in older adult models were similar or larger than in young adult models. Reduced BMD increased strains in a fairly uniform manner, whereas older adult loading increased strains in early stance but decreased strains in late stance. Peak ground reaction forces, hip joint contact forces, and hip flexor forces were lower in older adults in late stance phase, and this helped older adults maintain strains similar to those of young adults despite lower BMD. Because walking likely represents a "baseline" level of stimulus for bone remodeling processes, increased strains during walking in older adults might indicate the extent of age-related impairment in bone remodeling processes. Such a measure might be clinically useful if it could be accurately determined with age-appropriate patient-specific loading, geometry, and BMD.

  4. Long-Term Effects of Vitamins C, E, Beta-Carotene and Zinc on Age-Related Macular Degeneration. AREDS Report No. 35

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Emily Y.; Clemons, Traci E.; Agrón, Elvira; Sperduto, Robert D.; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Kurinij, Natalie; Davis, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the long-term effects (10 years) of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation of high-dose antioxidants and zinc supplement on progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Multi-centered, randomized, controlled clinical trial; followed by epidemiologic follow-up study. Participants 4757 participants with varying severity of AMD were enrolled in the clinical trial. 3549 surviving participants consented to the follow-up study. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to antioxidants C, E, and beta-carotene and/or zinc vs. placebo during the clinical trial. In participants with intermediate AMD or advanced AMD in one eye, the AREDS formulation delayed the progression to advanced AMD. Participants were then enrolled in a follow-up study. Eye exams were conducted with annual fundus photographs and best-corrected visual acuity assessments. Medical histories and mortality were obtained for safety monitoring. Repeated measures logistic regression was used in the primary analyses. Main Outcome Measurement (1) Photographic assessment of progression to, or history of treatment for, advanced AMD [neovascular (NV) or central geographic atrophy (CGA)], and (2) moderate visual acuity loss from baseline (≥ 15 letters). Results Comparison of the participants originally assigned to placebo in AREDS categories 3 and 4 at baseline with those originally assigned to AREDS formulation at 10 years demonstrated a statistically significant (p<0.001) odds reduction in the risk of developing advanced AMD or the development of NV AMD (odds ratios and 99% confidence intervals: OR 0.66, CI: (0.53–0.83) and OR 0.60, CI: (0.47–0. 78), respectively). No statistically significant reduction (p=0.93) was seen for the CGA (OR 1.02, CI: 0.71–1.45). A statistically significant reduction (p=0.002) for the development of moderate vision loss was seen (OR 0.71, CI: 0.57–0.88). No adverse effects were associated with the AREDS formulation

  5. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa's ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics. PMID:26973593

  6. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa’s ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics. PMID:26973593

  7. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Subudhi, M.; Shier, W.; MacDougall, E. )

    1990-07-01

    An aging assessment of Westinghouse DS-series low-voltage air circuit breakers was performed as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The objectives of this study are to characterize age-related degradation within the breaker assembly and to identify maintenance practices to mitigate their effect. Since this study has been promulgated by the failures of the reactor trip breakers at the McGuire Nuclear Station in July 1987, results relating to the welds in the breaker pole lever welds are also discussed. The design and operation of DS-206 and DS-416 breakers were reviewed. Failure data from various national data bases were analyzed to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and mechanisms. Additional operating experiences from one nuclear station and two industrial breaker-service companies were obtained to develop aging trends of various subcomponents. The responses of the utilities to the NRC Bulletin 88-01, which discusses the center pole lever welds, were analyzed to assess the final resolution of failures of welds in the reactor trips. Maintenance recommendations, made by the manufacturer to mitigate age-related degradation were reviewed, and recommendations for improving the monitoring of age-related degradation are discussed. As described in Volume 2 of this NUREG, the results from a test program to assess degradation in breaker parts through mechanical cycling are also included. The testing has characterized the cracking of center-pole lever welds, identified monitoring techniques to determine aging in breakers, and provided information to augment existing maintenance programs. Recommendations to improve breaker reliability using effective maintenance, testing, and inspection programs are suggested. 13 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. The Effects of Low-Vision Rehabilitation on Reading Speed and Depression in Age Related Macular Degeneration: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hamade, Noura; Hodge, William G.; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Malvankar-Mehta, Monali S.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive eye disease that, as of 2015, has affected 11 million people in the U.S. and 1.5 million in Canada causing central vision blindness. By 2050, this number is expected to double to 22 million. Eccentric vision is the target of low-vision rehabilitation aids and programs for patients with AMD, which are thought to improve functional performance by improving reading speed and depression. Objective This study evaluates the effect of various low-vision rehabilitation strategies on reading speed and depression in patients 55 and older with AMD. Data Sources Computer databases including MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), BIOSIS Previews (Thomson-Reuters), CINAHL (EBSCO), Health Economic Evaluations Database (HEED), ISI Web of Science (Thomson-Reuters) and the Cochrane Library (Wiley) were searched from the year 2000 to January 2015. Study Selection Included papers were research studies with a sample size of 20 eyes or greater focused on AMD in adults aged 55 or older with low vision (20/60 or lower). Data Extraction and Synthesis Two independent reviewers screened and extracted relevant data from the included articles. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was chosen as an effect size to perform meta-analysis using STATA. Fixed- and random-effect models were developed based on heterogeneity. Main Outcomes Reading Speed and Depression Scores. Results A total of 9 studies (885 subjects) were included. Overall, a significant improvement in reading speed was found with a SMD of 1.01 [95% CI: 0.05 to 1.97]. Low-vision rehabilitation strategies including micro-perimetric biofeedback, microscopes teaching program significantly improved reading speed. Eccentric viewing training showed the maximum improvement in reading speed. In addition, a non-significant improvement in depression scores was found with a SMD of -0.44 [95% CI: -0.96 to 0.09]. Conclusion A considerable amount of research is required in the area of low

  9. Age-related effects on leaf area/sapwood area relationships, canopy transpiration and carbon gain of Norway spruce stands (Picea abies) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany.

    PubMed

    Köstner, B; Falge, E; Tenhunen, J D

    2002-06-01

    Stand age is an important structural determinant of canopy transpiration (E(c)) and carbon gain. Another more functional parameter of forest structure is the leaf area/sapwood area relationship, A(L)/A(S), which changes with site conditions and has been used to estimate leaf area index of forest canopies. The interpretation of age-related changes in A(L)/A(S) and the question of how A(L)/A(S) is related to forest functions are of current interest because they may help to explain forest canopy fluxes and growth. We conducted studies in mature stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. varying in age from 40 to 140 years, in tree density from 1680 to 320 trees ha(-1), and in tree height from 15 to 30 m. Structural parameters were measured by biomass harvests of individual trees and stand biometry. We estimated E(c) from scaled-up xylem sap flux of trees, and canopy-level fluxes were predicted by a three-dimensional microclimate and gas exchange model (STANDFLUX). In contrast to pine species, A(L)/A(S) of P. abies increased with stand age from 0.26 to 0.48 m(2) cm(-2). Agreement between E(c) derived from scaled-up sap flux and modeled canopy transpiration was obtained with the same parameterization of needle physiology independent of stand age. Reduced light interception per leaf area and, as a consequence, reductions in net canopy photosynthesis (A(c)), canopy conductance (g(c)) and E(c) were predicted by the model in the older stands. Seasonal water-use efficiency (WUE = A(c)/E(c)), derived from scaled-up sap flux and stem growth as well as from model simulation, declined with increasing A(L)/A(S) and stand age. Based on the different behavior of age-related A(L)/A(S) in Norway spruce stands compared with other tree species, we conclude that WUE rather than A(L)/A(S) could represent a common age-related property of all species. We also conclude that, in addition to hydraulic limitations reducing carbon gain in old stands, a functional change in A(L)/A(S) that is related to

  10. Predator-prey relations between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus, Linnaeus) and age-0 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus, Walbaum): predator diets, prey selection, and effects of sediments and macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Manderson; Phelan; Stoner; Hilbert

    2000-08-23

    Laboratory experiments and weekly trammel net surveys in the Navesink River, New Jersey (USA) were used to examine the predator-prey interaction between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and age-0 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Winter flounder (24-67 mm TL) were the dominant piscine prey of summer flounder (n=95, 252-648 mm TL) collected in trammel nets. We observed a temporal shift in summer flounder diets from sand shrimp (Crangon septemspinosa) and winter flounder, dominant during June and early July, to blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and other fishes (primarily Atlantic silversides, Menidia menidia and Atlantic menhaden, Brevortia tyrannus) later in the summer. Variations in prey selection appeared to be related to changes in the spatial distribution of predators and spatio-temporal variation in prey availability. In laboratory experiments, summer flounder (271-345 mm total length, TL) preferred demersal winter flounder to a pelagic fish (Atlantic silversides) and a benthic invertebrate (sand shrimp) prey, and the vulnerability of winter flounder increased with increasing prey body size from 20 to 90 mm TL. Experiments testing habitat effects showed that mortality of winter flounder in three different size classes (20-29, 40-49, 60-69 mm TL) was not influenced by sediment grain sizes permitting differential burial of the prey. However, vegetation enhanced survival, with fish suffering lower mortality in eelgrass (Zostera marina, 15+/-0.04%) than in sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca, 38+/-0.04%) or bare sand (70+/-0.07%) when the macrophytes were planted to produce similar leaf surface areas (5000 cm(2) m(-2)). Prey vulnerability appeared to be related to the role of vision in the predator's attack strategy and prey activity levels. PMID:10958899

  11. Mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ambati, Jayakrishna; Fowler, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a progressive condition that is untreatable in up to 90% of patients, is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. The two forms of AMD, wet and dry, are classified based on the presence or absence of blood vessels that have disruptively invaded the retina, respectively. A detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying wet AMD has led to several robust FDA-approved therapies. In contrast, there are not any approved treatments for dry AMD. In this review, we provide insight into the critical effector pathways that mediate each form of disease. The interplay of immune and vascular systems for wet AMD, and the proliferating interest in hunting for gene variants to explain AMD pathogenesis, are placed in the context of the latest clinical and experimental data. Emerging models of dry AMD pathogenesis are presented, with a focus on DICER1 deficit and the toxic accumulation of retinal debris. A recurring theme that spans most aspects of AMD pathogenesis is defective immune modulation in the classically immune-privileged ocular haven. Interestingly, the latest advances in AMD research highlight common molecular disease pathways with other common neurodegenerations. Finally, the therapeutic potential of intervening at known mechanisms of AMD pathogenesis is discussed. PMID:22794258

  12. Association of Age Related Macular Degeneration and Age Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Hassan; Pourakbari, Malihe Shahidi; Entezari, Morteza; Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and sensory neural hearing impairment (SHI). Methods: In this case-control study, hearing status of 46 consecutive patients with ARMD were compared with 46 age-matched cases without clinical ARMD as a control group. In all patients, retinal involvements were confirmed by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). All participants were examined with an otoscope and underwent audiological tests including pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech reception threshold (SRT), speech discrimination score (SDS), tympanometry, reflex tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR). Results: A significant (P = 0.009) association was present between ARMD, especially with exudative and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) components, and age-related hearing impairment primarily involving high frequencies. Patients had higher SRT and lower SDS against anticipated presbycusis than control subjects. Similar results were detected in exudative, CNV and scar patterns supporting an association between late ARMD with SRT and SDS abnormalities. ABR showed significantly prolonged wave I and IV latency times in ARMD (P = 0.034 and 0.022, respectively). Average latency periods for wave I in geographic atrophy (GA) and CNV, and that for wave IV in drusen patterns of ARMD were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.030, 0.007 and 0.050, respectively). Conclusion: The association between ARMD and age-related SHI may be attributed to common anatomical components such as melanin in these two sensory organs. PMID:27195086

  13. Neuroanatomical Substrates of Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    There are many reports of relations between age and cognitive variables and of relations between age and variables representing different aspects of brain structure and a few reports of relations between brain structure variables and cognitive variables. These findings have sometimes led to inferences that the age-related brain changes cause the…

  14. Later developments: molecular keys to age-related memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Barad, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Age-related memory impairment, a cognitive decline not clearly related to any gross pathology, is progressive and widespread in the population, although not universal. While the mechanisms of learning and memory remain incompletely understood, the study of their molecular mechanisms is already yielding promising approaches toward therapy for such "normal" declines in the efficiency of learning. This review presents the rationale and results for two such approaches. One approach, partial inhibition of the type IV cAMP specific phosphodiesterase, appears to act indirectly. Although little evidence supports an age-related decline in this system, considerable evidence indicates that this approach can facilitate the transition from short-term to long-term memory and thus counterbalance defects in long-term memory, which may be due to other causes. A second approach, inhibition of l-type voltage gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) may be a specific corrective for a molecular pathology of aging, as substantial evidence indicates that an ongoing increase occurs throughout the lifespan in the density of these channels in hippocampal pyramidal cells, with a concomitant reduction in cellular excitability. Because LVGCCs are also crucial to extinction, a paradigm of inhibitory learning, age-related memory impairment may be an unfortunate side effect of a developmental process necessary to the maturation of the ability to suppress inappropriate behavior, an interpretation consistent with the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging.

  15. Principles and practice of hormetic treatment of aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh Is

    2008-02-01

    Aging is characterized by stochastic accumulation of molecular damage, progressive failure of maintenance and repair, and consequent onset of age-related diseases. Applying hormesis in aging research and therapy is based on the principle of stimulation of maintenance and repair pathways by repeated exposure to mild stress. Studies on the beneficial biological effects of repeated mild heat shock on human cells in culture, and other studies on the anti-aging and life-prolonging effects of proxidants, hypergravity, irradiation and ethanol on cells and organisms suggest that hormesis as an antiaging and gerontomodulatory approach has a promising future. Its clinical applications include prevention and treatment of diabetes, cataract, osteoporosis, dementia and some cancers.

  16. Soybean β-Conglycinin Prevents Age-Related Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Tohru; Shibata, Rei; Kondo, Kazuhisa; Katahira, Nobuyuki; Kambara, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoko; Nonoyama, Hiroshi; Horibe, Yuichiro; Ueda, Hiromi; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-related complications are associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment. β-Conglycinin (β-CG), one of the main storage proteins in soy, offers multiple health benefits, including anti-obesity and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Here, to elucidate the potential therapeutic application of β-CG, we investigated the effect of β-CG on age-related hearing impairment. Male wild-type mice (age 6 months) were randomly divided into β-CG-fed and control groups. Six months later, the body weight was significantly lower in β-CG-fed mice than in the controls. Consumption of β-CG rescued the hearing impairment observed in control mice. Cochlear blood flow also increased in β-CG-fed mice, as did the expression of eNOS in the stria vascularis (SV), which protects vasculature. β-CG consumption also ameliorated oxidative status as assessed by 4-HNE staining. In the SV, lipofuscin granules of marginal cells and vacuolar degeneration of microvascular pericytes were decreased in β-CG-fed mice, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. β-CG consumption prevented loss of spiral ganglion cells and reduced the frequencies of lipofuscin granules, nuclear invaginations, and myelin vacuolation. Our observations indicate that β-CG ameliorates age-related hearing impairment by preserving cochlear blood flow and suppressing oxidative stress.

  17. Divergent Thinking and Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Aging can affect cognition in different ways. The extent to which aging affects divergent thinking is unclear. In this study, younger and older adults were compared at the performance on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in visual and verbal form. Results showed that older adults can think divergently as younger participants, although they…

  18. Age-related macular degeneration: Evidence of a major gene

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, S.; Warren, C.; Yang, H.

    1994-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of blindness in developing countries. It remains a very poorly understood disorder. Although environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, none have been firmly implicated. The purpose of this study was to use pedigree analysis to evaluate the possible role of a major gene as a determinant of familial aggregation. Information was collected regarding occupation, smoking, sun exposure, associated medical problems and family history. 50 probands with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and 39 age, race and sex-matched controls were included in the study. In the ARMD group 15/50 (30%) of probands reported a positive family history; 22 out of 222 first degree relatives over age 60 were reported to be affected. In the control groups, none of the 138 first degree relatives over age 50 had a history of ARMD. This difference is statistically significant (p = 0.0003), indicating that genetic factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ARMD. In the ARMD group more siblings as compared to parents (16/127 vs. 5/82) were affected. 5/50 (10%) of the ARMD probands also gave a history of a second degree relative affected with ARMD, compared to none known among the relatives of controls. Data from 50 pedigrees were analyzed by complex segregation analysis under a class A regressive logistic model using the REGD program implemented in the SAGE package. Preliminary results allow rejection of a polygenic model and suggest there is a major gene for ARMD in these families. The inheritance model most compatible with the observed familial aggregation is autosomal recessive. In conclusion, these results are suggestive of a major gene effect in the etiology of ARMD. Identification of a major gene effect is a first step to further pursue linkage analysis and to search for the gene(s) involved in the causation of ARMD.

  19. Age related microsatellite instability in T cells from healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Krichevsky, Svetlana; Pawelec, Graham; Gural, Alexander; Effros, Rita B; Globerson, Amiela; Yehuda, Dina Ben; Yehuda, Arie Ben

    2004-04-01

    Many immune functions decline with age and may jeopardize the elderly, as illustrated, for example by the significantly higher mortality rate from influenza in old age. Although innate and humoral immunity are affected by aging, it is the T cell compartment, which manifests most alterations. The mechanisms behind these alterations are still unclear, and several explanations have been offered including thymic involution and Telomere attrition leading to cell senescence. Age related accumulation of mutations has been documented and could serve as an additional mechanism of T cell dysfunction. One effective repair mechanism capable of rectifying errors in DNA replications is the mismatch repair (MMR) system. We previously reported a comparative examination of individual DNA samples from blood cells obtained at 10 year intervals from young and old subjects. We showed significantly higher rates of microsatellite instability (MSI), an indicator of MMR dysfunction in older subjects, compared to young. In the present study we confirm this result, using direct automated sequencing and in addition, we demonstrate that as CD8 lymphocytes from aged individuals, undergo repeated population doublings (PDs) in culture, they develop MSI. CD4 clones that also undergo repeated PDs in culture develop significant MSI as well. Elucidation of this previously unexplored facet of lymphocyte dynamics in relation to aging may help identify novel mechanisms of immunosenescence and pathways that could serve as targets for interventions to restore immune function.

  20. Aging-associated formaldehyde-induced norepinephrine deficiency contributes to age-related memory decline.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yufei; Jiang, Chun; Wan, You; Lv, Jihui; Jia, Jianping; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Xu; Tong, Zhiqian

    2015-08-01

    A norepinephrine (NE) deficiency has been observed in aged rats and in patients with Alzheimer's disease and is thought to cause cognitive disorder. Which endogenous factor induces NE depletion, however, is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of aging-associated formaldehyde (FA) on the inactivation of NE in vitro and in vivo, and on memory behaviors in rodents. The results showed that age-related DNA demethylation led to hippocampal FA accumulation, and when this occurred, the hippocampal NE content was reduced in healthy male rats of different ages. Furthermore, biochemical analysis revealed that FA rapidly inactivated NE in vitro and that an intrahippocampal injection of FA markedly reduced hippocampal NE levels in healthy adult rats. Unexpectedly, an injection of FA (at a pathological level) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, a NE depletor) can mimic age-related NE deficiency, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments, and spatial memory deficits in healthy adult rats. Conversely, an injection of NE reversed age-related deficits in both LTP and memory in aged rats. In agreement with the above results, the senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice also exhibited a severe deficit in LTP and memory associated with a more severe NE deficiency and FA accumulation, when compared with the age-matched, senescence-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Injection of resveratrol (a natural FA scavenger) or NE into SAMP8 mice reversed FA accumulation and NE deficiency and restored the magnitude of LTP and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that accumulated FA is a critical endogenous factor for aging-associated NE depletion and cognitive decline.

  1. Trajectories of depressive symptoms in old age: Integrating age-, pathology-, and mortality-related changes.

    PubMed

    Chui, Helena; Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Luszcz, Mary A

    2015-12-01

    Late life involves a variety of different challenges to well-being. This study extends and qualifies propositions drawn from the paradox of well-being in aging using 15-year longitudinal data on depressive symptoms from old and very old participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (Baseline N = 2,087; Mage = 78.69 years; range: 65-103 years; 49.40% women). We first examined age-related trajectories in depressive symptoms from young-old to oldest-old, taking into account (changes in) relevant correlates, pathology, and mortality; and, second, we investigated gender differences in these trajectories. Results revealed that age-related trajectories of depressive symptoms were predictive of mortality hazards. The unique predictive effects of both level of, and change in, depressive symptoms were independent of one another and held after taking into account education as well as changes in marital status, living arrangements, cognitive function, and illness burden. In addition, results indicated that depressive symptoms were elevated among participants suffering from arthritis, and increased with age more markedly in men than in women. In particular, the significant Age × Gender interaction indicated that the gender gap in depressive symptoms reduced from young-old to old-old and reversed in very old age when men showed more depressive symptoms than women. Qualifying the paradox of well-being in aging, findings demonstrated that depressive symptoms increased from young-old to oldest-old and suggest that age-, pathology-, and mortality-related changes should be examined in concert to advance our understanding of individual differences in depressive symptom trajectories in late life.

  2. Aging Is Not a Disease: Distinguishing Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photoreceptors are steadily lost, Bruch's membrane thickens, the choroid thins, and hard drusen may form in the periphery. In AMD, many of these changes are exacerbated in addition to the development of disease-specific factors such as soft macular drusen. Para-inflammation, which can be thought of as an intermediate between basal and robust levels of inflammation, develops within the retina in an attempt to maintain ocular homeostasis, reflected by increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 coupled with shifts in macrophage plasticity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. In AMD, imbalances in the M1 and M2 populations together with activation of retinal microglia are observed and potentially contribute to tissue degeneration. Nonetheless, the retina persists in a state of chronic inflammation and increased expression of certain cytokines and inflammasomes is observed. Since not everyone develops AMD, the vital question to ask is how the body establishes a balance between normal age-related changes and the pathological phenotypes in AMD. PMID:23933169

  3. Aging is not a disease: distinguishing age-related macular degeneration from aging.

    PubMed

    Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photoreceptors are steadily lost, Bruch's membrane thickens, the choroid thins, and hard drusen may form in the periphery. In AMD, many of these changes are exacerbated in addition to the development of disease-specific factors such as soft macular drusen. Para-inflammation, which can be thought of as an intermediate between basal and robust levels of inflammation, develops within the retina in an attempt to maintain ocular homeostasis, reflected by increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 coupled with shifts in macrophage plasticity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. In AMD, imbalances in the M1 and M2 populations together with activation of retinal microglia are observed and potentially contribute to tissue degeneration. Nonetheless, the retina persists in a state of chronic inflammation and increased expression of certain cytokines and inflammasomes is observed. Since not everyone develops AMD, the vital question to ask is how the body establishes a balance between normal age-related changes and the pathological phenotypes in AMD.

  4. Protective effect of autophagy on human retinal pigment epithelial cells against lipofuscin fluorophore A2E: implications for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Bai, Y; Huang, L; Qi, Y; Zhang, Q; Li, S; Wu, Y; Li, X

    2015-11-12

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss in the elderly. Degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a crucial causative factor responsible for the onset and progression of AMD. A2E, a major component of toxic lipofuscin implicated in AMD, is deposited in RPE cells with age. However, the mechanism whereby A2E may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD remains unclear. We demonstrated that A2E was a danger signal of RPE cells, which induced autophagy and decreased cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Within 15 min after the treatment of RPE with 25 μM A2E, the induction of autophagosome was detected by transmission electron microscopy. After continuous incubating RPE cells with A2E, intense punctate staining of LC3 and increased expression of LC3-II and Beclin-1 were identified. Meanwhile, the levels of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), interleukin (IL)1β, IL2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IL-22, macrophage cationic peptide (MCP)-1, stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) were elevated. The autophagic inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and activator rapamycin were also used to verify the effect of autophagy on RPE cells against A2E. Our results revealed that 3-MA decreased the autophagosomes and LC3 puncta induced by A2E, increased inflammation-associated protein expression including ICAM, IL1β, IL2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IL-22, and SDF-1, and upregulated VEGFA expression. Whereas rapamycin augmented the A2E-mediated autophagy, attenuated protein expression of inflammation-associated and angiogenic factors, and blocked the Akt/mTOR pathway. Taken together, A2E induces autophagy in RPE cells at the early stage of incubation, and this autophagic response can be inhibited by 3-MA or augmented by rapamycin via the mTOR pathway. The enhancement of autophagy has a protective role in RPE cells against the adverse effects of A2E by reducing the

  5. Age-related changes in the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine and fluoxetine in the rat forced-swim test.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Nazario, Maribel; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Martínez-Mota, Lucía

    2016-02-01

    Some reports suggest that older patients are less responsive to antidepressants than young adults, but this idea has not been fully supported. Here, we investigated the role of aging in the behavioral effects of the antidepressants, desipramine (DMI) (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (FLX) (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) in young adults (3-5 months), middle-aged (MA, 12-15 months), and senescent (SE, 23-25 months) male rats in the forced-swim test. In addition, locomotor activity and motor coordination were assessed as side-effects. DMI and fluoxetine produced an antidepressant-like effect in YA and MA animals, although in the latter group, a shift to the right in the dose-response curve was found for DMI. Importantly, neither drug was effective in SE animals. Motor side-effects were produced mainly by DMI in MA and SE rats. Therefore, a decrease in the antidepressant-like effect is associated strongly with senescence as well as an increased vulnerability to motor side-effects, particularly of tricyclics. This study is significant because SE animals are scarcely studied in pharmacological screening tests, and our findings might be useful for improving antidepressant treatments for the increasing aged population.

  6. Age-related differences in acquisiton, steady-state performance and carbaryl effects on the operant behavior of Brown Norway rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid increase in older adults in the population highlights the importance of understanding the role of aging in susceptibility to environmental contaminants. As part of a larger program on life-stage susceptibility, this experiment determined the effect of the carbamate pest...

  7. Effect of Aging in the Perception of Health-Related Quality of Life in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients under Online-Hemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Moura, Alexandra; Madureira, José; Alija, Pablo; Fernandes, João Carlos; Oliveira, José Gerardo; Lopez, Martin; Filgueiras, Madalena; Amado, Leonilde; Sameiro-Faria, Maria; Miranda, Vasco; Santos-Silva, Alice; Costa, Elísio

    2015-02-01

    This work aimed to evaluate how aging could influence patients' perception of health quality of life (HRQOL), as well as, the effect of aging on dialysis adequacy and in hematological, iron status, inflammatory and nutritional markers. In this transversal study were enrolled 305 ESRD patients under online-hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) (59.67% males; 64.9 ± 14.3 years old). Data about comorbidities, hematological data, iron status, dialysis adequacy, nutritional and inflammatory markers were collected from patient's records. Moreover, HRQOL score, by using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF), was assessed. Analyzing the results according to quartiles of age, significant differences were found for some parameters evaluated by the KDQOL-SF instrument, namely for work status, physical functioning and role-physical, which decreased with increasing age. We also found a higher proportion of diabetic patients, a decrease in creatinine, iron, albumin serum levels, transferrin saturation and nPCR, with increasing age. Moreover, significant negative correlations were found between age and mean cell hemoglobin concentration, iron, transferrin saturation, albumin, nPCR, work status, physical functioning and role-physical. In conclusion, our results showed that aging is associated with a decreased work status, physical functioning and role-physical, with a decreased dialysis adequacy, iron availability and nutritional status, and with an increased proportion of diabetic patients and of patients using central venous catheter, as the vascular access. The knowledge of these changes associated with aging, which have impact in the quality of life of the patients, could be useful in their management.

  8. Aging Changes in Retinal Microglia and their Relevance to Age-related Retinal Disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenxin; Wong, Wai T

    2016-01-01

    Age-related retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma, contain features of chronic retinal inflammation that may promote disease progression. However, the relationship between aging and neuroinflammation is unclear. Microglia are long-lived, resident immune cells of the retina, and mediate local neuroinflammatory reactions. We hypothesize that aging changes in microglia may be causally linked to neuroinflammatory changes underlying age-dependent retinal diseases. Here, we review the evidence for (1) how the retinal microglial phenotype changes with aging, (2) the factors that drive microglial aging in the retina, and (3) aging-related changes in microglial gene expression. We examine how these aspects of microglial aging changes may relate to pathogenic mechanisms of immune dysregulation driving the progression of age-related retinal disease. These relationships can highlight microglial aging as a novel target for the prevention and treatment of retinal disease.

  9. [Glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration intricacy].

    PubMed

    Valtot, F

    2008-07-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness among the elderly in Western nations. Age is also a well-known and well-evidenced risk factor for glaucoma. With increasing longevity and the rising prevalence of older people around the world, more and more patients will have glaucoma and AMD. Clinical evaluation of these patients still poses problems for clinicians. It is very important to order the right tests at the right time to distinguish glaucomatous defects from those caused by retinal lesions, because appropriate therapy has a beneficial effect on slowing or halting damage. PMID:18957915

  10. Age-related elemental change in bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Eisa, M. H.; Jin, W.; Shen, H.; Mi, Y.; Gao, J.; Zhou, Y.; Yao, H.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-04-01

    To investigate age dependence of the bone element contents and structure, lumbar and femur from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were chosen for their more susceptibility to fracture. These rats were divided into to 5 age groups: 1, 4, 7, 11 and 25 month-age, corresponding human beings from the young to the old. The elements contents were detected by external Proton Induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) method was also applied to obtain information about calcium (Ca) and phosphor (P) structure. It was found that Ca content, Ca/P ratio, valance state of Ca and P and their coordinate structure remains unaltered with age variance, whereas the content of strontium (Sr) was significantly decreasing. Sr concentration may provide a new parameter for diagnosis of bone disorder.

  11. 8 Areas of Age-Related Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc 1. Brain: Memory and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) As adults age, many ... sign of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In the past, memory loss and confusion were accepted as just part ...

  12. Differential Effects of Aging on Processes Underlying Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Robert; Travers, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of aging on processes underlying task switching. The response time data revealed an age-related increase in mixing costs before controlling for general slowing and no effect of aging on switching costs. In the cue-locked epoch, the ERP data revealed little effect…

  13. Age Related Changes in Autonomic Functions

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Mohammed; Pakhare, Abhijit; Rathi, Preeti; Chaudhary, Lalita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) imbalance may trigger or enhance pathology in different organ systems that varies in different age groups hence objective of present study was to evaluate association of different Age-groups with autonomic functions. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 62 healthy volunteers in Department of Physiology LLRM Medical College Meerut, India. Volunteers were divided into three groups as younger (15-45 years), middle (45-60) and elder age (above 60), Autonomic functions were tested in three domains viz. Cardio-vagal, adrenergic and sudomotor functions. Numerical data was summarized as mean and standard deviation and categorical data as count and percentage. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used to find difference among groups, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Mean ± standard deviation OHT(Orthostatic Hypotension Test) among of younger, middle and elder age groups were 8.80±2.28, 13.40±4.64 and 21.82±6.04 respectively which represent decrease in sympathetic functions with age (p<0.001). Cardio-vagal or parasympathetic responses indicated by DBT (Deep Breathing Test) Valsalva and 30:15 ratio of HR response to standing tests has shown statistically significant (p<0.001) decrease in mean response with increasing age. Sudomotor response appeared normal in younger and middle group but was interrupted in more than half of elderly people (p<0.001). Conclusion Sympathetic responses & para-sympathetic responses have shown the significant decline with increasing age group. Sudomotor responses were partially interrupted in elderly age group. PMID:27134865

  14. Age-related decline in global form suppression.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas; Starman, Kornelija; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2015-12-01

    Visual selection of illusory 'Kanizsa' figures, an assembly of local elements that induce the percept of a whole object, is facilitated relative to configurations composed of the same local elements that do not induce a global form--an instance of 'global precedence' in visual processing. Selective attention, i.e., the ability to focus on relevant and ignore irrelevant information, declines with increasing age; however, how this deficit affects selection of global vs. local configurations remains unknown. On this background, the present study examined for age-related differences in a global-local task requiring selection of either a 'global' Kanizsa- or a 'local' non-Kanizsa configuration (in the presence of the respectively other configuration) by analyzing event-related lateralizations (ERLs). Behaviorally, older participants showed a more pronounced global-precedence effect. Electrophysiologically, this effect was accompanied by an early (150-225 ms) 'positivity posterior contralateral' (PPC), which was elicited for older, but not younger, participants, when the target was a non-Kanizsa configuration and the Kanizsa figure a distractor (rather than vice versa). In addition, timing differences in the subsequent (250-500 ms) posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) indicated that attentional resources were allocated faster to Kanizsa, as compared to non-Kanizsa, targets in both age groups, while the allocation of spatial attention seemed to be generally delayed in older relative to younger age. Our results suggest that the enhanced global-local asymmetry in the older age group originated from less effective suppression of global distracter forms on early processing stages--indicative of older observers having difficulties with disengaging from a global default selection mode and switching to the required local state of attentional resolution. PMID:26498865

  15. The role of glucocorticoids in aging and age-related pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Goudochnikov, V I

    2011-01-01

    Recently we have evaluated the role of glucocorticoids (GC) and other stress hormones in the pathogeny of age-related diseases. In order to perform this evaluation, we considered the DOHaD paradigm discussing long-term effects of adverse perinatal factors. In the present work, a part of the data collected previously was used for analyzing the role of GC in aging, as well as in age-related pharmacotherapy. The data were gathered in various databases, preferably in English, during the last 25-30 years. Although some authors suggest that GC can be considered as hormones of aging, the majority of investigators are quite careful in this respect. Nevertheless, it appears that the role of GC in various stages of ontogeny and transitions between them is well established. Besides, there are a lot of data that confirm a contribution of GC to the phenomena of perinatal programming/imprinting of adult diseases. What for the relationship between GC and aging, some studies confirm its existence, at least partially. Having analyzed the dynamics of morbidity and mortality of age-related diseases, we concluded on the absence of evidence in favor of unique general scheme of aging, where GC could play a role. However, in a rather paradoxal mode it was demonstrated that GC participate, at least indirectly, in the mechanisms of action of various drugs used for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders (beta-blockers, angiotensin antagonists, some oral hypoglycemic agents) and neuropsychiatric diseases (antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines and some anticonvulsive medicines), as well as in the effects of toxic agents (for example, drugs of abuse, including caffeine). Using the concept of hormesis, we discuss a reason for frequent utilization of these drugs, and not GC or their antagonists, in age-related pharmacotherapy. The caution is suggested in considering the essential function of GC in aging. Nevertheless, due to existence of theory that connects GC with aging

  16. Bodacious Berry, Potency Wood and the Aging Monster: Gender and Age Relations in Anti-Aging Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…

  17. Veterans have less age-related cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    McLay, R N; Lyketsos, C G

    2000-08-01

    Military service involves exposure to a number of stresses, both psychological and physical. On the other hand, military personnel generally maintain excellent fitness, and veterans have increased access to education and health care. The overall effect on age-related cognitive decline, whether for good or ill, of having served in the armed forces has not been investigated previously. In this study, we examined a diverse population of 208 veterans and 1,216 civilians followed as part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study in 1981, 1982, and 1993 to 1996. We examined change in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score after a median of 11.5 years. Veterans were found to have significantly less decrease in MMSE scores at follow-up even after sex, race, and education were taken into account. These results suggest an overall positive effect of military service on the rate of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:10957857

  18. Decreased PM10 Exposure Attenuates Age-Related Lung Function Decline: Genetic Variants in p53, p21, and CCND1 Modify This Effect

    PubMed Central

    Imboden, Medea; Schwartz, Joel; Schindler, Christian; Curjuric, Ivan; Berger, Wolfgang; Liu, Sally L.J.; Russi, Erich W.; Ackermann-Liebrich, Ursula; Rochat, Thierry; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Decreasing exposure to airborne particulates was previously associated with reduced age-related decline in lung function. However, whether the benefit from improved air quality depends on genetic background is not known. Recent evidence points to the involvement of the genes p53 and p21 and of the cell cycle control gene cyclin D1 (CCND1) in the response of bronchial cells to air pollution. Objective We determined in 4,326 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) whether four single-nucleotide polymorphisms in three genes [CCND1 (rs9344 [P242P], rs667515), p53 (rs1042522 [R72P]), and p21 (rs1801270 [S31R])] modified the previously observed attenuation of the decline in the forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the forced vital capacity (FEF25–75) associated with improved air quality. Methods Subjects of the prospective population-based SAPALDIA cohort were assessed in 1991 and 2002 by spirometry, questionnaires, and biological sample collection for genotyping. We assigned spatially resolved concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) to each participant’s residential history 12 months before the baseline and follow-up assessments. Results The effect of diminishing PM10 exposure on FEF25–75 decline appeared to be modified by p53 R72P, CCND1 P242P, and CCND1 rs667515. For example, a 10-μg/m3 decline in aver-age PM10 exposure over an 11-year period attenuated the average annual decline in FEF25–75 by 21.33 mL/year (95% confidence interval, 10.57–32.08) among participants homozygous for the CCND1 (P242P) GG genotype, by 13.72 mL/year (5.38–22.06) among GA genotypes, and by 6.00 mL/year (−4.54 to 16.54) among AA genotypes. Conclusions Our results suggest that cell cycle control genes may modify the degree to which improved air quality may benefit respiratory function in adults. PMID:19750108

  19. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes.

    PubMed

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  20. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes.

    PubMed

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field.

  1. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes

    PubMed Central

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C.; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  2. Age-related impairment of mesenchymal progenitor cell function.

    PubMed

    Stolzing, Alexandra; Scutt, Andrew

    2006-06-01

    In most mesenchymal tissues a subcompartment of multipotent progenitor cells is responsible for the maintenance and repair of the tissue following trauma. With increasing age, the ability of tissues to repair themselves is diminished, which may be due to reduced functional capacity of the progenitor cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on rat mesenchymal progenitor cells. Mesenchymal progenitor cells were isolated from Wistar rats aged 3, 7, 12 and 56 weeks. Viability, capacity for differentiation and cellular aging were examined. Cells from the oldest group accumulated raised levels of oxidized proteins and lipids and showed decreased levels of antioxidative enzyme activity. This was reflected in decreased fibroblast colony-forming unit (CFU-f) numbers, increased levels of apoptosis and reduced proliferation and potential for differentiation. These data suggest that the reduced ability to maintain mesenchymal tissue homeostasis in aged mammals is not purely due to a decline in progenitor cells numbers but also to a loss of progenitor functionality due to the accumulation of oxidative damage, which may in turn be a causative factor in a number of age-related pathologies such as arthritis, tendinosis and osteoporosis.

  3. AGE-RELATED SUSCEPTIBILITY: A GENOMICS APPROACH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    By the year 2030 more than 70 million Americans will be over the age of 65. These older adults are a subpopulation that may have special susceptibility to toxic insult due to critical characteristics of their life-stage. Current EPA testing guidelines do not identify the elderl...

  4. Age-Related Changes in Visual Pseudoneglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Remy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoneglect is a slight but consistent leftward attentional bias commonly observed in healthy young populations, purportedly explained by right hemispheric dominance. It has been suggested that normal aging might be associated with a decline of the right hemisphere. According to this hypothesis, a few studies have shown that elderly tend to…

  5. Age related alterations of adrenoreceptor activity in erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Lomsadze, G; Khetsuriani, R; Arabuli, M; Intskirveli, N; Sanikidze, T

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was the investigation of age-related functional alterations of adrenoreceptors and the effect of agonist and antagonist drugs on age related adrenoreceptor activity in erythrocyte membrane. The impact of isopropanol and propanol on functional activity β- adrenergic receptors in red blood cell membrane were studied in 50 practically healthy men--volunteers. (I group--75-89 years old, II group--22-30 years old). The EPR signals S1 and S2 were registered in red blood cell membrane samples after incubation with isopropanol and propanol respectively. It was found that decreasing sensitivity (functional activity) of red blood cells membrane adrenoreceptors comes with aging (S1oldage-related hypertension, heart failure, type II diabetes and other diseases, The findings suggests that the erythrocyte could be a new therapeutic marker in the treatment different diseases.

  6. Adiponectin deficiency exacerbates age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, T; Shibata, R; Ouchi, N; Kondo, K; Ishii, M; Katahira, N; Kambara, T; Inoue, Y; Takahashi, R; Ikeda, N; Kihara, S; Ueda, H; Murohara, T

    2014-04-24

    Obesity-related disorders are closely associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Adiponectin (APN) exerts protective effects against obesity-related conditions including endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the impact of APN on ARHI. APN-knockout (APN-KO) mice developed exacerbation of hearing impairment, particularly in the high frequency range, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Supplementation with APN prevented the hearing impairment in APN-KO mice. At 2 months of age, the cochlear blood flow and capillary density of the stria vascularis (SV) were significantly reduced in APN-KO mice as compared with WT mice. APN-KO mice also showed a significant increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells in the organ of Corti in the cochlea at 2 months of age. At the age of 6 months, hair cells were lost at the organ of Corti in APN-KO mice. In cultured auditory HEI-OC1 cells, APN reduced apoptotic activity under hypoxic conditions. Clinically, plasma APN levels were significantly lower in humans with ARHI. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified APN as a significant and independent predictor of ARHI. Our observations indicate that APN has an important role in preventing ARHI.

  7. Aging, Obsolescence, Impact, Growth, and Utilization: Definitions and Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Examines the notions of aging, obsolescence, impact, growth, utilization, and related concepts in information science. Illustrates the influence of growth on aging, how aging rates can be corrected for growth, and the relation with impact measures. Presents mathematical results, practical calculations, and examples of these concepts. Gives a brief…

  8. Age-related forgetting in locomotor adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Laura A.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    The healthy aging process affects the ability to learn and remember new facts and tasks. Prior work has shown that motor learning can be adversely affected by non-motor deficits, such as time. Here we investigated how age, and a dual task influence the learning and forgetting of a new walking pattern. We studied healthy younger (<30 yo) and older adults (>50 yo) as they alternated between 5-minute bouts of split-belt treadmill walking and resting. Older subjects learned a new walking pattern at the same rate as younger subjects, but forgot some of the new pattern during the rest breaks. We tested if forgetting was due to reliance on a cognitive strategy that was not fully engaged after rest breaks. When older subjects performed a dual cognitive task to reduce strategic control of split-belt walking, their adaptation rate slowed, but they still forgot much of the new pattern during the rest breaks. Our results demonstrate that the healthy aging process weakens motor memories during rest breaks and that this phenomenon cannot be explained solely by reliance on a conscious strategy in older adults. PMID:26589520

  9. New Clues to Age-Related Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161359.html New Clues to Age-Related Hearing Loss Older people's brains have a ... the brain's ability to process speech declines with age. For the study, Alessandro Presacco and colleagues divided ...

  10. Electrochemical aging effects in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, G. R.

    Leakage currents were experimentally measured in PV modules undergoing natural aging outdoors, and in PV modules undergoing accelerated aging in laboratory environmental chambers. The significant contributors to module leakage current were identified with a long range goal to develop techniques to reduce or stop module leakage currents. For outdoor aging in general, module leakage current is relatively insensitive to temperature fluctuations, but is very sensitive to moisture effects such as dew, precipitation, and fluctuations in relative humidity. Comparing ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and polyvinyl butyral (PVB), module leakage currents are much higher in PVB as compared to EVA for all environmental conditions investigated. Leakage currents proceed in series along two paths, bulk conduction followed by interfacial (surfaces) conduction.

  11. Age-related changes to the production of linguistic prosody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Daniel R.

    The production of speech prosody (the rhythm, pausing, and intonation associated with natural speech) is critical to effective communication. The current study investigated the impact of age-related changes to physiology and cognition in relation to the production of two types of linguistic prosody: lexical stress and the disambiguation of syntactically ambiguous utterances. Analyses of the acoustic correlates of stress: speech intensity (or sound-pressure level; SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), key word/phrase duration, and pause duration revealed that both young and older adults effectively use these acoustic features to signal linguistic prosody, although the relative weighting of cues differed by group. Differences in F0 were attributed to age-related physiological changes in the laryngeal subsystem, while group differences in duration measures were attributed to relative task complexity and the cognitive-linguistic load of these respective tasks. The current study provides normative acoustic data for older adults which informs interpretation of clinical findings as well as research pertaining to dysprosody as the result of disease processes.

  12. Oxidative modification of proteins: age-related changes.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, Bulbul; Chakravarti, Deb N

    2007-01-01

    Aging is a complex biological phenomenon which involves progressive loss of different physiological functions of various tissues of living organisms. It is the inevitable fate of life and is a major risk factor for death and different pathological disorders. Based on a wide variety of studies performed in humans as well as in various animal models and microbial systems, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to play a key role in the aging process. The production of ROS is influenced by cellular metabolic activities as well as environmental factors. ROS can react with all major biological macromolecules such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. Since, in general, proteins are the key molecules that play the ultimate role in various structural and functional aspects of living organisms, this review will focus on the age-related oxidative modifications of proteins as well as on mechanism for removal or repair of the oxidized proteins. The topics covered include protein oxidation as a marker of oxidative stress, experimental evidence indicating the role of ROS in protein oxidation, protein carbonyl content, enzymatic degradation of oxidized proteins, and effects of caloric restriction on protein oxidation in the context of aging. Finally, we will discuss different strategies which have been or can be undertaken to slow down the oxidative damage of proteins and the aging process.

  13. Exploring age-related brain degeneration in meditation practitioners.

    PubMed

    Luders, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that meditation practices are associated with substantial psychological as well as physiological benefits. In searching for the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial impact of meditation, studies have revealed practice-induced alterations of neurotransmitters, brain activity, and cognitive abilities, just to name a few. These findings not only imply a close link between meditation and brain structure, but also suggest possible modulating effects of meditation on age-related brain atrophy. Given that normal aging is associated with significant loss of brain tissue, meditation-induced growth and/or preservation might manifest as a seemingly reduced brain age in meditators (i.e., cerebral measures characteristic of younger brains). Surprisingly, there are only three published studies that have addressed the question of whether meditation diminishes age-related brain degeneration. This paper reviews these three studies with respect to the brain attributes studied, the analytical strategies applied, and the findings revealed. The review concludes with an elaborate discussion on the significance of existing studies, implications and directions for future studies, as well as the overall relevance of this field of research.

  14. Phase-contrast cine MR imaging of normal aqueductal CSF flow. Effect of aging and relation to CSF void on modulus MR.

    PubMed

    Barkhof, F; Kouwenhoven, M; Scheltens, P; Sprenger, M; Algra, P; Valk, J

    1994-03-01

    Cine phase-contrast MR imaging was used to study pulsatile CSF flow in the aqueduct in 11 young controls (mean age 30 years) and 9 old controls (mean age 69 years). A high-resolution gradient echo technique and an oblique imaging plane, perpendicular to the aqueduct, was used to avoid volume averaging. Phantom studies confirmed that the technique was accurate. Aqueductal velocity and flux in old controls was higher than in young controls, but the differences were not significant. For all controls together, the averaged peak velocity was 4.2 +/- 1.5 cm/s in rostral and -7.8 +/- 4.9 cm/s in caudal direction; for the flux it was 0.16 +/- 0.10 cm3/s in rostral and -0.29 +/- 0.19 cm3/s in caudal direction. Phase-contrast measurements were significantly related to flow-void on modulus MR images, but not with ventricular size or cortical atrophy. The present technique avoids underestimation of aqueductal flow, and therefore reveals higher aqueductal velocity and flux values than previous studies. Factors other than age or atrophy seem to determine aqueductal CSF flow.

  15. THE ENERGY-REDOX AXIS IN AGING AND AGE-RELATED NEURODEGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Li-Peng; Garcia, Jerome V.; Han, Derick; Cadenas, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Decrease in mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity is a feature of the aging process that accompanies redox alterations, such as increased generation of mitochondrial oxidants, altered GSH status, and increased protein oxidation. The decrease in mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity and altered redox status should be viewed as a concerted process that embodies the mitochondrial energy – redox axis and is linked through various mechanisms including: (a) an inter-convertible reducing equivalents pool (i.e., NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H) and (b) redox-mediated protein post-translational modifications involved in energy metabolism. The energy–redox axis provides the rationale for therapeutic approaches targeted to each or both component(s) of the axis that effectively preserves or improve mitochondrial function and that have implications for aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19716388

  16. A retrospective study of the real-life utilization and effectiveness of ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Hykin, Philip; Chakravarthy, Usha; Lotery, Andrew; McKibbin, Martin; Napier, Jackie; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2016-01-01

    Purpose AURA was an international, retrospective, observational study that monitored the real-life use and effectiveness of ranibizumab injections in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). This paper reports the findings from the UK. Methods Patients who started treatment with ranibizumab between January 1, 2009, and August 31, 2009, and had documented follow-up to the end of their treatment and/or monitoring or until August 31, 2011, were retrospectively monitored; the diagnosis and subsequent decision to treat was made by the patient’s own physician. Assessments included the change in visual acuity (standardized letter count) during the first and second years after start of ranibizumab therapy and resource utilization. Results Four hundred and ten patients from 13 UK centers were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) letter score at baseline was 55.0 (17.8). The mean (SD) change in visual acuity from baseline was +6.0 (15.4) letters at year 1 and +4.1 (16.9) at year 2. Most of the patients (86.6%) completed a 3-month loading phase; the visual improvements were numerically higher in these patients. Over 2 years, the mean (SD) number of clinic visits and injections was 18.4 (5.0) and 9.0 (4.7), respectively. Resource use and visual acuity gains were greater than those observed in the global population, which included other countries enrolled in AURA (Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, and Venezuela). When patients were stratified according to severity of nAMD (based on letter count at baseline), the mean change in visual acuity score at years 1 and 2 was also higher for the UK than for the global population across all subgroups. Conclusion Monitoring and treatment rates were high in the UK, resulting in better visual acuity outcomes compared with other included countries. This suggests that translation of clinical study outcomes into real-life settings is achievable, but at the expense of higher resource

  17. Age Related Decline in Postural Control Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelmach, George E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied voluntary and reflexive mechanisms of postural control of young (N=8) and elderly (N=8) adults through measurement of reflexive reactions to large-fast and small-slow ankle rotation postural disturbances. Found reflexive mechanisms relatively intact for both groups although elderly appeared more disadvantaged when posture was under the…

  18. Effect of relative humidity on soot - secondary organic aerosol mixing: A case study from the Soot Aerosol Aging Study (PNNL-SAAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, N.; China, S.; Zaveri, R. A.; Shilling, J. E.; Pekour, M. S.; Liu, S.; Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, M. K.; Wilson, J. M.; Zelenyuk, A.; OBrien, R. E.; Moffet, R.; Gilles, M. K.; Gourihar, K.; Chand, D.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Subramanian, R.; Onasch, T. B.; Laskin, A.; Mazzoleni, C.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric processing of fresh soot particles emitted by anthropogenic as well as natural sources alters their physical and chemical properties. For example, fresh and aged soot particles interact differently with incident solar radiation, resulting in different overall radiation budgets. Varying atmospheric chemical and meteorological conditions can result in complex soot mixing states. The Soot Aerosol Aging Study (SAAS) was conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in November 2013 and January 2014 as a step towards understanding the evolution of mixing state of soot and its impact on climate-relevant properties. Aging experiments on diesel soot were carried out in a controlled laboratory chamber, and the effects of condensation and coagulation processes were systematically explored in separate sets of experiments. In addition to online measurement of aerosol properties, aerosol samples were collected for offline single particle analysis to investigate the evolution of the morphology, elemental composition and fine structure of sample particles from different experiments. Condensation experiments focused on the formation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol on diesel soot aerosol seeds. Experiments were conducted to study the aging of soot under dry (RH < 2%) and humid conditions (RH ~ 80%). We present an analysis of the morphology of soot, its evolution, and its correlation with optical properties, as the condensation of α-pinene SOA is carried out for the two different RH conditions. The analysis was performed by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission x-ray microscopy and atomic force microscopy for single particle characterization. In addition, particle size, mass, composition, shape, and density were characterized in-situ, as a function of organics condensed on soot seeds, using single particle mass spectrometer.

  19. Slowing Down: Age-Related Neurobiological Predictors of Processing Speed

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Processing speed, or the rate at which tasks can be performed, is a robust predictor of age-related cognitive decline and an indicator of independence among older adults. This review examines evidence for neurobiological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, which is guided in part by our source based morphometry findings that unique patterns of frontal and cerebellar gray matter predict age-related variation in processing speed. These results, together with the extant literature on morphological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, suggest that specific neural systems undergo declines and as a result slow processing speed. Future studies of processing speed – dependent neural systems will be important for identifying the etiologies for processing speed change and the development of interventions that mitigate gradual age-related declines in cognitive functioning and enhance healthy cognitive aging. PMID:21441995

  20. Age-Related Differences in Idiom Production in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Peggy S.; Hyun, Jungmoon; O'Connor Wells, Barbara; Anema, Inge; Goral, Mira; Monereau-Merry, Marie-Michelle; Rubino, Daniel; Kuckuk, Raija; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether idiom production was vulnerable to age-related difficulties, we asked 40 younger (ages 18-30) and 40 older healthy adults (ages 60-85) to produce idiomatic expressions in a story-completion task. Younger adults produced significantly more correct idiom responses (73%) than did older adults (60%). When older adults generated…

  1. Age-Related Differences in the Production of Textual Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Andrea; Boewe, Anke; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlomagno, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Narratives produced by 69 healthy Italian adults were analyzed for age-related changes of microlinguistic, macrolinguistic and informative aspects. The participants were divided into five age groups (20-24, 25-39, 40-59, 60-74, 75-84). One single-picture stimulus and two cartoon sequences were used to elicit three stories per subject. Age-related…

  2. Age at Natural Menopause and Related Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Golshiri, Parastoo; Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the age at natural menopause and related factors among women in a population based study in 2015 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study 960 menopausal women were selected by cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle behavior and reproductive history aspects were collected using a structured questionnaire. Woman and her husband's educational level and occupation with family income were the variables to construct socioeconomic status using principal component analysis. Results Mean and median of natural menopause age were 48.66 and 48 years, respectively. Women body mass index (BMI) more than 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher menopausal age than women with lower BMI (P value = 0.022). The mean of menopausal age was not statistically significant in regard to marital status, physical activity, smoking status, menarche age, age at first pregnancy and history of abortion. Menopause age with pregnancy numbers and age at last pregnancy had a significant positive association. Women with better socioeconomic status had significantly higher natural menopause age. Multiple linear regression shows significant relationship between lower age at menopause with higher age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Age at menopause in our studied sample is similar to previous estimates reported for other Iranian populations. Age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status were the significant factors in relations to age at menopause. PMID:27617243

  3. Age at Natural Menopause and Related Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Golshiri, Parastoo; Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the age at natural menopause and related factors among women in a population based study in 2015 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study 960 menopausal women were selected by cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle behavior and reproductive history aspects were collected using a structured questionnaire. Woman and her husband's educational level and occupation with family income were the variables to construct socioeconomic status using principal component analysis. Results Mean and median of natural menopause age were 48.66 and 48 years, respectively. Women body mass index (BMI) more than 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher menopausal age than women with lower BMI (P value = 0.022). The mean of menopausal age was not statistically significant in regard to marital status, physical activity, smoking status, menarche age, age at first pregnancy and history of abortion. Menopause age with pregnancy numbers and age at last pregnancy had a significant positive association. Women with better socioeconomic status had significantly higher natural menopause age. Multiple linear regression shows significant relationship between lower age at menopause with higher age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Age at menopause in our studied sample is similar to previous estimates reported for other Iranian populations. Age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status were the significant factors in relations to age at menopause.

  4. Genetic and Environmental Factors in Age-Related Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Momi, Sukhleen K; Wolber, Lisa E; Fabiane, Stella Maris; MacGregor, Alex J; Williams, Frances M K

    2015-08-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a common condition with complex etiology but a recognized genetic component. Heritability estimates for pure tone audiogram-determined hearing ability lie in the range 26-75%. The speech-in-noise (SIN) auditory test, however, may be better at encapsulating ARHI symptoms, particularly the diminished ability to segregate environmental sounds into comprehendible auditory streams. As heritability of SIN has not previously been reported, we explored the genetic and environmental contributions to ARHI determined by SIN in 2,076 twins (87.8% female) aged 18-87 (mean age 54.4). SIN was found to be significantly heritable (A, unadjusted for age=40%; 95% confidence intervals, CI=32%-47%). With age adjustment, heritability fell (A=25%; 95% CI=16-33%), and a relatively strong influence of environmental exposure unshared within twin siblings was identified (E=75%). To explore the environmental aspects further, we assessed the influence of diet (through the Food Frequency Questionnaire, FFQ), smoking (through self-report and cotinine metabolite levels) and alcohol intake (through the FFQ). A negative influence of high cholesterol diet was observed after adjustment (p=.037). A protective effect of raised serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels was observed after adjustment (p=.004). This study is the first assessment of the genetic and environmental influence on SIN perception. The findings suggest SIN is less heritable than pure tone audiogram (PTA) ability and highly influenced by the environment unique to each twin. Furthermore, a possible role of dietary fat in the etiology of ARHI is highlighted.

  5. Age-related modifications in neural cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, A U

    1992-09-01

    Integrated cardiovascular responses to a range of different stimuli, as well as the overall, spontaneously occurring variability in blood pressure and heart rate, undergo complex changes with aging. A general trend is that homeostatic control mechanisms lose part of their ability to modulate heart rate and to buffer the concomitant blood pressure variations; the two phenomena are possibly linked by a cause-effect relationship. A detailed analysis of the age-related changes in the major reflex systems reveals a clear-cut impairment in arterial baroreceptor control of the heart rate, but much less pronounced changes in its control of blood pressure, on the other hand, both the hemodynamic and humoral components of the cardiopulmonary reflex appear to be markedly attenuated. The experimental evidence of the mechanisms underlying these changes is still largely incomplete, and it appears that the gaps will have to be filled by a systematic, detailed analysis, i.e., that no generalizations or extrapolations will be possible. Indeed, the data available so far indicate that the age-related alterations are highly non-uniform, some functions undergoing a definite impairment but others being much better preserved and some being even enhanced; thus aging is by no means associated with a generalized decline in cardiovascular functions and should instead be viewed as a complex, highly selective process. These peculiar biological features of the aging phenomena merit further investigation in both the cardiovascular and the other organ systems, in order to verify the possibility that currently unrecognized homeostatic potentials in the elderly subject may be exploited to advance his/her clinical management in health and disease.

  6. A Difference-in-Differences Approach to Assess the Effect of a Heat Action Plan on Heat-Related Mortality, and Differences in Effectiveness According to Sex, Age, and Socioeconomic Status (Montreal, Quebec)

    PubMed Central

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Bailey, Zinzi; Kaiser, David; Auger, Nathalie; King, Nicholas; Kaufman, Jay S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of heat waves on mortality and health inequalities is well documented. Very few studies have assessed the effectiveness of heat action plans (HAPs) on health, and none has used quasi-experimental methods to estimate causal effects of such programs. Objectives: We developed a quasi-experimental method to estimate the causal effects associated with HAPs that allows the identification of heterogeneity across subpopulations, and to apply this method specifically to the case of the Montreal (Quebec, Canada) HAP. Methods: A difference-in-differences approach was undertaken using Montreal death registry data for the summers of 2000–2007 to assess the effectiveness of the Montreal HAP, implemented in 2004, on mortality. To study equity in the effect of HAP implementation, we assessed whether the program effects were heterogeneous across sex (male vs. female), age (≥ 65 years vs. < 65 years), and neighborhood education levels (first vs. third tertile). We conducted sensitivity analyses to assess the validity of the estimated causal effect of the HAP program. Results: We found evidence that the HAP contributed to reducing mortality on hot days, and that the mortality reduction attributable to the program was greater for elderly people and people living in low-education neighborhoods. Conclusion: These findings show promise for programs aimed at reducing the impact of extreme temperatures and health inequities. We propose a new quasi-experimental approach that can be easily applied to evaluate the impact of any program or intervention triggered when daily thresholds are reached. Citation: Benmarhnia T, Bailey Z, Kaiser D, Auger N, King N, Kaufman J. 2016. A difference-in-differences approach to assess the effect of a heat action plan on heat-related mortality, and differences in effectiveness according to sex, age, and socioeconomic status (Montreal, Quebec). Environ Health Perspect 124:1694–1699; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP203 PMID:27203433

  7. Investigating the Effect of Social Changes on Age-Specific Gun-Related Homicide Rates in New York City During the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Steven F.; Tracy, Melissa; Vlahov, David; Goldmann, Emily; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether New York City's gun-related homicide rates in the 1990s were associated with a range of social determinants of homicide rates. Methods. We used cross-sectional time-series data for 74 New York City police precincts from 1990 through 1999, and we estimated Bayesian hierarchical models with a spatial error term. Homicide rates were estimated separately for victims aged 15–24 years (youths), 25–34 years (young adults), and 35 years or older (adults). Results. Decreased cocaine consumption was associated with declining homicide rates in youths (posterior median [PM] = 0.25; 95% Bayesian confidence interval [BCI] = 0.07, 0.45) and adults (PM = 0.07; 95% BCI = 0.02, 0.12), and declining alcohol consumption was associated with fewer homicides in young adults (PM = 0.14; 95% BCI = 0.02, 0.25). Receipt of public assistance was associated with fewer homicides for young adults (PM = –104.20; 95% BCI = –182.0, –26.14) and adults (PM = –28.76; 95% BCI = –52.65, –5.01). Misdemeanor policing was associated with fewer homicides in adults (PM = –0.01; 95% BCI = –0.02, –0.001). Conclusions. Substance use prevention policies and expansion of the social safety net may be able to cause major reductions in homicide among age groups that drive city homicide trends. PMID:20395590

  8. The Neural Consequences of Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-07-01

    During hearing, acoustic signals travel up the ascending auditory pathway from the cochlea to auditory cortex; efferent connections provide descending feedback. In human listeners, although auditory and cognitive processing have sometimes been viewed as separate domains, a growing body of work suggests they are intimately coupled. Here, we review the effects of hearing loss on neural systems supporting spoken language comprehension, beginning with age-related physiological decline. We suggest that listeners recruit domain general executive systems to maintain successful communication when the auditory signal is degraded, but that this compensatory processing has behavioral consequences: even relatively mild levels of hearing loss can lead to cascading cognitive effects that impact perception, comprehension, and memory, leading to increased listening effort during speech comprehension. PMID:27262177

  9. The Neural Consequences of Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-07-01

    During hearing, acoustic signals travel up the ascending auditory pathway from the cochlea to auditory cortex; efferent connections provide descending feedback. In human listeners, although auditory and cognitive processing have sometimes been viewed as separate domains, a growing body of work suggests they are intimately coupled. Here, we review the effects of hearing loss on neural systems supporting spoken language comprehension, beginning with age-related physiological decline. We suggest that listeners recruit domain general executive systems to maintain successful communication when the auditory signal is degraded, but that this compensatory processing has behavioral consequences: even relatively mild levels of hearing loss can lead to cascading cognitive effects that impact perception, comprehension, and memory, leading to increased listening effort during speech comprehension.

  10. Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: a comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.

    PubMed

    Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber number, fiber type distribution and muscle specific tension), in men and male rodents at similar relative age. It appears that muscle aging in male F344*BN rat resembles that in men most; 32-35-month-old rats exhibit similar signs of muscle weakness to those of 70-80-yr-old men, and the decline in 36-38-month-old rats is similar to that in men aged over 80 yrs. For male C57BL/6 mice, age-related decline in muscle force generating capacity seems to occur only at higher relative age than in men. We conclude that the effects on determinants of muscle force differ between species as well as within species, but qualitatively show the same pattern as that observed in men.

  11. Age-related and death-related differences in emotional complexity.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Spalter, Tal; Kavé, Gitit; Shmotkin, Dov

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to examine an aspect of emotional complexity as seen in covariation between retrospective judgments of positive and negative affects. We assume that individuals can experience positive affect independently of negative affect. Theories argue that emotional complexity increases in old age, but research shows mixed evidence. Additionally, emotional complexity has been shown to decrease in situations prevalent in old age, such as physical illness and disability. Integrating distinct effects of age and distance to death, we propose that emotional complexity may remain intact or even increase in old age, and yet it decreases in light of functional deterioration shortly before death. The current research examined whether emotional complexity decreases as a function of subjective perception of closeness to death (subjective survival probability) or actual closeness to death. We used 3 large-scale databases: 2 cross-sectional (SHARE, N = 17,437, mean age = 64; HRS, N = 6,032, mean age = 67) and 1 longitudinal (CALAS, N = 1,310, mean age at baseline = 83). Hierarchical multiple regressions and multilevel models showed that respondents who perceived themselves as closer to death or were actually closer to death showed lower emotional complexity (a stronger negative correlation between positive and negative affects). Age and emotional complexity were unrelated or positively related, depending on the sample. Findings remained the same after controlling for demographic characteristics, as well as physical and cognitive functioning. The results indicate that both subjective and objective closeness to death are associated with lower emotional complexity. This death-related decrease in emotional complexity is discussed within current theories of aging.

  12. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation, and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune-privileged tissue as a result of its unique anatomic and physiologic properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate-immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergoes low levels of activation (parainflammation). In many cases, this parainflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration, this parainflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal parainflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors, and old age. Dysregulated parainflammation (chronic inflammation) in age-related macular degeneration damages the blood retina barrier, resulting in the breach of retinal-immune privilege, leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate-immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in age-related macular degeneration and explores the difference between beneficial parainflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of age-related macular degeneration.

  13. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school…

  14. A Context for Teaching Aging-Related Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two points of view regarding age-related public programs (Medicaid, Medicare, Social Security): that of devolutionists who would curtail them and safety netters who maintain the government's role is indispensable. Uses Relative Deprivation theory as a framework for teaching public policy about aging. (SK)

  15. Unique Relations of Age and Delinquency with Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Context processing has significant empirical support as an explanation of age- and psychopathology-related deficiencies in cognitive control. We examined whether context processing generalizes to younger individuals who are in trouble with the law. We tested whether age and delinquency might have unique relations to context processing skills in…

  16. The Digital Ageing Atlas: integrating the diversity of age-related changes into a unified resource.

    PubMed

    Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes.

  17. The Digital Ageing Atlas: integrating the diversity of age-related changes into a unified resource

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H.; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes. PMID:25232097

  18. Undergraduate Students' Perceptions and Behaviors Related to the Aged and to Aging Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Weaver, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Aging education is relatively new to the university, and our understanding of the perspectives students bring to aging populations is correspondingly limited. This investigation surveys 546 students at a midsized, Midwestern university to explore students' views toward elders, toward serving elders, and toward the relevance of aging education for…

  19. Meta-analysis of age-related gene expression profiles identifies common signatures of aging

    PubMed Central

    de Magalhães, João Pedro; Curado, João; Church, George M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Numerous microarray studies of aging have been conducted, yet given the noisy nature of gene expression changes with age, elucidating the transcriptional features of aging and how these relate to physiological, biochemical and pathological changes remains a critical problem. Results: We performed a meta-analysis of age-related gene expression profiles using 27 datasets from mice, rats and humans. Our results reveal several common signatures of aging, including 56 genes consistently overexpressed with age, the most significant of which was APOD, and 17 genes underexpressed with age. We characterized the biological processes associated with these signatures and found that age-related gene expression changes most notably involve an overexpression of inflammation and immune response genes and of genes associated with the lysosome. An underexpression of collagen genes and of genes associated with energy metabolism, particularly mitochondrial genes, as well as alterations in the expression of genes related to apoptosis, cell cycle and cellular senescence biomarkers, were also observed. By employing a new method that emphasizes sensitivity, our work further reveals previously unknown transcriptional changes with age in many genes, processes and functions. We suggest these molecular signatures reflect a combination of degenerative processes but also transcriptional responses to the process of aging. Overall, our results help to understand how transcriptional changes relate to the process of aging and could serve as targets for future studies. Availability: http://genomics.senescence.info/uarrays/signatures.html Contact: jp@senescence.info Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19189975

  20. Age-related responses to mild restraint in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rattner, B A; Michael, S D; Altland, P D

    1983-11-01

    Immature, postpubertal, young adult, and middle-aged rats were lightly restrained for 4 h. Relative to untreated controls, restraint uniformly reduced body weight and plasma luteinizing hormone concentration and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration in all age groups. However, restraint increased activities of plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, and fructose-diphosphate aldolase in only immature and middle-aged animals. This age-related release of tissue enzymes is hypothesized to reflect enhanced responsiveness to catecholamines in immature rats, and possible ischemia related to diminished vasodilatory activity in middle-aged rats. On the basis of these changes, tolerance to restraint in postpubertal and young adults appears to be slightly greater than that of immature and middle-aged rats.

  1. Age-related cochlear hair cell loss in the chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, T K; Dayal, V S

    1985-01-01

    The spiral organ of the chinchilla was studied by the surface-preparation technique in four different age groups: 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 4 years, to assess age-related hair cell loss. Decrease in hair cell population is linearly related to age, and damage rate of outer hair cells is greater than that of inner hair cells. The mean percentage of damaged total outer hair cells was 0.60%, 1.16%, 1.71%, and 7.07% in animals in 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 4 years of age, respectively. Outer hair cell loss was greatest in the apex of the cochlea and, of these cells, the outermost row was the most affected. Damage to inner hair cells also increases with age. Age-related apical cochlear cell loss in the chinchilla is comparable to that observed in other laboratory animals. PMID:3970507

  2. Rejuvenation of senescent cells-the road to postponing human aging and age-related disease?

    PubMed

    Sikora, Ewa

    2013-07-01

    Cellular senescence is the state of permanent inhibition of cell proliferation. Replicative senescence occurs due to the end replication problem and shortening telomeres with each cell division leading to DNA damage response (DDR). The number of short telomeres increases with age and age-related pathologies. Stress induced senescence, although not accompanied by attrition of telomeres, is also attributed to the DDR induced by irreparable DNA lesions in telomeric DNA. Senescent cells characterized by the presence of γH2AX, the common marker of double DNA strand breaks, and other senescence markers including activity of SA-β-gal, accumulate in tissues of aged animals and humans as well as at sites of pathology. It is believed that cellular senescence evolved as a cancer barrier since non-proliferating senescent cells cannot be transformed to neoplastic cells. On the other hand senescent cells favor cancer development, just like other age-related pathologies, by creating a low grade inflammatory state due to senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Reversal/inhibition of cellular senescence could prolong healthy life span, thus many attempts have been undertaken to influence cellular senescence. The two main approaches are genetic and pharmacological/nutritional modifications of cell fate. The first one concerns cell reprogramming by induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in vitro is effective even in cells undergoing senescence, or derived from very old or progeroid patients. The second approach concerns modification of senescence signaling pathways just like TOR-induced by pharmacological or with natural agents. However, knowing that aging is unavoidable we cannot expect its elimination, but prolonging healthy life span is a goal worth serious consideration. PMID:23064316

  3. Dietary folate improves age-related decreases in lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Field, Catherine J; Van Aerde, Arne; Drager, Kelly L; Goruk, Susan; Basu, Tapan

    2006-01-01

    Although low folate status is thought to be fairly common in the older population, its implication on immunity has not been adequately investigated. Using 11-month-old and 23-month-old male rats (Fisher 344), the present study was undertaken to examine the modifying effects of feeding a control diet (NIH-07) supplemented with folate (35.7 mg/kg) for 3 weeks on the immune cells of spleen and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) origin. The serum concentrations of folate along with vitamin B(12) were elevated in response to the folate supplementation (P<.05). These results were accompanied by an improved proliferative response (stimulation index) to mitogens in both the spleen and MLNs (P<.05). The proportion of T cells in the MLNs, but not in the spleen, was significantly increased in rats fed a diet supplemented with folate. In the spleen, the folate-supplemented diet prevented the age-associated decrease (P<.05) in the production of interferon (IFN)alpha by unstimulated cells and the decrease in T-helper (Th)1/Th2-type response after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin. In the MLNs, on the other hand, the folate-supplemented diet failed to influence any age-related increase in interleukin (IL)-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha and IFNgamma following stimulation but did result in a significantly increased production of IL-4 (P<.05). Overall, this study provides data suggesting that aging is associated with changes in the proportion of T cells, the ability of immune cells to proliferate and the production of cytokines after stimulation. Supplementing a folate-sufficient diet with additional folate improves proliferative response to mitogens, the distribution of T cells in the MLNs and the age-related changes in cytokine production in the spleen. These results suggest that the dietary folate requirement may be higher in the older population than in the younger population to support immune functions.

  4. Glutamatergic treatment strategies for age-related memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Müller, W E; Scheuer, K; Stoll, S

    1994-01-01

    Age-related changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been found in cortical areas and in the hippocampus of many species. On the basis of a variety of experimental observations it has been suggested that the decrease of NMDA receptor density might be one of the causative factors of the cognitive decline with aging. Based on these findings several strategies have been developed to improve cognition by compensating the NMDA receptor deficits in aging. The most promising approaches are the indirect activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission by agonists of the glycine site or the restoration of the age-related deficit of receptor density by several nootropics. PMID:7997073

  5. Network strategies to understand the aging process and help age-related drug design

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that network approaches are highly appropriate tools for understanding the extreme complexity of the aging process. Moreover, the generality of the network concept helps to define and study the aging of technological and social networks and ecosystems, which may generate novel concepts for curing age-related diseases. The current review focuses on the role of protein-protein interaction networks (inter-actomes) in aging. Hubs and inter-modular elements of both interactomes and signaling networks are key regulators of the aging process. Aging induces an increase in the permeability of several cellular compartments, such as the cell nucleus, introducing gross changes in the representation of network structures. The large overlap between aging genes and genes of age-related major diseases makes drugs that aid healthy aging promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. We also discuss a number of possible research options to further explore the potential of the network concept in this important field, and show that multi-target drugs (representing 'magic-buckshots' instead of the traditional 'magic bullets') may become an especially useful class of age-related drugs in the future. PMID:19804610

  6. Network strategies to understand the aging process and help age-related drug design.

    PubMed

    Simkó, Gábor I; Gyurkó, Dávid; Veres, Dániel V; Nánási, Tibor; Csermely, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that network approaches are highly appropriate tools for understanding the extreme complexity of the aging process. Moreover, the generality of the network concept helps to define and study the aging of technological and social networks and ecosystems, which may generate novel concepts for curing age-related diseases. The current review focuses on the role of protein-protein interaction networks (inter-actomes) in aging. Hubs and inter-modular elements of both interactomes and signaling networks are key regulators of the aging process. Aging induces an increase in the permeability of several cellular compartments, such as the cell nucleus, introducing gross changes in the representation of network structures. The large overlap between aging genes and genes of age-related major diseases makes drugs that aid healthy aging promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. We also discuss a number of possible research options to further explore the potential of the network concept in this important field, and show that multi-target drugs (representing 'magic-buckshots' instead of the traditional 'magic bullets') may become an especially useful class of age-related drugs in the future.

  7. Adverse environmental conditions influence age-related innate immune responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    May, Linda; van den Biggelaar, Anita HJ; van Bodegom, David; Meij, Hans J; de Craen, Anton JM; Amankwa, Joseph; Frölich, Marijke; Kuningas, Maris; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2009-01-01

    Background- The innate immune system plays an important role in the recognition and induction of protective responses against infectious pathogens, whilst there is increasing evidence for a role in mediating chronic inflammatory diseases at older age. Despite indications that environmental conditions can influence the senescence process of the adaptive immune system, it is not known whether the same holds true for the innate immune system. Therefore we studied whether age-related innate immune responses are similar or differ between populations living under very diverse environmental conditions. Methods- We compared cross-sectional age-related changes in ex vivo innate cytokine responses in a population living under affluent conditions in the Netherlands (age 20–68 years old, n = 304) and a population living under adverse environmental conditions in Ghana (age 23–95 years old, n = 562). Results- We found a significant decrease in LPS-induced Interleukin (IL)-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) production with age in the Dutch population. In Ghana a similar age-related decline in IL-10 responses to LPS, as well as to zymosan, or LPS plus zymosan, was observed. TNF production, however, did not show an age-associated decline, but increased significantly with age in response to co-stimulation with LPS and zymosan. Conclusion- We conclude that the decline in innate cytokine responses is an intrinsic ageing phenomenon, while pathogen exposure and/or selective survival drive pro-inflammatory responses under adverse living conditions. PMID:19480711

  8. Age-Related Changes in 1/f Neural Electrophysiological Noise

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Mark A.; Case, John; Lepage, Kyle Q.; Tempesta, Zechari R.; Knight, Robert T.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with performance decrements across multiple cognitive domains. The neural noise hypothesis, a dominant view of the basis of this decline, posits that aging is accompanied by an increase in spontaneous, noisy baseline neural activity. Here we analyze data from two different groups of human subjects: intracranial electrocorticography from 15 participants over a 38 year age range (15–53 years) and scalp EEG data from healthy younger (20–30 years) and older (60–70 years) adults to test the neural noise hypothesis from a 1/f noise perspective. Many natural phenomena, including electrophysiology, are characterized by 1/f noise. The defining characteristic of 1/f is that the power of the signal frequency content decreases rapidly as a function of the frequency (f) itself. The slope of this decay, the noise exponent (χ), is often <−1 for electrophysiological data and has been shown to approach white noise (defined as χ = 0) with increasing task difficulty. We observed, in both electrophysiological datasets, that aging is associated with a flatter (more noisy) 1/f power spectral density, even at rest, and that visual cortical 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related impairments in visual working memory. These results provide electrophysiological support for the neural noise hypothesis of aging. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the neurobiological origins of age-related cognitive decline is of critical scientific, medical, and public health importance, especially considering the rapid aging of the world's population. We find, in two separate human studies, that 1/f electrophysiological noise increases with aging. In addition, we observe that this age-related 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related working memory decline. These results significantly add to this understanding and contextualize a long-standing problem in cognition by encapsulating age-related cognitive decline within a neurocomputational model of 1/f noise

  9. Age-Related Changes in 1/f Neural Electrophysiological Noise.

    PubMed

    Voytek, Bradley; Kramer, Mark A; Case, John; Lepage, Kyle Q; Tempesta, Zechari R; Knight, Robert T; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-09-23

    Aging is associated with performance decrements across multiple cognitive domains. The neural noise hypothesis, a dominant view of the basis of this decline, posits that aging is accompanied by an increase in spontaneous, noisy baseline neural activity. Here we analyze data from two different groups of human subjects: intracranial electrocorticography from 15 participants over a 38 year age range (15-53 years) and scalp EEG data from healthy younger (20-30 years) and older (60-70 years) adults to test the neural noise hypothesis from a 1/f noise perspective. Many natural phenomena, including electrophysiology, are characterized by 1/f noise. The defining characteristic of 1/f is that the power of the signal frequency content decreases rapidly as a function of the frequency (f) itself. The slope of this decay, the noise exponent (χ), is often <-1 for electrophysiological data and has been shown to approach white noise (defined as χ = 0) with increasing task difficulty. We observed, in both electrophysiological datasets, that aging is associated with a flatter (more noisy) 1/f power spectral density, even at rest, and that visual cortical 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related impairments in visual working memory. These results provide electrophysiological support for the neural noise hypothesis of aging. Significance statement: Understanding the neurobiological origins of age-related cognitive decline is of critical scientific, medical, and public health importance, especially considering the rapid aging of the world's population. We find, in two separate human studies, that 1/f electrophysiological noise increases with aging. In addition, we observe that this age-related 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related working memory decline. These results significantly add to this understanding and contextualize a long-standing problem in cognition by encapsulating age-related cognitive decline within a neurocomputational model of 1/f noise-induced deficits in

  10. Age-related vascular stiffening: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Julie C.; Lampi, Marsha C.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Arterial stiffening occurs with age and is closely associated with the progression of cardiovascular disease. Stiffening is most often studied at the level of the whole vessel because increased stiffness of the large arteries can impose increased strain on the heart leading to heart failure. Interestingly, however, recent evidence suggests that the impact of increased vessel stiffening extends beyond the tissue scale and can also have deleterious microscale effects on cellular function. Altered extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture has been recognized as a key component of the pre-atherogenic state. Here, the underlying causes of age-related vessel stiffening are discussed, focusing on age-related crosslinking of the ECM proteins as well as through increased matrix deposition. Methods to measure vessel stiffening at both the macro- and microscale are described, spanning from the pulse wave velocity measurements performed clinically to microscale measurements performed largely in research laboratories. Additionally, recent work investigating how arterial stiffness and the changes in the ECM associated with stiffening contributed to endothelial dysfunction will be reviewed. We will highlight how changes in ECM protein composition contribute to atherosclerosis in the vessel wall. Lastly, we will discuss very recent work that demonstrates endothelial cells (ECs) are mechano-sensitive to arterial stiffening, where changes in stiffness can directly impact EC health. Overall, recent studies suggest that stiffening is an important clinical target not only because of potential deleterious effects on the heart but also because it promotes cellular level dysfunction in the vessel wall, contributing to a pathological atherosclerotic state. PMID:25926844

  11. Mouse models of age-related mitochondrial neurosensory hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Han, Chul; Someya, Shinichi

    2013-07-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly population. Overall, 10% of the population has a hearing loss in the US, and this age-related hearing disorder is projected to afflict more than 28 million Americans by 2030. Age-related hearing loss is associated with loss of sensory hair cells (sensory hearing loss) and/or spiral ganglion neurons (neuronal hearing loss) in the cochlea of the inner ear. Many lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress and associated mitochondrial dysfunction play a central role in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and are a cause of age-related neurosensory hearing loss. Yet, the molecular mechanisms of how oxidative stress and/or mitochondrial dysfunction lead to hearing loss during aging remain unclear, and currently there is no treatment for this age-dependent disorder. Several mouse models of aging and age-related diseases have been linked to age-related mitochondrial neurosensory hearing loss. Evaluation of these animal models has offered basic knowledge of the mechanism underlying hearing loss associated with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and aging. Here we review the evidence that specific mutations in the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that affect mitochondrial function result in increased oxidative damage and associated loss of sensory hair cells and/or spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea during aging, thereby causing hearing loss in these mouse models. Future studies comparing these models will provide further insight into fundamental knowledge about the disordered process of hearing and treatments to improve the lives of individuals with communication disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Mitochondrial function and dysfunction in neurodegeneration'.

  12. Nutritional Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Lebriz; Lechanteur, Yara T.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Kirchhof, Bernd; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of nutritional factors, serum lipids, and lipoproteins in late age-related macular degeneration (late AMD). Methods. Intake of red meat, fruit, fish, vegetables, and alcohol, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) were ascertained questionnaire-based in 1147 late AMD cases and 1773 controls from the European Genetic Database. Serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins were determined. The relationship between nutritional factors and late AMD was assessed using logistic regression. Based on multivariate analysis, area-under-the-curve (AUC) was calculated by receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC). Results. In a multivariate analysis, besides age and smoking, obesity (odds ratio (OR): 1.44, P = 0.014) and red meat intake (daily: OR: 2.34, P = 8.22 × 10−6; 2–6x/week: OR: 1.67, P = 7.98 × 10−5) were identified as risk factors for developing late AMD. Fruit intake showed a protective effect (daily: OR: 0.52, P = 0.005; 2–6x/week: OR: 0.58, P = 0.035). Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels showed no significant association with late AMD. ROC for nutritional factors, smoking, age, and BMI revealed an AUC of 0.781. Conclusion. Red meat intake and obesity were independently associated with increased risk for late AMD, whereas fruit intake was protective. A better understanding of nutritional risk factors is necessary for the prevention of AMD. PMID:25101280

  13. Pharmacogenetic effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors over age-related urea and creatinine variations in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Juliana Marília; Suchi Chen, Elizabeth; Cardoso Smith, Marilia; Ferreira Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal function declines according to age and vascular risk factors, whereas few data are available regarding genetically-mediated effects of anti-hypertensives over renal function. Objective: To estimate urea and creatinine variations in dementia due to Alzheimer disease (AD) by way of a pharmacogenetic analysis of the anti-hypertensive effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis). Methods: Consecutive outpatients older than 60 years-old with AD and no history of kidney transplant or dialytic therapy were recruited for prospective correlations regarding variations in fasting blood levels of urea and creatinine in one year, considering ACE genotypes of rs1800764 and rs4291 and their respective haplotypes, and treatment with ACEis along with blood pressure variations. Results: For 190 patients, 152 had arterial hypertension, and 122 used ACEis. Minor allele frequencies were 0.492 for rs1800764-C and 0.337 for rs4291-T, both in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There were no overall significant yearly variations in levels of urea and creatinine, but their concurrent variations were positively correlated (ρ <0.0001). Each A allele of rs4291 led to an yearly urea increase of 3,074 mg/dL, and an yearly creatinine increase of 0.044 mg/dL, while the use of ACEis was protective regarding creatinine variations. The use of ACEis was also protective for carriers of rs1800764-CT/rs4291-AA, while carriers of rs1800764-CT/rs4291-AT had steeper reductions in creatinine levels, particularly when they were treated with ACEis. Conclusions: Effects of ACEis over creatinine variations are genetically mediated and independent of blood pressure variations in older people with AD. PMID:27546928

  14. Rapamycin extends murine lifespan but has limited effects on aging

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Frauke; Flores-Dominguez, Diana; Ryan, Devon P.; Horsch, Marion; Schröder, Susanne; Adler, Thure; Afonso, Luciana Caminha; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hans, Wolfgang; Hettich, Moritz M.; Holtmeier, Richard; Hölter, Sabine M.; Moreth, Kristin; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Naton, Beatrix; Ordemann, Rainer; Adamski, Jerzy; Beckers, Johannes; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Busch, Dirk H.; Ehninger, Gerhard; Graw, Jochen; Höfler, Heinz; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Stypmann, Jörg; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Ehninger, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for a large number of disorders and functional impairments. Therapeutic targeting of the aging process may therefore represent an innovative strategy in the quest for novel and broadly effective treatments against age-related diseases. The recent report of lifespan extension in mice treated with the FDA-approved mTOR inhibitor rapamycin represented the first demonstration of pharmacological extension of maximal lifespan in mammals. Longevity effects of rapamycin may, however, be due to rapamycin’s effects on specific life-limiting pathologies, such as cancers, and it remains unclear if this compound actually slows the rate of aging in mammals. Here, we present results from a comprehensive, large-scale assessment of a wide range of structural and functional aging phenotypes, which we performed to determine whether rapamycin slows the rate of aging in male C57BL/6J mice. While rapamycin did extend lifespan, it ameliorated few studied aging phenotypes. A subset of aging traits appeared to be rescued by rapamycin. Rapamycin, however, had similar effects on many of these traits in young animals, indicating that these effects were not due to a modulation of aging, but rather related to aging-independent drug effects. Therefore, our data largely dissociate rapamycin’s longevity effects from effects on aging itself. PMID:23863708

  15. The effect of age at exposure on the inactivating mechanisms and relative contributions of key tumor suppressor genes in radiation-induced mouse T-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Sunaoshi, Masaaki; Amasaki, Yoshiko; Hirano-Sakairi, Shinobu; Blyth, Benjamin J; Morioka, Takamitsu; Kaminishi, Mutsumi; Shang, Yi; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya; Tachibana, Akira; Kakinuma, Shizuko

    2015-09-01

    Children are considered more sensitive to radiation-induced cancer than adults, yet any differences in genomic alterations associated with age-at-exposure and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We assessed genome-wide DNA copy number and mutation of key tumor suppressor genes in T-cell lymphomas arising after weekly irradiation of female B6C3F1 mice with 1.2Gy X-rays for 4 consecutive weeks starting during infancy (1 week old), adolescence (4 weeks old) or as young adults (8 weeks old). Although T-cell lymphoma incidence was similar, loss of heterozygosity at Cdkn2a on chromosome 4 and at Ikaros on chromosome 11 was more frequent in the two older groups, while loss at the Pten locus on chromosome 19 was more frequent in the infant-irradiated group. Cdkn2a and Ikaros mutation/loss was a common feature of the young adult-irradiation group, with Ikaros frequently (50%) incurring multiple independent hits (including deletions and mutations) or suffering a single hit predicted to result in a dominant negative protein (such as those lacking exon 4, an isoform we have designated Ik12, which lacks two DNA binding zinc-finger domains). Conversely, Pten mutations were more frequent after early irradiation (60%) than after young adult-irradiation (30%). Homozygous Pten mutations occurred without DNA copy number change after irradiation starting in infancy, suggesting duplication of the mutated allele by chromosome mis-segregation or mitotic recombination. Our findings demonstrate that while deletions on chromosomes 4 and 11 affecting Cdkn2a and Ikaros are a prominent feature of young adult irradiation-induced T-cell lymphoma, tumors arising after irradiation from infancy suffer a second hit in Pten by mis-segregation or recombination. This is the first report showing an influence of age-at-exposure on genomic alterations of tumor suppressor genes and their relative involvement in radiation-induced T-cell lymphoma. These data are important for considering the risks

  16. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  17. Stem cell transplantation improves aging-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ikehara, Susumu; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a complex process of damage accumulation, and has been viewed as experimentally and medically intractable. The number of patients with age-associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer has increased recently. Aging-related diseases are related to a deficiency of the immune system, which results from an aged thymus and bone marrow cells. Intra bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) is a useful method to treat intractable diseases. This review summarizes findings that IBM-BMT can improve and treat aging-related diseases, including T2DM, osteoporosis and AD, in animal models. PMID:25364723

  18. Age-Related Differences in Multiple Task Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age. PMID:25215609

  19. Role of antioxidants in the skin: anti-aging effects.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) advance skin aging, which is characterized by wrinkles and atypical pigmentation. Because UV enhances ROS generation in cells, skin aging is usually discussed in relation to UV exposure. The use of antioxidants is an effective approach to prevent symptoms related to photo-induced aging of the skin. In this review, the mechanisms of ROS generation and ROS elimination in the body are summarized. The effects of ROS generated in the skin and the roles of ROS in altering the skin are also discussed. In addition, the effects of representative antioxidants on the skin are summarized with a focus on skin aging.

  20. Effects of age on testicular function.

    PubMed

    Tsitouras, P D

    1987-12-01

    Although frequency of sexual activity declines dramatically with age, most investigators have been able to define rather small physiologic function (hormonal and spermatogenic) changes with advancing age. Despite the development of subtle intrinsic age-related defects at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, reproductive capacity is maintained in healthy elderly men.

  1. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  2. Age-Related Differences in Moral Identity across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Murua, Lourdes Andrea; Jia, Fanli

    2016-01-01

    In this study, age-related differences in adults' moral identity were investigated. Moral identity was conceptualized a context-dependent self-structure that becomes differentiated and (re)integrated in the course of development and that involves a broad range of value-orientations. Based on a cross-sectional sample of 252 participants aged 14 to…

  3. The Role of Social Activity in Age-Cognition Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current project was to examine whether engaging in social activity may moderate or mediate the relation between age and cognitive functioning. A large age range sample of adults performed a variety of cognitive tests and completed a social activities questionnaire. Results did not support the moderator hypothesis, as age…

  4. Nutritional modulation of age-related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30-50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated wi...

  5. BOLD Variability is Related to Dopaminergic Neurotransmission and Cognitive Aging.

    PubMed

    Guitart-Masip, Marc; Salami, Alireza; Garrett, Douglas; Rieckmann, Anna; Lindenberger, Ulman; Bäckman, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Dopamine (DA) losses are associated with various aging-related cognitive deficits. Typically, higher moment-to-moment brain signal variability in large-scale patterns of voxels in neocortical regions is linked to better cognitive performance and younger adult age, yet the physiological mechanisms regulating brain signal variability are unknown. We explored the relationship among adult age, DA availability, and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal variability, while younger and older participants performed a spatial working memory (SWM) task. We quantified striatal and extrastriatal DA D1 receptor density with [(11)C]SCH23390 and positron emission tomography in all participants. We found that BOLD variability in a neocortical region was negatively related to age and positively related to SWM performance. In contrast, BOLD variability in subcortical regions and bilateral hippocampus was positively related to age and slower responses, and negatively related to D1 density in caudate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, BOLD variability in neocortical regions was positively associated with task-related disengagement of the default-mode network, a network whose activation needs to be suppressed for efficient SWM processing. Our results show that age-related DA losses contribute to changes in brain signal variability in subcortical regions and suggest a potential mechanism, by which neocortical BOLD variability supports cognitive performance.

  6. Updating misconceptions: effects of age and confidence.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Andrée-Ann; Anderson, Nicole D

    2013-06-01

    Young adults are more likely to correct an initial higher confidence error than a lower confidence error (Butterfield & Metcalfe, 2001). This hypercorrection effect has never been investigated among older adults, although features of the standard paradigm (free recall, metacognitive judgments) and prior evidence of age-related error resolution deficits (see Clare & Jones, 2008) suggest that they may not show this effect. In Study 1, we used free recall and a 7-point confidence scale; in Study 2, we used multiple-choice questions, and participants indicated how many alternatives they had narrowed their options down to prior to answering. In both studies, younger and older adults showed a hypercorrection effect, and this effect was equivalent between groups in Study 2 when free recall and explicit confidence ratings were not required. These results are consistent with our previous work (Cyr & Anderson, 2012) showing that older adults can successfully resolve learning errors when the learning context provides sufficient support.

  7. Aging-related episodic memory decline: are emotions the key?

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Schumm, Sophie; Pollina, Monica; Depre, Marion; Jungbluth, Carolin; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Sebban, Claude; Zlomuzica, Armin; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Pause, Bettina; Mariani, Jean; Dere, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the recollection of personal experiences that contain information on what has happened and also where and when these events took place. Episodic memory function is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegerative diseases. We examined episodic memory performance with a novel test in young (N = 17, age: 21-45), middle-aged (N = 16, age: 48-62) and aged but otherwise healthy participants (N = 8, age: 71-83) along with measurements of trait and state anxiety. As expected we found significantly impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group as compared to the young group. The aged group also showed impaired working memory performance as well as significantly decreased levels of trait anxiety. No significant correlation between the total episodic memory and trait or state anxiety scores was found. The present results show an age-dependent episodic memory decline along with lower trait anxiety in the aged group. Yet, it still remains to be determined whether this difference in anxiety is related to the impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group.

  8. Aging-related episodic memory decline: are emotions the key?

    PubMed Central

    Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Schumm, Sophie; Pollina, Monica; Depre, Marion; Jungbluth, Carolin; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Sebban, Claude; Zlomuzica, Armin; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Pause, Bettina; Mariani, Jean; Dere, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the recollection of personal experiences that contain information on what has happened and also where and when these events took place. Episodic memory function is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegerative diseases. We examined episodic memory performance with a novel test in young (N = 17, age: 21–45), middle-aged (N = 16, age: 48–62) and aged but otherwise healthy participants (N = 8, age: 71–83) along with measurements of trait and state anxiety. As expected we found significantly impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group as compared to the young group. The aged group also showed impaired working memory performance as well as significantly decreased levels of trait anxiety. No significant correlation between the total episodic memory and trait or state anxiety scores was found. The present results show an age-dependent episodic memory decline along with lower trait anxiety in the aged group. Yet, it still remains to be determined whether this difference in anxiety is related to the impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group. PMID:23378831

  9. Age-related changes in matching novel objects across viewpoints

    PubMed Central

    Konar, Yaroslav; Vuong, Quoc C.; Bennett, Patrick J.; Sekuler, Allison B.

    2016-01-01

    Object recognition is an important visual process. We are not only required to recognize objects across a variety of lighting conditions and variations in size, but also across changes in viewpoint. It has been shown that reaction times in object matching increase as a function of increasing angular disparity between two views of the same object, and it is thought that this is related to the time it takes to mentally rotate an object. Recent studies have shown that object rotations for familiar objects affect older subjects differently than younger subjects. To investigate the general normalization effects for recognizing objects across different viewpoints regardless of visual experience with an object, in the current study we used novel 3D stimuli. Older and younger subjects matched objects across a variety of viewpoints along both in-depth and picture-plane rotations. Response times (RTs) for in-depth rotations were generally slower than for picture plane rotations and older subjects, overall, responded slower than younger subjects. However, a male RT advantage was only found for objects that differed by large, in-depth rotations. Compared to younger subjects, older subjects were not only slower but also less accurate at matching objects across both rotation axes. The age effect was primarily due to older male subjects performing worse than younger male subjects, whereas there was no significant age difference for female subjects. In addition, older males performed even worse than older females, which argues against a general male advantage in mental rotations tasks. PMID:21784094

  10. Progress on retinal image analysis for age related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kanagasingam, Yogesan; Bhuiyan, Alauddin; Abràmoff, Michael D; Smith, R Theodore; Goldschmidt, Leonard; Wong, Tien Y

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in those over the age of 50 years in the developed countries. The number is expected to increase by ∼1.5 fold over the next ten years due to an increase in aging population. One of the main measures of AMD severity is the analysis of drusen, pigmentary abnormalities, geographic atrophy (GA) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) from imaging based on color fundus photograph, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and other imaging modalities. Each of these imaging modalities has strengths and weaknesses for extracting individual AMD pathology and different imaging techniques are used in combination for capturing and/or quantification of different pathologies. Current dry AMD treatments cannot cure or reverse vision loss. However, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) showed that specific anti-oxidant vitamin supplementation reduces the risk of progression from intermediate stages (defined as the presence of either many medium-sized drusen or one or more large drusen) to late AMD which allows for preventative strategies in properly identified patients. Thus identification of people with early stage AMD is important to design and implement preventative strategies for late AMD, and determine their cost-effectiveness. A mass screening facility with teleophthalmology or telemedicine in combination with computer-aided analysis for large rural-based communities may identify more individuals suitable for early stage AMD prevention. In this review, we discuss different imaging modalities that are currently being considered or used for screening AMD. In addition, we look into various automated and semi-automated computer-aided grading systems and related retinal image analysis techniques for drusen, geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularization detection and/or quantification for measurement of AMD severity using these imaging modalities. We also review the existing telemedicine studies which

  11. Carnosine and Related Peptides: Therapeutic Potential in Age-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cararo, José H; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patricia F; Ferreira, Gustavo da C

    2015-01-01

    Imidazole dipeptides (ID), such as carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), are compounds widely distributed in excitable tissues of vertebrates. ID are also endowed of several biochemical properties in biological tissues, including antioxidant, bivalent metal ion chelating, proton buffering, and carbonyl scavenger activities. Furthermore, remarkable biological effects have been assigned to such compounds in age-related human disorders and in patients whose activity of serum carnosinase is deficient or undetectable. Nevertheless, the precise biological role of ID is still to be unraveled. In the present review we shall discuss some evidences from clinical and basic studies for the utilization of ID as a drug therapy for age-related human disorders. PMID:26425391

  12. Carnosine and Related Peptides: Therapeutic Potential in Age-Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cararo, José H; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patricia F; Ferreira, Gustavo da C

    2015-09-01

    Imidazole dipeptides (ID), such as carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), are compounds widely distributed in excitable tissues of vertebrates. ID are also endowed of several biochemical properties in biological tissues, including antioxidant, bivalent metal ion chelating, proton buffering, and carbonyl scavenger activities. Furthermore, remarkable biological effects have been assigned to such compounds in age-related human disorders and in patients whose activity of serum carnosinase is deficient or undetectable. Nevertheless, the precise biological role of ID is still to be unraveled. In the present review we shall discuss some evidences from clinical and basic studies for the utilization of ID as a drug therapy for age-related human disorders. PMID:26425391

  13. Age-related carbonyl stress and erythrocyte membrane protein carbonylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Guolin; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Zhao, Qiong; Xie, Fuxia; Chen, Keke; Liu, Shenglin; Chen, Yaqin; Shi, Wang; Yin, Dazhong

    2010-01-01

    Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) have been widely used as indicators of oxidative stress. However, the associations of carbonyl stress with aging process and biochemical alteration of erythrocyte are still poorly understood. Fresh blood samples in vacutainer tubes containing sodium heparinate were obtained from 874 volunteers who were divided into young, adult and old groups based on their age. Plasma RCS and thiols concentrations between different age groups and erythrocyte membrane protein carbonylation in the adult group were detected within 24h of the blood sampling. Results showed that the plasma thiols concentration decreased gradually during aging process, and the p-values between all three groups are less than 0.05. The plasma RCS concentration in different age groups showed a nonlinear association with age. The levels in the young group were slightly higher than the adult group (not significant) and lower than the old group (p < 0.01). The protein carbonylation of erythrocyte membrane was positively correlated with plasma RCS concentration (p < 0.01), but not plasma thiols concentration. We conclude that higher levels of RCS, not lower levels of thiols, in plasma are a direct risk factor for the protein carbonylation of erythrocyte membrane. Owing to the decrease of thiols levels and increase of RCS levels during aging process, a shift from RCS-related redox allostasis to carbonyl stress would contribute to age-related biological dysfunction and even aging process.

  14. Review of nutrient actions on age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zampatti, Stefania; Ricci, Federico; Cusumano, Andrea; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Novelli, Giuseppe; Giardina, Emiliano

    2014-02-01

    The actions of nutrients and related compounds on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are explained in this review. The findings from 80 studies published since 2003 on the association between diet and supplements in AMD were reviewed. Antioxidants and other nutrients with an effect on AMD susceptibility include carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin, β-carotene), vitamins (vitamin A, E, C, D, B), mineral supplements (zinc, copper, selenium), dietary fatty acids [monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA both omega-3 PUFA and omega-6 PUFA), saturated fatty acids and cholesterol], and dietary carbohydrates. The literature revealed that many of these antioxidants and nutrients exert a protective role by functioning synergistically. Specifically, the use of dietary supplements with targeted actions can provide minimal benefits on the onset or progression of AMD; however, this does not appear to be particularly beneficial in healthy people. Furthermore, some supplements or nutrients have demonstrated discordant effects on AMD in some studies. Since intake of dietary supplements, as well as exposure to damaging environmental factors, is largely dependent on population habits (including dietary practices) and geographical localization, an overall healthy diet appears to be the best strategy in reducing the risk of developing AMD. As of now, the precise mechanism of action of certain nutrients in AMD prevention remains unclear. Thus, future studies are required to examine the effects that nutrients have on AMD and to determine which factors are most strongly correlated with reducing the risk of AMD or preventing its progression. PMID:24461310

  15. Dosimetric implications of age related glandular changes in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, J. R.; Kotre, C. J.

    2000-03-01

    The UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme is currently organized to routinely screen women between the ages of 50 and 64, with screening for older women available on request. The lower end of this age range closely matches the median age for the menopause (51 years), during which significant changes in the composition of the breast are known to occur. In order to quantify the dosimetric effect of these changes, radiographic factors and compressed breast thickness data for a cohort of 1258 women aged between 35 and 79 undergoing breast screening mammography have been used to derive estimates of breast glandularity and mean glandular dose (MGD), and examine their variation with age. The variation of mean radiographic exposure factors with age is also investigated. The presence of a significant number of age trial women within the cohort allowed an extended age range to be studied. Estimates of MGD including corrections for breast glandularity based on compressed breast thickness only, compressed breast thickness and age and for each individual woman are compared with the MGD based on the conventional assumption of a 50:50 adipose/glandular composition. It has been found that the use of the conventional 50:50 assumption leads to overestimates of MGD of up to 13% over the age range considered. By using compressed breast thickness to estimate breast glandularity, this error range can be reduced to 8%, whilst age and compressed breast thickness based glandularity estimates result in an error range of 1%.

  16. Age-related differences in human skin proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Carrino, David A; Calabro, Anthony; Darr, Aniq B; Dours-Zimmermann, Maria T; Sandy, John D; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Sorrell, J Michael; Hascall, Vincent C; Caplan, Arnold I

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown that versican, decorin and a catabolic fragment of decorin, termed decorunt, are the most abundant proteoglycans in human skin. Further analysis of versican indicates that four major core protein species are present in human skin at all ages examined from fetal to adult. Two of these are identified as the V0 and V1 isoforms, with the latter predominating. The other two species are catabolic fragments of V0 and V1, which have the amino acid sequence DPEAAE as their carboxyl terminus. Although the core proteins of human skin versican show no major age-related differences, the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of adult skin versican are smaller in size and show differences in their sulfation pattern relative to those in fetal skin versican. In contrast to human skin versican, human skin decorin shows minimal age-related differences in its sulfation pattern, although, like versican, the GAGs of adult skin decorin are smaller than those of fetal skin decorin. Analysis of the catabolic fragments of decorin from adult skin reveals the presence of other fragments in addition to decorunt, although the core proteins of these additional decorin catabolic fragments have not been identified. Thus, versican and decorin of human skin show age-related differences, versican primarily in the size and the sulfation pattern of its GAGs and decorin in the size of its GAGs. The catabolic fragments of versican are detected at all ages examined, but appear to be in lower abundance in adult skin compared with fetal skin. In contrast, the catabolic fragments of decorin are present in adult skin, but are virtually absent from fetal skin. Taken together, these data suggest that there are age-related differences in the catabolism of proteoglycans in human skin. These age-related differences in proteoglycan patterns and catabolism may play a role in the age-related changes in the physical properties and injury response of human skin. PMID:20947661

  17. Age-Related Deterioration of Rod Vision in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Fan, Jie; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2010-01-01

    Even in healthy individuals, aging leads to deterioration in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual field, and dark adaptation. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that drive the age-related changes of the retina and more specifically of photoreceptors. According to one hypothesis, the age-related deterioration in rod function is due to the limited availability of 11-cis-retinal for rod pigment formation. To determine how aging affects rod photoreceptors and to test the retinoid deficiency hypothesis, we compared the morphological and functional properties of rods of adult and aged B6D2F1/J mice. We found that the number of rods and the length of their outer segments were significantly reduced in 2.5 year-old mice compared to 4 month-old animals. Aging also resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the total level of opsin in the retina. Behavioral tests revealed that scotopic visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were decreased by 2-fold in aged mice, and rod ERG recordings demonstrated reduced amplitudes of both a- and b-waves. Sensitivity of aged rods determined from single-cell recordings was also decreased by 1.5-fold, corresponding to not more than 1% free opsin in these photoreceptors, and kinetic parameters of dim flash response were not altered. Notably, the rate of rod dark adaptation was unaffected by age. Thus, our results argue against age-related deficiency of 11-cis-retinal in the B6D2F1/J mouse rod visual cycle. Surprisingly, the level of cellular dark noise was increased in aged rods providing an alternative mechanism for their desensitization. PMID:20720130

  18. Radiation Therapy for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Kishan, Amar U.; Modjtahedi, Bobeck S.; Morse, Lawrence S.; Lee, Percy

    2013-03-01

    In the enormity of the public health burden imposed by age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), much effort has been directed toward identifying effective and efficient treatments. Currently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections have demonstrated considerably efficacy in treating neovascular ARMD, but patients require frequent treatment to fully benefit. Here, we review the rationale and evidence for radiation therapy of ARMD. The results of early photon external beam radiation therapy are included to provide a framework for the sequential discussion of evidence for the usage of stereotactic radiation therapy, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The evidence suggests that these 3 modern modalities can provide a dose-dependent benefit in the treatment of ARMD. Most importantly, preliminary data suggest that all 3 can be used in conjunction with anti-VEGF therapeutics, thereby reducing the frequency of anti-VEGF injections required to maintain visual acuity.

  19. Cognitive and neuropsychological underpinnings of relational and conjunctive working memory binding across age.

    PubMed

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Parra, Mario A; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form associations (i.e., binding) is critical for memory formation. Recent studies suggest that aging specifically affects relational binding (associating separate features) but not conjunctive binding (integrating features within an object). Possibly, this dissociation may be driven by the spatial nature of the studies so far. Alternatively, relational binding may simply require more attentional resources. We assessed relational and conjunctive binding in three age groups and we included an interfering task (i.e., an articulatory suppression task). Binding was examined in a working memory (WM) task using non-spatial features: shape and colour. Thirty-one young adults (mean age = 22.35), 30 middle-aged adults (mean age = 54.80) and 30 older adults (mean age = 70.27) performed the task. Results show an effect of type of binding and an effect of age but no interaction between type of binding and age. The interaction between type of binding and interference was significant. These results indicate that aging affects relational binding and conjunctive binding similarly. However, relational binding is more susceptible to interference than conjunctive binding, which suggests that relational binding may require more attentional resources. We suggest that a general decline in WM resources associated with frontal dysfunction underlies age-related deficits in WM binding. PMID:25216357

  20. Cognitive and neuropsychological underpinnings of relational and conjunctive working memory binding across age.

    PubMed

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Parra, Mario A; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form associations (i.e., binding) is critical for memory formation. Recent studies suggest that aging specifically affects relational binding (associating separate features) but not conjunctive binding (integrating features within an object). Possibly, this dissociation may be driven by the spatial nature of the studies so far. Alternatively, relational binding may simply require more attentional resources. We assessed relational and conjunctive binding in three age groups and we included an interfering task (i.e., an articulatory suppression task). Binding was examined in a working memory (WM) task using non-spatial features: shape and colour. Thirty-one young adults (mean age = 22.35), 30 middle-aged adults (mean age = 54.80) and 30 older adults (mean age = 70.27) performed the task. Results show an effect of type of binding and an effect of age but no interaction between type of binding and age. The interaction between type of binding and interference was significant. These results indicate that aging affects relational binding and conjunctive binding similarly. However, relational binding is more susceptible to interference than conjunctive binding, which suggests that relational binding may require more attentional resources. We suggest that a general decline in WM resources associated with frontal dysfunction underlies age-related deficits in WM binding.

  1. Cellular senescence in aging and age-related disease: from mechanisms to therapy

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Bennett G; Durik, Matej; Baker, Darren J; van Deursen, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence, a process that imposes permanent proliferative arrest on cells in response to various stressors, has emerged as a potentially important contributor to aging and age-related disease, and it is an attractive target for therapeutic exploitation. A wealth of information about senescence in cultured cells has been acquired over the past half century; however, senescence in living organisms is poorly understood, largely because of technical limitations relating to the identification and characterization of senescent cells in tissues and organs. Furthermore, newly recognized beneficial signaling functions of senescence suggest that indiscriminately targeting senescent cells or modulating their secretome for anti-aging therapy may have negative consequences. Here we discuss current progress and challenges in understanding the stressors that induce senescence in vivo, the cell types that are prone to senesce, and the autocrine and paracrine properties of senescent cells in the contexts of aging and age-related diseases as well as disease therapy. PMID:26646499

  2. Cellular senescence in aging and age-related disease: from mechanisms to therapy.

    PubMed

    Childs, Bennett G; Durik, Matej; Baker, Darren J; van Deursen, Jan M

    2015-12-01

    Cellular senescence, a process that imposes permanent proliferative arrest on cells in response to various stressors, has emerged as a potentially important contributor to aging and age-related disease, and it is an attractive target for therapeutic exploitation. A wealth of information about senescence in cultured cells has been acquired over the past half century; however, senescence in living organisms is poorly understood, largely because of technical limitations relating to the identification and characterization of senescent cells in tissues and organs. Furthermore, newly recognized beneficial signaling functions of senescence suggest that indiscriminately targeting senescent cells or modulating their secretome for anti-aging therapy may have negative consequences. Here we discuss current progress and challenges in understanding the stressors that induce senescence in vivo, the cell types that are prone to senesce, and the autocrine and paracrine properties of senescent cells in the contexts of aging and age-related diseases as well as disease therapy.

  3. Effective maintenance practices to manage system aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chockie, Alan; Bjorkelo, Kenneth

    A study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was recently undertaken to identify effective maintenance practices that could be adapted by the nuclear industry in the United States to assist in managing the aging degradation of plant systems and components. Four organizations were examined to assess the influence of maintenance programs on addressing the system and component aging degradation issues. An effective maintenance program was found to be essential to the management of system and component aging. Four key elements of an effective maintenance program that are important to an aging management were identified: (1) the selection of critical systems and components; (2) the development of an understanding of aging through the collection and analysis of equipment performance information; (3) the development of appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance tasks to manage equipment and system aging degradation; and (4) the use of feedback mechanisms to continuously improve the management of aging systems and components. These elements were found to be common to all four organizations.

  4. Age related changes in steroid receptors on cultured lung fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Barile, F.A.; Bienkowski, R.S.

    1986-03-05

    The number of high affinity glucocorticoid receptors (Ro) on human fetal lung fibroblasts decreases as the cells age in vitro, and it has been suggested that these cell systems may be useful models of age-related changes in vivo. They examined the relation between change in Ro with in vitro aging and donor age. Confluent monolayers of lung fibroblasts at various population doubling levels (PDL), were incubated with (/sup 3/H)-dexamethasone ((/sup 3/H)Dex) either alone or with excess (.01 mM) Dex. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between radioactivity in cells incubated with and without unlabeled Dex; Scatchard plots were used to analyze the data. Ro, measured as fmol (/sup 3/H)Dex/10/sup 6/ cells, for two lines of human fetal cells (HFL-1 and MRC-5) decreased with increasing age in vitro. However, human newborn (CRL-1485) and adult (CCL-201) cells and fetal rabbit cells (FAB-290), showed increases in Ro with continuous passage. For each cell line, the affinity constant (K/sub d/) did not change significantly with passage. They conclude that the direction of changes in steroid receptor levels on cells aging in vitro is influenced by donor age and species. Caution should be used in applying results obtained from model systems to aging organisms.

  5. Aging Affects Neural Synchronization to Speech-Related Acoustic Modulations

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Tine; Vercammen, Charlotte; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    As people age, speech perception problems become highly prevalent, especially in noisy situations. In addition to peripheral hearing and cognition, temporal processing plays a key role in speech perception. Temporal processing of speech features is mediated by synchronized activity of neural oscillations in the central auditory system. Previous studies indicate that both the degree and hemispheric lateralization of synchronized neural activity relate to speech perception performance. Based on these results, we hypothesize that impaired speech perception in older persons may, in part, originate from deviances in neural synchronization. In this study, auditory steady-state responses that reflect synchronized activity of theta, beta, low and high gamma oscillations (i.e., 4, 20, 40, and 80 Hz ASSR, respectively) were recorded in young, middle-aged, and older persons. As all participants had normal audiometric thresholds and were screened for (mild) cognitive impairment, differences in synchronized neural activity across the three age groups were likely to be attributed to age. Our data yield novel findings regarding theta and high gamma oscillations in the aging auditory system. At an older age, synchronized activity of theta oscillations is increased, whereas high gamma synchronization is decreased. In contrast to young persons who exhibit a right hemispheric dominance for processing of high gamma range modulations, older adults show a symmetrical processing pattern. These age-related changes in neural synchronization may very well underlie the speech perception problems in aging persons. PMID:27378906

  6. On the mediating effects of pregnancy and birth stress events on the relation between lateral preferences and cognitive functioning in healthy school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Van der Elst, Wim; Wassenberg, Renske; Meijs, Celeste; Hurks, Petra; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-06-01

    If the pathological left-handedness theory is valid, left-handed people who also experienced pregnancy and birth stress events (PBSEs) would especially be expected to deviate from the cognitive norm (rather than left-handers in general). This hypothesis was tested in a large sample of healthy children (aged 6.6-15.9 years). Multiple cognitive abilities were assessed, including verbal fluency and working memory. Children with a left lateral preference who also experienced a PBSE did not deviate from the cognitive norm. Age was positively associated with all cognitive measures, and mean level of parental education strongly affected verbal fluency functioning.

  7. On the mediating effects of pregnancy and birth stress events on the relation between lateral preferences and cognitive functioning in healthy school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Van der Elst, Wim; Wassenberg, Renske; Meijs, Celeste; Hurks, Petra; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-06-01

    If the pathological left-handedness theory is valid, left-handed people who also experienced pregnancy and birth stress events (PBSEs) would especially be expected to deviate from the cognitive norm (rather than left-handers in general). This hypothesis was tested in a large sample of healthy children (aged 6.6-15.9 years). Multiple cognitive abilities were assessed, including verbal fluency and working memory. Children with a left lateral preference who also experienced a PBSE did not deviate from the cognitive norm. Age was positively associated with all cognitive measures, and mean level of parental education strongly affected verbal fluency functioning. PMID:21347946

  8. Endocrine causes of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Riggs, B Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Women have an early postmenopausal phase of rapid bone loss that lasts for 5-10 years after menopause, whereas both ageing women and men have a slow continuous phase of bone loss that lasts indefinitely. In women, the rapid phase is mediated mainly by loss of the direct restraining effect of oestrogen on bone cell function, whereas the slow phase is mediated mainly by the loss of oestrogen action on extraskeletal calcium homeostasis leading to net calcium wasting and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Because elderly men have low serum bioavailable oestrogen and testosterone levels, and because recent data suggest that oestrogen is the main sex steroid regulating bone metabolism in men, oestrogen deficiency may also be the principal cause of bone loss in elderly men. Decreased bone formation contributes to bone loss in both genders and may be caused by a decreased production of growth hormone and IGF1 as well as oestrogen and testosterone deficiency. Other changes in endocrine secretion, although present in the elderly, seem less important in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis. PMID:11855691

  9. Age-related synthesis of glucocorticoids in thymocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao Shengjun Chen Liying; Okret, Sam; Jondal, Mikael

    2008-10-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are primarily synthesized in the adrenal glands but an ectopic production has also been reported in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract and in thymic epithelial cells (TEC). Here we show that thymocytes express genes encoding for all enzymes required for de novo GC synthesis and produce the hormone as demonstrated by both a GC specific reporter assay and a corticosterone specific ELISA assay. Interestingly, GC synthesis is detectable in cells from young mice (4 weeks) and thereafter increases during aging (14-22 weeks) together with an increased gene expression of the rate-limiting enzymes StAR and CYP11A1. Hormone production occurred at a thymocyte differentiation stage characterized by being double positive for the CD4 and CD8 surface markers but was found to be unrelated to CD69 expression, a marker for thymocytes undergoing positive selection. No GC synthesis was found in resting or anti-CD3 activated CD4 and CD8 positive T cells isolated from the spleen. Thymocyte-derived GC had an anti-proliferative effect on a GR-transfected cell line and induced apoptosis in thymocytes. The age- and differentiation stage-related GC synthesis in thymocytes may play a role in the involution process that the thymus gland undergoes.

  10. Age-related changes in ultra-triathlon performances

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The age-related decline in performance has been investigated in swimmers, runners and triathletes. No study has investigated the age-related performance decline in ultra-triathletes. The purpose of this study was to analyse the age-related declines in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time for both Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (11.4-km swimming, 540-km cycling and 126.6-km running) and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon (38-km swimming, 1,800-km cycling and 420-km running). Methods The age and performances of 423 male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes and 119 male Deca Iron ultra-triathletes were analysed from 1992 to 2010 using regression analyses and ANOVA. Results The mean age of the finishers was significantly higher for Deca Iron ultra-triathletes (41.3 ± 3.1 years) compared to a Triple Iron ultra-triathletes (38.5 ± 3.3 years) (P < 0.05). For both ultra-distances, the fastest overall race times were achieved between the ages of 25 and 44 years. Deca Iron ultra-triathletes achieved the same level of performance in swimming and cycling between 25 and 54 years of age. Conclusions The magnitudes of age-related declines in performance in the three disciplines of ultra-triathlon differ slightly between Triple and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. Although the ages of Triple Iron ultra-triathletes were on average younger compared to Deca Iron ultra-triathletes, the fastest race times were achieved between 25 and 44 years for both distances. Further studies should investigate the motivation and training of ultra-triathletes to gain better insights in ultra-triathlon performance. PMID:23849327

  11. DNA-aptamers raised against AGEs as a blocker of various aging-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi; Taguchi, Kensei; Fukami, Kei

    2016-08-01

    A non-enzymatic reaction between sugars or aldehydes and the amino groups of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids contributes to the aging of macromolecules, which could impair their structural integrity and function. This process begins with the conversion of reversible Schiff base adducts, and then to more stable, covalently-bound Amadori rearrangement products. Over a course of days to weeks, these early glycation products undergo further reactions, such as rearrangements and dehydration to become irreversibly crossed-linked, fluorescent protein derivatives termed advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The formation and accumulation of AGEs have been known to progress in a physiological aging process and at an accelerated rate under hyperglycemic, inflammatory and oxidative stress conditions. There is a growing body of evidence that AGEs and their receptor RAGE interaction play a role in the pathogenesis of various devastating disorders, including cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, insulin resistance, osteoporosis and cancer growth and metastasis. Furthermore, diet has been recently recognized as a major environmental source of AGEs that could also elicit pro-inflammatory reactions, thereby being involved in organ damage in vivo. Therefore, inhibition of AGE formation and/or blockade of the interaction of AGEs with RAGE may be a novel therapeutic target for aging-related disorders. This article discusses a potential utility of DNA-aptamers raised against AGEs for preventing aging and/or diabetes-associated organ damage, especially focusing on diabetic microvascular complications, vascular remodeling, metabolic derangements, and melanoma growth and expansion in animal models. PMID:27338620

  12. From mind wandering to involuntary retrieval: Age-related differences in spontaneous cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Maillet, David; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    The majority of studies that have investigated the effects of healthy aging on cognition have focused on age-related differences in voluntary and deliberately engaged cognitive processes. Yet many forms of cognition occur spontaneously, without any deliberate attempt at engaging them. In this article we review studies that have assessed age-related differences in four such types of spontaneous thought processes: mind-wandering, involuntary autobiographical memory, intrusive thoughts, and spontaneous prospective memory retrieval. These studies suggest that older adults exhibit a reduction in frequency of both mind-wandering and involuntary autobiographical memory, whereas findings regarding intrusive thoughts have been more mixed. Additionally, there is some preliminary evidence that spontaneous prospective memory retrieval may be relatively preserved in aging. We consider the roles of age-related differences in cognitive resources, motivation, current concerns and emotional regulation in accounting for these findings. We also consider age-related differences in the neural correlates of spontaneous cognitive processes.

  13. Age-Related Susceptibility of Turkeys to Enteric Viruses.

    PubMed

    Awe, Olusegun O; Kang, Kyung-il; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Ali, Ahmed; Elaish, Mohamed; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2015-06-01

    Several different enteric viruses have been identified as the causes of gastrointestinal infections in poultry. Enteric virus infections are well characterized in poults, but limited studies have been conducted in older birds. The susceptibility of 2-, 7-, 12-, 30-, and 52-wk-old turkeys to turkey coronavirus (TCoV) and turkey astrovirus (TAstV) was evaluated, as well as the effect of combined infection of TAstV and TCoV in 2-wk-old poults and turkey hens. From cloacal swabs and intestines, TCoV was consistently detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR throughout the experimental period (1-21 days postinoculation [DPI]) from all age groups. In contrast, the last detection point of TAstV gradually decreased to 21, 16, and 12 DPI in birds inoculated at 2, 7, and 12 wk of age, respectively, and viral RNA was rarely detected from cloacal swabs or intestinal contents in turkey hens within 3 DPI. Infection with TAstV alone did not affect body weight in poults or egg production in hens. The combined infection of TAstV and TCoV did not induce more severe clinical signs and pathology than the TCoV infection alone. However, a severe prolonged decrease in egg production (about 50%) was observed in turkey hens in the combined infection group compared with a transient egg production drop in the TCoV-infected hens alone. The underlying mechanism regarding the age-related TAstV susceptibility and the pathogenesis of the TAstV and TCoV coinfection in layer hens needs to be further elucidated. PMID:26473670

  14. Aging-related differences in chondrocyte viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Steklov, Nikolai; Srivastava, Ajay; Sung, K L P; Chen, Peter C; Lotz, Martin K; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2009-06-01

    The biomechanical properties of articular cartilage change profoundly with aging. These changes have been linked with increased potential for cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis. However, less is known about the change in biomechanical properties of chondrocytes with increasing age. Cell stiffness can affect mechanotransduction pathways and may alter cell function. We measured aging-related changes in the biomechanical properties of chondrocytes. Human chondrocytes were isolated from knee articular cartilage within 48 hours after death or from osteochondral specimens obtained from knee arthroplasty. Cells were divided into two age groups: between 18 and 35 years (18 - 35); and greater than 55 years (55+) of age. The 55+ group was further subdivided based on visual grade of osteoarthritis: normal (N) or osteoarthritic (OA). The viscoelastic properties of the cell were measured using the previously described micropipette cell aspiration technique. The equilibrium modulus, instantaneous modulus, and apparent viscosity were significantly higher in the 55+ year age group than in the 18 - 35 age group. On the other hand, no differences were found in the equilibrium modulus, instantaneous modulus, or apparent viscosity between the N and OA groups. The increase in cell stiffness can be attributed to altered mechanical properties of the cell membrane, the cytoplasm, or the cytoskeleton. Increased stiffness has been reported in osteoarthritic chondrocytes, which in turn has been attributed to the actin cytoskeleton. A similar mechanism may be responsible for our finding of increased stiffness in aging chondrocytes. With advancing age, changes in the biomechanical properties of the cell could alter molecular and biochemical responses.

  15. Human Aging Is a Metabolome-related Matter of Gender.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Maté, Ianire; Naudí, Alba; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Portero-Otín, Manuel; De la Fuente, Mónica; Pamplona, Reinald

    2016-05-01

    A molecular description of the mechanisms by which aging is produced is still very limited. Here, we have determined the plasma metabolite profile by using high-throughput metabolome profiling technologies of 150 healthy humans ranging from 30 to 100 years of age. Using a nontargeted approach, we detected 2,678 metabolite species in plasma, and the multivariate analyses separated perfectly two groups indicating a specific signature for each gender. In addition, there is a set of gender-shared metabolites, which change significantly during aging with a similar tendency. Among the identified molecules, we found vitamin D2-related compound, phosphoserine (40:5), monoacylglyceride (22:1), diacylglyceride (33:2), and resolvin D6, all of them decreasing with the aging process. Finally, we found three molecules that directly correlate with age and seven that inversely correlate with age, independently of gender. Among the identified molecules (6 of 10 according to exact mass and retention time), we found a proteolytic product (l-γ-glutamyl-l-leucine), which increased with age. On the contrary, a hydroxyl fatty acid (25-hydroxy-hexacosanoic), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid), two phospholipids (phosphocholine [42:9]and phosphoserine [42:3]) and a prostaglandin (15-keto-prostaglandin F2α) decreased with aging. These results suggest that lipid species and their metabolism are closely linked to the aging process.

  16. Caspase-2 Deficiency Enhances Aging-Related Traits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingpei; Padalecki, Susan S; Chaudhuri, Asish R; Waal, Eric De; Goins, Beth A; Grubbs, Barry; Ikeno, Yuji; Richardson, Arlan; Mundy, Gregory R; Herman, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Alteration of apoptotic activity has been observed in a number of tissues in aging mammals, but it remains unclear whether and/or how apoptosis may affect aging. Caspase-2 is a member of the cysteine protease family that plays a critical role in apoptosis. To understand the impact of compromised apoptosis function on mammalian aging, we conducted a comparative study on caspase-2 deficient mice and their wild-type littermates with a specific focus on the aging-related traits at advanced ages. We found that caspase-2 deficiency enhanced a number of traits commonly seen in premature aging animals. Loss of caspase-2 was associated with shortened maximum lifespan, impaired hair growth, increased bone loss, and reduced body fat content. In addition, we found that the livers of caspase-2 deficient mice had higher levels of oxidized proteins than those of age-matched wild-type mice, suggesting that caspase-2 deficiency compromised the animal's ability to clear oxidatively damaged cells. Collectively, these results suggest that caspase-2 deficiency affects aging in the mice. This study thus demonstrates for the first time that disruption of a key apoptotic gene has a significant impact on aging. PMID:17188333

  17. Awareness, Knowledge, and Concern about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…

  18. Functional correlates of brain aging: beta and gamma frequency band responses to age-related cortical changes.

    PubMed

    Christov, Mario; Dushanova, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    The brain as a system with gradually declined resources by age maximizes its performance by neural network reorganization for greater efficiency of neuronal oscillations in a given frequency band. Whether event-related high-frequency band responses are related to plasticity in neural recruitment contributed to the stability of sensory/cognitive mechanisms accompanying aging or are underlined pathological changes seen in aging brain remains unknown. Aged effect on brain electrical activity was studied in auditory discrimination task (low-frequency and high-frequency tone) at particular cortical locations in beta (β1: 12.5-20; β2: 20.5-30 Hz) and gamma frequency bands (γ1: 30.5-49; γ2: 52-69 Hz) during sensory (post-stimulus interval 0-250 ms) and cognitive processing (250-600 ms). Beta1 activity less affected by age during sensory processing. Reduced beta1 activity was more widespread during cognitive processing. This difference increased in fronto-parietal direction more expressed after high-frequency tone stimulation. Beta2 and gamma activity were more pronounced with progressive age during sensory processing. Reducing regional-process specificity with progressing age characterized age-related and tone-dependent beta2 changes during sensory, but not during cognitive processing. Beta2 and gamma activity diminished with age on cognitive processes, except the higher frontal tone-dependent gamma activity during cognitive processing. With increasing age, larger gamma2 activity was more expressed over the frontal brain areas to high tone discrimination and hand reaction choice. These gamma2 differences were shifted from posterior to anterior brain regions with advancing age. The aged influence was higher on cognitive processes than on perceptual ones. PMID:27373947

  19. Discover the network mechanisms underlying the connections between aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jialiang; Huang, Tao; Song, Won-Min; Petralia, Francesca; Mobbs, Charles V; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Yong; Schadt, Eric E; Zhu, Jun; Tu, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Although our knowledge of aging has greatly expanded in the past decades, it remains elusive why and how aging contributes to the development of age-related diseases (ARDs). In particular, a global mechanistic understanding of the connections between aging and ARDs is yet to be established. We rely on a network modelling named "GeroNet" to study the connections between aging and more than a hundred diseases. By evaluating topological connections between aging genes and disease genes in over three thousand subnetworks corresponding to various biological processes, we show that aging has stronger connections with ARD genes compared to non-ARD genes in subnetworks corresponding to "response to decreased oxygen levels", "insulin signalling pathway", "cell cycle", etc. Based on subnetwork connectivity, we can correctly "predict" if a disease is age-related and prioritize the biological processes that are involved in connecting to multiple ARDs. Using Alzheimer's disease (AD) as an example, GeroNet identifies meaningful genes that may play key roles in connecting aging and ARDs. The top modules identified by GeroNet in AD significantly overlap with modules identified from a large scale AD brain gene expression experiment, supporting that GeroNet indeed reveals the underlying biological processes involved in the disease. PMID:27582315

  20. Discover the network mechanisms underlying the connections between aging and age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jialiang; Huang, Tao; Song, Won-min; Petralia, Francesca; Mobbs, Charles V.; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Yong; Schadt, Eric E.; Zhu, Jun; Tu, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Although our knowledge of aging has greatly expanded in the past decades, it remains elusive why and how aging contributes to the development of age-related diseases (ARDs). In particular, a global mechanistic understanding of the connections between aging and ARDs is yet to be established. We rely on a network modelling named “GeroNet” to study the connections between aging and more than a hundred diseases. By evaluating topological connections between aging genes and disease genes in over three thousand subnetworks corresponding to various biological processes, we show that aging has stronger connections with ARD genes compared to non-ARD genes in subnetworks corresponding to “response to decreased oxygen levels”, “insulin signalling pathway”, “cell cycle”, etc. Based on subnetwork connectivity, we can correctly “predict” if a disease is age-related and prioritize the biological processes that are involved in connecting to multiple ARDs. Using Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as an example, GeroNet identifies meaningful genes that may play key roles in connecting aging and ARDs. The top modules identified by GeroNet in AD significantly overlap with modules identified from a large scale AD brain gene expression experiment, supporting that GeroNet indeed reveals the underlying biological processes involved in the disease. PMID:27582315

  1. Aging on a different scale--chronological versus pathology-related aging.

    PubMed

    Melis, Joost P M; Jonker, Martijs J; Vijg, Jan; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Breit, Timo M; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-10-01

    In the next decades the elderly population will increase dramatically, demanding appropriate solutions in health care and aging research focusing on healthy aging to prevent high burdens and costs in health care. For this, research targeting tissue-specific and individual aging is paramount to make the necessary progression in aging research. In a recently published study we have attempted to make a step interpreting aging data on chronological as well as pathological scale. For this, we sampled five major tissues at regular time intervals during the entire C57BL/6J murine lifespan from a controlled in vivo aging study, measured the whole transcriptome and incorporated temporal as well as physical health aspects into the analyses. In total, we used 18 different age-related pathological parameters and transcriptomic profiles of liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain and created a database that can now be used for a broad systems biology approach. In our study, we focused on the dynamics of biological processes during chronological aging and the comparison between chronological and pathology-related aging.

  2. Aging on a different scale – chronological versus pathology-related aging

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Jonker, Martijs J.; Vijg, Jan; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Breit, Timo M.; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-01-01

    In the next decades the elderly population will increase dramatically, demanding appropriate solutions in health care and aging research focusing on healthy aging to prevent high burdens and costs in health care. For this, research targeting tissue-specific and individual aging is paramount to make the necessary progression in aging research. In a recently published study we have attempted to make a step interpreting aging data on chronological as well as pathological scale. For this, we sampled five major tissues at regular time intervals during the entire C57BL/6J murine lifespan from a controlled in vivo aging study, measured the whole transcriptome and incorporated temporal as well as physical health aspects into the analyses. In total, we used 18 different age-related pathological parameters and transcriptomic profiles of liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain and created a database that can now be used for a broad systems biology approach. In our study, we focused on the dynamics of biological processes during chronological aging and the comparison between chronological and pathology-related aging. PMID:24131799

  3. The age-related emergence of cranial morphological variation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Carolan

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of ancestry from skeletal remains is problematic for subadults because of a lack of systematic research on the topic. This paper addresses the need for systematic research into geographical variation through childhood and puberty through the examination of the emergence of cranial morphological traits through an analysis of 756 subadults from 4 months in utero to <20 years of age. The first appearance of a trait, changes in the morphology of a trait through time, age stability as related to the age of maturation of the structure, and the developmental mechanisms and processes that cause traits to appear together are addressed. Most traits are influenced by patterns of growth and development and become age stable in conjunction with the larger growth complexes of which they are a part. Geographic cranial variation is present from an early age. Population specific differences in the expression of most traits are apparent from their first appearance.

  4. Ageism, age relations, and garment industry work in Montreal.

    PubMed

    McMullin, J A; Marshall, V W

    2001-02-01

    This study examined the complexities of age relations at work. Garment workers believed that their fate was linked to ageism and that their work experience was discounted by management. Managers wanted to be rid of older workers because they commanded higher wages than younger workers. The issue was cost reduction, and age was implicated unintendedly. Still, managers seemed to use stereotypical images to discourage older workers and they did not organize work routines to facilitate the adaptation of them. Instead, they subcontracted the easy jobs, relying on the experience of the older employees for difficult work while not adapting the workplace. Theoretically, the authors argue that ageism and age discrimination can best be understood through a recognition of the importance of structured age relations and human agency.

  5. Relational learning and transitive expression in aging and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer D; D'Angelo, Maria C; Kamino, Daphne; Ostreicher, Melanie; Moses, Sandra N; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-02-01

    Aging has been associated with a decline in relational memory, which is critically supported by the hippocampus. By adapting the transitivity paradigm (Bunsey and Eichenbaum (1996) Nature 379:255-257), which traditionally has been used in nonhuman animal research, this work examined the extent to which aging is accompanied by deficits in relational learning and flexible expression of relational information. Older adults' performance was additionally contrasted with that of amnesic case DA to understand the critical contributions of the medial temporal lobe, and specifically, the hippocampus, which endures structural and functional changes in healthy aging. Participants were required to select the correct choice item (B versus Y) based on the presented sample item (e.g., A). Pairwise relations must be learned (A->B, B->C, C->D) so that ultimately, the correct relations can be inferred when presented with a novel probe item (A->C?Z?). Participants completed four conditions of transitivity that varied in terms of the degree to which the stimuli and the relations among them were known pre-experimentally. Younger adults, older adults, and DA performed similarly when the condition employed all pre-experimentally known, semantic, relations. Older adults and DA were less accurate than younger adults when all to-be-learned relations were arbitrary. However, accuracy improved for older adults when they could use pre-experimentally known pairwise relations to express understanding of arbitrary relations as indexed through inference judgments. DA could not learn arbitrary relations nor use existing knowledge to support novel inferences. These results suggest that while aging has often been associated with an emerging decline in hippocampal function, prior knowledge can be used to support novel inferences. However, in case DA, significant damage to the hippocampus likely impaired his ability to learn novel relations, while additional damage to ventromedial prefrontal and

  6. Common cell biologic and biochemical changes in aging and age-related diseases of the eye: Toward new therapeutic approaches to age-related ocular diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reviews of information about age related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, and glaucoma make it apparent that while each eye tissue has its own characteristic metabolism, structure and function, there are common perturbations to homeostasis that are associated with age-related dysfunction. The c...

  7. Age-Related and Sex-Related Differences in Hand and Pinch Grip Strength in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puh, Urska

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify age-related changes in hand grip strength and three types of pinch grip strength (key pinch, tip pinch, and palmar pinch) among male and female participants. The study included 199 healthy participants (100 females, 99 males) aged 20-79 years, who were divided into four age groups. The Baseline Hydraulic…

  8. Aging effect in the BESIII drift chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ming-Yi; Xiu, Qing-Lei; Wu, Ling-Hui; Wu, Zhi; Qin, Zhong-Hua; Shen, Pin; An, Fen-Fen; Ju, Xu-Dong; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Kai; Qun, Ou-Yang; Chen, Yuan-Bo

    2016-01-01

    As the main tracking detector of BESIII, the drift chamber provides accurate measurements of the position and the momentum of the charged particles produced in e+e- collisions at BEPCII. After six years of operation, the drift chamber is suffering from aging problems due to huge beam-related background. The gains of the cells in the first ten layers show an obvious decrease, reaching a maximum decrease of about 29% for the first layer cells. Two calculation methods for the gain change (Bhabha events and accumulated charges with 0.3% aging ratio for inner chamber cells) give almost the same results. For the Malter effect encountered by the inner drift chamber in January 2012, about 0.2% water vapor was added to the MDC gas mixture to solve this cathode aging problem. These results provide an important reference for MDC operating high voltage settings and the upgrade of the inner drift chamber. Supported by the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  9. Age versus Schooling Effects on Intelligence Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Cohen, Nora

    1989-01-01

    A study of effects of age and schooling in grades five and six on raw scores from a variety of general ability tests found that schooling: (1) is the major factor underlying the increase of intelligence test scores as a function of age; and (2) has a larger effect on verbal than nonverbal tests. (RH)

  10. Gravity effects on reproduction, development, and aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, Jaime; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of various levels of gravity force (obtained by rotation in clinostats or by centrifugation) and the near-weightlessness condition aboard orbiting spacecraft on the fertilization, embryonic development, maturation, and aging of animals are examined. Results obtained from the American and Soviet spaceborne biology experiments are presented including those on mammals, amphibians, fish, birds, invertebrates, and protozoa. Theoretical issues related to the effect of gravity on various physiological systems are discused together with the future research goals concerning human life in space. It is noted that life in space (after adaptation to near-weightlessness) might be significantly prolonged due to a reduction in metabolic rate and a concomitant decrease in oxygen radical reactions.

  11. Age related distributive justice and claims on resources.

    PubMed

    Irwin, S

    1996-03-01

    The ageing population structure, and claims on resources by non-working groups, are seen by many to be contributing to a growing welfare crisis. In their arguments, relations between age groups and generations will become increasingly fraught, and welfare arrangements will be undermined, as 'unacceptable' levels of taxation blight the experience of a contracting workforce, required to resource a growing welfare population. However, more seems to be known about researchers' views on distributive justice than is known about the perceptions of their subject populations. It has not been demonstrated that members of age groups share interests which are consonant with their cohort experience, or perceive their interests to be in conflict with those members of other age groups or generations. This paper analyses empirical evidence on people's perceptions of who should get, and do, what, in developing an argument that standard processes do not place age groups or generations in antagonistic relationship. Understanding the relations between age groups and generations is essential to explaining change in patterns of inequality, but the interdependence of these relations suggest that they are part of a coherent social structure, and not likely to give rise to crisis in the ways predicted.

  12. Classical Cepheid Pulsation Models. X. The Period-Age Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, G.; Marconi, M.; Cassisi, S.; Caputo, F.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzynski, G.

    2005-03-01

    We present new period-age (PA) and period-age-color (PAC) relations for fundamental and first-overtone classical Cepheids. Current predictions rely on homogeneous sets of evolutionary and pulsation models covering a broad range of stellar masses and chemical compositions. We found that PA and PAC relations present a mild dependence on metal content. Moreover, the use of different PA and PAC relations for fundamental and first-overtone Cepheids improves the accuracy of age estimates in the short-period (logP<1) range (old Cepheids), because they present smaller intrinsic dispersions. At the same time, the use of the PAC relations improves the accuracy in the long-period (logP>=1) range (young Cepheids), since they account for the position of individual objects inside the instability strip. We performed a detailed comparison between evolutionary and pulsation ages for a sizable sample of LMC (15) and SMC (12) clusters which host at least two Cepheids. In order to avoid deceptive uncertainties in the photometric absolute zero point, we adopted the homogeneous set of B, V, and I data for clusters and Cepheids collected by OGLE. We also adopted the same reddening scale. The different age estimates agree at the level of 20% for LMC clusters and of 10% for SMC clusters. We also performed the same comparison for two Galactic clusters (NGC 6067, NGC 7790), and the difference in age is smaller than 20%. These findings support the use of PA and PAC relations to supply accurate estimates of individual stellar ages in the Galaxy and in external Galaxies. The main advantage of this approach is its independence from the distance.

  13. ROS, Cell Senescence, and Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Davalli, Pierpaola; Mitic, Tijana; Caporali, Andrea; Lauriola, Angela; D'Arca, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The aging process worsens the human body functions at multiple levels, thus causing its gradual decrease to resist stress, damage, and disease. Besides changes in gene expression and metabolic control, the aging rate has been associated with the production of high levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and/or Reactive Nitrosative Species (RNS). Specific increases of ROS level have been demonstrated as potentially critical for induction and maintenance of cell senescence process. Causal connection between ROS, aging, age-related pathologies, and cell senescence is studied intensely. Senescent cells have been proposed as a target for interventions to delay the aging and its related diseases or to improve the diseases treatment. Therapeutic interventions towards senescent cells might allow restoring the health and curing the diseases that share basal processes, rather than curing each disease in separate and symptomatic way. Here, we review observations on ROS ability of inducing cell senescence through novel mechanisms that underpin aging processes. Particular emphasis is addressed to the novel mechanisms of ROS involvement in epigenetic regulation of cell senescence and aging, with the aim to individuate specific pathways, which might promote healthy lifespan and improve aging. PMID:27247702

  14. Age-related differences in neurotoxicity produced by organophosphorus and N-methyl carbamate pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential pesticide effects in infants and toddlers have received much attention in the scientific literature and the public media, including the concern for increased response to acute or shortterm exposures. Age-related differences in the acute neurotoxicity of acetylcholinest...

  15. AGE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN HUMAN SKIN FIBROBLASTS INDUCED BY MMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Age-Related Gene Expression Changes In Human Skin Fibroblasts Induced By methyl methanesulfonate. Geremy W. Knapp, Alan H. Tennant, and Russell D. Owen. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U. S. Environmental Prote...

  16. Comparing Aging and Fitness Effects on Brain Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mark A; Low, Kathy A; Boyd, Rachel; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Gordon, Brian A; Tan, Chin H; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Sutton, Bradley P; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain's atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55-87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects. Results showed that lower fitness and older age are associated with atrophy in several brain regions, replicating past studies. However, when the profiles of age and fitness effects were compared using a number of statistical approaches, the effects were not entirely overlapping. Interestingly, some of the regions that were most influenced by age were among those not influenced by fitness. Presumably, the age-related atrophy occurring in these regions is due to factors that are more impervious to the beneficial effects of fitness. Possible mechanisms supporting regional heterogeneity may include differential involvement in motor function, the presence of adult neurogenesis, and differential sensitivity to cerebrovascular, neurotrophic and metabolic factors. PMID:27445740

  17. Comparing Aging and Fitness Effects on Brain Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mark A; Low, Kathy A; Boyd, Rachel; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Gordon, Brian A; Tan, Chin H; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Sutton, Bradley P; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain's atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55-87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects. Results showed that lower fitness and older age are associated with atrophy in several brain regions, replicating past studies. However, when the profiles of age and fitness effects were compared using a number of statistical approaches, the effects were not entirely overlapping. Interestingly, some of the regions that were most influenced by age were among those not influenced by fitness. Presumably, the age-related atrophy occurring in these regions is due to factors that are more impervious to the beneficial effects of fitness. Possible mechanisms supporting regional heterogeneity may include differential involvement in motor function, the presence of adult neurogenesis, and differential sensitivity to cerebrovascular, neurotrophic and metabolic factors.

  18. Comparing Aging and Fitness Effects on Brain Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Mark A.; Low, Kathy A.; Boyd, Rachel; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Gordon, Brian A.; Tan, Chin H.; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Sutton, Bradley P.; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain’s atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55–87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects. Results showed that lower fitness and older age are associated with atrophy in several brain regions, replicating past studies. However, when the profiles of age and fitness effects were compared using a number of statistical approaches, the effects were not entirely overlapping. Interestingly, some of the regions that were most influenced by age were among those not influenced by fitness. Presumably, the age-related atrophy occurring in these regions is due to factors that are more impervious to the beneficial effects of fitness. Possible mechanisms supporting regional heterogeneity may include differential involvement in motor function, the presence of adult neurogenesis, and differential sensitivity to cerebrovascular, neurotrophic and metabolic factors. PMID:27445740

  19. Age-related decline in emotional prosody discrimination: acoustic correlates.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Kingston, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    It is now accepted that older adults have difficulty recognizing prosodic emotion cues, but it is not clear at what processing stage this ability breaks down. We manipulated the acoustic characteristics of tones in pitch, amplitude, and duration discrimination tasks to assess whether impaired basic auditory perception coexisted with our previously demonstrated age-related prosodic emotion perception impairment. It was found that pitch perception was particularly impaired in older adults, and that it displayed the strongest correlation with prosodic emotion discrimination. We conclude that an important cause of age-related impairment in prosodic emotion comprehension exists at the fundamental sensory level of processing.

  20. Age-Dependent Modifications of AMPA Receptor Subunit Expression Levels and Related Cognitive Effects in 3xTg-AD Mice.

    PubMed

    Cantanelli, Pamela; Sperduti, Samantha; Ciavardelli, Domenico; Stuppia, Liborio; Gatta, Valentina; Sensi, Stefano Luca

    2014-01-01

    GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4 are the constitutive subunits of amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs), the major mediators of fast excitatory transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. Most AMPARs are Ca(2+)-impermeable because of the presence of the GluA2 subunit. GluA2 mRNA undergoes an editing process that results in a Q-R substitution, a key factor in the regulation of AMPAR Ca(2+)-permeability. AMPARs lacking GluA2 or containing the unedited subunit are permeable to Ca(2+) and Zn(2+). The phenomenon physiologically modulates synaptic plasticity while, in pathologic conditions, leads to increased vulnerability to excitotoxic neuronal death. Given the importance of these subunits, we have therefore evaluated possible associations between changes in expression levels of AMPAR subunits and development of cognitive deficits in 3xTg-AD mice, a widely investigated transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). With quantitative real-time PCR analysis, we assayed hippocampal mRNA expression levels of GluA1-4 subunits occurring in young [3 months of age (m.o.a.)] and old (12 m.o.a) Tg-AD mice and made comparisons with levels found in age-matched wild type (WT) mice. Efficiency of GluA2 RNA editing was also analyzed. All animals were cognitively tested for learning short- and long-term spatial memory with the Morris Water Maze (MWM) navigation task. 3xTg-AD mice showed age-dependent decreases of mRNA levels for all the AMPAR subunits, with the exception of GluA2. Editing remained fully efficient with aging in 3xTg-AD and WT mice. A one-to-one correlation analysis between MWM performances and GluA1-4 mRNA expression profiles showed negative correlations between GluA2 levels and MWM performances in young 3xTg-AD mice. On the contrary, positive correlations between GluA2 mRNA and MWM performances were found in young WT mice. Our data suggest that increases of AMPARs that contain GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4 subunits may help in

  1. Age-Related Evolution Patterns in Online Handwriting

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing age from handwriting (HW) has important applications, as it is key to distinguishing normal HW evolution with age from abnormal HW change, potentially triggered by neurodegenerative decline. We propose, in this work, an original approach for online HW style characterization based on a two-level clustering scheme. The first level generates writer-independent word clusters from raw spatial-dynamic HW information. At the second level, each writer's words are converted into a Bag of Prototype Words that is augmented by an interword stability measure. This two-level HW style representation is input to an unsupervised learning technique, aiming at uncovering HW style categories and their correlation with age. To assess the effectiveness of our approach, we propose information theoretic measures to quantify the gain on age information from each clustering layer. We have carried out extensive experiments on a large public online HW database, augmented by HW samples acquired at Broca Hospital in Paris from people mostly between 60 and 85 years old. Unlike previous works claiming that there is only one pattern of HW change with age, our study reveals three major aging HW styles, one specific to aged people and the two others shared by other age groups. PMID:27752277

  2. Aging and emotional memory: cognitive mechanisms underlying the positivity effect.

    PubMed

    Spaniol, Julia; Voss, Andreas; Grady, Cheryl L

    2008-12-01

    Younger adults tend to remember negative information better than positive or neutral information (negativity bias). The negativity bias is reduced in aging, with older adults occasionally exhibiting superior memory for positive, as opposed to negative or neutral, information (positivity bias). Two experiments with younger (N=24 in Experiment 1, N=25 in Experiment 2; age range: 18-35 years) and older adults (N=24 in both experiments; age range: 60-85 years) investigated the cognitive mechanisms responsible for age-related differences in recognition memory for emotional information. Results from diffusion model analyses (R. Ratcliff, 1978) indicated that the effects of valence on response bias were similar in both age groups but that Age x Valence interactions emerged in memory retrieval. Specifically, older adults experienced greater overall familiarity for positive items than younger adults. We interpret this finding in terms of an age-related increase in the accessibility of positive information in long-term memory. PMID:19140656

  3. Dissecting simulated disc galaxies - II. The age-velocity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martig, Marie; Minchev, Ivan; Flynn, Chris

    2014-09-01

    We study the relation between stellar ages and vertical velocity dispersion (the age-velocity relation, or AVR) in a sample of seven simulated disc galaxies. In our simulations, the shape of the AVR for stars younger than 9 Gyr depends strongly on the merger history at low redshift, with even 1:10-1:15 mergers being able to create jumps in the AVR (although these jumps might not be detectable if the errors on stellar ages are of the order of 30 per cent). For galaxies with a quiescent history at low redshift, we find that the vertical velocity dispersion rises smoothly for ages up to 8-9 Gyr, following a power law with a slope of ˜0.5, similar to what is observed in the solar neighbourhood by the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey. For these galaxies, we show that the slope of the AVR is not imprinted at birth, but is the result of subsequent heating. By contrast, in all our simulations, the oldest stars form a significantly different population, with a high velocity dispersion. These stars are usually born kinematically hot in a turbulent phase of intense mergers at high redshift, and also include some stars accreted from satellites. This maximum in σz is strongly decreased when age errors are included, suggesting that observations can easily miss such a jump with the current accuracy of age measurements.

  4. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  5. FRAS1-related extracellular matrix 3 (FREM3) single-nucleotide polymorphism effects on gene expression, amygdala reactivity and perceptual processing speed: An accelerated aging pathway of depression risk.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Yuliya S; Iruku, Swetha P; Lin, Chien-Wei; Conley, Emily Drabant; Puralewski, Rachel; French, Beverly; Hariri, Ahmad R; Sibille, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    The A allele of the FRAS1-related extracellular matrix protein 3 (FREM3) rs7676614 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was linked to major depressive disorder (MDD) in an early genome-wide association study (GWAS), and to symptoms of psychomotor retardation in a follow-up investigation. In line with significant overlap between age- and depression-related molecular pathways, parallel work has shown that FREM3 expression in postmortem human brain decreases with age. Here, we probe the effect of rs7676614 on amygdala reactivity and perceptual processing speed, both of which are altered in depression and aging. Amygdala reactivity was assessed using a face-matching BOLD fMRI paradigm in 365 Caucasian participants in the Duke Neurogenetics Study (DNS) (192 women, mean age 19.7 ± 1.2). Perceptual processing speed was indexed by reaction times in the same task and the Trail Making Test (TMT). The effect of rs7676614 on FREM3 mRNA brain expression levels was probed in a postmortem cohort of 169 Caucasian individuals (44 women, mean age 50.8 ± 14.9). The A allele of rs7676614 was associated with blunted amygdala reactivity to faces, slower reaction times in the face-matching condition (p < 0.04), as well as marginally slower performance on TMT Part B (p = 0.056). In the postmortem cohort, the T allele of rs6537170 (proxy for the rs7676614 A allele), was associated with trend-level reductions in gene expression in Brodmann areas 11 and 47 (p = 0.066), reminiscent of patterns characteristic of older age. The low-expressing allele of another FREM3 SNP (rs1391187) was similarly associated with reduced amygdala reactivity and slower TMT Part B speed, in addition to reduced BA47 activity and extraversion (p < 0.05). Together, these results suggest common genetic variation associated with reduced FREM3 expression may confer risk for a subtype of depression characterized by reduced reactivity to environmental stimuli and slower perceptual processing speed, possibly suggestive of

  6. FRAS1-related extracellular matrix 3 (FREM3) single-nucleotide polymorphism effects on gene expression, amygdala reactivity and perceptual processing speed: An accelerated aging pathway of depression risk

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Iruku, Swetha P.; Lin, Chien-Wei; Conley, Emily Drabant; Puralewski, Rachel; French, Beverly; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Sibille, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    The A allele of the FRAS1-related extracellular matrix protein 3 (FREM3) rs7676614 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was linked to major depressive disorder (MDD) in an early genome-wide association study (GWAS), and to symptoms of psychomotor retardation in a follow-up investigation. In line with significant overlap between age- and depression-related molecular pathways, parallel work has shown that FREM3 expression in postmortem human brain decreases with age. Here, we probe the effect of rs7676614 on amygdala reactivity and perceptual processing speed, both of which are altered in depression and aging. Amygdala reactivity was assessed using a face-matching BOLD fMRI paradigm in 365 Caucasian participants in the Duke Neurogenetics Study (DNS) (192 women, mean age 19.7 ± 1.2). Perceptual processing speed was indexed by re