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Sample records for age reproductive status

  1. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  2. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to different ages and reproductive statuses of varroa mites in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four different classes of mites: gravid, phoret...

  3. Impact of Reproductive Status and Age on Response of Depressed Women to Cognitive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Minhajuddin, Abu; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective Previous research suggests that reproductive hormones are potential affective modulators in mood disorders and may influence response to antidepressant medications. To our knowledge, there are no data on relationships between hormonal status and response to psychotherapy for recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods At two sites, female outpatients (n=353), aged 18–70, with recurrent MDD received 12–14 weeks of cognitive therapy (CT). Menopausal status and age were based on self-report. In the parent study, nonresponse to therapy was defined as persistence of a major depressive episode (MDE) as defined by the DSM-IV or a final Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17-Item (HRSD17) score of ≥ 12 or both. More traditional definitions of response (at least a 50% reduction in pretreatment HRSD17) and remission (a final HRSD17 ≤ 6) were also examined. Results Controlling for pretreatment HRSD17 scores, there were no significant differences found in the rates of response to CT or symptom status among premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women. Conclusions We found no support for the hypotheses that response to CT or the rates of change in depressive symptoms are moderated by reproductive status. The findings, however, are limited by the absence of early follicular phase serum sampling/analysis to estimate hormone levels and the reliance on self-report to establish menopausal status. These data motivate a full investigation of the effects of reproductive status on response to psychosocial interventions. PMID:23305218

  4. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nystrand, M.; Dowling, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring. PMID:25253454

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid status in females of reproductive age with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Mazer, Laura M; Yi, Sarah H L; Singh, Rani H

    2010-04-01

    Individuals with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) have impaired metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, isoleucine, and leucine. Life-long dietary therapy is recommended to restrict BCAA intake and thus prevent poor neurological outcomes and death. To maintain adequate nutritional status, the majority of protein and nutrients are derived from synthetic BCAA-free medical foods with variable fatty acid content. Given the restrictive diet and the importance of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in neurological development, this study evaluated the dietary and fatty acid status of females of reproductive age with MSUD attending a metabolic camp. Healthy controls of similar age and sex were selected from existing normal laboratory data. Total lipid fatty acid concentration in plasma and erythrocytes was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Participants with MSUD had normal to increased concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte alpha linolenic acid (ALA) but significantly lower concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as percent of total lipid fatty acids compared with controls (plasma DHA: MSUD 1.03 +/- 0.35, controls 2.87 +/- 1.08; P = 0.001; erythrocyte DHA: MSUD 2.58 +/- 0.58, controls 3.66 +/- 0.80; P = 0.011). Dietary records reflected negligible or no DHA intake over the 3-day period prior to the blood draw (range 0-2 mg). These results suggest females of reproductive age with MSUD have lower blood DHA concentrations than age-matched controls. In addition, the presence of ALA in medical foods and the background diet may not counter the lack of preformed DHA in the diet. The implications of these results warrant further investigation. PMID:20217236

  6. Influence of Age, Reproductive Cycling Status, and Menstruation on the Vaginal Microbiome in Baboons (Papio anubis)

    PubMed Central

    UCHIHASHI, M.; BERGIN, I. L.; BASSIS, C. M.; HASHWAY, S. A.; CHAI, D.; BELL, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    The vaginal microbiome is believed to influence host health by providing protection from pathogens and influencing reproductive outcomes such as fertility and gestational length. In humans, age-associated declines in diversity of the vaginal microbiome occur in puberty and persist into adulthood. Additionally, menstruation has been associated with decreased microbial community stability. Adult female baboons, like other non-human primates (NHPs), have a different and highly diverse vaginal microbiome compared to that of humans, which is most commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp. We evaluated the influence of age, reproductive cycling status (cycling vs. non-cycling) and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome of 38 wild-caught, captive female olive baboons (Papio anubis) by culture-independent sequencing of the V3–V5 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. All baboons had highly diverse vaginal microbial communities. Adult baboons had significantly lower microbial diversity in comparison to subadult baboons, which was attributable to decreased relative abundance of minor taxa. No significant differences were detected based on cycling state or menstruation. Predictive metagenomic analysis showed uniformity in relative abundance of metabolic pathways regardless of age, cycle stage, or menstruation, indicating conservation of microbial community functions. This study suggests that selection of an optimal vaginal microbial community occurs at puberty. Since decreased diversity occurs in both baboons and humans at puberty, this may reflect a general strategy for selection of adult vaginal microbial communities. Comparative evaluation of vaginal microbial community development and composition may elucidate mechanisms of community formation and function that are conserved across host species or across microbial community types. These findings have implications for host health, evolutionary biology, and microbe-host ecosystems. PMID:25676781

  7. Chemical signals in the stingless bee, Frieseomelitta varia, indicate caste, gender, age, and reproductive status.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Túlio M; Turatti, Izabel C C; Lopes, Norberto P; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    2009-10-01

    Chemical compounds on the cuticle are a rich source of information used during interactions among social insects. Despite the multitude of studies on these substances and their function in ants, wasps, and honeybees, little is known about this subject in stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini). We studied the chemical composition of the cuticle of the stingless bee, Frieseomelitta varia, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to investigate potential chemical variation among castes, gender, age, and reproductive status. We found differences in the cuticular hydrocarbon composition among workers, males, and queens, recording both qualitative and quantitative differences among individuals of different ages and gender. The cuticle of physogastric queens presented a chemical profile that was distinct from all other groups in the analysis, with high relative abundances of alkenes and alkadienes with 27, 29, and 31 carbon atoms. We discuss the possibility that these compounds signal a queen's presence to the colony, thereby initiating all vital worker-queen interactions. PMID:19813058

  8. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies. PMID:25936819

  9. Polysomnographic evaluation of sleep quality and quantitative variables in women as a function of mood, reproductive status, and age

    PubMed Central

    Orff, Henry J.; Meliska, Charles J.; Lopez, Ana; Martinez, Fernando; Sorenson, Diane; Parry, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    This archival cross-sectional investigation examined the impact of mood, reproductive status (RS), and age on polysomnographic (PSG) measures in women. PSG was performed on 73 normal controls (NC) and 64 depressed patients (DP), in the course of studies in menstruating, pregnant, postpartum, and peri- and postmenopausal women. A two-factor, between-subjects multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the main effects of reproductive status (RS: menstrual vs pregnant vs postpartum vs menopausal) and diagnosis (NC vs DP), and their interaction, on PSG measures. To further refine the analyses, a two-factor, between subjects MANOVA was used to test the main effects of age (19 to 27 vs 28 to 36 vs 37 to 45 vs 46+ years) and diagnosis on the PSG data. Analyses revealed that in DP women, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage was significantly elevated relative to NC across both RS and age. Significant differences in sleep efficiency, Stage 1%, and REM density were associated with RS; differences in total sleep time, Stage 2 percentage, and Stage 4 percentage were associated with differences in age. Both RS and age were related to differences in sleep latency, Stage 3 percentage, and Delta percentage. Finally, wake after sleep onset time, REM percentage, and REM latency did not vary with respect to RS or age. Overall, this investigation examined three major variables (mood, RS, and age) that are known to impact sleep in women. Of the variables, age appeared to have the greatest impact on PSG sleep measures, reflecting changes occurring across the lifespan. PMID:23393417

  10. Telomeres and reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Infertility, miscarriage and aneuploid offspring increase with age in women, and meiotic dysfunction underlies reproductive aging. How aging disrupts meiotic function in women remains unclear, but as women increasingly delay having children, solving this problem becomes an urgent priority. Telomeres consist of a (TTAGGG)(n) repeated sequence and associated proteins at chromosome ends, mediate aging in mitotic cells and may also mediate aging during meiosis. Telomeres shorten both during DNA replication and from the response to oxidative DNA damage. Oocytes do not divide in adult mammals, but their precursors do replicate during fetal oogenesis; eggs ovulated from older females have traversed more mitotic cell cycles before entering meiosis during fetal oogenesis than eggs ovulated from younger females. Telomeres also would be expected to shorten from inefficient DNA repair of oxidative damage, because the interval between fetal oogenesis and ovulation is exceptionally prolonged in women. We have tested the hypothesis that telomere shortening disrupts meiosis by shortening telomeres experimentally in mice, which normally do not exhibit age-related meiotic dysfunction. Interestingly, mouse telomeres are much longer than human telomeres, but genetic or pharmacological shortening of mouse telomeres recapitulates in mice the human reproductive aging phenotype as the mouse telomeres reach the length of telomeres from older women. These observations led us to propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging. Moreover, chronological oxidative stress increases with reproductive aging, leading to DNA damage preferentially at (TTAGGG)(n) repeats. Finally, if telomeres shorten with aging, how do they reset across generations? Telomerase could not play a significant role in telomere elongation during early development, because this enzyme is not active until the blastocyst stage, well after the stage when telomere elongation takes place. Rather, telomeres lengthen during the

  11. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  12. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  13. [Differential mortality in women of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Morelos, J B; Ehrenfeld, N

    1994-01-01

    "This paper begins by reviewing some conceptual frameworks for the study of female mortality and indicates some of its application problems. Next it presents results of mortality of women in reproductive-age classified by age, causes of death, and socio-demographic traits (marital status, schooling, and occupation) for ten states [in Mexico] differentiated according to level of development and well-being. The data suggests differences according to age, marital status, and schooling. Finally, testing of the mutual independence and partial independence hypotheses indicates that age, marital status, and schooling correlate to the degree of development of each state." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12291772

  14. Food insufficiency in the households of reproductive-age Ecuadorian women: association with food and nutritional status indicators.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Maria Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of Ecuadorian households with reproductive-aged women (n = 10,784) were used to analyze the prevalence of household food insufficiency (HFI) and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, food acquisition and expenditure patterns, dietary diversity, and anthropometric indicators. Fifteen percent of households had food insufficiency and 15% had marginal food sufficiency. HFI was associated with poverty-linked indicators. Marginally food sufficient households reported social and economic capital than food which appeared protective against HFI. Food insufficiency was associated with reduced household acquisition/expenditures on high quality protein and micronutrient-rich food sources. HFI was not associated with adult or adolescent female overweight/obesity but was associated with short adult stature (< 1.45 m). The ongoing nutrition transition in Ecuador is expected to continue to modify population food security, diet, and nutrition. Systematic surveillance of household level food security is needed to inform recent food-related policies and programs implemented by the Ecuadorian government. PMID:25347579

  15. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chandyo, Ram K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M; Strand, Tor A

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon. PMID:27338469

  16. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Chandyo, Ram K.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M.; Strand, Tor A.

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon. PMID:27338469

  17. Assessment of Pregnancy Status, Malaria Knowledge and Malaria Fever Morbidity among Women of Reproductive Ages in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    OYEKALE, Abayomi Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is one the major health problem in Nigeria. During pregnancy, it poses serious threat to the survival of both unborn foetus and the mothers. This study determined the effect of adequate malaria knowledge and pregnancy status of women on use of mosquito nets and reported malaria fever morbidity. Methods The data were collected during the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) from 4632 women. Data analyses were carried out with descriptive statistics and Seemingly Unrelated Bivariate Probit regression. Results Results show that 13.19% of the women were pregnant, of which about one-third slept under mosquito nets. Also, 25.26% reported malaria associated fever in the previous two weeks to the time of interview, while 78.28% correctly answered that mosquitoes are responsible for malaria. Knowledge on malaria prevention was low with 55.70% and 14.93% indicating sleeping under mosquito nets and ITN, respectively. Probability of sleeping under mosquito nets significantly increased with knowing that sleeping under mosquito nets and ITN could prevent malaria while it decreased with having fever, age, urban residence and knowing that use of mosquito spray and coil can prevent malaria. The probability of having fever increased significantly with household size, being pregnant and age at first birth but decreased with age, knowing that sleeping under ITN, cutting grasses and closing door/windows would prevent malaria. Conclusions Use of mosquito nets among the women was low. Also, efforts to enhance their knowledge on malaria prevention and ensuring adequate access to mosquito nets especially for pregnant women would curtail the impact of malaria. PMID:26175973

  18. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/004016.htm Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly from changing hormone levels . One clear ...

  19. The Social Determinants of Health in Association with Women’s Health Status of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    BAHEIRAEI, Azam; BAKOUEI, Fatemeh; MOHAMMADI, Eesa; MONTAZERI, Ali; HOSSENI, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Prioritizing women’s health helps achievement of the 4th and 5th goals of Millennium Development Program. This study aimed to investigate association between social determinants of health and women’s health of reproductive age. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study, using multi-stage sampling procedure was conducted on 770, 15 to 49-year-old women residing in any one of the 22 municipality zones across Tehran, Iran. Eligible women were interviewed at home with SF-36 (Short Form Health Survey) and socio-demographic questionnaires. Social determinants of health contains; ethnicity, education, job, income, and crowding index. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Multiple Linear Regression using SPSS-16. The threshold of P.V was considered 0.05. Results Overall, 770 women with mean age 33.9±9.3 years were interviewed. Majority of them were married (72.27%), housewives (62.2%), of Persian ethnicity (64.3%), and educated to high school level (43.8%). Age with dimensions of health except role emotional, mental health, and social functioning had significant association with B from -0.65 to -0.16.educational level with dimensions of health except role emotional andsocial functioning had significant association with B from 3.61 to 6.43 (P<0.05). Income with dimensions of health except role physical had significant association with B from -9.97 to -4.42. Conclusion Reflection of unfavorable economic conditions and low education level on negative women’ health experiences are alarming. Interaction between social determinants of health and health status must be considered in policymaking, and there is a need for policies that would enhance health of women in the low education and income brackets. PMID:26060783

  20. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P.; Woodruff, Bradley A.; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S.; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  1. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women's education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  2. Biological variability and impact of oral contraceptives on vitamins B(6), B(12) and folate status in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Jennifer O; Tang, HoMan; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2013-09-01

    Vitamins B(6), B(12) and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B(6), B(12), folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2). The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI) and between-subject (CVG) for serum vitamins B(6), B(12)and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%-25.7% and 31.7%-62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use was associated (P = 0.042) with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation. PMID:24067390

  3. The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Mental Health Status among Women of Reproductive Ages: A Population-Based Study in a Middle Anatolian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nur, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…

  4. A Novel Approach to Evaluating the Iron and Folate Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Uzbekistan after 3 Years of Flour Fortification with Micronutrients

    PubMed Central

    Hund, Lauren; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A.; Nazario, Ronald; Suleymanova, Dilora; Mirzoyan, Lusine; Irisova, Munira; Pagano, Marcello; Valadez, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Uzbekistan 1996 Demographic Health Survey reported 60.4% of women of reproductive age (WRA) had low hemoglobin concentrations (<120 g/L), and anemia was an important public health problem. Fortification of wheat flour was identified as an appropriate intervention to address anemia due to the ubiquitous consumption of wheat flour. A National Flour Fortification Program (NFFP) was implemented in 2005. Methodology/Principal Findings After 3-years of the NFFP, a national survey using large country-lot quality assurance sampling was carried out to assess iron, folate, hemoglobin and inflammation status of WRA; the coverage and knowledge of the fortified first grade UzDonMakhsulot (UDM) flour/grey loaf program; and consumption habits of women to investigate the dietary factors associated with anemia. Estimated anemia prevalence was 34.4% (95% CI: 32.0, 36.7), iron depletion 47.5% (95% CI: 45.1, 49.9) and folate deficiency 28.8% (95% CI: 26.8, 30.8); the effect of inflammation was minimal (4% with CRP >5 mg/L). Severe anemia was more prevalent among folate deficient than iron depleted WRA. Presence of UDM first grade flour or the grey loaf was reported in 71.3% of households. Among WRA, 32.1% were aware of UDM fortification; only 3.7% mentioned the benefits of fortification and 12.5% understood causes of anemia. Consumption of heme iron-containing food (91%) and iron absorption enhancers (97%) was high, as was the consumption of iron absorption inhibitors (95%). Conclusions/Significance The NFFP coincided with a substantial decline in the prevalence of anemia. Folate deficiency was a stronger predictor of severe anemia than iron depletion. However, the prevalence of iron depletion was high, suggesting that women are not eating enough iron or iron absorption is inhibited. Fortified products were prevalent throughout Uzbekistan, though UDM flour must be adequately fortified and monitored in the future. Knowledge of fortification and anemia was low, suggesting

  5. Aging and reproductive potential in women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, C.; Zimon, A. E.; Jones, E. E.

    1998-01-01

    Reproductive potential in women declines with age. Age-related changes in the ovary account for most of this loss of reproductive function. Oocytes, all of which are present at birth, decline in number and quality with age. The endocrine function of the ovary also declines with age, and the ovary becomes unable to sustain its normal function in the neuroendocrine axis. The neuroendocrine axis may be further affected by primary changes occurring in the hypothalamus and pituitary during aging, although this has not been established in humans. Aging also affects the function of the uterus as the endometrium loses its ability to support implantation and growth of an embryo. Diminished uterine function during aging may be due to changes in the uterine vasculature or to changes in the hormone-dependent development of the endometrium. Finally, aging increases a woman's risk of developing medical, gynecologic or obstetric conditions that may impair her fertility. Knowledge of these affects of aging on a woman's reproductive function is essential to advise and treat the growing number of women seeking pregnancy at advanced reproductive age. PMID:10527364

  6. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome.

    PubMed

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  7. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  8. HBeAg negative serological status and low viral replication levels characterize chronic hepatitis B virus-infected women at reproductive age in Greece: A one-year prospective single center study

    PubMed Central

    Elefsiniotis, Ioannis S.; Glynou, Irene; Magaziotou, Ioanna; Pantazis, Konstantinos D.; Fotos, Nikolaos V.; Brokalaki, Hero; Kada, Helen; Saroglou, George

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in 13 581 women at reproductive age and the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)/anti-HBe status as well as serum hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA levels in a subgroup of HBsAg(+) pregnant women at labor in Greece. METHODS: Serological markers were detected using enzyme immunoassays. Serum HBV-DNA was determined by a sensitive quantitative PCR assay. Statistical analysis of data was based on parametric methodology. RESULTS: Overall, 1.156% of women were HBsAg(+) and the majority of them (71.3%) were Albanian. The prevalence of HBsAg was 5.1% in Albanian women, 4.2% in Asian women and 1.14% in women from Eastern European countries. The prevalence of HBsAg in African (0.36%) and Greek women (0.29%) was very low. Only 4.45% of HBsAg(+) women were also HBeAg(+) whereas the vast majority of them were HBeAg(-)/anti-HBe(+). Undetectable levels of viremia (<200 copies/mL) were observed in 32.26% of pregnant women at labor and 29.03% exhibited extremely low levels of viral replication (<400 copies/mL). Only two pregnant women exhibited extremely high serum HBV-DNA levels (>10 000 000 copies/mL), whereas 32.26% exhibited HBV-DNA levels between 1 500 and 40 000 copies/mL. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of HBsAg is relatively low among women at reproductive age in Greece but is higher enough among specific populations. The HBeAg(-)/anti-HBe(+) serological status and the extremely low or even undetectable viral replicative status in the majority of HBsAg(+) women of our study population, suggest that only a small proportion of HBsAg(+) women in Greece exhibit a high risk for vertical transmission of the infection. PMID:16097063

  9. Adoption in the age of reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, O B A

    2001-05-01

    The choice of adoption over genetic parenthood was investigated in 105 women retrospectively by questionnaire. Participants were divided into four groups: female/male subfertility; female subfertility; male subfertility; and female/male fertility. Half the sample (59/105) answered the question about the importance of a genetic link. Women who failed to adopt thought a genetic link was important, as did those who were less likely to disclose alternative reproductive conceptions to their child. First thoughts following diagnosis were more focused and actions more centered on adoption in the female/male subfertile group compared to the other groups. Communication of the child's origins was least prevalent in the female/male subfertile group, followed by the male subfertile group, although all groups would disclose adoption. The choice of adoption was determined by a number of factors, not all associated with infertility resolution. Although it is unlikely that resolution to infertility can be achieved in any population attempting to overcome infertility, the cognitive dissonance identified in this population is likely to be generalizable to those choosing other options to overcome infertility. Cultural and counselling acknowledgement of postmodern family theory principles is likely to ease cognitive consistency regarding the status of adoptive familyhood, and dispel the importance of reproductive options emphasizing a genetic link. PMID:12449936

  10. Sex differences in nutrient-dependent reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Hall, Matthew D; Simpson, Stephen J; Dessmann, Josephine; Clissold, Fiona J; Zajitschek, Felix; Lailvaux, Simon P; Raubenheimer, David; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging predict that fitness-related traits, including reproductive performance, will senesce because the strength of selection declines with age. Sexual selection theory predicts, however, that male reproductive performance (especially sexual advertisement) will increase with age. In both bodies of theory, diet should mediate age-dependent changes in reproductive performance. In this study, we show that the sexes exhibit dramatic, qualitative differences in age-dependent reproductive performance trajectories and patterns of reproductive ageing in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus. In females, fecundity peaked early in adulthood and then declined. In contrast, male sexual advertisement increased across the natural lifespan and only declined well beyond the maximum field lifespan. These sex differences were robust to deviations from sex-specific dietary requirements. Our results demonstrate that sexual selection can be at least as important as sex-dependent mortality in shaping the signal of reproductive ageing. PMID:19627271

  11. Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nabukalu, Dorean; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Herbst, Kobus; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo) were determined for females (aged 15–49 years) resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown). Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95% CI) was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1), peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1) and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.4–10.9). Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.2–11.1), accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR), 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05), self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15), and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82); external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, 95% CI: 1.79–3.75). Conclusion HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV

  12. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age. In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011. Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61–0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61–0.96, compared with the non-NPC group. The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  13. EFFECT OF ADULT MALLARD AGE ON AVIAN REPRODUCTIVE TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was designed to determine the effect of using two different ages of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) adults within the first breeding season on reproductive tests under standard Toxic Substances Control Act avian reproductive guidelines. The adult age groups were 7 and 11 m...

  14. Is reproductive ageing controlled by the brain?

    PubMed

    Gore, Andrea C

    2007-08-01

    Female reproductive function is controlled by complex interactions of the brain, pituitary gland and ovary. Each of these organs produces unique hormones, and each hormone acts upon the other organs to affect a response. Differentiating the causes and the consequences of reproductive senescence in mammals is thus a 'chicken and egg' puzzle. Surprisingly, recent evidence indicates a more important role for the brain in the initiation and transition to reproductive senescence. PMID:17620108

  15. Reproductive rate, not dominance status, affects fecal glucocorticoid levels in breeding female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Barrette, Marie-France; Monfort, Steven L; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Russell, Andrew F

    2012-04-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) have been studied intensively to understand the associations between physiological stress and reproductive skew in animal societies. However, we have little appreciation of the range of either natural levels within and among individuals, or the associations among dominance status, reproductive rate and GCs levels during breeding. To address these shortcomings, we examined variation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGC) during breeding periods in free-ranging female meerkats (Suricata suricatta) over 11 years. The vast majority of variation in fGC levels was found within breeding events by the same female (~87%), with the remaining variation arising among breeding events and among females. Concentrations of fGC generally tripled as pregnancy progressed. However, females with a high reproductive rate, defined as those conceiving within a month following parturition (mean = 9 days postpartum), showed significant reductions in fGC in the final 2 weeks before parturition. Despite these reductions, females with a high reproductive rate had higher fGC levels at conception of the following litter than those breeding at a low rate. After controlling for the higher reproductive rate of dominants, we found no association between levels of fGC and either age or dominance status. Our results suggest that one should be cautious about interpreting associations between dominance status, reproductive skew and GCs levels, without knowledge of the natural variation in GCs levels within and among females. PMID:22210199

  16. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2009.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Min; Chun, Sang Sik; Han, Hyuck Dong; Hwang, Jung Hye; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Kang, In Soo; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Ki Chul; Kim, Tak; Kwon, Hyuck Chan; Lee, Won Don; Lee, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyu Sup; Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Yu Il; Min, Eung Gi; Moon, Hwa Sook; Moon, Shin Yong; Roh, Sung Il; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2013-11-01

    pregnancy rate per cycle with embryo transfer. When comparing with international registry data, clinical pregnancy rate per transfer from fresh IVF cycles including ICSI (34.1%,) was comparable to clinical pregnancy rate per transfer in European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology report was 32.5% though lower than 45.0% for USA data. There was no remarkable difference in status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea between the current report and the data reported in 2008. The age of women trying to get pregnant was reconfirmed to be the most important factor that may have impact on success of ART treatment. PMID:24396813

  17. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sang Sik; Han, Hyuck Dong; Hwang, Jung Hye; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Kang, In Soo; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Ki Chul; Kim, Tak; Kwon, Hyuck Chan; Lee, Won Don; Lee, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyu Sup; Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Yu Il; Min, Eung Gi; Moon, Hwa Sook; Moon, Shin Yong; Roh, Sung Il; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2013-01-01

    pregnancy rate per cycle with embryo transfer. When comparing with international registry data, clinical pregnancy rate per transfer from fresh IVF cycles including ICSI (34.1%,) was comparable to clinical pregnancy rate per transfer in European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology report was 32.5% though lower than 45.0% for USA data. There was no remarkable difference in status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea between the current report and the data reported in 2008. The age of women trying to get pregnant was reconfirmed to be the most important factor that may have impact on success of ART treatment. PMID:24396813

  18. Virginia Opossums, Minimum Reproduction Age and Predators in the Penna Aging Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altevolmer, A. K.

    Age-specific predators are introduced into the Penna model of biological aging. It is shown that populations with a variable minimum reproduction age find a stable state with an earlier onset of reproduction, if older ages are eaten by the predators. This behavior agrees with the demographic data of the Virgina opossum.

  19. Reproductive aging patterns in primates reveal that humans are distinct

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Cords, Marina; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara S.; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.; Bronikowski, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    Women rarely give birth after ∼45 y of age, and they experience the cessation of reproductive cycles, menopause, at ∼50 y of age after a fertility decline lasting almost two decades. Such reproductive senescence in mid-lifespan is an evolutionary puzzle of enduring interest because it should be inherently disadvantageous. Furthermore, comparative data on reproductive senescence from other primates, or indeed other mammals, remains relatively rare. Here we carried out a unique detailed comparative study of reproductive senescence in seven species of nonhuman primates in natural populations, using long-term, individual-based data, and compared them to a population of humans experiencing natural fertility and mortality. In four of seven primate species we found that reproductive senescence occurred before death only in a small minority of individuals. In three primate species we found evidence of reproductive senescence that accelerated throughout adulthood; however, its initial rate was much lower than mortality, so that relatively few individuals experienced reproductive senescence before death. In contrast, the human population showed the predicted and well-known pattern in which reproductive senescence occurred before death for many women and its rate accelerated throughout adulthood. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that reproductive senescence in midlife, although apparent in natural-fertility, natural-mortality populations of humans, is generally absent in other primates living in such populations. PMID:23898189

  20. Effect of reproductive status changes on family functioning and well-being of mothers and daughters.

    PubMed

    Paikoff, R L; Brooks-gunn, J; Carlton-ford, S

    1991-05-01

    The effects of mother and daughter reproductive changes on maternal perceptions regarding the family are assessed. Mother and daughter reproductive status changes were examined in terms of their effects on family relations and mother and daughter well-being. Controls were made for mother and daughter age and heaviness. 144 mothers (37-59 years) and daughters (14-18 years) were selected from a study of white, middle to upper middle income families in large Eastern metropolitan areas. Mothers were typically well educated and employed and from 2-parent homes; 50% were 1st born. Moos' Family Environment Scale was used to measure family functioning; other measures included daughter's age at menarche, mother's menstrual status, the Ponderal index of mother and daughter heaviness, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, an abbreviated version of the Eating Attitudes Test, and Satisfaction with Body Parts scale of Padin, Lerner and Spiro. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed after agreement to participate was confirmed by phone. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effect of menstrual status controlling for age on family cohesion or conflict, and the effect of perception of family cohesion or conflict on well-being. Factor-covariate interactions were tested for, and none were found based on the Bonferroni procedure. The cross-sectional results show that early adolescent maturation is not related to increases in family conflict compared with on-time or late maturers, in contrast to Hill's study results. There was no link between perceptions of family conflict on the well-being of mother or daughter. Family cohesion was important to mother and daughter well-being, but was not associated with mother's reproductive status or daughter's reproductive timing. For mothers, the effect was on depression and body image. For daughters, the most important variable was maternal perceptions of family cohesion for all measures of well-being. Daughters

  1. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  2. Effects of Age on Female Reproductive Success in Drosophila bipectinata

    PubMed Central

    Somashekar, K; Krishna, Ms; Hegde, Sn; Jayaramu, SC

    2011-01-01

    Female age influence on mating success, courtship activities, mating latency, copulation duration, fecundity, ovarioles number, and wing length has been studied using isofemale lines of Drosophila bipectinata collected at three different localities. It was observed that in all localities, middle-aged D. bipectinata females had significantly greater mating success, showed less rejection responses to courting male, mated faster, copulated longer, and had greater fecundity and ovariole number than young and old-aged females. Further, old-aged females had comparatively less fitness traits than young age females. This research suggests the occurrence of age specific female reproductive success as follows: middle-aged > young > old-aged. PMID:22235980

  3. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. PMID:25934599

  4. Age factors potentiating drug toxicity in the reproductive axis

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F.

    1986-12-01

    Traditionally, the drug toxicity in the reproductive system has been a concern only as it affects fertility and fecundity in young individuals. The purpose of this report is to address the potential problem of synergy between drug actions and abnormal secretion of reproductive hormones that together produce disease in older individuals. Thus, reproductive toxicity has different, but no less serious implications in aging individuals. During aging, the coordinated function of elements within the reproductive neuroendocrine axis degrades. This change promotes atypical secretion of hormones producing abnormal responses in target organs and thus creates a condition with pathogenic potential. Certain drugs may contribute to reproductive toxicity in aging individuals either by accelerating the process of dysregulation and/or by synergizing with hormones to stimulate pathologic changes in target tissues. The geriatric population or the world is increasing, and since it consumes a proportionately larger percentage of drugs than younger groups, this novel form of reproductive toxicity may represent a problem in drug safety that warrants serious consideration.

  5. Recent female mouse models displaying advanced reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Danilovich, Natalia; Ram Sairam, M

    2006-02-01

    Reproductive senescence occurs in all female mammals with resultant changes in numerous body functional systems and several important features may be species-specific. Those features that appear to parallel human menopause and aging include general similarity of hormone profiles across the menopausal transition, progression to cycle termination through irregular cycles, declining fertility with age, disturbances in thermogenesis, age-related gains in body weight, fat distribution and disposition towards metabolic syndrome. Structural and hormonal changes in the brain and ovary play a critical role in determining the onset of reproductive senescence. The short life span of rodents such as mice (compared to humans) and the ability to generate specific and timed gene deletions, provide powerful experimental paradigms to understand the molecular and functional changes that precede and follow the loss of reproductive capacity. In theory, any manipulation that compromises ovarian function either partly or totally would impact reproductive events at various levels followed by other dysfunctions. In this article, we provide an overview of three mouse models for the study of female reproductive aging. They are derived from different strategies and their age related phenotypes have been characterized to varying degrees. The follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mouse, in its null and haploinsufficient state as well as the dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knockout mouse, serve as two examples of single gene deletions. A third model, using administration of a chemical toxicant such as 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) in the adult state, produces ovarian deficiencies accompanied by aging changes. These will serve as useful alternatives to previously used radical ovariectomy in young adults. It is anticipated that these new models and more that will be forthcoming will extend opportunities to understand reproductive aging and resolve controversies that abound on issues

  6. Reproductive and socioeconomic determinants of child survival: confounded, interactive, and age-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Kost, K; Amin, S

    1992-01-01

    Studies of infant and child mortality have evolved to distinguish between two sets of explanatory variables-factors related to reproductive or maternal characteristics and socioeconomic factors, generally described as characteristics of the family or household. Almost all multivariate analyses include variables from each of these two sets, but there has been little consideration of the relationship between them. We examine how these two sets of variables jointly affect mortality. We test first for confounded effects by examining socioeconomic effects while excluding and then including reproductive variables in nested multivariate models. Next, we look for age-dependent effects among the explanatory variables and find that reproductive and socioeconomic factors affect mortality at differing ages of children. Finally, we examine interactive effects of the two sets of variables. We conclude that the higher mortality observed among the low status groups is not a result of greater concentration of poor reproductive patterns in those groups. Instead, higher status groups probably have more resources available for combating the negative effects of the same high-risk reproductive patterns. PMID:1514117

  7. Spectacular reproduction: Ron's Angels and mechanical reproduction in the age of ART (assisted reproductive technology).

    PubMed

    Hafstein, Valdimar Tr

    2007-03-01

    Ron Harris captured the popular imagination in October 1999 with a website where he auctioned off the ova of fashion models to the highest bidder. This article treats the controversy surrounding Harris' site within a dual frame of critical theory's approach to reproduction and a folkloristic approach to discourse. The website fuses traditional narrative motifs and structures with the logic of advertising, seventies television, family-values rhetoric, and the fertility industry. I argue that the great attraction of ronsangels.com is that it put into relief the intervention of mechanical reproduction in human fertility together with the state of genetics at the turn of the 21st century. The result is not only a disconcerting aestheticization and commodification of biological reproduction, but also the biological reproduction of a particular aesthetic and moral code--a generation of reality by model. PMID:17136463

  8. Telomeres, Age and Reproduction in a Long-Lived Reptile

    PubMed Central

    Plot, Virginie; Criscuolo, François; Zahn, Sandrine; Georges, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    A major interest has recently emerged in understanding how telomere shortening, mechanism triggering cell senescence, is linked to organism ageing and life history traits in wild species. However, the links between telomere length and key history traits such as reproductive performances have received little attention and remain unclear to date. The leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea is a long-lived species showing rapid growth at early stages of life, one of the highest reproductive outputs observed in vertebrates and a dichotomised reproductive pattern related to migrations lasting 2 or 3 years, supposedly associated with different environmental conditions. Here we tested the prediction of blood telomere shortening with age in this species and investigated the relationship between blood telomere length and reproductive performances in leatherback turtles nesting in French Guiana. We found that blood telomere length did not differ between hatchlings and adults. The absence of blood telomere shortening with age may be related to an early high telomerase activity. This telomere-restoring enzyme was formerly suggested to be involved in preventing early telomere attrition in early fast-growing and long-lived species, including squamate reptiles. We found that within one nesting cycle, adult females having performed shorter migrations prior to the considered nesting season had shorter blood telomeres and lower reproductive output. We propose that shorter blood telomeres may result from higher oxidative stress in individuals breeding more frequently (i.e., higher costs of reproduction) and/or restoring more quickly their body reserves in cooler feeding areas during preceding migration (i.e., higher foraging costs). This first study on telomeres in the giant leatherback turtle suggests that blood telomere length predicts not only survival chances, but also reproductive performances. Telomeres may therefore be a promising new tool to evaluate individual reproductive

  9. Spontaneous reproductive tract leiomyomas in aged guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Field, K J; Griffith, J W; Lang, C M

    1989-10-01

    Seven of 83 female guinea-pigs were found to have reproductive tract leiomyomas at necropsy. Sixty-three of these guinea-pigs also had cystic rete ovarii. Eleven separate leiomyomas were identified, the most common site of formation being the uterine body or horn. The tumours contained histological evidence of smooth muscle, abundant fibrous connective tissue and occasional foci of fibrocartilage and bone. Mitotic figures were identified in only one tumour. The mean age of guinea-pigs with leiomyomas was 47.6 months, and the mean age of the study population was 33.1 months. Two other reproductive tract tumours identified in the 83 guinea-pigs were an ovarian teratoma and a cavernous haemangioma. These data indicate that leiomyomas are the most common reproductive tract tumour in this colony of aged female guinea-pigs and that they are frequently seen in conjunction with cystic rete ovarii. PMID:2584448

  10. Micronutrient Intakes among Women of Reproductive Age in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Nguyen, Hieu; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Copeland, Erika; Strizich, Garrett; Lowe, Alyssa; Pham, Hoa; Truong, Truong V.; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies are a public health concern worldwide negatively affecting maternal and child health outcomes. The primary underlying causes of micronutrient deficiencies are insufficient intake and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. However, reliable data on micronutrient intakes are sparse. The objectives of this study were to identify the key local food sources providing the majority of micronutrients and assess the adequacy and determinants of micronutrient intakes. Methods The study used data from a survey of 4,983 rural women of reproductive age (WRA) participating in a preconception micronutrient supplementation trial in Vietnam. Micronutrient intakes were assessed using a validated 107-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between socioeconomic status and micronutrient intakes. Results Starchy staples were the main source of iron and zinc (37% and 54%, respectively) with only a small proportion from meat (10% and 18%, respectively). The primary source of folate and vitamin A were vegetables; vitamin B12 came from meat and eggs. The proportion of the population with intakes below the estimated average requirement was 25% for iron, 16% for zinc, 54% for folate, 64% for vitamin B12 and 27% for vitamin A. Socioeconomic status was the main determinant of micronutrient intakes. WRA in the highest quintile consumed 26% more iron, 19% more zinc, 36% more folate, 82% more vitamin B12 and 47% more vitamin A compared to those in the lowest quintile. Women in the upper quintiles of SES were more likely to obtain nutrients from more nutritious and higher bioavailable foods than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusions Underprivileged women were at increased risk for insufficient micronutrient intakes due to poor diet quality. Targeted efforts to promote the consumption of local nutrient rich foods along with educational programs and social

  11. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... a scarlike tissue. This condition, called benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), affects about 50% of men. BPH may ... Many physical age-related changes, such as prostate enlargement or testicular atrophy, are not preventable. Getting treated ...

  12. Age-specific cost of first reproduction in female southern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Desprez, Marine; Harcourt, Robert; Hindell, Mark A; Cubaynes, Sarah; Gimenez, Olivier; McMahon, Clive R

    2014-05-01

    When to commence breeding is a crucial life-history decision that may be the most important determinant of an individual's lifetime reproductive output and can have major consequences on population dynamics. The age at which individuals first reproduce is an important factor influencing the intensity of potential costs (e.g. reduced survival) involved in the first breeding event. However, quantifying age-related variation in the cost of first reproduction in wild animals remains challenging because of the difficulty in reliably recording the first breeding event. Here, using a multi-event capture-recapture model that accounts for both imperfect detection and uncertainty in the breeding status on an 18-year dataset involving 6637 individuals, we estimated age and state-specific survival of female elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the declining Macquarie Island population. We detected a clear cost of first reproduction on survival. This cost was higher for both younger first-time breeders and older first-time breeders compared with females recruiting at age four, the overall mean age at first reproduction. Neither earlier primiparity nor delaying primiparity appear to confer any evolutionary advantage, rather the optimal strategy seems to be to start breeding at a single age, 4 years. PMID:24872464

  13. Effects of aging on the male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Sezgin; Hekim, Gulgez Neslihan Taskurt; Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Asci, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    The study aims to discuss the effects of aging on the male reproductive system. A systematic review was performed using PubMed from 1980 to 2014. Aging is a natural process comprising of irreversible changes due to a myriad of endogenous and environmental factors at the level of all organs and systems. In modern life, as more couples choose to postpone having a child due to various socioeconomic reasons, research for understanding the effects of aging on the reproductive system has gained an increased importance. Paternal aging also causes genetic and epigenetic changes in spermatozoa, which impair male reproductive functions through their adverse effects on sperm quality and count as, well as, on sexual organs and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Hormone production, spermatogenesis, and testes undergo changes as a man ages. These small changes lead to decrease in both the quality and quantity of spermatozoa. The offspring of older fathers show high prevalence of genetic abnormalities, childhood cancers, and several neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, the latest advances in assisted reproductive techniques give older men a chance to have a child even with poor semen parameters. Further studies should investigate the onset of gonadal senesce and its effects on aging men. PMID:26867640

  14. Influence of the mother's reproductive state on the hormonal status of daughters in marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii).

    PubMed

    Puffer, Alyssa M; Fite, Jeffrey E; French, Jeffrey A; Rukstalis, Michael; Hopkins, Elizabeth C; Patera, Kimberly J

    2004-09-01

    Behavioral and endocrine suppression of reproduction in subordinate females produces the high reproductive skew that characterizes callitrichid primate mating systems. Snowdon et al. [American Journal of Primatology 31:11-21, 1993] reported that the eldest daughters in tamarin families exhibit further endocrinological suppression immediately following the birth of siblings, and suggested that dominant females exert greater control over subordinate endocrinology during this energetically challenging phase of reproduction. We monitored the endocrine status of five Wied's black tufted-ear marmoset daughters before and after their mother delivered infants by measuring concentrations of urinary estradiol (E(2)), pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG), testosterone (T), and cortisol (CORT). Samples were collected from marmoset daughters 4 weeks prior to and 9 weeks following three consecutive sibling-litter births when the daughters were prepubertal (M=6.1 months of age), peripubertal (M=11.9 months), and postpubertal (M=17.6 months). The birth of infants was associated with reduced ovarian steroid excretion only in the prepubertal daughters. In contrast, ovarian steroid levels tended to increase in the postpubertal daughters. Urinary E(2) and T levels in the postpubertal daughters were 73.8% and 37.6% higher, respectively, in the 3 weeks following the birth of infants, relative to prepartum levels. In addition, peak urinary PdG concentrations in peri- and postpubertal daughters were equivalent to luteal phase concentrations in nonpregnant, breeding adult females, and all of the peri- and postpubertal daughters showed clear ovulatory cycles. Cortisol excretion did not change in response to the reproductive status of the mother, nor did the concentrations change across age. Our data suggest that marmoset daughters of potential breeding age are not hormonally suppressed during the mother's peripartum period or her return to fertility. These findings provide an additional example

  15. Reproductive ageing and conflicting clocks: King Midas' touch.

    PubMed

    Daly, Irenee; Bewley, Susan

    2013-12-01

    The population attempting pregnancy and having babies is ageing. Gynaecological and obstetric complications worsen with age. Maternity services are struggling. Increasing rates of infertility and complications are not matched by the marvels in the laboratory. This paper argues that assisted reproduction treatment has had a damaging social impact. Despite its public acclaim, it helps few and fails many more. The assisted reproduction industry could take a new and revolutionary direction towards empowering men to experience pregnancy, producing babies from artificial gametes, with a final goal being the liberation of both women and men from the burdens and dangers of pregnancy through the development of artificial wombs. PMID:24176630

  16. Marital Status and Reproduction: Associations with Childhood Intelligence and Adult Social Class in the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood intelligence (age 11) and occupational social status at midlife (age 46 to 51) was associated with marital status and reproduction in a sample from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s cohort study (N = 9614). Male and female divorcees had lower childhood intelligence test scores than their married counterparts, but no meaningful…

  17. Substance Use in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Jackie; Barrier, Breton; Sprague, Debra J; Vinson, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Using anonymous exit questionnaires in a university OB/GYN clinic, of 165 pregnant women reporting on drinking prior to pregnancy, 26% screened positive for hazardous or harmful drinking. Among 153 non-pregnant women age 50 or younger, 39% screened positive. Of those, 85% had no plans to change their alcohol consumption, as most believed their drinking levels were not risky; 80% had a significant risk of becoming pregnant, but 85% believed pregnancy was unlikely. PMID:27443042

  18. AGING AND RESPONSES TO TOXINS IN FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female reproductive functions improve after puberty to reach a maximum within the first quarter of the lifespan of most mammals. hereafter, there are progressive declines with age leading in most mammalian species to a loss of fertility by midlife. The changes are complex and the...

  19. Spontaneous Reproductive Tract Lesions in Aged Captive Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Chaffee, B K; Beck, A P; Owston, M A; Kumar, S; Baze, W B; Magden, E R; Dick, E J; Lammey, M; Abee, C R

    2016-03-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have served as an important model for studies of reproductive diseases and aging-related disorders in humans. However, limited information is available about spontaneously occurring reproductive tract lesions in aging chimpanzees. In this article, the authors present histopathologic descriptions of lesions identified in the reproductive tract, including the mammary gland, of 33 female and 34 male aged chimpanzees from 3 captive populations. The most common findings in female chimpanzees were ovarian atrophy, uterine leiomyoma, adenomyosis, and endometrial atrophy. The most common findings in male chimpanzees were seminiferous tubule degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrates in the prostate gland. Other less common lesions included an ovarian granulosa cell tumor, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, an endometrial polyp, uterine artery hypertrophy and mineralization, atrophic vaginitis, mammary gland inflammation, prostatic epithelial hyperplasia, dilated seminal vesicles, a sperm granuloma, and lymphocytic infiltrates in the epididymis. The findings in this study closely mimic changes described in the reproductive tract of aged humans, with the exception of a lack of malignant changes observed in the mammary gland and prostate gland. PMID:26823448

  20. Justification of sexual reproduction by modified Penna model of ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá Martins, J. S.; Stauffer, D.

    2001-05-01

    We generalize the standard Penna bit-string model of biological ageing by assuming that each deleterious mutation diminishes the survival probability in every time interval by a small percentage. This effect is added to the usual lethal but age-dependent effect of the same mutation. We then find strong advantages or disadvantages of sexual reproduction (with males and females) compared to asexual cloning, depending on parameters.

  1. Gravity effects on reproduction, development, and aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, Jaime; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of various levels of gravity force (obtained by rotation in clinostats or by centrifugation) and the near-weightlessness condition aboard orbiting spacecraft on the fertilization, embryonic development, maturation, and aging of animals are examined. Results obtained from the American and Soviet spaceborne biology experiments are presented including those on mammals, amphibians, fish, birds, invertebrates, and protozoa. Theoretical issues related to the effect of gravity on various physiological systems are discused together with the future research goals concerning human life in space. It is noted that life in space (after adaptation to near-weightlessness) might be significantly prolonged due to a reduction in metabolic rate and a concomitant decrease in oxygen radical reactions.

  2. Aging and male reproductive function: a mitochondrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Sandra; Amaral, Alexandra; Ramalho-Santos, Joao

    2013-01-01

    Researching the effects of aging in the male reproductive system is not trivial. Not only are multiple changes at molecular, cellular and endocrine levels involved, but any findings must be discussed with variable individual characteristics, as well as with lifestyle and environmental factors. Age-related changes in the reproductive system include any aspect of reproductive function, from deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and of local auto/paracrine interactions, to effects on testicular stem cells, defects in testicular architecture and spermatogenesis, or sperm with decreased functionality. Several theories place mitochondria at the hub of cellular events related to aging, namely regarding the accumulation of oxidative damage to cells and tissues, a process in which these organelles play a prominent role, although alternative theories have also emerged. However, oxidative stress is not the only process involved in mitochondrial-related aging; mitochondrial energy metabolism, changes in mitochondrial DNA or in mitochondrial-dependent testosterone production are also important. Crucially, all these issues are likely interdependent. We will review evidence that suggests that mitochondria constitute a common link between aging and fertility loss. PMID:23277044

  3. Structural aging program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Graves, H.L. III

    1994-12-31

    Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure.

  4. Structural aging program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1995-04-01

    Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information of the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors of aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure.

  5. Aging male bodies, health and the reproduction of age relations.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Ojala, Hanna; King, Neal; Calasanti, Toni

    2013-08-01

    This article explores the ways in which a group of male factory workers uses bodies as bases for hierarchical categorization of men by age in their talk of mundane aspects of their lives. Analysis of interviews about health (4 focus groups and 5 personal interviews) with Finnish working-class men under 40 years old shows that they portray age groups to which they do not belong as careless, even irresponsible toward health and its maintenance. As they categorize youth and old people by age, they leave themselves unmarked by it, providing no vocabulary to describe their own group. Despite their tendency to distance themselves particularly from old people, they also distinguish among older men by familiarity, providing relatively nuanced accounts of their fathers' aging. We discuss the marking of age groups in terms of social inequality and talk of fathers in terms of intergenerational relations. Even family ties among men of diverse ages involve ageism, which familiarity serves both to mitigate and to make less visible. This article documents the maintenance of age inequality in everyday, mundane behavior. PMID:23849422

  6. Reproduction alters oxidative status when it is traded-off against longevity.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Geiger, Rina E; Reim, Elisabeth; Zielke, Luisa; Fischer, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been proposed to mediate one of the most important aspects of life-history evolution: the trade-off between reproduction and self-maintenance. However, empirical studies have cast doubt on the generality of this intriguing notion. Here, we hypothesize that reproduction alters oxidative status only when a trade-off between reproduction and self-maintenance occurs. Accordingly, in female Bicyclus anynana butterflies, we found that reproduction affected oxidative markers only under challenging thermal conditions that made the trade-off between reproduction and longevity emerge. Interestingly, under such conditions, butterflies favored longevity over reproduction, suggesting that self-maintenance mechanisms were activated. Accordingly, butterflies reproducing under challenging thermal conditions exhibited enhanced antioxidant defenses and stable oxidative damage. Altogether, our results indicate that a trade-off between reproduction and self-maintenance is indeed a necessary condition for reproduction to alter oxidative status, and that the effects of such a trade-off on oxidative status depend on whether priority is given to self-maintenance or reproduction. Assessing the existence of the trade-off between self-maintenance and reproduction, and whether self-maintenance is prioritized relative to reproduction is therefore crucial for understanding variation in oxidative status in reproducing animals, which may clarify the general implication of oxidative stress in the resolution of life-history trade-offs. PMID:26095834

  7. Macronutrient balance, reproductive function, and lifespan in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Walters, Kirsty A; Simanainen, Ulla K; McMahon, Aisling C; Ruohonen, Kari; Ballard, John William O; Raubenheimer, David; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-17

    In invertebrates, reproductive output and lifespan are profoundly impacted by dietary macronutrient balance, with these traits achieving their maxima on different diet compositions, giving the appearance of a resource-based tradeoff between reproduction and longevity. For the first time in a mammal, to our knowledge, we evaluate the effects of dietary protein (P), carbohydrate (C), fat (F), and energy (E) on lifespan and reproductive function in aging male and female mice. We show that, as in invertebrates, the balance of macronutrients has marked and largely opposing effects on reproductive and longevity outcomes. Mice were provided ad libitum access to one of 25 diets differing in P, C, F, and E content, with reproductive outcomes assessed at 15 months. An optimal balance of macronutrients exists for reproductive function, which, for most measures, differs from the diets that optimize lifespan, and this response differs with sex. Maximal longevity was achieved on diets containing a P:C ratio of 1:13 in males and 1:11 for females. Diets that optimized testes mass and epididymal sperm counts (indicators of gamete production) contained a higher P:C ratio (1:1) than those that maximized lifespan. In females, uterine mass (an indicator of estrogenic activity) was also greatest on high P:C diets (1:1) whereas ovarian follicle number was greatest on P:C 3:1 associated with high-F intakes. By contrast, estrous cycling was more likely in mice on lower P:C (1:8), and the number of corpora lutea, indicative of recent ovulations, was greatest on P:C similar to those supporting greatest longevity (1:11). PMID:25733862

  8. [PROBLEM OF ENDOMETRIUM HYPERPLASTIC PROCESSES IN REPRODUCTIVE AGE WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Bazyuta, L Z; Polyova, S P; Tsintar, S A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the risk factors of endometrium hyperplastic processes (EHP) in reproduc- tive age women. It is shown that EHP occur in response to hormonal homeostasis violations of the target tissues. It is established that the biologically active substances, which are closely related to immune mechanisms of the reproductive system functioning take place in regulatory mechanisms of cell growth and differentiation of endometrium. PMID:27491143

  9. Deaths among women of reproductive age: a forensic autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Menezes, Ritesh G; Pant, Sadip; Shetty, Soumya B

    2013-08-01

    Unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age (range 12-49 years) have a serious psychological and social impact on the family and community. Deaths among women of reproductive age reported as medico-legal cases were investigated to see the trend in terms of cause and manner of death. The study group consisted of a series of 328 consecutive forensic autopsies on women in the reproductive age group, performed between 2009 and 2011 at the Government Wenlock District Hospital, Mangalore, India by qualified specialist forensic medicine experts. Unnatural deaths formed 93.6% of the cohort. The top three causes of death included burns, poisoning and hanging forming 69.5% of the cases. The manner of death was suicide in 45.4% cases, accident in 43.6% cases and homicide in 4.6% cases. The circumstances of death were related to alleged medical negligence in 2.4% cases. Death in 4% cases was natural mannered with a disease being the cause of death. Three-fourths of the victims were married. Married women formed 63.1% of the suicidal victims. Homicidal deaths were not reported among unmarried women. The preponderant method of suicide was by poisoning at 42.3% (63 cases), followed by hanging (34.9%), burns (11.4%) and drowning (9.4%). These four methods comprised 98% of the total suicidal deaths in this study cohort. Accidental deaths were predominantly caused by burns (62.2%) and road traffic accident (23.1%). Two-thirds of the homicidal deaths were due to assault caused by blunt-force trauma, ligature strangulation and sharp-force trauma. One-third of the homicidal victims died due to burns. With a clear understanding of the cause and manner of death, it may be possible to predict, and hopefully prevent, future cases of unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age who form a very important group of society. PMID:23910855

  10. Reproductive senescence, fertility and reproductive tumour profile in ageing female Han Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mitchard, Terri L; Klein, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    A study using vehicle administration in 104 female rats investigated reproductive aging in Han Wistar rats as a useful tool to interprete carcinogenicity studies where hormonal patterns are perturbated. From 16 weeks of age oestrous cycles were monitored every 6 weeks to investigate reproductive ageing. A subset of 20 females was used to assess fertility at 21 months of age. The animals were necropsied after 106-107 weeks on study and female reproductive organs, mammary glands and pituitary glands were examined for hyperplasias and/or tumours. The majority of rats had regular oestrous cycles up to 6 months of age. After this age, there was a rapid decline in the number of rats with regular oestrous cycles and an increase in irregular cycles and cycles in persistent di-oestrus with an occasional pro-oestrus. By the end of the study, the majority of animals were acyclic and the few remaining cyclic animals had irregular cycles. In the fertility assessment, 19/20 animals mated but only four animals became pregnant. These pregnant animals had normal numbers of corpora lutea of pregnancy but had high pre-implantation losses and could not sustain a viable pregnancy. 65 animals (62.5%) showed adenomas and/or pituitary hyperplasia in the pituitary gland at necropsy. The pituitary tumours were likely to be prolactin secreting that give rise to pseudopregnancy and mammary tumours, demonstrated by the fact that 43/65 (66%) of the affected animals had histopathological signs of these conditions. Multiple corpora lutea were found in 61% of all animals at time of termination. Only one uterine tumour was seen in this study probably due to lack of persistent oestrus seen in these animals. PMID:26655996

  11. Status Maintenance and Change during Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampel, Fred C.; Hardy, Melissa

    1994-01-01

    Uses national longitudinal survey data to compare the impact of status characteristics important during work careers (race, residence, education, occupation) on men's economic outcomes before and after the normal age of eligibility for retirement benefits. Results generally (but not completely) support the argument that determinants of income…

  12. Management of women with Gaucher disease in the reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Hanna

    2015-02-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal disorder caused by inherited deficiency of glucocerebrosidase, resulting in the accumulation of glucocerebroside in macrophages, termed "Gaucher cells" (GCs), leading to multiorgan involvement, with hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, pulmonary hypertension and osseous complications. The characteristic feature of GD is the organ GCs infiltration compromising their function by inducing local inflammation, infarcts and fibrosis. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) available for over two decades improves hematological abnormalities, reverses the visceromegaly, ameliorates bone symptoms and prevents further skeletal complications. GD affects most female events during the reproductive age, particularly, fertility, pregnancy, delivery and puerperium. While pregnancy in GD may exacerbate disease manifestations, the disease may have deleterious effect on female reproductive health milestones. ERT has a beneficial effect on the pregnancy outcome in terms of the risk of spontaneous abortion and GD-related complications, particularly bleeding during delivery and postpartum. Treatment approaches and management aspects of reproductive age events are reviewed hereby, with a focus on the outcome improvement of pregnancies, deliveries and postpartum period in GD patients. PMID:25903536

  13. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup

    2015-01-01

    Objective Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea. This study was designed to report on the current status of ART therapy in South Korea between January 1 and December 31 of 2010. Methods A revised survey, originally developed by the International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, was sent to all available ART centers via email in 2013. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized into standard IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injections. These cases, the thawing embryo transfer (TET) cases, and other related procedures were surveyed. Results Data from 30,785 ART procedures were provided by 78 clinics. Of the 28,200 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, 92.2% of these cycles were completely transferred. In addition, 8,075 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, which represent a pregnancy rate of 28.6% per oocyte pick-up and 31.1% per embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET was three embryos (37.3%) followed by two embryos (36.3%) and one embryo (14.0%). Of the 6,648 TET cycles transferred, 2,356 clinical pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography. The most common number of embryos in the TET group was two embryos (43.4%) followed by three embryos (25.4%) and one embryo (18.9%). Conclusion The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer in the FET cycles was similar in 2009 and 2010. Among the FET cycles where one or two embryos were transferred, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer slightly increased from 2009 (28.7%) to 2010 (32.9%). PMID:25874168

  14. Contaminant effects on growth, age-structure, and reproduction, of Mytilus edulis from Puget Sound, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Casillas, E.; Kardong, K.; Kagley, A.; Snider, R.G.; Stein, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    Age-length relationships, age structure, and reproductive status (fecundity, egg size) of Mytilus edulis from six sites in central Puget Sound and one site in the relatively pristine area of northern Puget Sound were measured. Mussels from urban-associated sites (areas with elevated sediment concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, and toxic and essential metals) exhibited high tissue burdens of these contaminants. Age length relationships, fitted to the von Bertalanffy equation, showed that the growth of mussels from urban-associated areas was similar, but was lower than in mussels from minimally-contaminated environments. Comparison of mussel population age-structure showed that at urban sites, mussels of comparable size were consistently older than mussels from minimally contaminated areas and the mean age of urban populations was higher than that of rural populations. In mussels from urban sites, gonad mass was lower while number of oocytes/g gonad was similar compared to mussels from minimally-contaminated areas of Puget Sound. Thus, in mussels from urban sites fecundity was reduced compared to mussels of comparable age from reference sites. The findings support the hypothesis that mussels from the urban areas exhibit impaired growth, altered population age-structure, and reproductive impairment as a result of accumulation of chemical contaminants.

  15. Contraceptive Practices Among Female Cancer Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Sally A.; McLean, Mamie R.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Gorman, Jessica R.; Mersereau, Jennifer E.; Bouknight, Janet M.; Su, H. Irene

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of contraception between reproductive-aged cancer survivors and women in the general U.S. population. Among survivors, the study examined factors associated with use of contraception and emergency contraception. Methods This study analyzed enrollment data from an ongoing national prospective cohort study on reproductive health after cancer entitled the Fertility Information Research Study. We compared current contraceptive use in survivors with that of the general population ascertained by the 2006–2010 National Survey for Family Growth. Log-binomial regression models estimated relative risks for characteristics associated with use of contraception, World Health Organization tiers I–II (sterilization and hormonal) contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception in survivors. Results Data from 295 survivors (mean age 31.6 ± 5.7 years, range 20–44 years) enrolled in this prospective study (85% response rate) were examined. Age-adjusted rates of using tiers I–II contraceptive methods were lower in survivors than the general population (34% [28.8–40.0] compared with 53% [51.5–54.5], P<.01). Only 56% of survivors reported receiving family planning services (counseling, prescription or procedure related to birth control) since cancer diagnosis. In adjusted analysis, receipt of family planning services was associated with both increased use of tiers I–II contraceptive methods (relative risk 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–1.5) and accessing emergency contraception (relative risk 5.0, 95% CI 1.6–16.3) in survivors. Conclusion Lower rates of using Tiers I–II contraceptive methods were found in reproductive-aged cancer survivors compared to the general population of U.S. women. Exposure to family planning services across the cancer care continuum may improve contraception utilization among these women. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01843140. PMID:26181090

  16. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program. PMID:25649243

  17. Stress and Premenstrual Symptoms in Reproductive-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yaelim; Im, Eun-Ok

    2016-06-01

    Premenstrual symptoms are often reported from reproductive-aged women worldwide. The etiologies of the symptoms are complex (e.g., biological and sociocultural factors), and require an international and multidisciplinary approach. A total of 48 studies were reviewed on how stress and premenstrual symptoms have been defined and measured, and major findings on relational patterns and other associated factors were examined. Subsequently, we discuss several trends and limitations identified from the review. Prospective studies, which use valid assessment measures and consider women's subjective and objective symptoms for several menstrual cycles, are necessary for a valid conclusion. More intervention studies and studies on various populations are needed. PMID:25988289

  18. Testosterone and cortisol concentrations vary with reproductive status in wild female red deer.

    PubMed

    Pavitt, Alyson T; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Walling, Craig A

    2016-02-01

    Although hormones are key regulators of many fitness and life history traits, the causes of individual level variation in hormones, particularly in wild systems, remain understudied. Whilst we know that androgen and glucocorticoid levels vary within and among individuals in mammalian populations, how this relates to key reproductive processes such as gestation and lactation, and their effects on a female's measurable hormone levels are poorly understood in wild systems. Using fecal samples collected from females in a wild red deer population between 2001 and 2013, we explore how fecal androgen (FAM) and cortisol (FCM) metabolite concentrations change with age and season, and how individual differences relate to variation in reproductive state. Both FAM and FCM levels increase toward parturition, although this only affects FCM levels in older females. FCM levels are also higher when females suckle a male rather than a female calf, possibly due to the higher energetic costs of raising a son. This illustrates the importance of accounting for a female's life history and current reproductive status, as well as temporal variation, when examining individual differences in hormone levels. We discuss these findings in relation to other studies of mammalian systems and in particular to the relatively scarce information on variation in natural levels of hormones in wild populations. PMID:26941946

  19. Effect of age-based and environment-based cues on reproductive investment in Gambusia affinis

    PubMed Central

    Billman, Eric J; Belk, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    We examined the multivariate life-history trajectories of age 0 and age 1 female Gambusia affinis to determine relative effects of age-based and environment-based cues on reproductive investment. Age 0 females decreased reproductive investment prior to the onset of fall and winter months, while age 1 females increased reproductive investment as the summer progressed. The reproductive restraint and terminal investment patterns exhibited by age 0 and age 1 females, respectively, were consistent with the predictions from the cost of reproduction hypothesis. Age 0 females responded to environment-based cues, decreasing reproductive investment to increase the probability of overwinter survival and subsequent reproductive opportunities in the following summer. Age 1 females responded to age-based cues, or the proximity of death, increasing investment to current reproduction as future reproductive opportunities decreased late in life. Thus, individuals use multiple cues to determine the level of reproductive investment, and the response to each cue is dependent on the age of an individual. PMID:24967079

  20. Abnormal secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status involved in quinestrol-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Jiliang; Zhou, Bianhua; Si, Lifang; Wei, Lan; Li, Xiang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of quinestrol, a synthetic oestrogen homologue with reproductive toxicity, on the secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status in adult male rat. Our results showed that quinestrol exposure significantly decreased the weight of the testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle, and prostate, as well as the sperm counts in the cauda epididymis of rats. Quinestrol significantly reduced the size of seminiferous tubules and the total number of spermatogenic cells. Serum testosterone, follitropin, and lutropin were also significantly reduced in a dose-related manner after quinestrol exposure. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxide capacity significantly decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations significantly increased in the testes. These findings revealed that endocrine disorders of reproductive hormones and oxidative stress may be involved in reproductive toxicity induced by quinestrol in adult male rats. PMID:24183492

  1. Vitamin D status predicts reproductive fitness in a wild sheep population

    PubMed Central

    Handel, Ian; Watt, Kathryn A.; Pilkington, Jill G.; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Macrae, Alastair; Scott, Philip; McNeilly, Tom N.; Berry, Jacqueline L.; Clements, Dylan N.; Nussey, Daniel H.; Mellanby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the development of many human diseases, and with poor reproductive performance in laboratory rodents. We currently have no idea how natural selection directly acts on variation in vitamin D metabolism due to a total lack of studies in wild animals. Here, we measured serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in female Soay sheep that were part of a long-term field study on St Kilda. We found that total 25(OH)D was strongly influenced by age, and that light coloured sheep had higher 25(OH)D3 (but not 25(OH)D2) concentrations than dark sheep. The coat colour polymorphism in Soay sheep is controlled by a single locus, suggesting vitamin D status is heritable in this population. We also observed a very strong relationship between total 25(OH)D concentrations in summer and a ewe’s fecundity the following spring. This resulted in a positive association between total 25(OH)D and the number of lambs produced that survived their first year of life, an important component of female reproductive fitness. Our study provides the first insight into naturally-occurring variation in vitamin D metabolites, and offers the first evidence that vitamin D status is both heritable and under natural selection in the wild. PMID:26757805

  2. The Neuroendocrine physiology of female reproductive aging: an update

    PubMed Central

    Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Nejat, Edward; Dicken, Cary

    2010-01-01

    The transition into menopause is a complex process that affects fertility and increases the risk for a number of health problems in aging women that include, but are not limited to osteoporosis, heart disease, diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction. Improved nutrition and enhanced access to medical care have increased the average lifespan for women in developed countries, and many will spend more than one third of their life in a post-menopausal state. Epidemiological studies indicate that a delayed natural menopause confers longevity and decelerates the appearance of much age-related morbidity, suggesting that developing treatments to delay menopause would significantly improve quality of life for women. Although menopause is ultimately defined by ovarian follicular exhaustion, several lines of scientific evidence in humans and animals now suggest that dysregulation of estradiol feedback mechanisms and hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction contributes to the onset and progression of reproductive senescence, independent of ovarian failure. This article provides a brief update on our current understanding of the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the onset of and transition into female reproductive senescence. PMID:20570066

  3. Changing motivations during migration: linking movement speed to reproductive status in a migratory large mammal

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Navinder J.; Ericsson, Göran

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in animal ecology is to link animal movement to demography. In general, reproducing and non-reproducing animals may show different movement patterns. Dramatic changes in reproductive status, such as the loss of an offspring during the course of migration, might also affect movement. Studies linking movement speed to reproductive status require individual monitoring of life-history events and hence are rare. Here, we link movement data from 98 GPS-collared female moose (Alces alces) to field observations of reproductive status and calf survival. We show that reproductive females move more quickly during migration than non-reproductive females. Further, the loss of a calf over the course of migration triggered a decrease in speed of the female. This is in contrast to what might be expected for females no longer constrained by an accompanying offspring. The observed patterns demonstrate that females of different reproductive status may have distinct movement patterns, and that the underlying motivation to move may be altered by a change in reproductive status during migration. PMID:24942710

  4. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup

    2016-01-01

    Objective The number of assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics, ART cycles, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), and number of newborns conceived using ART have steadily increased in South Korea. This aim of this study was to describe the status of ART in South Korea between January 1 and December 31, 2011. Methods A localized online survey was created and sent to all available ART centers via email in 2015. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized depending on whether standard in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or half-ICSI procedures were used. Thawed embryo transfer (TET) and other related procedures were surveyed. Results Data from 36,990 ART procedures were provided by 74 clinics. Of the 30,410 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, a complete transfer was performed in 91.0% (n=27,683). In addition, 9,197 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, representing a pregnancy rate of 30.2% per oocyte pick-up and 33.2% per ET. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET procedures was three (38.1%), followed by two (34.7%) and one (14.3%). Of the 8,826 TET cycles, 3,137 clinical pregnancies (31.1%) were confirmed by ultrasonography. Conclusion While the overall clinical pregnancy rate for the TET cycles performed was lower than the rate reported in 2010 (31.1% vs. 35.4%), the overall CPR for the FET cycles was higher than in 2010 (33.2% in 2011 and 32.9% in 2010). The most common number of embryos transferred in FET cycles was three, as was the case in 2010. PMID:27104156

  5. Neuroendocrine modulation and repercussions of female reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Wise, Phyllis M; Smith, Matthew J; Dubal, Dena B; Wilson, Melinda E; Rau, Shane W; Cashion, Adrienne B; Böttner, Martina; Rosewell, Katherine L

    2002-01-01

    The menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life. During the postmenopausal period, plasma estrogen concentrations decrease dramatically and remain low for the rest of her life, unless she chooses to take hormone replacement therapy. During the past 20 years, we have learned that changes in the central nervous system are associated with and may influence the timing of the menopause in women. Recently, it has become clear that estrogens act on more than just the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, and other reproductive organs. In fact, they play roles in a wide variety of nonreproductive functions. With the increasing life span of humans from approximately 50 to 80 years and the relatively fixed age of the menopause, a larger number of women will spend over one third of their lives in the postmenopausal state. It is not surprising that interest has increased in factors that govern the timing of the menopause and the repercussions of the lack of estrogen on multiple aspects of women's health. We have used animal models to better understand the complex interactions between the ovary and the brain that lead to the menopause and the repercussions of the hypoestrogenic state. Our results show that when rats reach middle age, the patterns and synchrony of multiple neurochemical events that are critical to the preovulatory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) surge undergo subtle changes. The precision of rhythmic pattern of neurotransmitter dynamics depends on the presence of estradiol. Responsiveness to this hormone decreases in middle-aged rats. The lack of precision in the coordination in the output of neural signals leads to a delay and attenuation of the luteinizing hormone surge, which lead to irregular estrous cyclicity and, ultimately, to the cessation of reproductive cycles. We also have examined the impact of the lack of estrogen on the vulnerability of the brain to injury. Our work establishes that the absence of estradiol increases the extent of cell

  6. Reproductive patterns result from age-related sensitivity to resources and reproductive costs in a mammalian carnivore.

    PubMed

    Rauset, Geir Rune; Low, Matthew; Persson, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects of individual age, resource availability, and reproductive costs have been extensively studied to understand the causes of variation in reproductive output, there are almost no studies showing how these factors interact in explaining this variation. To examine this interaction, we used longitudinal demographic data from an 18-year study of 53 breeding female wolverines (Gulo gulo), and corresponding environmental data from their individual home ranges. Females showed a typical age-related pattern in reproductive output, with an initial increase followed by a senescent decline in later years. This pattern was largely driven by four processes: (1) physiological/behavioral maturation between ages two and three; (2) age-related differences in the costs of reproduction resulting in an initial increase, and then a declining probability of breeding two years in a row as individuals aged; (3) resource availability (reindeer [Rangifer tarandus] carcass abundance; mostly Eurasian lynx [Lynx lynx] kills) in the months preceding parturition, which influenced the probability of having cubs, but only for individuals that had successfully bred in the previous year; and (4) resource availability also influenced the cost of reproduction in an age-dependent manner, as prime age females that had bred in the previous year were more responsive to resource availability than those at other ages. This study demonstrates that by examining how drivers of reproductive variation interact, we can get a much clearer understanding of the mechanisms responsible for age-related patterns of reproduction. This has implications not only for general ecological theory, but will also allow better predictions of population resnonses to environmental changes or management based on a population's age-structure. PMID:26909422

  7. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from south-central Alaska: analysis of reproductive tracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.; Mulcahy, D.; Lensink, C.

    1993-01-01

    We estimated age at sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from south-central Alaska, Primarily from western Prince William Sound, as a result of the T/V Exxon Valdez oit spill in 1989. We found 65% of our sample to be sexually mature. Sexual maturity was first attained at age 2. The proportion of sexually mature animals increased from 30% at age 2 to 100% at age 5. Annual reproductive rates increased from 22% at age 2 to 78% at age 5 and remained relatively stable (75-88%) through to age 15. the sex ratio (female:male) of 49 fetal sea otters was 18:37 and differed significantly from parity. Females younger than 8 tended to produce more female fetuses, while older mothers did not. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts wre similiar to those reported in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  8. Vitamin D deficiency in reproductive age Mongolian women: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Holick, Michael F; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Frazier, Lindsay A; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Ninjin, Boldbaatar; Janes, Craig; Hoover, Robert N; Troisi, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D production is critical not only for rickets prevention but for its role in several chronic diseases of adulthood. Maternal vitamin D status also has consequences for the developing fetus. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]<20ng/ml) and insufficiency [25(OH)D=20-29ng/ml] in spring, among reproductive age Mongolian women. Blood was drawn in March and April, 2009 from 420 Mongolian women, 18-44 years of age. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured, anthropometric measurements were performed and information was collected by interview on lifestyle, dietary and reproductive factors. Logarithm-transformed 25(OH)D levels were compared across risk factor categories by analysis of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the independent associations of factors with vitamin D status. Cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis was assessed between December and July using a standard 7-dehydrocholesterol ampoule model. The vast majority of women 415 (98.8%) had serum 25(OH)D<20ng/ml (50nmol/l) with an additional 4 women (<1%) in the insufficient range (20-29ng/ml); only one women (0.2%) had sufficient levels (>30ng/ml or 75nmol/l). 25(OH)D concentrations were positively and independently associated with educational status and use of vitamin D supplements, but not with other demographic, lifestyle, reproductive, or anthropometric factors. 25(OH)D levels were not associated with dietary factors in this population, as there is little access to foods containing vitamin D in Mongolia. No production of previtamin D3 was observed until March and was maximally effective in April and was sustained through July. These data suggest that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in spring among reproductive age women in Mongolia is high. Given the lack of naturally vitamin D-rich food in the diet and limited use of vitamin D supplements, food fortification and/or supplementation with vitamin D should be considered

  9. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Determinants of Hypertension History among Women in Reproductive Age in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Samuel H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is a global health problem. Yet, studies on hypertension rarely focus on women in Ghana. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of hypertension history among Ghanaian women in reproductive age. Methods. This study used data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of hypertension history among the respondents. Results. The study found that the overall prevalence of hypertension history among the respondents was 7.5%; however, there were vast variations within most of the sociodemographic categories. Age, level of education, marital status, work status, and wealth status had a significant relationship with hypertension history among the respondents. Women in advanced age groups, highly educated, married, and widowed/divorced/separated, nonworking women, and women from wealthy households were at higher risk of having hypertension history. Conclusion. Myriads of sociodemographic factors determine the hypertension history of women in Ghana. It is therefore essential to target medical and psychosocial hypertension interventions at Ghanaian women in the higher risk groups. PMID:27200184

  10. Walter Benjamin in the Age of Digital Reproduction: Aura in Education--A Rereading of "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a key text in the field of Cultural Studies for its relevance to questions about the identity of knowledge in education. The concept of "aura" arises as being of special significance in "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" as a way of understanding the change that occurs to art when mass reproduction becomes…

  11. Graves' Disease Pharmacotherapy in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Prunty, Jeremy J; Heise, Crystal D; Chaffin, David G

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder in which inappropriate stimulation of the thyroid gland results in unregulated secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is the most common cause of autoimmune hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Treatment options for Graves' disease include thioamide therapy, partial or total thyroidectomy, and radioactive iodine. In this article, we review guideline recommendations for Graves' disease treatment in women of reproductive age including the recent guideline from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Controversy regarding appropriate thioamide therapy before, during, and after pregnancy is reviewed. Surgical and radioactive iodine therapy considerations in this patient population are also reviewed. In patients who may find themselves pregnant during therapy or develop Graves' disease during their pregnancy, consideration should be given to the most appropriate treatment course for the mother and fetus. Thioamide therapy should be used with either propylthiouracil or methimazole at appropriate doses that target the upper range of normal to slightly hyperthyroid to avoid creating hypothyroidism in the fetus. Consideration should also be given to the adverse effects of thioamide, such as agranulocytosis and hepatotoxicity, with appropriate patient consultation regarding signs and symptoms. Individuals who wish to breastfeed their infants while taking thioamide should receive the lowest effective dose. Surgery should be reserved for extreme cases and limited to the second trimester, if possible. Radioactive iodine therapy may be used in nonpregnant individuals, with limited harm to future fertility. Radioactive iodine therapy should be withheld in pregnant women and those who are actively breastfeeding. Clinicians should keep abreast of developments in clinical trials and evidence-based recommendations regarding Graves' disease in reproductive-age women for any changes in evidence

  12. Age-specific reproductive success and cost in female Alpine ibex.

    PubMed

    Rughetti, Marco; Dematteis, Andrea; Meneguz, Pier Giuseppe; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-05-01

    In female mammals, reproduction requires high energy expenditure because of gestation and lactation, possibly leading to a fitness cost. Several studies, however, failed to find the expected negative correlation between current and future reproductive success, likely because of individual heterogeneity in reproductive potential. We compared reproductive performance and costs of reproduction for 40 female Alpine ibex in one established population with 29 females translocated from the same population to a new colony. We investigate factors affecting pregnancy, fecundity and overwinter survival of juveniles, after accounting for individual heterogeneity. In both populations, prime-aged females experienced a strong reproductive cost. Senescent females, however, showed no evidence of reproductive costs. The colonizing population showed lower reproductive cost and better age-specific reproductive performance than the established population. We found a general pattern of low age-specific fecundity and reproductive success that was affected by environmental constraints. Age-specific reproductive success was unrelated to longevity. Although about 84% of adult females appeared to conceive, independently of environmental constraints, energy was allocated to reproduction in a highly conservative manner, leading to low age-specific fecundity (only 36 and 21% of prime-aged and senescent females were seen with a kid) but high kid survival (100% to weaning and 92% to 1 year). Our results suggest that females embarked on lactation only if they had a very high probability of raising their offspring. Our study highlights how reproductive performance and costs in this species vary with age and environment, and are the result of a highly conservative reproductive tactic. PMID:25543851

  13. Results of a second survey to assess the reproductive status of female Asian and African elephants in North America.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Christine M; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Brown, Janine L

    2010-01-01

    Surveys are being conducted to monitor the reproductive health of elephants managed by the TAG/SSP. This study summarizes results of a 2005 survey and compares data to one conducted in 2002. Surveys were returned for 100% and 79.0% of Asian and African elephants, respectively. Of those, 79.3% of Asian and 92.1% of African elephants had weekly progestagen data to assess ovarian cyclicity. For Asian elephants, acyclicity rates were similar between the 2002 and 2005 surveys (13.3% versus 10.9%), whereas irregular cycling increased in 2005 (2.6% versus 7.6%), respectively. For African elephants, the percentages of both acyclicity (22.0% versus 31.2%) and irregular cycling females (5.2% versus 11.8%) increased. In both species, ovarian inactivity was more prevalent in the older age categories (>30 years of age), but for African elephants also occurred in the reproductive aged groups. Reproductive tract pathologies did not account for the majority of acyclicity problems. Several females changed cyclicity status between the two surveys, including from noncycling to cycling, suggesting this is not an irreversible condition. However, seven African females went from cycling to abnormal or no cyclic activity. In summary, the incidence of ovarian acyclicity in Asian elephants is low and stable, but appears to be increasing in African females. These findings reinforce the need for long-term reproductive monitoring programs and continuous reproductive surveys, even for females not being considered for breeding. With more data we hope to determine what factors are related to changes in ovarian status and how to reverse the trend towards acyclicity. PMID:20391465

  14. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age.In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011.Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61-0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61-0.96, compared with the non-NPC group.The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  15. Neuroendocrine involvement in aging: evidence from studies of reproductive aging and caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J F; Karelus, K; Bergman, M D; Felicio, L S

    1995-01-01

    Neuroendocrine changes contribute to female reproductive aging, but changes in other tissues also play a role. In C57BL/6J mice, neuroendocrine changes contribute to estrous cycle lengthening and reduced plasma estradiol levels, but the midlife loss of cyclicity is mainly due to ovarian failure. Hypothalamic estrogen receptor dynamics and estrogenic modulation of gene expression are altered in middle-aged cycling mice. Although insufficient to arrest cyclicity, these neuroendocrine changes may contribute to other reproductive aging phenomena, such as altered gonadotropin secretion and lengthened estrous cycles. In women, the loss of ovarian oocytes, the cause of menopause, accelerates in the decade before menopause. Accelerated oocyte loss may in turn be caused by a selective elevation of plasma follicle stimulating hormone, and neuroendocrine involvement may thus be implicated in menopausal oocyte loss. Chronic calorie restriction retards both neural and ovarian reproductive aging processes, as well as age-related change in many other physiological systems. The diverse effects of food restriction raises the possibility of an underlying coordinated regulatory response of the organism to reduced caloric intake, possibly effected through alterations of neural and/or endocrine signalling. We are therefore attempting to identify neuroendocrine changes that may coordinate the life prolonging response of animals to food restriction. Our initial focus is on the glucocorticoid system. Food restricted rats exhibit daily periods of hyperadrenocorticism, manifest as elevated free corticosterone during the diurnal peak. We hypothesize that this hyperadrenocortical state potentiates cellular and organismic homeostasis throughout life in a manner similar to that achieved during acute stress, thereby retarding aging processes and extending life span. PMID:8532119

  16. Effects of chemical contaminants on growth, age-structure, and reproduction of Mytilus edulis complex from Puget sound, Washington.

    PubMed

    Kagley, Anna N; Kardong, Kyle E; Snider, Robert G; Casillas, Edmundo

    2014-07-01

    Bivalves are used as sentinel species to detect chemical contaminants in the marine environment, but biological effects on indigenous populations that result from chemical exposure are largely unknown. We assessed age-weight, length-weight relationships, age structure, and reproductive status (i.e. fecundity, egg size) of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis complex from six sites in central Puget Sound, Washington, and one site in the relatively pristine area of northern Puget Sound. Results of this study suggest that mussels from urban areas of Puget Sound exhibit a lower growth rate, altered population age-structure, and potential reproductive impairment as a result of exposure to chemical contaminants. These findings support the use of mussels as sentinel species to assess the biological effects of contaminants on invertebrate populations. PMID:24852611

  17. Ten years of democracy in South Africa: documenting transformation in reproductive health policy and status.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Diane; Morroni, Chelsea; Orner, Phyllis; Moodley, Jennifer; Harries, Jane; Cullingworth, Lee; Hoffman, Margaret

    2004-11-01

    The advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994 created a unique opportunity for new lows and policies to be passed. Today, a decade later, South African reproductive health policies and the laws that underwrite them are among the most progressive and comprehensive in the world in terms of the recognition that they give to human rights, including sexual and reproductive rights. This paper documents the changes in health policy and services that have occurred, focusing particularly on key areas of sexual and reproductive health: contraception, maternal health, termination of pregnancy, cervical and breast cancer, gender-based and sexual violence, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections and infertility. Despite important advances, significant changes in women's reproductive health status are difficult to discern, given the relatively short period of time and the multitude of complex factors that influence health, especially inequalities in socio-economic and gender status. Gaps remain in the implementation of reproductive health policies and in service delivery that need to be addressed in order for meaningful improvements in women's reproductive health status to be achieved. Civil society has played a major role in securing these legislative and policy changes, and health activist groups continue to pressure the government to introduce further changes in policy and service delivery, especially in the area of HIV/AIDS. PMID:15626198

  18. [Morphology of the reproductive age women cervical epithelium under hypothyreosis].

    PubMed

    Beruchashvili, M; Gogiashvili, L; Tsagareli, Z; Topuriya, Z

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to examine the morphological manifestations of hypothyreosis in the reproductive age women cervical mucosa. With clinically verified hypothyreosis in 1524 cases, 538 patients had a different variants of endocervical pathology, accounting for two major research groups: I - (n=259) operated by colloidal goiter treated by L-thyroxin during last 3 years, II - (n=279) with similar diagnosis, without replacement therapy within last 3 years. Therapeutic and diagnostic scrapings from cervix, as well as parallel samples of the operative removal thyroid gland (TG), after staining with hematoxylin and eosin and picrofuchsin by van Gieson were studied morphologically. The different variants of the cervical mucosa reaction from simple hyperplasia in treated group to adenomyosis with stratification of epithelium, and the tendency of sclerosis and atrophy in the group not receiving L-thyroxin were revealed. In all compared cases Spearmen correlation coefficient had high level of relevance (0,00003). We believe that the cervix changes are the consequence of the decrease of sensitivity to estrogen under the low level of T3 and T4 and increase TSH in plasma. Molecular atypia of endocervical cells clearly demon-strates cross-combination of two leading hormonal systems. PMID:23388537

  19. The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that Web has become a major art medium. Investigates ways artists and appreciators of art are using the Web. Discusses the reproduction of art: from hand to mechanical to digital reproduction, focusing on the work of Walter Benjamin. Lists other sites where one can find art on the Web. (SR)

  20. Influence of Reproductive Aging of the Cow on Luteal Function and Period 1 mRNA Expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In rodents, disruption of the circadian clock genes results in increased incidence of anovulation, irregular estrous cycles, decreased luteal function, and accelerated reproductive ageing. In cattle, reproductive ageing is associated with decreased numbers of follicles in the ovary, decreased lutea...

  1. Contrasted patterns of age-specific reproduction in long-lived seabirds.

    PubMed

    Berman, M; Gaillard, J-M; Weimerskirch, H

    2009-01-22

    While the number of studies providing evidence of actuarial senescence is increasing, and covers a wide range of taxa, the process of reproductive senescence remains poorly understood. In fact, quite high reproductive output until the last years of life has been reported in several vertebrate species, so that whether or not reproductive senescence is widespread remains unknown. We compared age-specific changes of reproductive parameters between two closely related species of long-lived seabirds: the small-sized snow petrel Pagodroma nivea, and the medium-sized southern fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides. Both are sympatric in Antarctica. We used an exceptional dataset collected over more than 40 years to assess age-specific variations of both breeding probability and breeding success. We found contrasted age-specific reproductive patterns between the two species. Reproductive senescence clearly occurred from 21 years of age onwards in the southern fulmar, in both breeding probability and success, whereas we did not report any decline in the breeding success of the snow petrel, although a very late decrease in the proportion of breeders occurred at 34 years. Such a contrasted age-specific reproductive pattern was rather unexpected. Differences in life history including size or migratory behaviour are the most likely candidates to account for the difference we reported in reproductive senescence between these sympatric seabird species. PMID:18832060

  2. Fertility preservation in reproductive-age women facing gonadotoxic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J.; Ronn, R.; Tallon, N.; Holzer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advancements in the treatments for cancer and autoimmune and other hematologic conditions continue to improve survival and cure rates. Despite those changes, various gonadotoxic agents and other treatments can still compromise the future fertility of many women. Progress in medical and surgical reproductive technologies has helped to offset the reproductive consequences of the use of gonadotoxic therapies, and allows for future fertility and normal pregnancy. Methods A review of the literature was performed to outline the pathophysiology of gonadotoxicity from various treatments. The success of fertility preservation, fertility sparing, and cryopreservation options are reviewed. Barriers and facilitators to referral and oncofertility treatment in Canada are also outlined. Results According to the quality of the evidence, recommendations are made for fertility assessment, patient referral, cryopreservation, and other assisted reproductive technologies. Conclusions To ensure ongoing fertility in women undergoing gonadotoxic treatments, assisted reproductive technologies can be combined with a multidisciplinary approach to patient assessment and referral. PMID:26300680

  3. The look of royalty: visual and odour signals of reproductive status in a paper wasp.

    PubMed

    Tannure-Nascimento, Ivelize C; Nascimento, Fabio S; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    2008-11-22

    Reproductive conflicts within animal societies occur when all females can potentially reproduce. In social insects, these conflicts are regulated largely by behaviour and chemical signalling. There is evidence that presence of signals, which provide direct information about the quality of the reproductive females would increase the fitness of all parties. In this study, we present an association between visual and chemical signals in the paper wasp Polistes satan. Our results showed that in nest-founding phase colonies, variation of visual signals is linked to relative fertility, while chemical signals are related to dominance status. In addition, experiments revealed that higher hierarchical positions were occupied by subordinates with distinct proportions of cuticular hydrocarbons and distinct visual marks. Therefore, these wasps present cues that convey reliable information of their reproductive status. PMID:18682372

  4. The look of royalty: visual and odour signals of reproductive status in a paper wasp

    PubMed Central

    Tannure-Nascimento, Ivelize C; Nascimento, Fabio S; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive conflicts within animal societies occur when all females can potentially reproduce. In social insects, these conflicts are regulated largely by behaviour and chemical signalling. There is evidence that presence of signals, which provide direct information about the quality of the reproductive females would increase the fitness of all parties. In this study, we present an association between visual and chemical signals in the paper wasp Polistes satan. Our results showed that in nest-founding phase colonies, variation of visual signals is linked to relative fertility, while chemical signals are related to dominance status. In addition, experiments revealed that higher hierarchical positions were occupied by subordinates with distinct proportions of cuticular hydrocarbons and distinct visual marks. Therefore, these wasps present cues that convey reliable information of their reproductive status. PMID:18682372

  5. Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles indicate reproductive status in the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive division of labor in social insects is accompanied by the reliable communication of individual fertility status. A central question is whether there exists a general mechanism underlying this communication system across species. The best way to produce reliable information is through ph...

  6. Elephants born in the high stress season have faster reproductive ageing

    PubMed Central

    Mumby, Hannah S.; Mar, Khyne U.; Hayward, Adam D.; Htut, Win; Htut-Aung, Ye; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Senescent declines in reproduction and survival are found across the tree of life, but little is known of the factors causing individual variation in reproductive ageing rates. One contributor may be variation in early developmental conditions, but only a few studies quantify the effects of early environment on reproductive ageing and none concern comparably long-lived species to humans. We determine the effects of ‘stressful’ birth conditions on lifetime reproduction in a large semi-captive population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We categorise birth month into stressful vs. not-stressful periods based on longitudinal measures of glucocorticoid metabolites in reproductive-aged females, which peak during heavy workload and the start of the monsoon in June-August. Females born in these months exhibit faster reproductive senescence in adulthood and have significantly reduced lifetime reproductive success than their counterparts born at other times of year. Improving developmental conditions could therefore delay reproductive ageing in species as long-lived as humans. PMID:26365592

  7. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  8. Age-Related Changes in Duration Reproduction: Involvement of Working Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Alexia; Vanneste, Sandrine; Pouthas, Viviane; Isingrini, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study age-related changes in duration reproduction by differentiating the working memory processes underlying this time estimation task. We compared performances of young and elderly adults in a duration reproduction task performed in simple and concurrent task conditions. Participants were also administered…

  9. [Celiac disease. Risk factors for women in reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Stazi, A V; Mantovani, A

    2000-05-01

    In the past coeliac disease, or intolerance to gluten, has been considered a rare disease in infancy, whose most important signs were chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and reduced growth. However, besides this classical form, there are a number of other clinical and subclinical forms which may appear even in the adult life and without any overt intestinal sign. The alterations may affect, e.g., the liver, thyroid, skin and the female and male reproductive system. The overall prevalence of the different forms of coeliac disease in Western Europe is at least 1:300. The aim of the present paper is to describe and evaluate the effects of coeliac disease on female reproduction. Such effects include delayed menarche, amenorrhea, infertility and early menopause. Epidemiological studies show that besides reduced fertility, affected women are at higher risk of reproductive problems such as pregnancy loss, low birthweight of offspring and reduced duration of breastfeeding. There are no adequate studies to evidentiate a possible increase of birth defects; nevertheless, coeliac disease induces malabsorption, with deficiencies of nutritional factors essential to prenatal development such as iron, folic acid and vitamin K. The mechanisms underlying the reproductive alterations are still awaiting clarification; however, an interaction among specific nutritional deficiencies, endocrine imbalances and immune disturbances is suspected. As for the other effects associated to the coeliac disease, the possible prevention or treatment of the reproductive effects is only the lifelong maintenance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:11048475

  10. Reproductive health status of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep: An abattoir study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A.; Kumar, P.; Singh, M.; Vasishta, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to provide basic information regarding reproductive status of Gaddi sheep reared by nomadic tribe of Himachal Pradesh. Female genitalia of Gaddi sheep (n=190) were collected from unorganized abattoirs around Palampur over a period of one and half years. Out of total genitalia examined, 80.53% were grossly normal and 19.47% had one or more genital abnormalities. Genital abnormalities were categorized as ovarian (5.26%), uterine (10.53%) and miscellaneous (3.68%). Amongst ovarian abnormalities are follicular cysts (3.16%) and ovaro-bursal adhesions (2.10%), which were recorded in Gaddi ewes. Uterine abnormalities include hydrometra (4.74%), pyometra (2.63%), mucometra (2.10%), endometritis (0.53%) and mummification (0.53%). Miscellaneous abnormalities include parovarian cysts (2.10%), parasitic cysts (1.05%) and nodules on both uterine horns (0.53%). Among the genital abnormalities in sheep, highest incidence (24.32%) was observed with hydrometra and lowest (2.7%) with each of endometritis, mummification and nodular growth on both uterine horns. Thus the uterus (54.07%) was most commonly affected, followed by the ovary (27.02%) and miscellaneous (18.91%) in ewes. In present study, 8.95% pregnant sheep were also slaughtered, with fetal age in majority of cases two months or less on the basis of CRL measurement which represents a huge economic loss. PMID:26623348

  11. Reproductive health status of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep: An abattoir study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Kumar, P; Singh, M; Vasishta, N K

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to provide basic information regarding reproductive status of Gaddi sheep reared by nomadic tribe of Himachal Pradesh. Female genitalia of Gaddi sheep (n=190) were collected from unorganized abattoirs around Palampur over a period of one and half years. Out of total genitalia examined, 80.53% were grossly normal and 19.47% had one or more genital abnormalities. Genital abnormalities were categorized as ovarian (5.26%), uterine (10.53%) and miscellaneous (3.68%). Amongst ovarian abnormalities are follicular cysts (3.16%) and ovaro-bursal adhesions (2.10%), which were recorded in Gaddi ewes. Uterine abnormalities include hydrometra (4.74%), pyometra (2.63%), mucometra (2.10%), endometritis (0.53%) and mummification (0.53%). Miscellaneous abnormalities include parovarian cysts (2.10%), parasitic cysts (1.05%) and nodules on both uterine horns (0.53%). Among the genital abnormalities in sheep, highest incidence (24.32%) was observed with hydrometra and lowest (2.7%) with each of endometritis, mummification and nodular growth on both uterine horns. Thus the uterus (54.07%) was most commonly affected, followed by the ovary (27.02%) and miscellaneous (18.91%) in ewes. In present study, 8.95% pregnant sheep were also slaughtered, with fetal age in majority of cases two months or less on the basis of CRL measurement which represents a huge economic loss. PMID:26623348

  12. Reproductive Aging Drives Protein Accumulation in the Uterus and Limits Lifespan in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Stephanie M.; Hinkson, Izumi V.; Elias, Joshua E.; Kim, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans is characterized by widespread physiological and molecular changes, but the mechanisms that determine the rate at which these changes occur are not well understood. In this study, we identify a novel link between reproductive aging and somatic aging in C. elegans. By measuring global age-related changes in the proteome, we identify a previously uncharacterized group of secreted proteins in the adult uterus that dramatically increase in abundance with age. This accumulation is blunted in animals with an extended reproductive period and accelerated in sterile animals lacking a germline. Uterine proteins are not removed in old post-reproductive animals or in young vulvaless worms, indicating that egg-laying is necessary for their rapid removal in wild-type young animals. Together, these results suggest that age-induced infertility contributes to extracellular protein accumulation in the uterus with age. Finally, we show that knocking down multiple age-increased proteins simultaneously extends lifespan. These results provide a mechanistic example of how the cessation of reproduction contributes to detrimental changes in the soma, and demonstrate how the timing of reproductive decline can influence the rate of aging. PMID:26656270

  13. Reproductive status, endocrine physiology and chemical signaling in the Neotropical, swarm-founding eusocial wasp Polybia micans

    PubMed Central

    Kelstrup, Hans C.; Hartfelder, Klaus; Nascimento, Fabio S.; Riddiford, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    In the evolution of caste-based societies in Hymenoptera, the classical insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids were co-opted into new functions. Social wasps, which show all levels of sociality and lifestyles, are an ideal group in which to study such functional changes. Virtually all studies on the physiological mechanisms underlying reproductive division of labor and caste functions in wasps have been done on independent-founding paper wasps, and the majority of these studies have focused on species specially adapted for overwintering. The relatively little-studied tropical swarm-founding wasps of the Epiponini (Vespidae) are a diverse group of permanently social wasps, with some species maintaining caste flexibility well into the adult phase. We investigated the behavior, reproductive status, JH and ecdysteroid titers in hemolymph, ecdysteroid content of the ovary and cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles in the caste-monomorphic, epiponine wasp Polybia micans Ducke. We found that the JH titer was not elevated in competing queens from established multiple-queen nests, but increased in lone queens that lack direct competition. In queenless colonies, JH titer rose transiently in young potential reproductives upon challenge by nestmates, suggesting that JH may prime the ovaries for further development. Ovarian ecdysteroids were very low in workers but higher and correlated with the number of vitellogenic oocytes in the queens. Hemolymph ecdysteroid levels were low and variable in both workers and queens. Profiles of P. micans CHCs reflected caste, age and reproductive status, but were not tightly linked to either hormone. These findings show a significant divergence in hormone function in swarm-founding wasps compared with independently founding ones. PMID:24744417

  14. Influence of Paternal Age on Assisted Reproduction Outcome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2007-08-01

    We Will Retrospectively Assess Our Databases in Our Clinic:; Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad in Valencia (Spain); Searching for Assisted Reproduction Procedures; (IUI, Standard IVF/ICSI Cycles and Ovum Donation IVF/ICSI Cycles); Who Were Referred to Our Unit to Cryopreserve Sperm During the Period; From January 2000 to December 2006.

  15. Association between food insecurity and anemia among women of reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, Bishwajit; Tang, Shangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food insecurity and hidden hunger (micronutrient deficiency) affect about two billion people globally. Household food insecurity (HFI) has been shown to be associated with one or multiple micronutrient (MMN) deficiencies among women and children. Chronic food insecurity leads to various deficiency disorders, among which anemia stands out as the most prevalent one. As a high malnutrition prevalent country, Bangladesh has one of the highest rates of anemia among all Asian countries. In this study, we wanted to investigate for any association exists between HFI and anemia among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. Methodology: Information about demographics, socioeconomic and anemia status on 5,666 married women ageing between 13 and 40 years were collected from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011). Food security was measured by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Capillary hemoglobin concentration (Hb) measured by HemoCue® was used as the biomarker of anemia. Data were analysed using cross-tabulation, chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression methods. Results: Anemia prevalence was 41.7%. Logistic regression showed statistically significant association with anemia and type of residency (p = 0.459; OR = 0.953, 95%CI = 0.840–1.082), wealth status (Poorest: p < 0.001; OR = 1.369, 95%CI = 1.176–1.594; and average: p = 0.030; 95%CI = 1.017–1.398), educational attainment (p < 0.001; OR = 1.276, 95%CI = 1.132–1.439) and household food insecurity (p < 0.001; 95%CI = 1.348–1.830). Women who reported food insecurity were about 1.6 times more likely to suffer from anemia compared to their food secure counterparts. Conclusion: HFI is a significant predictor of anemia among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. Programs targeting HFI could prove beneficial for anemia reduction strategies. Gender aspects of food and nutrition insecurity should be taken into

  16. The Association between Maternal Reproductive Age and Progression of Refractive Error in Urban Students in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Jin, Zi Bing; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J.; Jhanji, Vishal; Zhou, Hong Jia; Wang, Ning Li; Liang, Yuan Bo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between maternal reproductive age and their children’ refractive error progression in Chinese urban students. Methods The Beijing Myopia Progression Study was a three-year cohort investigation. Cycloplegic refraction of these students at both baseline and follow-up vision examinations, as well as non-cycloplegic refraction of their parents at baseline, were performed. Student’s refractive change was defined as the cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) of the right eye at the final follow-up minus the cycloplegic SE of the right eye at baseline. Results At the final follow-up, 241 students (62.4%) were reexamined. 226 students (58.5%) with completed refractive data, as well as completed parental reproductive age data, were enrolled. The average paternal and maternal age increased from 29.4 years and 27.5 years in 1993–1994 to 32.6 years and 29.2 years in 2003–2004, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, students who were younger (β = 0.08 diopter/year/year, P<0.001), with more myopic refraction at baseline (β = 0.02 diopter/year/diopter, P = 0.01), and with older maternal reproductive age (β = -0.18 diopter/year/decade, P = 0.01), had more myopic refractive change. After stratifying the parental reproductive age into quartile groups, children with older maternal reproductive age (trend test: P = 0.04) had more myopic refractive change, after adjusting for the children's age, baseline refraction, maternal refraction, and near work time. However, no significant association between myopic refractive change and paternal reproductive age was found. Conclusions In this cohort, children with older maternal reproductive age had more myopic refractive change. This new risk factor for myopia progression may partially explain the faster myopic progression found in the Chinese population in recent decades. PMID:26421841

  17. Duration reproduction: lossy integration and effects of sensory modalities, cognitive functioning, age, and sex.

    PubMed

    Pütz, Peter; Wittmann, Marc; Wackermann, Jirí

    2012-10-01

    The "dual klepsydra model" (DKM) of internal time representation successfully models duration reproduction data, but relations between the DKM-based parameter kappa ("loss rate") and procedural variables (presentation modality) or individual characteristics (cognitive indices, age, sex) remained as yet unexplored. For that purpose, were-analyzed data from an earlier time reproduction study (N = 100), using visually or acoustically presented intervals of 1-5 sec. duration. Typical values of parameter kappa were approximately 0.03-0.04 sec.(-1), corresponding to relaxation times of internal "lossy integrators" of approximately 30 sec. Significant effects of presentation modality (smaller kappa values for the visual reproduction task) and of age (greater kappa in acoustic reproduction with increasing age) were observed. Cognitive variables (working memory, general fluid reasoning, attention) and sex of participants were not associated with kappa. Cognitive functions seem to play only a minor, if any, role at the level of time representation addressed by the DKM. PMID:23265003

  18. Ageing, status politics and sociological theory.

    PubMed

    Turner, B S

    1989-12-01

    As a feature of social change and as an aspect of social stratification, ageing and age groups have been seriously neglected by sociological theory. This article attempts to conceptualize age groups in a multi-dimensional model of stratification which considers ageing in relation to economic class, political entitlement, or citizenship, and cultural life-styles. This multi-dimensional model provides an analytical basis for rejecting functionalist theories of ageing, which emphasize the positive functions of social disengagement, activity theories, which show that self-esteem in ageing is an effect of continuing social involvement, and Marxist social gerontology, which argues that retirement is determined by labour-market requirements in capitalism. The article concludes by developing a reciprocity-maturation curve of ageing which explains age stigmatization through exchange theory as an effect of declining social reciprocity. Both young and elderly social groups in a period of economic recession are perceived to be socially dependent, and become the targets of 'the politics of resentment'. The processes of social ageing can be located in the core of sociological theory, because they are connected fundamentally to the conditions of social solidarity. PMID:2688794

  19. Antioxidant status in blood of gynaecological patients: influence of diagnosis and reproductive factors.

    PubMed

    Pejić, S; Stojiljković, V; Todorović, A; Gavrilović, L; Popović, N; Pavlović, I; Pajović, S B

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the reproductive tract is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. In this study we evaluated the influence of diagnostic categories, age and reproductive factors on antioxidant enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in the blood of gynaecological patients diagnosed with endometrial polyp, myoma, hyperplasia simplex, hyperplasia complex and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the association of diagnosis, age, parity, abortions and abnormal uterine bleeding with the examined parameters. Diagnosis provided the best predictive model for superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and also for the lipid hydroperoxide level. Abortions fitted the best predictive model for superoxide dismutase activity. A significant correlation was also found between the predictor variables themselves. This study showed that reproductive and other factors may be associated, at least partially, with antioxidant capacity and ability to defend against the oxidative damage in gynaecological patients with various diagnoses. PMID:25958308

  20. Comparative Assessment of the Reproductive Status of Female Atlantic Bluefin Tuna from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Jessica M.; Aranda, Guillermo; Medina, Antonio; Lutcavage, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Despite attention focused on the population status and rebuilding trajectory of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), the reproduction and spawning biology remains poorly understood, especially in the NW Atlantic. At present, the eastern and western spawning populations are believed to exhibit different reproductive characteristics and, consequently, stock productivity. However, our study suggests that the two spawning populations, the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, could show similar reproductive features and spawning strategies. Between 2007 and 2009, gonad samples from female Atlantic bluefin tuna were collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico (n = 147) and in the western Mediterranean Sea (n = 40). The histological and stereological analysis confirmed that sampled eastern and western bluefin tuna exhibit the same spawning duration (three months) but the spawning in the Gulf of Mexico begins one month earlier than in the Mediterranean Sea. Western bluefin tuna caught in the peak of the spawning season (May) showed a similar spawning frequency (60%) to the spawning peak observed in the Mediterranean Sea (June). Fecundity for the Gulf of Mexico fish () was lower but not significantly different than for fish sampled in the Mediterranean Sea (). Our study represents the first comparative histological analysis of the eastern and western spawning stocks whose findings, combined with new determinations of size/age at maturity and possible alternative spawning areas, might suggest basic life history attributes warrant further scientific and management attention. PMID:24911973

  1. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Wieringa, Frank T.; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation <15 μg/L and <50 μg/L respectively; Fer), iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (<0 mg/kg). Vitamin A status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (<0.70 μmol/L) or marginal (<1.05 μmol/L. Overall, the prevalence of low iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p < 0.05 for TBI and sTfR). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was <1%. These findings suggest that the contribution of iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia. PMID:27043624

  2. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Wieringa, Frank T; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation <15 μg/L and <50 μg/L respectively; Fer), iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (<0 mg/kg). Vitamin A status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (<0.70 μmol/L) or marginal (<1.05 μmol/L. Overall, the prevalence of low iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p < 0.05 for TBI and sTfR). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was <1%. These findings suggest that the contribution of iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia. PMID:27043624

  3. Reproductive aging in captive and wild common chimpanzees: factors influencing the rate of follicular depletion.

    PubMed

    Atsalis, Sylvia; Videan, Elaine

    2009-04-01

    We examine and discuss evidence of contrasting differences in fertility patterns between captive and wild female chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, as they age; in the wild females reproduce in their 40s, but captive studies suggest that menopause occurs around that time. Thus, despite the increased longevity generally observed in captive populations reproductive life span is shortened. We outline a hypothesis to explain the apparent differential pace of reproductive decline observed between wild and captive populations. The breeding schedules of captive primates may contribute to accelerated reproductive senescence because continuous cycling in captive animals results in early depletion of the ovarian stock and premature senescence. Available evidence supports the hypothesis that women with patterns of high oocyte loss experience earlier menopause. Chimpanzees in captivity live longer, and thus, similar to humans, they may experience follicular depletion that precedes death by many years. In captivity, chimpanzees typically have an early age at menarche and first birth, shorter interbirth intervals associated with short lactational periods as young mature faster, and nursery rearing, which allows mothers to begin cycling earlier. Variables typical of wild chimpanzee populations, including late age at menarche and first birth, long interbirth intervals associated with prolonged lactational periods, and a long period of female infertility after immigration, spare ovulations and may be responsible for the later age at reproductive termination. Finally, we describe and discuss the timing of specific reproductive landmarks that occur as female chimpanzees age, distinguishing between functional menopause (age at last birth) and operational menopause (end of cycling). PMID:19067363

  4. Evaluation of reproductive status in Atlantic Tripletail by traditional and nonlethal approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parr, R. T.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Denslow, N. D.; Kroll, K.J.; Bringolf, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive biology information is an important tool for fishery management actions such as the identification of spawning areas and the development of protective size limits, bag limits, and seasons. Such information for the management of Atlantic TripletailLobotes surinamensis is currently limited, particularly in the western Atlantic Ocean, as information regarding the reproductive biology of this species is sparse in the published literature. To this end, we determined the reproductive status of tripletail and compared the results of a nonlethal sampling method, plasma vitellogenin (VTG) analysis, with those of two traditional (lethal) methods, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and gonad histology. A total of 223 (122 male and 101 female) tripletail were sampled over 2 years near Jekyll Island, Georgia. Gonad histology indicated that 107 (94%) of the male tripletail were in the spawning-capable reproductive phase. Female tripletail were found in all reproductive phases, but only nine (8.9%) were in the spawning-capable phase. Plasma VTG was strongly related to GSI in females (R2 = 0.832, n = 77), and female GSI differed significantly among reproductive phases (p < 0.0001). The estimated length at which 50% (L50) of female tripletail reached maturity was 463 mm; however, the L50 for male tripletail could not be determined because of the lack of immature fish within the study sample. Our study provides valuable information for the management of tripletail and indicates that a nonlethal approach (plasma VTG) may be useful for differentiating developing and spawning-capable females from males and from females in other reproductive phases.

  5. Reproductive Status Regulates Expression of Sex Steroid and GnRH Receptors in the Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Russell D.

    2010-01-01

    Neuromodulators including gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and sex steroids help integrate an animal's internal physiological state with incoming external cues, and can have profound effects on the processing of behaviorally-relevant information, particularly from the olfactory system. While GnRH and steroid receptors are present in olfactory processing regions across vertebrates, little is known about whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA levels of two GnRH receptors (GnRH-R1, GnRH-R2), five sex steroid receptors (estrogen receptors: ERα, ERβa, ERβb; androgen receptors: ARα, ARβ), and aromatase in the olfactory bulb of the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni. We asked whether these receptor levels changed with reproductive condition in females, or with social status, which regulates reproductive capacity in males. Our results reveal that mRNA levels of multiple sex steroid, GnRH receptor subtypes, and aromatase in the olfactory bulb vary with sex, social status in males, and reproductive condition in females, which highlights the potential importance of changing receptor levels in fine-tuning the olfactory system during the reproductive cycle. Further, steroid receptor mRNA levels were positively correlated with circulating steroid levels in males, but negatively correlated in females, suggesting different regulatory control between sexes. These results provide support for the hypothesis that the first-order olfactory relay station is a substrate for both GnRH and sex steroid modulation, and suggest that changes in receptor levels could be an important mechanism for regulating reproductive, social, and seasonal plasticity in olfactory perception observed across vertebrates. PMID:20466023

  6. Status of motor operated valves aging assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Motor operated valves (MOVs) have a long history of operational problems in nuclear power plants. Resolution of MOV problems in the past has tended to focus on symptoms rather than root cause. Although there has been more attention focused recently on identifying root causes, problems with valve operational readiness resulting from aging and service wear still persist. In addition, weaknesses in the currently used design equations for sizing of MOVs, identified in tests carried out by industry and confirmed in the recent NRC gate valve blowdown testing, have re-enforced the need for improved in-situ methods for determining the operational readiness of MOVs, whether from aging and service wear or from improper installation and maintenance. The objective of the MOV aging assessment is to evaluate and recommend practical methods for insuring operational readiness of safety-related MOVs under all anticipated operating conditions.

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  8. Sexual dysfunction among female patients of reproductive age in a hospital setting in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fajewonyomi, Benjamin A; Orji, Ernest O; Adeyemo, Adenike O

    2007-03-01

    Although sexual dysfunction is an important public-health problem in Nigeria, little research has been conducted on this topic in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and their correlates among female patients of reproductive age using a questionnaire. Respondents were recruited from the out-patients clinics of a teaching hospital setting in Ile-Ife/ Ijesa administrative health zone, Osun State, Nigeria. Of 384 female patients interviewed, 242 (63%) were sexually dysfunctional. Types of sexual dysfunction included disorder of desire (n=20; 8.3%), disorder of arousal (n=l 3; 5.4%), disorder of orgasm (n=154; 63.6%), and painful coitus (dyspareunia) (n=55; 22.7%). The peak age of sexual dysfunction was observed among the age-group of 26-30 years. Women with higher educational status were mostly affected. The reasons for unsatisfactory sexual life mainly included psychosexual factors and medical illnesses, among which included uncaring partners, present illness, excessive domestic duties, lack of adequate foreplay, present medication, competition among wives in a polygamous family setting, previous sexual abuse, and guilt-feeling of previous pregnancy termination among infertile women. The culture of male dominance in the local environment which makes women afraid of rejection and threats of divorce if they ever complain about sexually-related matters might perpetrate sexual dysfunction among the affected individuals. Sexual dysfunction is a real social and psychological problem in the local environment demanding urgent attention. It is imperative to carry out further research in society at large so that the health and lifestyles of affected women and their partners could be improved. PMID:17615910

  9. Associations between Mycobacterium paratuberculosis sero-status, milk quality parameters, and reproduction in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pesqueira, María N; Factor, Camino; Mato, Ivan; Sanjuán, María L; Macias, Laura; Eiras, Carmen; Arnaiz, Ignacio; Camino, Fernando; Yus, Eduardo; Diéguez, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Mycobocterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) sero-status of dairy cows on different milk production variables and reproductive traits. The study was carried out on 40 herds from the region of Galicia (North-West Spain). These herds were randomly selected from a larger group that had taken part in a voluntary paratuberculosis control program since 2005, which involves regular serum sampling of every adult animal to run antibody-ELISA tests. Milk production and reproductive data were obtained from the "Dairy Herd Improvement Program (DHIP) of Galicia". All the gathered data were processed following a linear regression model. Results indicated that there was no significant effect of MAP sero-status on individual milk production variables. However, a significant difference was observed at the calving-to-first-insemination interval, with an average increase of 14 days in positive animals compared to negatives. It has to be taken into consideration that the paratuberculosis status was only defined by the serological status. Since para tb-infected animals may have antbodies or may not, para tb-positive animals can also be included in the sero-negative group of animals, which may bias the results. PMID:26591382

  10. Effect of mussel reproductive status on biomarker responses to PAHs: Implications for large-scale monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Albentosa, Marina; Campillo, Juan A; Viñas, Lucía; Franco, Angeles; Bellas, Juan

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers are useful tools to assess biological effects of pollutants and have been extensively used in monitoring programs to determine ecosystem health. In these programs, a wide range of environmental conditions are covered and sometimes, obtained data are difficult to interpret because of natural variables are affecting biomarker responses. Among these variables, musseĺs reproductive status has been considered one of the most changing variables between sites in a monitoring survey. Thus, the main aim of this work was to identify the effect that mussel reproductive status has on biomarker responses. For that purpose, mussels sampled at two periods in the reproductive cycle (reproductive and resting stages) were conditioned to the same laboratory conditions and exposed to fluoranthene (FLU) for three weeks. Studied biomarkers covering a wide range of organism responses were included: bioaccumulation, physiological rates (clearance rate -CR-, absorption efficiency -AE-, respiration rate -RR- and their integration in the scope for growth -SFG-), antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide-dismutase -SOD-, catalase -CAT-, glutathione reductase -GR-, glutathione peroxidase -GPx-, glutathione-S-tranferase -GST-) and biochemical damage responses (lipid membrane peroxidation -LPO-). The results obtained evidenced that the levels of the biomarkers studied (RR, SOD, CAT and GPx) were higher at reproductive than at resting stage. On the other hand, the effect of toxicant was observed in SFG, CAT and GPx but this effect was only detected during the resting period. Moreover, there was a deterioration of mussel gonadal tissue with FLU exposure during reproductive stage. FLU accumulation in mussel tissues was also dependent of the reproductive status with higher internal concentrations during resting than reproductive period. In conclusion, there was a strong effect of reproductive status on studied biomarkers which seems to mask the effect of FLU at reproductive stage. The

  11. Transgenerational effects of maternal diet on metabolic and reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Catherine E; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    The early-life environment, in particular maternal diet during pregnancy, influences a wide range of organs and systems in adult offspring. Mounting evidence suggests that developmental programming can also influence health and disease in grand-offspring. Transgenerational effects can be defined as those persisting into an F2 generation, where the F0 mother experiences suboptimal diet during her pregnancy. In this review, we critically examine evidence for transgenerational developmental programming effects in human populations, focusing on metabolic and reproductive outcomes. We discuss evidence from historical cohorts suggesting that grandchildren of women exposed to famine and other dietary alterations during pregnancy may experience increased rates of later health complications than their control counterparts. The methodological difficulties with transgenerational studies in human cohorts are explored. In particular, the problems with assessing reproductive outcomes in human populations are discussed. In light of the relative paucity of evidence available from human cohorts, we consider key insights from transgenerational experimental animal models of developmental programming by maternal diet; data are drawn from a range of rodent models, as well as the guinea-pig and the sheep. The evidence for different potential mechanisms of transgenerational inheritance or re-propagation of developmental programming effects is evaluated. Transgenerational effects could be transmitted through methylation of the gametes via the paternal and maternal lineage, as well as other possible mechanisms via the maternal lineage. Finally, future directions for exploring these underlying mechanisms further are proposed, including utilizing large, well-characterized, prospective pregnancy cohorts that include biobanks, which have been established in various populations during the last few decades. PMID:27114382

  12. Desires, Need, Perceptions, and Knowledge of Assisted Reproductive Technologies of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimeng; Margolese, Shari; Yudin, Mark H; Raboud, Janet M; Diong, Christina; Hart, Trevor A; Shapiro, Heather M; Librach, Cliff; Gysler, Matt; Loutfy, Mona R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess the desire, need, perceptions, and knowledge of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) for women living with HIV (WLWHIV) and determine correlates of ART knowledge desire. WLWHIV of reproductive age were surveyed using the survey instrument "The HIV Pregnancy Planning Questionnaire" at HIV/AIDS service organizations across Ontario, Canada. Of our cohort of 500 WLWHIV, median age was 38, 88% were previously pregnant, 78% desired more information regarding ART, 59% were open to the idea of receiving ART, 39% felt they could access a sperm bank, and 17% had difficulties conceiving (self-reported). Age, African ethnicity, and residence in an urban center were correlated with desire for more ART information. Of participants, 50% wanted to speak to an obstetrician/gynecologist regarding pregnancy planning, and 74% regarded physicians as a main source of fertility service information. While the majority of participants in our cohort desire access to ART information, most do not perceive these services as readily accessible. Healthcare practitioners were viewed as main sources of information regarding fertility services and need to provide accurate information regarding access. Fertility service professionals need to be aware of the increasing demand for ART among WLWHIV. PMID:22957265

  13. XTX8003 Aging Study Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, M.; Coleman, K.; Foster, P.; Klassen, S.; Loyola, V.

    1999-03-08

    XTX8003 is an extrudable explosive composed of 80% PETN and 20% Sylgard 182 (polydimethylsiloxane). Knowledge of the aging characteristics of XTX8003 is desired to understand the relationship between chemical and physical changes and performance. This understanding will allow improved assessment of the current state and also projected lifetime of components that contain this material. A literature search revealed few published studies of the aging behavior of XTX8003 or a chemically similar material, LX-13. Two studies showed that detonation velocity had decreased after storage at 70 C for two years. Another study showed a 30% decrease in target penetration by conical shaped charge after 12 weeks of storage at 82 C. Only one study was found which evaluated chemical and physical changes, but no information was available to correlate performance degradation to chemical and physical changes in the material. In summary, the major changes seen in aged XTX8003 are in detonation velocity and particle morphology, but particle morphology does not appear to be the determining factor in the loss of detonation velocity. The study will continue at least 24 months, at which time the data will be evaluated to determine how best to continue with the remaining test samples.

  14. Effects of age at first-pairing on the reproductive performance of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Kai, O; Sakemi, K; Suzuki, Y; Sonoda, Y; Imai, K

    1995-10-01

    Effects of age at first-pairing on the reproductive performance of the gerbil were studied throughout the reproductive life. Six groups of 7-30 female gerbils were paired monogamously with males at different ages. Out of 101 pairs in 6 groups, 79 (78.2%) produced 1 or more litters. The mean litter size at birth and mean weaning rate of 846 litters were 4.4 (totally 3,733 pups) and 67.4% (2,517 pups), respectively. Reproduction was compared in the 6 age groups. The littering rate (No. of females with litters/No. of female paired) was significantly lower in two groups in which mature females were paired with age-matched males (Group 4) or the oldest females with younger, sexually mature males (Group 6). The interval from pairing to the first litter was shortest in two groups in which mature females were paired with one month older, sexually mature males (Groups 3 and 5). Although the oldest pairs (Group 6) produced about 7 litters, the pairs from the other 5 groups produced about 10 or more litters throughout their reproductive life. The weaning rate was significantly higher in Group 6 (the oldest pairs) than in the younger groups. The effects of parity on reproduction were estimated from the data for the 61 pairs which produced more than 8 litters in the 6 groups. The number of pups at birth and the weaning rate were decreased in last 20-30% of the total parity in all 6 groups, although the age at the last litter in all groups was significantly different. The data suggest that any decline in reproduction may be due to not age but parity in the Mongolian gerbil. PMID:8575545

  15. Environmental contingency in life history strategies: the influence of mortality and socioeconomic status on reproductive timing.

    PubMed

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Delton, Andrew W; Robertson, Theresa E; Tybur, Joshua M

    2011-02-01

    Why do some people have children early, whereas others delay reproduction? By considering the trade-offs between using one's resources for reproduction versus other tasks, the evolutionary framework of life history theory predicts that reproductive timing should be influenced by mortality and resource scarcity. A series of experiments examined how mortality cues influenced the desire to have children sooner rather than later. The effects of mortality depended critically on whether people grew up in a relatively resource-scarce or resource-plentiful environment. For individuals growing up relatively poor, mortality cues produced a desire to reproduce sooner--to want children now, even at the cost of furthering one's education or career. Conversely, for individuals growing up relatively wealthy, mortality cues produced a desire to delay reproduction--to further one's education or career before starting a family. Overall, mortality cues appear to shift individuals into different life history strategies as a function of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting important implications for how environmental factors can influence fertility and family size. PMID:20873933

  16. Host age modulates parasite infectivity, virulence and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Izhar, Rony; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2015-07-01

    Host age is one of the most striking differences among hosts within most populations, but there is very little data on how age-dependent effects impact ecological and evolutionary dynamics of both the host and the parasite. Here, we examined the influence of host age (juveniles, young and old adults) at parasite exposure on host susceptibility, fecundity and survival as well as parasite transmission, using two clones of the water flea Daphnia magna and two clones of its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. Younger D. magna were more susceptible to infection than older ones, regardless of host or parasite clone. Also, younger-infected D. magna became castrated faster than older hosts, but host and parasite clone effects contributed to this trait as well. Furthermore, the early-infected D. magna produced considerably more parasite transmission stages than late-infected ones, while host age at exposure did not affect virulence as it is defined in models (host mortality). When virulence is defined more broadly as the negative effects of infection on host fitness, by integrating the parasitic effects on host fecundity and mortality, then host age at exposure seems to slide along a negative relationship between host and parasite fitness. Thus, the virulence-transmission trade-off differs strongly among age classes, which in turn affects predictions of optimal virulence. Age-dependent effects on host susceptibility, virulence and parasite transmission could pose an important challenge for experimental and theoretical studies of infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology. Our results present a call for a more explicit stage-structured theory for disease, which will incorporate age-dependent epidemiological parameters. PMID:25661269

  17. Testicular biopsy in psittacine birds (Psittaciformes): comparative evaluation of testicular reproductive status by endoscopic, histologic, and cytologic examination.

    PubMed

    Hänse, Maria; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Reitemeier, Susanne; Einspanier, Almuth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the reproductive cycle of male parrots is important for examining the male genital tract and for successful breeding, especially of endangered species. To evaluate different diagnostic methods and criteria concerning the classification of reproductive stages, we examined 20 testicular samples obtained at necropsy in psittacine birds of different species and testicular biopsy samples collected from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) by endoscopy 4 times over a 12-month period. The testicular reproductive status was assessed histologically and then compared with the macroscopic appearance of the testicles and cytologic results. The histologic examination was nondiagnostic in 19 of 59 testicular biopsy samples. By contrast, the cytologic preparations were diagnostic in 57 of 59 biopsy samples. The results of the cytologic examination coincided with the histologic results in 34 of 38 biopsy samples and 18 of 20 necropsy samples. Macroscopic parameters displayed some differences between reproductive stages but provided an unreliable indication of the reproductive status. These results suggest that microscopic examination of a testicular biopsy sample is a reliable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male parrots and is preferable to the macroscopic evaluation of the testicle. Cytologic examination provides fast preliminary results, even when the histologic preparation is not sufficient for evaluation, but results may be erroneous. Thus, a combination of histologic and cytologic examination is recommended for evaluating testicular reproductive status. PMID:24640925

  18. Reproductive age-associated fibrosis in the stroma of the mammalian ovary.

    PubMed

    Briley, Shawn M; Jasti, Susmita; McCracken, Jennifer M; Hornick, Jessica E; Fegley, Barbara; Pritchard, Michele T; Duncan, Francesca E

    2016-09-01

    Under normal physiological conditions, tissue remodeling in response to injury leads to tissue regeneration without permanent damage. However, if homeostasis between synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components is altered, fibrosis - or the excess accumulation of ECM - can disrupt tissue architecture and function. Several organs, including the heart, lung and kidney, exhibit age-associated fibrosis. Here we investigated whether fibrosis underlies aging in the ovary - an organ that ages chronologically before other organs. We used Picrosirius Red (PSR), a connective tissue stain specific for collagen I and III fibers, to evaluate ovarian fibrosis. Using bright-field, epifluorescence, confocal and polarized light microscopy, we validated the specific staining of highly ordered PSR-stained fibers in the ovary. We next examined ovarian PSR staining in two mouse strains (CD1 and CB6F1) across an aging continuum and found that PSR staining was minimal in ovaries from reproductively young adult animals, increased in distinct foci in animals of mid-to-advanced reproductive age, and was prominent throughout the stroma of the oldest animals. Consistent with fibrosis, there was a reproductive age-associated increase in ovarian hydroxyproline content. We also observed a unique population of multinucleated macrophage giant cells, which are associated with chronic inflammation, within the ovarian stroma exclusively in reproductively old mice. In fact, several genes central to inflammation had significantly higher levels of expression in ovaries from reproductively old mice relative to young mice. These results establish fibrosis as an early hallmark of the aging ovarian stroma, and this altered microenvironment may contribute to the age-associated decline in gamete quality. PMID:27491879

  19. Effect of Paternal Age on Reproductive Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Liu, Jianqiao

    2015-01-01

    Although the adverse effects of maternal aging on reproductive outcomes have been investigated widely, there is no consensus on the impact of paternal age. Therefore, we investigated the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes in a retrospective analysis of 9,991 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and October 2013. Samples were grouped according to maternal age [<30 (3,327 cycles), 30–34 (4,587 cycles), and 35–38 (2,077 cycles)] and then subgrouped according to paternal age (<30, 30–32, 33–35, 36–38, 39–41, and ≥42). The groups did not differ in terms of fertilization rate, numbers of viable and high-quality embryos and miscarriage rate when controlling maternal age (P >0.05). Chi-squared analysis revealed that there were no differences in implantation and pregnancy rates among the different paternal age groups when maternal age was <30 and 35–38 years (P >0.05). However, implantation and pregnancy rates decreased with paternal age in the 31–34 y maternal age group (P <0.05). Our study indicates that paternal age has no impact on fertilization rate, embryo quality at the cleavage stage and miscarriage rate. For the 30–34 y maternal age group, the implantation rate decreased with increased paternal age, with the pregnancy rate in this group being significantly higher in the paternal <30 y and 30–32 y age groups, compared with those in the 36–38 y and 39–41 y groups. PMID:26352861

  20. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  1. Testing the Critical Window Hypothesis of Timing and Duration of Estradiol Treatment on Hypothalamic Gene Networks in Reproductively Mature and Aging Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Weiling; Maguire, Sean M.; Pham, Brian; Garcia, Alexandra N.; Dang, Nguyen-Vy; Liang, Jingya; Wolfe, Andrew; Hofmann, Hans A.

    2015-01-01

    At menopause, the dramatic loss of ovarian estradiol (E2) necessitates the adaptation of estrogen-sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus to an estrogen-depleted environment. We developed a rat model to test the “critical window” hypothesis of the effects of timing and duration of E2 treatment after deprivation on the hypothalamic neuronal gene network in the arcuate nucleus and the medial preoptic area. Rats at 2 ages (reproductively mature or aging) were ovariectomized and given E2 or vehicle replacement regimes of differing timing and duration. Using a 48-gene quantitative low-density PCR array and weighted gene coexpression network analysis, we identified gene modules differentially regulated by age, timing, and duration of E2 treatment. Of particular interest, E2 status differentially affected suites of genes in the hypothalamus involved in energy balance, circadian rhythms, and reproduction. In fact, E2 status was the dominant factor in determining gene modules and hormone levels; age, timing, and duration had more subtle effects. Our results highlight the plasticity of hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems during reproductive aging and its surprising ability to adapt to diverse E2 replacement regimes. PMID:26018250

  2. Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, Kyle M.; Head, Megan L.; Williams, Camellia A.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity–parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity. PMID:23782889

  3. Characterization of Ovarian Aging and Reproductive Senescence in Vervet Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Hannah M; Willson, Cynthia J; Silverstein, Marnie; Jorgensen, Matthew; Floyd, Edison; Kaplan, Jay R; Appt, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Female vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) are used as an experimental model for chronic diseases relevant to women's health. However, reproductive senescence (menopause) has not yet been characterized for vervet monkeys. Here we describe the histologic, hormonal, and menstrual markers of reproductive senescence in vervet monkeys from the Wake Forest Vervet Research Colony. Ovaries from monkeys (age, 0 to 27 y) were serially sectioned (5 μm), stained, and photographed. In every 100th section, the numbers of primordial, primary, and secondary follicles were determined, and triplicate measurements were used to calculate mean numbers of follicles per ovary. Antimüllerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone, and menstrual cycle length were measured in additional monkeys. Primordial follicles and AMH decreased significantly with age, and significant correlations between numbers of primordial and primary follicles and between numbers of primary and secondary follicles were noted. Histologic evaluation revealed that ovaries from 4 aged monkeys (older than 23 y) were senescent. One aged monkey transitioned to menopause, experiencing cycle irregularity over 4 y, eventual cessation of menses, and plasma AMH below the level of detection. Finally, with increasing age, the percentage of female vervets with offspring declined significantly. The present study provides insight into ovarian aging and reproductive senescence in vervet monkeys. Results highlight the importance of considering this nonhuman primate as a model to investigate the relationships between ovarian aging and chronic disease risk. PMID:24512962

  4. Relationship between pre-weaning gain, age at puberty, and reproductive tract development in Angus heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef heifers should initiate reproductive cycles by 12 mo of age to insure multiple estrous cycles before the start of the breeding season to maximize fertility. Previous research indicated that pre-weaning gain positively influenced the onset of puberty and antral follicle numbers. Therefore, the...

  5. Early-life stress and reproductive cost: A two-hit developmental model of accelerated aging?

    PubMed

    Shalev, Idan; Belsky, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Two seemingly independent bodies of research suggest a two-hit model of accelerated aging, one highlighting early-life stress and the other reproduction. The first, informed by developmental models of early-life stress, highlights reduced longevity effects of early adversity on telomere erosion, whereas the second, informed by evolutionary theories of aging, highlights such effects with regard to reproductive cost (in females). The fact that both early-life adversity and reproductive effort are associated with shorter telomeres and increased oxidative stress raises the prospect, consistent with life-history theory, that these two theoretical frameworks currently informing much research are tapping into the same evolutionary-developmental process of increased senescence and reduced longevity. Here we propose a mechanistic view of a two-hit model of accelerated aging in human females through (a) early-life adversity and (b) early reproduction, via a process of telomere erosion, while highlighting mediating biological embedding mechanisms that might link these two developmental aging processes. PMID:27063083

  6. Mortality From Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Reproductive-Aged Women: United States, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I estimated the sexually transmitted disease–related mortality among US reproductive-aged women from 1999 to 2010. Methods. I estimated mortality from National Center for Health Statistics’ Multiple Cause of Death data. I defined reproductive age as 15 to 44 years. For diseases partially caused by sexual transmission, I estimated the proportion attributable to sexual transmission from the literature. To calculate mortality rates, I estimated number of deaths from each disease and Census Bureau population for reproductive-aged women for 1999 to 2010. Results. From 1999 to 2010, the cumulative sexually transmitted disease–related mortality rate decreased by 49%, from 5.3 to 2.7 deaths per 100 000. The primary contributors were HIV and human papilloma virus infections. Mortality from sexually transmitted HIV infection decreased by 62%, from 3.4 to 1.3 deaths per 100 000. Mortality from human papilloma virus–associated gynecologic cancers decreased by 19%, from 1.6 deaths per 100 000 in 1999 to 1.3 deaths per 100 000 in 2010. Conclusions. Screening and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases may reduce mortality. Research is needed to determine whether sexually transmitted disease–related morbidity among reproductive-aged women has decreased over the past decade. PMID:24922169

  7. Environmental Contingency in Life History Strategies: The Influence of Mortality and Socioeconomic Status on Reproductive Timing

    PubMed Central

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Delton, Andrew W.; Robertson, Theresa E.; Tybur, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Why do some people have children early, whereas others delay reproduction? By considering the trade-offs between using one’s resources for reproduction versus other tasks, the evolutionary framework of life history theory predicts that reproductive timing should be influenced by mortality and resource scarcity. A series of experiments examined how mortality cues influenced the desire to have children sooner rather than later. The effects of mortality depended critically on whether people grew up in a relatively resource-scarce or resource-plentiful environment. For individuals growing up relatively poor, mortality cues produced a desire to reproduce sooner—to want children now, even at the cost of furthering one’s education or career. Conversely, for individuals growing up relatively wealthy, mortality cues produced a desire to delay reproduction—to further one’s education or career before starting a family. Overall, mortality cues appear to shift individuals into different life history strategies as a function of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting important implications for how environmental factors can influence fertility and family size. PMID:20873933

  8. Influence of Reproductive Status: Home Range Size in Water Voles (Arvicola amphibius)

    PubMed Central

    Frafjord, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between home range and reproductive status of water voles (Arvicola amphibius) was studied by radio-tracking on an island off the coast of northern Norway in 2006–2009. The aim was to test assumptions about the species’ social structure relative to other microtines. Juveniles used fairly small ranges (about 400 m²), with no difference between males and females. Subadults, overwintered voles in April, had ranges similar to juveniles. Reproductively active males (mean 2774.0 m²) increased their range seven-fold relative to juvenile males, with ranges on average 3.3 times larger than adult females (mean 848.3 m²), which also expanded their range. Most litters were born in May and June, and as reproduction ceased in July adult males reduced their range whilst females did not. Body mass or year did not influence home range size. Overlap of home ranges varied, but could be extensive in both adult males and females. The water vole had a social structure similar to some Microtus species, but females appeared to be non-territorial and males perhaps conditioned territorial and non-territorial. PMID:27115881

  9. Influence of Reproductive Status: Home Range Size in Water Voles (Arvicola amphibius).

    PubMed

    Frafjord, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between home range and reproductive status of water voles (Arvicola amphibius) was studied by radio-tracking on an island off the coast of northern Norway in 2006-2009. The aim was to test assumptions about the species' social structure relative to other microtines. Juveniles used fairly small ranges (about 400 m²), with no difference between males and females. Subadults, overwintered voles in April, had ranges similar to juveniles. Reproductively active males (mean 2774.0 m²) increased their range seven-fold relative to juvenile males, with ranges on average 3.3 times larger than adult females (mean 848.3 m²), which also expanded their range. Most litters were born in May and June, and as reproduction ceased in July adult males reduced their range whilst females did not. Body mass or year did not influence home range size. Overlap of home ranges varied, but could be extensive in both adult males and females. The water vole had a social structure similar to some Microtus species, but females appeared to be non-territorial and males perhaps conditioned territorial and non-territorial. PMID:27115881

  10. Shifting paradigms in diminished ovarian reserve and advanced reproductive age in assisted reproduction: customization instead of conformity.

    PubMed

    Reed, Beverly G; Babayev, Samir N; Bukulmez, Orhan

    2015-05-01

    As women are increasingly delaying childbearing into their 30s and beyond, diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) and advanced reproductive age (ARA) patients are bound to become a large proportion of all assisted reproductive technology practices. Traditional controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols for DOR and/or ARA have had some limited success, but pregnancy rates are lower and cycle cancellation rates are higher than their younger counterparts with normal ovarian reserve. Though many physicians have a selection of favorite standard protocols that they use, patients with DOR may require closer monitoring and customization of the treatment cycle to address the common problems that come with low ovarian reserve. Frequent issues that surface in women with DOR and/or ARA include poor follicular response, premature luteinizing hormone surge, and poor embryo quality. Limited published evidence exists to guide treatment for DOR. However, use of minimal or mild doses of gonadotropins, avoidance of severe pituitary suppression, and consideration for luteal phase stimulation and a "freeze all" approach are possible customized treatment options that can be considered for such patients who have failed more traditional COS protocols. PMID:26036898

  11. Urogenital schistosomiasis in women of reproductive age and pregnant mothers in Kwale County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J H; Kutima, H L; Ouma, J; Churcher, T S; Changoma, J M; Mwalisetso, M A; French, M D; Mwandawiro, C S

    2015-01-01

    Generally, women residing in areas endemic for urinary schistosomiasis may suffer from female genital schistosomiasis which is acquired during childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and intensity of infection of Schistosoma haematobium in women of reproductive age (16-45 years) and to investigate whether S. haematobium had any effect on kidney function. A total of 394 women of known pregnancy status (158 pregnant and 236 non-pregnant) were recruited from five villages (known for their high prevalence of infection of S. haematobium) in Kwale County. Serum samples were analysed to determine levels of urea and creatinine as proxy indicators of kidney function. Data revealed that pregnant women did not, on average, have a higher prevalence or intensity of infection of urinary schistosomiasis than non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, the level of prevalence and intensity of infection of S. haematobium was highest in the first trimester (0-13 weeks), dropped in the second trimester (14-26 weeks) and rose again in the third trimester (27-40 weeks). In addition, 24.8% of women were infected with hookworm, while none were diagnosed with malaria parasites. Of 250 samples analysed for serum urea and creatinine, none had significant levels of pathology, either in pregnant or non-pregnant women. Despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations that pregnant women should be treated with praziquantel after the first trimester, in practice this has not been the case in many countries, including Kenya. In view of this, healthcare providers should be informed to consider treatment of pregnant women infected with schistosomiasis during antenatal visits and whenever there is mass drug administration as recommended by the WHO. PMID:24103656

  12. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  13. Coenzyme Q10 restores oocyte mitochondrial function and fertility during reproductive aging

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Meir, Assaf; Burstein, Eliezer; Borrego-Alvarez, Aluet; Chong, Jasmine; Wong, Ellen; Yavorska, Tetyana; Naranian, Taline; Chi, Maggie; Wang, Ying; Bentov, Yaakov; Alexis, Jennifer; Meriano, James; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Gasser, David L; Moley, Kelle H; Hekimi, Siegfried; Casper, Robert F; Jurisicova, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Female reproductive capacity declines dramatically in the fourth decade of life as a result of an age-related decrease in oocyte quality and quantity. The primary causes of reproductive aging and the molecular factors responsible for decreased oocyte quality remain elusive. Here, we show that aging of the female germ line is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction associated with decreased oxidative phosphorylation and reduced Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) level. Diminished expression of the enzymes responsible for CoQ production, Pdss2 and Coq6, was observed in oocytes of older females in both mouse and human. The age-related decline in oocyte quality and quantity could be reversed by the administration of CoQ10. Oocyte-specific disruption of Pdss2 recapitulated many of the mitochondrial and reproductive phenotypes observed in the old females including reduced ATP production and increased meiotic spindle abnormalities, resulting in infertility. Ovarian reserve in the oocyte-specific Pdss2-deficient animals was diminished, leading to premature ovarian failure which could be prevented by maternal dietary administration of CoQ10. We conclude that impaired mitochondrial performance created by suboptimal CoQ10 availability can drive age-associated oocyte deficits causing infertility. PMID:26111777

  14. Coenzyme Q10 restores oocyte mitochondrial function and fertility during reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Ben-Meir, Assaf; Burstein, Eliezer; Borrego-Alvarez, Aluet; Chong, Jasmine; Wong, Ellen; Yavorska, Tetyana; Naranian, Taline; Chi, Maggie; Wang, Ying; Bentov, Yaakov; Alexis, Jennifer; Meriano, James; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Gasser, David L; Moley, Kelle H; Hekimi, Siegfried; Casper, Robert F; Jurisicova, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Female reproductive capacity declines dramatically in the fourth decade of life as a result of an age-related decrease in oocyte quality and quantity. The primary causes of reproductive aging and the molecular factors responsible for decreased oocyte quality remain elusive. Here, we show that aging of the female germ line is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction associated with decreased oxidative phosphorylation and reduced Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) level. Diminished expression of the enzymes responsible for CoQ production, Pdss2 and Coq6, was observed in oocytes of older females in both mouse and human. The age-related decline in oocyte quality and quantity could be reversed by the administration of CoQ10. Oocyte-specific disruption of Pdss2 recapitulated many of the mitochondrial and reproductive phenotypes observed in the old females including reduced ATP production and increased meiotic spindle abnormalities, resulting in infertility. Ovarian reserve in the oocyte-specific Pdss2-deficient animals was diminished, leading to premature ovarian failure which could be prevented by maternal dietary administration of CoQ10. We conclude that impaired mitochondrial performance created by suboptimal CoQ10 availability can drive age-associated oocyte deficits causing infertility. PMID:26111777

  15. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  16. A longitudinal study of age-specific reproductive output and body condition among male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Fred B; Widdig, Anja; Trefilov, Andrea; Kessler, Matt J; Berard, John D; Schmidtke, Jörg; Nürnberg, Peter; Krawczak, Michael

    2003-07-01

    In many mammalian species, male reproductive success appears to climb sharply at young adulthood, form a brief plateau during prime ages, and decline among older animals, a pattern often attributed to reduced physical condition with ageing. However, solid evidence to either substantiate or refute this profile among nonhuman primates is lacking. Here, we combine a decade of genetic analysis of paternity among free-ranging rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, with information about body condition in order to evaluate how changes in morphology might govern age-specific reproduction among males. We show that age-specific reproductive success traverses the same life history profile as found in other mammals, but reductions in reproductive output with advanced age were associated with reduced chances of survivorship rather than accompanied by diminished body condition. We demonstrate that variance in male age at onset of reproduction is three times greater than variance in female age at onset of reproduction. We provide the first evidence from primates that age-specific reproductive output among males is not a consequence of age-related changes in body condition, but reflects social and demographic factors. PMID:12883773

  17. Age at First Reproduction and Economic Change in the Context of Differing Kinship Ecologies

    PubMed Central

    Leonetti, Donna L.; Nath, Dilip C.

    2014-01-01

    Kinship systems which tend to be based on ecologies of subsistence also assign differential power, privilege and control to human connections that present pathways for manipulation of resource access and transfer. They can be used in this way to channel resource concentrations in women and hence their reproductive value. Thus, strategic female life course trade-offs and their timing are likely to be responsive to changing preferences for qualities in women as economic conditions change. Female life histories are studied in two ethnic groups with differing kinship systems in N.E. India where the competitive market economy is now being felt by most households. Patrilineal Bengali (599 women) practice patrilocal residence with village exogamy and matrilineal Khasi (656 women) follow matrilocal residence with village endogamy, both also normatively preferring three-generation extended households. These households have helpful senior women and significantly greater income. Age at first reproduction (AFR), achieved adult growth (height) and educational level (greater than 6 yrs or less) are examined in reproductive women, ages 16–50. In both groups, women residing normatively are older at AFR and taller than women residing non-normatively. More education is also associated with senior women. Thus, normative residence may place a woman in the best reproductive location, and those with higher reproductive and productive potential are often chosen as households face competitive market conditions. In both groups residing in favorable reproductive locations is associated with a faster pace of fertility among women, as well as lower offspring mortality among Khasi, to compensate for a later start. PMID:19384863

  18. Retrospective investigation of captive red wolf reproductive success in relation to age and inbreeding.

    PubMed

    Lockyear, K M; Waddell, W T; Goodrowe, K L; MacDonald, S E

    2009-05-01

    The critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) has been subject to a strictly managed captive breeding program for three decades. A retrospective demographic analysis of the captive population was performed based on data from the red wolf studbook. Data analyses revealed a decrease in the effective population size relative to the total population size, and changes in age structure and inbreeding coefficients over time. To varying degrees, the probability of successful breeding and litter sizes declined in association with increasing dam age and sire inbreeding coefficients. Neonate survival also declined with increasing dam age. Recent changes in strategies regarding breed-pair recommendations have resulted in moderate increases in reproductive success. PMID:19504595

  19. Oncofertility for gynecologic and non-gynecologic cancers: fertility sparing in young women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Polat; Doğan, N Utku; Ayhan, Ali

    2014-12-01

    About ten percent of all female cancer survivors is younger than 40 years of age. For these young women the primary goal is to ensure the highest possibility of cure and to maintain the reproductive functions as well. Oncofertility is a new concept including both oncology and reproductive medicine. By this recently defined concept young women will have maximal chance to make an optimal decision without any significant impact and delay in oncologic outcome. Oncofertility concept could be applied for genital cancer as well as non-genital cancer of reproductive age. Currently sperm and embryo banking are the standard methods used for young patients with cancer whose future fertility is under risk. In contrary oocyte banking, ovarian tissue cryopreservation are all controversial procedures and still accepted as experimental by many authors although American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) consideres oocyte cryopreservation "no longer experimental". For genital cancers procedures for oncofertility depends on the type of the cancer and the treatment of choice. In this review the current data and concepts regarding oncofertility concept including the gynecologic oncologic perspective is reviewed. PMID:25090914

  20. Food Decision-Making: Effects of Weight Status and Age.

    PubMed

    van Meer, Floor; Charbonnier, Lisette; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-09-01

    Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased chance of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. The effects of weight status and age on food preference, food cue sensitivity, and self-control are discussed, as these are important components of food decision-making. Furthermore, the neural correlates of food anticipation and choice and how these are affected by weight status and age are discussed. Behavioral studies show that in particular, poor self-control may have an adverse effect on food choice in children and adults with overweight and obesity. Neuroimaging studies show that overweight and obese individuals have altered neural responses to food in brain areas related to reward, self-control, and interoception. Longitudinal studies across the lifespan will be invaluable to unravel the causal factors driving (changes in) food choice, overconsumption, and weight gain. PMID:27473844

  1. Age-specific oxidative status and the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits in male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Noguera, Jose C; Dean, Rebecca; Isaksson, Caroline; Velando, Alberto; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2012-09-01

    Oxidative stress is emerging as a key factor underpinning life history and the expression of sexually selected traits. Resolving the role of oxidative stress in life history and sexual selection requires a pluralistic approach, which investigates how age affects the relationship between oxidative status (i.e., antioxidants and oxidative damage) and the multiple traits contributing to variation in reproductive success. Here, we investigate the relationship between oxidative status and the expression of multiple sexually selected traits in two-age classes of male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, a species which displays marked male reproductive senescence. We found that, irrespective of male age, both male social status and comb size were strongly associated with plasma oxidative status, and there was a nonsignificant tendency for sperm motility to be associated with seminal oxidative status. Importantly, however, patterns of plasma and seminal antioxidant levels differed markedly in young and old males. While seminal antioxidants increased with plasma antioxidants in young males, the level of seminal antioxidants remained low and was independent of plasma levels in old males. In addition, old males also accumulated more oxidative damage in their sperm DNA. These results suggest that antioxidant allocation across different reproductive traits and somatic maintenance might change drastically as males age, leading to age-specific patterns of antioxidant investment. PMID:23139875

  2. Quantitative Genetics of the Aging of Reproductive Traits in the Houbara Bustard

    PubMed Central

    Chantepie, Stéphane; Robert, Alexandre; Sorci, Gabriele; Hingrat, Yves; Charmantier, Anne; Leveque, Gwénaëlle; Lacroix, Frédéric; Teplitsky, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Do all traits within an organism age for the same reason? Evolutionary theories of aging share a common assumption: the strength of natural selection declines with age. A corollary is that additive genetic variance should increase with age. However, not all senescent traits display such increases suggesting that other mechanisms may be at play. Using longitudinal data collected from more than 5400 houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata) with an exhaustive recorded pedigree, we investigated the genetics of aging in one female reproductive trait (egg production) and three male reproductive traits (courtship display rate, ejaculate size and sperm viability), that display senescence at the phenotypic level. Animal models revealed an increase in additive genetic variance with age for courtship display rate and egg production but an unexpected absence of increased additive genetic variance for ejaculate size and no additive genetic variance for sperm viability. Our results suggest that the mechanisms behind the senescence of some traits are linked with a change in genetic expression, whereas for some other traits, aging may result from the constraints associated with physiological wear and tear on the organism throughout the life of the individual. PMID:26218735

  3. Effects of age, adipose percent, and reproduction on PCB concentrations and profiles in an extreme fasting North Pacific marine mammal.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sarah H; Hassrick, Jason L; Lafontaine, Anne; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Crocker, Daniel E; Debier, Cathy; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are widely distributed and detectable far from anthropogenic sources. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometers to forage in coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean and then return to land where they fast while breeding and molting. Our study examined potential effects of age, adipose percent, and the difference between the breeding and molting fasts on PCB concentrations and congener profiles in blubber and serum of northern elephant seal females. Between 2005 and 2007, we sampled blubber and blood from 58 seals before and after a foraging trip, which were then analyzed for PCBs. Age did not significantly affect total PCB concentrations; however, the proportion of PCB congeners with different numbers of chlorine atoms was significantly affected by age, especially in the outer blubber. Younger adult females had a significantly greater proportion of low-chlorinated PCBs (tri-, tetra-, and penta-CBs) than older females, with the opposite trend observed for hepta-CBs, indicating that an age-associated process such as parity (birth) may significantly affect congener profiles. The percent of adipose tissue had a significant relationship with inner blubber PCB concentrations, with the highest mean concentrations observed at the end of the molting fast. These results highlight the importance of sampling across the entire blubber layer when assessing contaminant levels in phocid seals and taking into account the adipose stores and reproductive status of an animal when conducting contaminant research. PMID:24755635

  4. Effects of Age, Adipose Percent, and Reproduction on PCB Concentrations and Profiles in an Extreme Fasting North Pacific Marine Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Sarah H.; Hassrick, Jason L.; Lafontaine, Anne; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Crocker, Daniel E.; Debier, Cathy; Costa, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are widely distributed and detectable far from anthropogenic sources. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometers to forage in coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean and then return to land where they fast while breeding and molting. Our study examined potential effects of age, adipose percent, and the difference between the breeding and molting fasts on PCB concentrations and congener profiles in blubber and serum of northern elephant seal females. Between 2005 and 2007, we sampled blubber and blood from 58 seals before and after a foraging trip, which were then analyzed for PCBs. Age did not significantly affect total PCB concentrations; however, the proportion of PCB congeners with different numbers of chlorine atoms was significantly affected by age, especially in the outer blubber. Younger adult females had a significantly greater proportion of low-chlorinated PCBs (tri-, tetra-, and penta-CBs) than older females, with the opposite trend observed for hepta-CBs, indicating that an age-associated process such as parity (birth) may significantly affect congener profiles. The percent of adipose tissue had a significant relationship with inner blubber PCB concentrations, with the highest mean concentrations observed at the end of the molting fast. These results highlight the importance of sampling across the entire blubber layer when assessing contaminant levels in phocid seals and taking into account the adipose stores and reproductive status of an animal when conducting contaminant research. PMID:24755635

  5. Effect of Paternal Age on Reproductive Outcomes of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Qing; Liu, Jianqiao

    2016-01-01

    The impact of paternal age on reproduction, especially using assisted reproductive technologies, has not been well studied to date. To investigate the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes, here we performed a retrospective analysis of 2,627 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and May 2015. Effect of paternal age on embryo quality [number of fertilized oocytes, 2 pronucleus zygotes (2PNs), viable embryos, and high-quality embryos] was analyzed by multiple linear regression. Relationships between paternal age and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed by binary logistic regression. After adjusting for female age, no association between paternal age and the following parameters of embryo quality was observed: number of fertilized oocytes (B = -0.032; 95% CI -0.069–0.005; P = 0.088), number of 2PNs (B = -0.005; 95% CI -0.044–0.034; P = 0.806), and number of viable embryos (B = -0.025; 95% CI -0.052–0.001; P = 0.062). However, paternal age negatively influenced the number of high-quality embryos (B = -0.020; 95% CI -0.040–0.000; P = 0.045). Moreover, paternal age had no effect on pregnancy outcomes (OR for a 5-year interval), including the rates of clinical pregnancy (OR 0.919; 95% CI 0.839–1.006; P = 0.067), ongoing pregnancy (OR 0.914; 95% CI 0.833–1.003; P = 0.058), early pregnancy loss (OR 1.019; 95% CI 0.823–1.263; P = 0.861), live births (OR 0.916; 95% CI 0.833–1.007; P = 0.070), and preterm births (OR 1.061; 95% CI 0.898–1.254; P = 0.485). Therefore, increased paternal age negatively influences the number of high-quality embryos, but has no effect on pregnancy outcomes in couples undergoing ICSI cycles. However, more studies including men aged over 60 years with a longer-term follow-up are needed. PMID:26901529

  6. An experimental test for age-related improvements in reproductive performance in a frog that cares for its young

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugas, Matthew B.; Moore, Michael P.; Wamelink, Caitlin N.; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L.; Martin, Ryan A.

    2015-10-01

    Reproductive performance often increases with age in long-lived iteroparous organisms, a pattern that can result from within-individual increases in effort and/or competence. In free-living populations, it is typically difficult to distinguish these mechanisms or to isolate particular features of reproduction-influencing outcomes. In captive Oophaga pumilio, a frog in which mothers provide extended offspring provisioning via trophic eggs, we experimentally manipulated the age at which females started breeding and then monitored them across repeated reproductive events. This experiment allowed us to decouple age and experience and isolate maternal care as the proximate source of any differences in performance. Younger first-time mothers produced larger broods than older first-time mothers, but did not rear more offspring to independence. Across repeated reproductive events, maternal age was unassociated with any metric of performance. At later reproductive events, however, mothers produced fewer metamorphs, and a lower proportion of individuals in their broods reached independence. These patterns suggest that performance does not improve with age or breeding experience in this frog, and that eventual declines in performance are driven by reproductive activity, not age per se. Broadly, age-specific patterns of reproductive performance may depend on the proximate mechanism by which parents influence offspring fitness and how sensitive these are to effort and competence.

  7. Religion, Ethnicity and Contraceptive Use among Reproductive age Women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obasohan, Phillips Edomwonyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Religion and Ethnicity are the two most important factors that shape the behavioral pattern especially health seeking behaviors of the people of Nigeria. This study seeks to examine the mediatory effects of the linkage between ethnicity and religion with selected socio-demographic variables on the current use of contraception (CUC) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods: Nationally representative sample of 39,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Chi-square was used to analyze the bivariate relationship between exposure variables and CUC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio with the 95% confidence interval. Results: The prevalence of CUC was generally low for women of reproductive age in Nigeria, highest among the Yoruba women and lowest among the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi (HFKS) women; highest among other Christian women and lowest for Muslim women and highest for Yoruba/other religion and lowest for women of Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi/Islam. The odds ratios showed that disparity across ethno-religious boundaries is significant. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system. In Nigeria, a cultural and religious heterogeneous society, current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age is found not to be a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and other socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interactions between the ethnicity and religion.

  8. Age at first reproduction explains rate variation in the strepsirrhine molecular clock

    PubMed Central

    Tsantes, C.; Steiper, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Although the molecular clock hypothesis posits that the rate of molecular change is constant over time, there is evidence that rates vary among lineages. Some of the strongest evidence for variable molecular rates comes from the primates; e.g., the “hominoid slowdown.” These rate differences are hypothesized to correlate with certain species attributes, such as generation time and body size. Here, we examine rates of molecular change in the strepsirrhine suborder of primates and test whether body size or age at first reproduction (a proxy for generation time) explains patterns of rate variation better than a null model where the molecular clock is independent of these factors. To examine these models, we analyzed DNA sequences from four pairs of recently diverged strepsirrhine sister taxa to estimate molecular rates by using sign tests, likelihood ratio tests, and regression analyses. Our analysis does not support a model where body weight or age at first reproduction strongly influences rates of molecular evolution across mitochondrial and nuclear sites. Instead, our analysis supports a model where age at first reproduction influences neutral evolution in the nuclear genome. This study supports the generation time hypothesis for rate variation in the nuclear molecular clock. Molecular clock variation due to generation time may help to resolve the discordance between molecular and paleontological estimates for divergence date estimates in primate evolution. PMID:19841267

  9. Induction of hyperandrogenism in lean reproductive-age women stimulates proatherogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    González, F; Sreekumaran Nair, K; Basal, E; Bearson, D M; Schimke, J M; Blair, H E

    2015-06-01

    We determined the effect of hyperandrogenemia as observed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on fasting and glucose-stimulated proatherogenic inflammation markers in lean healthy reproductive-age women. Sixteen lean healthy ovulatory reproductive-age women were treated with 130 mg of DHEA or placebo (n=8 each) for 5 days. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA and IL-6 release from mononuclear cells (MNC), plasma IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), and MNC-derived (matrix metalloproteinase-2) MMP-2 protein were quantified in the fasting state and 2 h after glucose ingestion, before and after treatment. Before treatment, subjects receiving dehydroepinadrosterone (DHEA) or placebo exhibited no differences in androgens, or any proatherogenic inflammation markers while fasting and after glucose ingestion. Compared with placebo, DHEA administration raised levels of testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), and increased the percent change from baseline in fasting IL-6 mRNA, IL-6 release, plasma IL-6, and CRP and MMP-2 protein. However, there were no differences in any of the proatherogenic inflammation markers following glucose ingestion after DHEA administration. We conclude that in lean reproductive-age women, proatherogenic inflammation in the fasting state increases after raising circulating androgens to levels observed in PCOS. However, this hyperandrogenemia-induced MNC activation does not provoke a similar response to subsequent glucose ingestion. PMID:25230323

  10. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Health-promoting Behaviors: The Experience of Iranian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors among reproductive-aged Iranian women. This study aims to explore the experience of factors influencing health-promoting behaviors among Iranian women of reproductive age from a qualitative perspective. Methods: This study was performed in Tehran in 2011, over about 8 months. Qualitative methods, specifically in-depth interviews, were used to gather data on 15 women of reproductive age. Data continued to be collected until introduction of new information ceased. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results: The reported factors were categorized into four main groups and 12 subgroups: (1) personal barriers (lack of time, school or work duties, lack of preparation or motivation, physical disability); (2) socio-environmental barriers (family responsibilities, environmental pressures, high-costs and financial pressures); (3) personal facilitators (personal interest and motivation, experience of disease); and (4) socio-environmental facilitators (family and social support networks, encouraging and motivating environment, media, and public education). Conclusions: In these women's experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women's health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors. PMID:24049620

  11. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587

  12. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  13. Patterns of Behaviour, Group Structure and Reproductive Status Predict Levels of Glucocorticoid Metabolites in Zoo-Housed Ring-Tailed Lemurs, Lemur catta.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tessa E; McCusker, Cara M; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Elwood, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    In ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta, the factors modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity differ between wild and semi-free-ranging populations. Here we assess factors modulating HPA activity in ring-tailed lemurs housed in a third environment: the zoo. First we validate an enzyme immunoassay to quantify levels of glucocorticoid (GC) metabolites in the faeces of L. catta. We determine the nature of the female-female dominance hierarchies within each group by computing David's scores and examining these in relation to faecal GC (fGC). Relationships between female age and fGC are assessed to evaluate potential age-related confounds. The associations between fGC, numbers of males in a group and reproductive status are explored. Finally, we investigate the value of 7 behaviours in predicting levels of fGC. The study revealed stable linear dominance hierarchies in females within each group. The number of males in a social group together with reproductive status, but not age, influenced fGC. The 7 behavioural variables accounted for 68% of the variance in fGC. The amounts of time an animal spent locomoting and in the inside enclosure were both negative predictors of fGC. The study highlights the flexibility and adaptability of the HPA system in ring-tailed lemurs. PMID:26824528

  14. Effects of Exendin-4 on Male Reproductive Parameters of D-Galactose Induced Aging Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of exendin-4 on reproductive alteration in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 72 male Naval Medical Research Institute mice (20~25 g) were randomly divided into six groups: control, exendin-4 (1 nmol/kg), exendin-4 (10 nmol/kg), D-galactose (500 mg/kg), D-galactose+exendin-4 (1 nmol/kg), and D-galactose+exendin-4 (10 nmol/kg). The aging model animals were gavaged with D-galactose for six weeks, and exendin-4 was injected intraperitoneally in the last 10 days. At the end of treatment serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels were evaluated and the cauda epididymis and testis were removed to analyze the sperm count and testis morphology. Results The testis weight and volume decreased in the D-galactose group (p<0.01 and p<0.05) respectively. Exendin-4 (1, 10 nmol/kg) increased these parameters in the normal and aging mouse models. Serum LH and FSH levels increased and the sperm count decreased in the D-galactose group (p<0.05). Further, exendin-4 (1 nmol/kg) decreased LH and FSH levels and increased the serum testosterone level and sperm count in both normal and aging animals. Conclusions D-galactose can induce aging alternations in the male reproductive system such as decreased sperm count and increased serum LH and FSH levels through reactive oxygen species over production and reduced antioxidant enzyme activity. Further, co-administration of exendin-4 reduced reproductive complications of D-galactose in an aging mouse model. PMID:25606567

  15. AVPR1A alleles are pleiotropic sources of variation in age at puberty and reproductive longevity in sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age at puberty is a moderately heritable trait and an early indicator of sow reproductive longevity. Gilts that express first estrus early in life are characterized by improved reproductive longevity and lifetime productivity. These traits are dependent on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-...

  16. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF A SINGLE DOSE OF 1,3-DINITROBENZENE IN TWO AGES OF YOUNG ADULT MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (M-DNB). oung adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24, ...

  17. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  18. Role of the serotonergic axis in the reproductive failure associated with aging broiler breeder roosters.

    PubMed

    Avital-Cohen, N; Heiblum, R; Rosenstrauch, A; Chaiseha, Y; Mobarkey, N; Gumułka, M; Rozenboim, I

    2015-10-01

    Reproductive failure associated with aging is a well-known phenomenon. However, the mechanism by which this failure occurs in broiler breeder roosters is still unclear. A previous study conducted in our laboratory, comparing young and aging broiler breeder roosters, demonstrated an elevation in hypothalamic vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary prolactin (PRL) gene expression accompanied by a deterioration of gonadal axis function. This resulted in a decrease in semen-quality variables as roosters aged. The objective of this study was to examine the involvement of the serotonergic axis in the age-associated reproductive failure in broiler breeder roosters. Cobb roosters aged 64 wk were divided into 3 groups (n = 20 each): parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) administration, active immunization against chicken VIP, and controls. At 69 wk of age, each group was divided into 2 equal subgroups: 1 received ovine PRL and the other served as controls. Weekly semen volume, concentration and motility, and plasma testosterone, estradiol, and PRL concentrations were examined. At the end of the experiment, roosters were euthanized, testes were weighed, and hypothalamus and pituitary were removed to assay the expression of genes encoding hypothalamic GnRH-I, pituitary FSH, pituitary LH, hypothalamic VIP, and pituitary PRL. Both PCPA administration and active immunization against chicken VIP significantly increased testis weight, semen volume, sperm concentration, ejaculation grade, plasma testosterone level, and GnRH-I, FSH and LH gene expression compared with controls (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, a decrease in plasma estradiol and PRL concentrations and VIP and PRL gene expression was observed in PCPA- and VIP-immunized birds compared with controls (P ≤ 0.05). Administration of PRL in all groups decreased gonadal axis function and semen-quality variables (P ≤ 0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that the increasing expression levels of the serotonergic axis

  19. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: The current status of heat shock in early embryonic survival and reproductive efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium entitled “The Current Status of Heat Shock in Early Embryonic Survival and Reproductive Efficiency” was held at the Joint ADSA-CSAS-AMPA-WSAS-ASAS Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona, July 15 to 19, 2012. In recent years, data has accumulated suggesting a role for...

  20. A Longitudinal Assessment of Associations between Adolescent Environment, Adversity Perception, and Economic Status on Fertility and Age of Menarche

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Dorsa; Jordan, Matthew R.; Bribiescas, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Perceptions of environmental adversity and access to economic resources in adolescence can theoretically affect the timing of life history transitions and investment in reproductive effort. Here we present evidence of correlations between variables associated with subjective extrinsic mortality, economic status, and reproductive effort in a nationally representative American population of young adults. Methods We used a longitudinal database that sampled American participants (N ≥ 1,579) at four points during early adolescence and early adulthood to test whether perceptions of environmental adversity and early economic status were associated with reproductive effort. Results We found that subjectively high ratings of environmental danger and low access to economic resources in adolescence were significantly associated with an earlier age of menarche in girls and earlier, more robust fertility in young adulthood. Conclusion While energetics and somatic condition remain as possible sources of variation, the results of this study support the hypothesis that perceptions of adversity early in life and limited access to economic resources are associated with differences in reproductive effort and scheduling. How these factors may covary with energetics and somatic condition merits further investigation. PMID:27249338

  1. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  2. Risk factors of early onset of MS in women in reproductive age period: survival analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Kazemitabaee, Maryamsadat; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has doubled in over the last decades in women, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors of early onset multiple sclerosis in women during reproductive years. A retrospective longitudinal study conducted on 200 women aged 15 to 50 years with MS, registered by the MS Society in Isfahan. Data gathering was fulfilled by standard questionnaire including variables about reproductive period, demographic characteristics, and history of diseases. Kaplan-Mayer with log-rank test and Cox regression models were used in predicting of the age of effective factors in onset of MS. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean age of studied women was 31.77 ± 8.13 years and the mean and median age of onset the symptoms of MS was 26.79 ± 7.77 and 26 years, respectively. Based on the cox results occurring menarche at 15 years and higher increase the risk of MS 2.8-fold than those their menarche occurred at 12 years and lower (HR: 2.81, 95 % CI; 1.58-4.98).In addition, having only one pregnancy is related to higher risk of MS than other parities and increase the risk of MS 4.5-fold comparing to without parities. Age of menarche and parity numbers was the most important reproductive factors of MS in women. Nevertheless, history of autoimmune diseases, animal bite, childhood disease, family history of MS, regional area (tropical), and living in rural area were not related to early onset of MS. PMID:26790684

  3. Chlamydia infection status, genotype, and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Khandhadia, Sam; Foster, Sebastian; Cree, Angela; Griffiths, Helen; Osmond, Clive; Goverdhan, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether Chlamydia (C.) infections are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to assess if this association is influenced by the complement factor H (CFH) Y402H or the high temperature requirement A serine peptidase 1 (HTRA1) rs11200638 risk genotypes. Methods One hundred ninety-nine AMD patients with early and late forms of the disease and 100 unaffected controls, at least 50 years old were included in the study. Patients in the AMD and control groups were selected based on known CFH Y402H variant genotype status (one third homozygous CC, one third heterozygous CT, and one third wild-type TT). Plasma from all patients and controls was tested for C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and C. psittaci IgG seropositivity using a micro-immunofluorescent assay to establish previous infection status. Assays were conducted blind to risk genotypes and the results analyzed using univariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis. Results IgG seropositivity to C. pneumoniae was most prevalent (69.2%, n=207), followed by C. trachomatis (7.4%, n=22) and C. psittaci (3.3%, n=10). No association was found between each of the three Chlamydia species IgG seropositivity and AMD status or severity (early/late). There was also no significant association between Chlamydia species IgG seropositivity and AMD status or severity, in patients carrying at least one CFH Y402H risk allele (C) or HTRA1 rs11200638 risk allele (A), with univariate or logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Chlamydia infection status does not appear to be associated with AMD status or severity. The presence of CFH Y402H and HTRA1 rs11200638 risk genotypes does not alter this negative association. PMID:22259222

  4. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) from southcentral Alaska: Analysis of reproductive tracts. Marine mammal study 6-4. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Lensink, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    We estimated age of sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from southcentral Alaska, primarily western Prince William Sound, following the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts were similar to those in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  5. Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 μg/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ≥ 10 μg/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (≥ 10 μg/g) in 2012. PMID:24789525

  6. Fish consumption and other characteristics of reproductive-aged Michigan anglers--a potential population for studying the effects of consumption of Great Lakes fish on reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Courval, J M; DeHoog, J V; Holzman, C B; Tay, E M; Fischer, L; Humphrey, H E; Paneth, N S; Sweeney, A M

    1996-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the benefits and risks of eating Great Lakes fish, particularly with regard to reproductive health. We report the results of a survey conducted from 1993-1995 among Michigan anglers. The survey was designed to identify a reproductive-aged cohort of persons who consume high or low levels of Great Lakes fish in order to study the impact of polyhalogenated biphenyl (PHB) compounds and other toxins on human reproduction outcomes. Using fishing license data obtained from the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, we identified anglers of early reproductive age (18-34 years) in ten Michigan counties. The screening survey ascertained demographic, behavioral, fish consumption, and reproductive history information on anglers and their partners. Over 4,000 angler households were contacted. One thousand nine hundred fifty questionnaires were returned from 1,168 households. The median age of respondents was 30 years; 58% were male and 64% reported being married. Slightly more than one-half the respondents had attended or graduated from college, and less than 10% had not completed high school. In the past year, most respondents (46%) reported having eaten sport-caught fish 1-12 times, while 20% reported having eaten no sport-caught fish; 20% had consumed 13-24 meals. More sport-caught fish was consumed in the spring and summer than in the fall and winter, and males reported eating more fish than females. About 43% of our respondents reported that they intend to have one or more children in the next five years. Of these respondents, 287 couples had no identified impairments to reproduction and therefore would be eligible to participate in the future reproductive study. PMID:8843552

  7. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening amongst women of reproductive age from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Conde-Ferraez, Laura; Suarez Allen, Rosa Etelvina; Carrillo Martinez, Jorge Ramiro; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Losa, Maria Del Refugio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the participation of women of reproductive age in a cancer screening program, and survey reasons for non-screening in a region from Mexico with high cervical cancer mortality. A total of 281 obstetric patients from a previous HPV study in a social security hospital during 2008-2009 were included. Reasons for not participating in the screening were directly asked. HPV positive patients were invited to participate in an informative workshop, and they filled in a knowledge questionnaire. The women ranged in age from 14-47 years; 123 (43.8%) had never participated in screening, of which 97 (78.9%) had their first sexual intercourse 2 to 10 years ago, resulting in 25% HPV positive. Screening history was strongly associated with 2 or more gestations (OR= 10.07, p=0.00) and older age (OR=6.69 p=0.00). When 197 women were contacted and interviewed, reasons referred for non-screening were ignorance, lack of interest or time, recent sexual onset, shame and fear. More than 50% of the workshop participants showed knowledge of HPV, while 38.9% and 25% knew about Pap smear and cervical cancer. A high percentage of women of reproductive age have never had a Pap smear. Promoting the screening program in medical facilities seems to be important in this population. New approaches to inform vulnerable individuals on the benefits of screening need to be implemented, especially for young women. PMID:23167409

  8. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Immonen, E; Collet, M; Goenaga, J; Arnqvist, G

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes that should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution. PMID:26732015

  9. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  10. Opioid Prescriptions Among Women of Reproductive Age Enrolled in Medicaid - New York, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Brian K; Shin, Yejee; Roohan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to opioids during pregnancy can lead to adverse infant outcomes, including neonatal abstinence syndrome (1) and birth defects (2). Ascertaining opioid prescriptions for women who become pregnant or have no indication of contraceptive use is important to determine the number of women who are at potential risk for adverse fetal outcomes. The New York State (NYS) Department of Health (DOH) analyzed data for women aged 15-44 years (i.e., reproductive-aged women) enrolled in Medicaid to examine opioid drug prescriptions during 2008-2013. On the basis of Medicaid drug claims for any drug with an opioid ingredient, prescriptions were identified for the enrolled population of reproductive-aged women and for three subgroups: women whose diagnosis, procedure, and drug codes indicated contraceptive use or infertility; women who were not using contraceptives and not infertile; and women who had had a live birth during the reporting year. During 2008-2013, among all women of reproductive age, 20.0% received a prescription for a drug with an opioid component; the proportion was highest (27.3%) among women with an indication of contraceptive use or infertility, intermediate (17.3%) among women who had no indication of contraceptive use, and lowest (9.5%) among women who had had a live birth. Although New York's proportion of opioid prescriptions among female Medicaid recipients who had a live birth is lower than a recent U.S. estimate (3), these results suggest nearly one in 10 women in this group may have been exposed to opioids in the prenatal period. PMID:27124815

  11. Survival analysis of time to uptake of modern contraceptives among sexually active women of reproductive age in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Morhason-Bello, ImranOludare

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the timing of modern contraceptive uptake among married and never-married women in Nigeria. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data and method We used nationally representative 2013 Demographic and Health Survey data in Nigeria. Modern contraceptive uptake time was measured as the period between first sexual intercourse and first use of a modern contraceptive. Non-users of modern contraceptives were censored on the date of the survey. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to determine the rate of uptake. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine variables influencing the uptake at 5% significance level. Participants A total of 33 223 sexually active women of reproductive age. Outcome measure Time of uptake of a modern contraceptive after first sexual intercourse. Results The median modern contraceptive uptake time was 4 years in never-married and 14 years among ever-married women. Significant differences in modern contraceptive uptake existed in respondents’ age, location, education and wealth status. Never-married women were about three times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than ever-married women (aHR=3.24 (95% CI 2.82 to 3.65)). Women with higher education were six times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than those without education (aHR=6.18 (95% CI 5.15 to 7.42)). Conclusions The rate of modern contraceptive uptake is low, and timing of contraceptive uptake during or after first sexual intercourse differed according to marital status. Age and number of children ever born influenced modern contraceptive uptake among the never-married women, but religion and place of residence were associated with the probability of modern contraceptive uptake among ever-married women. PMID:26671948

  12. Growth and reproductive development from weaning through 20 months of age among breeds of bulls in subtropical Florida.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Menchaca, M A; Randel, R D

    1997-02-01

    To determine the effect of breed on growth and reproductive development, weaned bulls in each of 2 yr were managed as a single group for approximately a year. In Year 1, the study group consisted of 24 Angus, 24 Brahman, 20 Hereford and 14 Senepol bulls, while in Year 2, it contained 25 Angus, 17 Brahman. 13 Romosinuano and 9 Nellore x Brahman bulls. Body and testicular growth measurements were recorded at 6-wk intervals. At approximately 1 yr of age and quarterly thereafter (4 periods), bulls were evaluated for libido, pubertal status, and GnRH-induced LH and testosterone secretion. Significant breed-by-age interactions occurred for most growth measurements. Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ) were (P < 0.05) older and heavier at puberty than Angus, Hereford, Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (Bos taurus ). Libido scores were lowest for Brahman and Nell ore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). highest for Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) and intermediate for Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds; P < 0.05). Differences were not consistent among breeds or between years for GnRH-induced LH secretion. In both years, basal testosterone concentrations and areas under the GnRH-induced testosterone curve were higher (P < 0.05) for Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate breeds) than for Brahman, Senepol, Romosinuano and Nellore x Brahman bulls (tropical breeds). In conclusion, reproductive development of Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds) was more similar to Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) than to Brahman and Nellore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). PMID:16728024

  13. Influence of pregnancy perceptions on patterns of seeking antenatal care among women in reproductive age of Masaka District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atekyereza, Peter R; Mubiru, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Maternal mortality remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the recommended measures to improve maternal and child health. However, the influence of pregnancy definition and perception on patterns of seeking regular and timely antenatal care among women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is not known. The objectives of this study were to: (i) understand the women's social definitions and perceptions on their pregnancy; (ii) understand the socio-cultural beliefs related to pregnancy among women of the reproductive age group; and, (iii) examine the influence of social definitions, perceptions and beliefs about pregnancy on women's antenatal care seeking behaviour patterns to inform the decentralised health care delivery system in Uganda. A total of 45 women, mothers and expectant women who were purposively selected from Kimanya sub county of Masaka district in Uganda participated in the study. Ten key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Key findings indicate that the women's socio-definitions and perceptions of pregnancy influence their seeking behaviour on antenatal health care. To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and suffering. It is an uncomfortable and regrettable experience. Women also hold socio-cultural beliefs on pregnancy, which are culturally constructed and rooted in taboos, rituals and practices of their communities. It is therefore important to sensitise women and those who attend to them when they are pregnant to understand these perceptions and definitions to motivate them to seek antenatal and postnatal care for better maternal and child health. PMID:26891521

  14. A population-based study of health-promoting behaviors and their predictors in Iranian women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Baheiraei, Azam; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Easa; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2015-09-01

    Health-promoting behaviors have been recognized as major factors for maintenance and improvement of health. The objective of this study was to determine the status of health-promoting behaviors and their predicting factors in Iranian women of reproductive age. This was a population-based cross-sectional study in which 1359 Iranian women of reproductive age were selected by proportional random multistage cluster sampling in Tehran. Questionnaires including sociodemographic characteristics, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II) and Personal Resource Questionnaire 85-Part 2 (PRQ85-Part 2) were completed by interview. The association between the dependent variables (HPLP-II and subscales) and the independent variables (social support and sociodemographic characteristics) was analyzed using the multivariable linear regression model. Among the six dimensions of health-promoting behaviors, women scored highest in interpersonal relations (3.08 ± 0.51) and lowest in physical activity (2.04 ± 0.64). The Pearson test indicated perceived social support to be significantly correlated with HPLP-II (r = 0.53; p < 0.001) and all its subscales (r = 0.12-0.60; p < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis indicated social support to be a predictor of HPLP-II and all its subscales, except for physical activity. Social support and sociodemographic characteristics accounted for 29.8% of the variance in the HPLP-II score and 6.9-39.3 in the six subscales. The findings of the present study confirm the importance of social support and modifiable variables (sociodemographic) in the occurrence of health-promoting behaviors in women and accredit the theoretical relationships among the concepts of the health-promotion model. PMID:24395956

  15. How do animals optimize the size-number trade-off when aging? Insights from reproductive senescence patterns in marmots.

    PubMed

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-françois; Gaillard, Jean-michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of female age on five reproductive traits and on the offspring size-number trade-off from an extensive data set spanning 20 years of study on free-ranging Alpine marmots. Offspring mass increased with female age, whereas litter size and reproductive allocation remained constant in females up to 10 years of age and declined thereafter. Although reproductive allocation declined, post-weaning juvenile survival and the size-number trade-off did not change markedly throughout a female's lifetime. Senescence of annual reproductive success (i.e., the number of offspring surviving their first hibernation within a given litter) only resulted from senescence of litter size. The data were insufficient to determine whether the decrease in litter size with age was caused by declining litter size at birth, offspring pre-weaning survival, or both. Regardless, our findings demonstrate that marmot females display a size-number trade-off invariant with age, and that their reproductive tactic involves increasing offspring size at the cost of decreasing litter size with increasing age. As a result, reproductive performance remains constant throughout a female's lifetime, despite the deleterious effects of senescence in litter size. PMID:26236889

  16. Effects of age and experience on reproductive performance of wood ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Hepp, G.R. ); Kennamer, R.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Data from a long-term study of Wood Ducks breeding in South Carolina were used to test whether reproductive performance was age specific and to evaluate several hypotheses proposed for age-specific variation. We used known-aged females from 1 through 5 yr of age. Yearling females initiated nests 11-19 d later than older females; heavier females, independent of age, nested earlier than lighter females. One-way analyses of covariance using female body mass and nesting date as covariates indicated that clutch size, mean egg mass, number of ducklings per nest, and the percentage of eggs hatching (hatching success) were independent of female age. Probability of nests producing at least one duckling (nest success) also was not related to female egg. We separately tested effects of breeding experience and female age class (yearling vs. adult) on reproductive performance. In the context of this study, females were considered as experienced if they previously were captured using nest boxes and inexperienced if there was no record of nest box use. Adult females with previous breeding experience initiated nests an average of 26 d earlier than adults without previous experience; body mass of experienced adults was greater than that of inexperienced adults. Adult females designated as [open quotes]inexperienced[close quotes] may have nested previously in natural cavities and were simply changing to nest boxes. Nest-site fidelity is known to affect nesting date, so we also compared nesting dates of inexperienced adults with a subset of of experienced females that changed nest sites.

  17. Association of perfluoroalkyl substances exposure with reproductive hormone levels in adolescents: By sex status.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Hu, Li-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Chang, Jen-Jen; King, Chris; Paul, Gunther; Lin, Shao; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lee, Yungling Leo; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of common chemicals that ubiquitously exist in wildlife and humans. However, few studies have researched the effect of PFASs on reproductive hormones in adolescents. To provide information in this regard, we recruited 225 Taiwanese adolescents aged 13-15years from 2009 to 2010 to investigate the relationship between serum PFASs (PFOS, PFOA, PFBS, PFDA, PFDoA, PFHxA, PFHxS, PFNA and PFTA) and reproductive hormone concentrations using a cross-sectional study design. Results showed PFOS and PFTA levels were highest among the PFASs, with a median concentrations of 29.9 (interquartile range: 13.0-43.8) ng/mL and 6.0 (0.6-25.9) ng/mL in males, and a median concentrations of 28.8 (14.8-42.6) ng/mL and 4.5 (0.3-18.4) ng/mL in females. After adjustment for confounding factors, nonsignificant associations between PFASs and reproductive hormone were found except for PFNA with ln(estradiol) (β=0.2060, 95%CI: 0.0016, 0.4105). When stratified by sex, more significant associations were found in males than in females. Among males, PFASs were negatively associated with ln(testosterone) level for PFOS (β=-0.0029, 95%CI: -0.0055, -0.0003), PFDA (β=-0.2565, 95%CI: -0.4135, -0.0994), PFHxA (β=-0.3095, 95%CI: -0.5942, -0.0248), and PFNA (β=-0.4233, 95%CI: -0.6998, -0.1467). Furthermore, male participant ln(estradiol) levels were positively associated with PFOA (β=0.0921, 95%CI: 0.0186, 0.1656), and PFHxS (β=0.0462, 95%CI: 0.0020, 0.0905). Among females, a significant relationship was found only for PFDoA with ln(testosterone) (β=-0.0119, 95%CI: -0.0227, -0.0010). In conclusion, this study showed higher levels of PFASs coincide with lower testosterone and higher estradiol levels, and more significant associations of PFASs with reproductive hormone were found in males than in females. PMID:27258660

  18. The Health Status of the Reproductive System in Women Living In the Aral Sea Region

    PubMed Central

    Turdybekova, Yasminur G.; Dosmagambetova, Raushan S.; Zhanabayeva, Symbat U.; Bublik, Gena V.; Kubayev, Alik B.; Ibraibekov, Zhanbolat G.; Kopobayeva, Irina L.; Kultanov, Berikbay Zh.

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess women’s reproductive health in the Kyzylorda region (the Aral Sea) of Kazakhstan, 1406 women were involved in an integrated clinical-functional and laboratory examination, given regional and environmental ecological factors. The high level of endocrine gynecological pathology is indicated in the examined women. In both examined zones, there is a late menarche over 16 years old, which is 39%. It is indicated a trend towards younger age of menopause onset. Inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs affect a third of the examined women. In the zone of ecological disaster, every fourth woman has fetal losses, cases of spontaneous pregnancy termination and/or non-developing pregnancies in anamnesis, which can be repeated many times.

  19. The Health Status of the Reproductive System in Women Living In the Aral Sea Region.

    PubMed

    Turdybekova, Yasminur G; Dosmagambetova, Raushan S; Zhanabayeva, Symbat U; Bublik, Gena V; Kubayev, Alik B; Ibraibekov, Zhanbolat G; Kopobayeva, Irina L; Kultanov, Berikbay Zh

    2015-09-15

    In order to assess women's reproductive health in the Kyzylorda region (the Aral Sea) of Kazakhstan, 1406 women were involved in an integrated clinical-functional and laboratory examination, given regional and environmental ecological factors. The high level of endocrine gynecological pathology is indicated in the examined women. In both examined zones, there is a late menarche over 16 years old, which is 39%. It is indicated a trend towards younger age of menopause onset. Inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs affect a third of the examined women. In the zone of ecological disaster, every fourth woman has fetal losses, cases of spontaneous pregnancy termination and/or non-developing pregnancies in anamnesis, which can be repeated many times. PMID:27275273

  20. Sexual and reproductive health of persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Lorrie; MacKay, Andrea P; Brown, Kathryn; Harrier, Sara; Ventura, Stephanie J; Kann, Laura; Rangel, Maria; Berman, Stuart; Dittus, Patricia; Liddon, Nicole; Markowitz, Lauri; Sternberg, Maya; Weinstock, Hillard; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Ryan, George

    2009-07-17

    This report presents data for 2002-2007 concerning the sexual and reproductive health of persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. Data were compiled from the National Vital Statistics System and multiple surveys and surveillance systems that monitor sexual and reproductive health outcomes into a single reference report that makes this information more easily accessible to policy makers, researchers, and program providers who are working to improve the reproductive health of young persons in the United States. The report addresses three primary topics: 1) current levels of risk behavior and health outcomes; 2) disparities by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and geographic residence; and 3) trends over time. The data presented in this report indicate that many young persons in the United States engage in sexual risk behavior and experience negative reproductive health outcomes. In 2004, approximately 745,000 pregnancies occurred among U.S. females aged <20 years. In 2006, approximately 22,000 adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 years in 33 states were living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and approximately 1 million adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 years were reported to have chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis. One-quarter of females aged 15-19 years and 45% of those aged 20-24 years had evidence of infection with human papillomavirus during 2003-2004, and approximately 105,000 females aged 10--24 years visited a hospital emergency department (ED) for a nonfatal sexual assault injury during 2004-2006. Although risks tend to increase with age, persons in the youngest age group (youths aged 10--14 years) also are affected. For example, among persons aged 10-14 years, 16,000 females became pregnant in 2004, nearly 18,000 males and females were reported to have sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 2006, and 27,500 females visited a hospital ED because of a nonfatal sexual assault injury during 2004

  1. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  2. Age-related variation in reproductive traits in the wandering albatross: evidence for terminal improvement following senescence.

    PubMed

    Froy, Hannah; Phillips, Richard A; Wood, Andrew G; Nussey, Daniel H; Lewis, Sue

    2013-05-01

    The processes driving age-related variation in demographic rates are central to understanding population and evolutionary ecology. An increasing number of studies in wild vertebrates find evidence for improvements in reproductive performance traits in early adulthood, followed by senescent declines in later life. However, life history theory predicts that reproductive investment should increase with age as future survival prospects diminish, and that raised reproductive investment may have associated survival costs. These non-mutually exclusive processes both predict an increase in breeding performance at the terminal breeding attempt. Here, we use a 30-year study of wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) to disentangle the processes underpinning age-related variation in reproduction. Whilst highlighting the importance of breeding experience, we reveal senescent declines in performance are followed by a striking increase in breeding success and a key parental investment trait at the final breeding attempt. PMID:23438213

  3. [STATE-OF-THE-ART OF REALIZATION OF THE FERTILITY POTENTIAL IN THE WOMEN OF LATE REPRODUCTIVE AGE].

    PubMed

    Ermolenko, K S; Radzinsky, V E; Rapoport, S I

    2016-01-01

    Biological potential of childbearing in the women of late reproductive age is limited by natural impairment and loss offertility. Despite a considerable progress in clinical application of new diagnostic and reproductive technologies, the problem of infertility remains a most serious challenge. Women's age is one of the main factors responsible for the outcome of in vitro fertilization. The low effectiveness of in vitro fertilization programs is attributed to discoordination in the hypothalamic-pituitary system, depletion of ovarian resources, and deterioration of quality of reproductive material. Bearing in mind the role of melatonin in synchronizing circadian and seasonal biorhythms and regulating physiological and pathological processes, it is natural to suggest its role in the enhancement of efficiency of in vitro fertilization programs for women of late reproductive age. PMID:27172715

  4. Influence of age and selected environmental factors on reproductive performance of canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Trauger, D.L.; Austin, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Age, productivity, and other factors affecting breeding performance of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) are poorly understood. Consequently, we tested whether reproductive performance of female canvasbacks varied with age and selected environmental factors in southwestern Manitoba from 1974 to 1980. Neither clutch size, nest parasitism, nest success, nor the number of ducklings/brood varied with age. Return rates, nest initiation dates, renesting, and hen success were age-related. Return rates averaged 21% for second-year (SY) and 69% for after-second-year (ASY) females (58% for third-year and 79% for after-third-year females). Additionally, water conditions and spring temperatures influenced chronology of arrival, timing of nesting, and reproductive success. Nest initiation by birds of all ages was affected by minimum April temperatures. Clutch size was higher in nests initiated earlier. Interspecific nest parasitism did not affect clutch size, nest success, hen success, or hatching success. Nest success was lower in dry years (17%) than in moderately wet (54%) or wet (60%) years. Nests per female were highest during wet years. No nests of SY females were found in dry years. In years of moderate to good wetland conditions, females of all ages nested. Predation was the primary factor influencing nest success. Hen success averaged 58% over all years. The number of ducklings surviving 20 days averaged 4.7/brood. Because SY females have lower return rates and hen success than ASY females, especially during drier years, management to increase canvasback populations might best be directed to increasing first year recruitment (no. of females returning to breed) and to increasing overall breeding success by reducing predation and enhancing local habitat conditions during nesting.

  5. Attitudes towards embryo donation in Swedish women and men of reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Prag, Frida; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta

    2013-01-01

    Background When performing in-vitro fertilization (IVF), more embryos than needed are often derived. These embryos are usually frozen and stored, but as ruled by Swedish law they have to be discarded after 5 years. In other countries it is legal to donate the excess embryos to other infertile couples who for different reasons cannot undergo the procedure of IVF. The aim of the present study was to investigate public opinion in Sweden regarding different aspects of embryo donation. Methods A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards aspects of embryo donation was sent to a randomized sample of 1,000 Swedish women and men of reproductive age. Results A total of 34% responded to the questionnaires. A majority of the respondents (73%) were positive towards embryo donation. Seventy-five per cent agreed that it should be possible to donate embryos to infertile couples. Approximately half of the participants (49%) supported embryo donation to single women. A majority of the participants emphasized that demands should be imposed on the recipient's age (63%), alcohol addiction (79%), drug addiction (85%), and criminal record (67%). Forty-seven per cent of the respondents agreed that the recipient should be anonymous to the donor, and 38% thought that the donor should remain anonymous to the child. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate support for embryo donation among a subset of the Swedish population of reproductive age. If embryo donation were to be allowed in Sweden, strategies for treatment and counselling need to be developed. PMID:23786323

  6. Effects of Portulaca oleracea ethanolic extract on reproductive system of aging female mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Lamoochi, Zohreh; Fathi Moghaddam, Hadi; Mansouri, Seyed Mohamad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aging contains morphological and functional deterioration in biological systems. D-galactose (D-gal) generates free radicals and accelerates aging. Portulaca oleracea (Purslane) may have protective effect against oxidative stress. Objective: Purslane ethanolic extract effects were evaluated on antioxidant indices and sex hormone in D-gal aging female mice. Materials and Methods: 48 female NMRI mice (25-35 gr) were randomly divided into, 6 groups: 1- control (normal saline for 45 days), 2- Purslane (200 mg/kg for last 3 weeks), 3-D-gal (500 mg/kg for 45 days), 4-D-gal+Purslane, 5- Aging, 6-Aging+Purslane. Sex hormones, antioxidants and malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ovary and uterus were measured. Histological assessment was also done. Results: In D-gal treated and aging animals, LH and FSH levels were significantly increased (p<0.001) while estrogen and progesterone levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001) in comparison with control group. MDA contents were significantly increased in ovaries and uterus of D-gal and aging groups (p<0.01). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p<0.001) and catalase (p<0.01) activities were significantly decreased in both aging and D-gal treated animals. Ovarian follicles were degenerated and atrophy on uterine wall and endometrial glands was observed in D-gal and aging groups. Alteration in hormone levels, MDA contents and antioxidant activity were significantly reversed by Purslane (p<0.05). Purslane could also improve histological changes such as atrophy of endometrium. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Purslane can attenuate aging alternations induced by D-gal and aging in female reproductive system. PMID:27294220

  7. Health insurance coverage among women of reproductive age before and after implementation of the affordable care act

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachel K.; Sonfield, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The Affordable Care Act's expansions to Medicaid and private coverage are of particular importance for women of childbearing age, who have numerous preventive care and reproductive health care needs. Study design We conducted two national surveys, one in 2012 and one in 2015, collecting information about health insurance coverage and access to care from 8000 women aged 18–39. We examine type of insurance and continuity of coverage between time periods, including poverty status and whether or not women live in a state that expanded Medicaid coverage. Results The proportion of women who were uninsured declined by almost 40% (from 19% to 12%), though several groups, including US-born and foreign-born Latinas, experienced no significant declines. Among low-income women in states that expanded Medicaid, the proportion uninsured declined from 38% to 15%, largely due to an increase in Medicaid coverage (from 40% to 62%). Declines in uninsurance in nonexpansion states were only marginally significant. Conclusions Despite substantial improvements in health insurance coverage, significant gaps remain, particularly in states that have not expanded Medicaid and for Latinas. Implications This analysis examines changes in insurance coverage that occurred after the Affordable Care Act was implemented. While coverage has improved for many populations, sizeable gaps in coverage remain for Latinas and women in states that did not expand Medicaid. PMID:26802569

  8. Cluster Headache: Special Considerations for Treatment of Female Patients of Reproductive Age and Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    VanderPluym, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Cluster headache is a rare disorder that is more common in adult male patients. It has a unique phenotype of unilateral, severe, to very severe headaches lasting 15 to 180 min with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Time to correct diagnosis can be protracted. A number of treatment options exist for the standard cluster headache patient, but special considerations must be made for female patients of reproductive age and pediatric patients. The objective of this article is to explore the current literature pertaining to special considerations in cluster headache management, including treatment of pregnant or breastfeeding patients and pediatric patients. PMID:26711274

  9. Living and dying for sex. A theory of aging based on the modulation of cell cycle signaling by reproductive hormones.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Richard L; Atwood, Craig S

    2004-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of aging has yet to be described; this paper puts forth a new theory that has the potential to explain aging in all sexually reproductive life forms. The theory also puts forth a new definition of aging - any change in an organism over time. This definition includes not only the changes associated with the loss of function (i.e. senescence, the commonly accepted definition of aging), but also the changes associated with the gain of function (growth and development). Using this definition, the rate of aging would be synonymous with the rate of change. The rate of change/aging is most rapid during the fetal period when organisms develop from a single cell at conception to a multicellular organism at birth. Therefore, 'fetal aging' would be determined by factors regulating the rate of mitogenesis, differentiation, and cell death. We suggest that these factors also are responsible for regulating aging throughout life. Thus, whatever controls mitogenesis, differentiation and cell death must also control aging. Since life-extending modalities consistently affect reproduction, and reproductive hormones are known to regulate mitogenesis and differentiation, we propose that aging is primarily regulated by the hormones that control reproduction (hence, the Reproductive-Cell Cycle Theory of Aging). In mammals, reproduction is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis hormones. Longevity inducing interventions, including caloric restriction, decrease fertility by suppressing HPG axis hormones and HPG hormones are known to affect signaling through the well-documented longevity regulating GH/IGF-1/PI3K/Akt/Forkhead pathway. This is exemplified by genetic alterations in Caenorhabditis elegans where homologues of the HPG axis pathways, as well as the daf-2 and daf-9 pathways, all converge on daf-16, the homologue of human Forkhead that functions in the regulation of cell cycle events. In summary, we propose that the hormones that

  10. Age, the environment and our reproductive future: bonking baby boomers and the future of sex.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R John

    2014-02-01

    There has never been a greater need for scientists trained in reproductive science. Most developed countries are witnessing unprecedented rates of recourse to assisted conception sitting cheek-by-jowl with high rates of induced abortion. This article addresses these two incongruous faces of reproductive healthcare. Every year at least 44 million abortions are performed worldwide, many under unsafe and insanitary conditions that carry a significant risk to the lives of women deprived of safe, effective methods for controlling their fertility. Although birth control is a complex issue involving myriad social and political factors, the technical vacuum in this area is significant. Through no fault of the family planning authorities, there have been no radically new methods of fertility control since the oral contraceptive pill was introduced in 1960 and even this contribution to planned parenthood has its roots in the biochemistry of the 1920s and 1930s. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry has, by and large, turned its back on fundamental research activities in this area. At present, our major investment in reproductive healthcare involves treating ever-increasing numbers of couples with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, these treatments are often delivered without critically considering the underlying causes of this condition or seriously contemplating the long-term consequences of the current enthusiasm for such therapy. Significantly, the clinical factors underpinning the commitment of couples to ART include advanced maternal age and a variety of lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity, which are known to compromise the developmental potential of the oocyte and DNA integrity in spermatozoa. PMID:24194569

  11. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. PMID:27116240

  12. Reproductive aging-associated common genetic variants and the risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A younger age at menarche and an older age at menopause are well established risk factors for breast cancer. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several novel genetic loci associated with these two traits. However, the association between these loci and breast cancer risk is unknown. Methods In this study, we investigated 19 and 17 newly identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the ReproGen Consortium that have been associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause, respectively, and assessed their associations with breast cancer risk in 6 population-based studies among up to 3,683 breast cancer cases and 34,174 controls in white women of European ancestry. In addition, we used these SNPs to calculate genetic risk scores (GRSs) based on their associations with each trait. Results After adjusting for age and potential population stratification, two age at menarche associated SNPs (rs1079866 and rs7821178) and one age at natural menopause associated SNP (rs2517388) were associated with breast cancer risk (p values, 0.003, 0.009 and 0.023, respectively). The odds ratios for breast cancer corresponding to per-risk-allele were 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.24), 1.08 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.15) and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20), respectively, and were in the direction predicted by their associations with age at menarche or age at natural menopause. These associations did not appear to be attenuated by further controlling for self-reported age at menarche, age at natural menopause, or known breast cancer susceptibility loci. Although we did not observe a statistically significant association between any GRS for reproductive aging and breast cancer risk, the 4th and 5th highest quintiles of the younger age at menarche GRS had odds ratios of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.28) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.27), respectively, compared to the lowest quintile. Conclusions Our study suggests that three genetic variants, independent of their

  13. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior.

    PubMed

    Oelze, Vicky M; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Stephens, Colleen R; Surbeck, Martin; Behringer, Verena; Richards, Michael P; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation). These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet) and lactation (high energy diet), which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment. PMID:27626279

  14. Home Range Size Variation in Female Arctic Grizzly Bears Relative to Reproductive Status and Resource Availability

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Mark A.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Nagy, John A.

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal’s home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family. PMID:23844162

  15. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E; Nagy, John A

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family. PMID:23844162

  16. Rapid modification in the olfactory signal of ants following a change in reproductive status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Renault, Valérie; Peeters, Christian

    2005-02-01

    In insect societies, the presence and condition of egg-layers can be assessed with pheromones. Exocrine secretions are expected to vary in time in order to give up-to-date information on an individual’s reproductive physiology. In the queenless monogynous ant Streblognathus peetersi, we allowed a previously infertile high-ranking worker to accede to the alpha rank, thus triggering the onset of her oogenesis (15 replicates). We then studied her interactions with an established egg-layer from the same colony after different durations, ranging from 20 h to several days. Even though her eggs are only ready to be laid after 30 days, the new alpha was recognised within 1 2 days. Detection occurred at a distance of a few millimetres, suggesting the involvement of a pheromone with low volatility, such as cuticular hydrocarbons. When the new alpha had differentiated for >48 h, she was attacked by the established egg-layer. In all cases, low-ranking workers eventually immobilised one of the two alphas: the new alpha was the target if she had differentiated only recently, suggesting that police workers select the dominant worker with the “less fertile” odour. Using the behaviour of ants as our measure, we demonstrate that a dominant’s olfactory signal changes rapidly with a modification in her social status, and it occurs well before the onset of egg-laying.

  17. Rapid modification in the olfactory signal of ants following a change in reproductive status.

    PubMed

    Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Renault, Valérie; Peeters, Christian

    2005-02-01

    In insect societies, the presence and condition of egg-layers can be assessed with pheromones. Exocrine secretions are expected to vary in time in order to give up-to-date information on an individual's reproductive physiology. In the queenless monogynous ant Streblognathus peetersi, we allowed a previously infertile high-ranking worker to accede to the alpha rank, thus triggering the onset of her oogenesis (15 replicates). We then studied her interactions with an established egg-layer from the same colony after different durations, ranging from 20 h to several days. Even though her eggs are only ready to be laid after 30 days, the new alpha was recognised within 1-2 days. Detection occurred at a distance of a few millimetres, suggesting the involvement of a pheromone with low volatility, such as cuticular hydrocarbons. When the new alpha had differentiated for >48 h, she was attacked by the established egg-layer. In all cases, low-ranking workers eventually immobilised one of the two alphas: the new alpha was the target if she had differentiated only recently, suggesting that police workers select the dominant worker with the "less fertile" odour. Using the behaviour of ants as our measure, we demonstrate that a dominant's olfactory signal changes rapidly with a modification in her social status, and it occurs well before the onset of egg-laying. PMID:15700164

  18. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    PubMed Central

    Iranloye, Bolanle O.; Oludare, Gabriel O.; Morakinyo, Ayodele O.; Esume, Naomi A.; Ekeh, Lucy C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control) received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet) and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet). All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels were determined. RESULTS: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats. PMID:24672168

  19. Roe v Wade and the new Jane Crow: reproductive rights in the age of mass incarceration.

    PubMed

    Paltrow, Lynn M

    2013-01-01

    All pregnant women, not just those who seek to end a pregnancy, have benefited from Roe v Wade. Today's system of mass incarceration makes it likely that if Roe is overturned women who have abortions will go to jail. Efforts to establish separate legal "personhood" for fertilized eggs, embryos, and fetuses, however, are already being used as the basis for the arrests and detentions of and forced interventions on pregnant women, including those who seek to go to term. Examination of these punitive actions makes clear that attacks on Roe threaten all pregnant women not only with the loss of their reproductive rights and physical liberty but also with the loss of their status as full constitutional persons. PMID:23153159

  20. Roe v Wade and the New Jane Crow: Reproductive Rights in the Age of Mass Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    All pregnant women, not just those who seek to end a pregnancy, have benefited from Roe v Wade. Today’s system of mass incarceration makes it likely that if Roe is overturned women who have abortions will go to jail. Efforts to establish separate legal “personhood” for fertilized eggs, embryos, and fetuses, however, are already being used as the basis for the arrests and detentions of and forced interventions on pregnant women, including those who seek to go to term. Examination of these punitive actions makes clear that attacks on Roe threaten all pregnant women not only with the loss of their reproductive rights and physical liberty but also with the loss of their status as full constitutional persons. PMID:23153159

  1. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Bhattathiry, Malini M.; Ethirajan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed. PMID:24696634

  2. Optimizing a Male Reproductive Aging Mouse Model by d-Galactose Injection

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Chen, Bing-Huei; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chen, Chiu-Wei; Chen, Mei-Feng; Ke, Chih-Chun; Wang, Ya-Yun; Lin, Wei-Ning; Wang, Chi-Chung; Lin, Ying-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The d-galactose (d-gal)-injected animal model, which is typically established by administering consecutive subcutaneous d-gal injections to animals for approximately six or eight weeks, has been frequently used for aging research. In addition, this animal model has been demonstrated to accelerate aging in the brain, kidneys, liver and blood cells. However, studies on aging in male reproductive organs that have used this animal model remain few. Therefore, the current study aimed to optimize a model of male reproductive aging by administering d-gal injections to male mice and to determine the possible mechanism expediting senescence processes during spermatogenesis. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were randomized into five groups (each containing 8–10 mice according to the daily intraperitoneal injection of vehicle control or 100 or 200 mg/kg dosages of d-gal for a period of six or eight weeks). First, mice subjected to d-gal injections for six or eight weeks demonstrated considerably decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and testis lysates compared to those in the control group. The lipid peroxidation in testis also increased in the d-gal-injected groups. Furthermore, the d-gal-injected groups exhibited a decreased ratio of testis weight/body weight and sperm count compared to the control group. The percentages of both immotile sperm and abnormal sperm increased considerably in the d-gal-injected groups compared to those of the control group. To determine the genes influenced by the d-gal injection during murine spermatogenesis, a c-DNA microarray was conducted to compare testicular RNA samples between the treated groups and the control group. The d-gal-injected groups exhibited RNA transcripts of nine spermatogenesis-related genes (Cycl2, Hk1, Pltp, Utp3, Cabyr, Zpbp2, Speer2, Csnka2ip and Katnb1) that were up- or down-regulated by at least two-fold compared to the control group. Several of these genes are critical for forming sperm-head morphologies

  3. Optimizing a Male Reproductive Aging Mouse Model by D-Galactose Injection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Chen, Bing-Huei; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chen, Chiu-Wei; Chen, Mei-Feng; Ke, Chih-Chun; Wang, Ya-Yun; Lin, Wei-Ning; Wang, Chi-Chung; Lin, Ying-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The d-galactose (d-gal)-injected animal model, which is typically established by administering consecutive subcutaneous d-gal injections to animals for approximately six or eight weeks, has been frequently used for aging research. In addition, this animal model has been demonstrated to accelerate aging in the brain, kidneys, liver and blood cells. However, studies on aging in male reproductive organs that have used this animal model remain few. Therefore, the current study aimed to optimize a model of male reproductive aging by administering d-gal injections to male mice and to determine the possible mechanism expediting senescence processes during spermatogenesis. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were randomized into five groups (each containing 8-10 mice according to the daily intraperitoneal injection of vehicle control or 100 or 200 mg/kg dosages of d-gal for a period of six or eight weeks). First, mice subjected to d-gal injections for six or eight weeks demonstrated considerably decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and testis lysates compared to those in the control group. The lipid peroxidation in testis also increased in the d-gal-injected groups. Furthermore, the d-gal-injected groups exhibited a decreased ratio of testis weight/body weight and sperm count compared to the control group. The percentages of both immotile sperm and abnormal sperm increased considerably in the d-gal-injected groups compared to those of the control group. To determine the genes influenced by the d-gal injection during murine spermatogenesis, a c-DNA microarray was conducted to compare testicular RNA samples between the treated groups and the control group. The d-gal-injected groups exhibited RNA transcripts of nine spermatogenesis-related genes (Cycl2, Hk1, Pltp, Utp3, Cabyr, Zpbp2, Speer2, Csnka2ip and Katnb1) that were up- or down-regulated by at least two-fold compared to the control group. Several of these genes are critical for forming sperm-head morphologies or

  4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830

  5. Tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among women in zone 3 of Dhaka city: the challenge of reaching all women of reproductive age in urban Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, H.; Weierbach, R.; Hossain, I.; Islam, R.

    1998-01-01

    Neonatal tetanus is still an important public health problem in both urban and rural Bangladesh, with an estimated 41,000 cases occurring annually. This article analyses the coverage of tetanus toxoid (TT) immunizations among women of reproductive age in Zone 3 of Dhaka City in 1995. Although 85% of women with a child under 1 year of age had received two TT immunizations, only 11% of women of reproductive age had obtained the complete series of five TT immunizations and only 52% of women of reproductive age had received one or more TT immunizations. Access to TT immunization, as defined by having had at least one such immunization, was lower among women aged over 30 years and also among those aged under 20 years, especially those who were not yet married or who had not yet become pregnant. Characteristics associated with TT immunization status included the following: educational level of the woman, distance from the nearest immunization centre, and level of contact with family planning field workers. Additional characteristics that influenced women's TT immunization status included age, marital and working status, recency of migration from rural to urban area, and number of children. The relationships were complex and varied depending on the number of TT immunizations received (one or two) and on the type of analysis being carried out (bivariate or multivariate). The findings point to the need for a broad-based campaign to promote access to TT immunization as well as to promote the completion of all five TT doses in Bangladesh. Reducing missed opportunities for promotion of immunization as well as targeting home visitation of women in need of additional immunizations constitute further approaches to improving coverage. Although TT coverage rates were only marginally lower among women in slum households, such women were more likely than those in non-slum households to be pregnant and hence more likely to bear a baby at risk of neonatal tetanus. Furthermore, the

  6. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ikeako, LC; Ekwueme, OC; Ezegwui, HU; Okeke, TOC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major public health concern and enigma. A comprehensive knowledge of the modes of transmission is necessary to evolve an effective preventive strategy. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the vulnerability, knowledge and prevention of STIs among female traders of reproductive age in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on female traders aged 15-49 years at Ogbete Main Market, Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info 2000 version 3.3.1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta USA) was used to analyze the data and results were presented in tabular form. Results: A total of 200 female traders of reproductive age participated in the study. The mean (standard deviation) age was 26 (7.4) years. 16% (32/200) were adolescents. Knowledge of specific STIs was highest for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome 90% (130/200). Parents were poor sources of information as only 28.5% (57/200) respondents heard about STIs from their parents compared with 46% (92/200) from friends and peers. Risk factors identified were multiple sexual partners 75.5% (151/200), non-use of condoms 62% (124/200) and early debut 58% (116/200). Majority 67.5% (135/200) were aware that STIs could be treated by a visit to the doctor while 21.5% (43/200) preferred traditional/herbal healers. Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools’ curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before embarking on any vocation out-of-school is advocated. PMID:24669343

  7. SEXUAL DEMOGRAPHICS OF RIPARIAN POPULATIONS OF POPULUS DELTOIDES: CAN MORTALITY BE PREDICTED FROM A CHANGE IN REPRODUCTIVE STATUS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populus deltoides forests along the Rio Grande river drainage are predicted to disappear within this century. We evaluated stand health over three years by examining the sex ratio, size, and spatial distribution of male, female, and non-reproductive trees in six even-aged stands of Populus deltoide...

  8. What is the role of assisted reproduction technology in the management of age-related infertility?

    PubMed

    Marinakis, Gerasimos; Nikolaou, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    Although in the UK the upper age limit for National Health Service (NHS) provision of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) is 39 years of age there has been an increase in number of women having fertility treatment in their 40s. However, the success rates of IVF and intra-uterine insemination (IUI) in this group remain low. Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) data from 2006 showed that the live-birth rate from IVF in the UK was 11% in the age group 40-42, 4.6% in the age group 43-44 and less than 4% in women over 44. We performed a literature search for studies using terms and combinations of terms in online databases and published meta-analyses reporting the outcome of interventions in older women. This review showed that assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs) continue to have low live-birth rates in women over 40. Trials showed that assisted hatching may increase the chance of pregnancy in women with poor history. Blastocyst transfer is associated with better outcome, whereas application of pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) in older women has not increased the success rates. It appears that, with the exception of egg-donation, ART has no answer yet to age-related decline of female fertility. PMID:21329469

  9. Age at reproductive maturity and effect of age and time of day on sex sttraction in the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potato. Studies were conducted to determine the age at which both males and females reach reproductive maturity and the effect of age and time of day on sex attraction. Adult B. cockerelli r...

  10. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

  11. Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner ear varies with sex, social status, and reproductive state

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about which receptors are expressed in the ear or whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA expression levels of multiple steroid receptor subtypes (estrogen receptors: ERα, ERβa, ERβb; androgen receptors: ARα, ARβ; corticosteroid receptors: GR2, GR1a/b, MR) and aromatase in the main hearing organ of the inner ear (saccule) in the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, and tested whether these receptor levels were correlated with circulating steroid concentrations. Results We show that multiple steroid receptor subtypes are expressed within the main hearing organ of a single vertebrate species, and that expression levels differ between the sexes. We also show that steroid receptor subtype-specific changes in mRNA expression are associated with reproductive phase in females and social status in males. Sex-steroid receptor mRNA levels were negatively correlated with circulating estradiol and androgens in both males and females, suggesting possible ligand down-regulation of receptors in the inner ear. In contrast, saccular changes in corticosteroid receptor mRNA levels were not related to serum cortisol levels. Circulating steroid levels and receptor subtype mRNA levels were not as tightly correlated in males as compared to females, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms between sexes. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of sex-, social-, and reproductive-related steroid receptor mRNA expression in the peripheral auditory system of any single

  12. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  13. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods: Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Results: Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Conclusions: Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway. PMID:26941571

  14. Effect of disinfection and accelerated ageing on dimensional stability and detail reproduction of a facial silicone with nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pesqueira, A A; Goiato, M C; Dos Santos, D M; Haddad, M F; Moreno, A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of disinfection and accelerated ageing on the dimensional stability and detail reproduction of a facial silicone with different types of nanoparticle. A total of 60 specimens were fabricated with Silastic MDX 4-4210 silicone and they were divided into three groups: colourless and pigmented with nanoparticles (make-up powder and ceramic powder). Half of the specimens of each group were disinfected with Efferdent tablets and half with neutral soap for 60 days. Afterwards, all specimens were subjected to accelerated ageing. Both dimensional stability and detail reproduction tests were performed after specimen fabrication (initial period), after chemical disinfection, and after accelerated ageing periods (252, 504 and 1008 hours). The dimensional stability test was conducted using AutoCAD software, while detail reproduction was analysed using a stereoscope magnifying glass. Dimensional stability values were statistically evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.01). Detail reproduction results were compared using a score. Chemical disinfection and also accelerated ageing affected the dimensional stability of the facial silicone with statistically significant results. The silicone's detail reproduction was not affected by these two factors regardless of nanoparticle type, disinfection and accelerated ageing. PMID:22428808

  15. Comparative analysis of signature genes in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these cell...

  16. Phenotypic plasticity in age at first reproduction of female northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Biela, V.R.; Gill, V.A.; Bodkin, J.L.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that within a species, reproduction and survival rates will differ among populations that differ in resource availability or predation rates through phenotypic plasticity. When populations are near carrying capacity (K) or when they are declining due to reduced prey resources, the average age at 1st reproduction (average AFR) is predicted to be older than in populations below K. Differences between the trajectories of northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) populations in Alaska provides an opportunity to examine phenotypic plasticity. Using premolar teeth or reproductive tracts, we estimated average AFR from demographically distinct populations of sea otters in Alaska. We obtained samples from 2 populations near K, Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Aleutian Archipelago (archived samples), and from 2populations below K, the Kodiak Archipelago and Sitka. The average AFR was lower in populations below K (3.60 years ??0.16 SD)compared to those near K (4.21 ?? 0.13 years, P <0.001), and differed among all populations, with the Aleutian population possessing the oldest average AFR (4.29 ?? 0.09 years) followed by PWS (4.05 ?? 0.24 years), Sitka (3.80 ?? 0.21 years), and Kodiak (3.19 ?? 0.37 years). The difference in average AFR among populations supports life-history theory and provides evidence of phenotypic plasticity in sea otters. Our findings highlight the value of using average AFR as a tool for monitoring mammalian populations. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  17. Age-related changes in semen quality characteristics and expectations of reproductive longevity in Duroc boars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu Hung; Lo, Ling Ling; Liu, Shyh Hwa; Yang, Tien Shuh

    2010-08-01

    Quadratic fitting was used to regress semen characteristics of 1441 samples consisting of 12-month collection from 58 Duroc boars against animal age varied from 10 to 80 months. Data was divided into two groups of cool (14.0-22.7 degrees C, RH 81.5%) and hot season (22.9-29.9 degrees C, RH 86.6%), to test effects of age, season and their interactions. Results revealed that young boars of around 1 year old could endure the hot season. The endurance gradually diminished as animals grew. In the hot season animals exhibited peak performance at age around 33 month and it remained for 1 month, while cool-season kept boars could last for 48 months from 16 months old onward. The reproductive longevity should be 51 month in a subtropical environment and it may extend to 70 month if heat stress can be avoided. The estimated total sperm contribution of a Duroc boar would be 1.8 times more when kept below 22 degrees C than in a natural subtropical environment. It is concluded that to maintain Duroc boars as semen donor to at least 4 years of age is feasible in a subtropical environment and boar longevity could reach 6 years old if well kept in a temperate region. PMID:20662811

  18. Does male reproductive effort increase with age? Courtship in fiddler crabs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Catherine L; Booksmythe, Isobel; Jennions, Michael D; Backwell, Patricia R Y

    2013-04-23

    Theory suggests that reproductive effort generally increases with age, but life-history models indicate that other outcomes are possible. Empirical data are needed to quantify variation in actual age-dependence. Data are readily attainable for females (e.g. clutch per egg size), but not for males (e.g. courtship effort). To quantify male effort one must: (i) experimentally control for potential age-dependent changes in female presence; and, crucially, (ii) distinguish between the likelihood of courtship being initiated, the display rate, and the total time invested in courting before stopping ('courtship persistence'). We provide a simple experimental protocol, suitable for many taxa, to illustrate how to obtain this information. We studied courtship waving by male fiddler crabs, Uca annulipes. Given indeterminate growth, body size is correlated with age. Larger males were more likely to wave at females and waved more persistently. They did not, however, have a higher courtship rate (waves per second). A known female preference for males with higher display rates explains why, once waving is initiated, all males display at the same rate. PMID:23325736

  19. Does male reproductive effort increase with age? Courtship in fiddler crabs

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Catherine L.; Booksmythe, Isobel; Jennions, Michael D.; Backwell, Patricia R. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that reproductive effort generally increases with age, but life-history models indicate that other outcomes are possible. Empirical data are needed to quantify variation in actual age-dependence. Data are readily attainable for females (e.g. clutch per egg size), but not for males (e.g. courtship effort). To quantify male effort one must: (i) experimentally control for potential age-dependent changes in female presence; and, crucially, (ii) distinguish between the likelihood of courtship being initiated, the display rate, and the total time invested in courting before stopping (‘courtship persistence’). We provide a simple experimental protocol, suitable for many taxa, to illustrate how to obtain this information. We studied courtship waving by male fiddler crabs, Uca annulipes. Given indeterminate growth, body size is correlated with age. Larger males were more likely to wave at females and waved more persistently. They did not, however, have a higher courtship rate (waves per second). A known female preference for males with higher display rates explains why, once waving is initiated, all males display at the same rate. PMID:23325736

  20. The scent of royalty: a p450 gene signals reproductive status in a social insect.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Katharina; Gowin, Johannes; Hartfelder, Klaus; Korb, Judith

    2014-10-01

    Cooperation requires communication; this applies to animals and humans alike. The main communication means differ between taxa and social insects (ants, termites, and some bees and wasps) lack the cognitive abilities of most social vertebrates. Central to the regulation of the reproductive harmony in insect societies is the production of a royalty scent which signals the fertility status of the reproducing queen to the nonreproducing workers. Here, we revealed a central genetic component underlying this hallmark of insect societies in the termite Cryptotermes secundus. Communication between queens and workers relied upon the expression of a gene, Neofem4, which belongs to the cytochrome P450 genes. We inhibited Neofem4 in queens by RNA interference. This resulted in the loss of the royalty scent in queens and the workers behaved as though the queen were absent. The queen's behavior was not generally affected by silencing Neofem4. This suggests that the lack of the royalty scent lead to workers not recognizing her anymore as queen. P450 genes are known to be involved in the production of chemical signals in cockroaches and their expression has been linked to a major fertility regulator, juvenile hormone. This makes P450 genes, both a suitable and available evolutionary substrate in the face of natural selection for production of a queen substance. Our data suggest that in an organism without elaborate cognitive abilities communication has been achieved by the exploitation of a central gene that links the fertility network with the chemical communication pathway. As termites and social Hymenoptera seem to share the same class of compounds in signaling fertility, this role of P450 genes might be more widespread across social insects. PMID:25053804

  1. Gonadal status and reproductive function following treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood: The Stanford experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ortin, T.T.; Shostak, C.A.; Donaldson, S.S. )

    1990-10-01

    To ascertain the impact of therapy on gonadal function and reproductive outcome among children treated for Hodgkin's disease, we reviewed the experience at Stanford University Medical Center during the years 1965-1986. There were 240 children 15 years of age or younger, 92 girls and 148 boys; with median follow-up of 9 years, maximum follow-up was 26 years. Of this cohort, data on gonadal function were available on 20 boys, 5 of whom were considered prepubescent; they had no clinical evidence of sexual maturation and were less than 13 years of age. Evaluation of the boys included testicular biopsy, semen analyses and the ability to procreate. Serum gonadotropin hormone levels (FSH, LH) were studied in 11 boys who also had semen analyses. Sexual maturation was attained in all boys without the need for androgen replacement. Among the eight boys treated with radiation alone, four were able to father a child (3 following 40-45 Gy pelvic radiation dose, 1 without pelvic radiation) from 3-19 years following treatment. Three others who received 30-44 Gy pelvic radiation were oligospermic when tested at 10 to 15 years post-treatment. Semen analyses in 10 of 12 (83%) boys who had been treated with six cycles of MOPP with or without pelvic radiation revealed absolute azoospermia with no evidence of recovery as along as 11 years of follow-up. Following prolonged azoospermia, 2 of the 12 boys (17%) had recovery of fertility, with normalization of sperm count and/or ability to procreate at 12 and 15 years following treatment. There was no correlation with serum gonadotropin levels and sterility. Data on menstrual history, pregnancy and offspring were available in 86 (92%) of the girls. Seventy-five of the 86 girls (87%) have normal menstrual function. However, none of the females who underwent pelvic radiation without prior oophoropexy has maintained ovarian function.

  2. The Role of RFamide-Related Peptide-3 in Age-Related Reproductive Decline in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Anna C; Muroy, Sandra E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Bentley, George E; Kaufer, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive senescence, the point in time when females cease to show estrous cyclicity, is associated with endocrine changes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. However, the mechanisms triggering this transition are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the top-down control of the transition from reproductive competence to a state of reproductive senescence, we investigated middle-aged female rats exhibiting varying degrees of reproductive decline, including individuals with normal cycles, irregular cycles, and complete cessation of cycles. We identified hormonal changes in the brain that manifest before ovarian cycles exhibit any deterioration. We found that females exhibit an increase in RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP3) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus in middle age prior to changes in estrous cycle length. This increase is transient and followed by subsequent decreases in kisspeptin (KiSS1) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression. Expression of RFRP3 and its receptor also increased locally in the ovaries with advancing age. While it is well known that aging is associated with decreased GnRH release and downstream disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, herein, we provide evidence that reproductive senescence is likely triggered by alterations in a network of regulatory neuropeptides upstream of the GnRH system. PMID:27445974

  3. The Role of RFamide-Related Peptide-3 in Age-Related Reproductive Decline in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Anna C.; Muroy, Sandra E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.; Bentley, George E.; Kaufer, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive senescence, the point in time when females cease to show estrous cyclicity, is associated with endocrine changes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. However, the mechanisms triggering this transition are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the top-down control of the transition from reproductive competence to a state of reproductive senescence, we investigated middle-aged female rats exhibiting varying degrees of reproductive decline, including individuals with normal cycles, irregular cycles, and complete cessation of cycles. We identified hormonal changes in the brain that manifest before ovarian cycles exhibit any deterioration. We found that females exhibit an increase in RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP3) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus in middle age prior to changes in estrous cycle length. This increase is transient and followed by subsequent decreases in kisspeptin (KiSS1) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression. Expression of RFRP3 and its receptor also increased locally in the ovaries with advancing age. While it is well known that aging is associated with decreased GnRH release and downstream disruption of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis, herein, we provide evidence that reproductive senescence is likely triggered by alterations in a network of regulatory neuropeptides upstream of the GnRH system. PMID:27445974

  4. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18–45 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%), vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%), malodor 5 (4.5%), pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%), and dysuria 1 (0.9%). The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30%) cases, of which 18 (54.5%) were C. albicans and 15 (45.5%) non-albicans Candida (NAC) infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n = 10), C. tropicalis (n = 3), and C. krusei (n = 2). BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p = 0.001) and vulval itching/irritation (p = 0.007) was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management. PMID:26351613

  5. Age-related reproduction in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in the upper midwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, R.J.; Sargeant, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive data from the upper Midwest are meager for the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), a common North American carnivore. We provide data on some age-related reproductive attributes of 178 female striped skunks collected at 19 sites in eastcentral North Dakota and westcentral Minnesota in 1979-1981 and 1987-1991. Seventy-four percent of the females were 1 year old; 95% were pregnant or parous when collected. Thirteen of 873 (1.5%) embryos in 123 pregnant females were being resorbed. The overall mean (i?? 1 SE) litter size estimated from live embryos was 7.2 i?? 0.4. Means of litter-size estimates were similar for females 1 year old, but annual estimates of litter size differed among years for all females combined. For females from the interval 1979-1981 and 1990, the mean implantation date based on embryo size was 4 March (i?? 1.6 days). Potential litters were composed of a mean of 55 i?? 3% females. Estimates of litter size based on counts of corpora lutea averaged 0.9 young per female less than estimates for the same females based on counts of live embryos, indicating that some skunks may have produced polyovular follicles or identical twins.

  6. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  7. Third-party reproduction in the Internet Age: the new, patient-centered landscape.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Julia T

    2015-09-01

    The rise of the Internet Age has brought a host of sweeping changes to the landscape of third-party reproduction. What began as a dyadic relationship between doctor and patient has evolved into a more complex system in which patients are able to access information online from a variety of external sources. Patients often seek to play a more active role in their third-party reproductive care, and the Internet allows them to do so. Further, demand for both medical and psychosocial information about donors and donor-conceived siblings, available online through patient forums and genetic registries, has altered the perception of gamete donation from a one-time event to an ongoing relationship. The advantages and disadvantages for patients and providers of this freer flow of information between third-party participants are examined. Search motivations of recipients and offspring, as well as types of information sought, are detailed. Recommendations are made regarding strategies fertility programs can use to optimally support their patients and navigate this new landscape. PMID:26070518

  8. Assisted reproduction in female rhinoceros and elephants--current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Streich, Wj; Hildebrandt, Tb

    2007-09-01

    Over the last few decades, rhinoceroses and elephants became important icons in the saga of wildlife conservation. Recent surveys estimate the wild Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephant populations to be, at most, 50 250 and 637 600 respectively. For the five rhinoceros species, black (Diceros bicornis), white (Ceratotherium simum), Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis), Javan (Rhinoceros sondaicus) and Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus Sumatrensis), the population estimates of 3610, 11 330, 2400, 60 and 300, respectively, are of even greater concern. Protected against habitat loss, poaching and left undisturbed, rhinoceros and elephants reproduce well in the wild. But small and decreasing populations make successful captive management of these taxa increasingly important. In captivity, however, most populations face possible 'extinction' because of historically poor reproductive performance. From the first descriptions of the reproductive anatomy and the oestrous cycle (Laws 1969; Kassam and Lasley 1981; Balke et al. 1988a,b; Plotka et al. 1988; Godfrey et al. 1991) to the present use of advanced assisted reproduction technologies, researchers have strive to understand the function and dysfunction of the reproductive biology of these charismatic species. This paper reviewed the current knowledge on rhinoceros and elephant reproduction biology, reproductive cycle, gestation, dystocia, reproductive pathology, oestrous induction and artificial insemination, sperm sexing, IVF and contraception, and how this knowledge is or might be used to aid species conservation for maximal reproductive efficiency and enhancement of genetic management. PMID:17688600

  9. Reproductive Decision-Making in MMR Mutation Carriers After Results Disclosure: Impact of Psychological Status in Childbearing Options.

    PubMed

    Duffour, Jacqueline; Combes, Audrey; Crapez, Evelyne; Boissière-Michot, Florence; Bibeau, Frédéric; Senesse, Pierre; Ychou, Marc; Courraud, Julie; de Forges, Hélène; Roca, Lise

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive techniques such as prenatal diagnosis (PND) or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), although debated, are legally forbidden in France in case of Lynch syndrome. The preference of mutation carriers about their reproductive options is not systematically considered in France. We aimed to prospectively assess the reproductive preferences of mismatch repair mutation carriers consulting in our institution (2003-2010, n = 100). We also considered the short- and long-term post-disclosure psychological impact using the Impact of Events Scale-Revised questionnaire to measure the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in those patients. Complete data were obtained for 34 respondents (17 males, 17 females, median age of 33.5 years [22-59]). Seventeen respondents (57 %) preferred spontaneous natural conception versus 28 % and 35 % choosing PND and PGD, respectively. At results disclosure, respondents mainly explained their distress by fear of premature death (43 %) and transmitting mutated genes (42 %). One year later, this last fear remained predominant in 55 % of subjects. None of the main socio-demographical, psychological or medical variables (including fear of transmitting mutations) was significantly associated with the reproductive preferences. Results disclosure had a real and time-decreasing psychological impact on mutation carriers. Reproductive techniques, expected to decrease the hereditary risk, were not significantly preferred to natural conception. PMID:26392361

  10. Recruitment strategies for an acupuncture randomized clinical trial of reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Lisa M.; Dalal, Parchayi

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To assess the most effective recruitment strategies for an acupuncture clinical trial of reproductive age women. Design The underlying study is an acupuncture randomized clinical trial for an ovulatory disorder that affects approximately 6.5% of reproductive age women (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome). Study participation involved 2 months of intervention and 3 months of follow-up with US$170 compensation. Success of each recruitment method used during the first 37 study months was analyzed. Setting Clinical trial in the Dept. of OB/GYN at the University of Virginia, US. The original geographic residency target was an 80 mile radius around a college town in Virginia (population 155,000), and was expanded to the state capital (population 850,000) in recruitment year 2. Main outcome measures Number of study inquiries (phone calls or emails) over time and by recruitment source. Results In the first 37 months of recruitment (Jan 2006 – Jan 2009), there were 800 study inquiries (582 by phone, 218 by email), of which 749 were screened via telephone questionnaire. The most successful recruitment methods were flyers (28% of inquiries and 26 % of participants) and direct mailing to targeted zip codes (26% and 27%, respectively). The direct mailing cost US$110/inquiry, while the flyers cost less than US$300 in total. Study inquiries were least likely in May and November. Almost all prospective participants (94%) were acupuncture-naïve. Conclusions Posters/flyers and direct mailings proved to be the most successful recruitment methods for this CAM study. Active recruitment with multiple methods was needed for continual enrollment. PMID:19632551

  11. Photoperiodic effects on seasonal physiology, reproductive status and hypothalamic gene expression in young male F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Tavolaro, F M; Thomson, L M; Ross, A W; Morgan, P J; Helfer, G

    2015-02-01

    Seasonal or photoperiodically sensitive animals respond to altered day length with changes in physiology (growth, food intake and reproductive status) and behaviour to adapt to predictable yearly changes in the climate. Typically, different species of hamsters, voles and sheep are the most studied animal models of photoperiodism. Although laboratory rats are generally considered nonphotoperiodic, one rat strain, the inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rat, has been shown to be sensitive to the length of daylight exposure by changing its physiological phenotype and reproductive status according to the season. The present study aimed to better understand the nature of the photoperiodic response in the F344 rat. We examined the effects of five different photoperiods on the physiological and neuroendocrine responses. Young male F344 rats were held under light schedules ranging from 8 h of light/day to 16 h of light/day, and then body weight, including fat and lean mass, food intake, testes weights and hypothalamic gene expression were compared. We found that rats held under photoperiods of ≥ 12 h of light/day showed increased growth and food intake relative to rats held under photoperiods of ≤ 10 h of light/day. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis confirmed that these changes were mainly the result of a change in lean body mass. The same pattern was evident for reproductive status, with higher paired testes weight in photoperiods of ≥ 12 h of light/day. Accompanying the changes in physiological status were major changes in hypothalamic thyroid hormone (Dio2 and Dio3), retinoic acid (Crabp1 and Stra6) and Wnt/β-Catenin signalling genes (sFrp2 and Mfrp). Our data demonstrate that a photoperiod schedule of 12 h of light/day is interpreted as a stimulatory photoperiod by the neuroendocrine system of young male F344 rats. PMID:25443173

  12. Reproduction, aging and mortality rate in social subterranean mole voles (Ellobius talpinus Pall.).

    PubMed

    Novikov, E; Kondratyuk, E; Petrovski, D; Titova, T; Zadubrovskaya, I; Zadubrovskiy, P; Moshkin, M

    2015-12-01

    Eusocial subterranean rodents of the Bathyergidae family have enormous longevity. The long lifespan of these species is associated with negligible senescence, that is, an absence of the signs of age-related deterioration in physical condition. The question arises as to whether these features are unique to eusocial Bathyergids or typical of other social subterranean rodents as well. In the present study, we analysed data from observations of a social subterranean Microtinae rodent, the northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), which, like mole-rats, has reproductive skew. Among the individuals captured in the wild and maintained in captivity, females that reproduced lived significantly longer than non-breeding females. We did not find any changes in muscle strength with age in any of the demographic groups studied. Faecal glucocorticoid concentrations before death were significantly higher in non-breeding females than in breeding females and males. Increased adrenocortical activity may be one mechanism responsible for the decreased lifespan of non-reproducing individuals of social subterranean rodents. We conclude that the patterns of aging, although different in some respects, are generally common for social subterranean rodents of different taxonomic groups. PMID:26208910

  13. Inequities in Workplace Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Lawson, Christina C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized workplace secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking women of reproductive age as a proxy for workplace secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy. Methods. We included nonsmoking women aged 18 to 44 years employed during the past 12 months who participated in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. We estimated the prevalence of workplace secondhand smoke exposure and its associations with sociodemographic and workplace characteristics. Results. Nine percent of women reported workplace secondhand smoke exposure. Prevalence decreased with increasing age, education, and earnings. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with chemical exposure (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 4.7); being threatened, bullied, or harassed (POR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.1, 5.1); vapors, gas, dust, or fume exposure (POR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.3, 4.4); and worrying about unemployment (POR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.2), among other things. Conclusions. Comprehensive smoke-free laws covering all workers could eliminate inequities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure, including during pregnancy. PMID:25905837

  14. Age, growth, and reproductive biology of three catostomids from the Apalachicola River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Ely, Patrick C.

    2012-01-01

    Riverine catostomids can show a wide range of interspecific variation in life-history characteristics. Understanding these differences is an important consideration in evaluating the sensitivity of these fishes to disturbance and in formulating effective conservation strategies, particularly when dealing with an assemblage consisting of multiple species within a watershed. We collected Apalachicola redhorse Moxostoma n. sp. cf. poecilurum (n = 125), spotted sucker Minytrema melanops (n = 94), and quillback Carpiodes cyprinus (n = 94) to determine age, growth, and reproductive biology of spawning catostomids in the Apalachicola River, Florida, during 2007. Quillback was the smallest in total length at age; longest-lived; most fecund; and produced the smallest eggs. Apalachicola redhorse was the largest in body size; had an intermediate life span; and produced the fewest yet largest eggs. Spotted sucker was more similar to Apalachicola redhorse in most characteristics. Growth during ages 1-3 in all three species seemed to be negatively related to the proportion of observations of extreme flow, both high (Q90) and low (Q10), per year and a positive response in growth rate to high flows (>Q75 but < Q90). However, Apalachicola redhorse and spotted sucker growth was more sensitive to flow conditions than that of quillback. Our results suggest the life histories and ecological response of Apalachicola River catostomids to flow regulation are important components for developing strategies that incorporate the needs of these fishery resources into an ecosystem-based management approach.

  15. Geophagy in chacma baboons: patterns of soil consumption by age class, sex, and reproductive state.

    PubMed

    Pebsworth, Paula A; Bardi, Massimo; Huffman, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Despite baboons' widespread distribution across Africa, geophagy among all subspecies has been poorly documented. We used video camera traps and soil analyses to investigate geophagy in chacma baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) inhabiting the Western Cape of South Africa. During an 18-month study, from August 2009 to January 2011, we continually monitored the largest and most frequently visited geophagy sites with camera traps for 545 days and captured soil consumption at one or more sites on 266 of those days (49%). In 3,500 baboon visits to geophagy sites, video camera traps captured 58.6 hr of geophagy. From these data, we evaluated site preference based on time spent consuming soil among these four geophagy sites. One hundred and seventy days of soil consumption data from the most frequently visited geophagy site allowed us to look for demographic trends in geophagy. Selected consumed soils from geophagy sites were analyzed for mineral, physical, and chemical properties. The baboons spent more time consuming white alkaline soils with high percentages of clay and fine silt, which contained higher concentrations of sodium than non-white acidic soils that contained higher concentrations of iron. Our data indicate that pregnant chacma baboons spent more time consuming soil at monitored geophagy sites than baboons of any other age class, sex, or reproductive state. Based on analytical results, the soils consumed would be effective at alleviating gastrointestinal distress and possibly supplementing minerals for all age/sex classes, but potentially for different age/sex requirements. PMID:21969111

  16. How old is too old? A contribution to the discussion on age limits for assisted reproduction technique access.

    PubMed

    Kocourková, Jiřina; Konečná, Hana; Burcin, Boris; Kučera, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    In 2012, the Czech Republic established the women's age limit for access to assisted reproduction techniques at age 49 years. In this paper, the acceptability of this age limit from the children's perspective in the Czech Republic is assessed. Although the necessity of balancing the interests of parents and children is acknowledged, little research has taken children's interests into account. We have attempted to map out 'children's interests', asking older children and adolescents (aged 11-25 years) how old they would prefer their parents to be: Czech respondents would prefer to have younger parents. This finding is consistent with the optimal biological childbearing age rather than with the current postponement to a later age. So far, assisted reproduction techniques have been largely regarded as a medical treatment justifying the current women's age limit of 49 years. Had the children's perspective been taken into account, this age limit might have been lower than 49 years. We propose that reproductive health policy should adequately reflect multiple perspectives as an integral part of a multi-layered support system of a society. PMID:25773530

  17. Prevalence of Anemia among Tribal Women of Reproductive Age in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ramachandra; Majeed, Jazeel Abdul; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Pattanshetty, Sanjay M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Many studies have emphasized on prevalence of anaemia among general population. This study has focussed to address the prevalence of anaemia among the tribal population in Udupi taluk. Anaemia among women in the reproductive age group is one of the causes for maternal morbidity and mortality in India. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among tribal women (aged 15 to 49 years). Settings and Design: A Community based cross sectional study was conducted among tribal women aged 14-49 years in Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka. Methods and Material: A cross sectional study during July 2012 to August 2012 was conducted. A sample size of 170 was calculated taking into consideration a relative error of 15% and the prevalence of anemia in Karnataka as 51% (as per the NFHS-3). Statistical analysis used: Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to analyse the data using SPSS 15. Results: The study sample had a mean hemoglobin value of 11.3 g/dL with 95% CI of (11 – 11.6), with a standard deviation of 2g/dL. The study reveals that in the sample of tribal women in the age group of 15-49 years, the prevalence of anemia was 55.9%. Among the subjects, 6 (3.5%) were severely anemic, 33 (19.4%) were moderately anemic and 56 (32.9%) were mildly anemic. Conclusions: This study calls for an appropriate action and intervention in this tribal population to treat and prevent anaemia. PMID:26664839

  18. Attraction to psychotherapy: influences of therapist status and therapist-patient age similarity.

    PubMed

    Lasky, R G; Salomone, P R

    1977-04-01

    Therapist-patient age similarity and therapist status were examined in relation to interpersonal attraction in the psychotherapy dyad. Psychiatric inpatients who comprised three age groupings were assigned randomly to one of four audiovisual treatments that depicted a dyadic psychotherapy situation (N = 60). For each treatment, therapist age and status were differentially presented on color slides with the same accompanying audiotape. Results indicated that age similarity was significantly (p less than .05) more relevant for the younger patients, whereas therapist status had greater significance for older patients. There were several significant interactions that concerned therapist-patient age similarity and therapist status effects on psychotherapeutic attraction. These results suggest that therapist-patient matching on age and/or therapist status should be considered carefully as a potential influence on therapeutic outcome. PMID:858795

  19. Plasticity of the Reproductive Axis Caused by Social Status Change in an African Cichlid Fish: I. Pituitary Gonadotropins

    PubMed Central

    Maruska, Karen P.; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Biran, Jakob; Fernald, Russell D.

    2011-01-01

    Social position in a dominance hierarchy is often tightly coupled with fertility. Consequently, an animal that can recognize and rapidly take advantage of an opportunity to rise in rank will have a reproductive advantage. Reproduction in all vertebrates is controlled by the brain-pituitary-gonad axis, and in males of the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, GnRH1 neurons at the apex of this axis are under social control. However, little is known about how quickly social information is transformed into functional reproductive change, or about how socially controlled changes in GnRH1 neurons influence downstream actions of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. We created an opportunity for reproductively suppressed males to ascend in status and then measured how quickly the perception of this opportunity caused changes in mRNA and protein levels of the pituitary gonadotropins. mRNA levels of the β-subunits of LH and FSH rose rapidly in the pituitary 30 min after suppressed males perceived an opportunity to ascend. In contrast, mRNA levels of GnRH receptor-1 remained unchanged during social transition but were higher in stable dominant compared with subordinate males. In the circulation, levels of both LH and FSH were also quickly elevated. There was a positive correlation between mRNA in the pituitary and circulating protein levels for LH and FSH, and both gonadotropins were positively correlated with plasma 11-ketotestosterone. Our results show that the pituitary is stimulated extremely rapidly after perception of social opportunity, probably to allow suppressed males to quickly achieve reproductive success in a dynamic social environment. PMID:21068157

  20. Family Planning Practice Among Rural Reproductive-Age Married Women in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. PMID:27122625

  1. USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY TO IDENTIFY A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a commercial telephone directory to identify a population-based sample of women of reproductive age
    *DT Lobdell, GM Buck, JM Weiner, P Mendola (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    In the United States, sampling women o...

  2. USE OF COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY FOR OBTAINING A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Commercial Telephone Directories to Obtain a Population-Based Sample for Mail Survey of Women of Reproductive Age

    Danelle T. Lobdella, Germaine M. Buckb, John M. Weinerc, Pauline Mendolaa

    aUnited States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and ...

  3. Individual fertility assessment and pro-fertility counselling; should this be offered to women and men of reproductive age?

    PubMed

    Hvidman, Helene W; Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Larsen, Elisabeth C; Macklon, Kirsten Tryde; Pinborg, Anja; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    During the 1970s new contraceptive options developed and legal abortions became accessible. Family planning clinics targeting young women and men provided advice and assistance on contraception. Today, delayed childbearing, low total fertility rates and increasing use of social oocyte freezing create a need for pro-fertility initiatives. Three years ago we established a new separate unit: The Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) clinic. The FAC clinic offers free individual counselling based on a clinical assessment including measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone and ovarian and pelvic sonography in women, sperm analysis in men, and a review of reproductive risk factors in both sexes. The FAC clinic includes a research programme with the goal to improve prediction and protection of fertility. Our first proposition is that clinics for individual assessment and counselling need to be established, as there is a strong unmet demand among women and men to obtain: (i) knowledge of fertility status, (ii) knowledge of reproductive lifespan (women) and (iii) pro-fertility advice. Addressing these issues is often more challenging than treating infertile patients. Therefore, we propose that fertility assessment and counselling should be developed by specialists in reproductive medicine. There are two main areas of concern: As our current knowledge on reproductive risk factors is primarily based on data from infertile patients, the first concern is how precisely we are able to forecast future reproductive problems. Predictive parameters from infertile couples, such as duration of infertility, are not applicable, diagnostic factors like tubal patency are unavailable and other parameters may be unsuitable when applied to the general population. Therefore, strict validation of reproductive forecasting in women and men from the general population is crucial. The second main concern is that we may turn clients into patients. Screening including reproductive forecasting

  4. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  5. Reliability of reported breastfeeding duration among reproductive-aged women from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A; Gladen, Beth C; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2009-04-01

    Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings. We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%). The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually <1 month, and for 385/567, the difference was < or =0.5 months. Predictors of poorer recall were having > or =4 children, and time between reports of >2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49). In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breastfeeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall. PMID:19292747

  6. Events in Early Life are Associated with Female Reproductive Ageing: A UK Biobank Study.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Katherine S; Perry, John R B; Henley, William E; Melzer, David; Weedon, Michael N; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The available oocyte pool is determined before birth, with the majority of oocytes lost before puberty. We hypothesised that events occurring before birth, in childhood or in adolescence ('early-life risk factors') could influence the size of the oocyte pool and thus the timing of menopause. We included cross-sectional data from 273,474 women from the UK Biobank, recruited in 2006-2010 from across the UK. We analysed the association of early menopause with events occurring before adulthood in 11,781 cases (menopause aged under 45) and 173,641 controls (menopause/pre-menopausal at ≥45 years), in models controlling for potential confounding variables. Being part of a multiple birth was strongly associated with early menopause (odds ratio = 1.42, confidence interval: 1.11, 1.82, P = 8.0 × 10(-9), fully-adjusted model). Earlier age at menarche (odds ratio = 1.03, confidence interval: 1.01, 1.06, P = 2.5 × 10(-6)) and earlier year of birth were also associated with EM (odds ratio = 1.02, confidence interval: 1.00, 1.04, P = 8.0 × 10(-6)). We also confirmed previously reported associations with smoking, drinking alcohol, educational level and number of births. We identified an association between multiple births and early menopause, which connects events pre-birth, when the oocyte pool is formed, with reproductive ageing in later life. PMID:27094806

  7. Events in Early Life are Associated with Female Reproductive Ageing: A UK Biobank Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruth, Katherine S.; Perry, John R. B.; Henley, William E.; Melzer, David; Weedon, Michael N.; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The available oocyte pool is determined before birth, with the majority of oocytes lost before puberty. We hypothesised that events occurring before birth, in childhood or in adolescence (‘early-life risk factors’) could influence the size of the oocyte pool and thus the timing of menopause. We included cross-sectional data from 273,474 women from the UK Biobank, recruited in 2006–2010 from across the UK. We analysed the association of early menopause with events occurring before adulthood in 11,781 cases (menopause aged under 45) and 173,641 controls (menopause/pre-menopausal at ≥45 years), in models controlling for potential confounding variables. Being part of a multiple birth was strongly associated with early menopause (odds ratio = 1.42, confidence interval: 1.11, 1.82, P = 8.0 × 10−9, fully-adjusted model). Earlier age at menarche (odds ratio = 1.03, confidence interval: 1.01, 1.06, P = 2.5 × 10−6) and earlier year of birth were also associated with EM (odds ratio = 1.02, confidence interval: 1.00, 1.04, P = 8.0 × 10−6). We also confirmed previously reported associations with smoking, drinking alcohol, educational level and number of births. We identified an association between multiple births and early menopause, which connects events pre-birth, when the oocyte pool is formed, with reproductive ageing in later life. PMID:27094806

  8. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B in the Reproductive-Age Female Farmworkers of Southeastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Simsek, Zeynep; Keklik, Zehra; Gurses, Gulcan; Zeyrek, Fadile Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on the prevalence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the agricultural population worldwide. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors in the reproductive-age female farmworker. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2013 in southeastern region (SAR) of Turkey. A community-based representative agricultural sample (n = 705) from the agricultural areas of nine provinces of SAR was randomly determined by clustering method using Epi Info software. Questionnaires including demographic information and risk factors of HBV were administered to participants. The presence of HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-HBe antibodies in blood samples were measured by ELISA. Results: The prevalence of the HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, anti-HBe antibodies, and seropositivity were 5.7%, 25.9%, 28.9%, 16.4%, and 36.7%, respectively. There was no association between the HBsAg and the size of the household, age, education level, parity, and place of birth while the prevalence of HBsAg was higher in seasonal migratory farmworkers and people living in urban areas and the prevalence of anti-HBs antibody was significantly higher in women ≥ 35 years of age, those with a high parity, and those who gave birth without the assistance of health professionals (P < 0.05). The risk for HBV infection in the seasonal migratory group was 4.3 times higher in comparison to local workers (P = 0.00; OR = 4.3; 95% CI, 2.2-8.4), with a prevalence rate of 11%. Conclusions: The monitoring of at-risk groups like seasonal migratory farmworkers is necessary to strengthen the healthcare service provided to this population. PMID:25598790

  9. Cumulative live birth rate and assisted reproduction: impact of female age and transfer day

    PubMed Central

    Abuzeid, M.I.; Bolonduro, O.; La Chance, J.; Abozaid, T.; Urich, M.; Ullah, K.; Ali, T.; Ashraf, M.; Khan, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many studies on assisted reproductive technology examine live birth rate per cycle. However, after a cycle fails, couples often want to know what their chances are of having a live birth if they continue treatment. From a patients’ perspective, the cumulative probability of live birth is more informative. Materials and Methods: This study includes patients who underwent fresh, frozen and non-donor ICSI cycles at our IVF unit between 2006-2012. Patients were divided into two groups; Group 1 represented those who underwent only Day 5 transfers, Group 2 represented only Day 3 transfers. Patients who underwent both were excluded. ­Cycles were analyzed until the first live birth or the end of the 3rd cycle. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we estimated the cumulative live birth rates for each group and according to female age. Results: The mean age for Group 1 was significantly lower than for Group 2. After 3 cycles, Group 1’s CLBR was 79% versus 66% in Group 2. When analyzing the live births by age and group, there was a significant difference in the CLBR after 3 cycles with the women less than 35 years having the highest CLBR and the women 40 years or older having the lowest CLBR. Conclusion: In women less than 35 years, excellent CLBR can be achieved irrespective of the transfer day. For women 40 years and above, better results of CLBR are observed with Day 5 transfers. Our findings may impact the counseling of couples considering IVF treatment. PMID:25374657

  10. Documentation of Contraception and Pregnancy When Prescribing Potentially Teratogenic Medications for Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Postlethwaite, Debbie A.; Hung, Yun-Yi; Armstrong, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Certain medications are identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as class D or X because they increase the risk for birth defects if used during pregnancy. Objective To assess pregnancy rates and the frequency of contraceptive counseling documented with prescriptions for class D or X drugs filled by women of reproductive age. Design Description of prescriptions filled in 2001. Setting A large health maintenance organization in northern California in 2001. Patients 488 175 women age 15 to 44 years who filled a total of 1 011 658 class A, B, D, or X prescriptions. Measurements Medications dispensed, contraceptive counseling, and pregnancy testing. Results A class D or X prescription was filled by 1 of every 6 women studied. Women who filled a prescription for class D or X medications were no more likely than women who filled prescriptions for safer, class A or B medications to have received contraceptive counseling, filled a contraceptive prescription, or been sterilized (48% vs. 51% of prescriptions). There was little variation by clinical indication in rates of contraceptive counseling with class D or X prescriptions, except for isotretinoin. Women who filled a class D or X prescription were only slightly less likely to have a pregnancy documented within 3 months than women filling a class A or B prescription (1.0% vs. 1.4% of prescriptions). Limitations International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes underestimate contraceptive counseling. Documentation of a positive pregnancy test after filling a prescription may overestimate medication use in early pregnancy. Women who filled several prescriptions are overrepresented in prescription analyses. Conclusion Prescriptions for potentially teratogenic medications are frequently filled by women of childbearing age without documentation of contraceptive counseling. PMID:17876020

  11. Reliability of reported breastfeeding duration among reproductive-aged women from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Gladen, Beth C.; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings. We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%). The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually <1 month, and for 385/567, the difference was ≤0.5 months. Predictors of poorer recall were having ≥4 children, and time between reports of >2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49). In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breast-feeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall. PMID:19292747

  12. Problem of mortality in women of reproductive age in rural area of Haryana.

    PubMed

    Lal, S; Satpathy, S; Khanna, P; Vashisht, B M; Punia, M S; Kumar, S

    1995-01-01

    To learn the extent of mortality among women of reproductive age, data was analyzed on causes of death, as reported by anganwadi workers and heads of households, for all maternal deaths in 1992 in Haryana, India. The community was comprised of 300,907 persons and 58,961 women (19.6%) of reproductive age. 9894 live births were recorded, which is higher than the national average. 219 women died in 1992 from maternal and nonmaternal causes (3.7 per 1000 women). In the study blocks (Rohtak, Chiri, and Kathure) the range of mortality was from 3.4 to 4.1 per 1000. 78.5% (172 deaths) were considered nonmaternal deaths. Mortality was 20.9% among mothers 15-20 years old, 25.6% among mothers 20-25 years old, and 18.6% among mothers 25-30 years old. 65.1% of women died at home. 58.1% sought medical care prior to death. 1.2% of deaths were certified. 36.7% of deaths were to literate women, and the remaining 63.3% were illiterate. Causes of nonmaternal death included accidents, respiratory disorders, poisoning, and digestive disorders. Slightly over 20% of accidental deaths were due to burns and suicide. 21.46% (47 deaths) were maternal deaths (475 per 100,000 live births). Maternal mortality ranged from 46 to 488 in the 3 blocks. Rohtak had the highest maternal mortality. Maternal mortality was highest among women 30-44 years old (996 per 100,000), followed by women 15-20 years old (575 per 100,000). 21.3% died during labor and delivery, and 68% died during the postpartum period. 57.4% died at home, and 25.5% died at the Medical College Hospital. 61.7% used prenatal services. 36.2% did not seek medical care prior to their death. 55.3% of deliveries were by trained birth attendants. 25.5% died with their first births. 51.0% of women with a birth interval under 3 years died. Maternal mortality was distributed by cause as follows: postpartum hemorrhage (17.0%), puerperal sepsis (17.0%), anemia (12.8%), preeclampsia and eclampsia (14.9%), obstructed labor (6.4%), hemorrhage

  13. Paternal age and assisted reproductive outcomes in ICSI donor oocytes: is there an effect of older fathers?

    PubMed Central

    Beguería, R.; García, D.; Obradors, A.; Poisot, F.; Vassena, R.; Vernaeve, V.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does paternal age affect semen quality and reproductive outcomes in oocyte donor cycles with ICSI? SUMMARY ANSWER Paternal age is associated with a decrease in sperm quality, however it does not affect either pregnancy or live birth rates in reproductive treatments when the oocytes come from donors <36 years old and ICSI is used. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The weight of evidence suggest that paternal age is associated with decreasing sperm quality, but uncertainty remains as to whether reproductive outcomes are affected. Although developed to treat severe sperm factor infertility, ICSI is gaining popularity and is often used even in the presence of mild male factor infertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A retrospective cohort study spanning the period between February 2007 and June 2010. A total of 4887 oocyte donation cycles were included. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Fertilization was carried out by ICSI in all cycles included, and the semen sample used was from the male partner in all cases. The association of male age with semen parameters (volume, concentration, percentage of motile spermatozoa) was analyzed by multiple analysis of covariance. The association of male age with reproductive outcomes (biochemical pregnancy, miscarriage, ongoing pregnancy and live birth rate) was modeled by logistic regression, where the following covariates were introduced: donor age, recipient age, semen state (fresh versus frozen) and number of transferred embryos (3 and 2 versus 1). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We identified a significant relationship between paternal age and all sperm parameters analyzed: for every 5 years of age, sperm volume decreases by 0.22 ml (P < 0.001), concentration increases by 3.1 million sperm/ml (P = 0.003) and percentage motile spermatozoa decreases by 1.2% (P < 0.001). No differences were found in reproductive outcomes (biochemical pregnancy, miscarriage, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy and live birth) among

  14. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  15. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  16. Effects of male social status on reproductive success and on behavior in mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    D'Amato, F R

    1988-06-01

    Differences in reproduction as well as in behavior in the presence of females were evaluated according to dominant and subordinate male rank in albino mice, in the temporary absence of each male's antagonist. Dominant males reproduced more successfully than subordinate males. Subordinate males were generally inactive, except for displacement activities, during the first 15 min they were exposed to female partners. These findings suggest that mechanisms other than male-male interference or mating order may be operating or influencing behavior and reproductive results. PMID:3396312

  17. The effect of active immunization against vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and inhibin on reproductive performance of aging White Leghorn roosters.

    PubMed

    Avital-Cohen, N; Heiblum, R; Argov, N; Rosenstrauch, A; Chaiseha, Y; Mobarkey, N; Rozenboim, I

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing fertility in aging domestic roosters is a well-known phenomenon. Aging is manifested by a decrease in plasma testosterone level, testis function, and spermatogenesis, resulting in a low level of fertility. The roles of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and testicular inhibin in this aging process are not clear. The effects of active immunization against VIP, inhibin, or the combination of both hormones on the reproduction of aging White Leghorn (WL) roosters were assayed. In experiment 1a, 60 White Leghorn roosters (67 wk of age) were divided into 4 groups (n = 15/group). The first group was actively immunized against VIP, the second against inhibin, the third against VIP and inhibin, and the fourth served as a control. Active immunization against VIP decreased semen quality parameters, plasma steroid levels, and gene expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), LH receptor, VIP, and prolactin (Prl). Immunization against inhibin increased some of the semen quality parameters and FSH mRNA gene expression but decreased inhibin gene expression. In experiment 1b, at 94 wk of age, we took the actively immunized against VIP group and the control group and divided them into 2 subgroups (n = 7 or 8): the first group was injected with 1 mg of ovine Prl (oPrl) daily for 7 d, and the second group served as a control. Administration of oPrl to previously VIP-immunized birds significantly elevated semen quality parameters. We suggest that VIP, Prl, and inhibin have an important effect on the reproductive axis in aging roosters. Active immunization against VIP-depressed reproductive activity and Prl administration restored their reproduction, indicating that both VIP and Prl are essential for reproduction in aging roosters. Immunization against inhibin improved FSH mRNA gene expression, suggesting a negative role of inhibin on FSH secretion in aging roosters. Not all semen quality parameters

  18. Lifetime reproductive efficiency of BALB/c mouse pairs after an environmental modification at 3 mating ages.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Virgínia B; Mattaraia, Vânia G M; Moura, Ana Silvia A M T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an environment change and the age at which mating pairs were formed on the lifetime reproductive performance of BALB/c mice. We assigned 60 monogamous pairs to a randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (with or without an environmental modification and with 3 mating ages: 28, 45, or 60 d). Autoclaved cardboard tubes (length, 10 cm; diameter, 4 cm) were used as the environmental modification. Data were collected from a total of 456 litters over a period of 10 mo. The mice tore the cardboard tube and used its parts both as shelters and as nesting material. The presence of a cardboard tube decreased the preweaning litter mortality rate in the first 6 reproductive cycles. Mating at 28 or 45 d of age also decreased the preweaning mortality rate in the first 6 reproductive cycles, compared with monogamous pairs formed at 60 d of age. Treatments did not affect age at first parturition, number of litters, time between litters, or litter size and weight at birth and weaning. In addition to contributing to animal wellbeing, providing a cardboard tube improved productivity by decreasing the preweaning mortality rate. BALB/c siblings should be paired for mating when no older than 28 d, to reduce preweaning mortality of the offspring. PMID:25651088

  19. Pregnancy Desire, Partner Serodiscordance, and Partner HIV Disclosure among Reproductive Age HIV-Infected Women in an Urban Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Corinne M.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Rana, Aadia I.

    2016-01-01

    Women comprise 25% of the US HIV epidemic, with many women of reproductive age. There is a need for providers to address the reproductive needs and desires of women with HIV given that effective antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV into a chronic disease. This cross-sectional study shows high rates of partner serodiscordance (61%) and moderate HIV disclosure to partners (61%). Patients surveyed reported practitioners discuss condoms (94%) and contraception (71%) more often than pregnancy desire (38%). In our sample, 44% of the surveyed women intended future pregnancy, whereas women who did not intend future pregnancy cited HIV/health and serodiscordance as the most common reasons (56% and 35%, resp.). There was no difference in the knowledge of mother-to-child transmission risk between women who intended or did not intend future pregnancy (p = 0.71). These results underline the need for provider training in reproductive counseling to promote risk reduction and education. PMID:27313441

  20. Multiple sclerosis; a disease of reproductive-aged women and the dilemma involving contraceptive methods

    PubMed Central

    Türkyılmaz, Esengül; Yıldırım, Melahat; Avşar, Ayşe Filiz Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nerves system. Because the disease predominantly affects women of reproductive ages, having knowledge about contraception options for MS patients can make clinicians provide better counseling. Although most contraceptive methods are generally accepted as safe and effective in MS patients, recent studies have raised questions about their potential adverse effects on the disease. The use of contraceptive methods to avoid unintended pregnancies is crucial in MS patients, particularly during the relapse phase of the disease or the time when the disease is not completely under control. This review investigates the contraception options and their effects on female MS patients. Providing appropriate contraception options to multiple sclerosis patients will be one of the most challenging issues for clinicians to deal with. Recent studies have raised questions that the use of hormonal contraceptives may at least partly contribute to the rise in incidence of MS in women. This review investigates the contraception options and their effects on female MS patients. PMID:25788851

  1. [Anemia in women of reproductive age. The results of a national probability survey].

    PubMed

    Martínez, H; González-Cossío, T; Flores, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J; Lezana, M A; Sepúlveda-Amor, J

    1995-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent forms of malnutrition which is clinically known as anemia. Functional consequences of anemia include impairment of cardiovascular performance, limitation in productivity, higher incidence of low birth weight and premature delivery, and increased maternal mortality. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of anemia in women of reproductive age in Mexico. Data were collected by the Ministry of Health through a National Nutrition Survey in 1988, which draw a representative sample from four regions: North, Center, South and Federal District. Anemia was more prevalent in pregnant (18.17%) than in non-pregnant women (15.38%). Those women living in predominantly indigenous communities had higher prevalence of anemia (24.02%) than non-indigenous women (14.67%). Anemia was more prevalent in urban areas (15.54%) than in rural (13.56%). Mean +/- standard deviation values for hemoglobin were lower in pregnant women (12.5 +/- 1.6 g/dL) than in non-pregnant ones (13.7 +/- 1.6 g/dL). Consistently, the Northern and Southern regions were worse off than the Center and the Federal District. These data indicate that anemia is a public health problem in Mexico. The functional consequences of this deficiency justify interventions to treat and prevent it. PMID:7618111

  2. Emerging Manifestations of Cesarean Scar Defect in Reproductive-aged Women.

    PubMed

    Tulandi, Togas; Cohen, Aviad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cesarean scar defects and its clinical manifestations in reproductive-aged women. We performed a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement using keywords of "cesarean scar defect, uterine scar defect, uterine diverticulum niche, isthmocele, pouch, or sacculation" and their combination. Thirty-two trials met the inclusion criteria. Cesarean scar defects are commonly found on ultrasound examination (24%-88%). Their presence could be asymptomatic or related to postmenstrual spotting, postmenstrual bleeding, or infertility. The prevalence of this condition is related to the number of cesarean deliveries. Hysteroscopic repair of a cesarean scar defect or isthmoplasty is associated with an improvement in uterine bleeding in 59% to 100% of cases and a pregnancy rate of 77.8% to 100%. An improvement in uterine bleeding after vaginal repair occurred in 89% to 93.5% of cases. Laparoscopic repair led to uterine bleeding improvement in 86% of cases and a pregnancy rate of 86%. The association between cesarean scar defect and infertility, pelvic pain, and dysmenorrhea require more studies. Treatment of uterine scar defects should be performed after eliminating other causes of postmenstrual bleeding or infertility. Hysteroscopic isthmoplasty appears to be the most popular treatment. However, in the absence of randomized trials, the efficacy of different surgical approaches remains to be seen. Until we have concrete evidence, the treatment should be reserved for selective cases. PMID:27393285

  3. The Effect of Seasonal Thermal Stress on Lipid Mobilisation, Antioxidant Status and Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Turk, R; Podpečan, O; Mrkun, J; Flegar-Meštrić, Z; Perkov, S; Zrimšek, P

    2015-08-01

    Heat stress is a major factor contributing to low fertility of dairy cows with a great economic impact in dairy industry. Heat-stressed dairy cows usually have reduced nutrient intake, resulting in a higher degree of negative energy balance (NEB). The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal thermal effect on lipid metabolism, antioxidant activity and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Thirty-two healthy dairy heifers were included in the study. According to the ambient temperature, animals were divided into two groups: winter (N = 14) and summer season (N = 18). Metabolic parameters, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and total antioxidant status (TAS) were monitored at the time of insemination (basal values) and from 1 week before until 8 weeks after calving. Number of services per conception and calving-to-conception (CC) interval were calculated from the farm recording data. Serum triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations were significantly increased after calving in summer compared to winter, indicating higher degree of NEB in cows during summer. PON1 activity was significantly decreased after calving in both summer and winter group. TAS concentration was significantly lower in summer than that in winter. A significantly higher number of services were needed for conception in summer compared to winter, and CC interval was significantly longer in summer than that in winter as well. Additionally, reproductive performance significantly correlated with the severity of NEB, suggesting that lipid mobilization and lower antioxidant status contributed to poor reproduction ability in dairy cows during hot months. PMID:25996438

  4. Reproductive status of Holstein and Jersey cows in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive information from USDA’s national dairy database since 1996 was used to provide yearly means in 8 traits in the Holstein and Jersey breeds. Respectively, data for Holsteins and Jerseys were from 20,746 and 1963 herds, 3,645,987 and 184,398 cows, 7,107,057 and 387,441 lactations, and 15,...

  5. Live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: current status and future direction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) was reported in the late 1980's. PRRS still is a huge economic concern to the global pig industry with a current annual loss estimated at one billion US dollars in North America alone. It has been 20 years since the fi...

  6. Inactivated and subunit vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: current status and future direction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within a few years of its emergence in the late 1980's, the PRRS virus had spread globally to become the foremost infectious disease concern for the pork industry. Since 1994, modified live-attenuated vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-MLV) have been widely u...

  7. The effect of Jonhe's Disease status on reproduction and culling in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the costs attributed to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle, the impacts on reproduction and culling are the least documented. In order to properly estimate the cost of MAP infections in a dairy herd, the rates of calving and culling were calculated for...

  8. "Whose Child Is This?": Determining Legal Status for Lesbian Parents Who Used Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Jan; Skinner, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have helped heterosexuals, lesbians, and gays fulfill desires to become parents. In this article, we identify assumptions upon which parentage rights in the United States are based. Examining recent legal decisions in California concerning 3 families headed by lesbian parents who used ARTs, we find that…

  9. Reproductive performance of high growth rate gilts inseminated at an early age.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Rafael; Bernardi, Mari Lourdes; Wentz, Ivo; Bortolozzo, Fernando Pandolfo

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this work was to determine if gilts, which have a high growth rate (GR) could be mated earlier without reducing the reproductive performance or increasing the culling rate up to the third parity. Gilts of Camborough 22 (C22, n=568) breeding were mated and allocated into three groups according to weight and age on the insemination day. G1 (n=164)-gilts with a GR>or=700 g/d and inseminated at <210 d. G2 (n=165)-gilts with a GR>or=700 g/d and inseminated at >or=210 d. G3 (n=239)-gilts with a GR<700 g/d and inseminated at >or=210 d. All females were fed ad libitum from 150 d on and were inseminated at their second estrus or later. The minimum weight at mating was 127 kg. Three parities were studied, with farrowing rate, litter size and culling rate being compared. At the first parity, G2 gilts produced, on average, one more piglet than the other groups (P<0.05). However, when analyzing three parities, there were no differences in total born (11.6 x 12.3 x 11.7), farrowing rate (87.1% x 88.7% x 89.8%) and culling rate (30.2% x 25.3% x 28.2%) among G1-G3 groups, respectively (P>0.05). In conclusion, gilts, which had a minimum weight of 127 kg can be inseminated at their second or greater estrus, between 185 and <210 d of age, without impairing their productive performance over three parities. PMID:16431043

  10. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    PubMed

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value. PMID:26658410

  11. Dual reproductive cost of aging in male Medflies: dramatic decrease in mating competitiveness and gradual reduction in mating performance.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Stella A; Diamantidis, Alexandros D; Nakas, Christos T; Carey, James R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2011-10-01

    Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the mating competitiveness (mating success against younger rivals) of males. The mating probability of older males decreased significantly when competing with younger males. Aging gradually reduced the mating performance of males but older males were still accepted as mating partners in conditions lacking competition. Therefore, older males are capable of performing the complete repertoire of sexual performance but fail to be chosen by females in the presence of young rivals. Older males achieved shorter copulations than younger ones, and female readiness to mate was negatively affected by male age. Older and younger males transferred similar amount of spermatozoids to female spermathecae. Females stored spermatozoids asymmetrically in the two spermathecae regardless the age of their mating partner. Aging positively affected the amount of spermatozoids in testes of both mated and nonmated males. No significant differences were observed on the amount of spermatozoids between mated and nonmated males. PMID:21801728

  12. Dual reproductive cost of aging in male medflies: dramatic decrease in mating competitiveness and gradual reduction in mating performance

    PubMed Central

    Papanastasiou, Stella A.; Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Nakas, Christos T.; Carey, James R.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2011-01-01

    Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the mating competitiveness (mating success against younger rivals) of males. The mating probability of older males decreased significantly when competing with younger males. Aging gradually reduced the mating performance of males but older males were still accepted as mating partners in conditions lacking competition. Therefore, older males are capable of performing the complete repertoire of sexual performance but fail to be chosen by females in the presence of young rivals. Older males achieved shorter copulations than younger ones, and female readiness to mate was negatively affected by male age. Older and younger males transferred similar amount of spermatozoids to female spermathecae. Females stored spermatozoids asymmetrically in the two spermathecae regardless the age of their mating partner. Aging positively affected the amount of spermatozoids in testes of both mated and non mated males. No significant differences were observed on the amount of spermatozoids between mated and non mated males. PMID:21801728

  13. A review and rationale for studying the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic in women of reproductive age

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Richard K.

    2007-08-01

    Drinking water arsenic has been shown to be associated with a host of adverse health outcomes at exposure levels > 300 {mu}g of As/L. However, the results are not consistent at exposures below this level. We have reviewed selected articles that examine the effects of drinking water arsenic on cardiovascular outcomes and present a rationale for studying these effects on women of reproductive age, and also over the course of pregnancy when they would potentially be more susceptible to adverse cardiovascular and reproductive outcomes. It is only recently that reproductive effects have been linked to drinking water arsenic. However, there is a paucity of information about the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic on women of reproductive age. Under the cardiovascular challenge of pregnancy, we hypothesize that women with a slightly elevated exposure to drinking water arsenic may exhibit adverse cardiovascular outcomes at higher rates than in the general population. Studying sensitive clinical and sub-clinical indicators of disease in susceptible sub-populations may yield important information about the potentially enormous burden of disease related to low-level drinking water arsenic exposure.

  14. Assessing the Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis in Women of Reproductive Age Suffering the Disease in Isfahan Province

    PubMed Central

    Rejali, Mehri; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Kazemi Tabaee, Maryam Sadat; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Etiology of the disease is not well understood; however, it is more common in women than in men and occurs mainly during reproductive age. The aim of this study was to evaluate some risk factors in women of childbearing age with MS in Isfahan Province. Methods: This analytic case–control study was conducted in MS Clinic in Isfahan, 2014. The study was done on 200 patients with MS and 200 nonpatients (matched controls) that were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. The data collection tool was a researcher-designed questionnaire consisting of three parts: Demographics, disease characteristics, and some risk factors related to reproductive age. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20, using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The results showed that risk of MS had a significant relationship with age at menarche (P < 0.001), prior use of oral contraceptives (OCs) (P = 0.002), duration of use of OCs (P = 0.008), and number of pregnancies (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant relationship between age of onset of use of OCs (P = 0.80) and age at the first pregnancy (P = 0.45) with the risk of MS. Conclusions: Results of this research determined that the following risk factors were associated with developing MS, age at menarche, history, and duration of use of OCs and number of pregnancies. PMID:27076896

  15. The effects of host age on follicular dendritic cell status dramatically impair scrapie agent neuroinvasion in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Karen L; Wathne, Gwennaelle J; Sales, Jill; Bruce, Moira E; Mabbott, Neil A

    2009-10-15

    Following peripheral exposure, many transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents accumulate first in lymphoid tissues before spreading to the CNS (termed neuroinvasion) where they cause neurodegeneration. Early TSE agent accumulation upon follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in lymphoid follicles appears critical for efficient neuroinvasion. Most clinical cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have occurred in young adults, although the reasons behind this apparent age-related susceptibility are uncertain. Host age has a significant influence on immune function. As FDC status and immune complex trapping is reduced in aged mice (600 days old), we hypothesized that this aging-related decline in FDC function might impair TSE pathogenesis. We show that coincident with the effects of host age on FDC status, the early TSE agent accumulation in the spleens of aged mice was significantly impaired. Furthermore, following peripheral exposure, none of the aged mice developed clinical TSE disease during their lifespans, although most mice displayed histopathological signs of TSE disease in their brains. Our data imply that the reduced status of FDCs in aged mice significantly impairs the early TSE agent accumulation in lymphoid tissues and subsequent neuroinvasion. Furthermore, the inefficient neuroinvasion in aged individuals may lead to significant levels of subclinical TSE disease in the population. PMID:19786551

  16. Assessment of Sexual and Reproductive Health Status of Street Children in Addis Ababa

    PubMed Central

    Habtamu, Demelash; Adamu, Addisie

    2013-01-01

    Street children worldwide do not have the information, skills, health services, and support they need to go through sexual development during adolescence. This study is undertaken to systematically investigate the fit between street children's sexual and reproductive health needs and the existing services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 street children and four service providers. About 72.5% of the respondents were sexually active during data collection and 84.3% of males and 85.7% of females tended to have multiple sexual partners. More than two-thirds (67.3%) of the participants had used at least one type of substance. History of substance use (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.42–4.56) and being on the street for the first one to three years (OR = 5.9; 95% CI = 1.41–7.22) increased the likelihood of having sexual activity. More than half (64.9%) of the street children did not attend any kind of sexual or reproductive health education programs. Lack of information on available services (26.5%) was the biggest barrier for utilization of local sexual and reproductive health services. From the individual interview with coordinator, the financial and networking problems were hindering the service delivery for street children. In conclusion, street children who are special high risk group have not been targeted and hence continue to remain vulnerable and lacking in sexual and reproductive health services and sexual health services are poorly advertised and delivered to them. PMID:26316958

  17. Assessment of Sexual and Reproductive Health Status of Street Children in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Habtamu, Demelash; Adamu, Addisie

    2013-01-01

    Street children worldwide do not have the information, skills, health services, and support they need to go through sexual development during adolescence. This study is undertaken to systematically investigate the fit between street children's sexual and reproductive health needs and the existing services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 street children and four service providers. About 72.5% of the respondents were sexually active during data collection and 84.3% of males and 85.7% of females tended to have multiple sexual partners. More than two-thirds (67.3%) of the participants had used at least one type of substance. History of substance use (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.42-4.56) and being on the street for the first one to three years (OR = 5.9; 95% CI = 1.41-7.22) increased the likelihood of having sexual activity. More than half (64.9%) of the street children did not attend any kind of sexual or reproductive health education programs. Lack of information on available services (26.5%) was the biggest barrier for utilization of local sexual and reproductive health services. From the individual interview with coordinator, the financial and networking problems were hindering the service delivery for street children. In conclusion, street children who are special high risk group have not been targeted and hence continue to remain vulnerable and lacking in sexual and reproductive health services and sexual health services are poorly advertised and delivered to them. PMID:26316958

  18. Atrazine in municipal drinking water and risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age status

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, C; Durand, G; Coutte, M; Chevrier, C; Cordier, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Atrazine is a herbicide used extensively worldwide. Bioassays have shown that it is embryotoxic and embryolethal. Evidence of adverse reproductive outcomes from exposure in the general population is sparse. Aims: To evaluate the association between atrazine levels in municipal drinking water and the following adverse reproductive outcomes: increased risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight (LBW), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status. Methods: A total of 3510 births that took place from 1 October 1997, to 30 September 1998 were analysed. Atrazine measurements were available for 2661 samples from water treatment plants over the past decade. A seasonal pattern was identified, with atrazine peaking from May to September. The geometric mean of the atrazine level for this period was calculated for each water distribution unit and merged with the individual data by municipality of residence. Results: Atrazine levels in water were not associated with an increased risk of LBW or SGA status and were slightly associated with prematurity. There was an increased risk of SGA status in cases in which the third trimester overlapped in whole or in part with the May–September period, compared with those in which the third trimester occurred totally from October to April (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.81). If the entire third trimester took place from May to September, the OR was 1.54 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.13). Conclusions: Low levels of atrazine, a narrow exposure range, and limitations in the exposure assessment partly explain the lack of associations with atrazine. Findings point to the third trimester of pregnancy as the potential vulnerable period for an increased risk of SGA birth. Exposures other than atrazine and also seasonal factors may explain the increased risk. PMID:15901888

  19. Interacting effects of age, density, and weather on survival and current reproduction for a large mammal

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Emmanuelle; Simpson, Steven E; Medill, Sarah A; McLoughlin, Philip D

    2014-01-01

    Individual-based study of natural populations allows for accurate and precise estimation of fitness components and the extent to which they might vary with ecological conditions. By tracking the fates of all 701 horses known to have lived on Sable Island, Canada, from 2009 to 2013 (where there is no predation, human interference, or interspecific competition for food), we present a detailed analysis of structured population dynamics with focus on interacting effects of intraspecific competition and weather on reproduction and survival. Annual survival of adult females (0.866 ± 0.107 [ ± SE]) was lower than that of 3-year-olds (0.955 ± 0.051), although annual fecundity (producing a foal in a year that was observed during our census) was higher in adults (0.616 ± 0.023) compared to 3-year-olds (0.402 ± 0.054). Milder winters and lower densities during gestation increased fecundity. Density negatively impacted survival for all age and sex categories; however, highest adult female survival was observed during high-density years coupled with a harsh winter, the result expected if pregnancy loss during winter or loss of foals in spring improved survival. Three-year-old females, which reproduced at lower rates, experienced higher survival than adults. Our results contrast with a previous study of feral horses that suggested recently feral ungulates might be artificially selected to reproduce even when costs to survival are high. In part, this may be because of the comparably long history of feralization (250 years; at least 25 generations) for Sable Island horses. PMID:25614799

  20. Association between Trichomonas vaginalis and vaginal bacterial community composition among reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Brotman, Rebecca M.; Bradford, L. Latey; Conrad, Melissa; Gajer, Pawel; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.; Carlton, Jane M.; Abdo, Zaid; Ravel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Some vaginal bacterial communities are thought to prevent infection by sexually transmitted organisms. Prior work demonstrated that the vaginal microbiota of reproductive-age women cluster into five types of bacterial communities; 4 dominated by Lactobacillus species (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii), and one (termed community state type (CST) IV) lacking significant numbers of lactobacilli and characterized by higher proportions of Atopobium, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Mobiluncus, and other taxa. We sought to evaluate the relationship between vaginal bacterial composition and Trichomonas vaginalis. Methods Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained cross-sectionally from 394 women equally representing four ethnic/racial groups. T. vaginalis screening was performed using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA and β-tubulin genes. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. A panel of eleven microsatellite markers was used to genotype T. vaginalis. The association between vaginal microbiota and T. vaginalis was evaluated by exact logistic regression. Results T. vaginalis was detected in 2.8% of participants (11/394). Of the eleven T. vaginalis-positive cases, eight (72%) were categorized as CST-IV, two (18%) as communities dominated by L. iners and one (9%) as L. crispatus-dominated (p-value:0.05). CST-IV microbiota were associated with an 8-fold increased odds of detecting T. vaginalis compared to women in the L. crispatus-dominated state (OR:8.26, 95% CI:1.07–372.65). Seven of the 11 T. vaginalis isolates were assigned to two genotypes. Conclusion T. vaginalis was associated with vaginal microbiota consisting of low proportions of lactobacilli and high proportions of Mycoplasma, Parvimonas, Sneathia, and other anaerobes. PMID:23007708

  1. The time- and age-dependent effects of the juvenile hormone analog pesticide, pyriproxyfen on Daphnia magna reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ginjupalli, Gautam K; Baldwin, William S

    2013-08-01

    Pyriproxyfen is an insecticidal juvenile hormone analog that perturbs insect and tick development. Pyriproxyfen also alters parthenogenic reproduction in non-target cladoceran species as it induces male production that can lead to a decrease in fecundity, a reduction in population density, and subsequent ecological effects. In this study, we investigate the impacts of pyriproxyfen on Daphnia magna reproduction using a series of male production screening assays. These assays demonstrate that pyriproxyfen increases male production in a concentration-dependent fashion with an EC50 of 156pM (50.24ngL(-1)); a concentration considered environmentally relevant. Furthermore, pyriproxyfen decreases overall fecundity at all ages tested (7, 14, 21-d old female parthenogenic daphnids). Juvenile (3-d old) and reproductively mature (10-d old) female daphnids were also exposed to 155pM pyriproxyfen for 2-12d and reproduction measured for 16d to compare the effects of short-term and prolonged exposures, and determine the potential for recovery. Results indicate that longer pyriproxyfen exposures (8-12d) extend male production and decrease reproduction; however, daphnids exposed for only 2-4d recover and produce a relatively normal abundance of neonates. In addition, juvenile daphnids are also very sensitive to pyriproxyfen, but the primary effect on juvenile daphnids is reduced reproduction and protracted development not male production. Taken together, continued use of pyriproxyfen around water bodies needs due caution because of its potential adverse effects with significant developmental delays and male production compounded by prolonged exposure. PMID:23714148

  2. Time reproduction performance is associated with age and working memory in high-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Laurie A; Shih, Vivian H; Colich, Natalie L; Sugar, Catherine A; Bearden, Carrie E; Dapretto, Mirella

    2015-02-01

    Impaired temporal processing has historically been viewed as a hallmark feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Recent evidence suggests temporal processing deficits may also be characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known about the factors that impact temporal processing in children with ASD. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of co-morbid attention problems, working memory (WM), age, and their interactions, on time reproduction in youth with and without ASD. Twenty-seven high-functioning individuals with ASD and 25 demographically comparable typically developing individuals (ages 9-17; 85% male) were assessed on measures of time reproduction, auditory WM, and inattention/hyperactivity. The time reproduction task required depression of a computer key to mimic interval durations of 4, 8, 12, 16, or 20 sec. Mixed effects regression analyses were used to model accuracy and variability of time reproduction as functions of diagnostic group, interval duration, age, WM, and inattention/hyperactivity. A significant group by age interaction was detected for accuracy, with the deficit in the ASD group being greater in younger children. There was a significant group by WM interaction for consistency, with the effects of poor WM on performance consistency being more pronounced in youth with ASD. All participants tended to underestimate longer interval durations and to be less consistent for shorter interval durations; these effects appeared more pronounced in those who were younger or who had poorer WM performance. Inattention/hyperactivity symptoms in the ASD group were not related to either accuracy or consistency. This study highlights the potential value of temporal processing as an intermediate trait of relevance to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25078724

  3. Age, sex, and breeding status shape a complex foraging pattern in an extremely long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Audrey; Goutte, Aurélie; Lecomte, Vincent J; Richard, Pierre; Chastel, Olivier; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-08-01

    Evidence of age-dependent changes in foraging behavior of free-ranging individuals is scarce, especially at older stages. Using the isotopic niche as a proxy of the trophic niche during both the breeding (blood) and inter-nesting (feather) periods, we report here empirical evidence for age-, gender-, and breeding status-dependent foraging ecology and examine its potential consequences on subsequent reproduction and survival in an extremely long-lived species, the Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans). Immature Wandering Albatrosses of both sexes forage in the subtropics (delta13C) and feed at the same trophic position (delta15N) as the adults. In contrast to immature birds, adult females forage, on average, at more northern latitudes than males, with both sexes feeding in the subtropics during the internesting period, and males, not females, favoring subantarctic waters during incubation. In contrast to adult females, males show a unique pattern among birds and mammals of a continuous change with age in their main feeding habitat by foraging progressively farther south in colder waters during both the breeding and inter-nesting periods. In males, foraging at higher latitudes (lower feather delta13C values) is associated with a lower probability of breeding during the following years compared to other birds, but with no effect on their probability of surviving. Foraging in cold and windy waters may be linked to foraging impairment that might explain different life history trade-offs and lower investment in reproduction with age. This key point requires further longitudinal investigations and/or studies examining foraging success and the energy budget of birds feeding in different water masses. PMID:25230482

  4. Ovarian cycle activity varies with respect to age and social status in free-ranging elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Elizabeth W.; Meyer, Jordana M.; Putman, Sarah B.; Schulte, Bruce A.; Brown, Janine L.

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging African elephants live in a fission–fusion society, at the centre of which is the matriarch. Matriarchs are generally older females that guide their families to resources and co-ordinate group defense. While much is known about elephant society, knowledge is generally lacking about how age affects the physiology of wild elephants. Investigation of the ovarian activity of free-ranging elephants could provide insight into the reproductive ageing process, with implications for population management. Faecal samples were collected from 46 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 60 years for a 2-year period, and progestagen metabolite analyses were used to examine relationships between social status, age, season, and ovarian activity in female elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Social status was the strongest predictor of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in non-pregnant elephants, with grand matriarchs (n = 6) having the lowest values compared with matriarchs (n = 21) and non-matriarch females (n = 19). Likewise, social status and age were the strongest predictors of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in pregnant elephants (n = 27). The number of years since a non-pregnant female gave birth to her last calf (post-partum duration) was longer for older females with a higher social status, as well as during the dry season. Our results indicate that social standing and age of elephants are related to reproductive function, and that older females exhibit reductions in ovarian capacity. These results expand our understanding of reproduction and fertility throughout an elephant's lifespan, and the factors that impact gonadal function in free-ranging females. Given that possible over-abundance of elephants in areas such as Addo Elephant National Park is fuelling the debate over how best to manage these populations, knowledge about the reproductive potential of high-ranking females can provide managers with

  5. Tempol intake improves inflammatory status in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamato, Mayumi; Ishimatsu, Ayumi; Yamanaka, Yuuki; Mine, Takara; Yamada, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with both healthy aging and age-related disease states. In connection with oxidative stress, immunity is also a major component as a result of the chronic, low-grade inflammation associated with the development of tissue aging. Here we show that long-term treatment with the antioxidant tempol extends life-span in mice. Tempol-treated mice exhibited a reduction in mortality at 20 months. Tempol drinking did not have any effect on body weight, amount of visceral adipose tissue, or plasma biochemical parameters in aged mice. Body temperature of aged control mice (which drank only water) was significantly lower than young mice, but this reduction of body temperature was partially restored in aged mice which drank tempol. Plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and C-reactive protein were significantly increased in the control aged mice compared with young mice, but levels of both were normalized by tempol drinking. One of the endogenous antioxidants, ascorbic acid, was significantly increased in the plasma of mice which consumed tempol. The proportion of CD4 lymphocytes in the blood of aged tempol-treated mice was partially increased in comparison to aged control mice. These results suggest that the reduction of mortality by tempol is due to amelioration of chronic inflammation and improved function of the immune system through antioxidant effects. PMID:25120275

  6. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among women of reproductive age in 16 U.S. States, 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Lavonne A G; Karch, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death for women between the ages of 15 and 44 years, exceeding deaths due to homicide, HIV, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and diabetes (CDC, 2009). Furthermore, almost half of the suicide deaths in women occur in women of reproductive age, yet little is known about the determinants of suicide in young adult and middle-age women. Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) were analyzed to describe the leading circumstances associated with suicide among women aged 15-44 years. From 2003 to 2007, there were 4203 suicide deaths among women 15-44 years of age, which represents nearly half (46%) of the suicide deaths among females. Precipitating circumstances were known in 3784 cases. The most frequently cited circumstances for these suicide decedents were current mental health problem (60%), having ever been treated for a mental health problem (54%), current depressed mood (44%), and problems with a current or former intimate partner (36%). Thirty-seven percent had a history of suicide attempts. Twenty-eight percent disclosed their intent to die by suicide to another person with enough time for someone to have intervened. To prevent suicide in women of reproductive age, multiple approaches should be taken, including but not limited to appropriate and effective mental health treatment, access to support systems, familial education in recognizing the signs of suicide, and understanding the options available to get help for someone at risk. PMID:20088651

  7. Measures of Overweight Status in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…

  8. Preconception Health of Reproductive Aged Women of the Mississippi River Delta

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Sherry; Johnson, Dick; McAnally, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Optimal preconception health (PCH) may improve maternal and infant outcomes, priority issues in Mississippi (MS). Our study objective was to compare the PCH of women in the MS Delta to other regions. We analyzed Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 2005, 2007, and 2009, and limited analyses to 171,612 non-pregnant black and white women 18–44 years of age. Region was defined as 14 MS Delta counties (MS Delta), remainder of MS (MS non-Delta), Delta states (LA, AR, TN), and non-Delta US states. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) to assess associations between region and 16 indicators of optimal PCH, controlling for demographic characteristics. Healthy PCH factors such as consuming ≥5 fruits and vegetables daily and normal body mass index (18.5 kg/m2 to <25 kg/m2), respectively, were more prevalent in the MS non-Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.7 and aPR = 1.2; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.4), non-MS Delta (aPR = 1.5; 95 % CI: 1.2,2.0 and aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.5) and non-Delta states (aPR = 1.7; 95 % CI: 1.3,2.2 and aPR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.2,1.6) compared to the MS Delta. Physical activity levels were higher among non-Delta US states compared to the MS Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.4). Household income and race confounded the associations between region and PCH. Reproductive aged women in the MS Delta had poorer PCH, particularly for physical activity and nutrition, than women in other regions. MS Delta service providers and public health practitioners should consider implementing or enhancing lifestyle, nutrition, and physical activity interventions, with a special focus on reducing income-based and racial disparities. PMID:23099798

  9. Trajectory of Life Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Subjective Economic Status and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economic status and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective economic…

  10. Seasonal variation in reproductive physiological status in the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) and its relationship with sperm freezability.

    PubMed

    Coloma, M A; Toledano-Díaz, A; Castaño, C; Velázquez, R; Gómez-Brunet, A; López-Sebastián, A; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2011-12-01

    The present work examines the relationship between seasonal changes in testicular function, accessory gland size, and horn growth in Iberian ibexes, as well as the relationship between these changes and the resistance of ibex spermatozoa to freezing-thawing. The size of the bulbourethral glands and seminal vesicles showed pronounced monthly variation (P < 0.001), which was correlated positively with the plasma testosterone concentration (P < 0.001) and scrotal circumference (P < 0.001). The size of the accessory sex glands peaked during the autumn. Overall, semen quality was markedly improved during autumn and winter. When horn growth was at a minimum during autumn and winter, semen quality and accessory gland size were all increased compared to in spring and summer. However, increased plasma testosterone levels in the autumn were strongly associated with reduced sperm freezability; thus, the cryosurvival of spermatozoa collected during the autumn was poorer than at other times of the year. In winter, however, when the plasma testosterone concentration fell to baseline, the negative effects of cryopreservation on the percentage of motile spermatozoa and on the integrity of the plasma membrane of frozen-thawed sperm cells were significantly less intense (P < 0.05). These findings show a clear relationship between the functional and morphological status of the different parts of the reproductive tract that optimises reproductive function during the breeding season in the ibex male. They also show that winter is the most suitable season for the collection and cryopreservation of ibex spermatozoa. PMID:21855981

  11. School-Based Reproductive Health and Safety Education for Students Aged 12-15 Years in UNESCO's (2009) "International Technical Guidance"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Collier-Harris, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, adolescents aged 12-15 years are making sexual and reproductive decisions of profound significance for their future, often based on misguided, inadequate or dangerously wrong information. Very few countries provide evidential and comprehensive education about puberty, sexuality, and reproductive health and safety to children and young…

  12. Cytomegalovirus IgM Seroprevalence among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengbin; Dollard, Sheila C.; Amin, Minal M.; Bialek, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM indicates recent active CMV infection. CMV IgM seroprevalence is a useful marker for prevalence of transmission. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1988–1994, we present estimates of CMV IgM prevalence by race/ethnicity, provide a comparison of IgM seroprevalence among all women and among CMV IgG positive women, and explore factors possibly associated with IgM seroprevalence, including socioeconomic status and exposure to young children. There was no difference in IgM seroprevalence by race/ethnicity among all women (3.1%, 2.2%, and 1.6% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Mexican American, respectively; P = 0.11). CMV IgM seroprevalence decreased significantly with increasing age in non-Hispanic black women (P<0.001 for trend) and marginally among Mexican American women (P = 0.07), while no apparent trend with age was seen in non-Hispanic white women (P = 0.99). Among 4001 IgG+ women, 118 were IgM+, resulting in 4.9% IgM seroprevalence. In IgG+ women, IgM seroprevalence varied significantly by age (5.3%, 7.3%, and 3.7% for women of 12–19, 20–29, and 30–49 years; P = 0.04) and race/ethnicity (6.1%, 2.7%, and 2.0% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American; P<0.001). The factors reported associated with IgG seroprevalence were not associated with IgM seroprevalence. The patterns of CMV IgM seroprevalence by age, race/ethnicity, and IgG serostatus may help understanding the epidemiology of congenital CMV infection as a consequence of vertical transmission and are useful for identifying target populations for intervention to reduce CMV transmission. PMID:26990759

  13. Modulation in Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentration and Profile by Prey Availability and Reproductive Status in Southern Resident Killer Whale Scat Samples.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Jessica I; Ylitalo, Gina M; Booth, Rebecca K; Anulacion, Bernadita; Hempelmann, Jennifer A; Parsons, Kim M; Giles, Deborah A; Seely, Elizabeth A; Hanson, M Bradley; Emmons, Candice K; Wasser, Samuel K

    2016-06-21

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), specifically PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs, in the marine environment are well documented, however accumulation and mobilization patterns at the top of the food-web are poorly understood. This study broadens the understanding of POPs in the endangered Southern Resident killer whale population by addressing modulation by prey availability and reproductive status, along with endocrine disrupting effects. A total of 140 killer whale scat samples collected from 54 unique whales across a 4 year sampling period (2010-2013) were analyzed for concentrations of POPs. Toxicant measures were linked to pod, age, and birth order in genotyped individuals, prey abundance using open-source test fishery data, and pregnancy status based on hormone indices from the same sample. Toxicant concentrations were highest and had the greatest potential for toxicity when prey abundance was the lowest. In addition, these toxicants were likely from endogenous lipid stores. Bioaccumulation of POPs increased with age, with the exception of presumed nulliparous females. The exceptional pattern may be explained by females experiencing unobserved neonatal loss. Transfer of POPs through mobilization of endogenous lipid stores during lactation was highest for first-borns with diminished transfer to subsequent calves. Contrary to expectation, POP concentrations did not demonstrate an associated disruption of thyroid hormone, although this association may have been masked by impacts of prey abundance on thyroid hormone concentrations. The noninvasive method for measuring POP concentrations in killer whales through scat employed in this study may improve toxicant monitoring in the marine environment and promote conservation efforts. PMID:27186642

  14. Evaluation of reproductive endocrine status in hornyhead turbot sampled from Southern California's urbanized coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Jesus A; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Schlenk, Daniel; Bay, Steven M; Armstrong, Jeffrey L; Gully, Joseph R; Cash, Curtis; Baker, Michael; Stebbins, Timothy D; Hardiman, Gary; Kelley, Kevin M

    2012-12-01

    As part of a regionwide collaboration to determine the occurrence of contaminants and biological effects in coastal ecosystems offshore of urban southern California, the present study characterized the reproductive endocrinology of an indigenous flatfish, the hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis), and compared groups sampled from different study sites representing varying degrees of pollution to screen for potential endocrine disruptive effects. Turbot were sampled from locations near the coastal discharge sites of four large municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located between Los Angeles and San Diego, California, USA, and were compared with fish sampled from three far-field reference locations in the region. Despite environmental presence of both legacy contaminants and contaminants of emerging concern and evidence for fish exposure to several classes of contaminants, both males and females generally exhibited coordinated seasonal reproductive cycles at all study sites. Patterns observed included peaks in sex steroids (17β-estradiol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone) in the spring and low levels in the fall, changes corresponding to similarly timed gonadal changes and plasma vitellogenin concentrations in females. Comparisons between fish captured at the different study sites demonstrated some regional differences in plasma levels of estrogens and androgens, indicative of location-associated effects on the endocrine system. The observed differences, however, could not be linked to the ocean discharge locations of four of the largest WWTPs in the world. PMID:22987624

  15. Bayesian Mapping of HIV Infection among Women of Reproductive Age in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Niragire, François; Achia, Thomas N. O.; Lyambabaje, Alexandre; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevalence is rising and has been consistently higher among women in Rwanda whereas a decreasing national HIV prevalence rate in the adult population has stabilised since 2005. Factors explaining the increased vulnerability of women to HIV infection are not currently well understood. A statistical mapping at smaller geographic units and the identification of key HIV risk factors are crucial for pragmatic and more efficient interventions. The data used in this study were extracted from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data for 6952 women. A full Bayesian geo-additive logistic regression model was fitted to data in order to assess the effect of key risk factors and map district-level spatial effects on the risk of HIV infection. The results showed that women who had STIs, concurrent sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, a sex debut at earlier age than 19 years, were living in a woman-headed or high-economic status household were significantly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. There was a protective effect of high HIV knowledge and perception. Women occupied in agriculture, and those residing in rural areas were also associated with lower risk of being infected. This study provides district-level maps of the variation of HIV infection among women of child-bearing age in Rwanda. The maps highlight areas where women are at a higher risk of infection; the aspect that proximate and distal factors alone could not uncover. There are distinctive geographic patterns, although statistically insignificant, of the risk of HIV infection suggesting potential effectiveness of district specific interventions. The results also suggest that changes in sexual behaviour can yield significant results in controlling HIV infection in Rwanda. PMID:25811462

  16. Bayesian mapping of HIV infection among women of reproductive age in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Niragire, François; Achia, Thomas N O; Lyambabaje, Alexandre; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevalence is rising and has been consistently higher among women in Rwanda whereas a decreasing national HIV prevalence rate in the adult population has stabilised since 2005. Factors explaining the increased vulnerability of women to HIV infection are not currently well understood. A statistical mapping at smaller geographic units and the identification of key HIV risk factors are crucial for pragmatic and more efficient interventions. The data used in this study were extracted from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data for 6952 women. A full Bayesian geo-additive logistic regression model was fitted to data in order to assess the effect of key risk factors and map district-level spatial effects on the risk of HIV infection. The results showed that women who had STIs, concurrent sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, a sex debut at earlier age than 19 years, were living in a woman-headed or high-economic status household were significantly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. There was a protective effect of high HIV knowledge and perception. Women occupied in agriculture, and those residing in rural areas were also associated with lower risk of being infected. This study provides district-level maps of the variation of HIV infection among women of child-bearing age in Rwanda. The maps highlight areas where women are at a higher risk of infection; the aspect that proximate and distal factors alone could not uncover. There are distinctive geographic patterns, although statistically insignificant, of the risk of HIV infection suggesting potential effectiveness of district specific interventions. The results also suggest that changes in sexual behaviour can yield significant results in controlling HIV infection in Rwanda. PMID:25811462

  17. Survey of Attitudes toward Uterus Transplantation among Japanese Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Soeda, Etsuko; Kurihara, Yuki; Okushima, Miho; Yamaguchi, Ami; Nakagawa, Eriko; Umene, Kiyoko; Aoki, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Objective Uterus transplantation (UTx) is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility to have a child, but there has been no large-scale survey of the views on UTx in women of reproductive age in Japan. The present study was aimed to clarify the views of Japanese women of reproductive age on UTx for uterine factor infertility. Methods A questionnaire on UTx was conducted by an Internet research company in December 2014 as a cross-sectional study in 3,892 randomly chosen women aged 25 to 39 years old. Responses were analyzed from 3,098 subjects (mean age 32.1±4.2 years old), after exclusion of inappropriate respondents in screening. Results Of the respondents, 62.1%, 34.7% and 18.1% favored adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In contrast, 7.0%, 21.9% and 63.3% opposed adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In choices of candidates for UTx based on highest priority, deceased persons (33.8%) and mothers (19.0%) were favored as donors, and women with congenital absence of the uterus (54.4%) and hysterectomy due to a malignant uterine tumor (20.0%) as recipients. Regarding societal acceptance of UTx, the answer rates were 15.7% for "UTx should be permitted", 77.6% for "UTx should be permitted with discussion", and 6.7% for "UTx should not be permitted, even with discussion". Regarding personal opinions on UTx, 44.2% were in favor, 47.5% had no opinion, and 8.3% were against. Conclusion Our results suggest that many Japanese women of reproductive age feel that UTx is socially and individually acceptable, but that concerns requiring further discussion remain among these women. There was also a tendency for UTx to be viewed more favorably than gestational surrogacy. PMID:27203855

  18. Healthy Diet and Nutrition Education Program among Women of Reproductive Age: A Necessity of Multilevel Strategies or Community Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Dunneram, Yashvee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive years represent a major proportion of women‟s life. This review focuses on recommended nutritional considerations, physical activity pattern as well as the effect of nutrition education (NE) on behavior modification and health outcomes of women of reproductive age using either single-level, multiple-level or community-level interventions. Methods: For this narrative review, numerous searches were conducted on databases of PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar search engine using the keywords women, reproductive age, NE, interventions, community-based. Results: Even though single intervention is effective, multiple intervention programmes in addition to behavior modification components are even more successful in terms of modified behaviors and health outcomes. Moreover, community based interventions using multilevel strategies are further useful for improved health outcomes and behavior modification. Conclusion: NE programmes have been effective in positive behavior modification measured in terms of eating pattern and health quality. Thus, it is recommended that health professionals use multiple intervention strategies at community level to ensure improved outcomes. Political support is also required to create culturally sensitive methods of delivering nutritional programmes. Finally, as policy is dependent on program cost, nutritional programmes need to combine methods of cost analysis to show cost effectiveness of supplying adequate nutrition for women throughout the lifecycle. PMID:26290827

  19. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Lovat, L B

    1996-01-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  20. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Lovat, L B

    1996-03-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  1. Determinants of fat-soluble vitamin status in patients aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, F; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Millán, I; Donoso-Navarro, E; Silvestre-Mardomingo, R A

    2013-12-01

    In the elderly, malnutrition is highly prevalent and a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the fat-soluble vitamin status and potential determinants in patients >65 years of age. Serum vitamins A, D and E were determined by liquid chromatography in 166 patients. Gender, age, season, hospitalization, nutritional markers (albumin and cholesterol), acute-phase reactants (ferritin and C-reactive protein) and renal function (creatinine and glomerular filtrate) were assessed as potential determinants. Prevalence of vitamin deficiency was highly variable, ranging from 0 (vitamin E/cholesterol ratio) to 94% (for vitamin D in hospitalized patients). Vitamin status did not differ according to gender, but age, season, hospitalization, a poor nutritional status and impaired renal function, and the presence of acute-phase response significantly affected serum levels of vitamin A, E and D. In conclusion, in subjects >65 years both demographic and clinical factors determined the fat-soluble vitamin status. PMID:24129364

  2. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  3. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel: status and program

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Ayrault, G.

    1983-10-01

    A program has been initiated to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. The existing data are reviewed to determine the critical parameters that control the aging behavior and to define the objectives and scope of the investigation. The test matrices for microstructural studies and mechanical property measurements are presented. The initial experimental effort is focussed on characterizing the microstructure of long-term, low-temperature aged material. Specimens from three heats of cast CF-8 and CF-8M stainless steel aged for up to 70,000 h at 300, 350, and 400/sup 0/C were obtained from George Fisher Ltd., of Switzerland. Initial analyses reveal the formation of three different types of precipitates which are not ..cap alpha..'. An FCC phase, similar to the M/sub 23/C/sub 6/ precipitates, was present in all the long-term aged material. 15 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Oral Health Status: Impact on Dental Student Attitudes toward the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, James D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Researchers have repeatedly found negative attitudes toward the aged among health professionals. Evaluates the impact of oral health status upon dental student attitudes toward the aged. Suggests that attitudes of students may become initially more negative due to exposure to generally poor oral conditions of elderly patients. (Author)

  5. Relationship of Age, Marital Status, and Work Experience of Community College Nursing Students to Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerichs, Marian L.

    To investigate differences in academic success due to age (younger or older than age 23), marital status, and nursing experience, a three-way analysis of variance was performed on the grade point averages of 1,435 female nursing students enrolled in 22 Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs in Illinois. The sample, representing over 90 percent of…

  6. Correlation between Food Schemes and Children Nutrient Status at the Toddler's Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnaningsih, Tri; Lestari, Indah

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient in the meal is very important, especially for the children at the toddler's age. The aim of this research was to know the correlation between the food schemes with the children nutrient status at the toddler's age (1-3 years). The research design was cross sectional. The population for this research was all of the mothers and the…

  7. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  8. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  9. Geographical variation in reproductive ageing patterns and life-history strategy of a short-lived passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Balbontín, Javier; Møller, A P; Hermosell, I G; Marzal, A; Reviriego, M; de Lope, F

    2012-11-01

    We investigated differences in ageing patterns in three measures of breeding performance in populations of barn swallows Hirundo rustica L. from Spain and Denmark differing in breeding latitude and hence migration distance and duration of the breeding season. We found differences in ageing patterns between populations. Generally, young (i.e. yearling) and old females (i.e. ≥ 5 years of age) laid their first eggs later and produced smaller clutches than middle-aged females (i.e. 2-4 years of age) in both populations. The southernmost population (i.e. Spanish) showing the shorter migratory distance experienced a greater within-individual increase in timing of breeding and clutch size in early life and a greater within-individual decrease in laying date but not in clutch size during senescence compared with the northernmost population (i.e. Danish). We also found that the number of fledglings produced annually was related to the age of the two members of the breeding pairs with pairs composed of young and old females performing less well than breeding pairs composed of middle-aged females. We did not find reproductive senescence for the age of the male while controlling for the age of the female on the number of fledglings produced annually by the breeding pair. Differential survival between individuals did not explain age effects on laying date or annual clutch size in neither population. However, the increase in the number of fledglings produced annually with age was partly explained by the disappearance of poor-quality members of the pairs, mainly poor-quality males. Age-related breeding success (i.e. number of fledglings) was similar for barn swallows from Spain and Denmark. Therefore, the study of ageing patterns and life-history strategies in free-ranging animals from more than a single population can throw new light on life-history theory, population dynamics and evolutionary studies of senescence. PMID:22994532

  10. Cumulative Exposure to Neurodevelopmental Stressors in U.S. Women of Reproductive Age

    EPA Science Inventory

    PURPOSE: Maternal stress and exposures to lead (Pb) and methyl mercury (MeHg) affect human neurodevelopment and reproductive health. Here, we characterized cumulative exposures to stress and multiple developmental neurotoxicants (NDTs) including Pb and MeHg and identify potentia...

  11. CHANGES IN THE MALLARD (ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS) SERUM CHEMISTRY DUE TO AGE, SEX, AND REPRODUCTIVE CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selected serum constituents were analyzed from 50 adult mallards (Anas platyrhnynchos) of both sexes during several stages of reproduction: pre-egg laying, egg-laying, incubating, molting, and postreproductive. imilar assays were conducted on sera from duckling 5 to 58 days old. ...

  12. Modification of breast cancer risk according to age and menopausal status: A combined analysis of five population-based case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L.; Hampton, John M.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Nelson, Heidi D.; Titus, Linda J.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Remington, Patrick L.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While several risk factors for breast cancer have been identified, studies have not consistently shown whether these factors operate more strongly at certain ages or for just pre- or postmenopausal women. We evaluated whether risk factors for breast cancer differ according to age or menopausal status. Methods Data from five population-based case-control studies conducted during 1988-2008 were combined and analyzed. Cases (N=23,959) and population controls (N=28,304) completed telephone interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals and tests for interaction by age and menopausal status. Results Odds ratios for first-degree family history of breast cancer were strongest for younger women—reaching two-fold elevations—but were still statistically significantly elevated by 58-69% among older women. Obesity was inversely associated with breast cancer among younger women and positively associated with risk for older women (interaction P<0.0001). Recent alcohol intake was more strongly related to breast cancer risk among older women, although consumption of 3 or more drinks/day among younger women also was associated with elevated odd ratios (P<0.0001). Associations with benign breast disease and most reproductive/menstrual factors did not vary by age. Repeating analysis stratifying by menopausal status produced similar results. Conclusions With few exceptions, menstrual and lifestyle factors are associated with breast cancer risk regardless of age or menopausal status. Variation in the association of family history, obesity, and alcohol use with breast cancer risk by age and menopausal status may need to be considered when determining individual risk for breast cancer. PMID:24647890

  13. Evaluation of reproductive function among men occupationally exposed to a stilbene derivative: I. Hormonal and physical status.

    PubMed

    Grajewski, B; Whelan, E A; Schnorr, T M; Mouradian, R; Alderfer, R; Wild, D K

    1996-01-01

    This is the first of two reports describing a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health Hazard Evaluation conducted in response to complaints of impotence and decreased libido among male employees who manufactured 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2' disulfonic acid (DAS; CAS 81-11-8), an intermediate in the manufacture of fluorescent whitening agents. DAS is structurally similar to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES). Levels of six reproductive hormones in 30 male workers who manufactured DAS (current DAS workers) and 20 former DAS workers were compared to levels of 35 workers who manufactured plastics additives. Current and former DAS workers had lower mean total testosterone (TT) levels compared to additives workers (458 and 442, respectively, vs. 556 ng/dL; p = 0.05 and 0.04). Current and former DAS workers were 3.6 (95% CI, 0.5-24.4) and 2.2 (95% CI, 0.3-18.0) times more likely than additives workers to have lowest quartile TT levels (< 386 ng/dL) after adjustment for age and body mass index. Duration of employment in DAS production was negatively related to the workers' testosterone levels. These data suggest that occupational DAS exposure may be associated with alterations in male reproductive hormone levels. PMID:8808042

  14. Zinc and copper status in childbearing age Tunisian women: Relation to age, residential area, socioeconomic situation and physiologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Doggui, Radhouene; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-04-01

    Plasma zinc and copper status of 1689 non pregnant Tunisian women, aged 20-49 years old, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A multiple regression was run to predict plasma trace element concentrations from age, BMI, marital status, menopause, education level, professional activity, economic level and area of living. The mean zinc and copper values were similar to those measured among comparable populations in earlier studies. However, a high prevalence of low plasma zinc and copper concentrations was observed assuming that women at childbearing age are at high risk of zinc and copper deficiencies and specific intervention may be considered. In univariate analysis, the mean values of plasma zinc and copper were associated with sitting areas and professional activity. For only plasma copper levels, there was an increase with BMI and parity, and a decrease with increasing schooling level and economic score. After adjustment for all variables, profession and parity showed a significant relationship between plasma levels copper. PMID:26859607

  15. Graded response to short photoperiod during development and early adulthood in Siberian hamsters and the effects on reproduction as females age

    PubMed Central

    Place, Ned J.; Cruickshank, Jenifer

    2009-01-01

    Short day (SD) lengths delay puberty, suppress ovulation, inhibit sexual behavior, and decelerate reproductive aging in female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). To date, the modulation of the age-associated decline in reproductive outcomes has only been demonstrated in female hamsters experiencing different day lengths during development. To determine if developmental delay is necessary for photo-inhibition to decelerate reproductive aging, hamsters raised in LD were transferred to SD as young adults and remained there for 6 months. Females that demonstrated the most immediate and sustained photo-inhibition were found to have greater numbers of ovarian primordial follicles at advanced ages (9 and 12 months) than did females held in LD, nonresponders to SD, and females with a marginal SD-response. Similarly, for females raised in SD from conception to 6 months of age, prolonged developmental delay was associated with greater numbers of primordial follicles at later ages as compared to hamsters that became refractory to SD. A robust response to SD in juvenile and adult hamsters is associated with decelerated reproductive aging, which may result in greater reproductive success in older females as compared to age-matched individuals demonstrating a more modest response to SD. PMID:19470367

  16. Age at menarche in relation to nutritional status and critical life events among rural and urban secondary school girls in post-conflict Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Menarche age is an important indicator of reproductive health of a woman or a community. In industrial societies, age at menarche has been declining over the last 150 years with a secular trend, and similar trends have been reported in some developing countries. Menarche age is affected by genetic and environmental cues, including nutrition. The study was designed to determine the age at menarche and its relation to childhood critical life events and nutritional status in post-conflict northern Uganda. Methods This was a comparative cross-sectional study of rural and urban secondary school girls in northern Uganda. Structured questionnaires were administered to 274 secondary school girls, aged 12 – 18 years to determine the age at menarche in relation to home location, nutritional status, body composition and critical life events. Results The mean age at menarche was 13.6 ± 1.3 for rural and 13.3 ± 1.4 years for urban dwelling girls (t = -1.996, p = 0.047). Among the body composition measures, hip circumference was negatively correlated with the age at menarche (r = -0.109, p = 0.036), whereas height, BMI and waist circumference did not correlate with menarche. Paternal (but not maternal) education was associated with earlier menarche (F = 2.959, p = 0.033). Childhood critical life events were not associated with age at menarche. Conclusions Age at menarche differed among urban and rural dwelling school girls and dependent on current nutritional status, as manifested by the hip circumference. It was not associated with extreme stressful childhood critical life events. PMID:24885913

  17. Circulating Vitamin D Correlates with Serum Anti-Mullerian Hormone Levels in Late Reproductive-Aged Women: Women’s Interagency HIV Study

    PubMed Central

    Merhi, Zaher O.; Seifer, David B.; Weedon, Jeremy; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin; Holman, Susan; Anastos, Kathryn; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Young, Mary; Karim, Roksana; Greenblatt, Ruth; Minkoff, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between circulating 25 hydroxy-vitamin D (25OH-D) levels and serum AMH in women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Design A cross-sectional study. Setting WIHS, a multicenter prospective study. Patient(s) All premenopausal women (n=388) with regular menstrual cycles were included and subdivided into three groups: group 1 with age <35 (N=128), group 2 with age 35 to 39 (N=119), and group 3 with age ≥ 40 (N=141). Intervention(s) Serum for 25OH-D, AMH, fasting glucose and insulin, and creatinine levels. Main Outcome Measure(s) Correlation between 25OH-D and AMH before and after adjusting for HIV status, BMI, race, smoking, illicit drug use, glucose and insulin levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate and geographic site of participation. Result(s) After adjusting for all covariates, the regression slope in all participants for total 25OH-D predicting log10AMH for 25-year-olds (youngest participant) was −0.001 (SE=0.008, p=0.847); and for 45-year-olds (oldest participant), the corresponding slope was +0.011 (SE=0.005, p=0.021). Fasting insulin level was negatively correlated with serum AMH (p=0.016). The regression slope for the correlation between 25OH-D and AMH in group 1 was +0.002 (SE=0.006, p=0.764); in group 2 was +0.006 (SE=0.005, p=0.269); and in group 3 was +0.011 (SE=0.005, p=0.022). There was no association between HIV and AMH. Conclusion(s) A novel relationship is reported between circulating 25OH-D and AMH in women aged = 40 suggesting that 25OH-D deficiency might be associated with lower ovarian reserve in late reproductive-aged women. PMID:22494925

  18. Reproductive Status at First Diagnosis Influences Risk of Radiation-Induced Second Primary Contralateral Breast Cancer in the WECARE Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Jennifer D.; Boice, John D.; Stovall, Marilyn; Reiner, Anne S.; Bernstein, Leslie; John, Esther M.; Lynch, Charles F.; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Knight, Julia A.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Haile, Robert W.; Smith, Susan A.; Capanu, Marinela; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Shore, Roy E.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Our study examined whether reproductive and hormonal factors before, at the time of, or after radiation treatment for a first primary breast cancer modify the risk of radiation-induced second primary breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The Women's Environmental, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study is a multicenter, population-based study of 708 women (cases) with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and 1399 women (controls) with unilateral breast cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) records, coupled with anthropomorphic phantom simulations, were used to estimate quadrant-specific radiation dose to the contralateral breast for each patient. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to assess the relationship between reproductive factors and risk of CBC. Results: Women who were nulliparous at diagnosis and exposed to {>=}1 Gy to the contralateral breast had a greater risk for CBC than did matched unexposed nulliparous women (RR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). No increased risk was seen in RT-exposed parous women (RR = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4). Women treated with RT who later became pregnant (8 cases and 9 controls) had a greater risk for CBC (RR = 6.0; 95% CI, 1.3-28.4) than unexposed women (4 cases and 7 controls) who also became pregnant. The association of radiation with risk of CBC did not vary by number of pregnancies, history of breastfeeding, or menopausal status at the time of first breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusion: Nulliparous women treated with RT were at an increased risk for CBC. Although based on small numbers, women who become pregnant after first diagnosis also seem to be at an increased risk for radiation-induced CBC.

  19. Season- and age-related reproductive changes based on fecal androgen concentrations in male koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    PubMed

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Hashikawa, Hisashi; Takeda, Masato; Ito, Hideki; Goto, Atsushi; Oguchi, Jun; Doi, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to clarify age- and season- related androgen patterns, and to compare the reproductive physiology between Japanese captive koala populations and Australian populations. To measure fecal androgens, feces were collected from male koalas (4.2 to 13.8 years of age) kept in Japanese zoos. Fecal androgens were extracted with methanol from the lyophilized samples and determined by enzyme immunoassay using 4-androstene-3,17-dione antibody. Fecal androgen concentration in male koalas increased after sexual maturation and remained relatively high until old age. In the survey with the Japanese zoo studbook of koalas, copulation (conception) month showed a pyramid shape with a peak in March to June (60.7%) in koalas born and reared in Japanese zoos and from July to April with the highest concentration in September to January (69.7%) in Australian institutes. Japanese zoo koala populations have a characteristic physiological cycle adapted to Japan's seasonal changes. The suitable month of year for copulation or conception in Japan is diametrically opposed to that in Australia. Mean fecal androgen concentrations by month in the males born and reared in Japan indicated annual changes with the highest concentration in May and the lowest value in November. Fecal androgen analysis may be a noninvasive alternative tool to monitor circulating testosterone and may be helpful in understanding reproductive activity and physiology in male koalas. PMID:23502854

  20. Season- and Age-related Reproductive Changes Based on Fecal Androgen Concentrations in Male Koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus

    PubMed Central

    KUSUDA, Satoshi; HASHIKAWA, Hisashi; TAKEDA, Masato; ITO, Hideki; GOTO, Atsushi; OGUCHI, Jun; DOI, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purposes of the present study were to clarify age- and season- related androgen patterns, and to compare the reproductive physiology between Japanese captive koala populations and Australian populations. To measure fecal androgens, feces were collected from male koalas (4.2 to 13.8 years of age) kept in Japanese zoos. Fecal androgens were extracted with methanol from the lyophilized samples and determined by enzyme immunoassay using 4-androstene-3,17-dione antibody. Fecal androgen concentration in male koalas increased after sexual maturation and remained relatively high until old age. In the survey with the Japanese zoo studbook of koalas, copulation (conception) month showed a pyramid shape with a peak in March to June (60.7%) in koalas born and reared in Japanese zoos and from July to April with the highest concentration in September to January (69.7%) in Australian institutes. Japanese zoo koala populations have a characteristic physiological cycle adapted to Japan's seasonal changes. The suitable month of year for copulation or conception in Japan is diametrically opposed to that in Australia. Mean fecal androgen concentrations by month in the males born and reared in Japan indicated annual changes with the highest concentration in May and the lowest value in November. Fecal androgen analysis may be a noninvasive alternative tool to monitor circulating testosterone and may be helpful in understanding reproductive activity and physiology in male koalas. PMID:23502854

  1. Age, Marital Status, and Risk of Sexual Victimization: Similarities and Differences Across Victim-Offender Relationships.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    By now, age and marital status are well-established correlates of criminal victimization, including adult women's sexual victimization. National crime statistics, as well as a large body of scholarly literature, have specified that younger women and unmarried women are at comparatively higher risk of sexual victimization than older women and married women. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of victimization across diverse situational contexts of sexual victimization. The current study used data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine whether the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of sexual victimization varied across victimization experiences involving three victim-offender relationships: stranger, acquaintance, and intimate partner. Results indicate both similarities and differences in the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of victimization across these three situational contexts of victimization. As expected, age was a significant predictor of victimization in all models; however, younger women's increased risk of victimization was far more pronounced for acquaintance and intimate partner victimization experiences as compared with stranger experiences. Also, consistent with prior research, unmarried women were at higher risk of victimization in all models; however, within unmarried status categories, separated women were at highest risk of both intimate partner and acquaintance victimization experiences as compared with never married or divorced women. PMID:25846759

  2. Hydrocarbon status of soils under different ages of oil contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Kovach, R. G.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Khlynina, N. I.

    2016-05-01

    Modifications of the hydrocarbon status (HCS) of soils at the stages of the injection input of oil pollutants and the subsequent self-purification of the soil layer from technogenesis products have been revealed in studies conducted on an oil field. Comparison with the HCS of background soils has been performed. Changes in the composition and concentration of bitumoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hydrocarbon gases have been established. The HCS of a freshly contaminated soil is characterized by the predominance of butane (the highest component) in the gaseous phase, an abrupt increase in the concentration of second-kind bitumoids, and a 100-fold increase in the content of PAHs compared to the background soil. In the old contaminated soil, free and fixed methane becomes the predominant gas; the content of bitumoids in the upper soil horizons is lower than in the freshly contaminated soils by two orders of magnitude but higher than in the background soil by an order of magnitude; the PAH composition in the soil with old residual contamination remains slightly more diverse than in the background soil.

  3. Maternal age as a factor in determining the reproductive and behavioral outcome of rats prenatally exposed to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, C V

    1988-01-01

    reproduction. Here the combination of the two factors increased maternal mortality, the number of early pregnancy losses, and the number of litters where all members were dead or resorbed. It was concluded that short-term prenatal ethanol combined with advanced maternal age produces additive interactions on pregnancy success without affecting longer-term outcomes, while young maternal age showed no clear detrimental effects compared to the middle maternal age reference group. PMID:3352565

  4. Projected marine climate change: effects on copepod oxidative status and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Vehmaa, Anu; Hogfors, Hedvig; Gorokhova, Elena; Brutemark, Andreas; Holmborn, Towe; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2013-11-01

    Zooplankton are an important link between primary producers and fish. Therefore, it is crucial to address their responses when predicting effects of climate change on pelagic ecosystems. For realistic community-level predictions, several biotic and abiotic climate-related variables should be examined in combination. We studied the combined effects of ocean acidification and global warming predicted for year 2100 with toxic cyanobacteria on the calanoid copepod, Acartia bifilosa. Acidification together with higher temperature reduced copepod antioxidant capacity. Higher temperature also decreased egg viability, nauplii development, and oxidative status. Exposure to cyanobacteria and its toxin had a negative effect on egg production but, a positive effect on oxidative status and egg viability, giving no net effects on viable egg production. Additionally, nauplii development was enhanced by the presence of cyanobacteria, which partially alleviated the otherwise negative effects of increased temperature and decreased pH on the copepod recruitment. The interactive effects of temperature, acidification, and cyanobacteria on copepods highlight the importance of testing combined effects of climate-related factors when predicting biological responses. PMID:24340194

  5. Projected marine climate change: effects on copepod oxidative status and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Vehmaa, Anu; Hogfors, Hedvig; Gorokhova, Elena; Brutemark, Andreas; Holmborn, Towe; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are an important link between primary producers and fish. Therefore, it is crucial to address their responses when predicting effects of climate change on pelagic ecosystems. For realistic community-level predictions, several biotic and abiotic climate-related variables should be examined in combination. We studied the combined effects of ocean acidification and global warming predicted for year 2100 with toxic cyanobacteria on the calanoid copepod, Acartia bifilosa. Acidification together with higher temperature reduced copepod antioxidant capacity. Higher temperature also decreased egg viability, nauplii development, and oxidative status. Exposure to cyanobacteria and its toxin had a negative effect on egg production but, a positive effect on oxidative status and egg viability, giving no net effects on viable egg production. Additionally, nauplii development was enhanced by the presence of cyanobacteria, which partially alleviated the otherwise negative effects of increased temperature and decreased pH on the copepod recruitment. The interactive effects of temperature, acidification, and cyanobacteria on copepods highlight the importance of testing combined effects of climate-related factors when predicting biological responses. PMID:24340194

  6. Infant Temperament: Stability by Age, Gender, Birth Order, Term Status, and SES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  7. The age-crime curve in adolescence and early adulthood is not due to age differences in economic status.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Elizabeth P; Steinberg, Laurence D; Piquero, Alex R

    2013-06-01

    One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"-the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that the widely-observed adolescent peak in rates of offending is not a consequence of developmental factors, but rather an artifact of age differences in economic status. Youngsters, they argue, offend more than adults because they are poorer than adults. The present study challenges Brown and Males' proposition by analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY97; N = 8,984; 51% female; 26% Black, 21% Hispanic, 52% non-Black, non-Hispanic; ages 12-18 at Wave 1), which collected measures of criminal behavior and economic status at multiple time points. Consistent with scores of other studies, we find that criminal offending peaks in adolescence, even after controlling for variation in economic status. Our findings both counter Brown and Males' claim that the age-crime curve is illusory and underscore the danger of drawing inferences about individual behavior from analysis of aggregated data. PMID:23595417

  8. Live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Current status and future direction.

    PubMed

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) was reported in the late 1980s. PRRS still is a huge economic concern to the global pig industry with a current annual loss estimated at one billion US dollars in North America alone. It has been 20 years since the first modified live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine (PRRSV-MLV) became commercially available. PRRSV-MLVs provide homologous protection and help in reducing shedding of heterologous viruses, but they do not completely protect pigs against heterologous field strains. There have been many advances in understanding the biology and ecology of PRRSV; however, the complexities of virus-host interaction and PRRSV vaccinology are not yet completely understood leaving a significant gap for improving breadth of immunity against diverse PRRS isolates. This review provides insights on immunization efforts using infectious PRRSV-based vaccines since the 1990s, beginning with live PRRSV immunization, development and commercialization of PRRSV-MLV, and strategies to overcome the deficiencies of PRRSV-MLV through use of replicating viral vectors expressing multiple PRRSV membrane proteins. Finally, powerful reverse genetics systems (infectious cDNA clones) generated from more than 20 PRRSV isolates of both genotypes 1 and 2 viruses have provided a great resource for exploring many innovative strategies to improve the safety and cross-protective efficacy of live PRRSV vaccines. Examples include vaccines with diminished ability to down-regulate the immune system, positive and negative marker vaccines, multivalent vaccines incorporating antigens from other porcine pathogens, vaccines that carry their own cytokine adjuvants, and chimeric vaccine viruses with the potential for broad cross-protection against heterologous strains. To combat this devastating pig disease in the future, evaluation and commercialization of such improved live PRRSV vaccines is a shared goal among PRRSV researchers, pork

  9. Influence of Reproductive Status on Tissue Composition and Biomechanical Properties of Ovine Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Daniela; Edwards, Sharon L.; Su, Kai; White, Jacinta F.; Ramshaw, John A. M.; Jenkin, Graham; Deprest, Jan; Rosamilia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To undertake a comprehensive analysis of the biochemical tissue composition and passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina and relate this to the histo-architecture at different reproductive stages as part of the establishment of a large preclinical animal model for evaluating regenerative medicine approaches for surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. Methods Vaginal tissue was collected from virgin (n = 3), parous (n = 6) and pregnant sheep (n = 6; mean gestation; 132 d; term = 145 d). Tissue histology was analyzed using H+E and Masson's Trichrome staining. Biochemical analysis of the extracellular matrix proteins used a hydroxyproline assay to quantify total collagen, SDS PAGE to measure collagen III/I+III ratios, dimethylmethylene blue to quantify glycosaminoglycans and amino acid analysis to quantify elastin. Uniaxial tensiometry was used to determine the Young's modulus, maximum stress and strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading. Results Vaginal tissue of virgin sheep had the lowest total collagen content and permanent strain. Parous tissue had the highest total collagen and lowest elastin content with concomitant high maximum stress. In contrast, pregnant sheep had the highest elastin and lowest collagen contents, and thickest smooth muscle layer, which was associated with low maximum stress and poor dimensional recovery following repetitive loading. Conclusion Pregnant ovine vagina was the most extensible, but the weakest tissue, whereas parous and virgin tissues were strong and elastic. Pregnancy had the greatest impact on tissue composition and biomechanical properties, compatible with significant tissue remodeling as demonstrated in other species. Biochemical changes in tissue protein composition coincide with these altered biomechanical properties. PMID:24709913

  10. Inactivated and subunit vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: Current status and future direction.

    PubMed

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-06-17

    Within a few years of its emergence in the late 1980s, the PRRS virus had spread globally to become the foremost infectious disease concern for the pork industry. Since 1994, modified live-attenuated vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-MLV) have been widely used, but have failed to provide complete protection against emerging and heterologous field strains of the virus. Moreover, like many other MLVs, PRRSV-MLVs have safety concerns including vertical and horizontal transmission of the vaccine virus and several documented incidences of reversion to virulence. Thus, the development of efficacious inactivated vaccines is warranted for the control and eradication of PRRS. Since the early 1990s, researchers have been attempting to develop inactivated PRRSV vaccines, but most of the candidates have failed to elicit protective immunity even against homologous virus challenge. Recent research findings relating to both inactivated and subunit candidate PRRSV vaccines have shown promise, but they need to be pursued further to improve their heterologous efficacy and cost-effectiveness before considering commercialization. In this comprehensive review, we provide information on attempts to develop PRRSV inactivated and subunit vaccines. These includes various virus inactivation strategies, adjuvants, nanoparticle-based vaccine delivery systems, DNA vaccines, and recombinant subunit vaccines produced using baculovirus, plant, and replication-deficient viruses as vector vaccines. Finally, future directions for the development of innovative non-infectious PRRSV vaccines are suggested. Undoubtedly there remains a need for novel PRRSV vaccine strategies targeted to deliver cross-protective, non-infectious vaccines for the control and eradication of PRRS. PMID:25980425

  11. Relationship of concentrations of cortisol in hair with health, biomarkers in blood, and reproductive status in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Tahmasbi, Abdolmansour; Nadalin, Audrey; Veira, Douglas M; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2015-07-01

    Hair cortisol has been used to measure chronic stress in dairy cows as it offers the advantage of being noninvasive, fast, and able to indicate levels of cortisol over long periods. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between hair cortisol with clinical disorders, reproductive status, and the development of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the association between hair cortisol concentrations and blood markers associated with metabolic status and acute inflammation. In experiment 1, cows (n=64) were hair sampled every 3wk from the tail switch beginning at calving (d 0) until d 126 for cortisol analysis; blood samples were collected every 3wk from d 0 until 42 for β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose analysis. In experiment 2, cows (n=54) were chosen retrospectively by diagnosis of subclinical endometritis (END), subclinical endometritis and at least 1 clinical disease (END+CLIN), or as healthy (control) using a cytobrush and ultrasonography at 30±3d in milk. At the same time, animals were hair sampled for cortisol analysis and blood sampled for haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin analysis. Health records were recorded throughout both experimental periods. Animals with clinical disease presented higher cortisol concentrations than clinically healthy animals in experiment 1 [geometric mean (95% confidence interval); 8.8 (7.8, 9.9) vs. 10.7 (9.6, 12.0) pg/mg]; however, animals diagnosed with subclinical endometritis in experiment 2 did not differ in hair cortisol concentrations [11.7 (9.8, 14.0), 12.2 (9.3, 15.9), 10.5 (8.1, 13.6) pg/mg for control, END, and END+CLIN, respectively]. In experiment 1, an effect of sample day was noted, where d 21 had higher cortisol concentrations than d 42, 84, and 126, but not from d 0 for both parities. Within both experiments, a parity effect was present where multiparous animals consistently had higher cortisol concentrations than primiparous animals. Multiparous cows that became

  12. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant. PMID:25277528

  13. Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Bengt; Högberg, Ulf; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27 957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100 000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186

  14. Accelerated ageing and renal dysfunction links lower socioeconomic status and dietary phosphate intake

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. Results We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Conclusions Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status. PMID:27132985

  15. Relationships between nutritional status, depression and pleasure of eating in aging men and women.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Nathalie; Maître, Isabelle; Van Wymelbeke, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional health is an essential component of quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of nutritional status in order to identify both common and sex specific predictive pathways in an aging population. A questionnaire was administered to 464 people living at home aged 65 years and above. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about nutritional status (MNA), depression (GDS), pleasure of eating and demographic characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between the variables. For both sexes, results indicate that depression and pleasure of eating are related to nutritional status. In addition, different pathways were found between men and women. In particular, while pleasure of eating is affected by depression among aging women this is not the case for men. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed. PMID:26337662

  16. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  17. The Long Term Effect of Elective Colpoperineoplasty on Sexual Function in the Reproductive Aged Women in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Abedi, Parvin; Rasekh, Athar; Mohammadjafari, Razieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Many women are suffering from sexual dysfunction followed by vaginal laxity in their reproductive age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effect of colpoperineoplasty on sexual function in Iranian reproductive aged women. Methods. This was a prospective observational study in which 79 women with vaginal laxity who were candidate for selective colpoperineoplasty in Jahrom, Iran, were recruited. Data on sexual function was collected via the Female Sexual Function (FSFI) questionnaire preoperatively, six months and 18 months after colpoperineoplasty. The paired t-test, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, and Repeated Measure test were utilized for statistical purposes. Results. Seventy-six women completed the study by 18 months. The mean FSFI score changed from 24.19 ± 3.09 in baseline to 26.92 ± 3.41 after six months (P < 0.001); however dyspareunia and vaginal dryness were increased significantly. After 18 months all areas of sexual function including pain and lubrication improved significantly compared to the 6th month (P < 0.001). Sexual satisfaction was increased significantly six and 18 months after surgery (P < 0.001), and the total score of sexual function increased to 32.61 ± 1.32 after 18 months (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The long term effect of colpoperineoplasty in women who suffer from vaginal laxity is promising. It seems that patient's dissatisfaction of sexual function can be a basis for colpoperineoplasty.

  18. The Effects of Aging on Time Reproduction in Delayed Free-Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakitin, B.C.; Stern, Y.; Malapani, C.

    2005-01-01

    The experiments presented here demonstrate that normal aging amplifies differences in time production occurring in delayed free-recall testing. Experiment 1 compared the time production ability of two healthy aged groups as well as college-aged participants. During the test session, which followed a 24-h delay and omitted all feedback and examples…

  19. Antioxidant enzymes status and reproductive health of adult male workers exposed to brick kiln pollutants in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Falah, Samreen; Ullah, Hizb; Ullah, Asad; Rauf, Naveed

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to study the effect of brick kilns emissions on the reproductive health and biochemical status of brick kiln workers and people living in the area near brick kilns. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers compared to the control. Red blood cells count and hematocrit (%) were significantly high in brick bakers while MCH was significantly reduced in brick makers and brick bakers. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and chromium) concentration in whole blood of the brick kiln workers were significantly higher as compared to the control. Antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, GSH, and GR) were significantly reduced in brick kiln workers as compared to the control while TBARS level were significantly high in brick bakers as compared to the control. Plasma leutinizing hormone (LH) was significantly high in brick bakers while testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers. The present study shows that brick kiln workers and people living in the brick kiln vicinity are exposed to heavy metals and other pollutants that is a serious threat to their health. Alternate technology is needed to be developed and brick kilns should be replaced. PMID:26996903

  20. Infertility in Poland--present status, reasons and prognosis as a reflection of Central and Eastern Europe problems with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sanocka, Dorota; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2003-03-01

    Poland has been considered a representative country for the population of Central and Eastern Europe as it has genetically homogenous population and reveals profound similarities in economical and historical processes common for all countries of the region. According to our observations there is approximately 20% of infertile couples in Poland (lack of concentration after at least 12 month of unprotected intercourse) and 40-60% of them are infertile because of the male factor. However, studies of infertility in Poland that have been conducted so far need to be verified. The changes connected with the style of life and new tendencies observed during the tedious political changes had considerable influence on childbearing rate in Poland. Additional factors diminishing the fertility rate are: the change of the status of women in a society, raising amount of everyday stress, the high rate (17%) of unemployment and the low average income. Furthermore, in Poland, the diagnostics and treatment (assisted reproductive technology) are entirely financed from the private funds of a patient. Summing up, the problem of childlessness in Central and Eastern Europe is a complex one and very alarming therefore it is necessary to work out and to implement research, preventative and therapeutic programmes strengthened through the international cooperation of specialized centers of excellence. PMID:12640359

  1. Genetic evidence that lower circulating FSH levels lengthen menstrual cycle, increase age at menopause and impact female reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Ruth, Katherine S.; Beaumont, Robin N.; Tyrrell, Jessica; Jones, Samuel E.; Tuke, Marcus A.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Wood, Andrew R.; Freathy, Rachel M.; Weedon, Michael N.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How does a genetic variant in the FSHB promoter, known to alter FSH levels, impact female reproductive health? SUMMARY ANSWER The T allele of the FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; c.-211G>T) results in longer menstrual cycles and later menopause and, while having detrimental effects on fertility, is protective against endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; c.-211G>T) affects levels of FSHB transcription and, as a result, circulating levels of FSH. FSH is required for normal fertility and genetic variants at the FSHB locus are associated with age at menopause and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We used cross-sectional data from the UK Biobank to look at associations between the FSHB promoter polymorphism and reproductive traits, and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for length of menstrual cycle. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS We included white British individuals aged 40–69 years in 2006–2010, in the May 2015 release of genetic data from UK Biobank. We tested the FSH-lowering T allele of the FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; c.-211G>T) for associations with 29, mainly female, reproductive phenotypes in up to 63 350 women and 56 608 men. We conducted a GWAS in 9534 individuals to identify genetic variants associated with length of menstrual cycle. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The FSH-lowering T allele of the FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; MAF 0.16) was associated with longer menstrual cycles [0.16 SD (c. 1 day) per minor allele; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12–0.20; P = 6 × 10−16], later age at menopause (0.13 years per minor allele; 95% CI 0.04–0.22; P = 5.7 × 10−3), greater female nulliparity [odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; 95% CI 1.02–1.11; P = 4.8 × 10−3] and lower risk of endometriosis (OR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.69–0.90; P = 4.1 × 10−4). The FSH-lowering T allele was not associated with other female

  2. Selenium Status Is Positively Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Aging European Men

    PubMed Central

    Beukhof, Carolien M.; Medici, Marco; van den Beld, Annewieke W.; Hollenbach, Birgit; Hoeg, Antonia; Visser, W. Edward; de Herder, Wouter W.; Visser, Theo J.; Schomburg, Lutz; Peeters, Robin P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is still a matter of debate if subtle changes in selenium (Se) status affect thyroid function tests (TFTs) and bone mineral density (BMD). This is particularly relevant for the elderly, whose nutritional status is more vulnerable. Design and Methods We investigated Se status in a cohort of 387 healthy elderly men (median age 77 yrs; inter quartile range 75–80 yrs) in relation to TFTs and BMD. Se status was determined by measuring both plasma selenoprotein P (SePP) and Se. Results The overall Se status in our population was low normal with only 0.5% (2/387) of subjects meeting the criteria for Se deficiency. SePP and Se levels were not associated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) or reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. The T3/T4 and T3/rT3 ratios, reflecting peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormone, were not associated with Se status either. SePP and Se were positively associated with total BMD and femoral trochanter BMD. Se, but not SePP, was positively associated with femoral neck and ward's BMD. Multivariate linear analyses showed that these associations remain statistically significant in a model including TSH, FT4, body mass index, physical performance score, age, smoking, diabetes mellitus and number of medication use. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that Se status, within the normal European marginally supplied range, is positively associated with BMD in healthy aging men, independent of thyroid function. Thyroid function tests appear unaffected by Se status in this population. PMID:27055238

  3. Age-related body mass and reproductive measurements of gray wolves in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Based on 65 free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) of known age and 25 of estimated age examined during summers of 1970-2004 in northeastern Minnesota, body mass of both males and females peaked at 5 or 6 years of age, with mean masses of 40.8 kg and 31.2 kg, respectively. Testis size varied as a function of age and month through at least 8 years of age, with length plus width ranging from 1.9 to 7.8 cm. Most females aged 4-9 years bred based on assessment of nipple sizes; those that had not bred had average lower body mass than those that had. This is the 1st report of such data from known-aged wolves.

  4. Parental Age and Assisted Reproductive Technology in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Tourette Syndrome in a Japanese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimada, Takafumi; Kitamoto, Atsushi; Todokoro, Ayako; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kim, Soo-Yung; Watanabe, Kei-ichiro; Minowa, Iwao; Someya, Toshikazu; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Kano, Yukiko; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Nobumasa; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether advanced parental age and assisted reproductive technology (ART) are risk factors in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette syndrome (TS). Clinical charts of Japanese outpatients with ASD (n = 552), ADHD (n = 87), and TS (n = 123) were reviewed. Parental age of…

  5. Health status of Mya arenaria bivalves collected from contaminated sites in Canada (Saguenay Fjord) and Denmark (Odense Fjord) during their reproductive period.

    PubMed

    Gagné, F; Blaise, C; Pellerin, J; Pelletier, E; Strand, J

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the health status and gametogenetic activity in Mya arenaria clams collected at various sites in the St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada) and in the Odense Fjord (Denmark). Clam soft tissues were analyzed for metals/metalloids and organotin compounds to confirm their exposure to these contaminants. Their health status was assessed by a test battery of biomarkers designed to measure the early biological effects of contaminants, which include expression of defence mechanisms such as xenobiotic conjugation (glutathione S-transferase), expression of stress proteins (i.e., heme oxygenase and metallothioneins), changes in gametogenetic activity, and individual morphometric characteristics. Clam tissues were also examined for the presence of oxidative damage to lipids, formation of DNA strand breaks, and alterations in heme metabolism. The results showed that clams sampled from sites with either ferry activity or intensive boat traffic in marinas were contaminated by metals/metalloids such as Ag, Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, and Zn. The clams also contained relatively high amounts of tributyltin (TBT) in their tissues (in the ng TBT/g range for both areas), with digestive glands containing more organotins than did gonadal tissues. Moreover, clams collected from TBT-contaminated sites had higher amounts of tin-heme adducts and lower total heme in their digestive glands. Condition factor, age distribution, and sex ratio were significantly altered in clams from impacted sites in the Saguenay Fjord and accompanied by an increased male/female sex ratio. Gametogenetic activity was also negatively affected, as revealed by reductions in gonadosomatic index, maturation index, aspartate transcarbamylase activity, and vitellogenin-like proteins. The Saguenay Fjord clams displayed a complex pattern of stress responses and damage such as increased heme oxygenase activity, phase 2 conjugation enzyme activity, lipid

  6. Women's preferences for vaginal antimicrobial contraceptives. II. Preferred characteristics according to women's age and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Hardy, E; de Pádua, K S; Jiménez, A L; Zaneveld, L J

    1998-10-01

    A study was carried out to identify characteristics that women would want for an idealized vaginal contraceptive, and the possible association of these characteristics with age and socioeconomic status. The study was done in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected by age and socioeconomic status, using the "social network" technique. Almost half were adolescents (15-19 years old) and the rest were adults (20-45 years old). Half were of low socioeconomic status and the rest of medium-high status. The data were analyzed with SPSS-PC and EPI-INFO 6.0. Logistic regression and chi 2 were used for the analysis. Despite some differences found between age and socioeconomic status in regard to the characteristics desired for the idealized method, most of the participants expressed the same preferences. The results indicate that women would like the idealized method to be a cream, rather than a suppository, with no odor or flavor, to be colorless, to be placed in the vagina with an applicator well before coitus, and to offer protection against sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS. PMID:9866006

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to measure the anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 5249 students were included in our study. The overall rate of anxiety status among students was 14.1%. A significant difference was observed between anxiety status and sex, mothers education level, dietary and siesta habit (P < 0.05), only-child family, gentle temper, regular breakfast habit, friend support was associated with lower scores on anxiety status. The findings indicated that anxiety status is common among school students. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended. PMID:25550963

  8. Effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle on pulmonary response to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase on the pulmonary response to ozone exposure. Three hundred seventy-two healthy white and black young adults, between the ages of 18 and 35 y, were exposed only once to 0.0, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm ozone for 2.3 h. Prior to and after exposure, pulmonary function tests were obtained. Prior to exposure, each subject completed a personal and family-history questionnaire. The response to this questionnaire were used to investigate age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase effects on pulmonary responsiveness to ozone. We concluded that the ages of subjects, within the age range studied, had an effect on responsiveness (i.e., decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased as the subjects` ages decreased). Socioeconomic status, as reflected by education of fathers, also appeared to affect forced expiratory volume in 1-s responsiveness to ozone, with the middle socioeconomic group being the most responsive. The phase of menstrual cycle did not have an impact on individual responsiveness to ozone. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  9. The Employment and Postsecondary Educational Status of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnall, Michele Capella

    2010-01-01

    A limited amount of information is available about the employment and postsecondary educational status of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Reports on the employment and postsecondary education tend to focus on overall results and usually do not provide detailed analyses by disability groups. In this article, the author presents the…

  10. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  11. Effects of Age, Gender, College Status, and Computer Experience on Attitudes toward Library Computer Systems (LCS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koohang, Alex A.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of age, gender, college status, and computer experience on students' attitudes toward an online catalog measured student attitudes on three subscales--computer anxiety, computer confidence, and computer liking. Results of analysis of variance showed that computer experience was significantly related to computer…

  12. The Relationship of Age and Marital Status to Women's Needs for Interdependence-Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ruth Bernstein; Woog, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    Examined the prominence of intimacy concerns, i.e., connectedness and independent needs in a sample of women in the health professions, analyzing for age and marital status. Used the Life Priorities Q-Sort. Older and single women were found to be significantly more independent than younger and married women. (Author/KS)

  13. Can breeder reproductive status, performance and egg quality be enhanced by supplementation and transition of n-3 fatty acids?

    PubMed

    Delezie, E; Koppenol, A; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplemented diets on breeder performance, productivity and egg quality. Breeders (n = 480) were fed the supplemented diet from 18 weeks onwards; the inclusion level of n-3 FA was increased from 1.5% to 3.0% from 34 weeks of age onwards until 48 weeks of age. Ross-308 broiler breeders (n = 480) were fed one of four different diets: a basal diet rich in n-6 FA (control diet) or one of three diets rich in n-3 FA. For the n-3 FA diets, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) were fed to the broiler breeders at different ratios formulated to obtain EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1, 1/2 or 2/1. Differences in performance, reproduction and egg quality parameters due to n-3 supplementation were noted more for the 1.5% followed by the 3.0% fed broilers than their 1.5% supplemented counterparts. Egg weight (p < 0.001) and egg mass (p = 0.003) were significantly lower and feed conversion (p = 0.008) significantly higher for the n-3 FA (at 3.0% inclusion level) fed broilers compared to the control group. For the EPA- and DHA-fed breeders, a higher proportional abdominal fat percentage (p = 0.025) and proportional albumen weight (%) (p = 0.041) were found respectively. Dietary treatments did not affect reproduction. It can be concluded that the results of the present experiment indicate no significant differences between treatments at 1.5% inclusion levels. However, increasing this level to 3.0% is not recommended due to the rather negative effects on the measured parameters. It should be further investigated whether these adverse effects were obtained due to (i) the higher supplementation level, (ii) combining a supplementation level of 1.5% with 3% or (iii) the duration of supplementation. PMID:26854179

  14. Treatment outcomes for substance use disorder among women of reproductive age in Massachusetts: A population-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Judith; Derrington, Taletha M.; Belanoff, Candice; Cabral, Howard J.; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Diop, Hafsatou; Evans, Stephen R.; Jacobs, Hilary; Kotelchuck, Milton

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Longitudinal patterns of treatment utilization and relapse among women of reproductive age with substance use disorder (SUD) are not well known. In this statewide report spanning seven years we describe SUD prevalence, SUD treatment utilization, and differences in subsequent emergency department (ED) use and post-treatment relapse rates by type of treatment: none, ‘acute only’ (detoxification/stabilization), or ‘ongoing’ services. Methods We linked a statewide dataset of hospital discharge, observation stay and ED records with SUD treatment admission records from hospitals and freestanding facilities, and birth/fetal death certificates, in Massachusetts, 2002–2008. We aggregated episodes into individual woman records, identified evidence of SUD and treatment, and tested post-treatment outcomes. Results Nearly 150,000 (8.5%) of 1.7 million Massachusetts women aged 15–49 were identified as SUD-positive. Nearly half of SUD-positive women (71,533 or 48.3%) had evidence of hospital or facility-based SUD treatment; among these, 12% received acute care/detoxification only while 88% obtained ‘ongoing’ treatment. Treatment varied by substance type; women with dual diagnosis and those with opiate use were least likely to receive ‘ongoing’ treatment. Treated women were older and less likely to have a psychiatric history or chronic illness. Women who received ‘acute only’ services were more likely to relapse (12.4% vs. 9.6%) and had a 10% higher rate of ED visits post-treatment than women receiving ‘ongoing’ treatment. Conclusions Many Massachusetts women of reproductive age need but do not receive adequate SUD treatment. ‘Ongoing’ services beyond detoxification/stabilization may reduce the likelihood of post-treatment relapse and/or reliance on the ED for subsequent medical care. PMID:25496707

  15. The prevalence of using iodine-containing supplements is low among reproductive-age women, NHANES 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Gahche, Jaime J; Bailey, Regan L; Mirel, Lisa B; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-06-01

    During pregnancy, the iodine requirement rises to meet demands for neurological development and fetal growth. If these requirements are not met, irreversible pathological cognitive and behavioral changes to the fetus may ensue. This study estimated the prevalence of iodine-containing dietary supplement (DS) use and intakes of iodine from DSs among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-39 y) who were interviewed and examined in NHANES 1999-2006 (n = 6404). Although 77.5% of pregnant women reported taking one or more DSs in the past 30 d, only 22.3% consumed an iodine-containing supplement. Most pregnant women reported using one DS and reported taking this product daily. The vast majority of iodine-containing DSs reported by pregnant women claimed an iodine content of 150 μg iodine/serving on the label. Pregnant women using at least one DS containing iodine had a mean daily iodine intake of 122 μg/d from supplements; the median value was 144 μg/d. Median urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant women in the population aged 15-39 y. The median UIC was 148 μg/L for pregnant women and 133 μg/L for nonpregnant women. The WHO has established a cutoff for insufficient iodine intake at <150 μg/L for pregnant women and <100 mg/L for those who are not pregnant. This suggests that as a population, we may not be meeting adequate intakes of iodine for pregnant women. More research is needed on the iodine intakes of pregnant women and women of reproductive age on their total iodine intake from all sources, not just DSs. PMID:23616501

  16. Age, Growth and Reproduction of the Eastern Mudminnow (Umbra pygmaea) at the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panek, Frank; Weis, Judith S.

    2012-01-01

    Umbra pygmaea DeKay (Eastern Mudminnow) is one of four species of Umbridae in North America. There is little published life-history information on the species within its native range, particularly on age, growth, and reproduction. This study focuses on these aspects of the life history of this fish at the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge in Morris County, NJ. A total of 336 fish of seven species was collected from June 1978 through May 1979, with the Eastern Mudminnow comprising 74% of the total. The average annual growth increment in total length for the Eastern Mudminnow was 15.3 2.06 mm, with age-1 fish averaging 40 mm total length and age-5 fish, the oldest collected, averaging 107 mm total length. The length-weight relationship was log10W = -5.291 + 3.182 log10TL mm for males and log10W = -4.999 + 3.032 log10TL mm for females. We observed no statistically significant sexually dimorphic differences in length-weight relationships in this population. The ratio of females to males increased from a low of 0.6 (predominance of male fish) at age-1 to a high of 4.6 (predominance of females) at age-5. Annual mortality for age 2–5 fish ranged from 40–76% with a mean of 59 13%. Age-specific fecundity estimates ranged from 250 eggs/female at age-1 to 2168 eggs/female at age-5. The relationship of number of mature ova to age was best described by the exponential function y = 149.29e0.5287x, where y = age-specific fecundity and x = age in years. Ova ranged from 0.1–0.2 mm in diameter in June and July and averaged 1.41 0.1 mm (range = 1.29–1.62 mm) in early February prior to spawning. Peak spawning occurred in mid-April at temperatures of 9–12 °C, and all females were spent by late April (13–15 °C).

  17. Gender differences as factors in successful ageing: a focus on socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Mi; Jang, Soong-Nang; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Over the past century, the population of Korea has aged rapidly as a result of decreasing fertility and mortality. Furthermore, the percentage of the population aged 65 and older is expected to double from 7% to 14% within 18 years, a much shorter doubling period than in most other developed countries. As Korean society ages, interest in healthy and successful ageing has increased. However, although previous studies have examined various determinants of successful ageing, such as socioeconomic status, gender differences have been neglected. This study investigated gender differences as factors in successful ageing among elderly men and women. Successful ageing has been defined as having high levels of physical and social functioning. Physical functioning includes having no difficulties with activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Social functioning is defined as participation in at least one of the following social activities: paid work, religious gatherings or volunteer service. Data for this study were obtained from a representative sample of 761 community-living individuals aged 65-84 years (340 males, 421 females); the respondents were interviewed face-to-face as part of the third wave of the Hallym Ageing Study (2007). Socioeconomic status appears to have a greater gender-specific effect on physical functioning than on social functioning. Especially for elderly men, a higher monthly individual income was significantly related to a higher level of physical functioning. Among elderly women, a higher level of education was associated with a higher level of physical functioning. In a major metropolis, elderly men had low social functioning and elderly women had low physical functioning. As Korea's population ages, successful ageing has received much attention. This study shows that policies promoting successful ageing must consider gender differences and associated socioeconomic factors. PMID:19703332

  18. The predictability of serum anti-Müllerian level in IVF/ICSI outcomes for patients of advanced reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as predictor of in-vitro fertilization outcomes has been much debated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the practicability of combining serum AMH level with biological age as a simple screening method for counseling IVF candidates of advanced reproductive age with potential poor outcomes prior to treatment initiation. Methods A total of 1,538 reference patients and 116 infertile patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years enrolled in IVF/ICSI cycles were recruited in this retrospective analysis. A reference chart of the age-related distribution of serum AMH level for Asian population was first created. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years were then divided into three groups according to the low, middle and high tertiles the serum AMH tertiles derived from the reference population of matching age. The cycle outcomes were analyzed and compared among each individual group. Results For reference subjects aged greater than or equal to 40 years, the serum AMH of the low, middle and high tertiles were equal or lesser than 0.48, 0.49-1.22 and equal or greater than 1.23 ng/mL respectively. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with AMH levels in the low tertile had the highest cycle cancellation rate (47.6%) with zero clinical pregnancy. The nadir AMH level that has achieved live birth was 0.56 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the 36.4th percentile of AMH level from the age-matched reference group. The optimum cut-off levels of AMH for the prediction of nonpregnancy and cycle cancellation were 1.05 and 0.68 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions Two criteria: (1) age greater than or equal to 40 years and (2) serum AMH level in the lowest tertile (equal or lesser than 33.3rd percentile) of the matching age group, may be used as markers of futility for counseling IVF/ICSI candidates. PMID:21843363

  19. Lipreading in School-Age Children: The Roles of Age, Hearing Status, and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Hale, Sandra; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study addressed three research questions: Does lipreading improve between the ages of 7 and 14 years? Does hearing loss affect the development of lipreading? How do individual differences in lipreading relate to other abilities? Method: Forty children with normal hearing (NH) and 24 with hearing loss (HL) were tested using 4…

  20. Ghrelin acts as energy status sensor of male reproduction by modulating Sertoli cells glycolytic metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Martins, A D; Sá, R; Monteiro, M P; Barros, A; Sousa, M; Carvalho, R A; Silva, B M; Oliveira, P F; Alves, M G

    2016-10-15

    Ghrelin is a growth hormone-releasing peptide that has been suggested to interfere with spermatogenesis, though the underling mechanisms remain unknown. We studied the effect of ghrelin in human Sertoli cells (hSCs) metabolic phenotype. For that, hSCs were exposed to increasing concentrations of ghrelin (20, 100 and 500 pM) mimicking the levels reported in obese, normal weight, and severely undernourished individuals. The metabolite production/consumption was determined. The protein levels of key glycolysis-related transporters and enzymes were assessed. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was measured. Mitochondrial complexes protein levels and mitochondria membrane potential were also measured. We showed that hSCs express the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. At the concentration present in the plasma of normal weight men, ghrelin caused a decrease of glucose consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential in hSCs, though LDH activity and lactate production remained unchanged, illustrating an alteration of glycolytic flux efficiency. Exposure of hSCs to levels of ghrelin found in the plasma of severely undernourished individuals decreased pyruvate consumption and mitochondrial complex III protein expression. All concentrations of ghrelin decreased alanine and acetate production by hSCs. Notably, the effects of ghrelin levels found in severely undernourished individuals were more pronounced in hSCs metabolic phenotype highlighting the importance of a proper eating behavior to maintain male reproductive potential. In conclusion, ghrelin acts as an energy status sensor for hSCs in a dose-dependent manner, showing an inverse association with the production of lactate, thus controlling the nutritional support of spermatogenesis. PMID:27392494

  1. Impact of puberty status and melengestrol acetate supplementation before the breeding period on reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Martins, J H; Santos, C S; Silva, M A V; Aguiar, H M V S B; França, I G; Pereira, H G; Ribeiro, D L; Chaves, R M; Souza, J A T; Monteiro, B M; Sá Filho, M F; Torres-Júnior, J R S

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the impact of puberty status and the administration of melengestrol acetate (MGA) before onset of the breeding period on ovulatory responses (Exp. 1) and conception rate after AI performed on estrus detection during 10 d and the pregnancy rate through 80 d of breeding period (Exp. 2) of pasture-grazed beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers (15 pubertal and 15 prepubertal) received 0.5 mg per heifer/d -1 of MGA over 14 d. No differences in the ovulatory responses were found 10 d after the MGA administration (pubertal = 46.7% vs. prepubertal P = 53.3%; P = 0.72). In Exp. 2, 368 heifers were randomly assigned to groups according to pubertal status and the MGA treatment. All heifers were inseminated on estrus detection for up 10 d after MGA administration and following exposure to bulls between 20 and 80 d. The MGA-treated heifers exhibited a greater AI service rate than control heifers (72.1 vs. 41.6%;P < 0.01); however, heifers receiving MGA had lower conception results following AI (51.6 vs. 71.4%; P = 0.01). In addition, MGA-treated heifers were more likely to have a corpus luteum in the middle of the breeding period (95.3 vs. 87.5%;P < 0.01), although the Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate was similar (P = 0.29) at the end of the breeding period. At onset of the breeding period, pubertal heifers presented a greater pregnancy rate following AI (pubertal P = 42.2% vs. prepubertal P = 24.9%; P = 0.01). Therefore, pubertal heifers seem to have greater overall reproductive efficiency than prepubertal heifers, particularly at the beginning of the breeding period. Interestingly, administration of MGA before the onset of the breeding period increased AI service rate but did not alter the rate of pregnancy throughout the breeding period of pasture-grazed beef heifers. PMID:26115267

  2. An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Jurczak, Anna; Szkup, Małgorzata; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Grzywacz, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Karakiewicz, Beata; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Grochans, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1) The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2) A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3) AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve. PMID:25826396

  3. [The prevalence of anemia among children and women of reproductive age in Kazakhstan and basis of its prevention].

    PubMed

    Smagulova, I E; Sharmanov, T Sh; Balgimekov, Sh A

    2013-01-01

    Results of the study on the prevalence of anemia among women of reproductive age and children, residing in the various regions of Kazakhstan, are presented in the article. Representational sampling which takes into account the divisional principle of medical service of children population in each of the 14th areas, Astana and Almaty cities has been implemented. Research involved participation of 1303 women at the age of 15-49 years, and of 1318 children, 353 (26.8%) of whom were in the age of 6 up to 23 months, and 985 (73.2%) were in the age range of 24-59 months. 89 women were pregnant, which constituted 6.8%. The average hemoglobin level in the blood of pregnant women was 11.1 +/- 1.6 g/dL, which was significantly lower compared to that of non-pregnant women, for whom the figure was 12.1 +/- 1.6 g/dL. The average level of hemoglobin in the blood of children in the age range of 6-23 months was 10.7 +/- 1.4 g/dL, and was significantly lower than that of children in the age range of 24-59 months, for whom the figure was, in average, 11.5 +/- 1.4 g/dL (p < 0.05). The rate of prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women was 43.8%, among non-pregnant women--39.0%, among children aged 6-59 months--35.2%. It was found that the prevalence of anemia was significantly higher in children aged 6-23 months (53.3%) compared with children aged 24-59 months (28.8%). As for degree of severity of anemia, mild form prevailed in all of the examined groups: children--53.6%, pregnant women--51.2% and non-pregnant--77.2%. Moderate anemia was mostly diagnosed in children in the age range of 6 to 23 months and in pregnant women (50.5 and 43.6% relatively). Comprehensive program of prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia among children and women includes food fortification, supplementation of target groups with iron preparation and folic acid, food diversification, monitoring and evaluation of program execution, as well as training of medical students and medical

  4. Large-scale genomic analyses link reproductive aging to hypothalamic signaling, breast cancer susceptibility and BRCA1-mediated DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Day, Felix R; Ruth, Katherine S; Thompson, Deborah J; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Pervjakova, Natalia; Chasman, Daniel I; Stolk, Lisette; Finucane, Hilary K; Sulem, Patrick; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Esko, Tõnu; Johnson, Andrew D; Elks, Cathy E; Franceschini, Nora; He, Chunyan; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Brody, Jennifer A; Franke, Lude L; Huffman, Jennifer E; Keller, Margaux F; McArdle, Patrick F; Nutile, Teresa; Porcu, Eleonora; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Schick, Ursula M; Smith, Jennifer A; Teumer, Alexander; Traglia, Michela; Vuckovic, Dragana; Yao, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Corre, Tanguy; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Mangino, Massimo; Smith, Albert V; Tanaka, Toshiko; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antoniou, Antonis C; Arndt, Volker; Arnold, Alice M; Barbieri, Caterina; Beckmann, Matthias W; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bernstein, Leslie; Bielinski, Suzette J; Blomqvist, Carl; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Boutin, Thibaud S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Campbell, Archie; Campbell, Harry; Chanock, Stephen J; Chapman, J Ross; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Coviello, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dunning, Alison M; Eicher, John D; Fasching, Peter A; Faul, Jessica D; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Gandin, Ilaria; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G; Girotto, Giorgia G; Goldberg, Mark S; González-Neira, Anna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grove, Megan L; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiman, Christopher A; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Henderson, Brian E; Hocking, Lynne J; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Huang, Jinyan; Humphreys, Keith; Hunter, David J; Jakubowska, Anna; Jones, Samuel E; Kabisch, Maria; Karasik, David; Knight, Julia A; Kolcic, Ivana; Kooperberg, Charles; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kriebel, Jennifer; Kristensen, Vessela; Lambrechts, Diether; Langenberg, Claudia; Li, Jingmei; Li, Xin; Lindström, Sara; Liu, Yongmei; Luan, Jian'an; Lubinski, Jan; Mägi, Reedik; Mannermaa, Arto; Manz, Judith; Margolin, Sara; Marten, Jonathan; Martin, Nicholas G; Masciullo, Corrado; Meindl, Alfons; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nalls, Michael; Neale, Benjamin M; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Newman, Anne B; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Olson, Janet E; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peters, Ulrike; Petersmann, Astrid; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Pirastu, Nicola N; Pirie, Ailith; Pistis, Giorgio; Polasek, Ozren; Porteous, David; Psaty, Bruce M; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Raffel, Leslie J; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rudolph, Anja; Ruggiero, Daniela; Sala, Cinzia F; Sanna, Serena; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schmidt, Frank; Schmutzler, Rita K; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Scott, Robert A; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Simard, Jacques; Sorice, Rossella; Southey, Melissa C; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Swerdlow, Anthony; Taylor, Kent D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Toland, Amanda E; Tomlinson, Ian; Truong, Thérèse; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Turner, Stephen T; Vozzi, Diego; Wang, Qin; Wellons, Melissa; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce B H R; Wright, Alan F; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zheng, Wei; Zygmunt, Marek; Bergmann, Sven; Boomsma, Dorret I; Buring, Julie E; Ferrucci, Luigi; Montgomery, Grant W; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Spector, Tim D; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Ciullo, Marina; Crisponi, Laura; Easton, Douglas F; Gasparini, Paolo P; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Hayward, Caroline; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kraft, Peter; McKnight, Barbara; Metspalu, Andres; Morrison, Alanna C; Reiner, Alex P; Ridker, Paul M; Rotter, Jerome I; Toniolo, Daniela; Uitterlinden, André G; Ulivi, Sheila; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J; Weir, David R; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Price, Alkes L; Stefansson, Kari; Visser, Jenny A; Ong, Ken K; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Murabito, Joanne M; Perry, John R B; Murray, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Menopause timing has a substantial impact on infertility and risk of disease, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We report a dual strategy in ∼70,000 women to identify common and low-frequency protein-coding variation associated with age at natural menopause (ANM). We identified 44 regions with common variants, including two regions harboring additional rare missense alleles of large effect. We found enrichment of signals in or near genes involved in delayed puberty, highlighting the first molecular links between the onset and end of reproductive lifespan. Pathway analyses identified major association with DNA damage response (DDR) genes, including the first common coding variant in BRCA1 associated with any complex trait. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of later ANM on breast cancer risk (∼6% increase in risk per year; P = 3 × 10(-14)), likely mediated by prolonged sex hormone exposure rather than DDR mechanisms. PMID:26414677

  5. Large-scale genomic analyses link reproductive ageing to hypothalamic signaling, breast cancer susceptibility and BRCA1-mediated DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Pervjakova, Natalia; Chasman, Daniel I.; Stolk, Lisette; Finucane, Hilary K.; Sulem, Patrick; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Esko, Tõnu; Johnson, Andrew D.; Elks, Cathy E.; Franceschini, Nora; He, Chunyan; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Brody, Jennifer A.; Franke, Lude L.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Keller, Margaux F.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Nutile, Teresa; Porcu, Eleonora; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Schick, Ursula M.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Teumer, Alexander; Traglia, Michela; Vuckovic, Dragana; Yao, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Corre, Tanguy; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Mangino, Massimo; Smith, Albert V.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Abecasis, Goncalo; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Arndt, Volker; Arnold, Alice M.; Barbieri, Caterina; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bernstein, Leslie; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Blomqvist, Carl; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Boutin, Thibaud S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Campbell, Archie; Campbell, Harry; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chapman, J. Ross; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Coviello, Andrea D.; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W.; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dunning, Alison M.; Eicher, John D.; Fasching, Peter A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Gandin, Ilaria; Garcia, Melissa E.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G.; Girotto, Giorgia G.; Goldberg, Mark S.; González-Neira, Anna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grove, Megan L.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Henderson, Brian E.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hopper, John L.; Hu, Frank B.; Huang, Jinyan; Humphreys, Keith; Hunter, David J.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jones, Samuel E.; Kabisch, Maria; Karasik, David; Knight, Julia A.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kooperberg, Charles; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kriebel, Jennifer; Kristensen, Vessela; Lambrechts, Diether; Langenberg, Claudia; Li, Jingmei; Li, Xin; Lindström, Sara; Liu, Yongmei; Luan, Jian’an; Lubinski, Jan; Mägi, Reedik; Mannermaa, Arto; Manz, Judith; Margolin, Sara; Marten, Jonathan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Masciullo, Corrado; Meindl, Alfons; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nalls, Michael; Neale, Ben M.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Newman, Anne B.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Olson, Janet E.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peters, Ulrike; Petersmann, Astrid; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Pirastu, Nicola N.; Pirie, Ailith; Pistis, Giorgio; Polasek, Ozren; Porteous, David; Psaty, Bruce M.; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Raffel, Leslie J.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rudolph, Anja; Ruggiero, Daniela; Sala, Cinzia F.; Sanna, Serena; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schmidt, Frank; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Scott, Robert A.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; Simard, Jacques; Sorice, Rossella; Southey, Melissa C.; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Swerdlow, Anthony; Taylor, Kent D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Toland, Amanda E.; Tomlinson, Ian; Truong, Thérèse; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Turner, Stephen T.; Vozzi, Diego; Wang, Qin; Wellons, Melissa; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce B.H.R.; Wright, Alan F.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zheng, Wei; Zygmunt, Marek; Bergmann, Sven; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Montgomery, Grant W.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Spector, Tim D.; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Ciullo, Marina; Crisponi, Laura; Easton, Douglas F.; Gasparini, Paolo P.; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B.; Hayward, Caroline; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kraft, Peter; McKnight, Barbara; Metspalu, Andres; Morrison, Alanna C.; Reiner, Alex P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Toniolo, Daniela; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ulivi, Sheila; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Price, Alkes L.; Stefansson, Kari; Visser, Jenny A.; Ong, Ken K.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Murabito, Joanne M.; Perry, John R.B.; Murray, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Menopause timing has a substantial impact on infertility and risk of disease, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We report a dual strategy in ~70,000 women to identify common and low-frequency protein-coding variation associated with age at natural menopause (ANM). We identified 44 regions with common variants, including two harbouring additional rare missense alleles of large effect. We found enrichment of signals in/near genes involved in delayed puberty, highlighting the first molecular links between the onset and end of reproductive lifespan. Pathway analyses revealed a major association with DNA damage-response (DDR) genes, including the first common coding variant in BRCA1 associated with any complex trait. Mendelian randomisation analyses supported a causal effect of later ANM on breast cancer risk (~6% risk increase per-year, P=3×10−14), likely mediated by prolonged sex hormone exposure, rather than DDR mechanisms. PMID:26414677

  6. Influence of Dietary Capsaicin on Redox Status in Red Blood Cells During Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prabhanshu; Chand, Subhash; Chandra, Pranjal; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a major pungent compound found in hot peppers of the plant genus Capsicum. In vitro effects of dietary capsaicin on redox status in red blood cells during human aging have been explored. Methods: Total antioxidant potential of capsaicin was evaluated using Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. GSH was measured as per standard protocol. The in vitro effect of capsaicin was evaluated by incubation of the cells in the assay medium with 10-5M capsaicin (final concentration) for 60 min at 37°C. Results: Treatment with capsaicin (10-5M) caused a significant (p < 0.01) increase in GSH level in all age groups. Reduced glutathione (GSH) / Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio measures the redox status of the red blood cell. Significant increase in GSH level due to capsaicin, shift the GSH/GSSG ratio, thus alters the redox status of the cell. Conclusion: The results conclusively prove the efficacy of the antioxidant property of capsaicin and its role in modulating the redox status of red blood cells. This evidence suggests that dietary factors that act as antioxidants to increase GSH level may contribute to a protective effect against age related diseases. This antioxidant effect may, in part, explain the high consumption of capsicum in certain regions of the world. PMID:26819932

  7. Improvement of the Vietnamese Diet for Women of Reproductive Age by Micronutrient Fortification of Staples Foods and Condiments

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Berger, Jacques; Le, Bach Mai; Pham, Van Thuy; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Cong Khan; Panagides, Dora; Rohner, Fabian; Wieringa, Frank; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Background A micronutrient survey carried out in 2010 among randomly selected Vietnamese women in reproductive age indicated that anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are still prevalent. The objective of this study was thus to analyze the dietary micronutrient intakes of these women, to select the food vehicles to be fortified and to calculate their contributions to meet the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for iron, zinc, vitamin A and folic acid. Main Findings Consumption data showed that the median intake was 38.4% of the RNI for iron, 61.1% for vitamin A and 91.8% for zinc. However, more than 50% of the women had daily zinc consumption below the RNI. Rice and vegetable oil were consumed daily in significant amounts (median: 320.4 g/capita/day and 8.6 g/capita/day respectively) by over 90% of the women, making them suitable vehicles for fortification. Based on consumption data, fortified vegetable oil could contribute to an additional vitamin A intake of 27.1% of the RNI and fortified rice could increase the intake of iron by 41.4% of the RNI, zinc by 15.5% and folate by 34.1%. Other food vehicles, such as fish and soy sauces and flavoring powders, consumed respectively by 63% and 90% of the population could contribute to increase micronutrient intakes if they are properly fortified and promoted. Wheat flower was consumed by 39% of the women and by less than 20% women from the lowest socioeconomic strata. Conclusion The fortification of edible vegetable oils with vitamin A and of rice with iron, zinc and folic acid are the most promising fortification strategies to increase micronutrient intakes of women in reproductive age in Vietnam. While rice fortification will be implemented, fortification of fish and soy sauces with iron, that has been proven to be effective, has to be supported and fortification of flavouring powders with micronutrients investigated. PMID:23226308

  8. Chronic exposures to low levels of estradiol and their effects on the ovaries and reproductive hormones: Comparison with aging

    PubMed Central

    Gilbreath, Ebony T.; MohanKumar, Sheba M.J.; Balasubramanian, Priya; Agnew, Dalen W.; MohanKumar, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Aging in female rats is characterized by a state called “constant estrous” in which rats are unable to ovulate, have polycystic ovaries and moderately elevated estrogen levels. We hypothesized that chronic exposure of young animals to low levels of E2 can produce reproductive changes similar to that seen in aging animals. Adult female rats were sham-implanted (control) or implanted with slow-release E2 (20 ng/day) pellets for 30, 60, or 90 days. Old constant estrous (OCE) rats were used for comparison. Estrous cyclicity was monitored periodically. At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed, trunk blood was collected for hormone measurements and ovaries for immunohistochemistry. Young animals became acyclic with increasing duration of E2 exposure while OCE rats were in a state of acyclicity. Ovaries became increasingly more cystic with E2 exposure, and were comparable to OCE rats; however, there was a marked reduction in interstitial tissue with exogenous E2 treatment. Exogenous E2 also decreased Mullerian inhibiting substance expression, increased infiltration of macrophages without much impact on apoptosis in the ovaries. Serum testosterone levels decreased in E2-treated young animals, while it increased significantly in OCE rats. There was a marked reduction in LH but not FSH levels with E2 exposure in both young and old animals. These results indicate that even very low doses of E2 are capable of inducing aging-like changes in young animals. PMID:26779558

  9. Antidepressant Prescription Claims Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Private Employer-Sponsored Insurance - United States 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Dawson, April L; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Simeone, Regina M; Lind, Jennifer N; Farr, Sherry L; Broussard, Cheryl S; Reefhuis, Jennita; Carrino, Gerrard; Biermann, Janis; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Antidepressant medication use during pregnancy has been increasing in the United States (1). Many women require antidepressants on an ongoing basis, and a clear consensus on the safest medication options for both the mother and her fetus does not exist (2). Given that half of all U.S. pregnancies are unplanned (3), antidepressant use will occur during the first weeks of pregnancy, a critical period for fetal development. To understand trends among women of reproductive age, CDC used Truven Health's MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters data* to estimate the number of antidepressant prescriptions filled by women aged 15-44 years with private employer-sponsored insurance. During 2008-2013, an average of 15.4% of women aged 15-44 years filled at least one prescription for an antidepressant in a single year. The most frequently filled antidepressants included sertraline, bupropion, and citalopram. Prescribing of antidepressants is common, and research on antidepressant safety during pregnancy needs to be accelerated to provide evidence-based information to health care providers and women about the potential risks for antidepressant exposure before and during pregnancy and between pregnancies. PMID:26821271

  10. Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzania's Lake Victoria Region

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Jennifer A.; Mguta, Charles; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Mitchell, Katrina B.; Bang, Heejung; Simplice, Harusha; Kalluvya, Samuel E.; Changalucha, John M.; Johnson, Warren D.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a community-based study of 457 women aged 18–50 years living in eight rural villages in northwest Tanzania. The prevalence of female urogenital schistosomiasis (FUS) was 5% overall but ranged from 0% to 11%. FUS was associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2–13.5) and younger age (OR = 5.5 and 95% CI = 1.2–26.3 for ages < 25 years and OR = 8.2 and 95% CI = 1.7–38.4 for ages 25–29 years compared with age > 35 years). Overall HIV prevalence was 5.9% but was 17% among women with FUS. We observed significant geographical clustering of schistosomiasis: northern villages near Lake Victoria had more Schistosoma mansoni infections (P < 0.0001), and southern villages farther from the lake had more S. haematobium (P = 0.002). Our data support the postulate that FUS may be a risk factor for HIV infection and may contribute to the extremely high rates of HIV among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21363971

  11. Age, fertility and reproductive behavior in cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Lauren; Watkins, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The Smithsonian's National Zoological Park (NZP) has a long history with Cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, beginning in 1900's when the first animals arrived at the NZP. Today, the Zoo has two breeding groups of C. rhombifer and has observed and analyzed reproductive behavior and fertility rates over the last three years. Fertility rates were determined initially by observing the formation of an opaque band that forms on the shell of a fertile egg, called banding. The fertility rates by banding were later compared to the observation made after opening the eggs to verify fertility. In addition to tracking fertility, nesting and agonistic behavior were also observed. Several notable observations were documented over the same period. These included a male predating a nesting female's eggs, increased aggression between two females housed together, the continued development of a partially banded egg, and the discovery of 19 additional egg shells post oviposition by both females in the enclosure. Here we discuss the nest phenology, fertility and behavior of the five exhibited C. rhombifer at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park over a 3-year period. Zoo Biol. 34:278-284, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. PMID:25716550

  12. Caring for reproductive-aged women with spinal cord injuries: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jill; Walker, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 there were an estimated 259,000 people living in the USA with spinal cord injuries (SCI). The majority of these people are in their reproductive years, and over 19% are estimated to be women. Advances in medical management have allowed many women to live successfully with congenital defects or injuries resulting in SCI that even a few years ago would have been fatal. Although many of these women may be classified as ‘disabled’, fertility is not usually affected in SCI and many of these women desire children of their own. It is important to counsel these women regarding the range of issues related to pregnancy. These include conception issues, parenting with a disability, emotional concerns of the family, nutrition and exercise in pregnancy, risks in pregnancy, labour and delivery, postpartum care, and breastfeeding. For health-care providers it is important to know and understand your patient’s disability and be able to provide the best patient-centred quality care, understanding that each patient's circumstance may be unlike any other patient.

  13. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  14. Age, growth, reproduction, and food of the burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus), in southwestern Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Merryll M.

    1972-01-01

    This study was based on 1,285 burbot (Lota lota) collected in three areas in southwestern Lake Superior in 1966-69. Age was determined from otoliths, the marginal zones of which were opaque from December to May and translucent from June to November. Average lengths of the age groups and annual increments were measured from a curve fitted by inspection to point estimates of lengths at capture. Burbot grew 5.7 inches during the first year of life and 4.3 inches during the second. Later annual increments through the twelfth year ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 inches. Average total lengths and calculated weights were 16.1 inches and 1.1 pounds at age V and 23.4 inches and 3.2 pounds at age X. First maturity was at age I, at a total length of 9.7 inches for males and 10.7 inches for females; all fish were mature at age V and at lengths greater than 16.4 inches (males) and 15.9 inches (females). Most burbot collected near shore in the Apostle Islands area in late January and February were spent, but none collected in offshore areas during January and March had spawned. The estimated number of eggs in the ovaries of eight burbot 14.7-21.3 inches long ranged from about 268,800 to 1,154,000 and averaged about 812,300. Burbot of all sizes fed on fish and crustaceans. Fish heavily predominated in the food of large burbot taken during the winter (99.6% of the volume) but crustaceans (Mysis and Pontoporeia) became increasingly important during the summer and fall (when they contributed more than 73% of the volume). Due to the wide variety and large volume of food consumed, the burbot is probably a significant competitor of many other species.

  15. Optimizing dietary lipid use to improve essential fatty acid status and reproductive performance of the modern lactating sow: a review.

    PubMed

    Rosero, David S; Boyd, R Dean; Odle, Jack; van Heugten, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Dietary lipid supplementation benefits the prolific and high-producing modern lactating sow. A comprehensive review of recent studies showed that lipid supplementation increases average daily energy intake, which is partitioned for lactation as indicated by greater milk fat output and improved litter growth rate. Recent compelling findings showed that addition of particular lipids during lactation improved the subsequent reproductive outcome of sows. Such benefits were related to the level of dietary essential fatty acids (EFA, linoleic acid, C18:2n-6; and α-linolenic acid, C18:3n-3) during lactation. Lactation diets without supplemental EFA resulted in a pronounced negative balance (intake minus milk output) of linoleic (-25.49 g/d) and α-linolenic acid (-2.75 g/d); which compromised sow fertility (farrowing rate < 75 % and culling rates > 25 % of weaned sows). This phenomenon seems to be increasingly important with advancing sow age because of a progressive reduction of body EFA pool over successive lactations. The net effect of supplemental EFA during lactation was to create a positive EFA balance, which improved the subsequent reproduction of sows. Adequate linoleic acid intake improved the proportion of sows that farrowed in the subsequent cycle (Farrowing rate (%) = [(-1.5 × 10(-3) × linoleic acid intake (g/d)(2)) + (0.53 × linoleic acid intake (g/d)) + (45.2)]; quadratic P = 0.002, R(2) = 0.997, RMSE = 0.031). In addition, increasing linoleic acid intake increased the number of pigs born in the subsequent cycle (total pigs born (n) = [(9.4 × 10(-5) × linoleic acid intake (g/d)(2)) + (0.04 × linoleic acid intake (g/d)) + (10.94)]; quadratic P = 0.002, R(2) = 0.997, RMSE = 0.031). Supplemental α-linolenic acid resulted in a rapid return to estrus (sows bred: sows weaned = 94.2 %; wean-to-estrus interval = 4.0 d) and achieved a high retention of pregnancy (sows

  16. The Effects of Age, Refractive Status, and Luminance on Pupil Size

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Michel; Dumbleton, Kathryn; Theodoratos, Panagiotis; Gobbe, Marine; Wooley, C. Benjamin; Moody, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Pupil size is critical for optimal performance of presbyopic contact lenses. Although the effect of luminance is well known, little information is available regarding other contributing factors such as aging and refractive status. Methods The cohort population comprised 304 patients (127 male, 177 female) aged 18 to 78 years. Pupils were photographed at three controlled luminance levels 250, 50, and 2.5 cd/m2 using an infra-red macro video camera. Measurements of pupil diameter were conducted after transforming pixel values to linear values in millimeters. Results Luminance was the most influential factor with pupil diameter increasing with decreased luminance (p < 0.001, all comparisons). Age was also found to be a significant factor with a smaller diameter in the older groups, but overall the difference was only significant between the pre-presbyopes and the established presbyopes (p = 0.017). Pupil diameter decreased significantly with increasing age, the effect being most marked at low luminance (<0.001). The smallest pupil diameters were measured for hyperopes and the largest for myopes and although refractive error was not a significant factor alone, there was a significant interaction between luminance and refractive error with the greatest differences in pupil diameter between myopes and emmetropes at low luminance (p < 0.001). Pupil diameter changes modeled by multilinear regression (p < 0.001) identified age, luminance, best sphere refraction, and refractive error as significant factors accounting for just over 70% of the average variation in pupil diameter. Conclusions Both age and refractive status were found to affect pupil size with larger pupils measured for younger patients and myopes. Designs for multifocal contact lens corrections should take both age and refractive status into consideration; a faster progression from distance to near corrections across the optical zone of the lens is expected to be required for established

  17. Nutritional status of school-age children - A scenario of urban slums in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in which we explored nutritional status in school-age slum children and analyze factors associated with malnutrition with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and clinical examination from December 2010 to April 2011 in urban slums of Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh (UP), India. Result The mean height and weight of boys and girls in the study group was lower than the CDC 2000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) standards in all age groups. Regarding nutritional status, prevalence of stunting and underweight was highest in age group 11 yrs to 13 yrs whereas prevalence of wasting was highest in age group 5 yrs to 7 yrs. Except refractive errors all illnesses are more common among girls, but this gender difference is statistically significant only for anemia and rickets. The risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among children living in joint families, children whose mother's education was [less than or equal to] 6th standard and children with working mothers. Conclusions Most of the school-age slum children in our study had a poor nutritional status. Interventions such as skills-based nutrition education, fortification of food items, effective infection control, training of public healthcare workers and delivery of integrated programs are recommended. PMID:22958757

  18. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  19. Effect of age and pregnancy status on adaptive immune responses of Canadian Holstein replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Hine, B C; Cartwright, S L; Mallard, B A

    2011-02-01

    Selection for production traits with little or no emphasis on health traits has led to an increase in the incidence of disease in Canadian dairy herds. We describe here a patented protocol for estimating the breeding value for immune responsiveness in heifers that combines measures of both cell-mediated (CM) and antibody-mediated (AM) immune responses (IR). The ability of putative type 1 and type 2 antigens used to induce CMIR and AMIR, respectively, was assessed in replacement Holstein heifers, and the effects of age and pregnancy on type 1 and type 2 IR bias were estimated. Results demonstrated that the type 1 and type 2 antigens induced polarized type 1 and type 2 responses in heifers regardless of age and pregnancy status, and can therefore be used to identify animals with superior overall immune responsiveness. However, age and pregnancy status had significant effects on adaptive IR profiles, highlighting the need for appropriate statistical modeling of such effects when ranking animals on their ability to mount CM and AMIR. Responses became increasingly type 1 biased as heifers approached 12 mo of age, from which point, responses then became increasingly type 2 biased with age and length of gestation. Knowledge of how age and pregnancy influence the dynamics of type 1 and type 2 IR bias is expected to improve our ability to select animals with enhanced immune responsiveness and aid in the development of effective vaccines through strategic targeting of vaccine components to recipients. PMID:21257066

  20. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. Method We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15–49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. Result The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated

  1. Preliminary study on factors influencing rabbit doe reproductive efficiency: Effect of parity, day of mating, and suckling on ovarian status and estrogen levels at day 6 of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Maria Laura; Dimauro, Corrado

    2013-04-01

    The rabbit corpus luteum becomes an estradiol-dependent tissue by day 6 of gestation, and adequate estrogen is critical to avoid pregnancy failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of parity (primiparous or multiparous), day of mating (11 or 21 d postpartum), and suckling status (suckling or nonsuckling) on various reproductive traits in hybrid rabbit does (n = 96). Ovarian structures on day 6 after coitus were evaluated by means of ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected that day, and the serum was analyzed for estradiol-17β by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Parity and suckling had significant effects on mating rate (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). More does accepted the male on day 11 than on day 21 (P < 0.05). Ovulation frequency was significantly affected by parity (P < 0.05), day of mating (P < 0.01), and suckling (P < 0.01). Fewer ovarian large follicles and lower estradiol-17β levels were detected in suckling compared with nonsuckling rabbits (P < 0.01). Since estrogen concentrations are commonly used to assess follicular growth and steroidogenic capacity, the lower hormonal levels in the suckling rabbits may reveal poorer ovarian activity, which could result in reduced reproductive efficiency. Our observations confirm the existence of a partial antagonism between lactation and reproduction in rabbits. Further research is needed to elucidate these phenomena, including when artificial insemination is done. Ultrasonography could represent a noninvasive and reliable method for studying several reproductive functions and dysfunctions in rabbits. PMID:24082404

  2. Extent of vitamin A deficiency among preschool children and women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    West, Keith P

    2002-09-01

    Knowledge of the extent of vitamin A (VA) deficiency (D) is critical for identifying high-risk populations and mobilizing resources for prevention. Yet, all estimates are necessarily imperfect, often based on assumptions in the absence of data. In 1995, the World Health Organization estimated 254 million children to be VA-deficient and 2.8 million to have xerophthalmia. Subsequently, estimates were changed to 75-140 million and 3.3 million, respectively. Although both sets are consistent with a problem of enormous magnitude, the discrepancies also created uncertainty. The present analysis indicates there are approximately 127 million and 4.4 million preschool children with VAD (serum retinol < 0.70 micro mol/L or displaying abnormal impression cytology) and xerophthalmia, respectively. More than 7.2 million pregnant women in the developing world are VA-deficient (serum or breast-milk vitamin A concentrations < 0.70 micro mol/L), and another 13.5 million have low VA status (0.70-1.05 micro mol/L); >6 million women develop night blindness (XN) during pregnancy annually. Roughly 45% of VA-deficient and xerophthalmic children and pregnant women with low-to-deficient VA status live in South and Southeast Asia. These regions harbor >60% of all cases of maternal XN, three fourths of whom seem to live in India. Africa accounts for 25-35% of the global cases of child and maternal VAD; about 10% of all deficient persons live in the eastern Mediterranean region, 5-15% live in the Western Pacific and approximately 5% live in the Region of the Americas. VA prophylaxis seems to be preventing the number of deficient preschool children from increasing while probably reducing rates of blindness and mortality. Greater effort is needed to assess and prevent VAD and its disorders, particularly among pregnant and lactating women. PMID:12221262

  3. Reproductive history and post-reproductive mortality: A sibling comparison analysis using Swedish register data.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Kieron; Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kolk, Martin; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reproductive history influences post-reproductive mortality. A potential explanation for this association is confounding by socioeconomic status in the family of origin, as socioeconomic status is related to both fertility behaviours and to long-term health. We examine the relationship between age at first birth, completed parity, and post-reproductive mortality and address the potential confounding role of family of origin. We use Swedish population register data for men and women born 1932-1960, and examine both all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The contributions of our study are the use of a sibling comparison design that minimizes residual confounding from shared family background characteristics and assessment of cause-specific mortality that can shed light on the mechanisms linking reproductive history to mortality. Our results were entirely consistent with previous research on this topic, with teenage first time parents having higher mortality, and the relationship between parity and mortality following a U-shaped pattern where childless men and women and those with five or more children had the highest mortality. These results indicate that selection into specific fertility behaviours based upon socioeconomic status and experiences within the family of origin does not explain the relationship between reproductive history and post-reproductive mortality. Additional analyses where we adjust for other lifecourse factors such as educational attainment, attained socioeconomic status, and post-reproductive marital history do not change the results. Our results add an important new level of robustness to the findings on reproductive history and mortality by showing that the association is robust to confounding by factors shared by siblings. However it is still uncertain whether reproductive history causally influences health, or whether other confounding factors such as childhood health or risk-taking propensity could

  4. Impact of body mass index, age and varicocele on reproductive hormone profile from elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Yamaçake, K. G. R.; Cocuzza, M.; Torricelli, F. C. M.; Tiseo, B. C.; Frati, R.; Freire, G. C.; Antunes, A. A.; Srougi, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To study the impact of obesity, age and varicocele on sexual hormones fof adult and elderly men. Materials and Methods: 875 men who were screened for prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. Data recorded comprised age, body mass index (BMI), serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). Patients were divided in groups according to their BMI in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese grades 1, 2 or 3. First, it was studied the association between age, BMI, and hormone profile. Then, clinical varicocele was evaluated in 298 patients to assess its correlation to the others parameters. Results: Obese patients had lower levels of TT, FT and SHBG (p<0.001) compared to underweight or normal weight patients. There were no differences in age (p=0.113), FSH serum levels (p=0.863) and LH serum levels (p=0.218) between obese and non-obese patients. Obese grade 3 had lower levels of TT and FT compared to obese grade 1 and 2 (p<0.05). There was no difference in the SHBG levels (p=0.120) among obese patients. There was no association between varicocele and BMI; and varicocele did not impact on testosterone or SHBG levels. Conclusions: Men with higher BMI have a lower serum level of TT, FT and SHBG. The presence of clinical varicocele as well as its grade has no impact on hormone profile in elderly men.

  5. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  6. Further insights into the insulin-like growth factor-I system of bony fish pituitary with special emphasis on reproductive phases and social status.

    PubMed

    Shved, Natallia; Baroiller, Jean-François; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2009-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, which is crucially involved in fish growth, differentiation, and reproduction, occurs in tilapia pituitary. IGF-I peptide, which is probably produced in hypothalamic perikarya, is present in axons of the neurohypophysis, and IGF-I mRNA and peptide are present in the adenohypophysis in adrenocorticotrophic hormone cells, melanocyte-stimulating hormone cells, with interindividual differences in growth hormone cells, and, starting with puberty, in gonadotrophic hormone (GTH) cells. Subordinate males showed a high IGF-I but a lower beta-luteinizing hormone expression, while in dominant males the opposite was found. IGF-I from the GTH cells may act as auto/paracrine regulators of GTH cell proliferation and enhance GTH synthesis and release during puberty and reproduction, depending on the social status. PMID:19456403

  7. Effects of organochlorine residues on eggshell thickness, reproduction, and population status of brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) in South Carolina and Florida, 1969-76

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Lamont, T.G.; Neely, B.S., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Shells of brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) eggs collected in South Carolina from 1969 through 1975 and in Florida during 1969, 1970, and 1974 were significantly thinner (P greater than 0.05) than eggshells collected before 1947. Thickness of South Carolina eggshells increased in 1975, and mean thickness of eggshells collected in Florida during 1974 was greater than that of eggshells collected during 1969 and 1970, primarily in Gulf Coast colonies. Residues of 13 organochlorines were found in eggs and tissues of pelicans found dead during 1974 and 1975, although residues in brains of these specimens were not high enough to cause death. Residues of organochlorines, except PCBs, declined through 1975. PCBs increased in eggs from Atlantic Coast colonies. Reproductive success and population status of brown pelicans in South Carolina have improved markedly since authors began their studies in 1969. Good reproductive success was reported in 3 of 5 years from 1973 through 1977.

  8. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  9. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body. PMID:26445150

  10. EARLY CHILDHOOD LENGTH-FOR-AGE IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE WORK STATUS OF FILIPINO YOUNG ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Carba, Delia B.; Tan, Vivencia L.; Adair, Linda S.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies on childhood health and human capital in developing countries examine how early childhood linear growth relates to later human productivity as reflected in schooling success. Work status is another important human capital outcome related to early child health. This study examines the relationship of linear growth restriction at two years of age to work status in young adults who have, for the most part completed their schooling and further explores whether this relationship differs by gender. The analysis sample of 1,795 was drawn from participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, which followed individuals from birth to age 20–22 years. Work status in 2005 was represented by three categories: not working, working in an informal job, and working in a formal job. Formal work in the Philippines, as in most countries, is associated with regular hours, higher wages and benefits. Analyses were stratified by gender and current school enrolment, and adjusted for socioeconomic status and attained years of schooling. Among males no longer in school, higher length-for-age Z score (LAZ) at age 2 was associated with a 40% increase in likelihood of formal work compared to not working. In females, each 1 unit increase in LAZ was associated with 0.2 higher likelihood of formal vs. informal work. No significant associations were observed in the small sample of young adults still in school. To improve job prospects of young adults, it is important to provide proper nutrition in early childhood and adequate educational opportunities during schooling years. PMID:19261549

  11. Prevalence of genital warts in reproductive-aged Turkish women presenting at gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason.

    PubMed

    Kose, M F; Akin, L; Yuce, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this multicenter descriptive study was to calculate the frequency of genital warts among Turkish women aged 15-49 years, who visited outpatient gynecology clinics for a variety of reasons. The study was conducted in February 2011 to collect data for a minimum of 154 patients at each center, and the total sample size reached 2,967 women (95.1% completion rate). Oral informed consents were obtained. A questionnaire including data on socio-demographic characteristics and reasons for admission was administered, and a pelvic examination was performed. The overall point prevalence was 35% (95% CI = 3.1%-4.0%), correcting for sampling design, with the highest rates observed in the 15 to 19-year-old group. The odds of having a genital wart was 1.82 times (95% CI = 0.99-3.33) higher among non-pregnant participants than in pregnant women (p = 0.051). The overall point prevalence of genital warts among reproductive-aged women attending gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason in Turkey was 35%. PMID:24283176

  12. Does Autism Diagnosis Age or Symptom Severity Differ among Children According to Whether Assisted Reproductive Technology Was Used to Achieve Pregnancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieve, Laura A.; Fountain, Christine; Boulet, Sheree L.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Rice, Catherine; Bearman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies report associations between conception with assisted reproductive technology (ART) and autism. Whether these associations reflect an ascertainment or biologic effect is undetermined. We assessed diagnosis age and initial autism symptom severity among >30,000 children with autism from a linkage study of California Department of…

  13. Sex- and melanism-specific variations in the oxidative status of adult tawny owls in response to manipulated reproductive effort.

    PubMed

    Emaresi, Guillaume; Henry, Isabelle; Gonzalez, Esther; Roulin, Alexandre; Bize, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress, determined by the balance between the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defences, is hypothesized to play an important role in shaping the cost of reproduction and life history trade-offs. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated reproductive effort in 94 breeding pairs of tawny owls (Strix aluco) to investigate the sex- and melanism-specific effects on markers of oxidative stress in red blood cells (RBCs). This colour polymorphic bird species shows sex-specific division of labour and melanism-specific history strategies. Brood sizes at hatching were experimentally enlarged or reduced to increase or decrease reproductive effort, respectively. We obtained an integrative measure of the oxidative balance by measuring ROS production by RBCs, intracellular antioxidant glutathione levels and membrane resistance to ROS. We found that light melanic males (the sex undertaking offspring food provisioning) produced more ROS than darker conspecifics, but only when rearing an enlarged brood. In both sexes, light melanic individuals had also a larger pool of intracellular antioxidant glutathione than darker owls under relaxed reproductive conditions (i.e. reduced brood), but not when investing substantial effort in current reproduction (enlarged brood). Finally, resistance to oxidative stress was differently affected by the brood size manipulation experiment in males and females independently of their plumage coloration. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that reproductive effort can alter the oxidative balance in a sex- and colour-specific way. This further emphasizes the close link between melanin-based coloration and life history strategies. PMID:26567343

  14. Understanding the Effect of Obesity on Fertility Among Reproductive-Age Women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Allison; Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern, and obesity among women of childbearing age can have a negative impact on fertility. The mechanism of action between obesity and infertility is complex and includes hormonal factors, alterations in ovulation, and changes in the menstrual cycle. Maternal obesity has also been linked to spontaneous abortion and poorer maternal and fetal health outcomes. Many interventions exist to help childbearing women achieve a lower body mass index. These include lifestyle modifications (diet/physical activity) and surgical and pharmacologic interventions. This article reviews the pathophysiology of the relationship between obesity and infertility and discusses evidence-based interventions for improving fertility among obese childbearing women. PMID:27520601

  15. Changes in Age-Related Reproductive Tactics in the Female of the Butterfly, Eurema hecabe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki, Masato; Obara, Yoshiaki; Kato, Yoshiomi

    The occurrence of mate solicitation by virgin females was investigated in the butterfly Euremahecabe. Young (1-day-old) virgin females rarely showed mate solicitation to male model, however, old (at least 6-day-old) virgin females frequently showed such flight. The duration of solicitation was significantly longer in older females than in younger ones. The age-related behavioral change occurs with female oogenesis (Hiroki and Kato 1996), and such behavior may thus be a result of female adaptation to maximize their fecundity.

  16. Determinants of Short Interbirth Interval among Reproductive Age Mothers in Arba Minch District, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hailu, Desta; Gulte, Teklemariam

    2016-01-01

    Background. One of the key strategies to reduce fertility and promote the health status of mothers and their children is adhering to optimal birth spacing. However, women still have shorter birth intervals and studies addressing their determinants were scarce. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess determinants of birth interval among women who had at least two consecutive live births. Methods. Case control study was conducted from February to April 2014. Cases were women with short birth intervals (<3 years), whereas controls were women having history of optimal birth intervals (3 to 5 years). Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Result. Having no formal education (AOR = 2.36, 95% CL: [1.23–4.52]), duration of breast feeding for less than 24 months (AOR: 66.03, 95% CI; [34.60–126]), preceding child being female (AOR: 5.73, 95% CI; [3.18–10.310]), modern contraceptive use (AOR: 2.79, 95% CI: [1.58–4.940]), and poor wealth index (AOR: 4.89, 95% CI; [1.81–13.25]) of respondents were independent predictors of short birth interval. Conclusion. In equalities in education, duration of breast feeding, sex of the preceding child, contraceptive method use, and wealth index were markers of unequal distribution of inter birth intervals. Thus, to optimize birth spacing, strategies of providing information, education and communication targeting predictor variables should be improved. PMID:27239553

  17. Plasticity of the Reproductive Axis Caused by Social Status Change in an African Cichlid Fish: II. Testicular Gene Expression and Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Maruska, Karen P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2011-01-01

    Reproduction in all vertebrates is controlled by the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis, which is regulated socially in males of the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni. Although social information influences GnRH1 neurons at the apex of the BPG axis, little is known about how the social environment and dominance affects the cellular and molecular composition of the testes to regulate reproductive capacity. We created an opportunity for reproductively suppressed males to ascend in status and then measured changes in gene expression and tissue morphology to discover how quickly the perception of this opportunity can influence the testes. Our results show rapid up-regulation of mRNA levels of FSH receptor and several steroid receptor subtypes in the testes during social ascent. In contrast, LH receptor was not elevated until 72 h after ascent, but this increase was coincident with elevated circulating androgens and early stages of spermatogenesis, suggesting a role in steroidogenesis. The spermatogenic potential of the testes, as measured by cellular composition, was also elevated before the overall increase in testes size. The presence of cysts at all stages of spermatogenesis, coupled with lower levels of gonadotropin and steroid receptors in subordinate males, suggests that the BPG axis and spermatogenesis are maintained at a subthreshold level in anticipation of the chance to gain a territory and become reproductively active. Our results show that the testis is stimulated extremely quickly after perception of social opportunity, presumably to allow suppressed males to rapidly achieve high reproductive success in a dynamic social environment. PMID:21084443

  18. Compelling reasons for recommending IUDs to any woman of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Arias, Raquel D

    2002-01-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is a highly effective method of contraception that, as opposed to other countries around the world, is underutilized in the United States by women of all ages. Lingering concerns about the safety of IUDs are in large part responsible for their lack of adoption, but a systematic review published recently nullified some of the major safety concerns about IUD use. The author summarized the methodologically sound evidence regarding the risk of upper-genital-tract infection and infertility associated with IUD use and reported that a slightly increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) exists only in the first month following IUD insertion; that the risk of PID in women with symptomless sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) having an IUD inserted is similar to the risk in women not having an IUD inserted; and that there appears to be no negative effect on fertility following IUD removal. In addition, Mirena provides noncontraceptive benefits, such as treatment for menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, and anemia, and ParaGard may help protect against endometrial cancer. An IUD is also a safer alternative to sterilization for perimenopausal women seeking a long-term and also reversible method of contraception. While both IUDs are suitable for many women of all ages, there are differences in their mechanisms of action, physical characteristics, and clinical effects that make each more or less appropriate for certain women. PMID:11991435

  19. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population. PMID:26801472

  20. Improved estimates of age, growth and reproduction for the regionally endemic Galapagos sailfin grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840).

    PubMed

    Usseglio, Paolo; Friedlander, Alan M; DeMartini, Edward E; Schuhbauer, Anna; Schemmel, Eva; Salinas de Léon, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    The Galapagos Sailfin grouper, Mycteroperca olfax, locally known as bacalao and listed as vulnerable by the IUCN, is culturally, economically, and ecologically important to the Galapagos archipelago and its people. It is regionally endemic to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and, while an important fishery resource that has shown substantial declines in recent years, to date no effective management regulations are in place to ensure the sustainability of the Galapagos fishery for this species. Previous estimates of longevity and size at maturity for bacalao are inconsistent with estimates for congeners, which brings into question the accuracy of prior estimates. We set out to assess the age, growth, and reproductive biology of bacalao in order to provide more accurate life history information to inform more effective fisheries management for this species. The oldest fish in our sample was 21 years old, which is 2-3 times greater than previously reported estimates of longevity. Parameter estimates for the von Bertalanffy growth function (k = 0.11, L ∞ = 110 cm TL, and to = - 1.7 years) show bacalao to grow much slower and attain substantially larger asymptotic maximum length than previous studies. Mean size at maturity (as female) was estimated at 65.3 cm TL, corresponding to a mean age of 6.5 years. We found that sex ratios were extremely female biased (0.009 M:1F), with a large majority of the individuals in our experimental catch being immature (79%). Our results show that bacalao grow slower, live longer, and mature at a much larger size and greater age than previously thought, with very few mature males in the population. These findings have important implications for the fishery of this valuable species and provide the impetus for a long-overdue species management plan to ensure its long-term sustainability. PMID:26401463

  1. Improved estimates of age, growth and reproduction for the regionally endemic Galapagos sailfin grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840)

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Alan M.; DeMartini, Edward E.; Schuhbauer, Anna; Schemmel, Eva; Salinas de Léon, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    The Galapagos Sailfin grouper, Mycteroperca olfax, locally known as bacalao and listed as vulnerable by the IUCN, is culturally, economically, and ecologically important to the Galapagos archipelago and its people. It is regionally endemic to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and, while an important fishery resource that has shown substantial declines in recent years, to date no effective management regulations are in place to ensure the sustainability of the Galapagos fishery for this species. Previous estimates of longevity and size at maturity for bacalao are inconsistent with estimates for congeners, which brings into question the accuracy of prior estimates. We set out to assess the age, growth, and reproductive biology of bacalao in order to provide more accurate life history information to inform more effective fisheries management for this species. The oldest fish in our sample was 21 years old, which is 2–3 times greater than previously reported estimates of longevity. Parameter estimates for the von Bertalanffy growth function (k = 0.11, L∞ = 110 cm TL, and to = − 1.7 years) show bacalao to grow much slower and attain substantially larger asymptotic maximum length than previous studies. Mean size at maturity (as female) was estimated at 65.3 cm TL, corresponding to a mean age of 6.5 years. We found that sex ratios were extremely female biased (0.009 M:1F), with a large majority of the individuals in our experimental catch being immature (79%). Our results show that bacalao grow slower, live longer, and mature at a much larger size and greater age than previously thought, with very few mature males in the population. These findings have important implications for the fishery of this valuable species and provide the impetus for a long-overdue species management plan to ensure its long-term sustainability. PMID:26401463

  2. Female Reproductive Aging Is Master-Planned at the Level of Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N.

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final

  3. Nutritional status, biological maturation and cardiorespiratory fitness in Azorean youth aged 11–15 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex and individual differences in biological maturity status can influence height, weight, and body fat. Thus, the rigorous control of these variables seems necessary for estimating overweight and obesity in adolescents. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and over-fatness in Azorean adolescents and to examine the contributions of chronological age, sex, estimated maturity status, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the risk of overweight and obesity and over-fatness. Methods The sample comprised 1,206 youth aged 11–15 years (626 boys and 580 girls) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. Body mass, stature, and skinfolds (triceps and subscapular) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and percent fat was predicted from skinfolds. Age- and sex-specific IOTF cut-off values of the BMI defined nutritional status. Biological maturation was estimated as present height expressed as a percentage of predicted adult (mature) stature. The CRF was analyzed from the 20-m shuttle run test. Results The total prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were of 31% and 27%, respectively. Low CRF (unfit) and being average and advanced in maturity status were positively and significantly associated with overweight/obesity and with risk of being over-fatness in both sexes. Conclusions High prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were identified in Azorean youth, and low CRF and advanced biological maturation were positively associated with overweight/obesity and over-fatness in our sample of adolescents. PMID:23697718

  4. Influence of diet on iron, copper, and zinc status in children under 24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Redworth, Edward Wallis; Morgan, Jane B

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether iron and micronutrient status is improved with an increased amount of meat in the diet. To this end, a longitudinal prospective study with infants recruited at 4 mo and followed until 24 mo of age was undertaken. One hundred ninety-eight infants formed the original study cohort; 48 withdrew before the end of the study. Subjects were classified as nonmeat eaters or as mixed (red and white)-meat eaters subgrouped into tertiles depending on the meat content reported in diet diaries. Seven-day weighed food records were recorded at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 mo. Blood samples taken at 4, 12, and 24 mo were analyzed for parameters of iron and micronutrient status. Iron intake increased during the first year, thereafter remaining constant. The percentages of subjects with hemoglobin values below 110 g/L were 34.1, 23.1, and 13.4 at 4, 12, and 24 mo, respectively. For parameters of iron status, the number of results below the reference range was determined for each diet group and a significant negative relationship between serum iron and meat intake at 12 mo of age was seen (p<0.023). There was a trend for hemoglobin concentrations to be inversely related to the meat intake, at the same age (p<0.068). No effects on zinc or copper status were seen. We conclude that a weak association between dietary meat and iron/Hb suggests a positive role for red meat. There was no disadvantage to the nonmeat-eating infants with respect to zinc or copper. PMID:14997021

  5. Considering maturation status and relative age in the longitudinal evaluation of junior rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, K; Cobley, S; O' Hara, J; Cooke, C; Chapman, C

    2014-06-01

    This study longitudinally evaluated whether maturation and relative age interact with time during adolescence to differentially affect the development of anthropometric and fitness characteristics in junior rugby league players. Anthropometric and fitness characteristics of 81 junior players selected into the UK Rugby Football League's talent identification and development process were assessed over three consecutive occasions (i.e., under-13s, -14s, -15s). Players were grouped and compared in relation to maturational status (i.e., early, average, late) and relative age quartile (i.e., quartile 1). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance identified significant (P < 0.001) overall main effects for maturation group, relative age quartile and importantly a maturation group by time interaction. Findings showed that the early-maturing group had the greatest anthropometric characteristics and medicine ball throw across the three occasions. However, the late-maturing group increased their height (early = 5.0 cm, late = 10.3 cm), medicine ball throw and 60-m sprint (early = -0.46 s, late = -0.85 s) the most throughout the 2-year period. Early (de)selection policies currently applied in talent identification and development programs are questionable when performance-related variables are tracked longitudinally. During adolescence, maturation status alongside relative age should be considered and controlled for when assessing athlete potential for future progression. PMID:23289942

  6. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou

    2016-02-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender. PMID:26773898

  7. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Age: Exploring Intersections in Preterm Birth Disparities among Teen Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Sheryl L.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Aronson, Robert E.; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L.; Morrison, Sharon D.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined disparities in adverse birth outcomes and compared contributing socioeconomic factors specifically between African-American and White teen mothers. This study examined intersections between neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income), maternal age, and racial disparities in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes between African-American and White teen mothers in North Carolina. Using a linked dataset with state birth record data and socioeconomic information from the 2010 US Census, disparities in preterm birth outcomes for 16,472 teen mothers were examined through bivariate and multilevel analyses. African-American teens had significantly greater odds of PTB outcomes than White teens (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.21, 1.56). Racial disparities in PTB rates significantly varied by neighborhood income; PTB rates were 2.1 times higher for African-American teens in higher income neighborhoods compared to White teens in similar neighborhoods. Disparities in PTB did not vary significantly between teens younger than age 17 and teens ages 17-19, although the magnitude of racial disparities was larger between younger African-American and White teens. These results justify further investigations using intersectional frameworks to test the effects of racial status, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and maternal age on birth outcome disparities among infants born to teen mothers. PMID:25729614

  8. Family obligations and individuation among immigrant youth: Do generational status and age at immigration matter?

    PubMed

    Oznobishin, Olga; Kurman, Jenny

    2016-08-01

    Immigrant children and adolescents often assume parental roles in their families and may feel guilty about psychologically separating and individuating from the family. However, little is known about this phenomenon and youth' generational status and age at immigration. We investigated various aspects of family obligations (instrumental and emotional roles, language and culture brokering, perceived unfairness) and individuation among 302 immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel: first-generation (n = 44) and second-generation immigrant adolescents (n = 56); young adults who had arrived in Israel before the age of nine (n = 72) and from this age onward (n = 130). Immigrants who had arrived at age nine and older reported adopting more family obligations than other groups. Among the second-generation immigrants, family obligations were related to lower individuation compared to the first-generation immigrants. Possible explanations for the relations between family obligations and individuation according to generational status are suggested. PMID:27348550

  9. 25 CFR 115.430 - Will your account lose its supervised status when you reach the age of 18?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reach the age of 18? 115.430 Section 115.430 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Will your account lose its supervised status when you reach the age of 18? Your account will no longer be supervised when you reach the age of 18 unless statutory language or a tribal resolution...

  10. 25 CFR 115.430 - Will your account lose its supervised status when you reach the age of 18?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reach the age of 18? 115.430 Section 115.430 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Will your account lose its supervised status when you reach the age of 18? Your account will no longer be supervised when you reach the age of 18 unless statutory language or a tribal resolution...

  11. Socio-demographic correlates of overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoh, Mathew

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of excess adiposity is increasing in less developed countries. This study explored the associations of sociodemographic factors with increased BMI among Nigeria women aged 20-49 years using secondary data collected for the 2008 NDHS. Anthropometric and socio-demographic variables of interest were extracted from the data and analyzed with SPSS version 15.0. Chi(2) was used to compare categorical variables and multi-nominal logistic regression was used to examine for correlates. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI 30kg/m(2) and above) in this population were 18.1% and 7.1% respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was highest among Igbo women. Multivariable logistic regression revealed increased frequency of watching television, belonging to a particular ethnic group, having a tertiary education and increased parity as risk factors for increased BMI. This study confirms a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women and identifies high risk groups for excessive weight gain. PMID:24558783

  12. HIV/AIDS knowledge and stigma among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gurmu, Eshetu; Etana, Dula

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma is one of the major public health challenges in Ethiopia. This study examined knowledge about HIV/AIDS and factors behind stigmatisation towards people living with the virus based on demographic and health survey data collected in 2011 from women in the age group 15-49 years. The result shows that 49.3% of rural women had adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS compared with 74.7% of urban women. About three-fourths (72.1%) of the rural women had stigmatising attitudes towards PLWHA whilst the proportion in urban areas was only about a third (34.2%). The likelihood of having adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS was significantly higher among educated women but lower among those living in Afar, Somali, and Gambella regions and Dire Dawa City. Women with higher levels of education and frequent access to media had a lower tendency to stigmatise people living with the virus. Adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS was also significantly associated with lower likelihood of stigmatisation. The results generally indicate that HIV/AIDS stigma in Ethiopia is partly explained by people's knowledge about HIV/AIDS and by socio-cultural factors that shape their perception of the epidemic. Awareness-raising efforts should thus consider the socio-cultural contexts in which stigma occurs to tackle discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26285101

  13. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07–1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  14. Lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with anal cancer in women aged over 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, K; Beral, V; Green, J; Reeves, G; Barnes, I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anal cancer incidence increases with age and is higher in women than men. Risk factors in this group other than high-risk human papillomavirus infection are unclear. Methods: In all, 1.3 million women were recruited in 1996–2001 and followed for incident anal cancer. Cox regression models were used to calculate relative risks (RRs) for anal cancer by various potential risk factors. Results: Five hundred and seventeen incident anal cancers were registered over 13 years of follow-up. The largest RR was associated with a history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3; RR=4.03, 95% CI 2.59–6.28). Other factors associated with significantly increased risks in multivariate analyses were: ever smoking (RR=1.49, 1.24–1.80); previous use of oral contraceptives (RR=1.51, 1.24–1.83); nulliparity (RR=1.61, 1.24–2.07); tubal ligation (RR=1.39, 1.13–1.70) and not living with a partner (RR=1.82, 1.40–2.38). The association with smoking was significantly greater for squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma of the anus (RR 1.66 vs 0.89, P for heterogeneity=0.04). Conclusions: History of CIN 3, smoking, past oral contraceptive use, nulliparity, tubal ligation and not living with a partner are risk factors for anal cancer in women. There was a significant increase in risk associated with smoking for squamous cell anal cancers but not adenocarcinomas. PMID:25867258

  15. Effects of age and sex on copper absorption, turnover, and status

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Milne, D.B. )

    1991-03-15

    Healthy, free-living men and women aged 20 to 59 years were studied to determine the effects of age and sex on Cu absorption, biological half-life (BH) and status. Additional women who were taking oral contraceptives (OCH) or estrogens were compared to women the same ages who did not take hormones. After an overnight fast, subjects provided a blood sample and ate breakfast labeled with 2.5 {mu}Ci Cu-67. Total Cu-67 ingested was determined after the meal by counting subjects in a whole-body gamma counter. Whole body retention of Cu-67 was monitored by 10 additional counts during the next 21 days. Cu absorption (%A) was calculated by extrapolation of the linear portion of a semi-log plot of % retention vs time. BH was {minus}1n2/slope. %A was significantly greater in women than men aged 20-50, but was not affected by age. BH was not significantly affected by either age or sex. Plasma Cu, enzymatic ceruloplasmin (Cp), and RID Cp were significantly higher in women than men, but SOD and in vitro Cu-67 uptake by RBCs did not differ. None of the biochemical indices were significantly affected by age, except RID Cp, which increased with age. Plasma Cu, enzymatic Cp, and SOD activity were higher in women aged 20-39 taking OCH than in those not taking OCH, but %A and BH did not differ between the groups. Trends in women 50-59 taking estrogen or not were similar to findings for women with/without OCH. These data suggest that dietary Cu requirements may differ between men and women.

  16. Treatment seeking in reproductive age women with RTIs/STIs: a community based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A; Mishra, R; Kansal, S; Mishra, C P; Jha, S K; Hasan, H

    2011-03-01

    The socio-cultural and economic contexts in developing countries influence the epidemiology or STIs and helps in making them an important public health priority. This study was carried out to explore the health care seeking pathway of the women suffering from RTls/STls. influence or major socio-demographic variables on treatment seeking pattern. This cross sectional study was carried out comprising or eight hundred reproductive age (15-49 years) women selected following a multistage sampling procedure. The information pertaining to health seeking behaviour were collected from them using a pre-designed pretested interview schedule. Quantum of RTIs/STIs in the study group was estimated and symptomatics were asked specially about time lag between appearance of symptoms and seeking acre; reason for not seeking care; outcome of treatment they have taken if any. Out of total 359 subjects with symptoms of RTls/STls only about one-third (37.3%) had sought treatment. Only a few (4.5%) had sought treatment within 1 month of appearance of symptoms. Considering it to be physiological about half of the subjects (45.3%) did not seek treatment. The treatment seeking pattern was highly associated with the level of education (p = 0.000). Reluctance in seeking treatment, delay in its initiation, prelerence for unqualified practitioners in first consultation and significant association between education and treatment seeking pattern emphasize BCC and service provision for control and prevention of RTls/STls. PMID:23785881

  17. Factors influencing local food procurement among women of reproductive age in rural eastern and western North Carolina, USA

    PubMed Central

    McGuirt, Jared T.; Ward, Rachel; Elliott, Nadya Majette; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the barriers and facilitators to local food procurement among women of reproductive age (WRA). Therefore we conducted qualitative interviews with WRA in rural eastern and western NC (ENC and WNC) to learn of factors related to locally sourced food procurement. In-depth interviews were conducted among low-income White, Black, and Hispanic English-speaking WRA (N=62 (ENC: 37; WNC: 23) (18–44 years)). Independent coders used a consensus codebook to double-code all transcripts. Coders then came together to discuss and resolve coding discrepancies, and identified themes and salient quotes. Cross-cutting themes from both ENC and WNC participants included access to local food sources; acceptance of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program/Electronic Benefit Transfer (SNAP/EBT); freshness of produce; support for local agriculture; and the community aspect of local food sourcing. The in-depth understanding gained from this study could be used to guide tailored policy and intervention efforts aimed at promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among low-income WRA. PMID:25664198

  18. Age, growth and reproduction of the sand smelt Atherina boyeri Risso, 1810 in the Gomishan wetland - southeast Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patimar, Rahman; Yousefi, Morteza; Hosieni, Seyyed Morteza

    2009-03-01

    A total of 2256 specimens of Atherina boyeri caught in Gomishan wetland (a marsh lagoon located at the southeast Caspian Sea) during spawning season from February to August 2007 were examined for life-history attributes. The population has a 4-year life cycle. Length-weight relationship was estimated as W = 0.0053TL 3.0181 for males and W = 0.0050TL 3.063 for females, being allometrically positive for both sexes. The von Bertalanffy growth function fitted to back-calculated size at age data was: Lt = 155.17[1 - exp - 0.28( t + 0.738)] and Lt = 162.77[1 - exp - 0.27( t + 0.727)] for males and females respectively. The sex ratio was 1:1.30 in favor of females. The reproductive season, evaluated from GSI, extended from March to July, with a peak in March. The average absolute and relative fecundities were 2976 eggs and 874 eggs g -1 of body weight respectively. The diameter of oocytes ranged from 0.03 to 0.20 mm with a mean value of 0.68. The life-history patterns of A. boyeri in the population under study imply that the population of this species in the southeast Caspian Sea differs markedly from those of other localities of its range distribution. The differences were thought to be due to differences in geographical locations.

  19. Urinary perchlorate exposure and risk in women of reproductive age in a fireworks production area of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Yu, Yun-jiang; Wang, Fei-fei; Chen, Shi-wu; Yin, Yan; Lin, Hai-peng; Che, Fei; Sun, Peng; Qin, Juan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Hong-mei

    2014-07-01

    Perchlorate is used widely in fireworks, and, if ingested, it has the potential to disrupt thyroid function. The concentrations of perchlorate in water and soil samples and in urine samples of women of reproductive age from Liuyang, the largest fireworks production area in China, were investigated. The results showed that the average perchlorate concentrations in groundwater, surface water, farmland soil, and urine samples of women from the fireworks production area were significantly greater than those from the control area. The health risk of perchlorate ingested through drinking water was assessed based on the mode recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The values of hazard quotient of river water and groundwater in the fireworks production area were much greater than the safe level (=1), which indicates that adverse health effects may result from perchlorate when these sources of water are used as drinking water. These results indicated that the environment of the fireworks production area has been polluted by perchlorate and that residents were and are facing greater exposure doses of perchlorate. Fireworks production enterprises may be a major source of perchlorate contamination. PMID:24859046

  20. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non

  1. COMPLEX EVALUATION OF THE HEALTH STATUS OF PRIMARY-SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN (ADJARA REGION).

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, Ts; Jorjoliani, L; Adamia, N

    2016-06-01

    Goal of the research was complex evaluation of the health status of the primary-school aged children residing in various regions (urban, rural) of Adjaria. Cross-section, one-stage research was conducted in the City of Batumi and village Tsikhisdziri. In the process of survey health status of children of 4 public schools, from 6 to 9 years old was studied. Observations covered up to 800 school children in total. Screening included consultations of the multidisciplinary group of specialists, additional laboratory and instrumental studies intended for the purpose of accurate diagnostics. Performed studied showed that 28.3% of the studied population was actually healthy, 55% had functional disorders and 16.7% - chronic diseases. In both, urban and rural areas the share of the digestion system, blood and blood-generating organs, nervous system, ophthalmological pathologies and locomotion system diseases prevailed. PMID:27441536

  2. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes type 2 in women at late reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Grineva, EN; Karonova, T; Micheeva, E; Belyaeva, O; Nikitina, IL

    2013-01-01

    It was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content depend on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We studied 320 healthy women at late reproductive age of 40 to 52 years old (mean age 46.1±4.5) from St. Petersburg (North-West region of Russia). 25(OH)D levels were from 19.4 to 134.0 nMol/L (mean 52.9±22.7). Vitamin D deficiency (lower than 50 nMol/L) and insufficiency (50-75 nMol/L) was revealed in 59.1% and 27.8% of women, respectively. The study showed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with obesity (r=-0.35, p<0.01), increased plasma glucose levels after OGTT (r=-0.31, p<0.01) and decreased insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.28, p<0.01). We found that 25(OH)D levels below 50 nMol/L were associated with obesity risk (OR 2.25[1.05-3.95], CI 95%) but not with risk of impaired glucose metabolism (1.07[0.54-2.12],CI95%). Our results showed that vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in the population of healthy women. Low 25(OH)D levels correlated with high body fat, glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is a potential risk factor for obesity and development of insulin resistance leading to diabetes type 2. PMID:23924693

  3. Estimation of usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in New Zealand reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Mygind, Vanessa L; Evans, Sophie E; Peddie, Meredith C; Miller, Jody C; Houghton, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Recently, choline has been associated with neurodevelopment, cognitive function and neural tube defect incidence. However, data on usual intakes are limited, and estimates of dietary intakes of choline and its metabolite betaine, are not available for New Zealanders. The objective of the present study was to determine usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in a group of New Zealand reproductive age women. Dietary intake data were collected from a sample of 125 women, aged 18-40 years, by means of a 3-day weighed food record, and usual choline and betaine intake distributions were determined. The mean (SD) daily intakes of choline and betaine were 316 (66) mg and 178 (66) mg, respectively. The total choline intake relative to energy intake and body weight was 0.18 mg/kcal and 5.1 mg/kg, respectively. Only 16% of participants met or exceeded the Adequate Intake (AI) for adult women of 425 mg of choline. The top five major food contributors of choline were eggs, red meat, milk, bread and chicken; and of betaine were bread, breakfast cereal, pasta, grains and root vegetables (carrots, parsnips, beetroot, swedes). Our findings contribute towards the recent emergence of published reports on the range of dietary choline and betaine intakes consumed by free-living populations. In our sample of New Zealand women, few participants were meeting or exceeding the AI level. Given recent epidemiological evidence suggesting health benefits of increased choline and betaine intakes, recommendations should be made to encourage the consumption of choline and betaine-rich foods. PMID:23635379

  4. Aerobic Fitness, Micronutrient Status, and Academic Achievement in Indian School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ishaan K.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants’ aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05). After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score), children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg-1 * min-1) had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and

  5. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05). After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score), children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg(-1) * min(-1)) had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and

  6. Effects of reproductive status on behavioral and endocrine responses to acute stress in a biparental rodent, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus)

    PubMed Central

    Chauke, Miyetani; Malisch, Jessica L.; Robinson, Cymphonee; de Jong, Trynke R.; Saltzman, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In several mammalian species, lactating females show blunted neural, hormonal, and behavioral responses to stressors. It is not known whether new fathers also show stress hyporesponsiveness in species in which males provide infant care. To test this possibility, we determined the effects of male and female reproductive status on stress responsiveness in the biparental, monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus).Breeding (N=8 females, 8 males), nonbreeding (N=10 females, 10 males) and virgin mice (N=12 females, 9 males) were exposed to a 5-min predator-urine stressor at two time points, corresponding to the early postpartum (5–7 days postpartum) and mid/late postpartum (19–21 days postpartum) phases, and blood samples were collected immediately afterwards. Baseline blood samples were obtained 2 days prior to each stress test. Baseline plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations did not differ among male or female groups. CORT responses to the stressor did not differ among female reproductive groups, and all three groups showed distinct behavioral responses to predator urine. Virgin males tended to increase their CORT response from the first to the second stress test, while breeding and nonbreeding males did not. Moreover, virgin and nonbreeding males showed significant behavioral changes in response to predator urine, whereas breeding males did not. These results suggest that adrenocortical responses to a repeated stressor in male California mice may be modulated by cohabitation with a female, whereas behavioral responses to stress may be blunted by parental status. PMID:21557946

  7. Association between vitamin D status and age-related macular degeneration by genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Meyers, Kristin J; Liu, Zhe; Engelman, Corinne D; Wallace, Robert B; LeBlanc, Erin S; Tinker, Lesley F.; Iyengar, Sudha K; Robinson, Jennifer; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    Importance Deficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with increased odds of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Objective We examined 1) whether this association is modified by genetic risk for AMD and 2) if there is an association between AMD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes involved in vitamin D transport, metabolism and genomic function. Design, Setting and Participants Women were postmenopausal and participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS) (54 to <75 years) with available serum 25(OH)D concentrations (assessed from 1994–1998), genetic data, and measures of AMD (n=142) assessed at CAREDS baseline from 2001–2004 (n=913). Main Outcomes and Measures Prevalent early or late AMD was determined from graded, stereoscopic fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for AMD by the joint effects of 25(OH)D (<30, ≥30 to <50, ≥50 to <75, and ≥75 nmol/L) and risk genotype (noncarrier, one, or two risk alleles). The referent group was noncarriers with adequate vitamin D status (≥75 nmol/L). Joint effect ORs were adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, self-reported cardiovascular disease, self-reported diabetes status, and hormone use. Additive and multiplicative interactions were assessed using the Synergy Index (SI) and an interaction term, respectively. Results We observed a 6.7-fold increased odds of AMD (95% CI=1.6, 28.2) among women with deficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D<30 nmol/L) and two risk alleles for complement factor H (CFH) Y402H (SI for additive interaction=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.7; p for multiplicative interaction=0.25,. A significant additive (SI=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.7) and multiplicative interaction (p=0.02) was observed for deficient women with two high risk complement factor I (CFI) (rs10033900) alleles (OR=6.3, 95% CI=1.6, 24.2). The odds of AMD did not differ by genotype of candidate

  8. Effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on reproductive endocrine status in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) under differing salinity and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Gillio Meina, Esteban; Lister, Andrea; Bosker, Thijs; Servos, Mark; Munkittrick, Kelly; MacLatchy, Deborah

    2013-06-15

    Exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE₂), a synthetic estrogen, has previously been shown to decrease reproductive endocrine status and egg production in northern mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus macrolepidotus). The objective of this study was to evaluate if variations in salinity or temperature conditions of EE₂-exposed mummichog modify the effect on whole organism reproductive endocrine status and gonadal steroidogenesis. Mummichog were exposed in vivo for 14 days to 0, 50 and 250 ng/L EE₂ in 0, 16 and 32 ppt salinity at 18 °C and to 0 and 250 ng/L EE₂ at 10, 18 and 26 °C at 16 ppt. There was a little overall effect of salinity on measured endpoints. In the salinity exposure, 250 ng/L EE₂-exposed females had significantly reduced 17β-estradiol (E₂) levels. Increased temperature triggered gonadal growth in both sexes and increased plasma E₂ and E₂ production and decreased 11-KT (11-ketotestosterone) production. EE₂ counteracted the effect of temperature by depressing gonadal growth in males. In both exposures, EE₂ effects on testosterone (T) production were variable. The use of steroidogenic precursors (25-OH-cholesterol, and/or pregnenolone and/or testosterone) in the in vitro gonadal incubations indicated decreased E₂ production in females and 11-KT production in males were predominately due to suppression of the terminal conversion step between T and E₂ or 11-KT. Ovarian aromatase A (cyp19a) gene expression at 16 ppt and 18 °C was not affected by 250 ng/L EE₂ (the only treatment combinations tested). Overall, temperature is a factor regulating northern mummichog reproduction; EE₂ overrides its effects and disrupts the terminal step of steroidogenesis. Our results should be considered in designing future estuarine fish bioassays and in understanding effects of estrogenic endocrine disruptors in estuaries. PMID:23608699

  9. Age of first arrest varies by gambling status in a cohort of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Lee, Grace P.; Santaella, Julian; Liu, Weiwei; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Storr, Carla L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives To describe the association between social and problem gambling and first criminal arrest by age 23 in a cohort of urban, mainly African-American youth. Methods: Data for this study was derived from several annual interviews being completed on a community sample of 617 participants during late adolescence until age 23. Information on gambling status, engagement in deviant behaviors, illegal drug use, and arrest history were collected through yearly interviews. Analysis was carried out using Nelson-Aalen cumulative hazard models and simple and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results More problem gamblers had been arrested before age 23 than social gamblers and non-gamblers, i.e. 65% of problem gamblers were arrested before age 23, compared to 38% of social gamblers and 24% non-gamblers. Social gambling was only significantly associated with the hazard of first arrest by age 23 in the unadjusted model (HR: 1.6, p<.001), but not after adjustment for covariates (HR: 1.1, p=0.47). Problem gambling was significantly associated with the hazard of first arrest by age 23 years in the unadjusted (HR: 3.6,p<.001) and adjusted models (HR:1.6, p=0.05). Conclusions and Scientific Significance Problem gambling was significantly associated with earlier age of being arrested. Dilution effects after adjustment for several deviant behaviors and illegal drug use by age 17 suggest that youth exposed to certain common factors may result in engagement in multiple risky behaviors, including problem gambling. Studies are needed to investigate the developmental pathways that lead to these combined behaviors among youth. PMID:24628694

  10. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained. PMID:24828752

  11. Age, scrapie status, PrP genotype and follicular dendritic cells in ovine ileal Peyer's patches.

    PubMed

    Marruchella, Giuseppe; Ligios, Ciriaco; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) residing within ileal Peyer's patches (PPs) are of crucial relevance for sheep scrapie early pathogenesis and subsequent scrapie prion neuroinvasion. In this study, ileal PP follicles were significantly more numerous in lambs than in adult Sarda breed sheep, with significant differences being also found in lymphoid follicle area, perimeter and FDC density. Furthermore, PrPd deposition within ileal PPs and host's PrP genotype did not significantly influence these parameters. We conclude that age significantly affects FDC density in ileal PPs from Sarda breed ovines, independently from host's scrapie status and PrP genotype. PMID:21962485

  12. Age-related difference in relationships between cognitive processing speed and general cognitive status.

    PubMed

    Tam, Helena M K; Lam, Charlene L M; Huang, Haixia; Wang, Baolan; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-01-01

    General cognitive status (GCS) is a composite of cognitive abilities reflecting full function. The literature suggests a relationship between cognitive processing speed and GCS, as well as age-related changes of processing speed on cognitive performance. Therefore, this study recruited 34 younger and 39 older adults to verify age-related differences in relationships between cognitive processing speed and GCS. We measured cognitive processing speed with the Processing Speed Index of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Findings indicated that cognitive processing speed predicted GCS in older but not younger adults. Future research may be needed to verify the training effect of processing speed on GCS. This study also further examined cognitive factors related to processing speed in aging and the relationships between cognitive processing speed and verbal fluency, cognitive inhibition, and divided attention. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that only verbal fluency contributed significantly to cognitive processing speed in older adults, accounting for 21% of the variance. These observations suggest that age-related changes of prefrontal regions may not fully explain age-related decline in cognitive processing speed. PMID:24927241

  13. Research on aging in Latin America: Present status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sennott-Miller, L

    1994-01-01

    This essay examines the status of aging research in Latin America. It presents a profile of the aging population in the Region in relation to societal institutions, illustrating how the aged are only marginally served by them. Most of the available information is derived from secondary sources and comes from international and national agencies, and private organizations. Data-based research includes small-sample studies of specific issues and country-specific investigations by both U.S. and Latin American researchers. Paradigms used emphasize successful/productive aging, functional ability, and, to a lesser extent, work focused on health conditions or specific situations such as poverty. The best sources of contextual information are often unpublished or not published in the mainstream literature. Future directions recommended include organizing existing data to inform policy, identifying, with Latin American researchers, the most critical research questions, formalizing collaborative relationships, and holding a working conference of those involved in Latin American aging research to develop a future agenda. PMID:24390003

  14. The Effect of Age, Gender, Refractive Status and Axial Length on the Measurements of Hertel Exophthalmometry

    PubMed Central

    Karti, Omer; Selver, Ozlem B; Karahan, Eyyup; Zengin, Mehmet O; Uyar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the normal distribution of exophthalmometric values in Turkish adult population and the effect of age, gender, refractive status and axial length on globe position. Methods : One hundred and twenty-two males and 114 healthy females with age ranging from 18 to 87 years were included in the study. The study population was recruited from patients presenting to our institution for routine refractive examination. Hertel exophthalmometer was used to measure the degree of ocular protrusion. Effect of age, refractive error, interpupillary distance, and axial length on globe position was detected with linear regression analyses. Results : The mean Hertel exophthalmometric size was 15.7+2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm). The mean value for males was 16.1±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm), and for females 15.5±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 20 mm). The mean distance between the lateral rims of the orbit was 102 + 5.1 mm (range; 88 to 111mm). The mean exophthalmometric values were not statistically different in males and females. Age and mean spherical equivalents were negatively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Axial length was positively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Conclusion : The exophthalmometric measurement of the eye is affected by the age, spherical equivalent and the axial length. Standard normative values of the Hertel exophthalmometric measurements should be reevaluated with larger samples. PMID:26089994

  15. An assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone in predicting mating outcomes in female hamsters that have undergone natural and chemically-accelerated reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Kristen A; Zysling, Devin A; Place, Ned J

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, female fertility declines with age due in part to a progressive loss of ovarian follicles. The rate of follicle decline varies among individuals making it difficult to predict the age of onset of reproductive senescence. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations correlate with the numbers of ovarian follicles, and therefore, AMH could be a useful predictor of female fertility. In women and some production animals, AMH is used to identify which individuals will respond best to ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technologies. However, few studies have evaluated AMH's predictive value in unassisted reproduction, and they have yielded conflicting results. To assess the predictive value of AMH in the context of reproductive aging, we prospectively measured serum AMH in 9-month-old Siberian hamsters shortly before breeding them. Female Siberian hamsters experience substantial declines in fertility and fecundity by 9months of age. We also measured serum AMH in 5-month-old females treated with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), which selectively destroys ovarian follicles and functionally accelerates ovarian aging. Vehicle-treated 5-month-old females served as controls. AMH concentrations were significantly reduced in VCD-treated females yet many females with low AMH reproduced successfully. On average, both young and old hamsters that littered had higher AMH concentrations than females that did not. However, some females with relatively high AMH concentrations failed to litter, whereas several with low AMH succeeded. Our results suggest that mean AMH concentration can predict mating outcomes on a population or group level, but on an individual basis, a single AMH determination is less informative. PMID:25801548

  16. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  17. The Effects of an Oil and Wheat Flour Fortification Program on Pre-School Children and Women of Reproductive Age Living in Côte d’Ivoire, a Malaria-Endemic Area

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Raso, Giovanna; Aké-Tano, Sassor Odile P.; Tschannen, Andreas B.; Mascie-Taylor, Christopher Guy Nicholas; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but the impact of food fortification is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the iron and vitamin A status of preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) in households consuming fortified oil and wheat flour. The survey was cross-sectional in a rural and an urban area. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, and fortified foods were collected at households. Hemoglobin (Hb), retinol binding protein (RBP), ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), subclinical inflammation, and Plasmodium spp. infection data were collected. In PSC, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was prevalent, but for each 1 mg retinol equivalents (RE)/kg of oil consumed, RBP increased by 0.37 μmol/L (p = 0.03). In WRA, there was no significant VAD in the population (0.7%). Anemia was found in 92.2% of rural and 56.3% of urban PSC (p < 0.001). PSC with access to adequately fortified flour had Hb concentrations 15.7 g/L higher than those who did not (p < 0.001). Hb levels increased by +0.238 g/L per mg/kg increase in iron fortification levels (p < 0.001). The national program fortifying vegetable oil with vitamin A and wheat flour with iron and folic acid may have contributed to improved micronutrient status of PSC from two areas in Côte d’Ivoire. PMID:26959060

  18. The Effects of an Oil and Wheat Flour Fortification Program on Pre-School Children and Women of Reproductive Age Living in Côte d'Ivoire, a Malaria-Endemic Area.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Raso, Giovanna; Aké-Tano, Sassor Odile P; Tschannen, Andreas B; Mascie-Taylor, Christopher Guy Nicholas; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but the impact of food fortification is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the iron and vitamin A status of preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) in households consuming fortified oil and wheat flour. The survey was cross-sectional in a rural and an urban area. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, and fortified foods were collected at households. Hemoglobin (Hb), retinol binding protein (RBP), ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), subclinical inflammation, and Plasmodium spp. infection data were collected. In PSC, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was prevalent, but for each 1 mg retinol equivalents (RE)/kg of oil consumed, RBP increased by 0.37 μmol/L (p = 0.03). In WRA, there was no significant VAD in the population (0.7%). Anemia was found in 92.2% of rural and 56.3% of urban PSC (p < 0.001). PSC with access to adequately fortified flour had Hb concentrations 15.7 g/L higher than those who did not (p < 0.001). Hb levels increased by +0.238 g/L per mg/kg increase in iron fortification levels (p < 0.001). The national program fortifying vegetable oil with vitamin A and wheat flour with iron and folic acid may have contributed to improved micronutrient status of PSC from two areas in Côte d'Ivoire. PMID:26959060

  19. Marital status integration, suicide disapproval, and societal integration as explanations of marital status differences in female age-specific suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Cutright, Phillips; Stack, Steven; Fernquist, Robert

    2007-12-01

    Sociological analyses of suicide have often neglected female suicide rates. Three competing explanations are tested to determine why the suicide rates of married women are, typically, lower than the suicide rates of women who are not married: (1) marital status integration, (2) societal integration, and (3) a nation's normative order about disapproval of suicide. Data refer to age and marital status-specific female suicide rates from 12 developed countries. The results provide the strongest support for the marital status integration theory and consistent support for the social integration perspective. There is also mixed support for the cultural disapproval of suicide hypothesis. PMID:18275377

  20. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children. PMID:27252248

  1. The impact of aging and hearing status on verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Clémence; Collette, Fabienne; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of hearing status on age-related decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This was done by administering a battery of verbal STM tasks to elderly and young adult participants matched for hearing thresholds, as well as to young normal-hearing control participants. The matching procedure allowed us to assess the importance of hearing loss as an explanatory factor of age-related STM decline. We observed that elderly participants and hearing-matched young participants showed equal levels of performance in all verbal STM tasks, and performed overall lower than the normal-hearing young control participants. This study provides evidence for recent theoretical accounts considering reduced hearing level as an important explanatory factor of poor auditory-verbal STM performance in older adults. PMID:24007209

  2. Intergenerational conflicts may help explain parental absence effects on reproductive timing: a model of age at first birth in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background. Parental absences in childhood are often associated with accelerated reproductive maturity in humans. These results are counterintuitive for evolutionary social scientists because reductions in parental investment should be detrimental for offspring, but earlier reproduction is generally associated with higher fitness. In this paper we discuss a neglected hypothesis that early reproduction is often associated with parental absence because it decreases the average relatedness of a developing child to her future siblings. Family members often help each other reproduce, meaning that parents and offspring may find themselves in competition over reproductive opportunities. In these intergenerational negotiations offspring will have less incentive to help the remaining parent rear future half-siblings relative to beginning reproduction themselves. Method. We illustrate this “intergenerational conflict hypothesis” with a formal game-theoretic model. Results. We show that when resources constrain reproductive opportunities within the family, parents will generally win reproductive conflicts with their offspring, i.e., they will produce more children of their own and therefore delay existing offsprings’ reproduction. This is due to the asymmetric relatedness between grandparents and grandchildren (r = .25), compared to siblings (r = 0.5), resulting in greater incentives for older siblings to help rear younger siblings than for grandparents to help rear grandchildren. However, if a parent loses or replaces their partner, the conflict between the parent and offspring becomes symmetric since half siblings are as related to one another as grandparents are to grandchildren. This means that the offspring stand to gain more from earlier reproduction when their remaining parent would produce half, rather than full, siblings. We further show that if parents senesce in a way that decreases the quality of their infant relative to their offspring’s infant, the

  3. Through Ageing, and Beyond: Gut Microbiota and Inflammatory Status in Seniors and Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Biagi, Elena; Nylund, Lotta; Candela, Marco; Ostan, Rita; Bucci, Laura; Pini, Elisa; Nikkïla, Janne; Monti, Daniela; Satokari, Reetta; Franceschi, Claudio; Brigidi, Patrizia; De Vos, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Background Age-related physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as modifications in lifestyle, nutritional behaviour, and functionality of the host immune system, inevitably affect the gut microbiota, resulting in a greater susceptibility to infections. Methodology/Principal Findings By using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip) and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea, we explored the age-related differences in the gut microbiota composition among young adults, elderly, and centenarians, i.e subjects who reached the extreme limits of the human lifespan, living for over 100 years. We observed that the microbial composition and diversity of the gut ecosystem of young adults and seventy-years old people is highly similar but differs significantly from that of the centenarians. After 100 years of symbiotic association with the human host, the microbiota is characterized by a rearrangement in the Firmicutes population and an enrichment in facultative anaerobes, notably pathobionts. The presence of such a compromised microbiota in the centenarians is associated with an increased inflammatory status, also known as inflammageing, as determined by a range of peripheral blood inflammatory markers. This may be explained by a remodelling of the centenarians' microbiota, with a marked decrease in Faecalibacterium prauznitzii and relatives, symbiotic species with reported anti-inflammatory properties. As signature bacteria of the long life we identified specifically Eubacterium limosum and relatives that were more than ten-fold increased in the centenarians. Conclusions/Significance We provide evidence for the fact that the ageing process deeply affects the structure of the human gut microbiota, as well as its homeostasis with the host's immune system. Because of its crucial role in the host physiology and health status, age-related differences in the gut microbiota composition may be related to the progression of diseases and

  4. Lif