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Sample records for age results revealed

  1. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644

  2. Peptide bioregulation of aging: results and prospects.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Khavinson, Vladimir Kh

    2010-04-01

    The review comprises the results of author's long-term investigation in the mechanisms of aging and a role of peptide bioregulators in prevention of age-related pathology. A number of small peptides have been isolated from different organs and tissues and their analogues (di-, tri-, tetrapeptides) were synthesized from the amino acids. It was shown that long-term treatment with some peptide preparations increased mean life span by 20-40%, slow down the age-related changes in the biomarkers of aging and suppressed development of spontaneous and induced by chemical or radiation carcinogens tumorigenesis in rodents. Possible mechanisms of the biological effects of small peptides are discussed in the paper. The results of clinical applications of peptide preparation during the period of 6-12 years are presented as well.

  3. Results of LWR snubber aging research

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D P; Werry, E V; Blahnik, D E

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the aging research results and recommendations for snubbers used in commercial nuclear power plants. Snubbers are safety-related devices used to restrain undesirable dynamic loads at various piping and equipment locations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Each snubber must accommodate a plant's normal thermal movements and must be capable of restraining the maximum off-normal dynamic loads, such as a seismic event or a transient, postulated for its specific location. The effects of snubber aging and the factors that contribute to the degradation of their safety performance need to be better understood. Thus, Phase II of Nuclear Plant Aging Research was conducted to enhance the understanding of snubber aging and its consequences. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff and their subcontractors, Lake Engineering and Wyle Laboratories, visited eight sites (encompassing thirteen plants) to conduct interviews with NPP staff and to collect data on snubber aging, testing, and maintenance. The Phase II research methodology, evaluation, results, conclusions, and recommendations are described in the report. Effective methods for service-life monitoring of snubbers are included in the recommendations.

  4. [SOME RESULTS OF MOLECULAR GENETIC RESEARCHES OF AGING AND LONGEVITY].

    PubMed

    Mustafina, O E; Somova, R Sh

    2015-01-01

    This review is devoted to the description of research achievements in genetics of aging and longevity. It represents a certain interest for understanding of a problems of aging as a whole. There is a huge amount of results of diverse genetic studies of aging and longevity. Studies were performed with using different experimental strategies on model organisms or samples from different human populations of the world. The search for aging and longevity genes was carried out within international consortiums. The first results of whole genome sequences of super-centenarians were received. The genes influencing life expectancy were revealed in organisms of different systematic groups. Many of these genes are evolutionarily conservative. Associations between APOE, FOXO1A, FOXO3A, AKT1 gene polymorphisms and human longevity were confirmed in independent studies.

  5. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 FOUNDATION DETAIL REVEALED AS RESULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 FOUNDATION DETAIL REVEALED AS RESULT OF HOUSE DEMOLITION - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  6. Reproductive aging patterns in primates reveal that humans are distinct

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Cords, Marina; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara S.; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.; Bronikowski, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    Women rarely give birth after ∼45 y of age, and they experience the cessation of reproductive cycles, menopause, at ∼50 y of age after a fertility decline lasting almost two decades. Such reproductive senescence in mid-lifespan is an evolutionary puzzle of enduring interest because it should be inherently disadvantageous. Furthermore, comparative data on reproductive senescence from other primates, or indeed other mammals, remains relatively rare. Here we carried out a unique detailed comparative study of reproductive senescence in seven species of nonhuman primates in natural populations, using long-term, individual-based data, and compared them to a population of humans experiencing natural fertility and mortality. In four of seven primate species we found that reproductive senescence occurred before death only in a small minority of individuals. In three primate species we found evidence of reproductive senescence that accelerated throughout adulthood; however, its initial rate was much lower than mortality, so that relatively few individuals experienced reproductive senescence before death. In contrast, the human population showed the predicted and well-known pattern in which reproductive senescence occurred before death for many women and its rate accelerated throughout adulthood. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that reproductive senescence in midlife, although apparent in natural-fertility, natural-mortality populations of humans, is generally absent in other primates living in such populations. PMID:23898189

  7. Otoliths reveal a diverse age structure for humper lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Bronte, Charles R.

    1996-01-01

    Humpers are one of at least three morphological variants of wild lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that maintain self-sustaining populations in Lake Superior. In an early study, bumpers from Isle Royale were shown to have a sharply truncated age distribution that was attributed to high mortality after age 11, but we suspected that these fish were underaged. In August of 1989 and 1992 we collected spawning humper lake trout from the same area and estimated their ages using both scales and sagittal otoliths. Humpers in our sample ranged from 5 to 13 years, based on scale annuli, but counts of sagitta annuli revealed ages of 8 to 28 years. Individual discrepancies between ages from scales and sagittae varied from –2 to 20 years, but differences between scale and otolith ages did not increase with individual age. We applied the von Bertalanffy growth model to the humper length-at-age data to indirectly assess the accuracy of aging estimates. The model significantly overestimated mean asymptotic length when scale ages were used, but the mean asymptotic length estimate was more similar to observed lengths when sagitta ages were used. Our results corroborate evidence that bumpers in Lake Superior grow more slowly and mature at a smaller size than lean lake trout; however, the age composition of bumpers is more diverse than previously thought. This particular population experiences little or no exploitation; the presence of older fish provides one standard by which the success of lake trout rehabilitation programs can be evaluated and emphasizes the need for accurate aging techniques.

  8. Microarray analysis reveals novel features of the muscle aging process in men and women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongmei; Sartor, Maureen A; Nader, Gustavo A; Pistilli, Emidio E; Tanton, Leah; Lilly, Charles; Gutmann, Laurie; IglayReger, Heidi B; Visich, Paul S; Hoffman, Eric P; Gordon, Paul M

    2013-09-01

    To develop a global view of muscle transcriptional differences between older men and women and sex-specific aging, we obtained muscle biopsies from the biceps brachii of young and older men and women and profiled the whole-genome gene expression using microarray. A logistic regression-based method in combination with an intensity-based Bayesian moderated t test was used to identify significant sex- and aging-related gene functional groups. Our analysis revealed extensive sex differences in the muscle transcriptome of older individuals and different patterns of transcriptional changes with aging in men and women. In older women, we observed a coordinated transcriptional upregulation of immune activation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and lipids storage; and a downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function and muscle regeneration. The effect of aging results in sexual dimorphic alterations in the skeletal muscle transcriptome, which may modify the risk for developing musculoskeletal and metabolic diseases in men and women.

  9. Microarray Analysis Reveals Novel Features of the Muscle Aging Process in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    To develop a global view of muscle transcriptional differences between older men and women and sex-specific aging, we obtained muscle biopsies from the biceps brachii of young and older men and women and profiled the whole-genome gene expression using microarray. A logistic regression-based method in combination with an intensity-based Bayesian moderated t test was used to identify significant sex- and aging-related gene functional groups. Our analysis revealed extensive sex differences in the muscle transcriptome of older individuals and different patterns of transcriptional changes with aging in men and women. In older women, we observed a coordinated transcriptional upregulation of immune activation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and lipids storage; and a downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function and muscle regeneration. The effect of aging results in sexual dimorphic alterations in the skeletal muscle transcriptome, which may modify the risk for developing musculoskeletal and metabolic diseases in men and women. PMID:23418191

  10. Proteome-wide analysis reveals an age-associated cellular phenotype of in situ aged human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Waldera-Lupa, Daniel M.; Kalfalah, Faiza; Florea, Ana-Maria; Sass, Steffen; Kruse, Fabian; Rieder, Vera; Tigges, Julia; Fritsche, Ellen; Krutmann, Jean; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Meyer, Helmut E.; Boege, Fritz; Theis, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed an ex vivo model of in situ aged human dermal fibroblasts, obtained from 15 adult healthy donors from three different age groups using an unbiased quantitative proteome-wide approach applying label-free mass spectrometry. Thereby, we identified 2409 proteins, including 43 proteins with an age-associated abundance change. Most of the differentially abundant proteins have not been described in the context of fibroblasts’ aging before, but the deduced biological processes confirmed known hallmarks of aging and led to a consistent picture of eight biological categories involved in fibroblast aging, namely proteostasis, cell cycle and proliferation, development and differentiation, cell death, cell organization and cytoskeleton, response to stress, cell communication and signal transduction, as well as RNA metabolism and translation. The exhaustive analysis of protein and mRNA data revealed that 77% of the age-associated proteins were not linked to expression changes of the corresponding transcripts. This is in line with an associated miRNA study and led us to the conclusion that most of the age-associated alterations detected at the proteome level are likely caused post-transcriptionally rather than by differential gene expression. In summary, our findings led to the characterization of novel proteins potentially associated with fibroblast aging and revealed that primary cultures of in situ aged fibroblasts are characterized by moderate age-related proteomic changes comprising the multifactorial process of aging. PMID:25411231

  11. Greater Perceived Age Discrimination in England than the United States: Results from HRS and ELSA

    PubMed Central

    Zaninotto, Paola; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined cross-national differences in perceptions of age discrimination in England and the United States. Under the premise that the United States has had age discrimination legislation in place for considerably longer than England, we hypothesized that perceptions of age discrimination would be lower in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from two nationally representative studies of aging, the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (n = 4,818) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 7,478). Respondents aged 52 years and older who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination were significantly higher in England than the United States, with 34.8% of men and women in England reporting age discrimination compared with 29.1% in the United States. Associations between perceived age discrimination and older age and lower levels of household wealth were observed in both countries, but we found differences between England and the United States in the relationship between perceived age discrimination and education. Discussion. Our study revealed that levels of perceived age discrimination are lower in the United States than England and are less socially patterned. This suggests that differing social and political circumstances in the two countries may have an important role to play. PMID:26224759

  12. Novel gene function revealed by mouse mutagenesis screens for models of age-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Paul K.; Bowl, Michael R.; Jeyarajan, Prashanthini; Wisby, Laura; Blease, Andrew; Goldsworthy, Michelle E.; Simon, Michelle M.; Greenaway, Simon; Michel, Vincent; Barnard, Alun; Aguilar, Carlos; Agnew, Thomas; Banks, Gareth; Blake, Andrew; Chessum, Lauren; Dorning, Joanne; Falcone, Sara; Goosey, Laurence; Harris, Shelley; Haynes, Andy; Heise, Ines; Hillier, Rosie; Hough, Tertius; Hoslin, Angela; Hutchison, Marie; King, Ruairidh; Kumar, Saumya; Lad, Heena V.; Law, Gemma; MacLaren, Robert E.; Morse, Susan; Nicol, Thomas; Parker, Andrew; Pickford, Karen; Sethi, Siddharth; Starbuck, Becky; Stelma, Femke; Cheeseman, Michael; Cross, Sally H.; Foster, Russell G.; Jackson, Ian J.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Thakker, Rajesh V.; Vincent, Tonia; Scudamore, Cheryl; Wells, Sara; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Petit, Christine; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Nolan, Patrick M.; Cox, Roger; Mallon, Anne-Marie; Brown, Steve D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the genetic bases of age-related disease remains a major challenge requiring a spectrum of approaches from human and clinical genetics to the utilization of model organism studies. Here we report a large-scale genetic screen in mice employing a phenotype-driven discovery platform to identify mutations resulting in age-related disease, both late-onset and progressive. We have utilized N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis to generate pedigrees of mutagenized mice that were subject to recurrent screens for mutant phenotypes as the mice aged. In total, we identify 105 distinct mutant lines from 157 pedigrees analysed, out of which 27 are late-onset phenotypes across a range of physiological systems. Using whole-genome sequencing we uncover the underlying genes for 44 of these mutant phenotypes, including 12 late-onset phenotypes. These genes reveal a number of novel pathways involved with age-related disease. We illustrate our findings by the recovery and characterization of a novel mouse model of age-related hearing loss. PMID:27534441

  13. [Cognitive capacity in advanced age: initial results of the Berlin Aging Study].

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1995-01-01

    This study reports data on intellectual functioning in old and very old age from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516; age range = 70-103 years; mean age = 85 years). A psychometric battery of 14 tests was used to assess five cognitive abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the broad fluid-mechanical as well as knowledge and fluency from the broad crystallized-pragmatic domains. Cognitive abilities had a negative linear relationship with age, with more pronounced age-based reductions in fluid-mechanical than crystallized-pragmatic abilities. At the same time, ability intercorrelations formed a highly positive manifold, and did not follow the fluid-crystallized distinction. Interindividual variability was of about equal magnitude across the entire age range studied. There was, however, no evidence for substantial sex differences. As to origins of individual differences, indicators of sensory and sensorimotor functioning were more powerful predictors of intellectual functioning than cultural-biographical variables, and the two sets of predictors were, consistent with theoretical expectations, differentially related to measures of fluid-mechanical (perceptual speed) and crystallized pragmatic (knowledge) functioning. Results, in general indicative of sizeable and general losses with age, are consistent with the view that aging-induced biological influences are a prominent source of individual differences in intellectual functioning in old and very old age. Longitudinal follow-ups are underway to examine the role of cohort effects, selective mortality, and interindividual differences in change trajectories.

  14. Accelerated aging test results for aerospace wire insulation constructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Several wire insulation constructions were evaluated with and without continuous glow discharges at low pressure and high temperature to determine the aging characteristics of acceptable wire insulation constructions. It was known at the beginning of the test program that insulation aging takes several years when operated at normal ambient temperature and pressure of 20 C and 760 torr. Likewise, it was known that the accelerated aging process decreases insulation life by approximately 50% for each 10 C temperature rise. Therefore, the first phases of the program, not reported in these test results, were to select wire insulation constructions that could operate at high temperature and low pressure for over 10,000 hours with negligible shrinkage and little materials' deterioration.The final phase of the program was to determine accelerated aging characteristics. When an insulation construction is subjected to partial discharges the insulation is locally heated by the bombardment of the discharges, the insulation is also subjected to ozone and other deteriorating gas particles that may significantly increase the aging process. Several insulation systems using either a single material or combinations of teflon, kapton, and glass insulation constructions were tested. All constructions were rated to be partial discharge and/or corona-free at 240 volts, 400 Hz and 260 C (500 F) for 50, 000 hours at altitudes equivalent to the Paschen law. Minimum partial discharge aging tests were preceded by screening tests lasting 20 hours at 260 C. The aging process was accelerated by subjecting the test articles to temperatures up to 370 C (700 F) with and without partial discharges. After one month operation with continuous glow discharges surrounding the test articles, most insulation systems were either destroyed or became brittle, cracked, and unsafe for use. Time with space radiation as with partial discharges is accumulative.

  15. Relocation at older age: results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Community environment might play an important role in supporting ageing in place. This paper aims to explore relocation at older age and its associations with individual and community level factors. Methods The postcodes of the 2424 people in the year-10 interview of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) in England were mapped onto Enumeration Districts and linked to their corresponding Townsend deprivation score and the 2011 rural/urban categories. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to examine the influence of the baseline individual (age, gender, education and social class) and community (rural/urban categories and area deprivation) level factors on relocation over 10 years. Results One-third of people moved residence after the age of 65 years and over. Older age, low education, low social class and living in rural areas at baseline were associated with higher probability of moving later in life. The likelihood of relocation in later life increased from least to most deprived areas (odds ratio: 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.8). Conclusions Urban/rural contexts and area deprivation are associated with relocation at older age and indicate that community environment may be relevant to ageing in place. PMID:25922369

  16. Predictive aging results for cable materials in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In this report, we provide a detailed discussion of methodology of predicting cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature, and exposure time and its application to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicon rubber and two ethylenetetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7 to 9 years), low dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under nuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following generic'' materials: hypalon, ethylenetetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such generic'' behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated. Finally, to aid utilities in their cable life extension decisions, we utilize our modelling results to generate lifetime prediction curves for the materials modelled to data. These curves plot expected material lifetime versus dose rate and temperature down to the levels of interest to nuclear power plant aging. 18 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. The I-Xe Age of Orgueil Magnetite: New Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A. P.

    2003-01-01

    I-Xe ages of Murchison and Orgueil magnetites were reported to be the oldest [1] and interpreted as the condensation time of the solar nebula. More recent measurements, conducted on a highly magnetic separate from Orgueil (but not pure magnetite), gave much younger I-Xe ages [2]. We have since performed new studies on two pure separates of Orgueil magnetite, confirming the later closing time of the I-Xe system in this mineral phase. In the previous work of Lewis and Anders [1] special attention was paid to the purity of the analyzed material. It was shown, that the trapped Xe resided mostly in hydrated silicates and the radiogenic 129Xe in magnetite [3]. Therefore, Orgueil was finely ground and stirred with a saturated LiCl solution for 8 days at 60 C to remove the silicate-magnetite intergrowth. Although this procedure yields magnetic fractions that are at least 90% pure [1], it could potentially contaminate the magnetite with iodine and produce noncorrelated 128Xe and spurious I-Xe ages. To avoid this possibility, in our first work with Orgueil we deliberately omitted separation in LiCl solution. Instead, the meteorite was ground into a fine powder and the highly magnetic fraction was separated with a hand magnet and was confirmed to be largely magnetite [2]. The new work, reported here, was done in order to confirm our previous results and investigate the effects of the LiCl treatment on the I-Xe system in magnetite.

  18. Micromorphology of past urban soils: method and results (France, Iron Age - Middle Age)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, Cécilia

    2014-05-01

    Urban soils in French protohistoric and Roman towns and present-day towns of roman origin are several meters thick accumulations, with great spatial and vertical variability due to long duration of occupation. In order to improve our knowledge of both sedimentary and pedological characteristics as well as formation processes of urban soils, micromorphological analysis was carried out on buried towns. The studied sites include Iron Age towns (floodplain sites: Lattes or Lattara, Le Cailar; oppidum: Pech-Maho in the south of France), a roman buried town (Famars or Fanum Martis, North of France), and various towns occupied from the Roman period until now (urban and periurban sites in Paris, Strasbourg, Mâcon… North and East of France). Original method and sampling strategy were elaborated in order to try to encompass both spatial and vertical variability as well as the "mitage" of the present-day cities. In Lattes, representative elementary urban areas such as streets, courtyard, and houses were sampled for micromorphology during extensive excavation. These analyses revealed specific microscopic features related to complex anthropogenic processes (craft and domestic activities discarding, trampling, backfill, building), moisture and heat, and biological activity, which defined each kind of area. Comparison between well preserved buried town and current cities of roman origin, where the sequence of past urban soils is preserved in few place ("mitage") help to identify past activities, building rhythms as well as specific building materials. For example, in Paris, compacted sandy backfills alternate with watertight hardfloors during the Roman period (soils similar to Technosols). At the opposite, various kinds of loose bioturbated laminated dark earth resulting from activities such as craft refuses, backfills, compost or trampled layers were discriminated for Early Medieval Period (soils similar to Cumulic Anthroposol). Moreover, biological activity is usually

  19. Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 132

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The data reveal significant age-related differences in proficiencies, strongly suggesting that proficiency tends to "naturally" decline with age. Age…

  20. The ARSQ 2.0 reveals age and personality effects on mind-wandering experiences

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, B. Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Stoffers, Diederick; Hardstone, Richard; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The human brain frequently generates thoughts and feelings detached from environmental demands. Investigating the rich repertoire of these mind-wandering experiences is challenging, as it depends on introspection and mapping its content requires an unknown number of dimensions. We recently developed a retrospective self-report questionnaire—the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ)—which quantifies mind wandering along seven dimensions: “Discontinuity of Mind,” “Theory of Mind,” “Self,” “Planning,” “Sleepiness,” “Comfort,” and “Somatic Awareness.” Here, we show using confirmatory factor analysis that the ARSQ can be simplified by standardizing the number of items per factor and extending it to a 10-dimensional model, adding “Health Concern,” “Visual Thought,” and “Verbal Thought.” We will refer to this extended ARSQ as the “ARSQ 2.0.” Testing for effects of age and gender revealed no main effect for gender, yet a moderate and significant negative effect for age on the dimensions of “Self,” “Planning,” and “Visual Thought.” Interestingly, we observed stable and significant test-retest correlations across measurement intervals of 3–32 months except for “Sleepiness” and “Health Concern.” To investigate whether this stability could be related to personality traits, we correlated ARSQ scores to proxy measures of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory, revealing multiple significant associations for the trait “Self-Directedness.” Other traits correlated to specific ARSQ dimensions, e.g., a negative association between “Harm Avoidance” and “Comfort.” Together, our results suggest that the ARSQ 2.0 is a promising instrument for quantitative studies on mind wandering and its relation to other psychological or physiological phenomena. PMID:24772097

  1. Dietary and genetic effects on age-related loss of gene silencing reveal epigenetic plasticity of chromatin repression during aging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Tobias, Ethan; Wood, Jason G; Whitaker, Rachel; Neretti, Nicola; Helfand, Stephen L

    2013-11-01

    During aging, changes in chromatin state that alter gene transcription have been postulated to result in expression of genes that are normally silenced, leading to deleterious age-related effects on cellular physiology. Despite the prevalence of this hypothesis, it is primarily in yeast that loss of gene silencing with age has been well documented. We use a novel position effect variegation (PEV) reporter in Drosophila melanogaster to show that age-related loss of repressive heterochromatin is associated with loss of gene silencing in metazoans and is affected by Sir2, as it is in yeast. The life span-extending intervention, calorie restriction (CR), delays the age-related loss of gene silencing, indicating that loss of gene silencing is a component of normal aging. Diet switch experiments show that such flies undergo a rapid change in their level of gene silencing, demonstrating the epigenetic plasticity of chromatin during aging and highlighting the potential role of diet and metabolism in chromatin maintenance, Thus, diet and related interventions may be of therapeutic importance for age-related diseases, such as cancer.

  2. Analysis of cancer genomes reveals basic features of human aging and its role in cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Podolskiy, Dmitriy I.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations have long been implicated in aging and disease, but their impact on fitness and function is difficult to assess. Here by analysing human cancer genomes we identify mutational patterns associated with aging. Our analyses suggest that age-associated mutation load and burden double approximately every 8 years, similar to the all-cause mortality doubling time. This analysis further reveals variance in the rate of aging among different human tissues, for example, slightly accelerated aging of the reproductive system. Age-adjusted mutation load and burden correlate with the corresponding cancer incidence and precede it on average by 15 years, pointing to pre-clinical cancer development times. Behaviour of mutation load also exhibits gender differences and late-life reversals, explaining some gender-specific and late-life patterns in cancer incidence rates. Overall, this study characterizes some features of human aging and offers a mechanism for age being a risk factor for the onset of cancer. PMID:27515585

  3. False Memory in Aging Resulting From Self-Referential Processing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Referencing the self is known to enhance accurate memory, but less is known about how the strategy affects false memory, particularly for highly self-relevant information. Because older adults are more prone to false memories, we tested whether self-referencing increased false memories with age. Method. In 2 studies, older and younger adults rated adjectives for self-descriptiveness and later completed a surprise recognition test comprised of words rated previously for self-descriptiveness and novel lure words. Lure words were subsequently rated for self-descriptiveness in order to assess the impact of self-relevance on false memory. Study 2 introduced commonness judgments as a control condition, such that participants completed a recognition test on adjectives rated for commonness in addition to adjectives in the self-descriptiveness condition. Results. Across both studies, findings indicate an increased response bias to self-referencing that increased hit rates for both older and younger adults but also increased false alarms as information became more self-descriptive, particularly for older adults. Discussion. Although the present study supports previous literature showing a boost in memory for self-referenced information, the increase in false alarms, especially in older adults, highlights the potential for memory errors, particularly for information that is strongly related to the self. PMID:23576449

  4. Runx3 deficiency results in myeloproliferative disorder in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chelsia Qiuxia; Motoda, Lena; Satake, Masanobu; Ito, Yoshiaki; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Osato, Motomi

    2013-07-25

    The RUNX family genes encode transcription factors that are involved in development and human diseases. RUNX1 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human hematological malignancies and is a critical factor for the generation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. Another Runx family gene, Runx3, is known to be expressed in hematopoietic cells. However, its involvement in hematopoiesis remains unclear. Here we show the hematopoietic phenotypes in Runx3 conditional knockout (KO) mice (Runx3(fl/fl);Mx1-Cre(+)): whereas young Runx3 KO mice did not exhibit any significant hematopoietic defects, aged Runx3 KO mice developed a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by myeloid-dominant leukocytosis, splenomegaly, and an increase of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Notably, Runx3-deficient cells showed hypersensitivity to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, suggesting enhanced proliferative and mobilization capability of Runx3-deficient HSPCs when stimulated. These results suggest that, besides Runx1, Runx3 also plays a role in hematopoiesis.

  5. Structural aging program -- a summary of activities, results, and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. Primary program accomplishments have included formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, the Structural Aging Program conducted in-depth evaluations of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability.

  6. Circadian deep sequencing reveals stress-response genes that adopt robust rhythmic expression during aging

    PubMed Central

    Kuintzle, Rachael C.; Chow, Eileen S.; Westby, Tara N.; Gvakharia, Barbara O.; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M.; Hendrix, David A

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian clock, which directs rhythmic expression of numerous output genes, accelerates aging. To enquire how the circadian system protects aging organisms, here we compare circadian transcriptomes in heads of young and old Drosophila melanogaster. The core clock and most output genes remained robustly rhythmic in old flies, while others lost rhythmicity with age, resulting in constitutive over- or under-expression. Unexpectedly, we identify a subset of genes that adopted increased or de novo rhythmicity during aging, enriched for stress-response functions. These genes, termed late-life cyclers, were also rhythmically induced in young flies by constant exposure to exogenous oxidative stress, and this upregulation is CLOCK-dependent. We also identify age-onset rhythmicity in several putative primary piRNA transcripts overlapping antisense transposons. Our results suggest that, as organisms age, the circadian system shifts greater regulatory priority to the mitigation of accumulating cellular stress. PMID:28221375

  7. [Bacteria community in different aged Coptis chinensis planting soil revealed by PCR-DGGE analysis].

    PubMed

    Tan, Yuan; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Han-jun; Song, San-duo; Yu, Xiu-mei; Dong, Zhen-huan; Tang, Xue; Zhong, Yu-zhou

    2015-08-01

    In order to reveal the cause of disease occurred in the process of Coptis chinensis growth, this paper studied the bacterial species diversity index of different aged rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil planting normal or sick C. chinensis by using PCR-DGGE technique. The representative DGGE bands were chosen to be cloned, and sequenced, the phylogeny were constructed. The results showed that the bacterial communities were very different between the normal and diseased soil samples of C. chinensis, and the diversity index (H) of diseased soil samples were higher than that of normal soil samples. Sequencing analysis of representative cloned DGGE bands showed that the unculturable bacteria were the dominant groups, and bacteria belonged to genus Bacillus, Acidovorax, Acinetobacter, uncultured Kluyvera, and uncultured Comamonas were also existing, but the reported plant pathogenic bacteria were not found in the C. chinensis planting soil. The density and brightness of clone band d in diseased soil samples was higher than that in normal soil sample, and sequencing analysis showed that it belonged to genus Acidovorax. Obviously, during the process of C. chinensis growth, the rhizospheric bacteria population changed, and the quantity of bacteria belong Acidovorax increased, which probably resulted in the disease occurred during C. chinensis growth.

  8. Stratification based on reproductive state reveals contrasting patterns of age-related variation in demographic parameters in the kittiwake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cam, E.; Monnat, J.-Y.

    2000-01-01

    Heterogeneity in individual quality can be a major obstacle when interpreting age-specific variation in life-history traits. Heterogeneity is likely to lead to within-generation selection, and patterns observed at the population level may result from the combination of hidden patterns specific to subpopulations. Population-level patterns are not relevant to hypotheses concerning the evolution of age-specific reproductive strategies if they differ from patterns at the individual level. We addressed the influence of age and a variable used as a surrogate of quality (yearly reproductive state) on survival and breeding probability in the kittiwake. We found evidence of an effect of age and quality on both demographic parameters. Patterns observed in breeders are consistent with the selection hypothesis, which predicts age-related increases in survival and traits positively correlated with survival. Our results also reveal unexpected age effects specific to subgroups: the influence of age on survival and future breeding probability is not the same in nonbreeders and breeders. These patterns are observed in higher-quality breeding habitats, where the influence of extrinsic factors on breeding state is the weakest. Moreover, there is slight evidence of an influence of sex on breeding probability (not on survival), but the same overall pattern is observed in both sexes. Our results support the hypothesis that age-related variation in demographic parameters observed at the population level is partly shaped by heterogeneity among individuals. They also suggest processes specific to subpopulations. Recent theoreticaI developments lay emphasis on integration of sources of heterogeneity in optimization models to account for apparently 'sub-optimal' empirical patterns. Incorporation of sources of heterogeneity is also the key to investigation of age-related reproductive strategies in heterogeneous populations. Thwarting 'heterogeneity's ruses' has become a major challenge: for

  9. Leaf aging of Amazonian canopy trees as revealed by spectral and physiochemical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavana-Bryant, Cecilia; Malhi, Yadvinder; Wu, Jin; Asner, Gregory P.; Anastasiou, Athanasios; Enquist, Brian J.; Cosio Caravasi, Eric G.; Doughty, Christopher E.; Saleska, Scott R.; Martin, Roberta E.; Gerard, France F.

    2016-04-01

    Leaf aging is a fundamental driver of changes in leaf traits, thereby, regulating ecosystem processes and remotely-sensed canopy dynamics. We explore leaf reflectance as a tool to monitor leaf age and develop a spectra-based partial least squares regression (PLSR) model to predict age using data from a phenological study of 1,099 leaves from 12 lowland Amazonian canopy trees in southern Peru. Results demonstrated monotonic decreases in leaf water (LWC) and phosphorous content (Pmass) and increase in leaf mass per area (LMA) with age across trees; leaf nitrogen (Nmass) and carbon content (Cmass) showed monotonic but tree-specific age responses. We observed large age-related variation in leaf spectra across trees. A spectra-based model was more accurate in predicting leaf age (R2= 0.86 and percent root mean square error %RMSE= 33) compared to trait-based models using single (R2=0.07 to 0.73; %RMSE=7 to 38) and multiple predictors (R2=0.76; %RMSE=28). Spectra and trait-based models established a physiochemical basis for the spectral age model. Vegetation indices (VIs) including the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2), normalised difference water index (NDWI) and photosynthetic reflectance index (PRI) were all age-dependent. This study highlights the importance of leaf age as a mediator of leaf traits, provides evidence of age-related leaf reflectance changes that have important impacts on VIs used to monitor canopy dynamics and productivity and proposes a new approach to predicting and monitoring leaf age with important implications for remote sensing.

  10. Leaf aging of Amazonian canopy trees as revealed by spectral and physiochemical measurements.

    PubMed

    Chavana-Bryant, Cecilia; Malhi, Yadvinder; Wu, Jin; Asner, Gregory P; Anastasiou, Athanasios; Enquist, Brian J; Cosio Caravasi, Eric G; Doughty, Christopher E; Saleska, Scott R; Martin, Roberta E; Gerard, France F

    2017-05-01

    Leaf aging is a fundamental driver of changes in leaf traits, thereby regulating ecosystem processes and remotely sensed canopy dynamics. We explore leaf reflectance as a tool to monitor leaf age and develop a spectra-based partial least squares regression (PLSR) model to predict age using data from a phenological study of 1099 leaves from 12 lowland Amazonian canopy trees in southern Peru. Results demonstrated monotonic decreases in leaf water (LWC) and phosphorus (Pmass ) contents and an increase in leaf mass per unit area (LMA) with age across trees; leaf nitrogen (Nmass ) and carbon (Cmass ) contents showed monotonic but tree-specific age responses. We observed large age-related variation in leaf spectra across trees. A spectra-based model was more accurate in predicting leaf age (R(2)  = 0.86; percent root mean square error (%RMSE) = 33) compared with trait-based models using single (R(2)  = 0.07-0.73; %RMSE = 7-38) and multiple (R(2)  = 0.76; %RMSE = 28) predictors. Spectra- and trait-based models established a physiochemical basis for the spectral age model. Vegetation indices (VIs) including the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2), normalized difference water index (NDWI) and photosynthetic reflectance index (PRI) were all age-dependent. This study highlights the importance of leaf age as a mediator of leaf traits, provides evidence of age-related leaf reflectance changes that have important impacts on VIs used to monitor canopy dynamics and productivity and proposes a new approach to predicting and monitoring leaf age with important implications for remote sensing.

  11. RNA-Seq analysis reveals new evidence for inflammation-related changes in aged kidney

    PubMed Central

    Park, Daeui; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Kim, Chul-Hong; Choi, Yeon Ja; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Kim, Mi Eun; Lee, Jun Sik; Park, Min Hi; Chung, Ki Wung; Kim, Dae Hyun; Lee, Jaewon; Im, Dong-Soon; Yoon, Seokjoo; Lee, Sunghoon; Yu, Byung Pal; Bhak, Jong; Chung, Hae Young

    2016-01-01

    Age-related dysregulated inflammation plays an essential role as a major risk factor underlying the pathophysiological aging process. To better understand how inflammatory processes are related to aging at the molecular level, we sequenced the transcriptome of young and aged rat kidney using RNA-Seq to detect known genes, novel genes, and alternative splicing events that are differentially expressed. By comparing young (6 months of age) and old (25 months of age) rats, we detected 722 up-regulated genes and 111 down-regulated genes. In the aged rats, we found 32 novel genes and 107 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 6.6% of the up-regulated genes were related to inflammation (P < 2.2 × 10−16, Fisher exact t-test); 15.6% were novel genes with functional protein domains (P = 1.4 × 10−5); and 6.5% were genes showing alternative splicing events (P = 3.3 × 10−4). Based on the results of pathway analysis, we detected the involvement of inflammation-related pathways such as cytokines (P = 4.4 × 10−16), which were found up-regulated in the aged rats. Furthermore, an up-regulated inflammatory gene analysis identified the involvement of transcription factors, such as STAT4, EGR1, and FOSL1, which regulate cancer as well as inflammation in aging processes. Thus, RNA changes in these pathways support their involvement in the pro-inflammatory status during aging. We propose that whole RNA-Seq is a useful tool to identify novel genes and alternative splicing events by documenting broadly implicated inflammation-related genes involved in aging processes. PMID:27153548

  12. Advanced aging phenotype is revealed by epigenetic modifications in rat liver after in utero malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hye J; Tozour, Jessica N; Delahaye, Fabien; Zhao, Yongmei; Cui, Lingguang; Barzilai, Nir; Einstein, Francine Hughes

    2016-10-01

    Adverse environmental exposures of mothers during fetal period predispose offspring to a range of age-related diseases earlier in life. Here, we set to determine whether a deregulated epigenetic pattern is similar in young animals whose mothers' nutrition was modulated during fetal growth to that acquired during normal aging in animals. Using a rodent model of maternal undernutrition (UN) or overnutrition (ON), we examined cytosine methylation profiles of liver from young female offspring and compared them to age-matched young controls and aged (20-month-old) animals. HELP-tagging, a genomewide restriction enzyme and sequencing assay demonstrates that fetal exposure to two different maternal diets is associated with nonrandom dysregulation of methylation levels with profiles similar to those seen in normal aging animals and occur in regions mapped to genes relevant to metabolic diseases and aging. Functional consequences were assessed by gene expression at 9 weeks old with more significant changes at 6 months of age. Early developmental exposures to unfavorable maternal diets result in altered methylation profiles and transcriptional dysregulation in Prkcb, Pc, Ncor2, and Smad3 that is also seen with normal aging. These Notch pathway and lipogenesis genes may be useful for prediction of later susceptibility to chronic disease.

  13. Nitrogen stable isotopes reveal age-dependent dietary shift in the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis.

    PubMed

    Aya, Frolan A; Kudo, Isao

    2017-03-01

    Ontogenetic niche shifts in diet are a consequence of changes in body size or resource partitioning between age classes. To better resolve the feeding patterns of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis, we examined the relative importance of age and size in the diet of this species using stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) from 2006 to 2009. Contribution of food sources was quantified using an isotope mixing model by comparing the muscle tissue isotope ratios to those of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) and their zooplankton prey (e.g. micro- and meso-zooplankton). Unlike the δ(13)C values, which remained constant with age and size, muscle δ(15)N values were more positively correlated with age accounting for 69 % of variations than size with only 46 %. Increasing (15)N values with age suggested that shifts in diet from SPOM to micro- and meso-zooplankton occurred during ontogeny in M. yessoensis. Results of the isotope mixing model indicated that SPOM contribution to scallop's diet decreased from 68 to 8 % while those of zooplankton increased from 15 to 50 % with increasing age. This study concludes that age-related dietary shift explains the enrichment of (15)N, as a result of predation on zooplankton by M. yessoensis.

  14. Analysis of gene expression dynamics revealed delayed and abnormal epidermal repair process in aged compared to young skin.

    PubMed

    Sextius, Peggy; Marionnet, Claire; Tacheau, Charlotte; Bon, François-Xavier; Bastien, Philippe; Mauviel, Alain; Bernard, Bruno A; Bernerd, Françoise; Dubertret, Louis

    2015-05-01

    With aging, epidermal homeostasis and barrier function are disrupted. In a previous study, we analyzed the transcriptomic response of young skin epidermis after stratum corneum removal, and obtained a global kinetic view of the molecular processes involved in barrier function recovery. In the present study, the same analysis was performed in aged skin in order to better understand the defects which occur with aging. Thirty healthy male volunteers (67 ± 4 years old) were involved. Tape-strippings were carried out on the inner face of one forearm, the other unstripped forearm serving as control. At 2, 6, 18, 30 and 72 h after stripping, TEWL measurements were taken, and epidermis samples were collected. Total RNA was extracted and analyzed using DermArray(®) cDNA microarrays. The results highlighted that barrier function recovery and overall kinetics of gene expression were delayed following stripping in aged skin. Indeed, the TEWL measurements showed that barrier recovery in the young group appeared to be dramatically significant during the overall kinetics, while there were no significant evolution in the aged group until 30 h. Moreover, gene expression analysis revealed that the number of modulated genes following tape stripping increased as a function of time and reached a peak at 6 h after tape stripping in young skin, while it was at 30 h in aged skin, showing that cellular activity linked to the repair process may be engaged earlier in young epidermis than in aged epidermis. A total of 370 genes were modulated in the young group. In the aged group, 382 genes were modulated, whose 184 were also modulated in the young group. Only eight genes that were modulated in both groups were significantly differently modulated. The characterization of these genes into 15 functional families helped to draw a scenario for the aging process affecting epidermal repair capacity.

  15. Siple Dome ice reveals two modes of millennial CO2 change during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jinho; Brook, Edward J

    2014-04-29

    Reconstruction of atmospheric CO2 during times of past abrupt climate change may help us better understand climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. Previous ice core studies reveal simultaneous increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature during times when Greenland and the northern hemisphere experienced very long, cold stadial conditions during the last ice age. Whether this relationship extends to all of the numerous stadial events in the Greenland ice core record has not been clear. Here we present a high-resolution record of atmospheric CO2 from the Siple Dome ice core, Antarctica for part of the last ice age. We find that CO2 does not significantly change during the short Greenlandic stadial events, implying that the climate system perturbation that produced the short stadials was not strong enough to substantially alter the carbon cycle.

  16. Transcriptional analysis of histone deacetylase family members reveal similarities between differentiating and aging spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kofman, Amber E; Huszar, Jessica M; Payne, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    The differentiation of adult stem cells involves extensive chromatin remodeling, mediated in part by the gene products of histone deacetylase (HDAC) family members. While the transcriptional downregulation of HDACs can impede stem cell self-renewal in certain contexts, it may also promote stem cell maintenance under other circumstances. In self-renewing, differentiating, and aging spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), the gene expression dynamics of HDACs have not yet been characterized. To gain further insight with these studies, we analyzed the transcriptional profiles of six HDAC family members, previously identified to be the most highly expressed in self-renewing SSCs, during stem cell differentiation and aging. Here we discovered that in both differentiating and aging SSCs the expression of Sirt4 increases, while the expression of Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 decreases. When SSCs are exposed to the lifespan-enhancing drug rapamycin in vivo, the resultant HDAC gene expression patterns are opposite of those seen in the differentiating and aging SSCs, with increased Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 and decreased Hdac8, Hdac9, and Sirt4. Our findings suggest that HDACs important for stem cell maintenance and oxidative capacity are downregulated as adult stem cells differentiate or age. These results provide important insights into the epigenetic regulation of stem cell differentiation and aging in mammals.

  17. Age-related differences revealed in Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stuart C; Chalker, Andrea; Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y

    2013-11-01

    The gut microbiota of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was examined at different age classes using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The FISH results indicated that in the fur seal groups, the predominant phyla are Firmicutes (22.14-67.33%) followed by Bacteroidetes (3.11-15.45%) and then Actinobacteria (1.4-5.9%) consistent with other mammals. Phylum Proteobacteria had an initial abundance of 1.8% in the 2-month-old pups, but < 1% of bacterial numbers for the other fur seal age groups. Significant differences did occur in the abundance of Clostridia, Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria between 2 months pups and 9 months pups and adult fur seals. Results from the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing supported the FISH data and identified significant differences in the composition of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Fusobacteria at all ages. Class Clostridia in phylum Firmicutes dominates the microbiota of the 2 months and 9 months seal pups, whilst class Bacilli dominates the 6 months pups. In addition, a high level of dissimilarity was observed between all age classes. This study provides novel insight into the gut microbiota of Australian fur seals at different age classes.

  18. McCune-Albright syndrome revealed by hyperthyroidism at advanced age.

    PubMed

    Elhaï, Muriel; Meunier, Marine; Kahan, André; Cormier, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    We report a case of a 38-year-old woman admitted to our service for diagnosis of osteolytic lesions. She suffered from back, lumbar and costal pain at the time a hyperthyroidism, related to multinodular goiter, was diagnosed. The pain remained despite the cure of hyperthyroidism. Cutaneous examination revealed café au lait skin spots. Analysis of the phosphocalcic metabolism allowed the diagnosis of phosphate diabetes. X-ray showed lytic lesions involving the ribs with thinning of the cortex and vertebral fractures of the dorsal spine. The computed tomography revealed lytic lesions with a typical "ground glass" appearance involving the spine, ribs, sternum, iliac bones and sacrum. The presence of this clinical triad allowed the diagnosis of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). The treatment consisted in vitamin D supplementation, and high doses of both oral phosphate and calcitriol to treat the phosphate diabetes as well as cycles of intravenous pamidronate administration to relieve bone pain. We report an uncommon case of the diagnosis of MAS at an advanced age following hyperthyroidism. We believe that the disease was revealed by an increase in bone turnover due to hyperthyroidism.

  19. Intellectual functioning in old and very old age: cross-sectional results from the Berlin Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1997-09-01

    This study documents age trends, interrelations, and correlates of intellectual abilities in old and very old age (70-103 years) from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516). Fourteen tests were used to assess 5 abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the mechanic (broad fluid) domain and knowledge and fluency from the pragmatic (broad crystallized) domain. Intellectual abilities had negative linear age relations, with more pronounced age reductions in mechanic than in pragmatic abilities. Interrelations among intellectual abilities were highly positive and did not follow the mechanic-pragmatic distinction. Sociobiographical indicators were less closely linked to intellectual functioning than sensory-sensorimotor variables, which predicted 59% of the total reliable variance in general intelligence. Results suggest that aging-induced biological factors are a prominent source of individual differences in intelligence in old and very old age.

  20. Tree Age Distributions Reveal Large-Scale Disturbance-Recovery Cycles in Three Tropical Forests.

    PubMed

    Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Groenendijk, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a growing realization that a large share of apparently 'virgin' or 'old-growth' tropical forests carries a legacy of past natural or anthropogenic disturbances that have a substantial effect on present-day forest composition, structure and dynamics. Yet, direct evidence of such disturbances is scarce and comparisons of disturbance dynamics across regions even more so. Here we present a tree-ring based reconstruction of disturbance histories from three tropical forest sites in Bolivia, Cameroon, and Thailand. We studied temporal patterns in tree regeneration of shade-intolerant tree species, because establishment of these trees is indicative for canopy disturbance. In three large areas (140-300 ha), stem disks and increment cores were collected for a total of 1154 trees (>5 cm diameter) from 12 tree species to estimate the age of every tree. Using these age estimates we produced population age distributions, which were analyzed for evidence of past disturbance. Our approach allowed us to reconstruct patterns of tree establishment over a period of around 250 years. In Bolivia, we found continuous regeneration rates of three species and a peaked age distribution of a long-lived pioneer species. In both Cameroon and Thailand we found irregular age distributions, indicating strongly reduced regeneration rates over a period of 10-60 years. Past fires, windthrow events or anthropogenic disturbances all provide plausible explanations for the reported variation in tree age across the three sites. Our results support the recent idea that the long-term dynamics of tropical forests are impacted by large-scale disturbance-recovery cycles, similar to those driving temperate forest dynamics.

  1. Tree Age Distributions Reveal Large-Scale Disturbance-Recovery Cycles in Three Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Groenendijk, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a growing realization that a large share of apparently ‘virgin’ or ‘old-growth’ tropical forests carries a legacy of past natural or anthropogenic disturbances that have a substantial effect on present-day forest composition, structure and dynamics. Yet, direct evidence of such disturbances is scarce and comparisons of disturbance dynamics across regions even more so. Here we present a tree-ring based reconstruction of disturbance histories from three tropical forest sites in Bolivia, Cameroon, and Thailand. We studied temporal patterns in tree regeneration of shade-intolerant tree species, because establishment of these trees is indicative for canopy disturbance. In three large areas (140–300 ha), stem disks and increment cores were collected for a total of 1154 trees (>5 cm diameter) from 12 tree species to estimate the age of every tree. Using these age estimates we produced population age distributions, which were analyzed for evidence of past disturbance. Our approach allowed us to reconstruct patterns of tree establishment over a period of around 250 years. In Bolivia, we found continuous regeneration rates of three species and a peaked age distribution of a long-lived pioneer species. In both Cameroon and Thailand we found irregular age distributions, indicating strongly reduced regeneration rates over a period of 10–60 years. Past fires, windthrow events or anthropogenic disturbances all provide plausible explanations for the reported variation in tree age across the three sites. Our results support the recent idea that the long-term dynamics of tropical forests are impacted by large-scale disturbance-recovery cycles, similar to those driving temperate forest dynamics. PMID:28105034

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Human Injured Meniscus Reveals a Distinct Phenotype of Meniscus Degeneration with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Muhammad Farooq; Patra, Debabrata; Sandell, Linda J.; Brophy, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Meniscus tears are associated with a heightened risk for osteoarthritis. We aimed to advance our understanding of the metabolic state of human injured meniscus at the time of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy through transcriptome-wide analysis of gene expression in relation to patient age and degree of cartilage chondrosis. Methods The degree of chondrosis of knee cartilage was recorded at the time of meniscectomy in symptomatic patients without radiographic osteoarthritis. RNA preparations from resected menisci (N=12) were subjected to transcriptome-wide microarray and QuantiGene Plex analyses. The relative changes in gene expression variation with age and chondrosis were analyzed and integrated biological processes were investigated computationally. Results We identified a set of genes in torn meniscus that were differentially expressed with age and chondrosis. There were 866 genes differentially regulated (≥1.5-fold; P<0.05) with age and 49 with chondrosis. In older patients, genes associated with cartilage and skeletal development and extracellular matrix synthesis were repressed while those involved in immune response, inflammation, cell cycle, and cellular proliferation were stimulated. With chondrosis, genes representing cell catabolism (cAMP catabolic process) and tissue and endothelial cell development were repressed and those involved in T cell differentiation and apoptosis were elevated. Conclusion Differences in age-related gene expression suggest that in older adults, meniscal cells might de-differentiate and initiate a proliferative phenotype. Conversely, meniscal cells in younger patients appear to respond to injury, but maintain the differentiated phenotype. Definitive molecular signatures identified in damaged meniscus could be segregated largely with age and, to a lesser extent, with chondrosis. PMID:23658108

  3. Gas7-Deficient Mouse Reveals Roles in Motor Function and Muscle Fiber Composition during Aging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo-Tsang; Chang, Pu-Yuan; Su, Ching-Hua; Chao, Chuck C.-K.; Lin-Chao, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Background Growth arrest-specific gene 7 (Gas7) has previously been shown to be involved in neurite outgrowth in vitro; however, its actual role has yet to be determined. To investigate the physiological function of Gas7 in vivo, here we generated a Gas7-deficient mouse strain with a labile Gas7 mutant protein whose functions are similar to wild-type Gas7. Methodology/Principal Findings Our data show that aged Gas7-deficient mice have motor activity defects due to decreases in the number of spinal motor neurons and in muscle strength, of which the latter may be caused by changes in muscle fiber composition as shown in the soleus. In cross sections of the soleus of Gas7-deficient mice, gross morphological features and levels of myosin heavy chain I (MHC I) and MHC II markers revealed significantly fewer fast fibers. In addition, we found that nerve terminal sprouting, which may be associated with slow and fast muscle fiber composition, was considerably reduced at neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) during aging. Conclusions/Significance These findings indicate that Gas7 is involved in motor neuron function associated with muscle strength maintenance. PMID:22662195

  4. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R; vanErp, Theo G M; Whelan, Christopher D; Zwiers, Marcel P; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E; Baune, Bernhard T; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L W; Boedhoe, Premika S W; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I; de Zwarte, Sonja M C; Deary, Ian J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F; Martin, Nicholas G; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L; Medland, Sarah E; Menchón, José M; Morris, Derek W; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E; Onnink, A Marten H; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N; Soares, Jair C; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J; Strike, Lachlan T; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Veltman, Dick J; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2016-10-13

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric asymmetry of seven subcortical structures was assessed in 15,847 MRI scans from 52 datasets worldwide. There were sex differences in the asymmetry of the globus pallidus and putamen. Heritability estimates, derived from 1170 subjects belonging to 71 extended pedigrees, revealed that additive genetic factors influenced the asymmetry of these two structures and that of the hippocampus and thalamus. Handedness had no detectable effect on subcortical asymmetries, even in this unprecedented sample size, but the asymmetry of the putamen varied with age. Genetic drivers of asymmetry in the hippocampus, thalamus and basal ganglia may affect variability in human cognition, including susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.

  5. Preserved hippocampus activation in normal aging as revealed by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Persson, Jonas; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Ryberg, Mats; Nyberg, Lars

    2011-07-01

    The hippocampus is deteriorated in various pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and such deterioration has been linked to memory impairment. By contrast, the structural and functional effects of normal aging on the hippocampus is a matter of debate, with some findings suggesting deterioration and others providing evidence of preservation. This constitutes a crucial question since many investigations on AD are based on the assumption that the deterioration of the hippocampus is the breaking point between normal and pathological aging. A growing number of fMRI studies specifically aimed at investigating hippocampal engagement in various cognitive tasks, notably memory tasks, but the results have been inconclusive. Here, we optimized the episodic face-name paired-associates task in order to test the functioning of the hippocampus in normal aging. Critically, we found no difference in the activation of the hippocampus between the young and a group of older participants. Analysis of individual patterns of activation substantiated this impression. Collectively, these findings provide evidence of preserved hippocampal functioning in normal aging.

  6. ROTATION PERIODS AND AGES OF SOLAR ANALOGS AND SOLAR TWINS REVEALED BY THE KEPLER MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Do Nascimento Jr, J.-D.; Meibom, S.; García, R. A.; Salabert, D.; Ceillier, T.; Anthony, F.; Da Costa, J. S.; Castro, M.; Barnes, S. A.

    2014-08-01

    A new sample of solar analogs and twin candidates has been constructed and studied, paying particular attention to their light curves from NASA's Kepler mission. This Letter aims to assess their evolutionary status, derive their rotation and ages, and identify those which are solar analogs or solar twin candidates. We separate out the subgiants that compose a large fraction of the asteroseismic sample, and which show an increase in the average rotation period as the stars ascend the subgiant branch. The rotation periods of the dwarfs, ranging from 6 to 30 days and averaging 19 days, allow us to assess their individual evolutionary states on the main sequence and to derive their ages using gyrochronology. These ages are found to be in agreement with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.79 with independent asteroseismic ages, where available. As a result of this investigation, we are able to identify 34 stars as solar analogs and 22 of them as solar twin candidates.

  7. Circadian clocks and antiaging: do non-aging microalgae like Euglena reveal anything?

    PubMed

    Goto, Ken; Beneragama, Chalinda K

    2010-04-01

    Microalgae that divide symmetrically in all aspects do not age. While the evolutionary reason for this is obvious, little attention has been paid to the mechanistic explanations. A great deal of study involving many research fields would be needed to explain the mechanisms if we suppose that the immortality results from a lifelong sufficiency of defense from stress or from an essential part of counteracting age-accompanied damage accumulation. Additionally, little is known about the relationships between homeostasis and circadian clocks in antiaging, although each of these has been studied separately. Here, we present a conceptual generalization of those relationships, as suggested by evidence from non-aging microalgae, mainly Euglena. The circadian gating of mitosis and circadian temporal coordination may respectively reduce radiation- and disharmony-induced stress in which homeostasis cannot be involved, whereas circadian resistance rhythms may greatly help homeostatic defense from radiation- and metabolism-induced stress. We also briefly sketch mammalian aging research to compare the current status of knowledge with that of algal antiaging.

  8. Aging results in an unusual expression of Drosophila heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.E.; Walton, J.K.; Dubitsky, R.; Bensch, K.G. )

    1988-06-01

    The authors used high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to evaluate the effect of aging on the heat shock response in Drosophila melanogaster. Although the aging process is not well understood at the molecular level, recent observations suggest that quantitative changes in gene expression occur as these fruit flies approach senescence. Such genetic alterations are in accord with our present data, which clearly show marked differences in the synthesis of heat shock proteins between young and old fruit flies. In 10-day-old flies, a heat shock of 20 min results in the expression of 14 new proteins as detectable by two-dimensional electrophoresis of ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled polypeptides, whereas identical treatment of 45-day-old flies leads to the expression of at least 50 new or highly up-regulated proteins. In addition, there is also a concomitant increase in the rate of synthesis of a number of the normal proteins in the older animals. Microdensitometric determinations of the low molecular weight heat shock polypeptides on autoradiographs of five age groups revealed that their maximum expression occurs at 47 days for a population of flies with a mean life span of 33.7 days. Moreover, a heat shock effect similar to that observed in senescent flies occurs in young flies fed canavanine, an arginine analogue, before heat shock.

  9. Effects of age-associated regional changes in aortic stiffness on human hemodynamics revealed by computational modeling

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Federica; Roccabianca, Sara; Dillon-Murphy, Desmond; Xiao, Nan; Humphrey, Jay D.

    2017-01-01

    Although considered by many as the gold standard clinical measure of arterial stiffness, carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) averages material and geometric properties over a large portion of the central arterial tree. Given that such properties may evolve differentially as a function of region in cases of hypertension and aging, among other conditions, there is a need to evaluate the potential utility of cf-PWV as an early diagnostic of progressive vascular stiffening. In this paper, we introduce a data-driven fluid-solid-interaction computational model of the human aorta to simulate effects of aging-related changes in regional wall properties (e.g., biaxial material stiffness and wall thickness) and conduit geometry (e.g., vessel caliber, length, and tortuosity) on several metrics of arterial stiffness, including distensibility, augmented pulse pressure, and cyclic changes in stored elastic energy. Using the best available biomechanical data, our results for PWV compare well to findings reported for large population studies while rendering a higher resolution description of evolving local and global metrics of aortic stiffening. Our results reveal similar spatio-temporal trends between stiffness and its surrogate metrics, except PWV, thus indicating a complex dependency of the latter on geometry. Lastly, our analysis highlights the importance of the tethering exerted by external tissues, which was iteratively estimated until hemodynamic simulations recovered typical values of tissue properties, pulse pressure, and PWV for each age group. PMID:28253335

  10. Implications of IODP Expedition 349 Age Results for the Spreading History of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briais, Anne

    2016-04-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 in the South China Sea drilled three sites (U1431, U1433, and U1434) into the basaltic crustal basement near the fossil spreading center in the East and Southwest Subbasins. These results provided age constraints on the termination of seafloor spreading in the South China Sea (SCS) basin. Shipboard biostratigraphic analysis of microfossils from the sediment immediately above or between flows in the basaltic basement indicates early Miocene ages: 16.7-17.6 Ma for Site U1431 in the East Subbasin, ~18-21 Ma for Site U1433 in the Southwest Subbasin. Since Expedition 349, Ar/Ar dating of basalt samples from these two sites have confirmed these ages in the east, and have provided an age of 17 Ma in the Southwest. The similarity in crustal age between sites suggests that the last stages of spreading have been coeaval in both the East and Southwest Subbasins, forming a single mid-ocean ridge system with a series of transform faults and discontinuities between the two subbasins. Expedition 349 also drilled Site U1435 on a bathymetric high along the northwestern continent-ocean boundary. Onboard core description, biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy revealed that sediment at this site shows a sharp discontinuity at about 33 Ma, interpreted to represent the breakup unconformity and date the beginning of seafloor spreading in the East Subbasin. The results of IODP Exp. 349, as well as results from deep-towed magnetic surveys, thus imply that oceanic seafloor spreading in the SCS, from 33 to ~16-18 Ma, is coeval with a large part of the left-lateral motion along the Ailao Shan-Red River Fault Zone (dated 34 to 17 Ma). This episode of the extension of the South China Sea basin is therefore more likely driven by the extrusion of the Indochina tectonic block resulting from the collision of India with Eurasia than by the subduction of a proto-South China Sea to the south.

  11. Elastic moduli of δ-Pu 239 reveal aging in real time

    DOE PAGES

    Maiorov, Boris; Betts, Jonathan B.; Söderlind, Per; ...

    2017-03-28

    We study the time evolution (aging) of the elastic moduli of an eight-year-old polycrystalline δ- Pu 2.0 at % Ga alloy (δ-Pu:Ga ) from 295K to nearly 500K in real time using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS). After 8 years of aging at 295K, the bulk and shear moduli increase at a normalized rate of 0.2%/year and 0.6%/year respectively. As the temperature is raised, two time dependences are observed, an exponential one of about a week, followed by a linear one (constant rate). The linear rate is thermally activated with an activation energy of 0.33+0.06 eV. Above 420K a qualitative changemore » in the time evolution is observed; the bulk modulus decreases with time while the shear modulus continues to stiffen. No change is observed as the α-β transition temperature is crossed as would be expected if a decomposition of δ-Pu:Ga to α-Pu and Pu3Ga occurred over the temperature range studied. Our results indicate that the main mechanism of aging is creation of defects that are partially annealed starting at T = 420 K.« less

  12. Dynamical age differences among coeval star clusters as revealed by blue stragglers.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, F R; Lanzoni, B; Dalessandro, E; Beccari, G; Pasquato, M; Miocchi, P; Rood, R T; Sigurdsson, S; Sills, A; Vesperini, E; Mapelli, M; Contreras, R; Sanna, N; Mucciarelli, A

    2012-12-20

    Globular star clusters that formed at the same cosmic time may have evolved rather differently from the dynamical point of view (because that evolution depends on the internal environment) through a variety of processes that tend progressively to segregate stars more massive than the average towards the cluster centre. Therefore clusters with the same chronological age may have reached quite different stages of their dynamical history (that is, they may have different 'dynamical ages'). Blue straggler stars have masses greater than those at the turn-off point on the main sequence and therefore must be the result of either a collision or a mass-transfer event. Because they are among the most massive and luminous objects in old clusters, they can be used as test particles with which to probe dynamical evolution. Here we report that globular clusters can be grouped into a few distinct families on the basis of the radial distribution of blue stragglers. This grouping corresponds well to an effective ranking of the dynamical stage reached by stellar systems, thereby permitting a direct measure of the cluster dynamical age purely from observed properties.

  13. Electron tomographic analysis reveals ultrastructural features of mitochondrial cristae architecture which reflect energetic state and aging

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi-fan; Lin, Shao-syuan; Chen, Jing-min; Tsai, Han-zen; Hsieh, Tao-shih; Fu, Chi-yu

    2017-01-01

    Within mitochondria, the ability to produce energy relies upon the architectural hallmarks of double membranes and cristae invaginations. Herein, we describe novel features of mitochondrial cristae structure, which correspond to the energetic state of the organelle. In concordance with high-energy demand, mitochondria of Drosophila indirect flight muscle exhibited extensive intra-mitochondrial membrane switches between densely packed lamellar cristae that resulted in a spiral-like cristae network and allowed for bidirectional matrix confluency. This highly interconnected architecture is expected to allow rapid equilibration of membrane potential and biomolecules across integrated regions. In addition, mutant flies with mtDNA replication defect and an accelerated aging phenotype accumulated mitochondria that contained subsections of swirling membrane alongside normal cristae. The swirling membrane had impaired energy production capacity as measured by protein composition and function. Furthermore, mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics were affected in the prematurely aged flies. Interestingly, the normal cristae that remained in the mitochondria with swirling membranes maintained acceptable function that camouflaged them from quality control elimination. Overall, structural features of mitochondrial cristae were described in three-dimension from serial section electron tomographic analysis which reflect energetic state and mtDNA-mediated aging. PMID:28358017

  14. Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers.

    PubMed

    Hollard, Clémence; Keyser, Christine; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Tsagaan, Turbat; Bayarkhuu, Noost; Bemmann, Jan; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-09-01

    The Altai Mountains have been a long-term boundary zone between the Eurasian Steppe populations and South and East Asian populations. To disentangle some of the historical population movements in this area, 14 ancient human specimens excavated in the westernmost part of the Mongolian Altai were studied. Thirteen of them were dated from the Middle to the End of the Bronze Age and one of them to the Eneolithic period. The environmental conditions encountered in this region led to the good preservation of DNA in the human remains. Therefore, a multi-markers approach was adopted for the genetic analysis of identity, ancestry and phenotype markers. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the ancient Altaians studied carried both Western (H, U, T) and Eastern (A, C, D) Eurasian lineages. In the same way, the patrilineal gene pool revealed the presence of different haplogroups (Q1a2a1-L54, R1a1a1b2-Z93 and C), probably marking different origins for the male paternal lineages. To go further in the search of the origin of these ancient specimens, phenotypical characters (i.e. hair and eye color) were determined. For this purpose, we adapted the HIrisPlex assay recently described to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In addition, some ancestry informative markers were analyzed with this assay. The results revealed mixed phenotypes among this group confirming the probable admixed ancestry of the studied Altaian population at the Middle Bronze Age. The good results obtained from ancient DNA samples suggest that this approach might be relevant for forensic casework too.

  15. A "concrete view" of aging: event related potentials reveal age-related changes in basic integrative processes in language.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Meyer, Aaron M; Federmeier, Kara D

    2012-01-01

    Normal aging is accompanied by changes in both structural and functional cerebral organization. Although verbal knowledge seems to be relatively stable across the lifespan, there are age-related changes in the rapid use of that knowledge during on-line language processing. In particular, aging has been linked to reduce effectiveness in preparing for upcoming words and building an integrated sentence-level representation. The current study assessed whether such age-related changes extend even to much simpler language units, such as modification relations between a centrally presented adjective and a lateralized noun. Adjectives were used to elicit concrete and abstract meanings of the same, polysemous lexical items (e.g., "green book" vs. "interesting book"). Consistent with findings that lexical information is preserved with age, older adults, like younger adults, exhibited concreteness effects at the adjectives, with more negative responses to concrete adjectives over posterior (300-500 ms; N400) and frontal (300-900 ms) channels. However, at the noun, younger adults exhibited concreteness-based predictability effects linked to left hemisphere processing and imagery effects linked to right hemisphere processing, contingent on whether the adjectives and nouns formed a cohesive conceptual unit. In contrast, older adults showed neither effect, suggesting that they were less able to rapidly link the adjective-noun meaning to form an integrated conceptual representation. Age-related changes in language processing may thus be more pervasive than previously realized.

  16. In vivo NAD assay reveals the intracellular NAD contents and redox state in healthy human brain and their age dependences.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Ming; Lee, Byeong-Yeul; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-03

    NAD is an essential metabolite that exists in NAD(+) or NADH form in all living cells. Despite its critical roles in regulating mitochondrial energy production through the NAD(+)/NADH redox state and modulating cellular signaling processes through the activity of the NAD(+)-dependent enzymes, the method for quantifying intracellular NAD contents and redox state is limited to a few in vitro or ex vivo assays, which are not suitable for studying a living brain or organ. Here, we present a magnetic resonance (MR) -based in vivo NAD assay that uses the high-field MR scanner and is capable of noninvasively assessing NAD(+) and NADH contents and the NAD(+)/NADH redox state in intact human brain. The results of this study provide the first insight, to our knowledge, into the cellular NAD concentrations and redox state in the brains of healthy volunteers. Furthermore, an age-dependent increase of intracellular NADH and age-dependent reductions in NAD(+), total NAD contents, and NAD(+)/NADH redox potential of the healthy human brain were revealed in this study. The overall findings not only provide direct evidence of declined mitochondrial functions and altered NAD homeostasis that accompany the normal aging process but also, elucidate the merits and potentials of this new NAD assay for noninvasively studying the intracellular NAD metabolism and redox state in normal and diseased human brain or other organs in situ.

  17. In vivo NAD assay reveals the intracellular NAD contents and redox state in healthy human brain and their age dependences

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Ming; Lee, Byeong-Yeul; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    NAD is an essential metabolite that exists in NAD+ or NADH form in all living cells. Despite its critical roles in regulating mitochondrial energy production through the NAD+/NADH redox state and modulating cellular signaling processes through the activity of the NAD+-dependent enzymes, the method for quantifying intracellular NAD contents and redox state is limited to a few in vitro or ex vivo assays, which are not suitable for studying a living brain or organ. Here, we present a magnetic resonance (MR) -based in vivo NAD assay that uses the high-field MR scanner and is capable of noninvasively assessing NAD+ and NADH contents and the NAD+/NADH redox state in intact human brain. The results of this study provide the first insight, to our knowledge, into the cellular NAD concentrations and redox state in the brains of healthy volunteers. Furthermore, an age-dependent increase of intracellular NADH and age-dependent reductions in NAD+, total NAD contents, and NAD+/NADH redox potential of the healthy human brain were revealed in this study. The overall findings not only provide direct evidence of declined mitochondrial functions and altered NAD homeostasis that accompany the normal aging process but also, elucidate the merits and potentials of this new NAD assay for noninvasively studying the intracellular NAD metabolism and redox state in normal and diseased human brain or other organs in situ. PMID:25730862

  18. Atypical coastal environmental change during Copper Age - Bronze Age transition (Rio de Moinhos, NW Portugal) - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Helena; Danielsen, Randi

    2015-04-01

    for its infilling. Furthermore dating of wooden remains of what was interpreted as a fish trap, found on the sediment surface gave the age 2055-1770 cal BP (Roman Period). The old age of the top level may hence be the result of truncation of the sediment sequence at least in parts of the platform. Landwards, the Roman period is represented by fine and dark sediments similar to those of Rio de Moinhos beach, found in deeper cores. Acknowledgments This research is included in the project PTDC/EPH-ARQ/5204/2012 supported by FCT (Foundation for Science and Technology, Portugal). It is financed also by COMPETE and PEsT-C/MAR/LA0015/2013.

  19. The sound-induced flash illusion reveals dissociable age-related effects in multisensory integration

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, David P.; Roudaia, Eugenie; Stapleton, John; McGinnity, T. Martin; Newell, Fiona N.

    2014-01-01

    While aging can lead to significant declines in perceptual and cognitive function, the effects of age on multisensory integration, the process in which the brain combines information across the senses, are less clear. Recent reports suggest that older adults are susceptible to the sound-induced flash illusion (Shams et al., 2000) across a much wider range of temporal asynchronies than younger adults (Setti et al., 2011). To assess whether this cost for multisensory integration is a general phenomenon of combining asynchronous audiovisual input, we compared the time courses of two variants of the sound-induced flash illusion in young and older adults: the fission illusion, where one flash accompanied by two beeps appears as two flashes, and the fusion illusion, where two flashes accompanied by one beep appear as one flash. Twenty-five younger (18–30 years) and older (65+ years) adults were required to report whether they perceived one or two flashes, whilst ignoring irrelevant auditory beeps, in bimodal trials where auditory and visual stimuli were separated by one of six stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). There was a marked difference in the pattern of results for the two variants of the illusion. In conditions known to produce the fission illusion, older adults were significantly more susceptible to the illusion at longer SOAs compared to younger participants. In contrast, the performance of the younger and older groups was almost identical in conditions known to produce the fusion illusion. This surprising difference between sound-induced fission and fusion in older adults suggests dissociable age-related effects in multisensory integration, consistent with the idea that these illusions are mediated by distinct neural mechanisms. PMID:25309430

  20. Genome-wide analysis reveals mechanisms modulating autophagy in normal brain aging and in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lipinski, Marta M.; Zheng, Bin; Lu, Tao; Yan, Zhenyu; Py, Bénédicte F.; Ng, Aylwin; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Li, Cheng; Yankner, Bruce A.; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Yuan, Junying

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulation of autophagy, a cellular catabolic mechanism essential for degradation of misfolded proteins, has been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms that lead to the autophagy dysfunction are still not clear. Based on the results of a genome-wide screen, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as common mediators upstream of the activation of the type III PI3 kinase, which is critical for the initiation of autophagy. Furthermore, ROS play an essential function in the induction of the type III PI3 kinase and autophagy in response to amyloid β peptide, the main pathogenic mediator of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, lysosomal blockage also caused by Aβ is independent of ROS. In addition, we demonstrate that autophagy is transcriptionally down-regulated during normal aging in the human brain. Strikingly, in contrast to normal aging, we observe transcriptional up-regulation of autophagy in the brains of AD patients, suggesting that there might be a compensatory regulation of autophagy. Interestingly, we show that an AD drug and an AD drug candidate have inhibitory effects on autophagy, raising the possibility that decreasing input into the lysosomal system may help to reduce cellular stress in AD. Finally, we provide a list of candidate drug targets that can be used to safely modulate levels of autophagy without causing cell death. PMID:20660724

  1. Integrated analysis of ischemic stroke datasets revealed sex and age difference in anti-stroke targets.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xing; Dai, Shao-Xing; Wang, Qian; Guo, Yi-Cheng; Hong, Yi; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Liu, Jia-Qian; Liu, Dahai; Li, Gong-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a common neurological disorder and the burden in the world is growing. This study aims to explore the effect of sex and age difference on ischemic stroke using integrated microarray datasets. The results showed a dramatic difference in whole gene expression profiles and influenced pathways between males and females, and also in the old and young individuals. Furthermore, compared with old males, old female patients showed more serious biological function damage. However, females showed less affected pathways than males in young subjects. Functional interaction networks showed these differential expression genes were mostly related to immune and inflammation-related functions. In addition, we found ARG1 and MMP9 were up-regulated in total and all subgroups. Importantly, IL1A, ILAB, IL6 and TNF and other anti-stroke target genes were up-regulated in males. However, these anti-stroke target genes showed low expression in females. This study found huge sex and age differences in ischemic stroke especially the opposite expression of anti-stroke target genes. Future studies are needed to uncover these pathological mechanisms, and to take appropriate pre-prevention, treatment and rehabilitation measures.

  2. Aging in Sensory and Motor Neurons Results in Learning Failure in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Kempsell, Andrew T; Fieber, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and molecular mechanisms of age-related memory loss are complicated by the complexity of vertebrate nervous systems. This study takes advantage of a simple neural model to investigate nervous system aging, focusing on changes in learning and memory in the form of behavioral sensitization in vivo and synaptic facilitation in vitro. The effect of aging on the tail withdrawal reflex (TWR) was studied in Aplysia californica at maturity and late in the annual lifecycle. We found that short-term sensitization in TWR was absent in aged Aplysia. This implied that the neuronal machinery governing nonassociative learning was compromised during aging. Synaptic plasticity in the form of short-term facilitation between tail sensory and motor neurons decreased during aging whether the sensitizing stimulus was tail shock or the heterosynaptic modulator serotonin (5-HT). Together, these results suggest that the cellular mechanisms governing behavioral sensitization are compromised during aging, thereby nearly eliminating sensitization in aged Aplysia.

  3. A review of lunar chronology revealing a preponderance of 4.34-4.37 Ga ages

    DOE PAGES

    Borg, Lars E.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Shearer, Charles K.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, data obtained from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic measurements of lunar highlands’ samples are renormalized to common standard values and then used to define ages with a common isochron regression algorithm. The reliability of these ages is evaluated using five criteria that include whether: (1) the ages are defined by multiple isotopic systems, (2) the data demonstrate limited scatter outside uncertainty, (3) initial isotopic compositions are consistent with the petrogenesis of the samples, (4) the ages are defined by an isotopic system that is resistant to disturbance by impact metamorphism, and (5) the rare-earth element abundances determined bymore » isotope dilution of bulk of mineral fractions match those measured by in situ analyses. From this analysis, it is apparent that the oldest highlands’ rock ages are some of the least reliable, and that there is little support for crustal ages older than ~4.40 Ga. A model age for ur-KREEP formation calculated using the most reliable Mg-suite Sm-Nd isotopic systematics, in conjunction with Sm-Nd analyses of KREEP basalts, is 4389 ± 45 Ma. This age is a good match to the Lu-Hf model age of 4353 ± 37 Ma determined using a subset of this sample suite, the average model age of 4353 ± 25 Ma determined on mare basalts with the 146Sm-142Nd isotopic system, with a peak in Pb-Pb ages observed in lunar zircons of ~4340 ± 20 Ma, and the oldest terrestrial zircon age of 4374 ± 6 Ma. The preponderance of ages between 4.34 and 4.37 Ga reflect either primordial solidification of a lunar magma ocean or a widespread secondary magmatic event on the lunar nearside. The first scenario is not consistent with the oldest ages reported for lunar zircons, whereas the second scenario does not account for concordance between ages of crustal rocks and mantle reservoirs.« less

  4. A review of lunar chronology revealing a preponderance of 4.34-4.37 Ga ages

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, Lars E.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Shearer, Charles K.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, data obtained from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic measurements of lunar highlands’ samples are renormalized to common standard values and then used to define ages with a common isochron regression algorithm. The reliability of these ages is evaluated using five criteria that include whether: (1) the ages are defined by multiple isotopic systems, (2) the data demonstrate limited scatter outside uncertainty, (3) initial isotopic compositions are consistent with the petrogenesis of the samples, (4) the ages are defined by an isotopic system that is resistant to disturbance by impact metamorphism, and (5) the rare-earth element abundances determined by isotope dilution of bulk of mineral fractions match those measured by in situ analyses. From this analysis, it is apparent that the oldest highlands’ rock ages are some of the least reliable, and that there is little support for crustal ages older than ~4.40 Ga. A model age for ur-KREEP formation calculated using the most reliable Mg-suite Sm-Nd isotopic systematics, in conjunction with Sm-Nd analyses of KREEP basalts, is 4389 ± 45 Ma. This age is a good match to the Lu-Hf model age of 4353 ± 37 Ma determined using a subset of this sample suite, the average model age of 4353 ± 25 Ma determined on mare basalts with the 146Sm-142Nd isotopic system, with a peak in Pb-Pb ages observed in lunar zircons of ~4340 ± 20 Ma, and the oldest terrestrial zircon age of 4374 ± 6 Ma. The preponderance of ages between 4.34 and 4.37 Ga reflect either primordial solidification of a lunar magma ocean or a widespread secondary magmatic event on the lunar nearside. The first scenario is not consistent with the oldest ages reported for lunar zircons, whereas the second scenario does not account for concordance between ages of crustal rocks and mantle reservoirs.

  5. Results from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program: Their use in inspection activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Taylor, J. )

    1990-09-01

    The US NCR's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has determined the susceptibility to aging of components and systems, and the potential for aging to impact plant safety and availability. The NPAR Program also identified methods for detecting and mitigating aging in components. This report describes the NPAR results which can enhance NRC inspection activities. Recommendations are provided for communicating pertinent information to NRC inspectors. These recommendations are based on a detailed assessment of the NRC's Inspection Program, and feedback from resident and regional inspectors as described within. Examples of NPAR report summaries and aging inspection guides for components and systems are included. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. In vivo HMRS and lipidomic profiling reveals comprehensive changes of hippocampal metabolism during aging in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lejun; Cao, Bofeng; Xu, Zhiying; Sui, Yanbin; Chen, Jiao; Luan, Qiang; Yang, Ruifang; Li, Shanchun; Li, Ke Feng

    2016-01-29

    Aging is characterized by various cellular changes in the brain. Hippocampus is important for systemic aging and lifespan control. There is still a lack of comprehensive overview of metabolic changes in hippocampus during aging. In this study, we first created an accelerated brain aging mice model through the chronic administration of d-galactose. We then performed a multiplatform metabolomic profiling of mice hippocampus using the combination of in vivo 9.4 T HMRS and in vitro LC-MS/MS based lipidomics. We found N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA), gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate/glutamine, taurine, choline, sphingolipids (SMs), phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), phosphatidylinositols (PIs), phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) and phosphatidylserines (PSs), all of them decreasing with the aging process in mice hippocampus. The changes of sphingolipids and phospholipids were not limited to one single class or molecular species. In contrast, we found the significant accumulation of lactate, myoinositol and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) along with aging in hippocampus. SM (d18:1/20:2), PE (36:2), PG (34:1), PI (36:4), PS (18:0/20:4) and PC (36:0) have the most significant changes along with aging. Network analysis revealed the striking loss of biochemical connectivity and interactions between hippocampal metabolites with aging. The correlation pattern between metabolites in hippocampus could function as biomarkers for aging or diagnosis of aging-related diseases.

  7. High-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals metabolic effects of normal brain aging.

    PubMed

    Harris, Janna L; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Swerdlow, Russell H; Choi, In-Young; Lee, Phil; Brooks, William M

    2014-07-01

    Altered brain metabolism is likely to be an important contributor to normal cognitive decline and brain pathology in elderly individuals. To characterize the metabolic changes associated with normal brain aging, we used high-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo to quantify 20 neurochemicals in the hippocampus and sensorimotor cortex of young adult and aged rats. We found significant differences in the neurochemical profile of the aged brain when compared with younger adults, including lower aspartate, ascorbate, glutamate, and macromolecules, and higher glucose, myo-inositol, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, total choline, and glutamine. These neurochemical biomarkers point to specific cellular mechanisms that are altered in brain aging, such as bioenergetics, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell membrane turnover, and endogenous neuroprotection. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be a valuable translational approach for studying mechanisms of brain aging and pathology, and for investigating treatments to preserve or enhance cognitive function in aging.

  8. Metabolomic profiling reveals severe skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of metabolism in aged FBN rats.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Sean M; Dugle, Janis E; Kennedy, Adam D; McDunn, Jonathan E; Kline, William; Guo, Lining; Guttridge, Denis C; Pereira, Suzette L; Edens, Neile K

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit age-related adaptive and pathological remodeling. Several muscles in particular undergo progressive atrophy and degeneration beyond median lifespan. To better understand myocellular responses to aging, we used semi-quantitative global metabolomic profiling to characterize trends in metabolic changes between 15-month-old adult and 32-month-old aged Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (FBN) male rats. The FBN rat gastrocnemius muscle exhibits age-dependent atrophy, whereas the soleus muscle, up until 32 months, exhibits markedly fewer signs of atrophy. Both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed, as well as plasma and urine. Compared to adult gastrocnemius, aged gastrocnemius showed evidence of reduced glycolytic metabolism, including accumulation of glycolytic, glycogenolytic, and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates. Pyruvate was elevated with age, yet levels of citrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were reduced, consistent with mitochondrial abnormalities. Indicative of muscle atrophy, 3-methylhistidine and free amino acids were elevated in aged gastrocnemius. The monounsaturated fatty acids oleate, cis-vaccenate, and palmitoleate also increased in aged gastrocnemius, suggesting altered lipid metabolism. Compared to gastrocnemius, aged soleus exhibited far fewer changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but did show reductions in several glycolytic intermediates, fumarate, malate, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Plasma biochemicals showing the largest age-related increases included glycocholate, heme, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 1-palmitoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, palmitoleate, and creatine. These changes suggest reduced insulin sensitivity in aged FBN rats. Altogether, these data highlight skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of glucose and lipid metabolism consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in aged FBN rats.

  9. Quantitative image analysis reveals distinct structural transitions during aging in Caenorhabditis elegans tissues.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Josiah; Iser, Wendy B; Chow, David K; Goldberg, Ilya G; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2008-07-30

    Aging is associated with functional and structural declines in many body systems, even in the absence of underlying disease. In particular, skeletal muscles experience severe declines during aging, a phenomenon termed sarcopenia. Despite the high incidence and severity of sarcopenia, little is known about contributing factors and development. Many studies focus on functional aspects of aging-related tissue decline, while structural details remain understudied. Traditional approaches for quantifying structural changes have assessed individual markers at discrete intervals. Such approaches are inadequate for the complex changes associated with aging. An alternative is to consider changes in overall morphology rather than in specific markers. We have used this approach to quantitatively track tissue architecture during adulthood and aging in the C. elegans pharynx, the neuromuscular feeding organ. Using pattern recognition to analyze aged-grouped pharynx images, we identified discrete step-wise transitions between distinct morphologies. The morphology state transitions were maintained in mutants with pharynx neurotransmission defects, although the pace of the transitions was altered. Longitudinal measurements of pharynx function identified a predictive relationship between mid-life pharynx morphology and function at later ages. These studies demonstrate for the first time that adult tissues undergo distinct structural transitions reflecting postdevelopmental events. The processes that underlie these architectural changes may contribute to increased disease risk during aging, and may be targets for factors that alter the aging rate. This work further demonstrates that pattern analysis of an image series offers a novel and generally accessible approach for quantifying morphological changes and identifying structural biomarkers.

  10. Urine proteomes of healthy aging humans reveal extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations and immune system dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bakun, M; Senatorski, G; Rubel, T; Lukasik, A; Zielenkiewicz, P; Dadlez, M; Paczek, L

    2014-02-01

    Aging is a complex physiological process that poses considerable conundrums to rapidly aging societies. For example, the risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases and/or cancer steadily declines for people after their 60s, and other causes of death predominate for seniors older than 80 years of age. Thus, physiological aging presents numerous unanswered questions, particularly with regard to changing metabolic patterns. Urine proteomics analysis is becoming a non-invasive and reproducible diagnostic method. We investigated the urine proteomes in healthy elderly people to determine which metabolic processes were weakened or strengthened in aging humans. Urine samples from 37 healthy volunteers aged 19-90 years (19 men, 18 women) were analyzed for protein expression by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This generated a list of 19 proteins that were differentially expressed in different age groups (young, intermediate, and old age). In particular, the oldest group showed protein changes reflective of altered extracellular matrix turnover and declining immune function, in which changes corresponded to reported changes in cardiovascular tissue remodeling and immune disorders in the elderly. Thus, urinary proteome changes in the elderly appear to reflect the physiological processes of aging and are particularly clearly represented in the circulatory and immune systems. Detailed identification of "protein trails" creates a more global picture of metabolic changes that occur in the elderly.

  11. Touchscreen-based cognitive tasks reveal age-related impairment in a primate aging model, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

    PubMed

    Joly, Marine; Ammersdörfer, Sandra; Schmidtke, Daniel; Zimmermann, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs are suggested to represent promising novel non-human primate models for aging research. However, standardized and cross-taxa cognitive testing methods are still lacking. Touchscreen-based testing procedures have proven high stimulus control and reliability in humans and rodents. The aim of this study was to adapt these procedures to mouse lemurs, thereby exploring the effect of age. We measured appetitive learning and cognitive flexibility of two age groups by applying pairwise visual discrimination (PD) and reversal learning (PDR) tasks. On average, mouse lemurs needed 24 days of training before starting with the PD task. Individual performances in PD and PDR tasks correlate significantly, suggesting that individual learning performance is unrelated to the respective task. Compared to the young, aged mouse lemurs showed impairments in both PD and PDR tasks. They needed significantly more trials to reach the task criteria. A much higher inter-individual variation in old than in young adults was revealed. Furthermore, in the PDR task, we found a significantly higher perseverance in aged compared to young adults, indicating an age-related deficit in cognitive flexibility. This study presents the first touchscreen-based data on the cognitive skills and age-related dysfunction in mouse lemurs and provides a unique basis to study mechanisms of inter-individual variation. It furthermore opens exciting perspectives for comparative approaches in aging, personality, and evolutionary research.

  12. Mathematical results new and revisited on the distribution of groundwater age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginn, T. R.; Massoudieh, A.; Foglia, L.

    2009-12-01

    The equation governing the distribution of groundwater age under transient, 3D flow conditions is analyzed under several simplifying cases to illustrate some relations among groundwater age equations and some results about steady-state and transient age distributions. First linkages are made among the various groundwater age equations recently published, showing them all to be different simplifications of the same equation. The most basic analysis in 1D shows that groundwater age is at lease inverse-Gaussian distributed. More generally, steady state age moments, when they exist, are given by breakthrough curve moments and this allows us to use the temporal moment results from the solute transport literature as steady state age moments. In particular, age moment equations with arbitrary diffusive mass transfer (two-domain, radial microscopic, powerlaw) at steady state are already available as the temporal flux moment equations for solute transport under analogous boundary conditions. Lastly transient simulations of age in 1D are calculated to illustrate several aspects of the evolution of groundwater age distributions in time in the presences of multidomain diffusive transport.

  13. Digital histologic analysis reveals morphometric patterns of age-related involution in breast epithelium and stroma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Rupninder; Chollet-Hinton, Lynn; Kirk, Erin L; Midkiff, Bentley; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-02-01

    Complete age-related regression of mammary epithelium, often termed postmenopausal involution, is associated with decreased breast cancer risk. However, most studies have qualitatively assessed involution. We quantitatively analyzed epithelium, stroma, and adipose tissue from histologically normal breast tissue of 454 patients in the Normal Breast Study. High-resolution digital images of normal breast hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were partitioned into epithelium, adipose tissue, and nonfatty stroma. Percentage area and nuclei per unit area (nuclear density) were calculated for each component. Quantitative data were evaluated in association with age using linear regression and cubic spline models. Stromal area decreased (P = 0.0002), and adipose tissue area increased (P < 0.0001), with an approximate 0.7% change in area for each component, until age 55 years when these area measures reached a steady state. Although epithelial area did not show linear changes with age, epithelial nuclear density decreased linearly beginning in the third decade of life. No significant age-related trends were observed for stromal or adipose nuclear density. Digital image analysis offers a high-throughput method for quantitatively measuring tissue morphometry and for objectively assessing age-related changes in adipose tissue, stroma, and epithelium. Epithelial nuclear density is a quantitative measure of age-related breast involution that begins to decline in the early premenopausal period.

  14. Digital histologic analysis reveals morphometric patterns of age-related involution in breast epithelium and stroma

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Rupninder; Chollet-Hinton, Lynn; Kirk, Erin L.; Midkiff, Bentley; Troester, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Complete age-related regression of mammary epithelium, often termed post-menopausal involution, is associated with decreased breast cancer risk. However, most studies have qualitatively assessed involution. We quantitatively analyzed epithelium, stroma, and adipose tissue from histologically normal breast tissue of 454 patients in the Normal Breast Study (NBS). High-resolution digital images of normal breast Hematoxylin & Eosin stained slides were partitioned into epithelium, adipose tissue, and non-fatty stroma. Percentage area and nuclei per unit area (nuclear density) were calculated for each component. Quantitative data were evaluated in association with age using linear regression and cubic spline models Stromal area decreased (p=0.0002) and adipose tissue area increased (p<0.0001), with an approximate 0.7% change in area for each component, until age 55 when these area measures reached a steady state. While epithelial area did not show linear changes with age, epithelial nuclear density decreased linearly beginning in the third decade of life. No significant age-related trends were observed for stromal or adipose nuclear density. Digital image analysis offers a high-throughput method for quantitatively measuring tissue morphometry and for objectively assessing age-related changes in adipose tissue, stroma, and epithelium. Epithelial nuclear density is a quantitative measure of age-related breast involution that begins to decline in the early premenopausal period. PMID:26772400

  15. [Cardioversion by external electric shock for atrial fibrillation: does patient age affect immediate results?].

    PubMed

    Sbragia, P; Arquès, S; Franceschi, F; Thuny, F; Saadjian, A; Gélisse, R; Paganelli, F; Boccara, G; Ricard, P; Lévy, S

    2002-06-01

    The restoration of sinus rhythm by external electric shock in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation is a well established treatment. However, in current practice this treatment is generally indicated less in the elderly subject although this attitude is not factual. The objective of this work was to evaluate the immediate results of cardioversion by external electric shock, comparing the success rates in four age groups: under 60 years, between 60 and 69 years, between 70 and 79 years, and over 80 years. This study was performed on 182 consecutive patients aged from 25 to 89 years: 35 patients aged less than 60 years, 52 patients aged from 60 to 69 years, 65 patients aged from 70 to 79 years, and 30 patients aged 80 years or over. The success rates were 91.4% before 60 years, 90.4% between 60 and 69 years, 90.8% between 70 and 79 years, and 83.3% after 80 years. There was no significant difference between the success rates in the four age groups (p = 0.68). Among the other factors analysed, only the duration of atrial fibrillation and the body mass index significantly influenced the results of external electric shock in this series. This work suggests that age does not significantly influence the immediate results of external electric shock. According to these data it does not appear justified to contra-indicate cardioversion by external electric shock on the sole criterion of age.

  16. Diminished trkA receptor signaling reveals cholinergic-attentional vulnerability of aging

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Vinay; Howe, William M.; Welchko, Ryan M.; Naughton, Sean X.; D'Amore, Drew E.; Han, Daniel H.; Deo, Monika; Turner, David L.; Sarter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying the exceptional vulnerability of the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons during pathological aging have remained elusive. Here we employed an adeno-associated viral vector-based RNA interference (AAV-RNAi) strategy to suppress the expression of trkA receptors by cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert/ substantia innominata (nMB/SI) of adult and aged rats. Suppression of trkA receptor expression impaired attentional performance selectively in aged rats. Performance correlated with trkA levels in the nMB/SI. TrkA knockdown neither affected nMB/SI cholinergic cell counts nor the decrease in cholinergic cell size observed in aged rats. However, trkA suppression augmented an age-related decrease in the density of cortical cholinergic processes and attenuated the capacity of cholinergic neurons to release ACh. The capacity of cortical synapses to release acetylcholine (ACh) in vivo was also lower in aged/trkA-AAV-infused rats than in aged or young controls, and it correlated with their attentional performance. Furthermore, age-related increases in cortical proNGF and p75 receptor levels interacted with the vector-induced loss of trkA receptors to shift NGF signaling toward p75-mediated suppression of the cholinergic phenotype, thereby attenuating cholinergic function and impairing attentional performance. These effects model the abnormal trophic regulation of cholinergic neurons and cognitive impairments in patients with early Alzheimer's disease. This rat model is useful for identifying the mechanisms rendering aging cholinergic neurons vulnerable as well as for studying the neuropathological mechanisms that are triggered by disrupted trophic signaling. PMID:23228124

  17. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of middle-aged vs. aged vastus lateralis reveals increased levels of carbonic anhydrase isoform 3 in senescent human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Staunton, Lisa; Zweyer, Margit; Swandulla, Dieter; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2012-10-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and associated progressive decline in contractile strength is a serious pathophysiological issue in the elderly. In order to investigate global changes in the skeletal muscle proteome after the fifth decade of life, this study analysed total extracts from human vastus lateralis muscle by fluorescence difference in-gel electrophoresis. Tissue specimens were derived from middle-aged (47-62 years) vs. aged (76-82 years) individuals and potential changes in the protein expression profiles were compared between these two age groups by a comprehensive gel electrophoresis-based survey. Age-dependent alterations in the concentration of 19 protein spots were revealed and mass spectrometry identified these components as being involved in the excitation-contraction-relaxation cycle, muscle metabolism, ion handling and the cellular stress response. This indicates a generally perturbed protein expression pattern in senescent human muscle. Increased levels of mitochondrial enzymes and isoform switching of the key contractile protein, actin, support the idea of glycolytic-to-oxidative and fast-to-slow transition processes during muscle aging. Importantly, the carbonic anhydrase (CA)3 isoform displayed an increased abundance during muscle aging, which was independently verified by immunoblotting of differently aged human skeletal muscle samples. Since the CA3 isoform is relatively muscle-specific and exhibits a fibre type-specific expression pattern, this enzyme may represent an interesting new biomarker of sarcopenia. Increased levels of CA are indicative of an increased demand of CO₂-removal in senescent muscle, and also suggest age-related fibre type shifting to slower-contracting muscles during human aging.

  18. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals molecular and functional platelet bias of aged haematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Amit; Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Thongjuea, Supat; Carrelha, Joana; Giustacchini, Alice; Gambardella, Adriana; Macaulay, Iain; Mancini, Elena; Luis, Tiago C.; Mead, Adam; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.; Nerlov, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aged haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate more myeloid cells and fewer lymphoid cells compared with young HSCs, contributing to decreased adaptive immunity in aged individuals. However, it is not known how intrinsic changes to HSCs and shifts in the balance between biased HSC subsets each contribute to the altered lineage output. Here, by analysing HSC transcriptomes and HSC function at the single-cell level, we identify increased molecular platelet priming and functional platelet bias as the predominant age-dependent change to HSCs, including a significant increase in a previously unrecognized class of HSCs that exclusively produce platelets. Depletion of HSC platelet programming through loss of the FOG-1 transcription factor is accompanied by increased lymphoid output. Therefore, increased platelet bias may contribute to the age-associated decrease in lymphopoiesis. PMID:27009448

  19. Young asteroidal fluid activity revealed by absolute age from apatite in carbonaceous chondrite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Cheng; Li, Qiu-Li; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Li, Xian-Hua; Hu, Sen; Lin, Yang-Ting; Wang, Ru-Cheng

    2016-09-29

    Chondritic meteorites, consisting of the materials that have formed in the early solar system (ESS), have been affected by late thermal events and fluid activity to various degrees. Determining the timing of fluid activity in ESS is of fundamental importance for understanding the nature, formation, evolution and significance of fluid activity in ESS. Previous investigations have determined the relative ages of fluid activity with short-lived isotope systematics. Here we report an absolute (207)Pb/(206)Pb isochron age (4,450±50 Ma) of apatite from Dar al Gani (DaG) 978, a type ∼3.5, ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite. The petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical features suggest that the apatite in DaG 978 should have formed during metamorphism in the presence of a fluid. Therefore, the apatite age represents an absolute age for fluid activity in an asteroidal setting. An impact event could have provided the heat to activate this young fluid activity in ESS.

  20. Young asteroidal fluid activity revealed by absolute age from apatite in carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-Cheng; Li, Qiu-Li; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Li, Xian-Hua; Hu, Sen; Lin, Yang-Ting; Wang, Ru-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Chondritic meteorites, consisting of the materials that have formed in the early solar system (ESS), have been affected by late thermal events and fluid activity to various degrees. Determining the timing of fluid activity in ESS is of fundamental importance for understanding the nature, formation, evolution and significance of fluid activity in ESS. Previous investigations have determined the relative ages of fluid activity with short-lived isotope systematics. Here we report an absolute 207Pb/206Pb isochron age (4,450+/-50 Ma) of apatite from Dar al Gani (DaG) 978, a type ~3.5, ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite. The petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical features suggest that the apatite in DaG 978 should have formed during metamorphism in the presence of a fluid. Therefore, the apatite age represents an absolute age for fluid activity in an asteroidal setting. An impact event could have provided the heat to activate this young fluid activity in ESS.

  1. Preparing Corrections Staff for the Future: Results of a 2-Day Training About Aging Inmates.

    PubMed

    Masters, Julie L; Magnuson, Thomas M; Bayer, Barbara L; Potter, Jane F; Falkowski, Paul P

    2016-04-01

    The aging of the prison population presents corrections staff with unique challenges in knowing how to support inmates while maintaining security. This article describes a 2-day training program to introduce the aging process to select staff at all levels. While the results of a pre-posttest measure, using a modified version of Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz, did not produce a statistically significant difference at the conclusion of the training, attendees did express satisfaction with the training and their newfound insight into the challenges faced by aging inmates. They also offered recommendations for future training to include more practical suggestions for the work environment.

  2. Some results on the ageing of wire chambers with dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibaly, Mohammed; Chrusch, Peter; Hilgenberg, Gregory; Majewski, Stan; Wojcik, Randolph; Weintraub, Randy; Sauli, Fabio

    1988-12-01

    Ageing results of three test wire detectors when filled with dimethyl ether (DME) are presented. DME gas was analyzed before and during the tests for the presence of electronegative impurities, such as Freons. A strong dependence of the rate of ageing on the wire composition was observed. The resistive wires, such as Stablohm and Nicotin, produced fast ageing. Also, even the best available purified DME, as of today, used with gold-plated wires, produced some slow ageing. The rate of amplitude decrease depended on the Freon impurity level.

  3. Graduate Training in Education and Aging: Results of a National Survey; Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, D. Barry

    1977-01-01

    The graduate departments of adult education at 88 universities in the United States were surveyed for information pertinent to their programs in and about aging. Results show that 55 percent of the departments offer no courses dealing exclusively with education and aging. (Author)

  4. Mitochondrial proteomic profiling reveals increased carbonic anhydrase II in aging and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Amelia; Shephard, Freya; Freed, James; Liddell, Susan; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat glaucoma and cancers. Carbonic anhydrases perform a crucial role in the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into bicarbonate and protons. However, there is little information about carbonic anhydrase isoforms during the process of ageing. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicit in ageing brain and muscle. We have interrogated isolated mitochondrial fractions from young adult and middle aged mouse brain and skeletal muscle. We find an increase of tissue specific carbonic anhydrases in mitochondria from middle-aged brain and skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase II was measured in the Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd5J) mouse model. In pcd5J we find mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase II is also elevated in brain from young adults undergoing a process of neurodegeneration. We show C.elegans exposed to carbonic anhydrase II have a dose related shorter lifespan suggesting that high CAII levels are in themselves life limiting. We show for the first time that the mitochondrial content of brain and skeletal tissue are exposed to significantly higher levels of active carbonic anhydrases as early as in middle-age. Carbonic anhydrases associated with mitochondria could be targeted to specifically modulate age related impairments and disease. PMID:27743511

  5. Ancient DNA reveals traces of Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age lineages in modern Iberian horses.

    PubMed

    Lira, Jaime; Linderholm, Anna; Olaria, Carmen; Brandström Durling, Mikael; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Ellegren, Hans; Willerslev, Eske; Lidén, Kerstin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Götherström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Multiple geographical regions have been proposed for the domestication of Equus caballus. It has been suggested, based on zooarchaeological and genetic analyses that wild horses from the Iberian Peninsula were involved in the process, and the overrepresentation of mitochondrial D1 cluster in modern Iberian horses supports this suggestion. To test this hypothesis, we analysed mitochondrial DNA from 22 ancient Iberian horse remains belonging to the Neolithic, the Bronze Age and the Middle Ages, against previously published sequences. Only the medieval Iberian sequence appeared in the D1 group. Neolithic and Bronze Age sequences grouped in other clusters, one of which (Lusitano group C) is exclusively represented by modern horses of Iberian origin. Moreover, Bronze Age Iberian sequences displayed the lowest nucleotide diversity values when compared with modern horses, ancient wild horses and other ancient domesticates using nonparametric bootstrapping analyses. We conclude that the excessive clustering of Bronze Age horses in the Lusitano group C, the observed nucleotide diversity and the local continuity from wild Neolithic Iberian to modern Iberian horses, could be explained by the use of local wild mares during an early Iberian domestication or restocking event, whereas the D1 group probably was introduced into Iberia in later historical times.

  6. Sediment mixing and stratigraphic disorder revealed by the age-structure of Tellina shells in Great Barrier Reef sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosnik, Matthew A.; Hua, Quan; Jacobsen, Geraldine E.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Wüst, Raphael A.

    2007-09-01

    Radiocarbon-calibrated amino acid racemization ages of 250 individually dated Tellina shells from two sediment cores are used to quantify molluscan time averaging with increasing burial depth in the shallow-water carbonate lagoon of Rib Reef, central Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The top 20 cm of sediment contain a distinct, essentially modern assemblage with a median age of only 5 yr. Sediment between 20 and 125 cm are age-homogeneous and significantly older than the surface sediment (median age 189 yr). Shell age distributions within layers indicate that the top 125 cm of lagoonal sediment is thoroughly mixed on a subcentennial scale. Shell size is an important correlate of shell half-life and an important determinant of the inferred age of sedimentary layers. These results illustrate the importance of bioturbation in these environments, indicate that age estimates in this depositional setting are sensitive to specimen choice, and document a size-dependent bias in death assemblage formation.

  7. Aging in the natural world: comparative data reveal similar mortality patterns across primates.

    PubMed

    Bronikowski, Anne M; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K; Cords, Marina; Fedigan, Linda M; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Morris, William F; Strier, Karen B; Alberts, Susan C

    2011-03-11

    Human senescence patterns-late onset of mortality increase, slow mortality acceleration, and exceptional longevity-are often described as unique in the animal world. Using an individual-based data set from longitudinal studies of wild populations of seven primate species, we show that contrary to assumptions of human uniqueness, human senescence falls within the primate continuum of aging; the tendency for males to have shorter life spans and higher age-specific mortality than females throughout much of adulthood is a common feature in many, but not all, primates; and the aging profiles of primate species do not reflect phylogenetic position. These findings suggest that mortality patterns in primates are shaped by local selective forces rather than phylogenetic history.

  8. Aging in the Natural World: Comparative Data Reveal Similar Mortality Patterns Across Primates

    PubMed Central

    Bronikowski, Anne M.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Cords, Marina; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Morris, William F.; Strier, Karen B.; Alberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Human senescence patterns—late onset of mortality increase, slow mortality acceleration, and exceptional longevity—are often described as unique in the animal world. Using an individual-based data set from longitudinal studies of wild populations of seven primate species, we show that contrary to assumptions of human uniqueness, human senescence falls within the primate continuum of aging; the tendency for males to have shorter life spans and higher age-specific mortality than females throughout much of adulthood is a common feature in many, but not all, primates; and the aging profiles of primate species do not reflect phylogenetic position. These findings suggest that mortality patterns in primates are shaped by local selective forces rather than phylogenetic history. PMID:21393544

  9. Palaeomagnetic results from Palaeocene basalts from Mongolia reveal no inclination shallowing at 60 Ma in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankard, Fatim; Cogné, Jean-Pascal; Lagroix, France; Quidelleur, Xavier; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.; Bayasgalan, Amgalan; Lkhagvadorj, Purevdorj

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a palaeomagnetic study of 277 cores drilled at 35 sites, in 32 basaltic flows from three Early Palaeocene volcanic regions in the Gobi Desert, Mongolia, at Sumber Uul (62.2 Ma; 42.6°N/104.0°E), Tulga (62.0 Ma; 43.2°N/104.1°E) and Khuts Uul (57.1 Ma; 43.2°N/104.6°E) localities. Samples from Sumber Uul (62.2 +/- 0.9 Ma) and Khuts Uul (57.1 +/- 0.8 Ma) localities were dated using the K-Ar Cassignol-Gillot technique. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetizations isolated a stable A component of magnetization carried by single domain (SD) to nearly SD magnetite. We interpret this A component to be the primary magnetization of these basaltic lava flows.The Sumber Uul and Tulga data were combined and recomputed at the Sumber Uul locality because of their similar ages. The palaeopoles computed from the A components lie at λ = 85.2°N, φ = 92.5°E, dp/dm = 3.9/4.9 (n = 14 flows) for Sumber Uul-Tulga (average age: 62.1 +/- 5.9 Ma) and λ = 69.6°N, φ = 148.0°E, dp/dm = 6.3/7.3 (n = 14 flows) for Khuts Uul (average age: 57.1 +/- 0.8 Ma). The palaeomagnetic inclinations are steeper than expected at the sites and consequently our palaeopoles occupy a near-sided position with respect to the 60 Ma reference apparent polar wander path (APWP) pole for Europe (Besse & Courtillot 2002). However, they appear to fully conform to the new high-resolution APWP poles for the 65-42 Ma period of Moreau et al. (2007). Following these authors, we interpret this anomalous near-sided position of our poles as arising from a rapid true polar wander (TPW) event in the Palaeocene, highlighted by a cusp at anomalies 26-25 (61-56 Ma), inexistent in the European APWP of Besse & Courtillot (2002). We conclude that our new data do not reveal any anomalous shallow inclinations in the Central Asia Palaeocene effusive rocks which is consistent with the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous age of Mongol-Okhotsk ocean closure and amalgamation of Amuria and Siberia

  10. INTER- AND INTRA-CLUSTER AGE GRADIENTS IN MASSIVE STAR FORMING REGIONS AND INDIVIDUAL NEARBY STELLAR CLUSTERS REVEALED BY MYStIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric; Kuhn, Michael A.; Broos, Patrick S; Townsley, Leisa K.; Naylor, Tim; Povich, Matthew S.; Luhman, Kevin; Garmire, Gordon

    2014-08-01

    The MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray) project seeks to characterize 20 OB-dominated young star forming regions (SFRs) at distances <4 kpc using photometric catalogs from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, UKIRT and 2MASS surveys. As part of the MYStIX project, we developed a new stellar chronometer that employs near-infrared and X-ray photometry data, AgeJX. Computing AgeJX averaged over MYStIX (sub)clusters reveals previously unknown age gradients across most of the MYStIX regions as well as within some individual rich clusters. Within the SFRs, the inferred AgeJX ages are youngest in obscured locations in molecular clouds, intermediate in revealed stellar clusters, and oldest in distributed stellar populations. Noticeable intra-cluster gradients are seen in the NGC 2024 (Flame Nebula) star cluster and the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC): stars in cluster cores appear younger and thus were formed later than stars in cluster halos. The latter result has two important implications for the formation of young stellar clusters. Clusters likely form slowly: they do not arise from a single nearly-instantaneous burst of star formation. The simple models where clusters form inside-out are likely incorrect, and more complex models are needed. We provide several star formation scenarios that alone or in combination may lead to the observed core-halo age gradients.

  11. A novel diagnostic tool reveals mitochondrial pathology in human diseases and aging.

    PubMed

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Canugovi, Chandrika; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2013-03-01

    The inherent complex and pleiotropic phenotype of mitochondrial diseases poses a significant diagnostic challenge for clinicians as well as an analytical barrier for scientists. To overcome these obstacles we compiled a novel database, www.mitodb.com, containing the clinical features of primary mitochondrial diseases. Based on this we developed a number of qualitative and quantitative measures, enabling us to determine whether a disorder can be characterized as mitochondrial. These included a clustering algorithm, a disease network, a mitochondrial barcode and two scoring algorithms. Using these tools we detected mitochondrial involvement in a number of diseases not previously recorded as mitochondrial. As a proof of principle Cockayne syndrome, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1 (AOA1), spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy 1 (SCAN1) and ataxia-telangiectasia have recently been shown to have mitochondrial dysfunction and those diseases showed strong association with mitochondrial disorders. We next evaluated mitochondrial involvement in aging and detected two distinct categories of accelerated aging disorders, one of them being associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal aging seemed to associate stronger with the mitochondrial diseases than the non-mitochondrial partially supporting a mitochondrial theory of aging.

  12. Young asteroidal fluid activity revealed by absolute age from apatite in carbonaceous chondrite

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ai-Cheng; Li, Qiu-Li; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Li, Xian-Hua; Hu, Sen; Lin, Yang-Ting; Wang, Ru-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites, consisting of the materials that have formed in the early solar system (ESS), have been affected by late thermal events and fluid activity to various degrees. Determining the timing of fluid activity in ESS is of fundamental importance for understanding the nature, formation, evolution and significance of fluid activity in ESS. Previous investigations have determined the relative ages of fluid activity with short-lived isotope systematics. Here we report an absolute 207Pb/206Pb isochron age (4,450±50 Ma) of apatite from Dar al Gani (DaG) 978, a type ∼3.5, ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite. The petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical features suggest that the apatite in DaG 978 should have formed during metamorphism in the presence of a fluid. Therefore, the apatite age represents an absolute age for fluid activity in an asteroidal setting. An impact event could have provided the heat to activate this young fluid activity in ESS. PMID:27682449

  13. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN AGING RATS AND MICE REVEALS CHANGES IN XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM GENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics are major functions of the liver and is important in maintaining the metabolic homeostasis of the organism. The degree to which aging affects hepatic metabolism is not known. The expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), i...

  14. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Effects of Age, Sexual Development and Neutering in Plasma of Young Male Cats

    PubMed Central

    Allaway, David; Gilham, Matthew S.; Colyer, Alison; Jönsson, Thomas J.; Swanson, Kelly S.; Morris, Penelope J.

    2016-01-01

    Neutering is a significant risk factor for obesity in cats. The mechanisms that promote neuter-associated weight gain are not well understood but following neutering, acute changes in energy expenditure and energy consumption have been observed. Metabolic profiling (GC-MS and UHPLC-MS-MS) was used in a longitudinal study to identify changes associated with age, sexual development and neutering in male cats fed a nutritionally-complete dry diet to maintain an ideal body condition score. At eight time points, between 19 and 52 weeks of age, fasted blood samples were taken from kittens neutered at either 19 weeks of age (Early Neuter (EN), n = 8) or at 31 weeks of age (Conventional Neuter (CN), n = 7). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare plasma metabolites (n = 370) from EN and CN cats. Age was the primary driver of variance in the plasma metabolome, including a developmental change independent of neuter group between 19 and 21 weeks in lysolipids and fatty acid amides. Changes associated with sexual development and its subsequent loss were also observed, with differences at some time points observed between EN and CN cats for 45 metabolites (FDR p<0.05). Pathway Enrichment Analysis also identified significant effects in 20 pathways, dominated by amino acid, sterol and fatty acid metabolism. Most changes were interpretable within the context of male sexual development, and changed following neutering in the CN group. Felinine metabolism in CN cats was the most significantly altered pathway, increasing during sexual development and decreasing acutely following neutering. Felinine is a testosterone-regulated, felid-specific glutathione derivative secreted in urine. Alterations in tryptophan, histidine and tocopherol metabolism observed in peripubertal cats may be to support physiological functions of glutathione following diversion of S-amino acids for urinary felinine secretion. PMID:27942045

  15. Adjuvant-induced Human Monocyte Secretome Profiles Reveal Adjuvant- and Age-specific Protein Signatures*

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Djin-Ye; Dowling, David J.; Ahmed, Saima; Choi, Hyungwon; Brightman, Spencer; Bergelson, Ilana; Berger, Sebastian T.; Sauld, John F.; Pettengill, Matthew; Kho, Alvin T.; Pollack, Henry J.; Steen, Hanno; Levy, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants boost vaccine responses, enhancing protective immunity against infections that are most common among the very young. Many adjuvants activate innate immunity, some via Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), whose activities varies with age. Accordingly, characterization of age-specific adjuvant-induced immune responses may inform rational adjuvant design targeting vulnerable populations. In this study, we employed proteomics to characterize the adjuvant-induced changes of secretomes from human newborn and adult monocytes in response to Alum, the most commonly used adjuvant in licensed vaccines; Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA), a TLR4-activating adjuvant component of a licensed Human Papilloma Virus vaccine; and R848 an imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 agonist that is a candidate adjuvant for early life vaccines. Monocytes were incubated in vitro for 24 h with vehicle, Alum, MPLA, or R848 and supernatants collected for proteomic analysis employing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) (data available via ProteomeXchange, ID PXD003534). 1894 non-redundant proteins were identified, of which ∼30 - 40% were common to all treatment conditions and ∼5% were treatment-specific. Adjuvant-stimulated secretome profiles, as identified by cluster analyses of over-represented proteins, varied with age and adjuvant type. Adjuvants, especially Alum, activated multiple innate immune pathways as assessed by functional enrichment analyses. Release of lactoferrin, pentraxin 3, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was confirmed in newborn and adult whole blood and blood monocytes stimulated with adjuvants alone or adjuvanted licensed vaccines with distinct clinical reactogenicity profiles. MPLA-induced adult monocyte secretome profiles correlated in silico with transcriptome profiles induced in adults immunized with the MPLA-adjuvanted RTS,S malaria vaccine (Mosquirix™). Overall, adjuvants such as Alum, MPLA and R848 give rise to distinct and age-specific monocyte secretome profiles

  16. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history.

    PubMed

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-19

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain.

  17. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history

    PubMed Central

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain. PMID:26783965

  18. Ancient X chromosomes reveal contrasting sex bias in Neolithic and Bronze Age Eurasian migrations.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Amy; Günther, Torsten; Rosenberg, Noah A; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2017-03-07

    Dramatic events in human prehistory, such as the spread of agriculture to Europe from Anatolia and the late Neolithic/Bronze Age migration from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, can be investigated using patterns of genetic variation among the people who lived in those times. In particular, studies of differing female and male demographic histories on the basis of ancient genomes can provide information about complexities of social structures and cultural interactions in prehistoric populations. We use a mechanistic admixture model to compare the sex-specifically-inherited X chromosome with the autosomes in 20 early Neolithic and 16 late Neolithic/Bronze Age human remains. Contrary to previous hypotheses suggested by the patrilocality of many agricultural populations, we find no evidence of sex-biased admixture during the migration that spread farming across Europe during the early Neolithic. For later migrations from the Pontic Steppe during the late Neolithic/Bronze Age, however, we estimate a dramatic male bias, with approximately five to 14 migrating males for every migrating female. We find evidence of ongoing, primarily male, migration from the steppe to central Europe over a period of multiple generations, with a level of sex bias that excludes a pulse migration during a single generation. The contrasting patterns of sex-specific migration during these two migrations suggest a view of differing cultural histories in which the Neolithic transition was driven by mass migration of both males and females in roughly equal numbers, perhaps whole families, whereas the later Bronze Age migration and cultural shift were instead driven by male migration, potentially connected to new technology and conquest.

  19. Regional specificity of MRI contrast parameter changes in normal ageing revealed by voxel-based quantification (VBQ).

    PubMed

    Draganski, B; Ashburner, J; Hutton, C; Kherif, F; Frackowiak, R S J; Helms, G; Weiskopf, N

    2011-04-15

    Normal ageing is associated with characteristic changes in brain microstructure. Although in vivo neuroimaging captures spatial and temporal patterns of age-related changes of anatomy at the macroscopic scale, our knowledge of the underlying (patho)physiological processes at cellular and molecular levels is still limited. The aim of this study is to explore brain tissue properties in normal ageing using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alongside conventional morphological assessment. Using a whole-brain approach in a cohort of 26 adults, aged 18-85years, we performed voxel-based morphometric (VBM) analysis and voxel-based quantification (VBQ) of diffusion tensor, magnetization transfer (MT), R1, and R2* relaxation parameters. We found age-related reductions in cortical and subcortical grey matter volume paralleled by changes in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), MT and R2*. The latter were regionally specific depending on their differential sensitivity to microscopic tissue properties. VBQ of white matter revealed distinct anatomical patterns of age-related change in microstructure. Widespread and profound reduction in MT contrasted with local FA decreases paralleled by MD increases. R1 reductions and R2* increases were observed to a smaller extent in overlapping occipito-parietal white matter regions. We interpret our findings, based on current biophysical models, as a fingerprint of age-dependent brain atrophy and underlying microstructural changes in myelin, iron deposits and water. The VBQ approach we present allows for systematic unbiased exploration of the interaction between imaging parameters and extends current methods for detection of neurodegenerative processes in the brain. The demonstrated parameter-specific distribution patterns offer insights into age-related brain structure changes in vivo and provide essential baseline data for studying disease against a background of healthy ageing.

  20. [Remote results of surgical treatment of aging ptosis of face and neck tissues].

    PubMed

    Ezrokhin, V M; Pavlovich, V A

    2008-01-01

    Remote results of surgical treatment of patients with aging ptosis of face and neck tissues during 15 years are presented. Results were good there where suggested incisions marking was carried out and for those face and neck skin regions which should be corrected. Unsatisfactory results were received in the cases when wounds edges were sewn by uninterrupted blanket sutures without skin deeper layers fixing.

  1. Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates.

    PubMed

    Picq, Jean-Luc; Villain, Nicolas; Gary, Charlotte; Pifferi, Fabien; Dhenain, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12) and aged (n = 8) adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination.

  2. Results of interlaboratory comparison of fission-track age standards: Fission-track workshop-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.S.; Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Hurford, A.J.; Naeser, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Five samples were made available as standards for the 1984 Fission Track Workshop held in the summer of 1984 (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York). Two zircons, two apatites and a sphene were distributed prior to the meeting to 40 different laboratories. To date, 24 different analysts have reported results. The isotopic ages of the standards ranged from 16.8 to 98.7 Myr. Only the statement that the age of each sample was less than 200 Myr was provided with the set of standards distributed. Consequently, each laboratory was required to use their laboratory's accepted treatment (irradiation level, etching conditions, counting conditions, etc.) for these samples. The results show that some workers have serious problems in achieving accurate age determinations. This emphasizes the need to calibrate experimental techniques and counting procedures against age standards before unknown ages are determined. Any fission-track age determination published or submitted for publication can only be considered reliable if it is supported by evidence of consistent determinations on age standards. Only this can provide the scientific community with the background to build up confidence concerning the validity of the fission-track method. ?? 1985.

  3. Mouse Tmem135 mutation reveals a mechanism involving mitochondrial dynamics that leads to age-dependent retinal pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Hua; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Sakae; Macke, Erica L; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Pattnaik, Bikash R; Liu, Che; Chu, Li-Fang; Siepka, Sandra M; Krentz, Kathleen J; Rubinstein, C Dustin; Kalejta, Robert F; Thomson, James A; Mullins, Robert F; Takahashi, Joseph S; Pinto, Lawrence H; Ikeda, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    While the aging process is central to the pathogenesis of age-dependent diseases, it is poorly understood at the molecular level. We identified a mouse mutant with accelerated aging in the retina as well as pathologies observed in age-dependent retinal diseases, suggesting that the responsible gene regulates retinal aging, and its impairment results in age-dependent disease. We determined that a mutation in the transmembrane 135 (Tmem135) is responsible for these phenotypes. We observed localization of TMEM135 on mitochondria, and imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion in mutant Tmem135 as well as Tmem135 overexpressing cells, indicating that TMEM135 is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Additionally, mutant retina showed higher sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics through TMEM135 is critical for protection from environmental stress and controlling the progression of retinal aging. Our study identified TMEM135 as a critical link between aging and age-dependent diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19264.001 PMID:27863209

  4. [The role of peptides in aging control: results and prospects of research].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Anisimov, V N

    2010-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of long-term research designed to elucidate mechanisms of aging and evaluate efficacy of peptide bioregulators for the prevention of age-specific pathology. Peptides obtained by up-to-date methods in Russia, U.S.A., U.K., Germany, Italy, Spain, and France are reviewed. A molecular model is proposed to describe complementary interactions of short-chain peptides with gene promoters underlying initiation of protein synthesis. Prospects for the use of peptide bioregulators to prevent premature aging of the employable population in Russia are discussed.

  5. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic.

  6. Stability and Change in Intelligence from Age 12 to Age 52: Results from the Luxembourg MAGRIP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalke, Daniela; Brunner, Martin; Geiser, Christian; Preckel, Franzis; Keller, Ulrich; Spengler, Marion; Martin, Romain

    2013-01-01

    The present longitudinal study tackled 2 key aspects of the development of intelligence across a 40-year time period from age 12 to age 52 concerning (a) stability and change in the structure of intelligence with reference to the age differentiation-dedifferentiation hypothesis (how different cognitive abilities relate to each other across age)…

  7. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice.

  8. Coeval ages of Australasian, Central American and Western Canadian tektites reveal multiple impacts 790 ka ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Bollinger, Klemens; Gantert, Niklas; Fernandes, Vera A.; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Povenmire, Hal; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Guglielmino, Massimo; Koeberl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    High resolution 40Ar-39Ar step heating dating of australites and indochinites, representing a large area of the Australasian strewn field, and more recently discovered tektite-like glasses from Central America (Belize) and Western Canada, were carried out. Precise plateau ages were obtained in all cases, yielding indistinguishable ages of 789 ± 9 ka for four australites, 783 ± 5 ka for four indochinites, 783 ± 17 ka for one Western Canadian and 769 ± 16 ka for one Belize impact glass. Concerning major elements and REEs, australites and the Western Canadian impact glass are indistinguishable. If the Western Canadian sample was transported by impact ejection and belongs to the Australasian strewn field, this implies extremely far ballistic transport of 9000 km distance, assuming a source crater in southern Asia. The distinct major element and REE composition of the Belize impact glass suggests formation in another separate impact event. We conclude that the Australasian/Western Canadian impact glasses formed 785 ± 7 ka ago in a single event and Belize impact glass in a separate event 769 ± 16 ka ago. The two impact events forming these two strewn fields occurred remarkably closely related in time, i.e., separated by <30 ka.

  9. New Ages on Old Arc Rocks, Preliminary Results From the Southern IBM Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohler, D.; Reagan, M.; Heizler, M.; Hickey-Vargas, R.

    2001-12-01

    The first results of our reevaluation of the geochemistry and geochronology of Eocene to Miocene volcanic rocks from the southern Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc include preliminary 40Ar/39Ar ages on rocks from Guam, and DSDP sites 447, 448, 458, 459B. Our new 40Ar/39Ar age of 44 Ma on a boninite series basalt from the Facpi formation, supports earlier work by Meijer et al. (1983, AGU Mono. 27, p349) who obtained a 44 Ma K-Ar age on a similar basalt from the same area in western Guam. Our 40Ar/39Ar age of 20 Ma age on a tholeiite dike in the southern portion of the Facpi formation is in the range of K-Ar ages in Cosca et al. (1998 Is. Arc 7 p.579) and Meijer et al. (1983) of 36 Ma to 16 Ma for the Facpi. These ages are younger than the Late Middle Eocene age assigned to the Facpi, and indicates either that a previously unrecognized unit of tholeiitic arc volcanics exists in southern Guam, or that zeolite facies metamorphism reset the ages. If the former is true, then this unit has ages within the gap in arc volcanism previously postulated for the late Oligocene and early Miocene on Guam. Our preliminary results on DSDP cores when combined with 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar dates from Cosca et al. (1998,), and older K-Ar ages from Meijer et al. (1983) suggest that tholeiitic to boninitic volcanism occurred at site 458 and perhaps 459 to east of Guam at about 50 Ma. Similarly, Cosca et al. (1998), showed that volcanism along the Palau-Kyushu ridge dates back to about 50 Ma. Thus, magmatism appears to have occurred around 5 Ma later on Guam than to the east and west, which is consistent with a center of Eocene forearc spreading near Guam. A single preliminary 40Ar/39Ar age of 20 Ma for a relatively intact diabase at site 447 and dates reported in Fujioka et al., (1999, Geology 27, p.1135) and Hickey-Vargas (1998 JGR 103, p. 20963) presents the possibility that volcanism continued in the West Philippine Basin into the early Miocene.

  10. Nematode-Bacterium Symbioses - Cooperation and Conflict Revealed in the 'Omics' Age

    PubMed Central

    Murfin, Kristen E.; Dillman, Adler R.; Foster, Jeremy M.; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Slatko, Barton E.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Nematodes are ubiquitous organisms that have a significant global impact on ecosystems, economies, agriculture, and human health. The applied importance of nematodes and the experimental tractability of many species have promoted their use as models in various research areas, including developmental biology, evolutionary biology, ecology, and animal-bacterium interactions. Nematodes are particularly well suited for investigating host associations with bacteria because all nematodes have interacted with bacteria during their evolutionary history and engage in a diversity of association types. Interactions between nematodes and bacteria can be positive (mutualistic) or negative (pathogenic/parasitic) and may be transient or stably maintained (symbiotic). Furthermore, since many mechanistic aspects of nematode-bacterium interactions are conserved their study can provide broader insights into other types of associations, including those relevant to human diseases. Recently, genome-scale studies have been applied to diverse nematode-bacterial interactions, and have helped reveal mechanisms of communication and exchange between the associated partners. In addition to providing specific information about the system under investigation, these studies also have helped inform our understanding of genome evolution, mutualism, and innate immunity. In this review we will discuss the importance and diversity of nematodes, 'omics' studies in nematode-bacterial systems, and the wider implications of the findings. PMID:22983035

  11. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  12. Tip-of-the-Tongue States Reveal Age Differences in the Syllable Frequency Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Meagan T.; Abrams, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Syllable frequency has been shown to facilitate production in some languages but has yielded inconsistent results in English and has never been examined in older adults. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states represent a unique type of production failure where the phonology of a word is unable to be retrieved, suggesting that the frequency of phonological…

  13. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Different Involvement of Embryo and Endosperm Proteins during Aging of Yliangyou 2 Hybrid Rice Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-Xue; Xu, Heng-Heng; Liu, Shu-Jun; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Qing; Møller, Ian M.; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Seed aging is a process that results in a delayed germination, a decreased germination percentage, and finally a total loss of seed viability. However, the mechanism of seed aging is poorly understood. In the present study, Yliangyou 2 hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were artificially aged at 100% relative humidity and 40°C, and the effect of artificial aging on germination, germination time course and the change in protein profiles of embryo and endosperm was studied to understand the molecular mechanism behind seed aging. With an increasing duration of artificial aging, the germination percentage and germination rate of hybrid rice seeds decreased. By comparing the protein profiles from the seeds aged for 0, 10 and 25 days, a total of 91 and 100 protein spots were found to show a significant change of more than 2-fold (P < 0.05) in abundance, and 71 and 79 protein spots were identified, in embryos and endosperms, respectively. The great majority of these proteins increased in abundance in embryos (95%) and decreased in abundance in endosperms (99%). In embryos, most of the identified proteins were associated with energy (30%), with cell defense and rescue (28%), and with storage protein (18%). In endosperms, most of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism (37%), in energy (27%), and in protein synthesis and destination (11%). The most marked change was the increased abundance of many glycolytic enzymes together with the two fermentation enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the embryos during aging. We hypothesize that the decreased viability of hybrid rice seeds during artificial aging is caused by the development of hypoxic conditions in the embryos followed by ethanol accumulation. PMID:27708655

  14. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Different Involvement of Embryo and Endosperm Proteins during Aging of Yliangyou 2 Hybrid Rice Seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xue; Xu, Heng-Heng; Liu, Shu-Jun; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Qing; Møller, Ian M; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Seed aging is a process that results in a delayed germination, a decreased germination percentage, and finally a total loss of seed viability. However, the mechanism of seed aging is poorly understood. In the present study, Yliangyou 2 hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were artificially aged at 100% relative humidity and 40°C, and the effect of artificial aging on germination, germination time course and the change in protein profiles of embryo and endosperm was studied to understand the molecular mechanism behind seed aging. With an increasing duration of artificial aging, the germination percentage and germination rate of hybrid rice seeds decreased. By comparing the protein profiles from the seeds aged for 0, 10 and 25 days, a total of 91 and 100 protein spots were found to show a significant change of more than 2-fold (P < 0.05) in abundance, and 71 and 79 protein spots were identified, in embryos and endosperms, respectively. The great majority of these proteins increased in abundance in embryos (95%) and decreased in abundance in endosperms (99%). In embryos, most of the identified proteins were associated with energy (30%), with cell defense and rescue (28%), and with storage protein (18%). In endosperms, most of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism (37%), in energy (27%), and in protein synthesis and destination (11%). The most marked change was the increased abundance of many glycolytic enzymes together with the two fermentation enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the embryos during aging. We hypothesize that the decreased viability of hybrid rice seeds during artificial aging is caused by the development of hypoxic conditions in the embryos followed by ethanol accumulation.

  15. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ≥66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ≥ 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and

  16. Implications of Extending the ADHD Age-of-Onset Criterion to Age 12: Results from a Prospectively Studied Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Kollins, Scott H.; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether including children with onset of symptoms between ages 7 and 12 years in the ADHD diagnostic category would: (a) increase the prevalence of the disorder at age 12, and (b) change the clinical and cognitive features, impairment profile, and risk factors for ADHD compared with findings in the literature based on the…

  17. Developing indicators for evaluation of age-friendly communities in Canada: process and results

    PubMed Central

    Orpana, H.; Chawla, M.; Gallagher, E.; Escaravage, E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: In 2006, the World Health Organization launched the Global Age-Friendly Cities Project to support active aging. Canada has a large number of age-friendly initiatives; however, little is known about the effectiveness and outcomes of age-friendly community (AFC) initiatives. In addition, stakeholders report that they lack the capacity and tools to develop and conduct evaluations of their AFC initiatives. In order to address these gaps, the Public Health Agency of Canada developed indicators to support the evaluation of AFC initiatives relevant to a wide range of Canadian communities. These indicators meet the varied needs of communities, but are not designed to evaluate collective impact or enable cross-community comparisons. Methods: An evidence-based, iterative consultation approach was used to develop indicators for AFCs. This involved a literature review and an environmental scan. Two rounds of key expert and stakeholder consultations were conducted to rate potential indicators according to their importance, actionability and feasibility. A final list of indicators and potential measures were developed based on results from these consultations, as well as key policy considerations. Results: Thirty-nine indicators emerged across eight AFC domains plus four indicators related to long-term health and social outcomes. All meet the intended purpose of evaluating AFC initiatives at the community level. A user-friendly guide is available to support and share this work. Conclusion: The AFC indicators can help communities evaluate age-friendly initiatives, which is the final step in completing a cycle of the Pan-Canadian AFC milestones. Communities are encouraged to use the evaluation results to improve their AFC initiatives, there by benefiting a broad range of Canadians. PMID:27768558

  18. Chemical profiling of ancient hearths reveals recurrent salmon use in Ice Age Beringia

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Kyungcheol; Potter, Ben A.; McKinney, Holly J.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Wang, Shiway W.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to reconstruct subsistence and dietary trends in ancient hunter-gatherer societies include stable isotope analyses, but these have focused on human remains, cooking pottery, and food residues, which are relatively rare in the archaeological record. In contrast, short-term hearths are more ubiquitous worldwide, and these features can provide valuable evidence for ancient subsistence practices, particularly when faunal remains are not preserved. To test the suitability of hearths for this purpose, we conducted multiple chemical analyses: stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of total organic matter (expressed as δ13C and δ15N values) and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses of individual fatty acids (δ13C16:0 and δ13C18:0) from 17 well-preserved hearths present in three occupations dating between ∼13,200–11,500 calibrated years B.P. at the Upward Sun River (USR) site in central Alaska. We combined δ15N and δ13CFA data in a Bayesian mixing model (stable isotope analysis in R) with concentration dependency to each hearth. Our model values were tested against faunal indices, indicating a strong positive relationship between marine proportional contributions to each hearth and salmon abundance. Results of the models show substantial anadromous salmon use in multiple USR components, indicating recurrent use of the site for salmon processing during the terminal Pleistocene. Our results demonstrate that salmonid and freshwater resources were more important for late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers than previously thought and highlight the potential of chemical profiling of hearth organic residues for providing greater geographic and temporal insights into resource use by prepottery societies. PMID:27573838

  19. Chemical profiling of ancient hearths reveals recurrent salmon use in Ice Age Beringia.

    PubMed

    Choy, Kyungcheol; Potter, Ben A; McKinney, Holly J; Reuther, Joshua D; Wang, Shiway W; Wooller, Matthew J

    2016-08-30

    Current approaches to reconstruct subsistence and dietary trends in ancient hunter-gatherer societies include stable isotope analyses, but these have focused on human remains, cooking pottery, and food residues, which are relatively rare in the archaeological record. In contrast, short-term hearths are more ubiquitous worldwide, and these features can provide valuable evidence for ancient subsistence practices, particularly when faunal remains are not preserved. To test the suitability of hearths for this purpose, we conducted multiple chemical analyses: stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of total organic matter (expressed as δ(13)C and δ(15)N values) and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses of individual fatty acids (δ(13)C16:0 and δ(13)C18:0) from 17 well-preserved hearths present in three occupations dating between ∼13,200-11,500 calibrated years B.P. at the Upward Sun River (USR) site in central Alaska. We combined δ(15)N and δ(13)CFA data in a Bayesian mixing model (stable isotope analysis in R) with concentration dependency to each hearth. Our model values were tested against faunal indices, indicating a strong positive relationship between marine proportional contributions to each hearth and salmon abundance. Results of the models show substantial anadromous salmon use in multiple USR components, indicating recurrent use of the site for salmon processing during the terminal Pleistocene. Our results demonstrate that salmonid and freshwater resources were more important for late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers than previously thought and highlight the potential of chemical profiling of hearth organic residues for providing greater geographic and temporal insights into resource use by prepottery societies.

  20. Matrix factorization reveals aging-specific co-expression gene modules in the fat and muscle tissues in nonhuman primates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongcui; Zhao, Weiling; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-10-01

    Accurate identification of coherent transcriptional modules (subnetworks) in adipose and muscle tissues is important for revealing the related mechanisms and co-regulated pathways involved in the development of aging-related diseases. Here, we proposed a systematically computational approach, called ICEGM, to Identify the Co-Expression Gene Modules through a novel mathematical framework of Higher-Order Generalized Singular Value Decomposition (HO-GSVD). ICEGM was applied on the adipose, and heart and skeletal muscle tissues in old and young female African green vervet monkeys. The genes associated with the development of inflammation, cardiovascular and skeletal disorder diseases, and cancer were revealed by the ICEGM. Meanwhile, genes in the ICEGM modules were also enriched in the adipocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac myocytes, and immune cells. Comprehensive disease annotation and canonical pathway analysis indicated that immune cells, adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, and smooth muscle cells played a synergistic role in cardiac and physical functions in the aged monkeys by regulation of the biological processes associated with metabolism, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. In conclusion, the ICEGM provides an efficiently systematic framework for decoding the co-expression gene modules in multiple tissues. Analysis of genes in the ICEGM module yielded important insights on the cooperative role of multiple tissues in the development of diseases.

  1. Matrix factorization reveals aging-specific co-expression gene modules in the fat and muscle tissues in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongcui; Zhao, Weiling; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of coherent transcriptional modules (subnetworks) in adipose and muscle tissues is important for revealing the related mechanisms and co-regulated pathways involved in the development of aging-related diseases. Here, we proposed a systematically computational approach, called ICEGM, to Identify the Co-Expression Gene Modules through a novel mathematical framework of Higher-Order Generalized Singular Value Decomposition (HO-GSVD). ICEGM was applied on the adipose, and heart and skeletal muscle tissues in old and young female African green vervet monkeys. The genes associated with the development of inflammation, cardiovascular and skeletal disorder diseases, and cancer were revealed by the ICEGM. Meanwhile, genes in the ICEGM modules were also enriched in the adipocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac myocytes, and immune cells. Comprehensive disease annotation and canonical pathway analysis indicated that immune cells, adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, and smooth muscle cells played a synergistic role in cardiac and physical functions in the aged monkeys by regulation of the biological processes associated with metabolism, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. In conclusion, the ICEGM provides an efficiently systematic framework for decoding the co-expression gene modules in multiple tissues. Analysis of genes in the ICEGM module yielded important insights on the cooperative role of multiple tissues in the development of diseases. PMID:27703186

  2. The Basel longitudinal study on aging (1955-1978). Ophthalmo-gerontological research results.

    PubMed

    Brückner, R; Batschelet, E; Hugenschmidt, F

    1986-01-01

    In the prospective Basel longitudinal study on aging (1955-1978) 123 men (age at entry from 6-61 years) were investigated in 2 year (average) intervals. Complete case histories are available on 67 subjects over the entire period (19.6 +/- 0.85 years). Part I of the study was to confirm the hypothesis of Bernstein and of Steinhaus, according to which life expectancy can be estimated from the speed of development of presbyopia. Parallel to the measurement of accommodation range (after preliminary determination of refraction and visual acuity), the development of height, body weight, vital capacity, expiratory volume, chest circumference, abdominal circumference, blood pressure, ECG and pulse wave velocity were measured. Invasive investigations were not undertaken. Only when hypertension was combined with obesity was the diminution of accommodation range striking (Fig. 10c; however there were only 3 subjects in this risk group). Taking everything into consideration there was a concomitance between decrease of accommodation range and changes of medical parameters (Table 6). Intercurrent illness did not influence the accommodation range. Longitudinal measurements and cross-sectional comparisons (data averaged to the same point as of the same age) were carried out. The results did not always coincide. We could not confirm the hypothesis of Bernstein and of Steinhaus. In Part II the results of the objective measurements are given. Apparently growth of the skull does not stop entirely. The increase of interpupillary distance can be complete at 17 years of age, but also can continue to the 30th year. The palpebral fissure increases an average of 3 mm more horizontally between the 6th and the 20th year of life. The corneal diameter remains constant in all age classes, that is, the growth of the cornea should be complete before the 6th year of life. Early arcus senilis changes are found already in the 20-year-old. The increase in the course of time of arcus senilis is obvious

  3. Tracking butterfly movements with harmonic radar reveals an effect of population age on movement distance.

    PubMed

    Ovaskainen, Otso; Smith, Alan D; Osborne, Juliet L; Reynolds, Don R; Carreck, Norman L; Martin, Andrew P; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hanski, Ilkka

    2008-12-09

    We used harmonic radar to track freely flying Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) females within an area of 30 ha. Butterflies originated from large and continuous populations in China and Estonia, and from newly established or old (> 5 years) small local populations in a highly fragmented landscape in Finland. Caterpillars were raised under common garden conditions and unmated females were tested soon after eclosion. The reconstructed flight paths for 66 individuals comprised a total distance of 51 km with high spatial resolution. Butterflies originating from large continuous populations and from old local populations in Finland exhibited similar movement behaviors, whereas butterflies originating from newly established local populations in the fragmented landscape in Finland moved significantly more than the others. There was no difference in the lengths of individual flight bouts, but the new-population females flew more frequently, resulting in longer daily movement tracks. The flight activity of all individuals was affected by environmental conditions, peaking at 19-23 degrees C (depending on population type), in the early afternoon, and during calm weather. Butterflies from all population types showed a strong tendency to follow habitat edges between the open study area and the neighboring woodlands.

  4. Pluto Revealed: First Results from the Historic 1st Fly-By Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kimberly Ennico

    2015-01-01

    On July 14, 2015, after a 9.5 year trek across the solar system, NASAs New Horizons spacecraft successfully flew by the dwarf planet Pluto and its system of moons, taking imagery, spectra and in-situ particle data. Data obtained by New Horizons will address numerous outstanding questions on the geology and composition of Pluto and Charon, plus measurements of Plutos atmosphere, and provide revised understanding of the formation and evolution of Pluto and Charon and its smaller moons. This data set is an invaluable glimpse into the outer Third Zone of the Solar System. Data from the intense July 14th fly-by sequence will be downlinked to Earth over a period of 16 months, the duration set by the large data set (over 60 GBits), tempered by limited transmission bandwidth rates (1-2 kbps) and sharing the three 70m DSN assets. This presentation summarizes the New Horizons mission and early science results.

  5. Principal Component Analysis Reveals Age-Related and Muscle-Type-Related Differences in Protein Carbonyl Profiles of Muscle Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Juan; Navratil, Marian; Thompson, LaDora V.; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonyl-modified proteins are considered markers of oxidative damage caused by oxidative stress, aging, and disease. Here we use a previously developed capillary electrophoretic method for detecting femtomole (10−15 mole) carbonyl levels in mitochondrial proteins that are size separated and profiled. For protein labeling, carbonyls were tagged with Alexa 488 hydrazine and amine groups in proteins with 3-(2-furoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde. Total mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels were statistically higher in fast- than in slow-twitch muscle of young Fischer 344 rats, and statistically higher in old than in young slow-twitch muscle. Even when some statistical comparisons of the total protein carbonyl levels would not reveal differences, principal component analysis (PCA) classified the carbonyl profiles into four distinct sample groups of different age and muscle types. In addition, PCA was used to predict that most age-related or muscle-type-related changes in carbonyl levels occur in proteins with a molecular weight between 9.8 and 11.7 kD. PMID:19126840

  6. Lithospheric geometries revealed through electromagnetic imaging: SAMTEX (Southern Africa MagnetoTelluric Experiment) observations and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Evans, R. L.; Miensopust, M. P.; Khoza, D. T.; Samtex Team

    2011-12-01

    The Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) is imaging the properties and geometries of the lithosphere below southern Africa to depths of 200+ km. Electrical conductivity is highly sensitive to ambient temperature, and to the presence of an interconnected conducting phase, such as a solid phase like graphite or sulphides, a fluid phase like partial melt, or bound water through hydrogen diffusion. Thus, primary geometrical information can be readily obtained from lithospheric-scale MT experiments about the three-dimensional variation in conductivity that can be related to formation and deformation processes. One important piece of information easily obtained from MT data is the depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), due to the sensitivity of conductivity to small fractions (<1%) of partial melt and/or of some hundreds of ppm of bound water. SAMTEX measurements have been made at a total of more than 750 MT sites over an area in excess of a million square kilometres, making it by far the largest-ever regional MT project undertaken. One of the most significant results from SAMTEX is the mapping of the LAB beneath the Archean cratons and bounding mobile belts of Southern Africa, particularly of the previously unknown regions of Namibia and Botswana. The LAB is shallow (150 km) beneath the mobile belts, deep (250 km) in the centres of the cratons, and transitional at the edges. Diamondiferous kimberlites are located primarily where lithosphere is transitional in thickness, or where there is a change in its anisotropy properties, both of which are craton edge effects. The electrical properties of the continental mantle derived from SAMTEX data can be compared with seismic ones derived from data from the South African Seismic Experiment (SASE) of the Kaapvaal Project. Generally there is very good predictive linear agreement between seismic velocity and log(conductivity), indicative of both being influenced by the same bulk property factors

  7. Anatomy of the larynx and pharynx: effects of age, gender and height revealed by multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Y; Saitoh, E; Okada, S; Kagaya, H; Shibata, S; Baba, M; Onogi, K; Hashimoto, S; Katada, K; Wattanapan, P; Palmer, J B

    2015-09-01

    Although oropharyngeal and laryngeal structures are essential for swallowing, the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy is not well understood, due in part to limitations of available measuring techniques. This study uses 3D images acquired by 320-row area detector computed tomography ('320-ADCT'), to measure the pharynx and larynx and to investigate the effects of age, gender and height. Fifty-four healthy volunteers (30 male, 24 female, 23-77 years) underwent one single-phase volume scan (0.35 s) with 320-ADCT during resting tidal breathing. Six measurements of the pharynx and two of larynx were performed. Bivariate statistical methods were used to analyse the effects of gender, age and height on these measurements. Length and volume were significantly larger for men than for women for every measurement (P < 0.05) and increased with height (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis was performed to understand the interactions of gender, height and age. Gender, height and age each had significant effects on certain values. The volume of the larynx and hypopharynx was significantly affected by height and age. The length of pharynx was associated with gender and age. Length of the vocal folds and distance from the valleculae to the vocal folds were significantly affected by gender (P < 0.05). These results suggest that age, gender and height have independent and interacting effects on the morphology of the pharynx and larynx. Three-dimensional imaging and morphometrics using 320-ADCT are powerful tools for efficiently and reliably observing and measuring the pharynx and larynx.

  8. Low heel ultrasound parameters predict mortality in men: results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Boonen, Steven; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Lee, David M.; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Wu, Frederick C.; O'Neill, Terence W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: low bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is associated with increased mortality. The relationship between other skeletal phenotypes and mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quantitative heel ultrasound parameters and mortality in a cohort of European men. Methods: men aged 40–79 years were recruited for participation in a prospective study of male ageing: the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). At baseline, subjects attended for quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel (Hologic—SAHARA) and completed questionnaires on lifestyle factors and co-morbidities. Height and weight were measured. After a median of 4.3 years, subjects were invited to attend a follow-up assessment, and reasons for non-participation, including death, were recorded. The relationship between QUS parameters (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA] and speed of sound [SOS]) and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: from a total of 3,244 men (mean age 59.8, standard deviation [SD] 10.8 years), 185 (5.7%) died during the follow-up period. After adjusting for age, centre, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, number of co-morbidities and general health, each SD decrease in BUA was associated with a 20% higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.4). Compared with those in higher quintiles (2nd–5th), those in the lowest quintile of BUA and SOS had a greater mortality risk (BUA: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1–2.3 and SOS: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2–2.2). Conclusion: lower heel ultrasound parameters are associated with increased mortality in European men. PMID:26162912

  9. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  10. Age, Stress, and Emotional Complexity: Results from Two Studies of Daily Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Stacey B.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Mogle, Jacqueline A.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing positive and negative emotions together (i.e., co-occurrence) has been described as a marker of positive adaptation during stress and a strength of socio-emotional aging. Using data from daily diary (N=2,022; ages 33-84) and ecological momentary assessment (N=190; ages 20-80) studies, we evaluate the utility of a common operationalization of co-occurrence, the within-person correlation between positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Then we test competing predictions regarding when co-occurrence will be observed and whether age differences will be present. Results indicate that the correlation is not an informative indicator of co-occurrence. Although correlations were stronger and more negative when stressors occurred (typically interpreted as lower co-occurrence), objective counts of emotion reports indicated that positive and negative emotions were more 3 to 4 times likely to co-occur when stressors were reported. This suggests that co-occurrence reflects the extent to which negative emotions intrude on typically positive emotional states, rather than the extent to which people maintain positive emotions during stress. The variances of both PA and NA increased at stressor reports, indicating that individuals reported a broader not narrower range of emotion during stress. Finally, older age was associated with less variability in NA and a lower likelihood of co-occurring positive and negative emotions. In sum, these findings cast doubt on the utility of the PA-NA correlation as an index of emotional co-occurrence, and question notion that greater emotional cooccurrence represents either a typical or adaptive emotional state in adults. PMID:25244477

  11. Lipidomic profiling in mouse brain reveals differences between ages and genders, with smaller changes associated with alpha-synuclein genotype.

    PubMed

    Rappley, Irit; Myers, David S; Milne, Stephen B; Ivanova, Pavlina T; Lavoie, Matthew J; Brown, H Alex; Selkoe, Dennis J

    2009-10-01

    Advances in lipidomics technology have facilitated the precise detection, identification and profiling of lipid species within tissues. Mass spectrometry allows for identification of lipids as a function of the total number of carbons and double bonds in their acyl chains. Such detailed descriptions of lipid composition can provide a basis for further investigation of cell signaling and metabolic pathways, both physiological and pathological. Here, we applied phospholipid profiling to mouse models relevant to Parkinson's disease, using mice that were transgenic for human alpha-synuclein (alphaSyn) or deleted of endogenous alphaSyn. Proposed functions of alphaSyn include phospholipid binding, regulation of membrane composition, and regulation of vesicular pools. We investigated whether alphaSyn gene dosage interacts with differences in phospholipid composition across brain regions or with age-related changes in brain phospholipid composition. The most dramatic phospholipid changes were observed in alphaSyn wild-type animals as a function of age and gender. alphaSyn genotype-specific changes were also observed in aged, but not young, mice. Our results provide a detailed and systematic characterization of brain phospholipid composition in mice and identify age-related changes relevant both to Parkinson's disease and to normal aging.

  12. The influence of summary knowledge of results and aging on motor learning.

    PubMed

    Carnahan, H; Vandervoort, A A; Swanson, L R

    1996-09-01

    This study examined whether older adults (mean age = 75.0 years) use summary knowledge of results (KR) to facilitate learning in a manner similar to that of young adults (mean age = 22.5 years). All subjects were required to learn a computer-key-pressing task in a specified goal time. During acquisition, subjects received either KR after every trial, or summary KR. All subjects then performed no-KR retention trials. In acquisition, KR after every trial facilitated timing accuracy for both the younger and older groups in comparison to the summary KR groups. The young subjects were equally variable in both KR practice groups. For older subjects summary KR facilitated more consistent performance. In retention, the summary groups were more accurate than those subjects who received KR after every trial. There were no accuracy or variability differences between the two age groups during retention. These results suggest that older adults are able to use summary KR to facilitate learning in a manner similar to that of young adults.

  13. Lack of exon 10 in the murine tau gene results in mild sensorimotor defects with aging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complex species-specific, developmental- and tissue-dependent mechanisms regulate alternative splicing of tau, thereby diversifying tau protein synthesis. The functional role of alternative splicing of tau e.g. exon 10 has never been examined in vivo, although genetic studies suggest that it is important to neurodegenerative disease. Results Gene-targeting was used to delete exon 10 in murine tau on both alleles (E10−/−) to study its functional role. Moreover, mice devoid of exon 10 (E10+/−) on one allele were generated to investigate the effects of 1:1 balanced expression of 4R-/3R-tau protein, since equal amounts of 4R-/3R-tau protein are synthesized in human brain. Middle-aged E10−/− mice displayed sensorimotor disturbances in the rotarod when compared to age-matched E10+/− and wild-type mice, and their muscular grip strength was less than that of E10+/− mice. The performance of E10+/− mice and wild-type mice (E10+/+) was similar in sensorimotor tests. Cognitive abilities or anxiety-like behaviours did not depend on exon 10 in tau, and neither pathological inclusions nor gene-dependent morphological abnormalities were found. Conclusion Ablation of exon 10 in the murine tau gene alters alternative splicing and tau protein synthesis which results in mild sensorimotor phenotypes with aging. Presumably related microtubule-stabilizing genes rescue other functions. PMID:24261309

  14. Increased gene dosage of Ink4a/Arf results in cancer resistance and normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Matheu, Ander; Pantoja, Cristina; Efeyan, Alejo; Criado, Luis M.; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Flores, Juana M.; Klatt, Peter; Serrano, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian genes frequently present allelic variants that differ in their expression levels and that, in the case of tumor suppressor genes, can be of relevance for cancer susceptibility and aging. We report here the characterization of a novel mouse model with increased activity for the Ink4a and Arf tumor suppressors. We have generated a “super Ink4a/Arf” mouse strain carrying a transgenic copy of the entire Ink4a/Arf locus. Cells derived from super Ink4a/Arf mice have increased resistance to in vitro immortalization and oncogenic transformation. Importantly, super Ink4a/Arf mice manifest higher resistance to cancer compared to normal, nontransgenic, mice. Finally, super Ink4a/Arf mice have normal aging and lifespan. Together, these results indicate that modest increases in the activity of the Ink4a/Arf tumor suppressor result in a beneficial cancer-resistant phenotype without affecting normal viability or aging. PMID:15520276

  15. Stellar rotation at young ages: new results from Corot's monitoring NGC 2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favata, F.; Micela, G.; Alencar, S.; Aigrain, S.; Zwintz, K.

    2010-11-01

    Stellar rotation at young ages: new results from Corot's Angular momentum is one of the driving forces in the early evolution of stars. Issues such as the coupling between the star and the accretion disk (the so-called disk regulation paradigm), are traced by the evolution of rotational momentum, but affect the star-forming process as a whole. One of the features observed in star-forming regions (e.g. ONC and NGC 2264) of age between 1 and few Myr, for masses above 0.25 solar masses, is a bimodality of the rotational period distribution, with a peak around 1 day and the other at around 4 to 7 days. This bimodality has been interpreted as the smoking gun of the disk-locking mechanism (with the fast rotators having lost their disk and the slow ones still being regulated by their disks).

  16. What Do the California Standards Test Results Reveal about the Movement toward Eighth-Grade Algebra for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jian-Hua; Heckman, Paul E.; Abedi, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    In California, an increasing number of 8th graders have taken algebra courses since 2003. This study examines students' California Standards Test (CST) results in grades 7 through 11, aiming to reveal who took the CST for Algebra I in 8th grade and whether the increase has led to a rise in students' taking higher-level mathematics CSTs and an…

  17. The Onset of STI Diagnosis through Age 30: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine (1) whether onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. Design A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Setting Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle. Analysis Sample 608 participants in three intervention conditions interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions Teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome Cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Intervention Mechanisms Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested. Analysis and Results Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. Conclusions A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children’s social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI through age 30, especially for African

  18. Morbidity, mortality and quality of life in the ageing haemodialysis population: results from the ELDERLY study

    PubMed Central

    Dschietzig, Wilfried; Leimenstoll, Gerd; Rob, Peter M.; Kuhlmann, Martin K.; Pommer, Wolfgang; Fraass, Uwe; Ritz, Eberhard; Schwenger, Vedat

    2016-01-01

    Background The physical–functional and social–emotional health as well as survival of the elderly (≥75 years of age) haemodialysis patient is commonly thought to be poor. In a prospective, multicentre, non-interventional, observational study, the morbidity, mortality and quality of life (QoL) in this patient group were examined and compared with a younger cohort. Methods In 92 German dialysis centres, 2507 prevalent patients 19–98 years of age on haemodialysis for a median of 19.2 months were included in a drug monitoring study of darbepoetin alfa. To examine outcome and QoL parameters, 24 months of follow-up data in the age cohorts <75 and ≥75 years were analysed. Treatment parameters, adverse and intercurrent events, hospitalizations, morbidity and mortality were assessed. QoL was evaluated by means of the 47-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Anaemia score (FACT-An, version 4). Results The 2-year mortality rate was 34.7% for the older cohort and 15.8% for the younger cohort. The mortality rate for the haemodialysed elderly patients was 6.2% higher in absolute value compared with the age-matched background population. A powerful predictor of survival was the baseline FACT-An score and a close correlation with the 20-item anaemia subscale (AnS) was demonstrated. While the social QoL in the elderly patients was more stable than in the younger cohort (leading to equivalent values at the end of the study period), a pronounced deterioration of physical and functional status was observed. The median number of all-cause hospital days per patient-year was 12.3 for the elderly cohort and 8.9 for the younger patient population. The overall 24-month hospitalization rate was only marginally higher in the elderly cohort (34.0 versus 33.3%). Conclusions In this observational study, the mortality rate of elderly haemodialysis patients was not exceedingly high compared with the age-matched background population. Furthermore, the hospitalization

  19. The impact of experienced stress on aged spatial discrimination: Cortical overreliance as a result of hippocampal impairment.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Amanda C; Cooper, Nicholas R; Geeraert, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    A large body of neuroscientific work indicates that exposure to experienced stress causes damage to both cortical and hippocampal cells and results in impairments to cognitive abilities associated with these structures. Similarly, work within the domain of cognitive aging demonstrates that elderly participants who report experiencing greater amounts of stress show reduced levels of cognitive functioning. The present article attempted to combine both findings by collecting data from elderly and young participants who completed a spatial discrimination paradigm developed by Reagh and colleagues [Reagh et al. (2013) Hippocampus 24:303-314] to measure hippocampal-mediated cognitive processes. In order to investigate the effect of stress on the cortex and, indirectly, the hippocampus, it paired the paradigm with electroencephalographic recordings of the theta frequency band, which is thought to reflect cortical/hippocampal interactions. Findings revealed that elderly participants with high levels of experienced stress performed significantly worse on target recognition and lure discrimination and demonstrated heightened levels of cortical theta synchronization compared with young and elderly low stress counterparts. Results therefore provided further evidence for the adverse effect of stress on cognitive aging and indicate that impaired behavioral performance among high stress elderly may coincide with an overreliance on cortical cognitive processing strategies as a result of early damage to the hippocampus.

  20. Pupillary responses and memory-guided visual search reveal age-related and Alzheimer's-related memory decline.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Michelle C; Leonard, Timothy K; Lozano, Andres M; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Ng, Karen; Ryan, Jennifer D; Tang-Wai, David F; Wynn, Jordana S; Hoffman, Kari L

    2017-03-30

    Episodic memory - composed of memory for unique spatiotemporal experiences - is known to decline with aging, and even more severely in Alzheimer 's disease (AD). Memory for trial-unique objects in spatial scenes depends on the integrity of the hippocampus and interconnected structures that are among the first areas affected in AD. We reasoned that memory for objects-in-scenes would be impaired with aging, and that further impairments would be observed in AD. We asked younger adults, healthy older adults, older adults at-risk for developing cognitive impairments, and older adults with probable early AD to find changing items ('targets') within images of natural scenes, measuring repeated-trial changes in search efficiency and pupil diameter. Compared to younger adults, older adults took longer to detect target objects in repeated scenes, they required more fixations and those fixations were more dispersed. Whereas individuals with AD showed some benefit of memory in this task, they had substantially longer detection times, and more numerous, dispersed fixations on repeated scenes compared to age-matched older adults. Correspondingly, pupillary responses to novel and repeated scenes were diminished with aging and further in AD, and the memory-related changes were weaker with aging and absent in AD. Our results suggest that several nonverbal measures from memory-guided visual search tasks can index aging and Alzheimer's disease status, including pupillary dynamics. The task measurements are sensitive to the integrity of brain structures that are associated with Alzheimer's-related neurodegeneration, the task is well tolerated across a range of abilities, and thus, it may prove useful in early diagnostics and longitudinal tracking of memory decline.

  1. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia.

  2. The onset of STI diagnosis through age 30: results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hill, Karl G; Bailey, Jennifer A; Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine (1) whether the onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full-intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle are the setting of the study. Six hundred eight participants in three intervention conditions were interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions include teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome is the cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested as potential intervention mechanisms. Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full-intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding, and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children's social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI

  3. Genetic factors in nonsmokers with age-related macular degeneration revealed through genome-wide gene-environment interaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Naj, Adam C; Scott, William K; Courtenay, Monique D; Cade, William H; Schwartz, Stephen G; Kovach, Jaclyn L; Agarwal, Anita; Wang, Gaofeng; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A

    2013-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the interaction between genes and environment in the complex etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study aimed to identify novel factors associated with AMD by analyzing gene-smoking interactions in a genome-wide association study of 1207 AMD cases and 686 controls of Caucasian background with genotype data on 668,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after quality control. Participants' history of smoking at least 100 cigarettes lifetime was determined by a self-administered questionnaire. SNP associations modeled the effect of the minor allele additively on AMD using logistic regression, with adjustment for age, sex, and ever/never smoking. Joint effects of SNPs and smoking were examined comparing a null model containing only age, sex, and smoking against an extended model including genotypic and interaction terms. Genome-wide significant main effects were detected at three known AMD loci: CFH (P = 7.51×10(-30) ), ARMS2 (P = 1.94×10(-23) ), and RDBP/CFB/C2 (P = 4.37×10(-10) ), while joint effects analysis revealed three genomic regions with P < 10(-5) . Analyses stratified by smoking found genetic associations largely restricted to nonsmokers, with one notable exception: the chromosome 18q22.1 intergenic SNP rs17073641 (between SERPINB8 and CDH7), more strongly associated in nonsmokers (OR = 0.57, P = 2.73 × 10(-5) ), with an inverse association among smokers (OR = 1.42, P = 0.00228), suggesting that smoking modifies the effect of some genetic polymorphisms on AMD risk.

  4. Human exceptional longevity: transcriptome from centenarians is distinct from septuagenarians and reveals a role of Bcl-xL in successful aging.

    PubMed

    Borras, Consuelo; Abdelaziz, Kheira M; Gambini, Juan; Serna, Eva; Inglés, Marta; de la Fuente, Monica; Garcia, Idoia; Matheu, Ander; Sanchís, Paula; Belenguer, Angel; Errigo, Alessandra; Avellana, Juan-Antonio; Barettino, Ana; Lloret-Fernández, Carla; Flames, Nuria; Pes, Gianni; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Viña, Jose

    2016-10-28

    Centenarians not only enjoy an extraordinary aging, but also show a compression of morbidity. Using functional transcriptomic analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) we identified 1721 mRNAs differentially expressed by centenarians when compared with septuagenarians and young people. Sub-network analysis led us to identify Bcl-xL as an important gene up-regulated in centenarians. It is involved in the control of apoptosis, cellular damage protection and also in modulation of immune response, all associated to healthy aging. Indeed, centenarians display lower plasma cytochrome C levels, higher mitochondrial membrane potential and also less cellular damage accumulation than septuagenarians. Leukocyte chemotaxis and NK cell activity are significantly impaired in septuagenarians compared with young people whereas centenarians maintain them. To further ascertain the functional role of Bcl-xL in cellular aging, we found that lymphocytes from septuagenarians transduced with Bcl-xL display a reduction in senescent-related markers. Finally, to demonstrate the role of Bcl-xL in longevity at the organism level, C. elegans bearing a gain of function mutation in the Bcl-xL ortholog ced-9, showed a significant increase in mean and maximal life span. These results show that mRNA expression in centenarians is unique and reveals that Bcl-xL plays an important role in exceptional aging.

  5. Human exceptional longevity: transcriptome from centenarians is distinct from septuagenarians and reveals a role of Bcl-xL in successful aging

    PubMed Central

    Borras, Consuelo; M. Abdelaziz, Kheira; Gambini, Juan; Serna, Eva; Inglés, Marta; de la Fuente, Monica; Garcia, Idoia; Matheu, Ander; Sanchís, Paula; Belenguer, Angel; Errigo, Alessandra; Avellana, Juan- Antonio; Barettino, Ana; Lloret-Fernández, Carla; Flames, Nuria; Pes, Gianni; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Viña, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Centenarians not only enjoy an extraordinary aging, but also show a compression of morbidity. Using functional transcriptomic analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) we identified 1721 mRNAs differentially expressed by centenarians when compared with septuagenarians and young people. Sub-network analysis led us to identify Bcl - xL as an important gene up-regulated in centenarians. It is involved in the control of apoptosis, cellular damage protection and also in modulation of immune response, all associated to healthy aging. Indeed, centenarians display lower plasma cytochrome C levels, higher mitochondrial membrane potential and also less cellular damage accumulation than septuagenarians. Leukocyte chemotaxis and NK cell activity are significantly impaired in septuagenarians compared with young people whereas centenarians maintain them. To further ascertain the functional role of Bcl- xL in cellular aging, we found that lymphocytes from septuagenarians transduced with Bcl-xL display a reduction in senescent-related markers. Finally, to demonstrate the role of BcL-xL in longevity at the organism level, C. elegans bearing a gain of function mutation in the BcL-xL ortholog ced-9, showed a significant increase in mean and maximal life span. These results show that mRNA expression in centenarians is unique and reveals that BcL- xL plays an important role in exceptional aging. PMID:27794564

  6. Single-cell RNA-seq reveals changes in cell cycle and differentiation programs upon aging of hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Monika S; Tirosh, Itay; Heckl, Dirk; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Dixit, Atray; Haas, Brian J; Schneider, Rebekka K; Wagers, Amy J; Ebert, Benjamin L; Regev, Aviv

    2015-12-01

    Both intrinsic cell state changes and variations in the composition of stem cell populations have been implicated as contributors to aging. We used single-cell RNA-seq to dissect variability in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and hematopoietic progenitor cell populations from young and old mice from two strains. We found that cell cycle dominates the variability within each population and that there is a lower frequency of cells in the G1 phase among old compared with young long-term HSCs, suggesting that they traverse through G1 faster. Moreover, transcriptional changes in HSCs during aging are inversely related to those upon HSC differentiation, such that old short-term (ST) HSCs resemble young long-term (LT-HSCs), suggesting that they exist in a less differentiated state. Our results indicate both compositional changes and intrinsic, population-wide changes with age and are consistent with a model where a relationship between cell cycle progression and self-renewal versus differentiation of HSCs is affected by aging and may contribute to the functional decline of old HSCs.

  7. Systematic analysis of asymmetric partitioning of yeast proteome between mother and daughter cells reveals "aging factors" and mechanism of lifespan asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; McCormick, Mark A; Zheng, Jiashun; Xie, Zhengwei; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiyama, Scott; El-Samad, Hana; Ouyang, Qi; Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K; Li, Hao

    2015-09-22

    Budding yeast divides asymmetrically, giving rise to a mother cell that progressively ages and a daughter cell with full lifespan. It is generally assumed that mother cells retain damaged, lifespan limiting materials ("aging factors") through asymmetric division. However, the identity of these aging factors and the mechanisms through which they limit lifespan remain poorly understood. Using a flow cytometry-based, high-throughput approach, we quantified the asymmetric partitioning of the yeast proteome between mother and daughter cells during cell division, discovering 74 mother-enriched and 60 daughter-enriched proteins. While daughter-enriched proteins are biased toward those needed for bud construction and genome maintenance, mother-enriched proteins are biased towards those localized in the plasma membrane and vacuole. Deletion of 23 of the 74 mother-enriched proteins leads to lifespan extension, a fraction that is about six times that of the genes picked randomly from the genome. Among these lifespan-extending genes, three are involved in endosomal sorting/endosome to vacuole transport, and three are nitrogen source transporters. Tracking the dynamic expression of specific mother-enriched proteins revealed that their concentration steadily increases in the mother cells as they age, but is kept relatively low in the daughter cells via asymmetric distribution. Our results suggest that some mother-enriched proteins may increase to a concentration that becomes deleterious and lifespan-limiting in aged cells, possibly by upsetting homeostasis or leading to aberrant signaling. Our study provides a comprehensive resource for analyzing asymmetric cell division and aging in yeast, which should also be valuable for understanding similar phenomena in other organisms.

  8. The granite tors of Dartmoor, Southwest England: rapid and recent emergence revealed by Late Pleistocene cosmogenic apparent exposure ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnell, Yanni; Jarman, David; Braucher, Régis; Calvet, Marc; Delmas, Magali; Leanni, Laetitia; Bourlès, Didier; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Keddaouche, Karim

    2013-02-01

    Dartmoor, in SW England, is a classic periglaciated granite upland adorned with a population of over 150 tors. The origin of the tors has been controversial, but their emergence by differentiation after stripping of regolith during Pleistocene cold phases is accepted. However, their actual age has been unknown, with possible scenarios ranging from preservation since the early Middle Pleistocene to relatively short-lived landforms in a maritime climate with high denudation rates. The latter is now supported by 32 cosmogenic surface exposure dates from 28 tors across the whole upland. The distribution of apparent 10Be ages peaks strongly in the Middle Devensian (36-50 ka), which with corrections for weathering and limited ice shielding could be interpreted as Early Devensian. These ages are much younger than those found for three glacially unmodified Cairngorms tors, and somewhat younger even than glacially modified Cairngorms tors. The dates show little spatial variation. Although an ice cap has now been modelled in the heart of northern Dartmoor, tors here are of median age, suggesting that ice cover sufficient to shield tors from incoming radiation was of short duration. The few younger tor ages support the idea of continuing landform instability across the landscape, with weathering flakes redeveloping soon after inferred loss of top pillows by gelifraction or gravitational toppling. The few older tor ages have no systematic explanation, and may indicate inheritance from an earlier cycle of bedrock near-exposure. Since most tors are modest in height (typically 2-5 m), volumetrically insignificant, and often in advanced stages of disintegration, the general impression is that they are evanescent features, which emerge and quickly disappear during every Pleistocene climatic downturn. Tor populations may thus flicker across the landscape rather randomly over the Quaternary. The remarkably consistent age of the present tor population could be associated with a

  9. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles reveal novel candidate genes associated with meat quality at different age stages in hens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Yan, Feng-Bin; Li, Fang; Jiang, Ke-Ren; Li, Dong-Hua; Han, Rui-Li; Li, Zhuan-Jan; Jiang, Rui-Rui; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Kang, Xiang-Tao; Sun, Gui-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Poultry meat quality is associated with breed, age, tissue and other factors. Many previous studies have focused on distinct breeds; however, little is known regarding the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in different age stages, such as DNA methylation. Here, we compared the global DNA methylation profiles between juvenile (20 weeks old) and later laying-period (55 weeks old) hens and identified candidate genes related to the development and meat quality of breast muscle using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. The results showed that the later laying-period hens, which had a higher intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition capacity and water holding capacity (WHC) and less tenderness, exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels than the juvenile hens. A total of 2,714 differentially methylated regions were identified in the present study, which corresponded to 378 differentially methylated genes, mainly affecting muscle development, lipid metabolism, and the ageing process. Hypermethylation of the promoters of the genes ABCA1, COL6A1 and GSTT1L and the resulting transcriptional down-regulation in the later laying-period hens may be the reason for the significant difference in the meat quality between the juvenile and later laying-period hens. These findings contribute to a better understanding of epigenetic regulation in the skeletal muscle development and meat quality of chicken. PMID:28378745

  10. Differential Cysteine Labeling and Global Label-Free Proteomics Reveals an Altered Metabolic State in Skeletal Muscle Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle aging and associated sarcopenia have been linked to an altered oxidative status of redox-sensitive proteins. Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generated by contracting skeletal muscle are necessary for optimal protein function, signaling, and adaptation. To investigate the redox proteome of aging gastrocnemius muscles from adult and old male mice, we developed a label-free quantitative proteomic approach that includes a differential cysteine labeling step. The approach allows simultaneous identification of up- and downregulated proteins between samples in addition to the identification and relative quantification of the reversible oxidation state of susceptible redox cysteine residues. Results from muscles of adult and old mice indicate significant changes in the content of chaperone, glucose metabolism, and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, including Protein DJ-1, cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II, 78 kDa glucose regulated protein, and a reduction in the number of redox-responsive proteins identified in muscle of old mice. Results demonstrate skeletal muscle aging causes a reduction in redox-sensitive proteins involved in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism, indicating a loss in the flexibility of the redox energy response. Data is available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001054. PMID:25181601

  11. Differential cysteine labeling and global label-free proteomics reveals an altered metabolic state in skeletal muscle aging.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Brian; Sakellariou, Giorgos K; Smith, Neil T; Brownridge, Philip; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2014-11-07

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle aging and associated sarcopenia have been linked to an altered oxidative status of redox-sensitive proteins. Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generated by contracting skeletal muscle are necessary for optimal protein function, signaling, and adaptation. To investigate the redox proteome of aging gastrocnemius muscles from adult and old male mice, we developed a label-free quantitative proteomic approach that includes a differential cysteine labeling step. The approach allows simultaneous identification of up- and downregulated proteins between samples in addition to the identification and relative quantification of the reversible oxidation state of susceptible redox cysteine residues. Results from muscles of adult and old mice indicate significant changes in the content of chaperone, glucose metabolism, and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, including Protein DJ-1, cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II, 78 kDa glucose regulated protein, and a reduction in the number of redox-responsive proteins identified in muscle of old mice. Results demonstrate skeletal muscle aging causes a reduction in redox-sensitive proteins involved in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism, indicating a loss in the flexibility of the redox energy response. Data is available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001054.

  12. Cognitive and Kidney Function: Results from a British Birth Cohort Reaching Retirement Age

    PubMed Central

    Silverwood, Richard J.; Richards, Marcus; Pierce, Mary; Hardy, Rebecca; Sattar, Naveed; Ferro, Charles; Savage, Caroline; Kuh, Diana; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between cognitive function and chronic kidney disease. We aimed to explore possible explanations for this association in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a prospective birth cohort representative of the general British population. Methods Cognitive function at age 60–64 years was quantified using five measures (verbal memory, letter search speed and accuracy, simple and choice reaction times) and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the same age was estimated using cystatin C. The cross-sectional association between cognitive function and eGFR was adjusted for background confounding factors (socioeconomic position, educational attainment), prior cognition, and potential explanations for any remaining association (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, obesity). Results Data on all the analysis variables were available for 1306–1320 study members (depending on cognitive measure). Verbal memory and simple and choice reaction times were strongly associated with eGFR. For example, the lowest quartile of verbal memory corresponded to a 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.0, 6.2) ml/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR relative to the highest quartile. Some of this association was explained by confounding due to socioeconomic factors, but very little of it by prior cognition. Smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation and obesity explained some but not all of the remaining association. Conclusions These analyses support the notion of a shared pathophysiology of impaired cognitive and kidney function at older age, which precedes clinical disease. The implications of these findings for clinical care and research are important and under-recognised, though further confirmatory studies are required. PMID:24482683

  13. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was −4.727% (95% CI: −4.821% to −4.634%) per year for men and −6.633% (95% CI: −6.751% to −6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994–2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20–24 years old and 15–24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  14. [The shrinking brain: result of normal aging or of selection bias in research?].

    PubMed

    Burgmans, S; van Boxtel, M P J

    2012-02-01

    The volume of our brain decreases as we age. This has been demonstrated by several large studies on normal aging. A recent study indicates, however, that the extent of this decline in normal aging probably has been overestimated because these studies have included subjects with preclinical disorders. In this article, an example from science is used to describe what effect selection bias may have on our model of the aging brain.

  15. Dilepton Results from HADES Using Au+Au Data at 1.23 AGeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, C.

    The High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES) at GSI was designed to investigate the properties of hadrons inside dense nuclear matter. The latter is created in heavy-ion collisions at energies of 1-2 AGeV. HADES is currently the only running experiment that studies the region in the QCD phase diagram of very high net-baryon densities and low temperatures. Similar conditions are also present in one of the most fascinating objects of the universe: the neutron stars. Therefore, HADES has also the potential to improve our knowledge concerning the properties of such stars. The best probes that one can use to investigate a strongly interacting baryon-rich medium are the dileptons emerging from virtual photon decays. Since electromagnetic probes decouple from the dense interaction region once they are produced, their phase space distributions carry information about the temperature and structure of the dense QCD medium. Preliminary dilepton results from the Au+Au data of HADES at 1.23 AGeV will be presented. The analysis method will also be discussed.

  16. Validation of the FRAIL scale in Mexican elderly: results from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Díaz de León González, Enrique; Gutiérrez Hermosillo, Hugo; Martinez Beltran, Jesus Avilio; Medina Chavez, Juan Humberto; Palacios Corona, Rebeca; Salinas Garza, Deborah Patricia; Rodriguez Quintanilla, Karina Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The aging population in Latin America is characterized by not optimal conditions for good health, experiencing high burden of comorbidity, which contribute to increase the frequency of frailty; thus, identification should be a priority, to classify patients at high risk to develop its negative consequences. Aim The objective of this analysis was to validate the FRAIL instrument to measure frailty in Mexican elderly population, from the database of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Materials and methods Prospective, population study in Mexico, that included subjects of 60 years and older who were evaluated for the variables of frailty during the year 2001 (first wave of the study). Frailty was measured with the five-item FRAIL scale (fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illnesses, and weight loss). The robust, pre-frail or intermediate, and the frail group were considered when they had zero, one, and at least two components, respectively. Mortality, hospitalizations, falls, and functional dependency were evaluated during 2003 (second wave of the study). Relative risk was calculated for each complications, as well as hazard ratio (for mortality) through Cox regression model and odds ratio with logistic regression (for the rest of the outcomes), adjusted for covariates. Results The state of frailty was independently associated with mortality, hospitalizations, functional dependency, and falls. The pre-frailty state was only independently associated with hospitalizations, functional dependency, and falls. Conclusions Frailty measured through the FRAIL scale, is associated with an increase in the rate of mortality, hospitalizations, dependency in activities of daily life, and falls. PMID:26646253

  17. 10Be dating reveals early-middle Holocene age of the Drygalski Moraines in central West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronauer, Sandra L.; Briner, Jason P.; Kelley, Samuel E.; Zimmerman, Susan R. H.; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct the history of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin on the Nuussuaq Peninsula in central West Greenland through the Holocene using lake sediment analysis and cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of the prominent Drygalski Moraines. Erratics perched on bedrock outboard of the Drygalski Moraines constrain local deglaciation to ∼9.9 ± 0.6 ka (n = 2). Three Drygalski Moraine crests yield mean 10Be ages of 8.6 ± 0.4 ka (n = 2), 8.5 ± 0.2 ka (n = 3), and 7.6 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) from outer to inner. Perched erratics between the inner two moraines average 7.8 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) and are consistent with the moraine ages. Sediments from a proglacial lake with a catchment area extending an estimated 2 km beneath (inland of) the present ice sheet terminus constrain an ice sheet minimum extent from 5.4 ka to 0.6 ka. The moraine chronology paired with the lake sediment stratigraphy reveals that the ice margin likely remained within ∼2 km of its present position from ∼9.9 to 5.4 ka. This unexpected early Holocene stability, preceded by rapid ice retreat and followed by minimum ice extent between ∼5.4 and 0.6 ka, contrasts with many records of early Holocene warmth and the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation maximum. We suggest ice margin stability may instead be tied to adjacent ocean temperatures, which reached an optimum in the middle Holocene.

  18. Ultra-sensitive sequencing reveals an age-related increase in somatic mitochondrial mutations that are inconsistent with oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Scott R; Salk, Jesse J; Schmitt, Michael W; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is believed to be highly vulnerable to age-associated damage and mutagenesis by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, somatic mtDNA mutations have historically been difficult to study because of technical limitations in accurately quantifying rare mtDNA mutations. We have applied the highly sensitive Duplex Sequencing methodology, which can detect a single mutation among >10(7) wild type molecules, to sequence mtDNA purified from human brain tissue from both young and old individuals with unprecedented accuracy. We find that the frequency of point mutations increases ~5-fold over the course of 80 years of life. Overall, the mutation spectra of both groups are comprised predominantly of transition mutations, consistent with misincorporation by DNA polymerase γ or deamination of cytidine and adenosine as the primary mutagenic events in mtDNA. Surprisingly, G → T mutations, considered the hallmark of oxidative damage to DNA, do not significantly increase with age. We observe a non-uniform, age-independent distribution of mutations in mtDNA, with the D-loop exhibiting a significantly higher mutation frequency than the rest of the genome. The coding regions, but not the D-loop, exhibit a pronounced asymmetric accumulation of mutations between the two strands, with G → A and T → C mutations occurring more often on the light strand than the heavy strand. The patterns and biases we observe in our data closely mirror the mutational spectrum which has been reported in studies of human populations and closely related species. Overall our results argue against oxidative damage being a major driver of aging and suggest that replication errors by DNA polymerase γ and/or spontaneous base hydrolysis are responsible for the bulk of accumulating point mutations in mtDNA.

  19. Radiocarbon age-offsets in an arctic lake reveal the long-term response of permafrost carbon to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Mann, Daniel H.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Pohlman, John W.; Kunz, Michael L.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Continued warming of the Arctic may cause permafrost to thaw and speed the decomposition of large stores of soil organic carbon (OC), thereby accentuating global warming. However, it is unclear if recent warming has raised the current rates of permafrost OC release to anomalous levels or to what extent soil carbon release is sensitive to climate forcing. Here we use a time series of radiocarbon age-offsets (14C) between the bulk lake sediment and plant macrofossils deposited in an arctic lake as an archive for soil and permafrost OC release over the last 14,500 years. The lake traps and archives OC imported from the watershed and allows us to test whether prior warming events stimulated old carbon release and heightened age-offsets. Today, the age-offset (2 ka; thousand of calibrated years before A.D. 1950) and the depositional rate of ancient OC from the watershed into the lake are relatively low and similar to those during the Younger Dryas cold interval (occurring 12.9–11.7 ka). In contrast, age-offsets were higher (3.0–5.0 ka) when summer air temperatures were warmer than present during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (11.7–9.0 ka) and Bølling-Allerød periods (14.5–12.9 ka). During these warm times, permafrost thaw contributed to ancient OC depositional rates that were ~10 times greater than today. Although permafrost OC was vulnerable to climate warming in the past, we suggest surface soil organic horizons and peat are presently limiting summer thaw and carbon release. As a result, the temperature threshold to trigger widespread permafrost OC release is higher than during previous warming events.

  20. Aspartic Acid Racemization and Collagen Degradation Markers Reveal an Accumulation of Damage in Tendon Collagen That Is Enhanced with Aging*

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Streeter, Ian; Pinchbeck, Gina L.; Goodship, Allen E.; Clegg, Peter D.; Birch, Helen L.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the rate at which protein turnover occurs in living tendon and whether the rate differs between tendons with different physiological roles. In this study, we have quantified the racemization of aspartic acid to calculate the age of the collagenous and non-collagenous components of the high strain injury-prone superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) and low strain rarely injured common digital extensor tendon (CDET) in a group of horses with a wide age range. In addition, the turnover of collagen was assessed indirectly by measuring the levels of collagen degradation markers (collagenase-generated neoepitope and cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen). The fractional increase in d-Asp was similar (p = 0.7) in the SDFT (5.87 × 10−4/year) and CDET (5.82 × 10−4/year) tissue, and d/l-Asp ratios showed a good correlation with pentosidine levels. We calculated a mean (±S.E.) collagen half-life of 197.53 (±18.23) years for the SDFT, which increased significantly with horse age (p = 0.03) and was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that for the CDET (34.03 (±3.39) years). Using similar calculations, the half-life of non-collagenous protein was 2.18 (±0.41) years in the SDFT and was significantly (p = 0.04) lower than the value of 3.51 (±0.51) years for the CDET. Collagen degradation markers were higher in the CDET and suggested an accumulation of partially degraded collagen within the matrix with aging in the SDFT. We propose that increased susceptibility to injury in older individuals results from an inability to remove partially degraded collagen from the matrix leading to reduced mechanical competence. PMID:20308077

  1. Results of interlaboratory comparison of fission track ages for 1992 fission track workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.S.; Crowley, K.D.; Dokka, R.K.; Galbraith, R.F.; Kowallis, B.J.; Naeser, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    Two apatites and one sphene were made available to the fission track research community for analysis prior to the 1992 Fission Track Workshop held in Philadelphia, U.S.A., 13-17 July. Eighteen laboratories throughout the world received aliquots of apatite and sphene. To date, analyses by 33 different scientists have been representing 15 different laboratories. With respect to the previous two interlaboratory comparisons, there is a noticeable improvement in the accuracy of the age results (Naeser and Cebula, 1978; Naeser et al., 1981; Miller et al., 1985;Miller et al.1990). Ninety-four percent of the analysis used the external detector method (EDM) combined with the zeta technique while the remaining individuals used the population method (POP). Track length measurements (requested for the first time in the interlaboratory comparison studies) were in relatively good agreement. ?? 1993.

  2. Motion of Hawaii and Louisville hotspots: Comparision of modeling results with new age and paleolatitude data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, B. M.; O'Connor, J. M.; Koppers, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    , but in addition rise buoyantly. Results typically show the base of plume conduits moving towards the center of large-scale upwellings, as under the Central Pacific. In the case of Hawaii, this leads to a tilted conduit, and a southward motion, as the tilted conduit rises buoyantly. Predicted motion for Louisville is less strong, but tends to be also in southeastward direction. This is in line with new age data, which confirm that their distance has decreased by several hundred km, mainly in the time interval 50-80 Ma, and an even larger southward motion of Hawaii inferred from paleomagnetic results obtained through ODP drilling of the Emperor chain.

  3. Calorie Restriction: What Recent Results Suggest for the Future of Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel L.; Nagy, Tim R.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Calorie Restriction (CR) research has expanded rapidly over the past few decades and CR remains the most highly reproducible, environmental intervention to improve health and extend lifespan in animal studies. Although many model organisms have consistently demonstrated positive responses to CR, it remains to be shown whether CR will extend lifespan in humans. Additionally, the current environment of excess caloric consumption and high incidence of overweight/obesity illustrate the improbable nature of the long-term adoption of a CR lifestyle by a significant proportion of the human population. Thus, the search for substances that can reproduce the beneficial physiologic responses of CR without a requisite calorie intake reduction, termed CR mimetics (CRMs), has gained momentum. Material & Methods Recent articles describing health and lifespan results of CR in nonhuman primates and short-term human studies are discussed. Additional consideration is given to the rapidly expanding search for CRMs. Results The first results from a long-term, randomized, controlled CR study in nonhuman primates showing statistically significant benefits on longevity have now been reported. Additionally, positive results from short-term, randomized, controlled CR studies in humans are suggestive of potential health and longevity gains, while test of proposed CRMs (including rapamycin, resveratrol, 2-deoxyglucose and metformin) have shown both positive and mixed results in rodents. Conclusion Whether current positive results will translate into longevity gains for humans remains an open question. However, the apparent health benefits that have been observed with CR suggest that regardless of longevity gains, the promotion of healthy aging and disease prevention may be attainable. PMID:20534066

  4. Hospital Versus Home Death: Results from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Tovalín-Ahumada, Horacio; Nates, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Characterizing where people die is needed to inform palliative care programs in Mexico. Objectives To determine whether access to health care influences the place of death of older Mexicans and examine the modifying effects of demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods We analyzed 2001 baseline and 2003 follow-up data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Cases included adults who completed the baseline interview and died before the follow-up interview and for whom a proxy interview was obtained in 2003. The main outcome variable was the place of death (hospital vs. home). The predictors of the place of death were identified using logistic regression analysis. Results The study group included 473 deceased patients; 52.9% died at home. Factors associated with hospital death were having spent at least one night in a hospital during the last year of life (odds ratio [OR]: 6.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.29, 13.78) and dying in a city other than the city of usual residence (OR: 4.68, 95% CI: 2.56, 8.57). Factors associated with home death were not having health care coverage (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.34, 5.88), living in a city of less than 100,000 residents (OR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.43, 4.17), and older age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05). Conclusion Older Mexicans with access to health care services were more likely to die in the hospital even after controlling for important clinical and demographic characteristics. Findings from the study may be used to plan the provision of accessible end-of-life hospital and home-based services. PMID:21146354

  5. Health literacy in old age: results of a German cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Dominique; Schaeffer, Doris; Messer, Melanie; Berens, Eva-Maria; Hurrelmann, Klaus

    2017-03-22

    Health literacy is especially important for older people to maintain or enhance remaining health resources and self-management skills. The aim of the study was to determine the level of health literacy and the association between health literacy, demographic and socio-economic factors in German older adults aged 65 years and above stratified by age group. Health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using HLS-EU-Q47 on a representative sample of the German-speaking population. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression modelling stratified by age group were conducted to assess health literacy of 475 respondents aged 65 years and above. Overall, 66.3% of all respondents aged 65 years and above had limited health literacy. Limited health literacy was especially prevalent among respondents above 76 years of age (80.6%). Limited health literacy was associated with financial deprivation (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 1.99-4.67) and limited functional health literacy (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.29-3.61). Financial deprivation was strongest predictor for limited health literacy in the total sample and stratified by age group. Limited health literacy is a frequent phenomenon in German adults aged 65 years and above. Research on health literacy in old age and the role in health disparities is urgently needed.

  6. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  7. Social Work Faculty's Knowledge of Aging: Results from a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna S.; Chonody, Jill M.; Krase, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Social work students have reported in previous studies that they receive insufficient coursework and training to work effectively with older adults. A critical factor in these deficiencies may be the level of knowledge of social work faculty. This study sought to assess social work faculty's knowledge of aging using the Knowledge of Aging for…

  8. Immigrant Children's Age at Arrival and Assessment Results. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Anthony; Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina

    2012-01-01

    While a number of single-country studies have been done to explore whether or not there is a "critical age" at which the arrival in a new country becomes a steep disadvantage to the immigrant student, this study aims to determine whether the steepness of the age-at-arrival/test score profile varies across origin or destination countries. As…

  9. Sex-specific age associations of ankle proprioception test performance in older adults: results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung-Uk; Simonsick, Eleanor; Deshpande, Nandini; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: this study was aimed to test the hypothesis that ankle proprioception assessed by custom-designed proprioception testing equipment changes with ageing in men and women. Methods: ankle proprioception was assessed in 289 participants (131 women) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA); the participants aged 51–95 years and were blinded during testing. Results: the average minimum perceived ankle rotation was 1.11° (SE = 0.07) in women and 1.00° (SE = 0.06) in men, and it increased with ageing in both sexes (P < 0.001, for both). Ankle tracking performance, which is the ability to closely follow with the left ankle, a rotational movement induced on the right ankle by a torque motor, declines with ageing in both men and women (P = 0.018 and P = 0.011, respectively). Conclusions: a simple, standardised method for assessing ankle proprioception was introduced in this study using a customized test instrument, software and test protocol. Age-associated reduction in ankle proprioception was confirmed from two subtests of threshold and tracking separately for women and men. Findings in this study prompt future studies to determine whether these age-associated differences in the threshold for passive motion detection and movement tracking are evident in longitudinal study and how these specific deficits in ankle proprioception are related to age-associated chronic conditions such as knee or hip osteoarthritis and type II diabetes and affect daily activities such as gait. PMID:25637144

  10. Cross-Language Intrusion Errors in Aging Bilinguals Reveal the Link Between Executive Control and Language Selection

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Sandoval, Tiffany; Salmon, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals outperform monolinguals on measures of executive control, but it is not known how bilingualism introduces these advantages. To address this question, we investigated whether language-control failures increase with aging-related declines in executive control. Eighteen younger and 18 older Spanish-English bilinguals completed a verbal-fluency task, in which they produced words in 18 categories (9 in each language), and a flanker task. Performance on both tasks exhibited robust effects of aging, but cross-language and within-language errors on the verbal-fluency task differed in a number of ways. Within-language errors occurred relatively often and decreased with higher levels of education in both younger and older bilinguals. In contrast, cross-language intrusions (e.g., inadvertently saying an English word on a Spanish-language trial) were rarely produced, were not associated with education level, and were strongly associated with flanker-task errors in older but not younger bilinguals. These results imply that executive control plays a role in maintaining language selection, but they also suggest the presence of independent forces that prevent language-selection errors. PMID:21775653

  11. Analysis of plasma microRNA expression profiles revealed different cancer susceptibility in healthy young adult smokers and middle-aged smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bing; Gao, Hongmin; Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a world-wide habit and an important risk factor for cancer. It was known that cigarette smoking can change the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in healthy middle-aged adults. However, it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking can change the levels of circulating miRNAs in young healthy smokers and whether there are differences in cancer susceptibility for the two cases. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles of 28 smokers and 12 non-smokers were determined by Agilent human MicroRNA array. We further performed bioinformatics analysis for the differentially expressed miRNAs. The result showed that 35 miRNAs were differentially expressed. Among them, 24 miRNAs were up-regulated and 11 miRNAs were down-regulated in smokers. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the deregulated miRNAs are related to immune system and hormones regulation. Strikingly, the up-regulated miRNAs are mostly associated with hematologic cancers, such as lymphoma, leukemia. As a comparison, the up-regulated plasma miRNAs in middle-aged smokers are mostly associated with solid cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer, suggesting that smoking could have different influences on young adults and middle-aged adults. In a conclusion, we identified the circulating miRNAs deregulated by cigarette smoking and revealed that the age-dependent deregulated miRNAs tend to be mainly involved in different types of human cancers. PMID:26943588

  12. The vertical age profile in sea ice: Theory and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietaer, Olivier; Deleersnijder, Eric; Fichefet, Thierry; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Comblen, Richard; Bouillon, Sylvain; Legat, Vincent

    The sea ice age is an interesting diagnostic tool because it may provide a proxy for the sea ice thickness and is easier to infer from observations than the sea ice thickness. Remote sensing algorithms and modeling approaches proposed in the literature indicate significant methodological uncertainties, leading to different ice age values and physical interpretations. In this work, we focus on the vertical age distribution in sea ice. Based on the age theory developed for marine modeling, we propose a vertically-variable sea ice age definition which gives a measure of the time elapsed since the accretion of the ice particle under consideration. An analytical solution is derived from Stefan's law for a horizontally homogeneous ice layer with a periodic ice thickness seasonal cycle. Two numerical methods to solve the age equation are proposed. In the first one, the domain is discretized adaptively in space thanks to Lagrangian particles in order to capture the age profile and its discontinuities. The second one focuses on the mean age of the ice using as few degrees of freedom as possible and is based on an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) spatial discretization and the finite element method. We observe an excellent agreement between the Lagrangian particles and the analytical solution. The mean value and the standard deviation of the finite element solution agree with the analytical solution and a linear approximation is found to represent the age profile the better, the older the ice gets. Both methods are finally applied to a stand-alone thermodynamic sea ice model of the Arctic. Computing the vertically-averaged ice age reduces by a factor of about 2 the simulated ice age compared to the oldest particle of the ice columns. A high correlation is found between the ice thickness and the age of the oldest particle. However, whether or not this will remain valid once ice dynamics is included should be investigated. In addition, the present study, based on

  13. Trends and correlates of age at menarche in Colombia: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erica C; Herrán, Oscar F; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of age at menarche could provide useful information on the impact of changing environmental conditions on child health. Nevertheless, nationally representative data are exceedingly rare. The aim of this study was to examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of age at menarche of Colombian girls. The study sample included 15,441 girls born between 1992 and 2000 who participated in the Colombian National Nutrition Survey of 2010. We estimated median menarcheal age using Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analyses. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated with Cox regression models. The median age at menarche was 12.6 years. There was an estimated decline of 0.54 years/decade (P<0.001) over the birth years; this decline was only observed among girls from urban areas, and was more pronounced among girls from wealthier versus poorer families. Child height and BMI, maternal BMI and education, and family wealth were each inversely associated with menarcheal age whereas food insecurity and number of children in the household were positively associated with age at menarche. In conclusion, a negative trend in age at menarche is ongoing in Colombia, especially in groups most likely to benefit from socioeconomic development.

  14. Functional activity and white matter microstructure reveal the independent effects of age of acquisition and proficiency on second-language learning.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Emily S; Joanisse, Marc F

    2016-12-01

    Two key factors govern how bilingual speakers neurally maintain two languages: the speakers' second language age of acquisition (AoA) and their subsequent proficiency. However, the relative roles of these two factors have been difficult to disentangle given that the two can be closely correlated, and most prior studies have examined the two factors in isolation. Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging to identify specific brain areas that are independently modulated by AoA and proficiency in second language speakers. First-language Mandarin Chinese speakers who are second language speakers of English were scanned as they performed a picture-word matching task in either language. In the same session we also acquired diffusion-weighted scans to assess white matter microstructure, along with behavioural measures of language proficiency prior to entering the scanner. Results reveal gray- and white-matter networks involving both the left and right hemisphere that independently vary as a function of a second-language speaker's AoA and proficiency, focused on the superior temporal gyrus, middle and inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the basal ganglia. These results indicate that proficiency and AoA explain separate functional and structural networks in the bilingual brain, which we interpret as suggesting distinct types of plasticity for age-dependent effects (i.e., AoA) versus experience and/or predisposition (i.e., proficiency).

  15. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza; Strandgren, Charlotte; Pernold, Karin; Richard, Thibaud J C; Van Leeuwen, Fred W; Dantuma, Nico P; Damberg, Peter; Hultenby, Kjell; Ulfhake, Brun; Mugnaini, Enrico; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation in brain, skin, bone and heart to investigate how the mutation affects these organs. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal nuclei after 70 weeks of expression of the LMNA c.1824C>T mutation showed severe distortion with multiple lobulations and irregular extensions. Despite severe distortions in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues are protected from functional deleterious effects of progerin.

  16. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza; Strandgren, Charlotte; Pernold, Karin; Richard, Thibaud J. C.; Van Leeuwen, Fred W.; Dantuma, Nico P.; Damberg, Peter; Hultenby, Kjell; Ulfhake, Brun; Mugnaini, Enrico; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation in brain, skin, bone and heart to investigate how the mutation affects these organs. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal nuclei after 70 weeks of expression of the LMNA c.1824C>T mutation showed severe distortion with multiple lobulations and irregular extensions. Despite severe distortions in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues are protected from functional deleterious effects of progerin. PMID:25343989

  17. Colonic perforation resulting from ingested chicken bone revealing previously undiagnosed colonic adenocarcinoma: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Douglas H; Liu, Xiaoying; Ulusarac, Ozlem; Ponnuru, Kimberly D; Schnepp, Stephanie L

    2011-02-18

    An 86 year old male with a four-day history of nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms was found on colonoscopy to have evidence of sigmoid colon obstruction and possible perforation. Emergent operative exploration revealed diffuse peritonitis, sigmoid perforation, adjacent dense adhesions, and a foreign body protruding through the perforated area. Pathologic examination showed the foreign body to be a sliver of bone consistent with chicken bone and the sigmoid subacute perforation to be associated distally with a circumferential ulcerated obstructing mass, microscopically seen to be transmurally infiltrating adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell type. There was extensive acute and organizing peritonitis, 100% Escherichia coli was cultured from peritoneal fluid, and the patient died two days postoperatively with sepsis and hypotension. This appears to be the fifth reported case of colonic perforation resulting from foreign body perforation due to previously undiagnosed adenocarcinoma. The four previously reported cases were all deeply invasive adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon, and the foreign bodies included three chicken/poultry bones and a metallic staple. These five cases are highly unusual examples of a potentially lethal malignant neoplasm being clinically revealed by a usually (but not always) innocuous event, the ingestion of a small foreign body.

  18. Colonic perforation resulting from ingested chicken bone revealing previously undiagnosed colonic adenocarcinoma: report of a case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An 86 year old male with a four-day history of nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms was found on colonoscopy to have evidence of sigmoid colon obstruction and possible perforation. Emergent operative exploration revealed diffuse peritonitis, sigmoid perforation, adjacent dense adhesions, and a foreign body protruding through the perforated area. Pathologic examination showed the foreign body to be a sliver of bone consistent with chicken bone and the sigmoid subacute perforation to be associated distally with a circumferential ulcerated obstructing mass, microscopically seen to be transmurally infiltrating adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell type. There was extensive acute and organizing peritonitis, 100% Escherichia coli was cultured from peritoneal fluid, and the patient died two days postoperatively with sepsis and hypotension. This appears to be the fifth reported case of colonic perforation resulting from foreign body perforation due to previously undiagnosed adenocarcinoma. The four previously reported cases were all deeply invasive adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon, and the foreign bodies included three chicken/poultry bones and a metallic staple. These five cases are highly unusual examples of a potentially lethal malignant neoplasm being clinically revealed by a usually (but not always) innocuous event, the ingestion of a small foreign body. PMID:21333012

  19. ASAR Revealing Hot-Spots of Internal Solitary Waves in the Arctic: Preliminary Results for the Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Igor E.; Zubkova, Evgenia V.; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir N.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we present first preliminary results of internal solitary waves' observations in the Laptev Sea using a set of ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) images. Analysis of 354 ASAR images acquired between May-October 2011 helped to identify 91 distinct patterns of oceanic internal waves and reveal main regions of their occurrence. As found, the primary regions of IW observations are located north-west to Arctic Cape, over the continental slope regions east to Maly Taymyr Island and north-west to Kotelny Island, and east to the Gulf of Khatanga. Detailed maps of main internal wave parameters are presented, and some features of their propagation and implications for the vertical mixing in the Laptev Sea are also discussed.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Reveals the Trace of the Ancient Settlers of a Violently Devastated Late Bronze and Iron Ages Village

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Carolina; Baeta, Miriam; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; García-Romero, Noemí; Llanos, Armando; M. de Pancorbo, Marian

    2016-01-01

    La Hoya (Alava, Basque Country) was one of the most important villages of the Late Bronze and Iron Ages of the north of the Iberian Peninsula, until it was violently devastated around the 4th century and abandoned in the 3rd century B.C. Archaeological evidences suggest that descendants from La Hoya placed their new settlement in a nearby hill, which gave rise to the current village of Laguardia. In this study, we have traced the genetic imprints of the extinct inhabitants of La Hoya through the analysis of maternal lineages. In particular, we have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 41 human remains recovered from the archaeological site for comparison with a sample of 51 individuals from the geographically close present-day population of Laguardia, as well as 56 individuals of the general population of the province of Alava, where the archaeological site and Laguardia village are located. MtDNA haplotypes were successfully obtained in 25 out of 41 ancient samples, and 14 different haplotypes were identified. The major mtDNA subhaplogroups observed in La Hoya were H1, H3, J1 and U5, which show a distinctive frequency pattern in the autochthonous populations of the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis was performed to test the most likely model for the local demographic history. The results did not sustain a genealogical continuity between Laguardia and La Hoya at the haplotype level, although factors such as sampling effects, recent admixture events, and genetic bottlenecks need to be considered. Likewise, the highly similar subhaplogroup composition detected between La Hoya and Laguardia and Alava populations do not allow us to reject a maternal genetic continuity in the human groups of the area since at least the Iron Age to present times. Broader analyses, based on a larger collection of samples and genetic markers, would be required to study fine-scale population events in these human groups. PMID

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Reveals the Trace of the Ancient Settlers of a Violently Devastated Late Bronze and Iron Ages Village.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Carolina; Baeta, Miriam; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; García-Romero, Noemí; Llanos, Armando; M de Pancorbo, Marian

    2016-01-01

    La Hoya (Alava, Basque Country) was one of the most important villages of the Late Bronze and Iron Ages of the north of the Iberian Peninsula, until it was violently devastated around the 4th century and abandoned in the 3rd century B.C. Archaeological evidences suggest that descendants from La Hoya placed their new settlement in a nearby hill, which gave rise to the current village of Laguardia. In this study, we have traced the genetic imprints of the extinct inhabitants of La Hoya through the analysis of maternal lineages. In particular, we have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 41 human remains recovered from the archaeological site for comparison with a sample of 51 individuals from the geographically close present-day population of Laguardia, as well as 56 individuals of the general population of the province of Alava, where the archaeological site and Laguardia village are located. MtDNA haplotypes were successfully obtained in 25 out of 41 ancient samples, and 14 different haplotypes were identified. The major mtDNA subhaplogroups observed in La Hoya were H1, H3, J1 and U5, which show a distinctive frequency pattern in the autochthonous populations of the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis was performed to test the most likely model for the local demographic history. The results did not sustain a genealogical continuity between Laguardia and La Hoya at the haplotype level, although factors such as sampling effects, recent admixture events, and genetic bottlenecks need to be considered. Likewise, the highly similar subhaplogroup composition detected between La Hoya and Laguardia and Alava populations do not allow us to reject a maternal genetic continuity in the human groups of the area since at least the Iron Age to present times. Broader analyses, based on a larger collection of samples and genetic markers, would be required to study fine-scale population events in these human groups.

  2. TNF Drives Monocyte Dysfunction with Age and Results in Impaired Anti-pneumococcal Immunity.

    PubMed

    Puchta, Alicja; Naidoo, Avee; Verschoor, Chris P; Loukov, Dessi; Thevaranjan, Netusha; Mandur, Talveer S; Nguyen, Phuong-Son; Jordana, Manel; Loeb, Mark; Xing, Zhou; Kobzik, Lester; Larché, Maggie J; Bowdish, Dawn M E

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte phenotype and output changes with age, but why this occurs and how it impacts anti-bacterial immunity are not clear. We found that, in both humans and mice, circulating monocyte phenotype and function was altered with age due to increasing levels of TNF in the circulation that occur as part of the aging process. Ly6C+ monocytes from old (18-22 mo) mice and CD14+CD16+ intermediate/inflammatory monocytes from older adults also contributed to this "age-associated inflammation" as they produced more of the inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNF in the steady state and when stimulated with bacterial products. Using an aged mouse model of pneumococcal colonization we found that chronic exposure to TNF with age altered the maturity of circulating monocytes, as measured by F4/80 expression, and this decrease in monocyte maturation was directly linked to susceptibility to infection. Ly6C+ monocytes from old mice had higher levels of CCR2 expression, which promoted premature egress from the bone marrow when challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although Ly6C+ monocyte recruitment and TNF levels in the blood and nasopharnyx were higher in old mice during S. pneumoniae colonization, bacterial clearance was impaired. Counterintuitively, elevated TNF and excessive monocyte recruitment in old mice contributed to impaired anti-pneumococcal immunity since bacterial clearance was improved upon pharmacological reduction of TNF or Ly6C+ monocytes, which were the major producers of TNF. Thus, with age TNF impairs inflammatory monocyte development, function and promotes premature egress, which contribute to systemic inflammation and is ultimately detrimental to anti-pneumococcal immunity.

  3. Articulating Assessments across Childhood: The Cross-Age Validity of the Desired Results Developmental Profile-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karelitz, Tzur M.; Parrish, Deborah Montgomery; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Wilson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Assessment systems that track children's progress across time need to be sensitive to the variegated nature of development. Although instruments are commonly designed to assess behaviors within a specific age range, some children advance slower or faster than others and, as a result, often show behaviors from a younger or older age group. This…

  4. Overconstrained library-based fitting method reveals age- and disease-related differences in transcutaneous Raman spectra of murine bones.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jason R; Inzana, Jason A; Awad, Hani A; Berger, Andrew J

    2013-07-01

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely on measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent on its chemical composition. Raman spectroscopy has been used extensively in ex vivo studies to measure the chemical composition of bone. Recently, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) has been utilized to measure bone transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make noninvasive, in vivo measurements of bone with SORS that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based on fitting with spectral libraries. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both bone and soft tissue. The algorithm was utilized to transcutaneously detect biochemical differences in the tibiae of wild-type mice between 1 and 7 months of age and between the tibiae of wild-type mice and a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta. These results represent the first diagnostically sensitive, transcutaneous measurements of bone using SORS.

  5. Effects of Lowering the Minimum Alcohol Purchasing Age on Weekend Assaults Resulting in Hospitalization in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Gabrielle; McElduff, Patrick; Connor, Jennie; Langley, John

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effects on assault rates of lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age in New Zealand from 20 to 18 years. We hypothesized that the law change would increase assaults among young people aged 18 to 19 years (the target group) and those aged 15 to 17 years via illegal sales or alcohol supplied by older friends or family members. Methods. Using Poisson regression, we examined weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization from 1995 to 2011. Outcomes were assessed separately by gender among young people aged 15 to 17 years and those aged 18 to 19 years, with those aged 20 and 21 years included as a control group. Results. Relative to young men aged 20 to 21 years, assaults increased significantly among young men aged 18 to 19 years between 1995 and 1999 (the period before the law change), as well as the postchange periods 2003 to 2007 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.39) and 2008 to 2011 (IRR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.37). Among boys aged 15 to 17 years, assaults increased during the postchange periods 1999 to 2003 (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.49) and 2004 to 2007 (IRR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.45). There were no statistically significant effects among girls and young women. Conclusions. Lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age increased weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization among young males 15 to 19 years of age. PMID:24922142

  6. Meta-analysis of Gene Expression in the Mouse Liver Reveals Biomarkers Associated with Inflammation Increased Early During Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging is associated with a predictable loss of cellular homeostasis, a decline in physiological function and an increase in various diseases. We hypothesized that similar age-related gene expression profiles would be observed in mice across independent studies. Employing a metaan...

  7. Quantitative lipidomics reveals age-dependent perturbations of whole-body lipid metabolism in ACBP deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Sandra F; Sprenger, Richard R; Neess, Ditte; Pauling, Josch K; Færgeman, Nils J; Ejsing, Christer S

    2017-02-01

    The acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) plays a key role in chaperoning long-chain acyl-CoAs into lipid metabolic processes and acts as an important regulatory hub in mammalian physiology. This is highlighted by the recent finding that mice devoid of ACBP suffer from a compromised epidermal barrier and delayed weaning, the physiological process where newborns transit from a fat-based milk diet to a carbohydrate-rich diet. To gain insights into how ACBP impinges on weaning and the concomitant remodeling of whole-body lipid metabolism we performed a comparative lipidomics analysis charting the absolute abundance of 613 lipid molecules in liver, muscle and plasma from weaning and adult Acbp knockout and wild type mice. Our results reveal that ACBP deficiency affects primarily lipid metabolism of liver and plasma during weaning. Specifically, we show that ACBP deficient mice have elevated levels of hepatic cholesteryl esters, and that lipids featuring an 18:1 fatty acid moiety are increased in Acbp depleted mice across all tissues investigated. Our results also show that the perturbation of systemic lipid metabolism in Acbp knockout mice is transient and becomes normalized and similar to that of wild type as mice grow older. These findings demonstrate that ACBP serves crucial functions in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis in mice during weaning.

  8. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to <10% by day 57. The RA of Proteobacteria was only 1% at day 0, but increased to ~50% by day 57in both shaded and unshaded samples. By the end of the study, shaded and unshaded samples had a similar RA of Firmcutes and Proteobacteria but the RA of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria was, respectively, about 7% lower and 10% higher for unshaded samples. UV intensity, moisture, and temperature were significantly different between shaded and unshaded plots, indicating that these environmental stresses could influence the structure of fecal bacteria community in the natural environment. According to the

  9. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  10. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  11. Assessment of Aging Individuals with Down Syndrome in Clinical Trials: Results of Baseline Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul S.; Dalton, Arthur J.; Andrews, Howard F.; Tsai, Wei-Yann

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge to developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive loss and dementia in aging individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is the selection of appropriate outcome measures. This report describes the adaptation of the Brief Praxis Test (a nonverbal cognitive test) as a primary outcome measure, as well as the selection of secondary…

  12. X-ray Fluorescence Tomography of Aged Fluid-Catalytic-Cracking Catalyst Particles Reveals Insight into Metal Deposition Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kalirai, Sam; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Falkenberg, Gerald; Meirer, Florian; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-01-01

    Microprobe X-ray fluorescence tomography was used to investigate metal poison deposition in individual, intact and industrially deactivated fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particles at two differing catalytic life-stages. 3 D multi-element imaging, at submicron resolution was achieved by using a large-array Maia fluorescence detector. Our results show that Fe, Ni and Ca have significant concentration at the exterior of the FCC catalyst particle and are highly co-localized. As concentrations increase as a function of catalytic life-stage, the deposition profiles of Fe, Ni, and Ca do not change significantly. V has been shown to penetrate deeper into the particle with increasing catalytic age. Although it has been previously suggested that V is responsible for damaging the zeolite components of FCC particles, no spatial correlation was found for V and La, which was used as a marker for the embedded zeolite domains. This suggests that although V is known to be detrimental to zeolites in FCC particles, a preferential interaction does not exist between the two. PMID:26613011

  13. New 40Ar/ 39Ar dating results from the Shanwang Basin, eastern China: Constraints on the age of the Shanwang Formation and associated biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Huaiyu; Deng, Chenglong; Pan, Yongxin; Deng, Tao; Luo, Zhaohua; Sun, Jimin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2011-07-01

    The fluvio-lacustrine sequence of the Shanwang Basin, eastern China, preserves a rich and important terrestrial fossil fauna and flora; the exceptional preservation of these fossils reveals the dynamics of ancient mammalian ecosystems and plant biology. However, the timing of this sedimentary sequence has been the subject of debate for decades. Here we contribute to this debate by presenting the detailed results of 40Ar/ 39Ar analysis of the basalts above, below, and within the Shanwang Formation. These dates place stringent constraints on the age of Shanwang Formation and associated biota. 40Ar/ 39Ar ages obtained from basalts of the Niushan and Yaoshan Formations, which underlie and overlie the Shanwang Formation, are 21.0 ± 2.5 Ma (2σ, full external error) and 17.3 ± 1.5 Ma (2σ, full external error), respectively. The 40Ar/ 39Ar age of the basalt in the Shanwang Formation is 17-18 Ma. Given the age constraints of the basalts of the Yaoshan and Shanwang Formations, the age of the Shanwang biota is estimated to be ca. 17 Ma, late Burdigalian of the Early Miocene, indicating that the deposition of this fauna coincided with the onset of the mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. The results provide new age constraints on the Shanwang mammal fauna, and independently support interpretations that this fauna can be assigned to chronozone MN4, and correlated with middle Orleanian of the European Land Mammal Age, and to late Hemingfordian of the North American Land Mammal Age. Biological diversity of the Shanwang Formation could reflect the global-scale mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum.

  14. Geometry of the Farallon Slab Revealed by Joint Interpretation of Wavefield Imaging and Tomography Results from the Earthscope Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, G. L.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A significant number of P and S wave tomography models have been produced in the past decade using various subsets of data from the Earthscope USArray and different inversion algorithms. We focus here on published tomography results that span large portions of the final footprint of the USArray. We use 3D visualization techniques to search for common features in different tomography models. We also compare tomography results to features seen in our current generation wavefield images. Recent innovations of our plane wave migration method have yielded what is arguably the highest resolution image ever produced of the mantle in the vicinity of the transition zone. The new results reveal a rich collection of coherent, dipping structures seen throughout the upper mantle and transition zone. These dipping interfaces are judged significant according to a coherence metric. We treat these surfaces as strain markers to assess proposed models for geometry of the 3D geometry of the Farallon Slab under North America. We find the following geologic interpretations are well supported by independent results: 1. The old Farallon under eastern North America and below the base of transition zone is universally seen as a high velocity anomaly. 2. All results support a simple, 3D kinematic model of the updip limit of the Farallon slab window that follows a track from Cape Mendocino, across Nevada, and northern Arizona and New Mexico. 3. All models show a strong low-velocity mantle under the southwestern U.S. 4. A low-velocity features is universally seen related to the Yellowstone-Snake River system. Shorter wavelength features observed in different tomography models are inconsistent showing that the theme of this session is very important to understand what features are in current results are real. Isopach maps of the thickness of the transition show a systematic difference in transition zone thickness in the western and eastern US. The transition zone thickens in the eastern US in

  15. Comparing GWAS Results of Complex Traits Using Full Genetic Model and Additive Models for Revealing Genetic Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Monir, Md. Mamun; Zhu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Most of the genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for human complex diseases have ignored dominance, epistasis and ethnic interactions. We conducted comparative GWASs for total cholesterol using full model and additive models, which illustrate the impacts of the ignoring genetic variants on analysis results and demonstrate how genetic effects of multiple loci could differ across different ethnic groups. There were 15 quantitative trait loci with 13 individual loci and 3 pairs of epistasis loci identified by full model, whereas only 14 loci (9 common loci and 5 different loci) identified by multi-loci additive model. Again, 4 full model detected loci were not detected using multi-loci additive model. PLINK-analysis identified two loci and GCTA-analysis detected only one locus with genome-wide significance. Full model identified three previously reported genes as well as several new genes. Bioinformatics analysis showed some new genes are related with cholesterol related chemicals and/or diseases. Analyses of cholesterol data and simulation studies revealed that the full model performs were better than the additive-model performs in terms of detecting power and unbiased estimations of genetic variants of complex traits. PMID:28079101

  16. Results of Aging Tests of Vendor-Produced Blended Feed Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Buchmiller, William C.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2009-04-21

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is procuring through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) a minimum of five 3,500 gallon batches of waste simulant for Phase 1 testing in the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). To make sure that the quality of the simulant is acceptable, the production method was scaled up starting from laboratory-prepared simulant through 15-gallon vendor prepared simulant and 250-gallon vendor prepared simulant before embarking on the production of the 3500-gallon simulant batch by the vendor. The 3500-gallon PEP simulant batches were packaged in 250-gallon high molecular weight polyethylene totes at NOAH Technologies. The simulant was stored in an environmentally controlled environment at NOAH Technologies within their warehouse before blending or shipping. For the 15-gallon, 250-gallon, and 3500-gallon batch 0, the simulant was shipped in ambient temperature trucks with shipment requiring nominally 3 days. The 3500-gallon batch 1 traveled in a 70-75°F temperature controlled truck. Typically the simulant was uploaded in a PEP receiving tank within 24-hours of receipt. The first uploading required longer with it stored outside. Physical and chemical characterization of the 250-gallon batch was necessary to determine the effect of aging on the simulant in transit from the vendor and in storage before its use in the PEP. Therefore, aging tests were conducted on the 250-gallon batch of the vendor-produced PEP blended feed simulant to identify and determine any changes to the physical characteristics of the simulant when in storage. The supernate was also chemically characterized. Four aging scenarios for the vendor-produced blended simulant were studied: 1) stored outside in a 250-gallon tote, 2) stored inside in a gallon plastic bottle, 3) stored inside in a well mixed 5-L tank, and 4) subject to extended temperature cycling under summer temperature conditions in a gallon plastic bottle. The following

  17. Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: The TERESA field results

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Choong-Min; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Lawrence, Joy E.; Rohr, Annette C.; Godleski, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions Source Aerosols (TERESA) study was carried out at three US coal-fired power plants to investigate the potential toxicological effects of primary and photochemically aged (secondary) particles using in situ stack emissions. The exposure system designed successfully simulated chemical reactions that power plant emissions undergo in a plume during transport from the stack to receptor areas (e.g., urban areas). Test atmospheres developed for toxicological experiments included scenarios to simulate a sequence of atmospheric reactions that can occur in a plume: (1) primary emissions only; (2) H2SO4 aerosol from oxidation of SO2; (3) H2SO4 aerosol neutralized by gas-phase NH3; (4) neutralized H2SO4 with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the reaction of α-pinene with O3; and (5) three control scenarios excluding primary particles. The aged particle mass concentrations varied significantly from 43.8 to 257.1 μg/m3 with respect to scenario and power plant. The highest was found when oxidized aerosols were neutralized by gas-phase NH3 with added SOA. The mass concentration depended primarily on the ratio of SO2 to NOx (particularly NO) emissions, which was determined mainly by coal composition and emissions controls. Particulate sulfate (H2SO4 + neutralized sulfate) and organic carbon (OC) were major components of the aged particles with added SOA, whereas trace elements were present at very low concentrations. Physical and chemical properties of aged particles appear to be influenced by coal type, emissions controls and the particular atmospheric scenarios employed. PMID:20462390

  18. Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: the TERESA field results.

    PubMed

    Kang, Choong-Min; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A; Wolfson, Jack M; Ferguson, Stephen T; Lawrence, Joy E; Rohr, Annette C; Godleski, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2011-08-01

    The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions Source Aerosols (TERESA) study was carried out at three US coal-fired power plants to investigate the potential toxicological effects of primary and photochemically aged (secondary) particles using in situ stack emissions. The exposure system designed successfully simulated chemical reactions that power plant emissions undergo in a plume during transport from the stack to receptor areas (e.g., urban areas). Test atmospheres developed for toxicological experiments included scenarios to simulate a sequence of atmospheric reactions that can occur in a plume: (1) primary emissions only; (2) H(2)SO(4) aerosol from oxidation of SO(2); (3) H(2)SO(4) aerosol neutralized by gas-phase NH(3); (4) neutralized H(2)SO(4) with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the reaction of α-pinene with O(3); and (5) three control scenarios excluding primary particles. The aged particle mass concentrations varied significantly from 43.8 to 257.1 µg/m(3) with respect to scenario and power plant. The highest was found when oxidized aerosols were neutralized by gas-phase NH(3) with added SOA. The mass concentration depended primarily on the ratio of SO(2) to NO(x) (particularly NO) emissions, which was determined mainly by coal composition and emissions controls. Particulate sulfate (H(2)SO(4) + neutralized sulfate) and organic carbon (OC) were major components of the aged particles with added SOA, whereas trace elements were present at very low concentrations. Physical and chemical properties of aged particles appear to be influenced by coal type, emissions controls and the particular atmospheric scenarios employed.

  19. Age of Terrestrial Biomarkers in Fluvial Transit Across the Andes-Amazon Reveal Timescales of Carbon Storage and Turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, C.; Feakins, S. J.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental signatures carried by fluvially-exported terrestrial organic matter are shaped by storage, remineralization and replacement at various spatial and temporal scales. Uncertainties in the timescales of these processes are key caveats in the accurate interpretation of sedimentary records. As part of a multi-isotope leaf wax biomarker project, we report the age of biomarkers transported by rivers from mountain to floodplain across the Andes-Amazon transition in southern Peru. We tracked the age of organic carbon using the radiocarbon (14ΔC) composition of plant leaf waxes extracted from particulate organic carbon (POC) in river suspended sediments. Leaf waxes from POC are younger in mountain headwaters (<500 yrs old) and increase in age across the floodplain (>1000 yrs). Downstream aging is associated with the greater storage potential and residence times in lowland mineral soils and sedimentary sequences that include Pleistocene age eroding river terraces. Given three key observations that 1) carbon loading in suspended sediment does not substantively change from Andes to Amazon, 2) ~80% of sediment is sourced in the Andes, and 3) age increases downstream (this study); we find proof of the decoupling of organic carbon from sediment, which we attribute to loss of Andean carbon and replacement during transport.

  20. RNA-Seq Reveals Age- and Species Differences of CAR-targeted Drug-Processing Genes in Liver.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sunny Lihua; Bammler, Theo K; Cui, Julia Yue

    2017-02-23

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR/Nr1i3) is an important xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor that is highly expressed in liver, and is well known to have species differences. During development, age-specific activation of CAR may lead to modified pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of drugs and environmental chemicals, leading to higher risks for adverse drug reactions in newborns and children. The goal of this study was to systematically investigate the age- and species-specific regulation of various drug-processing genes (Li et al.) following neonatal or adult CAR activation in livers of wild-type (WT), CAR-null, and humanized CAR-transgenic (hCAR-TG) mice. At either 5- or 60-days of age, the 3 genotypes of mice were administered a species-appropriate CAR ligand or vehicle once daily for 4-days (i.p.). The majority of DPGs were differentially regulated by age and/or CAR activation, and they partitioned into 3 patterns: DPGs in Pattern-1 (up-regulated with age) and Pattern-2 (down-regulated with age) were predominantly regulated by age, whereas DPGs in Pattern 3 were predominantly regulated by CAR activation. There were 36 DPGs that were commonly up-regulated by CAR activation regardless of age or species of CAR; however, the fold-induction in the mRNA expression of these genes was profoundly modified by age. Although the cumulative mRNAs of uptake transporters were not readily altered by CAR, the cumulative Phase-I and -II enzymes as well as efflux transporters were all increased following CAR activation in both species. In general, mCAR activation produced comparable or even greater fold-increases of many DPGs in newborns than in adults; conversely, hCAR activation produced weaker induction in newborns than in adults. Western blotting and enzyme activity assays confirmed the age- and species-specificities of selected CAR-targeted DPGs. In conclusion, neonatal livers appear to be more sensitive to CAR-activators, whereas hCAR and mCAR produce overlapping

  1. Myocardial strain in healthy adults across a broad age range as revealed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 and 3.0T: Associations of myocardial strain with myocardial region, age, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Mangion, Kenneth; Clerfond, Guillaume; McComb, Christie; Carrick, David; Rauhalammi, Samuli M.; McClure, John; Corcoran, David S.; Woodward, Rosemary; Orchard, Vanessa; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Zhong, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess myocardial strain using cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) using 1.5T and 3.0T MRI in healthy adults. Materials and Methods Healthy adults without any history of cardiovascular disease underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5T and 3.0T within 2 days. The MRI protocol included balanced steady‐state free‐precession (b‐SSFP), 2D cine‐echo planar imaging (EPI)‐DENSE, and late gadolinium enhancement in subjects >45 years. Acquisitions were divided into six segments; global and segmental peak longitudinal and circumferential strain were derived and analyzed by field strength, age, and gender. Results In all, 89 volunteers (mean age 44.8 ± 18.0 years, range: 18–87 years) underwent MRI at 1.5T, and 88 of these subjects underwent MRI at 3.0T (1.4 ± 1.4 days between the scans). Compared with 3.0T, the magnitudes of global circumferential (–19.5 ± 2.6% vs. –18.47 ± 2.6%; P = 0.001) and longitudinal (–12.47 ± 3.2% vs. –10.53 ± 3.1%; P = 0.004) strain were greater at 1.5T. At 1.5T, longitudinal strain was greater in females than in males: –10.17 ± 3.4% vs. –13.67 ± 2.4%; P = 0.001. Similar observations occurred for circumferential strain at 1.5T (–18.72 ± 2.2% vs. –20.10 ± 2.7%; P = 0.014) and at 3.0T (–17.92 ± 1.8% vs. –19.1 ± 3.1%; P = 0.047). At 1.5T, longitudinal and circumferential strain were not associated with age after accounting for sex (longitudinal strain P = 0.178, circumferential strain P = 0.733). At 3.0T, longitudinal and circumferential strain were associated with age (P < 0.05). Longitudinal strain values were greater in the apico‐septal, basal‐lateral, and mid‐lateral segments and circumferential strain in the inferior, infero‐lateral, and antero‐lateral LV segments. Conclusion Myocardial strain parameters as revealed by cine‐DENSE at different MRI field strengths were associated with myocardial region, age, and sex. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1197

  2. The Role of Lipid Droplets in Mortierella alpina Aging Revealed by Integrative Subcellular and Whole-Cell Proteome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yadong; Li, Tao; Wu, Na; Jiang, Ling; Ji, Xiaojun; Huang, He

    2017-03-07

    Lipid droplets (LDs) participate in many cellular processes in oleaginous microorganisms. However, the exact function of LDs in the Mortierella alpina aging process remains elusive. Herein, subcellular proteomics was employed to unveil the composition and dynamics of the LD proteome in the aging M. alpina for the first time. More than 400 proteins were detected in LDs and 62 of them changed expression significantly during aging. By combining the LD proteomic data with whole-cell data, we found that the carbohydrate metabolism and de novo lipid biosynthesis were all inhibited during aging of M. alpina mycelia. The up-regulation of fructose metabolism-related enzymes in LDs might imply that LDs facilitated the fructose metabolism, which in turn might cause pyruvate to accumulate and enter malate-pyruvate cycle, and ultimately, provide additional NADPH for the synthesis of arachidonic acid (ARA). Lysophospholipase and lecithinase were up-regulated in LDs during the aging process, suggesting that the phospholipids and lecithin were starting to be hydrolyzed, in order to release fatty acids for the cells. The impairment of the anti-oxidant system might lead to the accumulation of ROS and consequently cause the up-regulation of autophagy-related proteins in LDs, which further induces the M. alpina mycelia to activate the autophagy process.

  3. The Role of Lipid Droplets in Mortierella alpina Aging Revealed by Integrative Subcellular and Whole-Cell Proteome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yadong; Li, Tao; Wu, Na; Jiang, Ling; Ji, Xiaojun; Huang, He

    2017-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) participate in many cellular processes in oleaginous microorganisms. However, the exact function of LDs in the Mortierella alpina aging process remains elusive. Herein, subcellular proteomics was employed to unveil the composition and dynamics of the LD proteome in the aging M. alpina for the first time. More than 400 proteins were detected in LDs and 62 of them changed expression significantly during aging. By combining the LD proteomic data with whole-cell data, we found that the carbohydrate metabolism and de novo lipid biosynthesis were all inhibited during aging of M. alpina mycelia. The up-regulation of fructose metabolism-related enzymes in LDs might imply that LDs facilitated the fructose metabolism, which in turn might cause pyruvate to accumulate and enter malate-pyruvate cycle, and ultimately, provide additional NADPH for the synthesis of arachidonic acid (ARA). Lysophospholipase and lecithinase were up-regulated in LDs during the aging process, suggesting that the phospholipids and lecithin were starting to be hydrolyzed, in order to release fatty acids for the cells. The impairment of the anti-oxidant system might lead to the accumulation of ROS and consequently cause the up-regulation of autophagy-related proteins in LDs, which further induces the M. alpina mycelia to activate the autophagy process. PMID:28266581

  4. Single-crystal 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating reveals bimodal sanidine ages in the Bishop Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, N. L.; Jicha, B. R.; Singer, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    The 650 km3 Bishop Tuff (BT) is among the most studied volcanic deposits because it is an extensive marker bed deposited just after the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary. Reconstructions of the vast BT magma reservoir from which high-silica rhyolite erupted have long influenced thinking about how large silicic magma systems are assembled, crystallized, and mixed. Yet, the longevity of the high silica rhyolitic melt and exact timing of the eruption remain controversial due to recent conflicting 40Ar/39Ar sanidine vs. SIMS and ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon dates. We have undertaken 21 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating ages on 2 mm BT sanidine crystals from pumice in 3 widely separated outcrops of early-erupted fall and flow units. Plateau ages yield a bimodal distribution: a younger group has a mean of 766 ka and an older group gives a range between 772 and 782 ka. The younger population is concordant with the youngest ID-TIMS and SIMS U-Pb zircon ages recently published, as well as the astronomical age of BT in marine sediment. Of 21 crystals, 17 yield older, non-plateau, steps likely affected by excess Ar that would bias traditional 40Ar/39Ar total crystal fusion ages. The small spread in older sanidine ages, together with 25+ kyr of pre-eruptive zircon growth, suggest that the older sanidines are not partially outgassed xenocrysts. A bimodal 40Ar/39Ar age distribution implies that some fraction of rhyolitic melt cooled below the Ar closure temperature at least 10 ky prior to eruption. We propose that rapid "thawing" of a crystalline mush layer released older crystals into rhyolitic melt from which sanidine also nucleated and grew immediately prior to the eruption. High precision 40Ar/39Ar dating can thus provide essential information on thermo-physical processes at the millenial time scale that are critical to interpreting U-Pb zircon age distributions that are complicated by large uncertainties associated with zircon-melt U-Th systematics.

  5. From chaos to split-ups--SHG microscopy reveals a specific remodelling mechanism in ageing dystrophic muscle.

    PubMed

    Buttgereit, Andreas; Weber, Cornelia; Garbe, Christoph S; Friedrich, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a common inherited muscle disease showing chronic inflammation and progressive muscle weakness. Absent dystrophin renders sarcolemma more Ca(2+) -permeable, disturbs signalling and triggers inflammation. Sustained degeneration/regeneration cycles render muscle cytoarchitecture susceptible to remodelling. Quantitative morphometry was introduced in living cells using second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy of myosin. As the time course of cellular remodelling is not known, we used SHG microscopy in mdx muscle fibres over a wide age range for three-dimensional (3D) rendering and detection of verniers and cosine angle sums (CASs). Wild-type (wt) and transgenic mini-dystrophin mice (MinD) were also studied. Vernier densities (VDs) declined in wt and MinD fibres until adulthood, while in mdx fibres, VDs remained significantly elevated during the life span. CAS values were close to unity in adult wt and MinD fibres, in agreement with tight regular myofibril orientation, while always smaller in mdx fibres. Using SHG 3D morphometry, we identified two types of altered ultrastructure: branched fibres and a novel, previously undetected 'chaotic' fibre type, both of which can be classified by distinct CAS and VD combinations. We present a novel model of tissue remodelling in dystrophic progression with age that involves the transition from normal to chaotic to branched fibres. Our model predicts a ~50% contribution of altered cytoarchitecture to progressive force loss with age. We also provide an improved automated image algorithm that is suitable for future ageing studies in human myopathies.

  6. Extended multiplexing of TMT labeling reveals age and high fat diet specific proteome changes in mouse epididymal adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Plubell, Deanna L; Wilmarth, Phillip A; Zhao, Yuqi; Fenton, Alexandra M; Minnier, Jessica; Reddy, Ashok P; Klimek, John; Yang, Xia; David, Larry L; Pamir, Nathalie

    2017-03-21

    The lack of high-throughput methods to analyze the adipose tissue protein composition limits our understanding of the protein networks responsible for age and diet related metabolic response. We have developed an approach using multiple-dimension liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and extended multiplexing (24 biological samples) with TMT labeling to analyze proteomes of epididymal adipose tissues isolated from mice fed either low or high fat diet for a short or a long-term, and from mice that aged on low vs. high fat diets. The peripheral metabolic health (as measured by body weight, adiposity, plasma fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol levels, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests) deteriorated with diet and advancing age, with long-term high fat diet exposure being the worst. In response to short-term high fat diet, 43 proteins representing lipid metabolism (e.g., AACS, ACOX1, ACLY) and red-ox pathways (e.g., CPD2, CYP2E, SOD3) were significantly altered (FDR < 10%). Long-term high fat diet significantly altered 55 proteins associated with immune response (e.g., IGTB2, IFIT3, LGALS1) and rennin angiotensin system (e.g. ENPEP, CMA1, CPA3, ANPEP). Age-related changes on low fat diet significantly altered only 18 proteins representing mainly urea cycle (e.g., OTC, ARG1, CPS1), and amino acid biosynthesis (e.g., GMT, AKR1C6). Surprisingly, high fat diet driven age-related changes culminated with alterations in 155 proteins involving primarily the urea cycle (e.g., ARG1, CPS1), immune response/complement activation (e.g., C3, C4b, C8, C9, CFB, CFH, FGA), extracellular remodeling (e.g., EFEMP1, FBN1, FBN2, LTBP4, FERMT2, ECM1, EMILIN2, ITIH3) and apoptosis (e.g., YAP1, HIP1, NDRG1, PRKCD, MUL1) pathways. Using our adipose tissue tailored approach we have identified both age-related and high fat diet specific proteomic signatures highlighting a pronounced involvement of arginine metabolism in response to advancing age, and branched

  7. Quantitative mapping reveals age and sex differences in vasopressin, but not oxytocin, immunoreactivity in the rat social behavior neural network.

    PubMed

    DiBenedictis, Brett T; Nussbaum, Elizabeth R; Cheung, Harry K; Veenema, Alexa H

    2017-03-24

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have been implicated in the regulation of numerous social behaviors in adult and juvenile animals. AVP and OT signaling predominantly occur within a circuit of interconnected brain regions known collectively as the "social behavior neural network" (SBNN). Importantly, AVP and OT signaling within the SBNN has been shown to differentially regulate diverse social behaviors, depending on the age and/or sex of the animal. We hypothesized that variation in the display of these behaviors is due in part to age and sex differences in AVP and OT synthesis within the SBNN. However, a thorough characterization of AVP and OT-immunoreactive (ir) fibers and cell bodies across age and sex within the SBNN has been lacking in rats. We therefore quantified AVP- and OT-ir fibers and cell bodies in 22 subregions of the forebrain SBNN in juvenile and adult, male and female rats. We found numerous age (16 subregions) and sex (10 subregions) differences in AVP-ir fiber fractional areas, and AVP-ir cell body numbers, which were mainly observed in the medial amygdala/bed nucleus of the stria terminalis to lateral septum circuit. In contrast to AVP, we observed no age or sex differences in OT-ir fiber fractional areas or cell bodies in any of the 22 subregions of the forebrain SBNN. Thus, unlike the static pattern observed for OT, AVP innervation of the forebrain SBNN appears to undergo developmental changes, and is highly sexually dimorphic, which likely has significant functional consequences for the regulation of social behavior. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over☆

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; Santos, Pedro Doenux; Checchia, Sergio Luiz; Cohen, Carina; Giora, Taís Stedile Busin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over. Methods Between 1998 and 2009, 168 patients underwent operations. Five cases were excluded. The remaining 163 patients were stratified according to their age group: 65–69 years (49.1%), 70–74 (26.4%) and 75 years and over (24.5%). Their mean age was 71 years (range: 65–83). There were 63 male patients (38.7%). The mean length of time with pain, from the onset of symptoms to the surgery, was 23 months (range: 2 days to 240 months). Sixty-two patients (38%) reported histories of trauma and 26 (16%) reported that their pain worsened through exertion. Results From the UCLA criteria, 80.4% of the results were excellent, 16% good, 1.8% fair and 1.8% poor. Complications occurred in 11%. The final clinical result did not show any correlation with age progression, injury size or tendons affected. However, there was a significant association (p < 0.001) between the presence of trauma and larger injuries. The length of time between the onset of symptoms and the surgical procedure had a significant relationship (p < 0.027) with the postoperative results: the longer this time was, the worse the results were. Conclusion Arthroscopic treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over presented excellent and good results in 96.4% of the cases, according to the UCLA assessment, with a low complication rate. Advanced age did not show any influence on the postoperative clinical evolution, but the earlier the surgical treatment was instituted, the better the results were. PMID:26229935

  9. Age at Menarche and Its Association with the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components: Results from the KORA F4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Stöckl, Doris; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Huth, Cornelia; Heier, Margit; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Kowall, Bernd; Stöckl, Heidi; Döring, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objective The metabolic syndrome is a major public health challenge and identifies persons at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the association between age at menarche and the metabolic syndrome (IDF and NCEP ATP III classification) and its components. Design 1536 women aged 32 to 81 years of the German population based KORA F4 study were investigated. Data was collected by standardized interviews, physical examinations, and whole blood and serum measurements. Results Young age at menarche was significantly associated with elevated body mass index (BMI), greater waist circumference, higher fasting glucose levels, and 2 hour glucose (oral glucose tolerance test), even after adjusting for the difference between current BMI and BMI at age 25. The significant effect on elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure was attenuated after adjustment for the BMI change. Age at menarche was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome adjusting for age (p-values: <0.001 IDF, 0.003 NCEP classification) and additional potential confounders including lifestyle and reproductive history factors (p-values: 0.001, 0.005). Associations remain significant when additionally controlling for recollected BMI at age 25 (p-values: 0.008, 0.033) or the BMI change since age 25 (p-values: 0.005, 0.022). Conclusion Young age at menarche might play a role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. This association is only partially mediated by weight gain and increased BMI. A history of early menarche may help to identify women at risk for the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22028807

  10. Multifractality, sample entropy, and wavelet analyses for age-related changes in the peripheral cardiovascular system: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Humeau, Anne; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Rousseau, Pascal; Trzepizur, Wojciech; Abraham, Pierre

    2008-02-01

    Using signal processing measures we evaluate the effect of aging on the peripheral cardiovascular system. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals, reflecting the microvascular perfusion, are recorded on the forearm of 27 healthy subjects between 20-30, 40-50, or 60-70 years old. Wavelet-based representations, Hölder exponents, and sample entropy values are computed for each time series. The results indicate a possible modification of the peripheral cardiovascular system with aging. Thus, the endothelial-related metabolic activity decreases, but not significantly, with aging. Furthermore, LDF signals are more monofractal for elderly subjects than for young people for whom LDF signals are weakly multifractal: the average range of Holder exponents computed with a parametric generalized quadratic variation based estimation method is 0.13 for subjects between 20 and 30 years old and 0.06 for subjects between 60 and 70 years old. Moreover, the average mean sample entropy value of LDF signals slightly decreases with age: it is 1.34 for subjects between 20 and 30 years old and 1.19 for subjects between 60 and 70 years old. Our results could assist in gaining knowledge on the relationship between microvascular system status and age and could also lead to a more accurate age-related nonlinear modeling.

  11. Radiometric dating of the Earlier Stone Age sequence in excavation I at Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Chazan, Michael; Ron, Hagai; Matmon, Ari; Porat, Naomi; Goldberg, Paul; Yates, Royden; Avery, Margaret; Sumner, Alexandra; Horwitz, Liora Kolska

    2008-07-01

    We present here the results of 44 paleomagnetic measurements, and single cosmogenic burial and optically stimulated luminescence ages for the Earlier Stone Age deposits from Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape, South Africa. The resulting paleomagnetic sequence: N>R>N>R>N constrains the Earlier Stone Age strata in this part of the site to between approximately 0.78-1.96 Ma. A single cosmogenic date of approximately 2.0 Ma from the base of the section offers some corroboration for the paleomagnetic sequence. Preliminary results indicate that the small lithic assemblage from the basal stratum may contain an Oldowan facies. This is overlain by several strata containing Acheulean industries. The preliminary radiometric dates reported here place the onset of the Acheulean at this site to approximately 1.6 Ma, which is roughly contemporaneous with that of East Africa.

  12. Preterm birth results in alterations in neural connectivity at age 16 years.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Katherine M; Vohr, Betty R; Katz, Karol H; Schneider, Karen C; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Makuch, Robert W; Reiss, Allan L; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2011-02-14

    Very low birth weight preterm (PT) children are at high risk for brain injury. Employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we tested the hypothesis that PT adolescents would demonstrate microstructural white matter disorganization relative to term controls at 16 years of age. Forty-four PT subjects (600-1250 g birth weight) without neonatal brain injury and 41 term controls were evaluated at age 16 years with DTI, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT), and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). PT subjects scored lower than term subjects on WISC full scale (p=0.003), verbal (p=0.043), and performance IQ tests (p=0.001), as well as CTOPP phonological awareness (p=0.004), but scored comparably to term subjects on PPVT and CTOPP Rapid Naming tests. PT subjects had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple regions including bilateral uncinate fasciculi (left: p=0.01; right: p=0.004), bilateral external capsules (left: p<0.001; right: p<0.001), the splenium of the corpus callosum (p=0.008), and white matter serving the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally (left: p<0.001; right: p=0.011). FA values in both the left and right uncinate fasciculi correlated with PPVT scores (a semantic language task) in the PT subjects (left: r=0.314, p=0.038; right: r=0.336, p=0.026). FA values in the left and right arcuate fasciculi correlated with CTOPP Rapid Naming scores (a phonologic task) in the PT subjects (left: r=0.424, p=0.004; right: r=0.301, p=0.047). These data support for the first time that dual pathways underlying language function are present in PT adolescents. The striking bilateral dorsal correlations for the PT group suggest that prematurely born subjects rely more heavily on the right hemisphere than typically developing adults for performance of phonological language tasks. These findings may represent either a delay in maturation or the engagement of alternative neural

  13. Preterm Birth Results in Alterations in Neural Connectivity at Age 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Katherine M.; Vohr, Betty R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan R.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    Very low birth weight preterm (PT) children are at high risk for brain injury. Employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we tested the hypothesis that PT adolescents would demonstrate microstructural white matter disorganization relative to term controls at 16 years of age. Forty-four PT subjects (600 - 1250 grams birth weight) without neonatal brain injury and 41 term controls were evaluated at age 16 years with DTI, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT), and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). PT subjects scored lower than term subjects on WISC full scale (p = 0.003), verbal (p = 0.043), and performance IQ tests (p = 0.001), as well as CTOPP phonological awareness (p = 0.004), but scored comparably to term subjects on PPVT and CTOPP Rapid Naming tests. PT subjects had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple regions including bilateral uncinate fasciculi (left: p = 0.01; right: p = 0.004), bilateral external capsules (left: p < 0.001; right: p < 0.001), the splenium of the corpus callosum (p = 0.008), and white matter serving the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally (left: p < 0.001; right: p = 0.011). FA values in both the left and right uncinate fasciculi correlated with PPVT scores (a semantic language task) in the PT subjects (left: r = 0.314, p = 0.038; right: r = 0.336, p = 0.026). FA values in the left and right arcuate fasciculi correlated with CTOPP Rapid Naming scores (a phonologic task) in the PT subjects (left: r = 0.424, p = 0.004; right: r = 0.301, p = 0.047). These data support for the first time that dual pathways underlying language function are present in PT adolescents. The striking bilateral dorsal correlations for the PT group suggest that prematurely born subjects rely more heavily on the right hemisphere than typically developing adults for performance of phonological language tasks. These findings may represent either a delay in

  14. Timing matters: age-related changes in episodic retrieval control as revealed by event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Sprondel, Volker; Kipp, Kerstin H; Mecklinger, Axel

    2013-11-06

    The retrieval of information from episodic memory involves the engagement of pre-retrieval control processes that facilitate the recovery of task-relevant information. The development of these processes was investigated here by comparing neural correlates of retrieval orientation between 13-14-year-old adolescents and young adults. In each age group, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by new test pictures were contrasted across two recognition memory tasks (specific vs. general retrieval tasks), which were designed to place greater demands on the recovery of perceptual information associated with each picture in the specific than in the general task. Memory accuracy was higher in the general than in the specific task but did not differ between age groups. In adults, new item ERPs at anterior sites were more positive going in the specific than in the general task from 400 to 1,200 ms. In adolescents, the onset latency of this effect was delayed by 300 ms relative to adults, even though no age differences in response speed were obtained in either task. The magnitude of the ERP new item effect in adults correlated with response accuracy, consistent with the view that pre-retrieval processes facilitate the recovery of task-relevant information. For adolescents, this relationship was only obtained for a subset of participants with early onsetting ERP effects, supporting the claim that the influence of pre-retrieval processes depends upon their temporal onset. Together, the findings suggest age-related changes in the efficiency of using control processes to facilitate successful retrieval while highlighting the role of onset latency in mediating these changes.

  15. Influence of age on Salvia divinorum use: results of an Internet survey.

    PubMed

    Nyi, Pearl P; Lai, Emily P; Lee, Diana Y; Biglete, Shannon A; Torrecer, Gilsky I; Anderson, Ilene B

    2010-09-01

    An Internet-based survey of Salvia divinorum ("salvia") users was conducted to identify correlates surrounding its use. Salvia-knowledgeable persons were recruited via "social networking Internet websites" (n = 23) where notices were posted on recreational salvia group message boards (n = 69). Data collection included demographics, use circumstances, experiences, and age (current and at first salvia use). A total of 219 surveys were analyzed. Salvia users who were young adults (< or = 21 yrs) at first use favored salvia for fun (OR = 1.94, CI = 1.08-3.49, p = 0.03) or to relieve boredom (OR = 2.06 CI = 1.09-3.91, p = 0.02), while salvia users who were adults (> or = 22 yrs) at first use favored salvia for spiritual effects (OR = 2.63, CI = 1.02-6.75, p = 0.04). Being an adult at first use was associated with higher odds of concurrent marijuana (OR = 2.68, CI = 1.50-4.78, p = 0.0007) or tobacco use (OR = 1.94, CI = 1.05-3.60, p = 0.03). Over half of all respondents reported use reduction or cessation in the past 12 months (114 of 219, 52%), citing dislike of the high (33.3%) or loss of interest in salvia (28.9%). Reports of cessation suggest salvia use may be more attributed to curiosity than continual abuse.

  16. Genetic variation in sex hormone genes influences heel ultrasound parameters in middle-aged and elderly men: results from the European Male Aging Study (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Limer, Kate L; Pye, Stephen R; Thomson, Wendy; Boonen, Steven; Borghs, Herman; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Platt, Hazel; Payne, Debbie; John, Sally L; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Wu, Frederick C; O'Neill, Terence W

    2009-02-01

    Genes involved in sex hormone pathways are candidates for influencing bone strength. Polymorphisms in these genes were tested for association with heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters in middle-aged and elderly European men. Men 40-79 yr of age were recruited from population registers in eight European centers for the European Male Aging Study (EMAS). Polymorphisms were genotyped in AR, ESR1, ESR2, CYP19A1, CYP17A1, SHBG, SRD5A2, LHB, and LHCGR. QUS parameters broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) were measured in the heel and used to derive BMD. The relationships between QUS parameters and polymorphisms were assessed using linear regression adjusting for age and center. A total of 2693 men, with a mean age of 60.1 +/- 11.1 (SD) yr were included in the analysis. Their mean BUA was 80.0 +/- 18.9 dB/Mhz, SOS was 1550.2 +/- 34.1 m/s, and BMD was 0.542 +/- 0.141 g/cm(2). Significant associations were observed between multiple SNPs in a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block within CYP19A1, peaking at the TCT indel with the deletion allele associating with reduced ultrasound BMD in heterozygotes (beta =-0.016, p = -0.005) and homozygotes (beta = -0.029, p = 0.001). The results for BUA and SOS were similar. Significant associations with QUS parameters were also observed for the CAG repeat in AR and SNPs in CYP17A1, LHCGR, and ESR1. Our data confirm evidence of association between bone QUS parameters and polymorphisms in CYP19A1, as well as modest associations with polymorphisms in CYP17A1, ESR1, LHCGR, and AR in a population sample of European men; this supports a role for genetically determined sex hormone actions in influencing male bone health.

  17. Association between Frailty, Osteoporosis, Falls and Hip Fractures among Community-Dwelling People Aged 50 Years and Older in Taiwan: Results from I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Kuo; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hwang, An-Chun; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2015-01-01

    Background Association of frailty with adverse clinical outcomes has been reported in Western countries, but data from the Asian population are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of frailty among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly population and to explore its association with musculoskeletal health in Taiwan. Methods I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study (ILAS) data were retrieved for this study. Frailty was defined by the Fried’s criteria; a comparison of demographic characteristics, physical performance, and body composition, including skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD), as well as recent falls, history of hip fractures and the functional status of subjects with different frailty statuses were accomplished. Results Overall, the data of 1,839 participants (mean age: 63.9±9.3 years, male 47.5%) were obtained for analysis. The prevalence of pre-frailty was 42.3% in men and 38.8% in women, whereas the prevalence of frailty was 6.9% and 6.7% in men and women, respectively. Frailty was significantly associated with older age, the male gender, larger waist circumference, lower skeletal muscle index, lower hip BMD, poorer physical function, poorer nutritional status, and poorer cognitive function. Also, frailty was significantly associated with osteoporosis (OR: 7.73, 95% CI: 5.01–11.90, p<0.001), history of hip fractures (OR: 8.66, 95% CI: 2.47–30.40, p = 0.001), and recent falls (O.R: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.35–4.76, p = 0.004). Conclusions Frailty and pre-frailty, in Taiwan, was closely associated with recent falls, history of hip fractures and osteoporosis among community-dwelling people 50 years of age and older. Furthermore, frailty intervention programs should take an integrated approach towards strengthening both and muscle mass, as well as prevention of falls. PMID:26348034

  18. Transcriptome-Wide Mapping of Pea Seed Ageing Reveals a Pivotal Role for Genes Related to Oxidative Stress and Programmed Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Colville, Louise; Lorenzo, Oscar; Graeber, Kai; Küster, Helge; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Kranner, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of seed ageing, which leads to viability loss during storage, is vital for ex situ plant conservation and agriculture alike. Yet the potential for regulation at the transcriptional level has not been fully investigated. Here, we studied the relationship between seed viability, gene expression and glutathione redox status during artificial ageing of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds. Transcriptome-wide analysis using microarrays was complemented with qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes and a multilevel analysis of the antioxidant glutathione. Partial degradation of DNA and RNA occurred from the onset of artificial ageing at 60% RH and 50°C, and transcriptome profiling showed that the expression of genes associated with programmed cell death, oxidative stress and protein ubiquitination were altered prior to any sign of viability loss. After 25 days of ageing viability started to decline in conjunction with progressively oxidising cellular conditions, as indicated by a shift of the glutathione redox state towards more positive values (>−190 mV). The unravelling of the molecular basis of seed ageing revealed that transcriptome reprogramming is a key component of the ageing process, which influences the progression of programmed cell death and decline in antioxidant capacity that ultimately lead to seed viability loss. PMID:24205239

  19. Genome-wide association mapping and biochemical markers reveal that seed ageing and longevity are intricately affected by genetic background and developmental and environmental conditions in barley.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Manuela; Kranner, Ilse; Neumann, Kerstin; Rolletschek, Hardy; Seal, Charlotte E; Colville, Louise; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Börner, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Globally, over 7.4 million accessions of crop seeds are stored in gene banks, and conservation of genotypic variation is pivotal for breeding. We combined genetic and biochemical approaches to obtain a broad overview of factors that influence seed storability and ageing in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Seeds from a germplasm collection of 175 genotypes from four continents grown in field plots with different nutrient supply were subjected to two artificial ageing regimes. Genome-wide association mapping revealed 107 marker trait associations, and hence, genotypic effects on seed ageing. Abiotic and biotic stresses were found to affect seed longevity. To address aspects of abiotic, including oxidative, stress, two major antioxidant groups were analysed. No correlation was found between seed deterioration and the lipid-soluble tocochromanols, nor with oil, starch and protein contents. Conversely, the water-soluble glutathione and related thiols were converted to disulphides, indicating a strong shift towards more oxidizing intracellular conditions, in seeds subjected to long-term dry storage at two temperatures or to two artificial ageing treatments. The data suggest that intracellular pH and (bio)chemical processes leading to seed deterioration were influenced by the type of ageing or storage. Moreover, seed response to ageing or storage treatment appears to be significantly influenced by both maternal environment and genetic background.

  20. Transcriptome-wide mapping of pea seed ageing reveals a pivotal role for genes related to oxidative stress and programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongying; Osuna, Daniel; Colville, Louise; Lorenzo, Oscar; Graeber, Kai; Küster, Helge; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Kranner, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of seed ageing, which leads to viability loss during storage, is vital for ex situ plant conservation and agriculture alike. Yet the potential for regulation at the transcriptional level has not been fully investigated. Here, we studied the relationship between seed viability, gene expression and glutathione redox status during artificial ageing of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds. Transcriptome-wide analysis using microarrays was complemented with qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes and a multilevel analysis of the antioxidant glutathione. Partial degradation of DNA and RNA occurred from the onset of artificial ageing at 60% RH and 50°C, and transcriptome profiling showed that the expression of genes associated with programmed cell death, oxidative stress and protein ubiquitination were altered prior to any sign of viability loss. After 25 days of ageing viability started to decline in conjunction with progressively oxidising cellular conditions, as indicated by a shift of the glutathione redox state towards more positive values (>-190 mV). The unravelling of the molecular basis of seed ageing revealed that transcriptome reprogramming is a key component of the ageing process, which influences the progression of programmed cell death and decline in antioxidant capacity that ultimately lead to seed viability loss.

  1. The relation of airway obstruction to asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis and age: results from a population survey of adults

    PubMed Central

    Obaseki, D; Potts, J; Joos, G; Baelum, J; Haahtela, T; Ahlström, M; Matricardi, P; Kramer, U; Gjomarkaj, M; Fokkens, W; Makowska, J; Todo-Bom, A; Toren, K; Janson, C; Dahlen, S-E; Forsberg, B; Jarvis, D; Howarth, P; Brozek, G; Minov, J; Bachert, C; Burney, P

    2014-01-01

    Rationale There is conflicting evidence on whether patients with asthma experience an accelerated decline in lung function with age. We examined the association between postbronchodilator lung function, asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and atopy with age using a large European sample. Methods In 17 centers in 11 European countries, case–control studies were nested within representative cross-sectional surveys of adults aged less than 75 years. Representative samples of participants with asthma, CRS or both and controls were assessed for postbronchodilator ventilatory function, smoking history, atopy, and treatment. Multiple regression was used to assess the interactive effects of age and diagnostic group on decline in postbronchodilator ventilatory function. Results A total of 3337 participants provided adequate data (778 with asthma, 399 with CRS, 244 with both asthma and CRS and 1916 controls who had neither asthma nor CRS). Participants with asthma had lower FEV1/FVC (−4.09% (95% CI: −5.02, −3.15, P < 0.001) and a steeper slope of FEV1/FVC against age (−0.14%/annum [95%CI: −0.19, −0.08]) equivalent to smoking 1–2 packs of cigarettes per day. Those with atopy had a slope equivalent to controls. Conclusions People with asthma have a steeper decline in postbronchodilator lung function with age, but neither CRS nor atopy alone were associated with such decline. PMID:24841074

  2. Age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, northeastern California—40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, Michael A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Champion, Duane E.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Sawlan, Michael G.; Downs, Drew T.

    2017-03-22

    The age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, California, was investigated using stratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and 40Ar/39Ar techniques. The three youngest volcanic lava flows at Eagle Lake yielded ages of 130.0±5.1, 127.5±3.2 and 123.6±18.7 ka, and are statistically indistinguishable. Paleomagnetic results demonstrate that two of the lava flows are very closely spaced in time, whereas the third is different by centuries to at most a few millennia. These results indicate that the basalt lava flows at Eagle Lake are not Holocene in age, and were erupted during an episode of volcanism at about 130–125 ka that is unlikely to have spanned more than a few thousand years. Thus, the short-term potential for subsequent volcanism at Eagle Lake is considered low. 

  3. Large geomagnetic field anomalies revealed in Bronze to Iron Age archeomagnetic data from Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, Ron; Tauxe, Lisa; Ron, Hagai; Ebert, Yael; Zuckerman, Sharon; Finkelstein, Israel; Agnon, Amotz

    2016-05-01

    Geomagnetic field measurements from the past few centuries show heightened secular variation activity in the southern hemisphere associated with the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). It is uncertain whether geomagnetic anomalies at a similar scale have existed in the past owing to limited coverage and uncertainties in the paleomagnetic database. Here we provide new evidence from archaeological sources in the Levant suggesting a large positive northern hemisphere anomaly, similar in magnitude to the SAA during the 9th-8th centuries BCE, called ;Levantine Iron Age anomaly;. We also report an additional geomagnetic spike in the 8th century. The new dataset comprises 73 high precision paleointensity estimates from ca. 3000 BCE to 732 BCE, and five directional measurements between the 14th and the 9th centuries BCE. Well-dated pottery and cooking ovens were collected from twenty archaeological strata in two large contemporaneous stratigraphical mounds (tells) in Israel: Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor. The new data are combined with previously published data and interpreted automatically using the PmagPy Thellier GUI program. The Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor data sets demonstrate excellent internal consistency and remarkable agreement with published data from Mesopotamia (Syria). The data illustrate the evolution of an extreme geomagnetic high that culminated in at least two spikes between the 11th and the 8th centuries BCE (Iron Age in the Levant). The paleomagnetic directional data of the 9th century BCE show positive inclination anomalies, and deviations of up to 22° from the averaged geocentric axial dipole (GAD) direction. From comparison of the Levantine archaeomagnetic data with IGRF model for 2015 we infer the ;Levantine Iron Age anomaly; between the 10th and the 8th centuries BCE is a local positive anomaly. The eastward extent of the anomaly is currently unknown.

  4. Genomewide analysis of Drosophila circular RNAs reveals their structural and sequence properties and age-dependent neural accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Westholm, Jakub O.; Miura, Pedro; Olson, Sara; Shenker, Sol; Joseph, Brian; Sanfilippo, Piero; Celniker, Susan E.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Lai, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Circularization was recently recognized to broadly expand transcriptome complexity. Here, we exploit massive Drosophila total RNA-sequencing data, >5 billion paired-end reads from >100 libraries covering diverse developmental stages, tissues and cultured cells, to rigorously annotate >2500 fruitfly circular RNAs. These mostly derive from back-splicing of protein-coding genes and lack poly(A) tails, and circularization of hundreds of genes is conserved across multiple Drosophila species. We elucidate structural and sequence properties of Drosophila circular RNAs, which exhibit commonalities and distinctions from mammalian circles. Notably, Drosophila circular RNAs harbor >1000 well-conserved canonical miRNA seed matches, especially within coding regions, and coding conserved miRNA sites reside preferentially within circularized exons. Finally, we analyze the developmental and tissue specificity of circular RNAs, and note their preferred derivation from neural genes and enhanced accumulation in neural tissues. Interestingly, circular isoforms increase dramatically relative to linear isoforms during CNS aging, and constitute a novel aging biomarker. PMID:25544350

  5. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  6. Age and evolution of the Grand Canyon revealed by U-Pb dating of water table-type speleothems.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Victor; Hill, Carol; Asmerom, Yemane

    2008-03-07

    The age and evolution of the Grand Canyon have been subjects of great interest and debate since its discovery. We found that cave mammillaries (water table indicator speleothems) from nine sites in the Grand Canyon showed uranium-lead dating evidence for an old western Grand Canyon on the assumption that groundwater table decline rates are equivalent to incision rates. Samples in the western Grand Canyon yielded apparent water table decline rates of 55 to 123 meters per million years over the past 17 million years, in contrast to eastern Grand Canyon samples that yielded much faster rates (166 to 411 meters per million years). Chronology and inferred incision data indicate that the Grand Canyon evolved via headward erosion from west to east, together with late-stage ( approximately 3.7 million years ago) accelerated incision in the eastern block.

  7. Can heavy isotopes increase lifespan? Studies of relative abundance in various organisms reveal chemical perspectives on aging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Stable heavy isotopes co‐exist with their lighter counterparts in all elements commonly found in biology. These heavy isotopes represent a low natural abundance in isotopic composition but impose great retardation effects in chemical reactions because of kinetic isotopic effects (KIEs). Previous isotope analyses have recorded pervasive enrichment or depletion of heavy isotopes in various organisms, strongly supporting the capability of biological systems to distinguish different isotopes. This capability has recently been found to lead to general decline of heavy isotopes in metabolites during yeast aging. Conversely, supplementing heavy isotopes in growth medium promotes longevity. Whether this observation prevails in other organisms is not known, but it potentially bears promise in promoting human longevity. PMID:27554342

  8. Mössbauer Spectra of Mouse Hearts reveal age-dependent changes in mitochondrial and ferritin iron levels.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Joshua D; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Lindahl, Paul Alan

    2017-02-15

    Cardiac function requires continuous high levels of energy, and so iron, a critical player in mitochondrial respiration, is an important component of the heart. Hearts from (57)Fe-enriched mice were evaluated by Mossbauer spectroscopy. Spectra consisted of a sextet and two quadrupole doublets. One doublet was due to residual blood while the other was due to [Fe4S4](2+) clusters and Fe(II) hemes, most of which were associated with mitochondrial respiration. The sextet was due to ferritin; there was no evidence of hemosiderin, a ferritin decomposition product. Iron from ferritin was nearly absent in young hearts, but increased steadily with age. EPR spectra exhibited signals similar to those of brain, liver, and human cells. No age-dependent EPR trends were apparent. Hearts from HFE(-/-) mice with hemochromatosis contained slightly more iron overall than controls, including more ferritin and less mitochondrial iron; these differences typify slightly older hearts, perhaps reflecting the burden due to this disease. HFE(-/-) livers were overloaded with ferritin but had low mitochondrial iron levels. IRP2(-/-) hearts contained less ferritin than controls but normal levels of mitochondrial iron. Hearts of young mice born to an iron-deficient mother contained normal levels of mitochondrial iron and no ferritin; the mothers heart contained low ferritin and normal levels of mitochondrial iron. High-spin Fe(II) ions were nearly undetectable in heart samples; these were evident in brains, livers, and human cells. Previous Mossbauer spectra of unenriched diseased human hearts lacked mitochondrial and blood doublets, and included hemosiderin features. This suggests degradation of iron-containing species during sample preparation.

  9. IODP Expedition 325: Great Barrier Reefs Reveals Past Sea-Level, Climate and Environmental Changes Since the Last Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Webster, J. M.; Cotterill, C.; Braga, J. C.; Jovane, L.; Mills, H.; Morgan, S.; Suzuki, A.; IODP Expedition 325 Scientists, the

    2011-09-01

    The timing and courses of deglaciations are key components in understanding the global climate system. Cyclic changes in global climate have occurred, with growth and decay of high latitude ice sheets, for the last two million years. It is believed that these fluctuations are mainly controlled by periodic changes to incoming solar radiation due to the changes in Earth's orbit around the sun. However, not all climate variations can be explained by this process, and there is the growing awareness of the important role of internal climate feedback mechanisms. Understanding the nature of these feedbacks with regard to the timing of abrupt global sea-level and climate changes is of prime importance. The tropical ocean is one of the major components of the feedback system, and hence reconstructions of temporal variations in sea-surface conditions will greatly improve our understanding of the climate system. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 325 drilled 34 holes across 17 sites in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia to recover fossil coral reef deposits. The main aim of the expedition was to understand the environmental changes that occurred during the last ice age and subsequent deglaciation, and more specifically (1) establish the course of sea-level change, (2) reconstruct the oceanographic conditions, and (3) determine the response of the reef to these changes. We recovered coral reef deposits from water depths down to 126 m that ranged in age from 9,000 years to older than 30,000 years ago. Given that the interval of the dated materials covers several paleoclimatologically important events, including the Last Glacial Maximum, we expect that ongoing scientific analyses will fulfill the objectives of the expedition. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.12.04.2011

  10. A comparison of zircon U-Pb age results of the Red Clay sequence on the central Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Hujun; Nie, Junsheng; Wang, Zhao; Peng, Wenbin; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yunxiang

    2016-08-01

    Single grain zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated great potentials in extracting tectonic and atmospheric circulation signal carried by aeolian, fluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments. A routine in this sort of studies is analyzing 100–150 grains and then compares zircon U-Pb age spectra between the measured sample and the potential sources. Here we compared the zircon U-Pb age results of the late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence of two neighboring sites from the Chinese Loess Plateau where similar provenance signal is expected. Although the results from the 5.5 Ma sediment support this prediction, the results from the 3 Ma sediment at these two sites differ from each other significantly. These results emphasize the importance of increasing analysis number per sample and combining the zircon U-Pb geochronology with other provenance tools in order to get reliable provenance information.

  11. A comparison of zircon U-Pb age results of the Red Clay sequence on the central Chinese Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hujun; Nie, Junsheng; Wang, Zhao; Peng, Wenbin; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yunxiang

    2016-08-19

    Single grain zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated great potentials in extracting tectonic and atmospheric circulation signal carried by aeolian, fluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments. A routine in this sort of studies is analyzing 100-150 grains and then compares zircon U-Pb age spectra between the measured sample and the potential sources. Here we compared the zircon U-Pb age results of the late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence of two neighboring sites from the Chinese Loess Plateau where similar provenance signal is expected. Although the results from the 5.5 Ma sediment support this prediction, the results from the 3 Ma sediment at these two sites differ from each other significantly. These results emphasize the importance of increasing analysis number per sample and combining the zircon U-Pb geochronology with other provenance tools in order to get reliable provenance information.

  12. A comparison of zircon U-Pb age results of the Red Clay sequence on the central Chinese Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Hujun; Nie, Junsheng; Wang, Zhao; Peng, Wenbin; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Single grain zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated great potentials in extracting tectonic and atmospheric circulation signal carried by aeolian, fluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments. A routine in this sort of studies is analyzing 100–150 grains and then compares zircon U-Pb age spectra between the measured sample and the potential sources. Here we compared the zircon U-Pb age results of the late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence of two neighboring sites from the Chinese Loess Plateau where similar provenance signal is expected. Although the results from the 5.5 Ma sediment support this prediction, the results from the 3 Ma sediment at these two sites differ from each other significantly. These results emphasize the importance of increasing analysis number per sample and combining the zircon U-Pb geochronology with other provenance tools in order to get reliable provenance information. PMID:27538343

  13. Refined modeling and 14C plateau tuning reveal consistent patterns of glacial and deglacial 14C reservoir ages of surface waters in low-latitude Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmer, Sven; Sarnthein, Michael; Mudelsee, Manfred; Grootes, Pieter M.

    2016-08-01

    Modeling studies predict that changes in radiocarbon (14C) reservoir ages of surface waters during the last deglacial episode will reflect changes in both atmospheric 14C concentration and ocean circulation including the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Tests of these models require the availability of accurate 14C reservoir ages in well-dated late Quaternary time series. We here test two models using plateau-tuned 14C time series in multiple well-placed sediment core age-depth sequences throughout the lower latitudes of the Atlantic Ocean. 14C age plateau tuning in glacial and deglacial sequences provides accurate calendar year ages that differ by as much as 500-2500 years from those based on assumed global reservoir ages around 400 years. This study demonstrates increases in local Atlantic surface reservoir ages of up to 1000 years during the Last Glacial Maximum, ages that reflect stronger trades off Benguela and summer winds off southern Brazil. By contrast, surface water reservoir ages remained close to zero in the Cariaco Basin in the southern Caribbean due to lagoon-style isolation and persistently strong atmospheric CO2 exchange. Later, during the early deglacial (16 ka) reservoir ages decreased to a minimum of 170-420 14C years throughout the South Atlantic, likely in response to the rapid rise in atmospheric pCO2 and Antarctic temperatures occurring then. Changes in magnitude and geographic distribution of 14C reservoir ages of peak glacial and deglacial surface waters deviate from the results of Franke et al. (2008) but are generally consistent with those of the more advanced ocean circulation model of Butzin et al. (2012).

  14. Aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests of Class 1E electrical cables: Summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1991-12-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approx_equal} 100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approx_equal}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approx_equal}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, were also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of the tests indicate that the feasibility of life extension of many popular nuclear power plant cable products is promising and that mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) were more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials. This paper presents some recent experimental data that are not yet available elsewhere and a summary of findings from the entire experimental program.

  15. Aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests of Class 1E electrical cables: Summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approx equal} 100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approx equal}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approx equal}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, were also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of the tests indicate that the feasibility of life extension of many popular nuclear power plant cable products is promising and that mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) were more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials. This paper presents some recent experimental data that are not yet available elsewhere and a summary of findings from the entire experimental program.

  16. Sedimentation processes and new age constraints on rifting stages in Lake Baikal: results of deep-water drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, M. I.; Karabanov, E. B.; Prokopenko, A. A.; Gelety, V. F.; Antipin, V. S.; Williams, D. F.; Gvozdkov, A. N.

    With this paper we present a first attempt to combine the direct results on lithology, composition and age dating in the boreholes BDP-93, BDP-96 and BDP-97 with geological and seismic data from the areas where those sections were drilled. The sedimentary environments represented by the BDP boreholes are markedly different and possess characteristic lithological features. The results of the deep drilling provide the essential means for testing numerous age models used in geological reconstructions of the Lake Baikal rifting dynamics. Neither the basin-wide unconformity interpreted from seismic data, nor the interpreted change from shallow-water to deep-water facies at the boundary of the seismic stratigraphic complexes were found in the BDP-96 boreholes on Academician Ridge. Also, lithology does not support the proposed reconstructions of intense lake level fluctuations and transgressions during the Pliocene at Academician Ridge. The continuous deep-water hemipelagic sedimentation at Academician Ridge has existed for the past 5Ma. The beginning of an intense rifting phase of the Neobaikalian sub-stage and related drastic changes in sedimentation processes were interpreted on seismic sections as the basin-wide unconformity B10. Different age estimates for this boundary ranged from Late Pliocene (3.5Ma) to Plio-Pleistocene boundary. As shown by BDP-96 borehole, B10 is associated with a lithological change from diatomaceous ooze to dense silty clay and not with an erosional contact. The new age for this boundary in BDP-96 is approximately 2.5Ma. This new age constraint suggests that the upper sedimentary strata of Northern Baikal (1.5-1.7km thick) have formed during the past 2.5Ma with average sedimentation rates of 60-70cm/ka. The BDP-93 boreholes at Buguldeika suggest that uplift in Primorsky Range took place prior to 1.07-1.31Ma, a date which exceeds the age of previous geological models.

  17. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  18. Periodic inspection on crop sprayers: results according to age of sprayers.

    PubMed

    Antuniassi, Ulisses R; Gandolfo, Marco A

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the IPP Project--Periodic Inspection on Crop Sprayers--are to develop methods for sprayer certification, analyze quality on spray operation, propose an inspection system for crop sprayers in Brazil, improve environmental quality on spray operation, and reduce costs on chemical control for plant protection systems. Periodic inspections on crop sprayers are performed in several countries and are compulsory in most of them, and it is becoming an important tool for improvement and optimization of use of chemicals. The IPP Project in Brazil is funded by FAPESP--Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo. The results so far showed that all the sprayers presented failures. However, most of them could be approved with minor services. As an example, 56.6% of the sprayers with more than 2 years of use presented leaks, 47% of them had damaged hoses and 80.5% presented bad tips (nozzles). These results indicate the need for better procedures of use and maintenance of sprayers, justifying the periodic inspection system.

  19. Age Effects in L2 Grammar Processing as Revealed by ERPs and How (Not) to Study Them.

    PubMed

    Meulman, Nienke; Wieling, Martijn; Sprenger, Simone A; Stowe, Laurie A; Schmid, Monika S

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effect of age of acquisition (AoA) on grammatical processing in second language learners as measured by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We compare a traditional analysis involving the calculation of averages across a certain time window of the ERP waveform, analyzed with categorical groups (early vs. late), with a generalized additive modeling analysis, which allows us to take into account the full range of variability in both AoA and time. Sixty-six Slavic advanced learners of German listened to German sentences with correct and incorrect use of non-finite verbs and grammatical gender agreement. We show that the ERP signal depends on the AoA of the learner, as well as on the regularity of the structure under investigation. For gender agreement, a gradual change in processing strategies can be shown that varies by AoA, with younger learners showing a P600 and older learners showing a posterior negativity. For verb agreement, all learners show a P600 effect, irrespective of AoA. Based on their behavioral responses in an offline grammaticality judgment task, we argue that the late learners resort to computationally less efficient processing strategies when confronted with (lexically determined) syntactic constructions different from the L1. In addition, this study highlights the insights the explicit focus on the time course of the ERP signal in our analysis framework can offer compared to the traditional analysis.

  20. Pathway activation profiling reveals new insights into age-related macular degeneration and provides avenues for therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Makarev, Evgeny; Cantor, Charles; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton; Aliper, Alexander; Csoka, Anotonei Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in older people and is caused by loss of the central region of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Conventional methods of gene expression analysis have yielded important insights into AMD pathogenesis, but the precise molecular pathway alterations are still poorly understood. Therefore we developed a new software program, "AMD Medicine", and discovered differential pathway activation profiles in samples of human RPE/choroid from AMD patients and controls. We identified 29 pathways in RPE-choroid AMD phenotypes: 27 pathways were activated in AMD compared to controls, and 2 pathways were activated in controls compared to AMD. In AMD, we identified a graded activation of pathways related to wound response, complement cascade, and cell survival. Also, there was downregulation of two pathways responsible for apoptosis. Furthermore, significant activation of pro-mitotic pathways is consistent with dedifferentiation and cell proliferation events, which occur early in the pathogenesis of AMD. Significantly, we discovered new global pathway activation signatures of AMD involved in the cell-based inflammatory response: IL-2, STAT3, and ERK. The ultimate aim of our research is to achieve a better understanding of signaling pathways involved in AMD pathology, which will eventually lead to better treatments.

  1. Dual-color STED microscopy reveals a sandwich structure of Bassoon and Piccolo in active zones of adult and aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Nishimune, Hiroshi; Badawi, Yomna; Mori, Shuuichi; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Presynaptic active zones play a pivotal role as synaptic vesicle release sites for synaptic transmission, but the molecular architecture of active zones in mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) at sub-diffraction limited resolution remains unknown. Bassoon and Piccolo are active zone specific cytosolic proteins essential for active zone assembly in NMJs, ribbon synapses, and brain synapses. These proteins are thought to colocalize and share some functions at active zones. Here, we report an unexpected finding of non-overlapping localization of these two proteins in mouse NMJs revealed using dual-color stimulated emission depletion (STED) super resolution microscopy. Piccolo puncta sandwiched Bassoon puncta and aligned in a Piccolo-Bassoon-Piccolo structure in adult NMJs. P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) puncta colocalized with Bassoon puncta. The P/Q-type VGCC and Bassoon protein levels decreased significantly in NMJs from aged mouse. In contrast, the Piccolo levels in NMJs from aged mice were comparable to levels in adult mice. This study revealed the molecular architecture of active zones in mouse NMJs at sub-diffraction limited resolution, and described the selective degeneration mechanism of active zone proteins in NMJs from aged mice. Interestingly, the localization pattern of active zone proteins described herein is similar to active zone structures described using electron microscope tomography. PMID:27321892

  2. Self-perceptions of aging predict mortality and change with approaching death: 16-year longitudinal results from the Berlin Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Kotter-Grühn, Dana; Kleinspehn-Ammerlahn, Anna; Gerstorf, Denis; Smith, Jacqui

    2009-09-01

    Satisfaction with one's own aging and feeling young are indicators of positive well-being in late life. Using 16-year longitudinal data from participants of the Berlin Aging Study (P. B. Baltes & K. U. Mayer, 1999; N = 439; 70- to 100-year-olds), the authors examined whether and how these self-perceptions of aging change with age and how such changes relate to distance from death. Extending previous studies, they found that it is not only higher aging satisfaction and younger subjective age but also more favorable change patterns (e.g., less decline in aging satisfaction) that are uniquely associated with lower mortality hazards. These effects are robust after controls for objective measures such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, diagnosis of dementia, or number of illnesses. As individuals approach death, they become less satisfied with their aging and report feeling older. For aging satisfaction, mortality-related decline is much steeper than age-related decline, whereas change in subjective age is best characterized as an age-related process. The authors discuss how self-perceptions of aging are embedded in mechanisms underlying pathways of dying late in life.

  3. Metabolomic analyses reveal that anti-aging metabolites are depleted by palmitate but increased by oleate in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Enot, David P.; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Durand, Sylvère; Chery, Alexis; Pietrocola, Federico; Vacchelli, Erika; Madeo, Frank; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids trigger autophagy through distinct signal transduction pathways. Saturated fatty acids like palmitate (PA) induce autophagic responses that rely on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 3 (PIK3C3, best known as VPS34) and beclin 1 (BECN1). Conversely, unsaturated fatty acids like oleate (OL) promote non-canonical, PIK3C3- and BECN1-independent autophagy. Here, we explored the metabolic effects of autophagy-inducing doses of PA and OL in mice. Mass spectrometry coupled to principal component analysis revealed that PA and OL induce well distinguishable changes in circulating metabolites as well as in the metabolic profile of the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. Importantly, PA (but not OL) causes the depletion of multiple autophagy-inhibitory amino acids in the liver. Conversely, OL (but not PA) increased the hepatic levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an obligate co-factor for autophagy-stimulatory enzymes of the sirtuin family. Moreover, PA (but not OL) raised the concentrations of acyl-carnitines in the heart, a phenomenon that perhaps is linked to its cardiotoxicity. PA also depleted the liver from spermine and spermidine, 2 polyamines have been ascribed with lifespan-extending activity. The metabolic changes imposed by unsaturated and saturated fatty acids may contribute to their health-promoting and health-deteriorating effects, respectively. PMID:26098646

  4. The free-radical theory of ageing--older, wiser and still alive: modelling positional effects of the primary targets of ROS reveals new support.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Kowald, Axel

    2012-08-01

    The continuing viability of the free-radical theory of ageing has been questioned following apparently incompatible recent results. We show by modelling positional effects of the generation and primary targets of reactive oxygen species that many of the apparently negative results are likely to be misleading. We conclude that there is instead a need to look more closely at the mechanisms by which free radicals contribute to age-related dysfunction in living systems. There also needs to be deeper understanding of the dynamics of accumulation and removal of the various kinds of molecular damage, in particular mtDNA mutations. Finally, the expectation that free-radical damage on its own might cause ageing needs to be relinquished in favour of the recognition that the free-radical theory is just one of the multiple mechanisms driving the ageing process.

  5. Neighborhood Physical Disorder, Social Cohesion and Insomnia: Results from Participants Over Age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P.; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Augustinavicius, Jura L.; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Wennberg, Alexandra M. V.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    Background We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g., vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g., friendliness of people, availability of help when needed); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, feeling unrested). Results After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR)=1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.14), waking too early (OR=1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.02–1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11) and feeling unrested (OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). Conclusions Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population. PMID:25222023

  6. Neighborhood physical disorder, social cohesion, and insomnia: results from participants over age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Augustinavicius, Jura L; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M; Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Smith, Michael T; Spira, Adam P

    2014-09-15

    ABSTRACT Background: We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods: Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g. vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, and cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g. friendliness of people, availability of help when needed, etc.); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, and feeling unrested). Results: After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.14), waking too early (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 years (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and feeling unrested (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15). Conclusions: Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population.

  7. Chronic neck and shoulder pain, age, and working conditions: longitudinal results from a large random sample in France

    PubMed Central

    Cassou, B; Derriennic, F; Monfort, C; Norton, J; Touranchet, A

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To analyse the effects of age and occupational factors on both the incidence and the disappearance of chronic neck and shoulder pain after a five year follow up period. Methods: A prospective longitudinal investigation (ESTEV) was carried out in 1990 and 1995 in seven regions of France. A random sample of male and female workers born in 1938, 1943, 1948, and 1953 was selected from the occupational physicians' files. In 1990, 21 378 subjects were interviewed (88% of those contacted), and 87% were interviewed again in 1995. Chronic neck and shoulder pain satisfying specific criteria, and psychosocial working conditions were investigated by a structured self administered questionnaire and a clinical examination. Results: Prevalence (men 7.8%, women 14.8% in 1990) and incidence (men 7.3%, women 12.5% for the period 1990–95) of chronic neck and shoulder pain increased with age, and were more frequent among women than men in every birth cohort. The disappearance rate of chronic neck and shoulder pain decreased with age. Some adverse working conditions (repetitive work under time constraints, awkward work for men, repetitive work for women) contributed to the development of these disorders, independently of age. Psychosocial factors seemed to play a role in both the development and disappearance of chronic neck and shoulder pain. Data did not show specific interactions between age and working conditions. Conclusions: The aging of the workforce appears to contribute to the widespread concern about chronic neck and shoulder pain. A better understanding of work activity regulation of older workers can open up new preventive prospects. PMID:12151610

  8. Influence of social support on cognitive change and mortality in old age: results from the prospective multicentre cohort study AgeCoDe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support has been suggested to positively influence cognition and mortality in old age. However, this suggestion has been questioned due to inconsistent operationalisations of social support among studies and the small number of longitudinal studies available. This study aims to investigate the influence of perceived social support, understood as the emotional component of social support, on cognition and mortality in old age as part of a prospective longitudinal multicentre study in Germany. Methods A national subsample of 2,367 primary care patients was assessed twice over an observation period of 18 months regarding the influence of social support on cognitive function and mortality. Perceived social support was assessed using the 14-item version of the FSozU, which is a standardised and validated questionnaire of social support. Cognition was tested by the neuropsychological test battery of the Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia (SIDAM). The influence of perceived support on cognitive change was analysed by multivariate ANCOVA; mortality was analysed by multivariate logistic and cox regression. Results Sample cognitive change (N = 1,869): Mean age was 82.4 years (SD 3.3) at the beginning of the observation period, 65.9% were female, mean cognition was 49 (SD 4.4) in the SIDAM. Over the observation period cognitive function declined in 47.2% by a mean of 3.4 points. Sample mortality (N = 2,367): Mean age was 82.5 years (SD 3.4), 65.7% were female and 185 patients died during the observation period. Perceived social support showed no longitudinal association with cognitive change (F = 2.235; p = 0.135) and mortality (p = 0.332; CI 0.829-1.743). Conclusions Perceived social support did not influence cognition and mortality over an 18 months observation period. However, previous studies using different operationalisations of social support and longer observation periods indicate that such an influence may exist. This influence is

  9. Analysis of Ankyrin Repeats Reveals How a Single Point Mutation in RFXANK Results in Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nekrep, Nada; Geyer, Matthias; Jabrane-Ferrat, Nabila; Peterlin, B. Matija

    2001-01-01

    Ankyrin repeats are well-known structural modules that mediate interactions between a wide spectrum of proteins. The regulatory factor X with ankyrin repeats (RFXANK) is a subunit of a tripartite RFX complex that assembles on promoters of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) genes. Although it is known that RFXANK plays a central role in the nucleation of RFX, it was not clear how its ankyrin repeats mediate the interactions within the complex and with other proteins. To answer this question, we modeled the RFXANK protein and determined the variable residues of the ankyrin repeats that should contact other proteins. Site-directed alanine mutagenesis of these residues together with in vitro and in vivo binding studies elucidated how RFXAP and CIITA, which simultaneously interact with RFXANK in vivo, bind to two opposite faces of its ankyrin repeats. Moreover, the binding of RFXAP requires two separate surfaces on RFXANK. One of them, which is located in the ankyrin groove, is severely affected in the FZA patient with the bare lymphocyte syndrome. This genetic disease blocks the expression of MHC II molecules on the surface of B cells. By pinpointing the interacting residues of the ankyrin repeats of RFXANK, the mechanism of this subtype of severe combined immunodeficiency was revealed. PMID:11463838

  10. Effects of sex and proficiency in second language processing as revealed by a large-scale fNIRS study of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Lisa; Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Katura, Takusige; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2015-10-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies in adults have revealed that first and second languages (L1/L2) share similar neural substrates, and that proficiency is a major determinant of the neural organization of L2 in the lexical-semantic and syntactic domains. However, little is known about neural substrates of children in the phonological domain, or about sex differences. Here, we conducted a large-scale study (n = 484) of school-aged children using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and a word repetition task, which requires a great extent of phonological processing. We investigated cortical activation during word processing, emphasizing sex differences, to clarify similarities and differences between L1 and L2, and proficiency-related differences during early L2 learning. L1 and L2 shared similar neural substrates with decreased activation in L2 compared to L1 in the posterior superior/middle temporal and angular/supramarginal gyri for both sexes. Significant sex differences were found in cortical activation within language areas during high-frequency word but not during low-frequency word processing. During high-frequency word processing, widely distributed areas including the angular/supramarginal gyri were activated in boys, while more restricted areas, excluding the angular/supramarginal gyri were activated in girls. Significant sex differences were also found in L2 proficiency-related activation: activation significantly increased with proficiency in boys, whereas no proficiency-related differences were found in girls. Importantly, cortical sex differences emerged with proficiency. Based on previous research, the present results indicate that sex differences are acquired or enlarged during language development through different cognitive strategies between sexes, possibly reflecting their different memory functions.

  11. Tephrochronology and Paleomagnetism in the Northwest Wall of Kilauea Caldera, Hawai`i, Reveal the Age of the Observatory Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, T.; Fiske, R.; Swanson, D.; Champion, D.; McGeehin, J.

    2002-12-01

    Chemical analysis of tephra in the northwest wall of Kilauea's caldera, and paleomagnetism of associated lava flows, allow correlation to more distal tephra and flows of known C-14 age. This correlation shows that the Observatory shield-the shield that existed before the modern caldera formed about 500 ka-must be considerably younger than previously considered. We dug a pit through a mantle of scree to exhume a 2.2-m-thick section of tephra about one-third of the way up the caldera wall. A distinct color change divides the tephra section into upper and lower parts. Glassy ash and lapilli from just below the color change have unusually high TiO2 and K2O contents (3.1 and 0.75 wt. percent, respectively) recognized at more than 30 localities in the 1.3 to 1.1 ka Kulanaokuaiki tephra south, west, and north of the summit. The paleomagnetism of lava flows beneath the exhumed tephra is equivalent to that of the Kipuka Nene flows, which underlie complete sections of Kulanaokuaiki tephra southeast of the caldera. Tephra in another exposure, at the base of the caldera wall several hundred meters northeast of the pit, consists only of beds above the high Ti-K ash. That ash, and tephra below, are apparently buried beneath a flow that is interlayered with the tephra. The exposed upper part of this flow has the same paleomagnetic direction as the Hope`o (Hornet kipuka) flow, which occurs between the upper and lower Kulanaokuaiki tephra 6 km south of the summit. The flow immediately overlying the upper part of the tephra correlates magnetically with the 1.0 ka Old Kalue flows, which directly overlie complete sections of Kulanaokuaiki tephra on Kilauea's south flank. Flows making up the upper ~30 m of the caldera wall correlate magnetically with the 0.6-0.8 ka Young Kalu`e, Ahua, Lua Manu, and Observatory lava flows that blanket wide areas around the caldera, in the Koa`e fault system, and on the south flank. We conclude that the tephra in the caldera wall, considered by some as

  12. Muscleblind-like 3 deficit results in a spectrum of age-associated pathologies observed in myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jongkyu; Dixon, Donald M.; Dansithong, Warunee; Abdallah, Walid F.; Roos, Kenneth P.; Jordan, Maria C.; Trac, Brandon; Lee, Han Shin; Comai, Lucio; Reddy, Sita

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) exhibits distinctive disease specific phenotypes and the accelerated onset of a spectrum of age-associated pathologies. In DM1, dominant effects of expanded CUG repeats result in part from the inactivation of the muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins. To test the role of MBNL3, we deleted Mbnl3 exon 2 (Mbnl3ΔE2) in mice and examined the onset of age-associated diseases over 4 to 13 months of age. Accelerated onset of glucose intolerance with elevated insulin levels, cardiac systole deficits, left ventricle hypertrophy, a predictor of a later onset of heart failure and the development of subcapsular and cortical cataracts is observed in Mbnl3ΔE2 mice. Retention of embryonic splice isoforms in adult organs, a prominent defect in DM1, is not observed in multiple RNAs including the Insulin Receptor (Insr), Cardiac Troponin T (Tnnt2), Lim Domain Binding 3 (Ldb3) RNAs in Mbnl3ΔE2 mice. Although rare DM1-like splice errors underlying the observed phenotypes cannot be excluded, our data in conjunction with the reported absence of alternative splice errors in embryonic muscles of a similar Mbnl3ΔE2 mouse by RNA-seq studies, suggest that mechanisms distinct from the adult retention of embryonic splice patterns may make important contributions to the onset of age-associated pathologies in DM1. PMID:27484195

  13. Age-related profiling of DNA methylation in CD8+ T cells reveals changes in immune response and transcriptional regulator genes

    PubMed Central

    Tserel, Liina; Kolde, Raivo; Limbach, Maia; Tretyakov, Konstantin; Kasela, Silva; Kisand, Kai; Saare, Mario; Vilo, Jaak; Metspalu, Andres; Milani, Lili; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-01-01

    Human ageing affects the immune system resulting in an overall decline in immunocompetence. Although all immune cells are affected during aging, the functional capacity of T cells is most influenced and is linked to decreased responsiveness to infections and impaired differentiation. We studied age-related changes in DNA methylation and gene expression in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from younger and older individuals. We observed marked difference between T cell subsets, with increased number of methylation changes and higher methylome variation in CD8+ T cells with age. The majority of age-related hypermethylated sites were located at CpG islands of silent genes and enriched for repressive histone marks. Specifically, in CD8+ T cell subset we identified strong inverse correlation between methylation and expression levels in genes associated with T cell mediated immune response (LGALS1, IFNG, CCL5, GZMH, CCR7, CD27 and CD248) and differentiation (SATB1, TCF7, BCL11B and RUNX3). Our results thus suggest the link between age-related epigenetic changes and impaired T cell function. PMID:26286994

  14. EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS FROM ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR ON ROTATOR CUFF INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS UNDER 50 YEARS OF AGE

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Santos, Ruy Mesquita Maranhão; de Souza, Adriano; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries among patients under 50 years of age. Methods: Sixty-three patients with rotator cuff injuries who underwent arthroscopic surgical treatment performed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in the Fernandinho Simonsen wing of Santa Casa Medical School, São Paulo, between August 1998 and December 2007, were reassessed. The study included all patients with rotator cuff injuries who were under 50 years of age and had been followed up postoperatively for at least 24 months. Results: According to the UCLA evaluation criteria, 59 patients (92%) showed excellent and good results; five (8%) showed fair results; and none showed poor results. The postoperative evaluation showed that the mean range of motion was 145° for elevation, 47° for lateral rotation and T10 for medial rotation. Unsatisfactory results were associated with prolonged duration of the injury, with a statistically significant relationship. Conclusion: Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff injuries in young patients produces excellent or good results for most patients. PMID:27047819

  15. Familial factors related to lung function in children aged 6-10 years. Results from the PAARC epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, F; Tager, I B; Muñoz, A; Speizer, F E

    1989-06-01

    Familial factors related to lung function between six and 10 years of age have been studied among 1,160 children whose both parents were examined in 1975 in the French PAARC (Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques) Cooperative Study. The three indices FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and FEF25-75 (forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 per cent of the vital capacity) were studied after adjustment for sex, town, age, and height (and weight for children's FVC and FEV1). Maternal (but not paternal) smoking was associated with a significant decrease in FEV1 and FEF25-75, but not in FVC. Familial resemblance was observed for all indices between children and parents and between siblings. None of the environmental factors considered (i.e., parental smoking or education) or body habitus explained the familial resemblance observed. Conversely, after taking into account the aggregation between siblings, associations between children's lung function and parental characteristics (smoking, lung function) remained significant. Parental-children correlations exhibited an increasing temporal trend with increasing age of the children. All but one correlation for FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75 residuals of children with mothers' residuals were higher in the oldest age group compared with the youngest age group at the 0.10 level. Furthermore, correlations between siblings of opposite sex were significantly lower than correlations between siblings of like sex, especially for FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC. Results suggest that different growth patterns between boys and girls may be a critical factor in the study of lung function familial resemblance.

  16. Identification of the dichotomous role of age-related LCK in calorie restriction revealed by integrative analysis of cDNA microarray and interactome.

    PubMed

    Park, Daeui; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Jang, Eun Jee; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Ha, Young Mi; Hong, Seong Eui; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2013-08-01

    Among the many experimental paradigms used for the investigation of aging, the calorie restriction (CR) model has been proven to be the most useful in gerontological research. Exploration of the mechanisms underlying CR has produced a wealth of data. To identify key molecules controlled by aging and CR, we integrated data from 84 mouse and rat cDNA microarrays with a protein-protein interaction network. On the basis of this integrative analysis, we selected three genes that are upregulated in aging but downregulated by CR and two genes that are downregulated in aging but upregulated by CR. One of these key molecules is lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK). To further confirm this result on LCK, we performed a series of experiments in vitro and in vivo using kidneys obtained from aged ad libitum-fed and CR rats. Our major significant findings are as follows: (1) identification of LCK as a key molecule using integrative analysis; (2) confirmation that the age-related increase in LCK was modulated by CR and that protein tyrosine kinase activity was decreased using a LCK-specific inhibitor; and (3) upregulation of LCK leads to NF-κB activation in a ONOO(-) generation-dependent manner, which is modulated by CR. These results indicate that LCK could be considered a target attenuated by the anti-aging effects of CR. Integrative analysis of cDNA microarray and interactome data are powerful tools for identifying target molecules that are involved in the aging process and modulated by CR.

  17. Donor Age and Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss 5 Years after Successful Corneal Transplantation: Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study Results

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether endothelial cell loss 5 years after successful corneal transplantation is related to the age of the donor. Design Multicenter, prospective, double-masked clinical trial. Participants Three hundred forty-seven subjects participating in the Cornea Donor Study who had not experienced graft failure 5 years after corneal transplantation for a moderate-risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema). Testing Specular microscopic images of donor corneas obtained before surgery and postoperatively at 6 months, 12 months, and then annually through 5 years were submitted to a central reading center to measure endothelial cell density (ECD). Main Outcome Measure Endothelial cell density at 5 years. Results At 5 years, there was a substantial decrease in ECD from baseline for all donor ages. Subjects who received a cornea from a donor 12 to 65 years old experienced a median cell loss of 69% in the study eye, resulting in a 5-year median ECD of 824 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 613–1342), whereas subjects who received a cornea from a donor 66 to 75 years old experienced a cell loss of 75%, resulting in a median 5-year ECD of 654 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 538–986) (P [adjusted for baseline ECD] = 0.04). Statistically, there was a weak negative association between ECD and donor age analyzed as a continuous variable (r [adjusted for baseline ECD] = −0.19; 95% confidence interval, −0.29 to −0.08). Conclusions Endothelial cell loss is substantial in the 5 years after corneal transplantation. There is a slight association between cell loss and donor age. This finding emphasizes the importance of longer-term follow-up of this cohort to determine if this relationship affects graft survival. PMID:18387408

  18. The role of disease perceptions and results sharing in psychological adaptation after genetic susceptibility testing: the REVEAL Study.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Koehly, Laura M; Roberts, J Scott; Chen, Clara A; Hiraki, Susan; Green, Robert C

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which psychological adaptation (validated measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and test-specific distress) after genetic susceptibility testing is influenced by changes in beliefs about Alzheimer's disease (AD) and sharing of test results with others. Adult children of AD patients (N=269) from a randomized clinical trial involving genetic testing for apolipoprotein E (APOE) provided information before, as well as 6 weeks and 12 months after results disclosure. The levels of adaptation varied highly among participants at 12-month assessment. Participants who learned that they were ε4 negative (lower risk) had a reduction in perceived risk and concern about developing AD compared with those who learned that they were ε4 positive. Those who received results through an extended educational protocol (three in-person visits) had a larger decline in AD concern than those in a condensed protocol (educational brochure and two in-person visits). Increase in AD concern 6 weeks after disclosure was associated with increase in depression scores (b=0.20, P<0.01) and anxiety levels (b=0.20, P<0.01), and higher distress associated with AD genetic testing (b=0.18, P=0.02) 1 year after testing. Increase in perceived risk (b=0.16, P=0.04) was also associated with higher AD genetic testing distress. Sharing the test results with health professionals and friends (but not family) was associated with decrease in depression (b=-0.11, P=0.05) and anxiety levels (b=-0.16, P<0.01), respectively after a year. Enhancing discussion with regard to risks and concerns about AD during pretesting counseling and obtaining support through sharing the results after testing may help facilitate test recipients' long-term psychological adaptation.

  19. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  20. Age and duration of magmatism on the Ontong Java Plateau: 40Ar-39Ar results from ODP Leg 192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. M.; Pringle, M. S.; Fitton, J. G.

    2002-12-01

    Large igneous provinces represent some of the most voluminous outpourings of magma in the last 200 million years. With a size roughly equivalent to Alaska, the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) is the largest of these provinces. Prior to ODP Leg 192, basaltic basement was recovered from 3 ODP sites (803, 807 and 289) as well as obducted sections on the Solomon Islands. Published 40Ar-39Ar results suggest that the OJP formed in at least two discrete episodes at 122 and 90 Ma, while samples from the Soloman Islands also indicate igneous activity at 60 and 36 Ma. From this limited data set it has been suggested that the Ontong Java Plateau was periodically active every 30 m.y. beginning at 122 Ma. During Leg 192 another 5 drill sites (1183, 1185, 1186 and 1187) successfully reached basaltic basement, which comprised a thick sequence of basaltic pillow lavas. In contrast, a sequence of volcaniclastics was recovered from Site 1184. Initial shipboard biostratigraphy suggested that the basaltic basement forms part of the older proposed pulse of activity at 118 Ma, and the volcaniclastics from Site 1184 are from NP16 or 41-43 Ma. New whole rock 40Ar-39Ar analyses on the basaltic basement recovered during Leg 192 show that the OJP is no younger than 117 Ma (L. cabri zone). Significantly, the volcaniclastic rocks recovered at Site 1184 yielded minimum 40Ar-39Ar ages of 70-80 Ma, and are therefore not Eocene in age. Reanalysis of OJP samples from other ODP sites (e.g. Site 807) has shown that analysis of rocks with low K/Ca ratios, containing 5 total incremental-heating steps, does not always resolve problems of argon recoil and can yield artificial age plateaus. These apparent age plateaus can break down into the typical stepwise decreasing age pattern of argon recoil, and can therefore significantly alter the age of the rock. Apart from having implications for the proposed pulsed nature of magmatism on the OJP, it also shows that the normal acceptance criteria for 40Ar-39Ar ages in

  1. Exhumation history of the NW Indian Himalaya revealed by fission track and 40Ar/39Ar ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlup, M.; Steck, A.; Carter, A.; Cosca, M.; Epard, J.-L.; Hunziker, J.

    2011-01-01

    New fission track and Ar/Ar geochronological data provide time constraints on the exhumation history of the Himalayan nappes in the Mandi (Beas valley) - Tso Morari transect of the NW Indian Himalaya. Results from this and previous studies suggest that the SW-directed North Himalayan nappes were emplaced by detachment from the underthrusted upper Indian crust by 55. Ma and metamorphosed by ca. 48-40. Ma. The nappe stack was subsequently exhumed to shallow upper crustal depths (<10. km) by 40-30. Ma in the Tso Morari dome (northern section of the transect) and by 30-20. Ma close to frontal thrusts in the Baralacha La region. From the Oligocene to the present, exhumation continued slowly.Metamorphism started in the High Himalayan nappe prior to the Late Oligocene. High temperatures and anatexis of the subducting upper Indian crust engendered the buoyancy-driven ductile detachment and extrusion of the High Himalayan nappe in the zone of continental collision. Late extrusion of the High Himalayan nappe started about 26. Ma ago, accompanied by ductile extensional shearing in the Zanskar shear zone in its roof between 22 and 19. Ma concomitant with thrusting along the basal Main Central Thrust to the south. The northern part of the nappe was then rapidly exhumed to shallow depth (<10. km) between 20 and 6. Ma, while its southern front reached this depth at 10-5. Ma. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Break-seq reveals hydroxyurea-induced chromosome fragility as a result of unscheduled conflict between DNA replication and transcription.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A; McCulley, Andrew; Haarer, Brian; Arnak, Remigiusz; Feng, Wenyi

    2015-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication, checkpoint inactivation via a mec1 mutation leads to chromosome breakage at replication forks initiated from virtually all origins after transient exposure to hydroxyurea (HU), an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase. Here we sought to determine whether all replication forks containing single-stranded DNA gaps have equal probability of producing double-strand breaks (DSBs) when cells attempt to recover from HU exposure. We devised a new methodology, Break-seq, that combines our previously described DSB labeling with next generation sequencing to map chromosome breaks with improved sensitivity and resolution. We show that DSBs preferentially occur at genes transcriptionally induced by HU. Notably, different subsets of the HU-induced genes produced DSBs in MEC1 and mec1 cells as replication forks traversed a greater distance in MEC1 cells than in mec1 cells during recovery from HU. Specifically, while MEC1 cells exhibited chromosome breakage at stress-response transcription factors, mec1 cells predominantly suffered chromosome breakage at transporter genes, many of which are the substrates of those transcription factors. We propose that HU-induced chromosome fragility arises at higher frequency near HU-induced genes as a result of destabilized replication forks encountering transcription factor binding and/or the act of transcription. We further propose that replication inhibitors can induce unscheduled encounters between replication and transcription and give rise to distinct patterns of chromosome fragile sites.

  3. Ocular-following responses to white noise stimuli in humans reveal a novel nonlinearity that results from temporal sampling

    PubMed Central

    Sheliga, Boris M.; Quaia, Christian; FitzGibbon, Edmond J.; Cumming, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    White noise stimuli are frequently used to study the visual processing of broadband images in the laboratory. A common goal is to describe how responses are derived from Fourier components in the image. We investigated this issue by recording the ocular-following responses (OFRs) to white noise stimuli in human subjects. For a given speed we compared OFRs to unfiltered white noise with those to noise filtered with band-pass filters and notch filters. Removing components with low spatial frequency (SF) reduced OFR magnitudes, and the SF associated with the greatest reduction matched the SF that produced the maximal response when presented alone. This reduction declined rapidly with SF, compatible with a winner-take-all operation. Removing higher SF components increased OFR magnitudes. For higher speeds this effect became larger and propagated toward lower SFs. All of these effects were quantitatively well described by a model that combined two factors: (a) an excitatory drive that reflected the OFRs to individual Fourier components and (b) a suppression by higher SF channels where the temporal sampling of the display led to flicker. This nonlinear interaction has an important practical implication: Even with high refresh rates (150 Hz), the temporal sampling introduced by visual displays has a significant impact on visual processing. For instance, we show that this distorts speed tuning curves, shifting the peak to lower speeds. Careful attention to spectral content, in the light of this nonlinearity, is necessary to minimize the resulting artifact when using white noise patterns undergoing apparent motion. PMID:26762277

  4. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Romanov, Alexey; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positive correlation between the atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies and the Tohoku earthquake. This study may lead to a better understanding of the response of the atmosphere/ionosphere to the Great Tohoku earthquake.

  5. Metabolic analysis revealed altered amino acid profiles in Lupinus albus organs as a result of boron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Alves, Marta; Chicau, Paula; Matias, Helena; Passarinho, José; Pinheiro, Carla; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto

    2011-07-01

    We analysed the changes in the metabolites of Lupinus albus organs (leaf-blades, petioles, apexes, hypocotyls and roots) as a consequence of B deficiency. The deficiency did not affect malate concentration and induced only minor changes in the sugar content, suggesting that the carbohydrate metabolism is little affected by the deficiency. Contrarily, marked changes in the content of free amino acids were observed, with some specific variations associated with the different organs. These changes indicate that various aspects of metabolism implicated in the amino acid accumulation were affected by B deficiency. Most of the detected changes appear to have implications with some stress responses or signalling processes. Asparagine and proline that increase in many stresses also accumulated in petioles, apexes and hypocotyls. Accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid shunt amino acids, indicative of production of reactive oxygen species, occurs in the same three organs and also the roots. The increase in the branched-chain amino acids, observed in all organs, suggests the involvement of B with the cytoskeleton, whereas glycine decrease in leaf-blades and active growing organs (apexes and roots) could be associated with the proposed role of this amino acids in plant signalling in processes that might be associated with the decreased growth rates observed in B deficiency. Despite the admitted importance of free amino acids in plant metabolism, the available information on this matter is scarce. So our results bring new information concerning the effects of B deficiency in the metabolism of the several L. albus organs.

  6. Break-seq reveals hydroxyurea-induced chromosome fragility as a result of unscheduled conflict between DNA replication and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.; McCulley, Andrew; Haarer, Brian; Arnak, Remigiusz

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication, checkpoint inactivation via a mec1 mutation leads to chromosome breakage at replication forks initiated from virtually all origins after transient exposure to hydroxyurea (HU), an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase. Here we sought to determine whether all replication forks containing single-stranded DNA gaps have equal probability of producing double-strand breaks (DSBs) when cells attempt to recover from HU exposure. We devised a new methodology, Break-seq, that combines our previously described DSB labeling with next generation sequencing to map chromosome breaks with improved sensitivity and resolution. We show that DSBs preferentially occur at genes transcriptionally induced by HU. Notably, different subsets of the HU-induced genes produced DSBs in MEC1 and mec1 cells as replication forks traversed a greater distance in MEC1 cells than in mec1 cells during recovery from HU. Specifically, while MEC1 cells exhibited chromosome breakage at stress-response transcription factors, mec1 cells predominantly suffered chromosome breakage at transporter genes, many of which are the substrates of those transcription factors. We propose that HU-induced chromosome fragility arises at higher frequency near HU-induced genes as a result of destabilized replication forks encountering transcription factor binding and/or the act of transcription. We further propose that replication inhibitors can induce unscheduled encounters between replication and transcription and give rise to distinct patterns of chromosome fragile sites. PMID:25609572

  7. Ocular-following responses to white noise stimuli in humans reveal a novel nonlinearity that results from temporal sampling.

    PubMed

    Sheliga, Boris M; Quaia, Christian; FitzGibbon, Edmond J; Cumming, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    White noise stimuli are frequently used to study the visual processing of broadband images in the laboratory. A common goal is to describe how responses are derived from Fourier components in the image. We investigated this issue by recording the ocular-following responses (OFRs) to white noise stimuli in human subjects. For a given speed we compared OFRs to unfiltered white noise with those to noise filtered with band-pass filters and notch filters. Removing components with low spatial frequency (SF) reduced OFR magnitudes, and the SF associated with the greatest reduction matched the SF that produced the maximal response when presented alone. This reduction declined rapidly with SF, compatible with a winner-take-all operation. Removing higher SF components increased OFR magnitudes. For higher speeds this effect became larger and propagated toward lower SFs. All of these effects were quantitatively well described by a model that combined two factors: (a) an excitatory drive that reflected the OFRs to individual Fourier components and (b) a suppression by higher SF channels where the temporal sampling of the display led to flicker. This nonlinear interaction has an important practical implication: Even with high refresh rates (150 Hz), the temporal sampling introduced by visual displays has a significant impact on visual processing. For instance, we show that this distorts speed tuning curves, shifting the peak to lower speeds. Careful attention to spectral content, in the light of this nonlinearity, is necessary to minimize the resulting artifact when using white noise patterns undergoing apparent motion.

  8. Multi-level characterization of human femoral cortices and their underlying osteocyte network reveal trends in quality of young, aged, osteoporotic and antiresorptive-treated bone.

    PubMed

    Milovanovic, Petar; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Riedel, Christoph; vom Scheidt, Annika; Herzog, Lydia; Krause, Matthias; Djonic, Danijela; Djuric, Marija; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael; Ritchie, Robert O; Busse, Björn

    2015-03-01

    Characterization of bone's hierarchical structure in aging, disease and treatment conditions is imperative to understand the architectural and compositional modifications to the material and its mechanical integrity. Here, cortical bone sections from 30 female proximal femurs - a frequent fracture site - were rigorously assessed to characterize the osteocyte lacunar network, osteon density and patterns of bone matrix mineralization by backscatter-electron imaging and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in relation to mechanical properties obtained by reference-point indentation. We show that young, healthy bone revealed the highest resistance to mechanical loading (indentation) along with higher mineralization and preserved osteocyte-lacunar characteristics. In contrast, aging and osteoporosis significantly alter bone material properties, where impairment of the osteocyte-lacunar network was evident through accumulation of hypermineralized osteocyte lacunae with aging and even more in osteoporosis, highlighting increased osteocyte apoptosis and reduced mechanical competence. But antiresorptive treatment led to fewer mineralized lacunae and fewer but larger osteons signifying rejuvenated bone. In summary, multiple structural and compositional changes to the bone material were identified leading to decay or maintenance of bone quality in disease, health and treatment conditions. Clearly, antiresorptive treatment reflected favorable effects on the multifunctional osteocytic cells that are a prerequisite for bone's structural, metabolic and mechanosensory integrity.

  9. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: Results from a nationally representative United States sample

    PubMed Central

    Taillieu, Tamara L.; Afifi, Tracie O.; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M.; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n = 34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. PMID:25466426

  10. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: results from a nationally representative United States sample.

    PubMed

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time.

  11. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing. PMID:27699078

  12. Reprogramming aging and progeria.

    PubMed

    Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The aging rate of an organism depends on the ratio of tissue degeneration to tissue repair. As a consequence, molecular alterations that tip this balance toward degeneration cause accelerated aging. Conversely, interventions can be pursued to reduce tissue degeneration or to increase tissue repair with the aim of delaying the onset of age-associated manifestations. Recent studies on the biology of stem cells in aging have revealed the influence of systemic factors on their functionality and demonstrated the feasibility of reprogramming aged and progeroid cells. These results illustrate the reversibility of some aspects of the aging process and encourage the search for new anti-aging and anti-progeria interventions.

  13. Underestimation of urinary biomarker-to-creatinine ratio resulting from age-related gain in muscle mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Tonomura, Yutaka; Morikawa, Yuji; Takagi, Shingo; Torii, Mikinori; Matsubara, Mitsunobu

    2013-01-07

    Recent efforts have been made to identify useful urinary biomarkers of nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, the application of urine to the other toxicities as new biomarker source has been recently expanded. Meanwhile, correction of urinary biomarker concentrations according to fluctuations in urine flow rate is required for adequate interpretation of the alteration. The urinary biomarker-to-creatinine ratio (UBCR) is widely used because of the convenience, while the urinary biomarker-excretion rate is regarded as the gold standard corrective method. Because creatinine is a catabolite in energy production in muscles, we hypothesized that altered muscle mass could affect creatinine kinetics, ultimately affecting UBCR. However, no study has examined this hypothesis. In this study, we examined the influence of muscle mass gain on UBCR, using male Sprague-Dawley rats during the growth phase, 6-12-week old. Both plasma creatinine and excretion of urinary creatinine (Ucr excretion) showed increases with muscle mass gain in rats, in which the alterations of UBCR were lowered. The renal mRNA level of the organic cation transporter-2 (Oct2), a creatinine transporter, showed an age-related increase, whereas the mRNA level of multidrug and toxin extrusions-1 (Mate1) remained constant. Multiple regression analysis showed that the increase in creatinine clearance highly contributed to the age-related increase in Ucr excretion compared to the mRNA levels of Oct2 and Mate1. This suggested that the age-related increase in Ucr excretion may be attributable to the increased transglomerular passage of creatinine. In conclusion, the results suggest that muscle mass gain can affect creatinine kinetics, leading to underestimation of UBCR. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of the corrective method when using urinary biomarker, the failure of which can result in an incorrect diagnosis.

  14. Behavioral deficits during early stages of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans result from locomotory deficits possibly linked to muscle frailty.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Charles F; Chow, David K; David, Lawrence; Cooke, Carol A; Gami, Minaxi S; Iser, Wendy B; Hanselman, Keaton B; Goldberg, Ilya G; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2004-12-01

    Many behavioral responses require the coordination of sensory inputs with motor outputs. Aging is associated with progressive declines in both motor function and muscle structure. However, the consequences of age-related motor deficits on behavior have not been clearly defined. Here, we examined the effects of aging on behavior in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. As animals aged, mild locomotory deficits appeared that were sufficient to impair behavioral responses to sensory cues. In contrast, sensory ability appeared well maintained during aging. Age-related behavioral declines were delayed in animals with mutations in the daf-2/insulin-like pathway governing longevity. A decline in muscle tissue integrity was correlated with the onset of age-related behavioral deficits, although significant muscle deterioration was not. Treatment with a muscarinic agonist significantly improved locomotory behavior in aged animals, indicating that improved neuromuscular signaling may be one strategy for reducing the severity of age-related behavioral impairments.

  15. Clustered granules present in the hippocampus of aged mice result from a degenerative process affecting astrocytes and their surrounding neuropil.

    PubMed

    Manich, Gemma; Cabezón, Itsaso; Camins, Antoni; Pallàs, Mercè; Liberski, Pawel P; Vilaplana, Jordi; Pelegrí, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of pathological granular structures appear and progressively increase in number with age in the hippocampus of several mice strains, markedly in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 mice. In the present work, we performed an ultrastructural study of these granules paying special attention to the first stages of their formation, which have not been previously explored. The analysis of the immature granules allowed concluding that granules are not simple accumulations of molecular waste but the result of a degenerative process involving principally astrocytic processes, although nearby neuronal structures can be also affected. The granule generation includes the instability of the plasmatic membranes and the appearance of abnormal membranous structures that form intracellular bubbles or blebs of variable sizes and irregular shapes. These structures and some organelles degenerate producing some membranous fragments, and an assembly process of the resulting fragments generates the dense-core nucleus of the mature granule. Moreover, we found out that the neo-epitope recently described in the mature granules and localised abundantly in the membranous fragments of their dense-core nucleus emerges in the first stages of the granule formation. On the other hand, with this study, we increase the evidences that each cluster of granules is formed by the granules comprised in one astrocyte. A better knowledge of the causes of the granule formation and the function of the neo-epitope will help in both the interpretation of the physiological significance of the granules and their contribution to the degenerating processes in aging brain.

  16. Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific: Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; van der Plicht, Johannes; Uchida, Masao; Tanaka, Atsushi; Uehiro, Takashi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi; Ohno, Terufumi

    2000-10-01

    The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as archaeological interpretation around this region. The lack of adequate collection of the pre-bomb shell from western north Pacific was the biggest problem. Recently we had a chance to examine specimens from an old shell collection stored in Kyoto University, including shell specimens from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Micronesia of 1920s and 1930s. We explored the possibility for usage of specimen without clear evidence of live collection by measuring 30 apparent radiocarbon ages of pre-bomb mollusk shells from 18 sites in Western North Pacific. The preliminary results showed several discrepancies with previously reported results and with each other. We have to carefully select the shell specimen that has biological signs such as articulating fulcrum. In order to exploit this big resource of pre-bomb shell collection, the new technique to distinguish fossils from live collected samples should be developed by using chemical and physical methods.

  17. Antioxidants reveal an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between reactive oxygen species levels and the rate of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, David; Cacho-Valadez, Briseida; Liu, Ju-Ling; Wang, Ying; Yee, Callista; Bernard, Kristine; Khaki, Arman; Breton, Lionel; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2017-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are potentially toxic, but they are also signaling molecules that modulate aging. Recent observations that ROS can promote longevity have to be reconciled with the numerous claims about the benefits of antioxidants on lifespan. Here, three antioxidants [N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C, and resveratrol (RSV)] were tested on Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that alter drug uptake, mitochondrial function, and ROS metabolism. We observed that like pro-oxidants, antioxidants can both lengthen and shorten lifespan, dependent on concentration, genotypes, and conditions. The effects of antioxidants thus reveal an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between ROS levels and lifespan. In addition, we observed that RSV can act additively to both NAC and paraquat, to dramatically increase lifespan. This suggests that the effect of compounds that modulate ROS levels can be additive when their loci of action or mechanisms of action are sufficiently distinct.

  18. Ancient DNA reveals a migration of the ancient Di-qiang populations into Xinjiang as early as the early Bronze Age.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shi-Zhu; Zhang, Ye; Wei, Dong; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Bin; Cui, Yin-Qiu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Xinjiang is at the crossroads between East and West Eurasia, and it harbors a relatively complex genetic history. In order to better understand the population movements and interactions in this region, mitochondrial and Y chromosome analyses on 40 ancient human remains from the Tianshanbeilu site in eastern Xinjiang were performed. Twenty-nine samples were successfully assigned to specific mtDNA haplogroups, including the west Eurasian maternal lineages of U and W and the east Eurasian maternal lineages of A, C, D, F, G, Z, M7, and M10. In the male samples, two Y chromosome haplogroups, C* and N1 (xN1a, N1c), were successfully assigned. Our mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA analyses combined with the archaeological studies revealed that the Di-qiang populations from the Hexi Corridor had migrated to eastern Xinjiang and admixed with the Eurasian steppe populations in the early Bronze Age.

  19. Murine Ccl2/Cx3cr1 Deficiency Results in Retinal Lesions Mimicking Human Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Jingsheng; Bojanowski, Christine M.; Zhou, Min; Shen, Defen; Ross, Robert J.; Rosenberg, Kevin I.; Cameron, D. Joshua; Yin, Chunyue; Kowalak, Jeffrey A.; Zhuang, Zhengping; Zhang, Kang; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Senescent Ccl2-/- mice are reported to develop cardinal features of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Loss-of-function single-nucleotide polymorphisms within CX3CR1 are also found to be associated with AMD. The authors generated Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mice to establish a more characteristic and reproducible AMD model. Methods Single Ccl2- and Cx3cr1-deficient mice were crossbred to obtain Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mice. Funduscopy, histopathology, retinal A2E quantification, proteomics, RT-PCR gene expression assay, immunochemistry, and Western blotting were used to examine the retina and to evaluate gene expression within the retinal tissue. Results By 6 weeks of age, all Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mice developed AMD-like retinal lesions, including drusen, retinal pigment epithelium alteration, and photoreceptor degeneration. Furthermore, choroidal neovascularization occurred in 15% of the mice. These degenerative lesions progressed with age. A2E, a major lipofuscin fluorophore that accumulated during AMD progression, was significantly higher in the Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- retina than in the wild-type retina. Complement cofactor was higher in the Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- RPE. Proteomics data indicated that four proteins were differentially expressed in Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- retina compared with control. One of these proteins, ERp29, an endoplasmic reticulum protein, functions as an escort chaperone and in protein folding. Conclusions The authors concluded that Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mice develop a broad spectrum of AMD abnormalities with early onset and high penetrance. These observations implicate certain chemokines and endoplasmic reticulum proteins in AMD pathogenesis. Similar to the mechanism of neurodegeneration caused by dysfunction of endoplasmic reticulum proteins, decreased chaperoning may cause misfolded protein accumulation, leading to drusen formation and retinal degeneration. PMID:17652758

  20. Intensive Weight Loss Intervention in Individuals Ages 65 Years or Older: Results from the Look AHEAD Type 2 Diabetes Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Rejeski, W. Jack; West, Delia S.; Bray, George A.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Peters, Anne L.; Chen, Haiying; Johnson, Karen C.; Horton, Edward S.; Hazuda, Helen P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the relative effects of four years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among older versus younger individuals DESIGN A randomized controlled clinical trial SETTING 16 US clinical sites PARTICIPANTS Individuals with type 2 diabetes: 1,053 aged 65–76 years and 4,092 aged 45–64 years INTERVENTIONS An intensive behavioral intervention designed to promote and maintain weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to a condition of diabetes support and education. MEASUREMENTS Standardized assessments of weight, fitness (based on graded exercise testing), and cardiovascular disease risk factors RESULTS Across four years, older individuals had greater intervention-related mean weight losses than younger participants, 6.2% versus 5.1% (interaction p=0.006) and comparable relative mean increases in fitness, 0.56 versus 0.53 metabolic equivalents (interaction p=0.72). These benefits were seen consistently across subgroups of older adults formed by many demographic and health factors. Among a panel of age-related health conditions, only self-reported worsening vision was associated with poorer intervention-related weight loss in older individuals. The intensive lifestyle intervention produced mean increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.03 mg/dl; p<0.001) and decreases in glycated hemoglobin (0.21%; p<0.001) and waist girth (3.52 cc; p<0.001) across 4 years that were at least as large in older compared to younger individuals. CONCLUSION Intensive lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss and increased physical activity is effective in overweight and obese older individuals to produce sustained weight loss and improvements in fitness and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23668423

  1. In vitro model for DNA double-strand break repair analysis in breast cancer reveals cell type-specific associations with age and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Miriam; Kaufmann, Julia; Stahl, Andreea; Gundelach, Theresa; Janni, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Isabell; Keimling, Marlen; Hampp, Stephanie; Ihle, Michaela; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2016-11-01

    Dysfunction of homologous recombination is a common denominator of changes associated with breast cancer-predisposing mutations. In our previous work, we identified a functional signature in peripheral blood lymphocytes from women who were predisposed that indicated a shift from homologous recombination to alternative, error-prone DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. To capture both hereditary and nonhereditary factors, we newly established a protocol for isolation and ex vivo analysis of epithelial cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition cells (EMTs), and fibroblasts from breast cancer specimens (147 patients). By applying a fluorescence-based test system, we analyzed the error-prone DSB repair pathway microhomology-mediated end joining in these tumor-derived cell types and peripheral blood lymphocytes. In parallel, we investigated DNA lesion processing by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of histone H2AX phosphorylated on Ser139 focus after radiomimetic treatment. Our study reveals elevated histone H2AX phosphorylated on Ser139 damage removal in epithelial cells, not EMTs, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibitor sensitivities, which suggested a DSB repair pathway shift with increasing patient age. Of interest, we found elevated microhomology-mediated end joining in EMTs, not epithelial cells, from patients who received a treatment recommendation of adjuvant chemotherapy, that is, those with high-risk tumors. Our discoveries of altered DSB repair activities in cells may serve as a method to further classify breast cancer to predict responsiveness to adjuvant chemotherapy and/or therapeutics that target DSB repair-dysfunctional tumors.-Deniz, M., Kaufmann, J., Stahl, A., Gundelach, T., Janni, W., Hoffmann, I., Keimling, M., Hampp, S., Ihle, M., Wiesmüller, L. In vitro model for DNA double-strand break repair analysis in breast cancer reveals cell type-specific associations with age and prognosis.

  2. Magma mixing and crystal exchange at Yellowstone caldera revealed though sub-crystal-scale age, trace-element, and Hf-isotopic analyses of zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelten, M. E.; Cooper, K. M.; Vazquez, J. A.; Wimpenny, J.; Yin, Q.

    2011-12-01

    We examine magma mixing and crystal exchange in a young magma reservoir by correlating sub-crystal-scale SIMS age, SIMS trace element, and LA-MC-ICPMS Hf-isotopic data from zircons in the coeval ca. 100ka, yet compositionally distinct rhyolites of the Solfatara Plateau flow (SPF) and Hayden Valley flow (HVF) at Yellowstone Caldera. The SPF and HVF lavas are part of the Central Plateau Member (CPM) of the Plateau Rhyolite that is composed of the youngest intracaldera rhyolite flows at Yellowstone, erupted between ca. 170-70ka. We compare these data to age and trace element data from zircons in 1) the Pitchstone Plateau Flow, West Yellowstone Flow, and Dry Creek Flow of the CPM as representative of main reservoir zircons, 2) the ca. 118ka extracaldera Gibbon River Flow rhyolite (GRF), and 3) the ca. 260ka Scaup Lake Flow of the Upper Basin Member rhyolites. Additionally, we compare the zircon data to new MC-ICPMS Hf-isotopic data from CPM glasses. Correlating age, trace element, and Hf-isotopic data from zircons in the HVF and SPF reveals the presence of four zircon populations. Main reservoir-like (MR-like) zircons have trace element compositions similar to main CPM reservoir zircons, young ages (<200ka), a range in ɛHf (0.2 to -7.2), and are commonly zoned with high ɛHf cores and rims with ɛHf values within error of CPM glasses (-6.5 to -7.2 ɛHf). Extracaldera-like (EC-like) zircons are indistinguishable in age, trace element, and Hf-isotopic composition (-5.1 to -9.2 ɛHf) from zircons in the GRF. Mixed zircons have cores with either MR-like or EC-like compositions but rims of intermediate composition. Lastly, a population of zircons (which we interpret to be inherited) have cores with older ages (>350ka), a range in trace element compositions, and high ɛHf (-5.8 to -3.6) whereas the rims have restricted MR-like trace element compositions and ɛHf within error of CPM glasses. The sense of core to rim zoning specific to each population suggests that each

  3. Pulmonary Disease and Age at Immigration among Hispanics. Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Davis, Sonia M.; Aldrich, Tom K.; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Henderson, Ashley G.; Kaplan, Robert C.; LaVange, Lisa; Liu, Kiang; Loredo, Jose S.; Mendes, Eliana S.; Ni, Ai; Ries, Andrew; Salathe, Matthias; Smith, Lewis J.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma has been reported to be more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanics and among Hispanics born in the United States or who immigrated as children than among those who came as adults; however, direct comparisons across Hispanic groups are lacking. Objectives: To test whether asthma is more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanic groups, whether asthma is associated with age of immigration, and whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease varies by heritage in a large, population-based cohort of Hispanics in the United States. Methods: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos researchers recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos, 18–74 years of age, in New York City, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-reported Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Central American, or South American heritage; birthplace; and, if relevant, age at immigration. A respiratory questionnaire and standardized spirometry were performed with post-bronchodilator measures for those with airflow limitation. Measurements and Main Results: The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among Puerto Ricans (36.5%; 95% confidence interval, 33.6–39.5%) was higher than among other Hispanics (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.3–4.6). Hispanics who were born in the mainland United States or had immigrated as children had a higher asthma prevalence than those who had immigrated as adults (19.6, 19.4, and 14.1%, respectively; P < 0.001). Current asthma, bronchodilator responsiveness, and wheeze followed similar patterns. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence was higher among Puerto Ricans (14.1%) and Cubans (9.8%) than among other Hispanics (<6.0%), but it did not vary across Hispanic heritages after adjustment for smoking and prior asthma (P = 0.22), by country of birth, or by age at immigration. Conclusions: Asthma

  4. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Sara; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Spissu, Nicoletta; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Fiore, Filippo; Cocco, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels in dogs' plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p < 0.005) and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p < 0.005) after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs. PMID:26464952

  5. [Age, marital status, fecundity and mortality of the population of Colombia: demographic results of the National Household Survey, June 1978].

    PubMed

    1980-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the National Household Survey conducted in Colombia in June 1978, which covered about 0.2% of the total population, and which interviewed 60,000 people in rural and in urban areas. Main findings were: 1) a decrease in the percentage of the population aged 0-4, and 5-9, as compared to the population aged 10-14; 2) a decrease in the number of live births, especially in young women; and, 3) average parity per woman was 3.7, a decrease of 12% since 1976. Crude birth rate was measured to be 27.4/1000, while it was 31.1/1000 in 1976. Life expectancy was estimated to be 65.1 for women, and 55.1 for men, much too low to be acceptable, and possibly caused by wrong information given to interviewers. Total mortality was 6.7/1000, too low to be acceptable, while infant mortality was 69/1000.

  6. Mid-to long-term results of revision total hip replacement in patients aged 50 years or younger.

    PubMed

    Lee, P T H; Lakstein, D L; Lozano, B; Safir, O; Backstein, J; Gross, A E

    2014-08-01

    Revision total hip replacement (THR) for young patients is challenging because of technical complexity and the potential need for subsequent further revisions. We have assessed the survivorship, functional outcome and complications of this procedure in patients aged < 50 years through a large longitudinal series with consistent treatment algorithms. Of 132 consecutive patients (181 hips) who underwent revision THR, 102 patients (151 hips) with a mean age of 43 years (22 to 50) were reviewed at a mean follow-up of 11 years (2 to 26) post-operatively. We attempted to restore bone stock with allograft where indicated. Using further revision for any reason as an end point, the survival of the acetabular component was 71% (sd 4) and 54% (sd 7) at ten- and 20 years. The survival of the femoral component was 80% (sd 4) and 62% (sd 6) at ten- and 20 years. Complications included 11 dislocations (6.1%), ten periprosthetic fractures (5.5%), two deep infections (1.1%), four sciatic nerve palsies (2.2%; three resolved without intervention, one improved after exploration and freeing from adhesions) and one vascular injury (0.6%). The mean modified Harris Hip Score was 41 (10 to 82) pre-operatively, 77 (39 to 93) one year post-operatively and 77 (38 to 93) at the latest review. This overall perspective on the mid- to long-term results is valuable when advising young patients on the prospects of revision surgery at the time of primary replacement.

  7. Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche (<11 years). Methods Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data were collected in 2006 by anonymous self-reported standardized questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of 1072 15 years old girls in school classrooms. Family environment, school experience, physical and psychological factors, risk behaviours (substance use and sexual initiation) were recorded. Logistic regression models were applied (analysing for crude and adjusted relationships between early menarche and risk behaviours controlled for family context). Results Median age at menarche was 13.0 years; 57 girls (5.3%) were early-matured. Controlled for familial environment, early menarche was associated with having had more than two life-drunkenness episodes (adjusted OR = 2.5 [1.3-4.6]), early sexual initiation (adjusted OR = 2.8 [1.3-6.0]) and overweight (adjusted OR = 7.3 [3.6-14.9]). Conclusion Early-maturing girls may affiliate with older adolescents, hence engage in risk behaviours linked to their appearance rather than their maturity level. Factors associated with early menarche highlight the need to focus attention on early-matured girls to prevent further health problems linked to risk behaviours. PMID:20353570

  8. Features of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the General Adults and Their Dependency on Age, Sex, and Smoking: Results from the German KORA Study

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, Caroline; Breinlich, Valentin; Stark, Klaus J.; Enzinger, Sabrina; Aßenmacher, Matthias; Olden, Matthias; Grassmann, Felix; Graw, Jochen; Heier, Margit; Peters, Annette; Helbig, Horst; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Heid, Iris M.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a vision impairing disease of the central retina characterized by early and late forms in individuals older than 50 years of age. However, there is little knowledge to what extent also younger adults are affected. We have thus set out to estimate the prevalence of early AMD features and late AMD in a general adult population by acquiring color fundus images in 2,840 individuals aged 25 to 74 years of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg project (KORA) in South Germany. Among the 2,546 participants with gradable images for each eye, 10.9% (n = 277) had early AMD features (applying the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study Severity Scale), 0.2% (n = 6) had late AMD. Prevalence increased with age, reaching 26.3% for early AMD features and 1.9% for late AMD at the age 70+. However, signs of early AMD were found in subjects as young as 25 years, with the risk for early AMD features increasing linearly by years of age in men, and, less consistent with a linear increase, in women. Risk for early AMD features increased linearly by pack years of smoking in men, not in women, nor was there any association with other lifestyle or metabolic factors. By providing much sought-after prevalence estimates for AMD from Central Europe, our data underscores a substantial proportion of the adult population with signs of early AMD, including individuals younger than 50 years. This supports the notion that early AMD features in the young might be under-acknowledged. PMID:27893849

  9. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Susanne; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Fuchs, Angela; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; Koppara, Alexander; Pentzek, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mösch, Edelgard; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in primary care patients over 75 years covering an observation period of 7.5 years. We used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to examine the relationship of SCD and mortality. Further, we estimated survival times by the Kaplan Meier method and case-fatality rates with regard to SCD. Results Among 971 individuals without objective cognitive impairment, 233 (24.0%) incidentally expressed SCD at follow-up I. Incident SCD was not significantly associated with increased mortality in the univariate (HR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.3, p = .90) as well as in the multivariate analysis (HR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2, p = .40). The same applied for SCD in relation to concerns. Mean survival time with SCD was 8.0 years (SD = 0.1) after onset. Conclusion Incident SCD in memory in individuals with unimpaired cognitive performance does not predict mortality. The main reason might be that SCD does not ultimately lead into future cognitive decline in any case. However, as prevalence studies suggest, subjectively perceived decline in non-memory cognitive domains might be associated with increased mortality. Future studies may address mortality in such other cognitive domains of SCD in incident cases. PMID:26766555

  10. [Experiences and results in hypertension screening in women between 20 and 65 years of age in Karl-Marx-City].

    PubMed

    Voigt, G; Börker, G; Edelmann, S; Hartung, A; Hartung, G; Heyne, S; Töpfer, V

    1980-11-15

    From 1975 to 1979 in the district of the City of Karl-Marx-Stadt 91,130 females at the age between 20 and 65 years were summoned to a gynaecologico-cardiological mass examination which was supported by computer. 56,460 females underwent the examination. According to the WHO-criteria two measurements of blood pressure were carried out, when increased blood pressure was present a third one and a fourth one by an examination group. A diagnostic standard programme was used. In the second measurement of blood pressure we established 19.8% of patients with hypertension and 28.6% patients with borderline values. 52.8% of the hypertensions were known. Of 10,685 females with known or established hypertension 10.1% underwent an optimum therapy. On the basis of these results a programme for the fight against hypertension was developed for the county Karl-Marx-Stadt.

  11. Age Determination and Chemical and Petrological Features of Shock-Melted Antarctic H Chondrite Y 790746: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, T.; Nagao, K.; Nakamura, N.; Fujiwara, T.; Misawa, K.; Kagami, H.; Yanai, K.; Kojima, H.

    1995-09-01

    Extensive K-Ar age determinations have been carried out for shocked chondrites [1]. However the young shock ages obtained by the less susceptible clocks such as Rb-Sr isotopes are still rarely reported for chondritic meteorites [2,3], particulary only for H-chondrites [4]. In order to search for ages, chemical and petrological characteristics of shocked H-chondrites, we have carried out analyses of Rb-Sr, K-Ar and other rare gass isotopes along with isotope dilution analyses of K, Rb, Sr, Ba, Ca, Mg, and Fe for impact melted Antarctic H-chondreite, Y-790746. The meteorite contains shock veins (widths: 5-10mm) formed from melts. One intensely melted portion was sampled for the present study. The observations by an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope indicate that the specimen has basaltic texture consisting of relic olivine grains with several hundred micrometer sizes, cryptocrystalline subhedral olivines and pyroxenes associated with glassy groundmass. Relic olivines with undulatory extinction and planar fractures occasionally carry several micrometer sized Fe-Ni deposits and shock veins. Recrystallized olivines and pyroxenes are mostly zoned by Fe-rich overgrowth rims. Ca-rich pyroxenes also carry Ca depleted overgrowth rim materials. Numerous Fe-Ni metal droplets (several ten to hundred micrometer sizes) associated with troilites also exist in interstitial areas of mineral grains. No plagioclase nor maskerynite grains were identified but instead abundant glassy materials exist in the interstitial areas. Abundances of alkali metals (K, Rb) and alkaline earths (Ba, Sr) in the whole-rock are almost H-chondritic (x1.02, x1.41, x1.19, x1.1; relative to average H-chondrites). The major element abundances normalized to average H-chondrites are low in Mg (x0.84), Fe (x0.70), and Ca (x0.87), indicating that Y-790746 is depleted in mafic components. These results suggest that Fe-Ni metal, (possibly, olivines and pyroxenes) was removed from the source

  12. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults—Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study

    PubMed Central

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J.; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E.

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  13. [Long-Term Care Preferences Among Individuals of Advanced Age in Germany: Results of a Population-Based Study].

    PubMed

    Hajek, André; Lehnert, Thomas; Wegener, Annemarie; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-03-07

    The need for long-term care is expected to increase markedly in the next decades as a result of demographic ageing. Consequently, it is important to know the long-term care preferences. This study investigated the long-term care preferences among older individuals in Germany. Based on a systematic review and expert interviews, a questionnaire was designed to assess long-term care preferences. Data were gathered from a representative telephone survey of the German population (n=1,006; 65 years and above) in 2015. The mean age was 75.2 years (±6.6 years, ranging from 65 to 96 years). While nearly 90% of the individuals preferred home care, other care settings such as nursing care abroad were mostly undesired. In case of home care, most of the individuals preferred care provided by friends/family or formal caregivers, whereas the idea of all-day care services (such as employed private caregivers) was less popular. With respect to home care, additional services such as household assistance, transportation services, and emergency call systems were highly valued by the study participants, whereas continual supervision throughout the day was seen as less important. In case of inpatient care, more than 90% of the individuals preferred a private room, with the inpatient facility located near home or close to relatives' homes. A wide range of activities was appreciated. Given these preferences, it is assumed that there is a gap between expectations (preferences) and reality (utilization) regarding long-term care in Germany. Interventions aimed at minimizing this gap are urgently needed. For example, strategies to raise the awareness of private long-term care provision might be fruitful.

  14. Atmospheric Aging and Its Impacts on Physical Properties of Soot Aerosols: Results from the 2009 SHARP/SOOT Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Khalizov, A. F.; Zheng, J.; Reed, C. C.; Collins, D. R.; Olaguer, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols impact the Earth energy balance directly by scattering solar radiation back to space and indirectly by changing the albedo, frequency, and lifetime of clouds. Carbon soot (or black carbon) produced from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning represents a major component of primary aerosols. Because of high absorption cross-sections over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectra, black carbon contributes significantly to climate change by direct radiative forcing and is the second most important component causing global warming after carbon dioxide. In areas identified as aerosol hotspots, which include many megacities, solar heating by soot-containing aerosols is roughly comparable to heating due to greenhouse gases. In addition, light absorbing soot aerosols may reduce photolysis rates at the surface level, producing a noticeable impact on photochemistry. Enhanced light absorption and scattering by soot can stabilize the atmosphere, retarding vertical transport and exacerbating accumulation of gaseous and particulate matter (PM) pollutants within the planetary boundary layer. Less surface heating and atmospheric stabilization may decrease formation of clouds, and warming in the atmosphere can evaporate existing cloud droplets by lowering relative humidity. Furthermore, soot-containing aerosols represent a major type of PM that has adverse effects on human health. When first emitted, soot particles are low-density aggregates of loosely connected primary spherules. Freshly emitted soot particles are typically hydrophobic, but may become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) during atmospheric aging by acquiring hydrophilic coatings. Hygroscopic soot particles, being efficient CCN, can exert indirect forcing on climate. In this talk, results will be presented on measurements of soot properties during the 2009 SHARP/SOOT Campaign. Ambient aerosols and fresh soot particles injected into a captured air chamber were monitored to

  15. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI) in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home). Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. Results In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders. PMID:21777439

  16. Quantitative assessment of age-related macular degeneration using parametric modeling of the leakage transfer function: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Eldeeb, Safaa M; Abdelmoula, Walid M; Shah, Syed M; Fahmy, Ahmed S

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in older adults. The wet form of the disease is characterized by abnormal blood vessels forming a choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV), that result in destruction of normal architecture of the retina. Current evaluation and follow up of wet AMD include subjective evaluation of Fluorescein Angiograms (FA) to determine the activity of the lesion and monitor the progression or regression of the disease. However, this subjective evaluation prevents accurate monitoring of the disease progression or regression in response to a pharmacologic agent. In this work, we present a method that allows objective assessment of the activity of a CNV lesion which can be statistically compared across different patient and time points. The method is based on a hypothesis that the discrepancy in the time-intensity signals among the diseased and normal retinal areas are due to an implicit transfer function whose parameters can be used to characterize the retina. The method begins with parametric modeling of the temporal variation of the lesion and background intensities. Then, the values of the model parameters are used to evaluate the change in the activity of the disease. Preliminary results on five datasets show that the calculated parameters are highly correlated with the Visual Acuity (VA) of the patients.

  17. Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has increased dramatically in recent years. The present report compares overall utilization and results for 25(OH)D orders at two academic medical centers - one in New York and one in Iowa – in order to characterize the vitamin D status of our inpatient and outpatient populations. Results are also compared to those from a national reference laboratory to determine whether patterns at these two institutions reflect those observed nationally. Methods Retrospective data queries of 25(OH)D orders and results were conducted using the laboratory information systems at Weill Cornell Medical College / New York Presbyterian Hospital (WCMC), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), and ARUP Laboratories (ARUP). Chart review was conducted for cases with very high or low serum 25(OH)D levels in the WCMC and UIHC datasets. Results The majority of tests were ordered on females and outpatients. Average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in female versus male patients across most ages in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. As expected, average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in outpatients than inpatients. Serum 25(OH)D levels showed seasonal periodicity, with average levels higher in summer than winter and correlating to regional UV index. Area plots demonstrated a peak of increased 25(OH)D insufficiency / deficiency in adolescent females, although overall worse 25(OH)D status was found in male versus female patients in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. Surprisingly, improved 25(OH)D status was observed in patients starting near age 50. Finally, chart review of WCMC and UIHC datasets revealed over-supplementation (especially of ≥ 50,000 IU weekly doses) in the rare cases of very high 25(OH)D levels. General nutritional deficiency and/or severe illness was found in most cases of severe 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusions 25(OH)D status of patients seen by healthcare providers varies according to age, gender, season

  18. Of mice and the 'Age of Discovery': the complex history of colonization of the Azorean archipelago by the house mouse (Mus musculus) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, S I; Mathias, M L; Searle, J B

    2015-01-01

    Humans have introduced many species onto remote oceanic islands. The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a human commensal and has consequently been transported to oceanic islands around the globe as an accidental stowaway. The history of these introductions can tell us not only about the mice themselves but also about the people that transported them. Following a phylogeographic approach, we used mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation (within an 849- to 864-bp fragment) to study house mouse colonization of the Azores. A total of 239 sequences were obtained from all nine islands, and interpretation was helped by previously published Iberian sequences and 66 newly generated Spanish sequences. A Bayesian analysis revealed presence in the Azores of most of the D-loop clades previously described in the domesticus subspecies of the house mouse, suggesting a complex colonization history of the archipelago as a whole from multiple geographical origins, but much less heterogeneity (often single colonization?) within islands. The expected historical link with mainland Portugal was reflected in the pattern of D-loop variation of some of the islands but not all. A more unexpected association with a distant North European source area was also detected in three islands, possibly reflecting human contact with the Azores prior to the 15th century discovery by Portuguese mariners. Widening the scope to colonization of the Macaronesian islands as a whole, human linkages between the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries, Portugal and Spain were revealed through the sharing of mouse sequences between these areas. From these and other data, we suggest mouse studies may help resolve historical uncertainties relating to the 'Age of Discovery'.

  19. Prevalence of thrombophilia according to age at the first manifestation of venous thromboembolism: results from the MAISTHRO registry.

    PubMed

    Weingarz, Lea; Schwonberg, Jan; Schindewolf, Marc; Hecking, Carola; Wolf, Zsuzsanna; Erbe, Matthias; Weber, Adele; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard; Linnemann, Birgit

    2013-12-01

    Thrombophilia is a well-established risk factor for a venous thromboembolic event (VTE), and it has been proposed that hereditary thrombophilia may substantially contribute to the development of VTE in young patients. We aimed to analyse the prevalence of thrombophilia with special regard to the age of VTE manifestation. The study cohort consisted of 1490 patients (58% females) with a median age 43 years at the time of their first VTE. At least one thrombophilic disorder was identified in 50·1% of patients. The probability of detecting a hereditary thrombophilia declined significantly with advancing age (from 49·3% in patients aged 20 years and younger to 21·9% in patients over the age of 70 years; P < 0·001). This may be primarily attributed to the decreasing frequencies of the F5 R506Q (factor V Leiden) mutation and deficiencies of protein C or protein S with older age at the time of the initial VTE event. Moreover, thrombophilia was more prevalent in unprovoked compared with risk-associated VTE (57·7% vs. 47·7%; P = 0·001). The decline in the prevalence of hereditary thrombophilia with older ages supports the use of a selected thrombophilia screening strategy dependent on age and the presence or absence of additional VTE risk factors.

  20. Early Parental and Child Predictors of Recurrent Abdominal Pain at School Age: Results of a Large Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; Hotopf, Matthew; Wiles, Nicola J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether parental psychological and physical factors and child factors measured in the first year of life were associated with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children at age 6 3/4 years. Method: A longitudinal cohort study (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), followed 8,272 children from pregnancy to age 6…

  1. National Survey To Validate General Growth Outcomes for Children between Birth and Age Eight: Initial Results. Technical Report #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Scott; McEvoy, Mary; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Kaminski, Ruth; Good, Roland H., III; Shinn, Mark

    This monograph reports on a national mail survey to validate a set of general growth outcomes for children, including those with disabilities, between birth and age 8. The survey was part of a 5-year project to create a comprehensive measurement system to track the developmental progress of individual children with disabilities in this age range…

  2. European Cross-Sectional Survey of Current Care Practices for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Reveals Regional and Age-Dependent Differences

    PubMed Central

    Vry, Julia; Gramsch, Kathrin; Rodger, Sunil; Thompson, Rachel; Steffensen, Birgit F.; Rahbek, Jes; Doerken, Sam; Tassoni, Adrian; Beytía, María de los Angeles; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Chamova, Teodora; Tournev, Ivailo; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Kaminska, Anna; Lusakowska, Anna; Mrazova, Lenka; Pavlovska, Lenka; Strenkova, Jana; Vondráček, Petr; Garami, Marta; Karcagi, Veronika; Herczegfalvi, Ágnes; Bushby, Katherine; Lochmüller, Hanns; Kirschner, Janbernd

    2016-01-01

    Background: Publication of comprehensive clinical care guidelines for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in 2010 was a milestone for DMD patient management. Our CARE-NMD survey investigates the neuromuscular, medical, and psychosocial care of DMD patients in Europe, and compares it to the guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1677 patients contacted via the TREAT-NMD patient registries was conducted using self-report questionnaires in seven European countries. Results: Survey respondents were 861 children and 201 adults. Data describe a European DMD population with mean age of 13.0 years (range 0.8–46.2) of whom 53% had lost ambulation (at 10.3 years of age, median). Corticosteroid medication raised the median age for ambulatory loss from 10.1 years in patients never medicated to 11.4 years in patients who received steroids (p < 0.0001). The majority of patients reported receiving care in line with guidelines, although we identified significant differences between countries and important shortcomings in prevention and treatment. Summarised, 35% of patients aged≥ nine years received no corticosteroid medication, 24% of all patients received no regular physiotherapy, echocardiograms were not performed regularly in 22% of patients, pulmonary function was not regularly assessed in 71% of non-ambulatory patients. Patients with regular follow-up by neuromuscular specialists were more likely to receive care according to guidelines, were better satisfied, and experienced shorter unplanned hospitalization periods. PMID:27911335

  3. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Structure: Results from the Physical Influences on Brain in Aging (PHIBRA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonasson, Lars S.; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F.; Lundquist, Anders; Riklund, Katrine; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64–78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests. Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher “Cognitive score,” a composite including episodic memory, processing speed, updating, and executive function tasks (p = 0.01). There were no group differences in cortical thickness, but additional analyses revealed that aerobic fitness at baseline was specifically related to larger thickness in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and hippocampus volume was positively associated with increased aerobic fitness over time. Moreover, “Cognitive score” was related to dlPFC thickness at baseline, but changes in “Cognitive score” and dlPFC thickness were associated over time in the aerobic group only. However, aerobic fitness did not predict dlPFC change, despite the improvement in “Cognitive score” in aerobic exercisers. Our interpretation of these observations is that potential exercise-induced changes in thickness are slow, and may be undetectable within 6-months, in contrast to change in hippocampus volume which in fact was predicted by the change in aerobic fitness. To conclude, our results add to a growing literature suggesting that aerobic exercise has a broad influence on cognitive functioning, which may aid in

  4. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Structure: Results from the Physical Influences on Brain in Aging (PHIBRA) Study.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Lars S; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F; Lundquist, Anders; Riklund, Katrine; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64-78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests. Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher "Cognitive score," a composite including episodic memory, processing speed, updating, and executive function tasks (p = 0.01). There were no group differences in cortical thickness, but additional analyses revealed that aerobic fitness at baseline was specifically related to larger thickness in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and hippocampus volume was positively associated with increased aerobic fitness over time. Moreover, "Cognitive score" was related to dlPFC thickness at baseline, but changes in "Cognitive score" and dlPFC thickness were associated over time in the aerobic group only. However, aerobic fitness did not predict dlPFC change, despite the improvement in "Cognitive score" in aerobic exercisers. Our interpretation of these observations is that potential exercise-induced changes in thickness are slow, and may be undetectable within 6-months, in contrast to change in hippocampus volume which in fact was predicted by the change in aerobic fitness. To conclude, our results add to a growing literature suggesting that aerobic exercise has a broad influence on cognitive functioning, which may aid in explaining why

  5. Modulation of gut microbiota and delayed immunosenescence as a result of syringaresinol consumption in middle-aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Si-Young; Kim, Juewon; Lee, Ji Hae; Sim, Ji Hyun; Cho, Dong-Hyun; Bae, Il-Hong; Lee, Hyunbok; Seol, Min A.; Shin, Hyun Mu; Kim, Tae-Joo; Kim, Dae-Yong; Lee, Su-Hyung; Shin, Song Seok; lm, Sin-Hyeog; Kim, Hang-Rae

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated immunological dysfunction (immunosenescence) is closely linked to perturbation of the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated whether syringaresinol (SYR), a polyphenolic lignan, modulates immune aging and the gut microbiota associated with this effect in middle-aged mice. Compared with age-matched control mice, SYR treatment delayed immunosenescence by enhancing the numbers of total CD3+ T cells and naïve T cells. SYR treatment induced the expression of Bim as well as activation of FOXO3 in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, SYR treatment significantly enhanced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio compared with that in age-matched controls by increasing beneficial bacteria, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, while reducing the opportunistic pathogenic genus, Akkermansia. In addition, SYR treatment reduced the serum level of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, an inflammatory marker, and enhanced humoral immunity against influenza vaccination to the level of young control mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that SYR may rejuvenate the immune system through modulation of gut integrity and microbiota diversity as well as composition in middle-aged mice, which may delay the immunosenescence associated with aging. PMID:27976725

  6. Modulation of gut microbiota and delayed immunosenescence as a result of syringaresinol consumption in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Si-Young; Kim, Juewon; Lee, Ji Hae; Sim, Ji Hyun; Cho, Dong-Hyun; Bae, Il-Hong; Lee, Hyunbok; Seol, Min A; Shin, Hyun Mu; Kim, Tae-Joo; Kim, Dae-Yong; Lee, Su-Hyung; Shin, Song Seok; Lm, Sin-Hyeog; Kim, Hang-Rae

    2016-12-15

    Age-associated immunological dysfunction (immunosenescence) is closely linked to perturbation of the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated whether syringaresinol (SYR), a polyphenolic lignan, modulates immune aging and the gut microbiota associated with this effect in middle-aged mice. Compared with age-matched control mice, SYR treatment delayed immunosenescence by enhancing the numbers of total CD3(+) T cells and naïve T cells. SYR treatment induced the expression of Bim as well as activation of FOXO3 in Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, SYR treatment significantly enhanced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio compared with that in age-matched controls by increasing beneficial bacteria, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, while reducing the opportunistic pathogenic genus, Akkermansia. In addition, SYR treatment reduced the serum level of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, an inflammatory marker, and enhanced humoral immunity against influenza vaccination to the level of young control mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that SYR may rejuvenate the immune system through modulation of gut integrity and microbiota diversity as well as composition in middle-aged mice, which may delay the immunosenescence associated with aging.

  7. Response-specific slowing in older age revealed through differential stimulus and response effects on P300 latency and reaction time

    PubMed Central

    Bashore, Theodore R.; Wylie, Scott A.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Martinerie, Jacques M.

    2015-01-01

    Older age produces numerous changes in cognitive processes, including slowing in the rate of mental processing speed. There has been controversy over the past three decades about whether this slowing is generalized or process-specific. A growing literature indicates that it is process-specific and suggests it is most dramatic at the interface where a stimulus input is translated into a response output. We tested this hypothesis using a task in which young and older adult males made either compatible or incompatible responses to the word LEFT or RIGHT shown briefly and variously located in a 4 row × 6 column matrix surrounded by # signs or by letters chosen randomly from the sets A-G or A-Z. Processing speed was measured using P300 latency and reaction time. Experimental effects on these two measures provided support for the hypothesis in revealing that stimulus identification processes were preserved, whereas processes related to translating a stimulus input into a designated response output and then selecting that response were compromised in the elderly. PMID:24191773

  8. Aging study of Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermally activated batteries. [Results of accelerated aging at 130/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Searcy, J. Q.; Neiswander, P. A.

    1980-05-01

    A technique for accelerating the aging process of thermally activated batteries that use iron disulfide was developed. In this approach, storage at 130/sup 0/C for one week was assumed equivalent to a shelf life of five years. Some of the batteries stored at 130/sup 0/C were discharged to test for functionality changes, and others were disassembled and carefully analyzed for evidence of deleterious reactions. Some functionality anomalies were observed. The only deleterious reaction observed was that of Li(Si) reacting with water vapor. 3 figures, 6 tables.

  9. Comparison of chlorofluorocarbon-age dating with particle-tracking results of a regional ground-water flow model of the Portland Basin, Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study in which chlorofluorocarbon-age dating was used to evaluate the results of a ground-water particle tracker for the Portland Basin in Oregon and Washington.

  10. Results of treatment with azacitidine in patients aged ≥ 75 years included in the Spanish Registry of Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Xicoy, Blanca; Jiménez, María-José; García, Olga; Bargay, Joan; Martínez-Robles, Violeta; Brunet, Salut; Arilla, María-Jesús; Pérez de Oteyza, Jaime; Andreu, Rafael; Casaño, Francisco-Javier; Cervero, Carlos-Javier; Bailén, Alicia; Díez, María; González, Bernardo; Vicente, Ana-Isabel; Pedro, Carme; Bernal, Teresa; Luño, Elisa; Cedena, María-Teresa; Palomera, Luis; Simiele, Adriana; Calvo, José-Manuel; Marco, Víctor; Gómez, Eduardo; Gómez, Marta; Gallardo, David; Muñoz, Juan; de Paz, Raquel; Grau, Javier; Ribera, Josep-Maria; Benlloch, Luis-Enrique; Sanz, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    The tolerability of azacitidine (AZA) allows its administration in elderly patients. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical and biological characteristics, transfusion independence (TI), overall survival (OS) and toxicity in a series of 107 patients ≥ 75 years of age from the Spanish Registry of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) treated with AZA. The median age (range) was 78 (75-90) years. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, 86/102 (84%) had MDS, 10/102 (10%) had mixed myeloproferative/myelodysplastic disorder and 6/102 (6%) had acute myeloblastic leukemia. Regarding MDS by the International Prognostic Scoring System on initiation of AZA, 38/84 (45%) were low-intermediate-1 risk and 46/84 (55%) were intermediate-2-high risk. Ninety-five patients (89%) were red blood cell or platelet transfusion dependent. The AZA schedule was 5-0-0 in 39/106 (37%) patients, 5-2-2 in 36/106 (34%) patients and 7 consecutive days in 31/106 (29%) patients. The median number of cycles administered was 8 (range, 1-30). Thirty-eight out of 94 (40%) patients achieved TI. Median OS (95% confidence interval [CI]) was significantly better in patients achieving TI (n = 38) compared to patients who did not (n = 56) (22 [20.1-23.9] months vs. 11.1 [4.8-17.5] months, p = 0.001). No significant differences were observed in TI rate and OS among the three different schedules. With a median follow-up of 14 (min-max, 1-50) months, the median OS (95% CI) of the 107 patients was 18 (12-23) months and the probability of OS (95% CI) at 2 years was 34% (22-46%). Cycles were delayed in 31/106 (29%) patients and 47/101 patients (47%) were hospitalized for infection. These results show that treatment with AZA was feasible and effective in this elderly population, with 40% achieving TI, having a better OS than patients not achieving it. The schedule of AZA administration did not affect efficacy and toxicity.

  11. Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure ages of glaciations in the Frankland Range, southwest Tasmania reveal a limited MIS-2 ice advance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiernan, Kevin; Fink, David; McConnell, Anne

    2017-02-01

    New mapping of the glacial geomorphology coupled with 10Be and 26Al exposure age dating of moraines on the flanks of the Frankland Range in south west Tasmania indicate that glacier extent during MIS-2 was far smaller than during earlier glaciations with the ice cover being confined to only the uppermost cirques of the range. Moraines further down the range flanks, ∼50-150 m lower in altitude than the MIS-2 dated advance, indicate that glaciers were only slightly larger during earlier glaciations and, depending on the interpretation of their exposure ages, may range from MIS 7 to MIS 12. These older moraines are nested inside the maximum ice limits of an even more ancient and extensive glaciation, defined by degraded valley floor moraines and coalescing glacio-fluvial fans that remain undated but appear no younger than MIS 12. Patterns of glacial erosion and moraine deposition on the Frankland Range suggest that the more recent glaciations were increasingly influenced by the erosional morphology initiated by earlier glaciers. Microclimatic differences resulting from this earlier glacial topography were particularly influential determinants of glaciation during MIS 2. These results are consistent with emerging evidence from studies of other ranges in southwest Tasmania.

  12. Age Differences in the Trends of Smoking Among California Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans.

  13. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals significant decline in the contents of N-acetylaspartylglutamate in the hippocampus of aged healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ruiting; Zhu, Qingfeng; Song, Zhenhu; Wang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To characterize the contents of choline (Cho), creatine (Cr) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAA) in the hippocampus of healthy volunteers, we investigated the contents and their correlationship with age, gender and laterality. Material and methods Volunteers were grouped into a young, a middle and an old age. The Cho, Cr and NAA contents were determined with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and the correlationship was analyzed with Pearson correlation Results The concentration of NAA in the bilateral hippocampi was markedly lower in the old than in the young and the middle (LSD test, all p < 0.025). Furthermore, NAA/Cr in the bilateral hippocampi head (left: 1.10 ±0.40 vs. 1.54 ±0.49 or 1.43 ±0.49; right: 1.04 ±0.42 vs. 1.35 ±0.40 or 1.30 ±0.42), region 1 of the bilateral hippocampal body (left: 1.24 ±0.53 vs. 1.58 ±0.58 or 1.35 ±0.44; right: 1.30 ±0.43 vs. 1.54 ±0.51 or 1.35 ±0.51) and region 2 of the left hippocampal body (1.21 ±0.32 vs. 1.46 ±0.36 or 1.36 ±0.44) and the left hippocampal tail (1.11 ±0.40 vs. 1.36 ±0.47 or 1.15 ±0.32) was significantly higher in the old than in the young and the middle, respectively (all p < 0.026). The NAA content in the bilateral hippocampal head, body and tail negatively correlated with age. Moreover, the NAA, Cho and Cr contents in the hippocampal body and the tail were higher in the right than the left. Conclusions The NAA content of the hippocampal head, body and tail were significantly decreased in the old compared with younger persons, and it negatively correlates with age. The NAA, Cho and Cr contents exhibit laterality in the hippocampal body and tail. PMID:28144264

  14. Revealing Interactions between Human Resources, Quality of Life and Environmental Changes within Socially-oriented Observations : Results from the IPY PPS Arctic Project in the Russian North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    Socially-oriented Observations (SOO) in the Russian North have been carried out within multidisciplinary IPY PPS Arctic project under the leadership of Norway and supported by the Research Council of Norway as well as Russian Academy of Sciences. The main objective of SOO is to increase knowledge and observation of changes in quality of life conditions (state of natural environment including climate and biota, safe drinking water and foods, well-being, employment, social relations, access to health care and high quality education, etc.) and - to reveal trends in human capital and capacities (health, demography, education, creativity, spiritual-cultural characteristics and diversity, participation in decision making, etc.). SOO have been carried out in industrial cities as well as sparsely populated rural and nature protection areas in observation sites situated in different bioms (from coastal tundra to southern taiga zone) of Murmansk, Arkhangelsk Oblast and Republic of Komi. SOO were conducted according to the international protocol included in PPS Arctic Manual. SOO approaches based both on local people's perceptions and statistics help to identify main issues and targets for life quality, human capital and environment improvement and thus to distinguish leading SOO indicators for further monitoring. SOO have revealed close interaction between human resources, quality of life and environmental changes. Negative changes in human capital (depopulation, increasing unemployment, aging, declining physical and mental health, quality of education, loss of traditional knowledge, marginalization etc.), despite peoples' high creativity and optimism are becoming the major driving force effecting both the quality of life and the state of environment and overall sustainability. Human induced disturbances such as uncontrolled forests cuttings and poaching are increasing. Observed rapid changes in climate and biota (ice and permafrost melting, tundra shrubs getting taller and

  15. Direct U-series analysis of the Lezetxiki humerus reveals a Middle Pleistocene age for human remains in the Basque Country (northern Iberia).

    PubMed

    de-la-Rúa, Concepción; Altuna, Jesús; Hervella, Monserrat; Kinsley, Leslie; Grün, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    In 1964, a human humerus was found in a sedimentary deposit in Lezetxiki Cave (Basque Country, northern Iberia). The first studies on the stratigraphy, associated mammal faunal remains and lithic implements placed the deposits containing the humerus into the Riss glacial stage. Direct chronometric evidence has so far been missing, and the previous chronostratigraphic framework and faunal dating gave inconsistent results. Here we report laser ablation U-series analyses on the humerus yielding a minimum age of 164 ± 9 ka, corresponding to MIS 6. This is the only direct dating analysis of the Lezetxiki humerus and confirms a Middle Pleistocene age for this hominin fossil. Morphometric analyses suggest that the Lezetxiki humerus has close affinities to other Middle Pleistocene archaic hominins, such as those from La Sima de los Huesos at Atapuerca. This emphasizes the significance of the Lezetxiki fossil within the populations that predate the Neanderthals in south-western Europe. It is thus an important key fossil for the understanding of human evolution in Europe during the Middle Pleistocene, a time period when a great morphological diversity is observed but whose phylogenetic meaning is not yet fully understood.

  16. [CERAD-NP battery: Age-, gender- and education-specific reference values for selected subtests. Results of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe)].

    PubMed

    Luck, T; Riedel-Heller, S G; Wiese, B; Stein, J; Weyerer, S; Werle, J; Kaduszkiewicz, H; Wagner, M; Mösch, E; Zimmermann, T; Maier, W; Bickel, H; van den Bussche, H; Jessen, F; Fuchs, A; Pentzek, M

    2009-10-01

    The CERAD-NP battery represents well-established tests for the neuropsychological diagnosis of characteristic cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's dementia. However, the use of neuropsychological tests requires reliable standard values for the population under consideration, taking sociodemographic characteristics like age, education and gender into account. This report presents age-, education- and gender-specific reference values for the subtests verbal fluency, word list memory, word list recall and word list recognition as well as the word list savings score of the CERAD-NP battery. The study sample consists of 2891 general practitioners' patients from Germany aged 75 years and older. The study participants had a mean age of 80.2 years (SD=3.6); thus, this report provides reliable reference values for the neuropsychological diagnosis of dementia in older age groups.

  17. Prosody-syntax interactions in aging: event-related potentials reveal dissociations between on-line and off-line measures.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, Karsten; Abada, Shani H; Pauker, Efrat; Itzhak, Inbal; Baum, Shari R

    2010-03-19

    This study used ERPs to determine whether older adults use prosody in resolving early and late closure ambiguities comparably to young adults. Participants made off-line acceptability judgments on well-formed sentences or those containing prosody-syntax mismatches. Behaviorally, both groups identified mismatches, but older subjects accepted mismatches significantly more often than younger participants. ERP results demonstrate CPS components and garden-path effects (P600s) in both groups, however, older adults displayed no N400 and more anterior P600 components. The data provide the first electrophysiological evidence suggesting that older adults process and integrate prosodic information in real-time, despite off-line behavioral differences. Age-related differences in neurocognitive processing mechanisms likely contribute to this dissociation.

  18. Distribution of glass transition temperatures Tg in polystyrene thin films as revealed by low-energy muon spin relaxation: A comparison with neutron reflectivity results.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Toshiji; Ogawa, Hiroki; Kishimoto, Mizuki; Inoue, Rintaro; Suter, Andreas; Prokscha, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. E 83, 021801 (2011)] we performed neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements on a five-layer polystyrene (PS) thin film consisting of alternatively stacked deuterated polystyrene (dPS) and hydrogenated polystyrene (hPS) layers (dPS/hPS/dPS/hPS/dPS, ∼100 nm thick) on a Si substrate to reveal the distribution of Tg along the depth direction. Information on the Tg distribution is very useful to understand the interesting but unusual properties of polymer thin films. However, one problem that we have to clarify is if there are effects of deuterium labeling on Tg or not. To tackle the problem we performed low-energy muon spin relaxation (μSR) measurements on the above-mentioned deuterium-labeled five-layer PS thin film as well as dPS and hPS single-layer thin films ∼100 nm thick as a function of muon implantation energy. It was found that the deuterium labeling had no significant effects on the Tg distribution, guaranteeing that we can safely discuss the unusual thin film properties based on the Tg distribution revealed by NR on the deuterium-labeled thin films. In addition, the μSR result suggested that the higher Tg near the Si substrate is due to the strong orientation of phenyl rings.

  19. Construction of a Danish CDI Short Form for Language Screening at the Age of 36 Months: Methodological Considerations and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vach, Werner; Bleses, Dorthe; Jorgensen, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Several research groups have previously constructed short forms of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) for different languages. We consider the specific aim of constructing such a short form to be used for language screening in a specific age group. We present a novel strategy for the construction, which is applicable…

  20. Land use mix and five-year mortality in later life: Results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Jones, Andy; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol; MRC CFAS

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the potential modifying effect of age and mediation effect of co-morbidity on the association between land use mix, a measure of neighbourhood walkability, and five-year mortality among the 2424 individuals participating in the year-10 follow-up of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study in England. Postcodes of participants were mapped onto Lower-layer Super Output Areas, a small area level geographical unit in the UK, and linked to Generalised Land Use data. Cox regression models were fitted to investigate the association. For the younger older age group (75–79 years), the effect of high land use mix on an elevated risk of mortality was mediated by co-morbidity. For older old age groups (80–84, 85+ years), a higher land use mix was directly associated with a 10% lower risk of five-year mortality. The findings suggest differential impacts of land use mix on the health of the younger and older old. PMID:26798962

  1. Palynology as an age-control tool for ice cores. First results of PAMOGIS - Pollen Analyses of the Mt. Ortles Glacier Ice Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festi, Daniela; Kofler, Werner; Gabrielli, Paolo; Oeggl, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Glacier ice cores from the mid latitude are capable of retaining essential information on past climate, environmental and human activities on a seasonal/annual time resolution. However, for a correct interpretation of the ice record a good chronological control is essential. Absolute time markers such as 3H peaks and Sahara dust horizons, together with radiometric methods such as 210Pb, radiocarbon from carbonaceous aerosol particles and AMS-dating are commonly used to obtain the age depth model of ice cores. In this frame we present the first pollen-based chronology from the Eastern Alps. Results of pollen analyses performed on a 10 m firn core taken on the top of Alto dell'Ortles Glacier (3905 m a.s.l.) will be discussed. Palynological data are compared and complemented with stable isotopes, major ions and trace elements analyses. Based on the single species flowering periods, our results show that the pollen spectrum presents seasonal and inter-annual variability that enables to distinguish snow accumulated in the three different flowering seasons and winter snow. According to these four components a seasonal and annual chronology was established, proving that the 10 m firn core encompasses four years of snow accumulation and presents a clear seasonal palynological signal. These first results reveal the potential of pollen content of glacier snow and ice as a chronological tool that can contribute to the construction of a robust chronological model with a seasonal to annual resolution. This study is the first step and the base for future research on deeper ice cores on the Alto dell'Ortles Glacier (Ortles project: www.ortles.org).

  2. Altered proteostasis in aging and heat shock response in C. elegans revealed by analysis of the global and de novo synthesized proteome.

    PubMed

    Liang, Vanessa; Ullrich, Milena; Lam, Hong; Chew, Yee Lian; Banister, Samuel; Song, Xiaomin; Zaw, Thiri; Kassiou, Michael; Götz, Jürgen; Nicholas, Hannah R

    2014-09-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation as a consequence of impaired protein homeostasis (proteostasis) not only characterizes numerous age-related diseases but also the aging process itself. Functionally related to the aging process are, among others, ribosomal proteins, suggesting an intimate link between proteostasis and aging. We determined by iTRAQ quantitative proteomic analysis in C. elegans how the proteome changes with age and in response to heat shock. Levels of ribosomal proteins and mitochondrial chaperones were decreased in aged animals, supporting the notion that proteostasis is altered during aging. Mitochondrial enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain were also reduced, consistent with an age-associated energy impairment. Moreover, we observed an age-associated decline in the heat shock response. In order to determine how protein synthesis is altered in aging and in response to heat shock, we complemented our global analysis by determining the de novo proteome. For that, we established a novel method that enables both the visualization and identification of de novo synthesized proteins, by incorporating the non-canonical methionine analogue, azidohomoalanine (AHA), into the nascent polypeptides, followed by reacting the azide group of AHA by 'click chemistry' with an alkyne-labeled tag. Our analysis of AHA-tagged peptides demonstrated that the decreased abundance of, for example, ribosomal proteins in aged animals is not solely due to degradation but also reflects a relative decrease in their synthesis. Interestingly, although the net rate of protein synthesis is reduced in aged animals, our analyses indicate that the synthesis of certain proteins such as the vitellogenins increases with age.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging at 7T reveals common events in age-related sarcopenia and in the homeostatic response to muscle sterile injury.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Antonio; Campana, Lara; Palmisano, Anna; De Cobelli, Francesco; Canu, Tamara; Santarella, Francesco; Colantoni, Caterina; Monno, Antonella; Vezzoli, Michela; Pezzetti, Giulio; Manfredi, Angelo A; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Del Maschio, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle remodeling in response to various noxae physiologically includes structural changes and inflammatory events. The possibility to study those phenomena in-vivo has been hampered by the lack of validated imaging tools. In our study, we have relied on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for quantitative monitoring of muscle changes in mice experiencing age-related sarcopenia or active regeneration after sterile acute injury of tibialis anterior muscle induced by cardiotoxin (CTX) injection. The extent of myofibrils' necrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and regeneration have been evaluated and compared with parameters from magnetic resonance imaging: T2-mapping (T2 relaxation time; T2-rt), diffusion-tensor imaging (fractional anisotropy, F.A.) and diffusion weighted imaging (apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC). Inflammatory leukocytes within the perimysium and heterogeneous size of fibers characterized aged muscles. They displayed significantly increased T2-rt (P<0.05) and F.A. (P<0.05) compared with young muscles. After acute damage T2-rt increased in otherwise healthy young muscles with a peak at day 3, followed by a progressive decrease to basal values. F.A. dropped 24 hours after injury and afterward increased above the basal level in the regenerated muscle (from day 7 to day 15) returning to the basal value at the end of the follow up period. The ADC displayed opposite kinetics. T2-rt positively correlated with the number of infiltrating leucocytes retrieved by immunomagnetic bead sorting from the tissue (r = 0.92) and with the damage/infiltration score (r = 0.88) while F.A. correlated with the extent of tissue regeneration evaluated at various time points after injury (r = 0.88). Our results indicate that multiparametric MRI is a sensitive and informative tool for monitoring inflammatory and structural muscle changes in living experimental animals; particularly, it allows identifying the increase of T2-rt and F.A. as common events reflecting

  4. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A; Knudsen, Gitte M; Henn, Fritz; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

    2010-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging. Brains from young (5 months old) and old (13 months old) congenital Learned Helplessness rats (cLH), and congenital Non Learned Helplessness rats (cNLH) were immunohistochemically stained for the serotonin transporter and subsequently stereologically quantified for estimating hippocampal serotonin fiber density. Hippocampal BDNF protein levels were measured by ELISA. An exacerbated age-related loss of serotonin fiber density specific for the CA1 area was observed in the cLH animals, whereas reduced hippocampal BDNF levels were seen in young and old cLH when compared with age-matched cNLH controls. These observations indicate that aging should be taken into account when studying the neurobiological factors behind the vulnerability for depression and that understanding the effect of aging on genetically predisposed individuals may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology behind depression, particularly in the elderly.

  5. Associations between Safety from Crime, Cycling, and Obesity in a Dutch Elderly Population: Results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Thomése, G. C. Fleur; Visser, Marjolein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in associations between crime rates, cycling, and weight status between people living in low and high socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods. In total, 470 participants in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were included (age: 63–70 y). Body height and weight were measured using a stadiometer and calibrated weight scale, respectively. Cycling behaviour was assessed in a face-to-face interview, and neighbourhood crime rates were assessed using data from police reports. Men residing in high SES neighbourhoods cycled more than males residing in low SES neighbourhoods. Cycling was negatively related to crime rates among both men and women living in low SES neighbourhoods. Among men living in low SES neighbourhoods, more cycling was associated with lower BMI. Interventions aiming to prevent obesity in older people may consider aiming at increasing bicycle use in lower SES neighbourhoods, but neighbourhood safety issues should be considered. PMID:22523503

  6. Associations between safety from crime, cycling, and obesity in a Dutch elderly population: results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Stef P J; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Tommy L S; Deeg, Dorly J H; Thomése, G C Fleur; Visser, Marjolein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in associations between crime rates, cycling, and weight status between people living in low and high socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods. In total, 470 participants in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were included (age: 63-70 y). Body height and weight were measured using a stadiometer and calibrated weight scale, respectively. Cycling behaviour was assessed in a face-to-face interview, and neighbourhood crime rates were assessed using data from police reports. Men residing in high SES neighbourhoods cycled more than males residing in low SES neighbourhoods. Cycling was negatively related to crime rates among both men and women living in low SES neighbourhoods. Among men living in low SES neighbourhoods, more cycling was associated with lower BMI. Interventions aiming to prevent obesity in older people may consider aiming at increasing bicycle use in lower SES neighbourhoods, but neighbourhood safety issues should be considered.

  7. Accelerometer assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and successful ageing: results from the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Menai, Mehdi; van Hees, Vincent T.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Séverine

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is key for successful ageing, but questions remain regarding the optimal physical activity pattern. We examined the cross-sectional association between physical activity and successful ageing using data on 3,749 participants (age range = 60–83years) of the Whitehall II study. The participants underwent a clinical assessment, completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire, and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days. Successful ageing was defined as good cognitive, motor, and respiratory functioning, along with absence of disability, mental health problems, and major chronic diseases. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) episodes assessed by accelerometer was classified as “short” (1–9.59 minutes) and “long” (≥10 minutes) bouts. Linear multivariate regression showed that successful agers (N = 789) reported 3.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39–6.19) minutes more daily MVPA than other participants. Accelerometer data showed this difference to be 3.40 (95% CI:2.44–4.35) minutes for MVPA undertaken in short bouts, 4.16 (95% CI:3.11–5.20) minutes for long bouts, and 7.55 (95% CI:5.86–9.24) minutes for all MVPA bouts lasting 1 minute or more. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that participants undertaking ≥150 minutes of MVPA per week were more likely to be successful agers with both self-reported (Odd Ratio (OR) = 1.29,95% (CI):1.09–1.53) and accelerometer data (length bout ≥1 minute:OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.60–2.30). Successful agers practice more MVPA, having both more short and long bouts, than non-successful agers. PMID:28367987

  8. Low LDL cholesterol and increased risk of Parkinson's disease: prospective results from Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuemei; Abbott, Robert D; Petrovitch, Helen; Mailman, Richard B; Ross, G Webster

    2008-05-15

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are suggested to be associated inversely with Parkinson's disease (PD). To test the hypothesis that LDL-C levels may increase PD risk, we studied a prospective cohort of 3,233 men (Honolulu-Asia Aging Study) for whom the LDL-C from fasting lipid profiles was obtained during 1991 to 1993. The cohort was followed longitudinally until 2001 for incident Parkinson's cases. During follow-up, 41 men developed PD (18.4/10,000 person-years). Although the incidence of PD increased with decreasing LDL-C in a dose-dependent manner, the association was only significant for men aged 71 to 75 years. In the latter group, risk of PD declined from 38.5/10,000 person-years in men with LDL-C levels <80 mg/dl to less than 9/10,000 person-years for concentrations that were > or =140 mg/dl. After adjustment for age, smoking, coffee intake, and other factors, the relative odds of PD for men at the 80th versus the 20th percentile of LDL-C (135 vs. 85 mg/dl) was 0.4 (95% confidence interval: 0.2, 0.9). This prospective study supports the hypothesis that low LDL-C is associated with an increased risk of PD. Although confirmation is required, the underlying mechanisms may be useful in understanding key aspects of PD.

  9. Aging results in copper accumulations in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells in the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Pushkar, Yulia; Robison, Gregory; Sullivan, Brendan; Fu, Sherleen X; Kohne, Meghan; Jiang, Wendy; Rohr, Sven; Lai, Barry; Marcus, Matthew A; Zakharova, Taisiya; Zheng, Wei

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of rodent brains with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy combined with immunohistochemistry allowed us to demonstrate that local Cu concentrations are thousands of times higher in the glia of the subventricular zone (SVZ) than in other cells. Using XRF microscopy with subcellular resolution and intracellular X-ray absorption spectroscopy we determined the copper (I) oxidation state and the sulfur ligand environment. Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy is consistent with Cu being bound as a multimetallic Cu-S cluster similar to one present in Cu-metallothionein. Analysis of age-related changes show that Cu content in astrocytes of the SVZ increases fourfold from 3 weeks to 9 months, while Cu concentration in other brain areas remain essentially constant. This increase in Cu correlates with a decrease in adult neurogenesis assessed using the Ki67 marker (both, however, can be age-related effects). We demonstrate that the Cu distribution and age-related concentration changes in the brain are highly cell specific.

  10. Regional patterns of Mesozoic-Cenozoic magmatism in western Alaska revealed by new U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages: Chapter D in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, vol. 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Miller, Marti L.; Friedman, Richard M.; Layer, Paul W.; Bleick, Heather A.; Jones, III, James V.; Box, Steven E.; Karl, Susan M.; Shew, Nora B.; White, Timothy S.; Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Ullrich, Thomas D.

    2017-03-02

    In support of regional geologic framework studies, we obtained 50 new argon-40/argon-39 (40Ar/39Ar) ages and 33 new uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages from igneous rocks of southwestern Alaska. Most of the samples are from the Sleetmute and Taylor Mountains quadrangles; smaller collections or individual samples are from the Bethel, Candle, Dillingham, Goodnews Bay, Holy Cross, Iditarod, Kantishna River, Lake Clark, Lime Hills, McGrath, Medfra, Talkeetna, and Tanana quadrangles.A U-Pb zircon age of 317.7±0.6 million years (Ma) reveals the presence of Pennsylvanian intermediate igneous (probably volcanic) rocks in the Tikchik terrane, Bethel quadrangle. A U-Pb zircon age of 229.5±0.2 Ma from gabbro intruding the Rampart Group of the Angayucham-Tozitna terrane, Tanana quadrangle, confirms and tightens a previously cited Triassic age for this intrusive suite. A fresh mafic dike in Goodnews Bay quadrangle yielded a 40Ar/39Ar whole rock age of 155.0±1.9 Ma; this establishes a Jurassic or older age for the previously unconstrained (Paleozoic? to Mesozoic?) sandstone unit that it intrudes. A thick felsic tuff in the Gemuk Group in Taylor Mountains quadrangle yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 153.0±2.0 Ma, extending the age of magmatism in this part of the Togiak terrane back into the Late Jurassic. We report three new U-Pb zircon ages between 120 and 110 Ma—112.0±0.9 Ma from syenite in the Candle quadrangle, 114.9±0.3 Ma from orthogneiss assigned to the Ruby terrane in Iditarod quadrangle, and 116.6±0.1 Ma from a gabbro of the Dishna River mafic-ultramafic complex in Iditarod quadrangle. The latter result requires a substantial age revision, from Triassic to Cretaceous, for at least some rocks that have been mapped as the Dishna River mafic-ultramafic complex. A tuff in the Upper Cretaceous Kuskokwim Group yielded a U-Pb zircon (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe, SHRIMP) age of 88.3±1.0 Ma; we speculate that the eruptive source was an arc along the trend of the Pebble

  11. High-resolution, terrestrial radar velocity observations and model results reveal a strong bed at stable, tidewater Rink Isbræ, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomaus, T. C.; Walker, R. T.; Stearns, L. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Cassotto, R.; Catania, G. A.; Felikson, D.; Fried, M.; Sutherland, D.; Nash, J. D.; Shroyer, E.

    2015-12-01

    At tidewater Rink Isbræ, on the central west coast of Greenland, satellite observations reveal that glacier velocities and terminus positions have remained stable, while the lowest 25 km have thinned 30 m since 1985. Over this same time period, other tidewater glaciers in central west Greenland have retreated, thinned and accelerated. Here we present field observations and model results to show that the flow of Rink Isbræ is resisted by unusually high basal shear stresses. Terrestrial radar interferometry (TRI) observations over 9 days in summer 2014 demonstrate weak velocity response to 4 km wide, full thickness calving events. Velocities at the terminus change by +/- 10% in response to rising and falling tides within a partial-width, 2.5-km-long floating ice tongue; however these tidal perturbations damp out within 2 km of the grounding line. Inversions for basal shear stress and force balance analyses together show that basal shear stresses in excess of 300 kPa support the majority of the driving stress at thick, steep Rink Isbræ. These observational and modeling results tell a consistent story in which a strong bed may limit the unstable tidewater glacier retreats observed elsewhere. Rink Isbræ has an erosion resistant quartzite bed with low fracture density. We hypothesize that this geology may play a major role in the bed strength.

  12. Distribution of Groundwater Ages at Public-Supply Wells: Comparison of Results from Lumped Parameter and Numerical Inverse Models with Multiple Environmental Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberts, S.; Bohlke, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    Estimates of groundwater age distributions at public-supply wells can provide insight into the vulnerability of these wells to contamination. Such estimates can be used to explore past and future water-quality trends and contaminant peak concentrations when combined with information on contaminant input at the water table. Information on groundwater age distributions, however, is not routinely applied to water quality issues at public-supply wells. This may be due, in part, to the difficulty in obtaining such estimates from poorly characterized aquifers with limited environmental tracer data. To this end, we compared distributions of groundwater ages in discharge from public-supply wells estimated from age tracer data (SF6, CFCs, 3H, 3He) using two different inverse modeling approaches: relatively simple lumped parameter models and more complex distributed-parameter numerical flow models with particle tracking. These comparisons were made in four contrasting hydrogeologic settings across the United States: unconsolidated alluvial fan sediments, layered confined unconsolidated sediments, unconsolidated valley-fill sediments, and carbonate rocks. In all instances, multiple age tracer measurements for the public-supply well of interest were available. We compared the following quantities, which were derived from simulated breakthrough curves that were generated using the various estimated age distributions for the selected wells and assuming the same hypothetical contaminant input: time lag to peak concentration, dilution at peak concentration, and contaminant arrival and flush times. Apparent tracer-based ages and mean and median simulated ages also were compared. For each setting, both types of models yielded similar age distributions and concentration trends, when based on similar conceptual models of local hydrogeology and calibrated to the same tracer measurements. Results indicate carefully chosen and calibrated simple lumped parameter age distribution models

  13. U-Pb isotopic results for single shocked and polycrystalline zircons record 550-65.5-Ma ages for a K-T target site and 2700-1850-Ma ages for the Sudbury impact event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    The refractory mineral zircon develops distinct morphological features during shock metamorphism and retains these features under conditions that would anneal them in other minerals. In addition, weakly shocked zircon grains give primary ages for the impact site, while highly reconstituted (polycrystalline) single grains give ages that approach the age of the impact event. Data for a series of originally coeval grains will define a mixing line that gives both of these ages providing that no subsequent geological disturbances have overprinted the isotopic systematics. In this study, we have shown that the three zircon grain types described by Bohor, from both K-T distal ejecta (Fireball layer, Raton Basin, Colorado) and the Onaping Formation, represent a progressive increase in impact-related morphological change that coincides with a progressive increase in isotopic resetting in zircons from the ejecta and basement rocks. Unshocked grains are least affected by isotopic resetting while polycrystalline grains are most affected. U-Pb isotopic results for 12 of 14 single zircon grains from the Fireball layer plot on or close to a line recording a primary age of 550 +/- 10 Ma and a secondary age of 65.5 +/- 3 Ma. Data for the least and most shocked grains plot closest to the primary and secondary ages respectively. The two other grains each give ages between 300 and 350 Ma. This implies that the target ejecta was dominated by 550-Ma rocks and that the recrystallization features of the zircon were superimposed during the impact event at 65.5 Ma. A predominant age of 550 Ma for zircons from the Fireball layer provides an excellent opportunity to identify the impact site and to test the hypothesis that multiple impacts occurred at this time. A volcanic origin for the Fireball layer is ruled out by shock-related morphological changes in zircon and the fact that the least shocked grains are old. Basement Levack gneisses north of the Sudbury structure have a primary age of

  14. False positive hepatitis C antibody test results in left ventricular assist device recipients: increased risk with age and transfusions.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Grace Y; Lee, Doreen; Colovai, Adriana; Levy, Dana; Vasovic, Ljiljana; Roach, Keith W; Shuter, Jonathan; Goldstein, Daniel; D'Alessandro, David; Jorde, Ulrich P; Muggia, Victoria A

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been successfully used in patients with heart failure. However, LVADs may trigger immune activation, leading to higher frequencies of autoantibodies. We describe the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of LVAD recipients with false positive hepatitis C (FPHC) serology among 39 consecutive adult LVAD recipients who bridged to heart transplantation from January 2007 to January 2013 at Montefiore Medical Center. FPHC patients were identified as those with post-LVAD positive hepatitis C ELISA antibody tests and negative confirmatory testing with hepatitis C RNA PCR and/or radioimmunoblot assay. Ten (26%) patients previously seronegative for hepatitis C were found to have FPHC after device placement. Of the 39 patients, 32 had HeartMate II devices. The mean age at LVAD placement was 55 years. FPHC correlated with older age at the time of LVAD implantation and with receipt of packed red blood cell transfusions, but not with gender, fresh frozen plasma transfusions, panel reactive antibodies, globulin fraction, rheumatoid factor, or anticardiolipin antibodies. Clinicians should be aware of this increased risk of FPHC in older LVAD patients and those more heavily transfused in order to avoid unnecessary apprehension and possible delay in transplantation. Further studies should be done to evaluate the possible relationship between transfused blood products and immunomodulation.

  15. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Cameron J; McGregor, Robin A; D'Souza, Randall F; Thorstensen, Eric B; Markworth, James F; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-10-21

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring (13)C₆ phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  16. False positive hepatitis C antibody test results in left ventricular assist device recipients: increased risk with age and transfusions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doreen; Colovai, Adriana; Levy, Dana; Vasovic, Ljiljana; Roach, Keith W.; Shuter, Jonathan; Goldstein, Daniel; D’Alessandro, David; Jorde, Ulrich P.; Muggia, Victoria A.

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been successfully used in patients with heart failure. However, LVADs may trigger immune activation, leading to higher frequencies of autoantibodies. We describe the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of LVAD recipients with false positive hepatitis C (FPHC) serology among 39 consecutive adult LVAD recipients who bridged to heart transplantation from January 2007 to January 2013 at Montefiore Medical Center. FPHC patients were identified as those with post-LVAD positive hepatitis C ELISA antibody tests and negative confirmatory testing with hepatitis C RNA PCR and/or radioimmunoblot assay. Ten (26%) patients previously seronegative for hepatitis C were found to have FPHC after device placement. Of the 39 patients, 32 had HeartMate II devices. The mean age at LVAD placement was 55 years. FPHC correlated with older age at the time of LVAD implantation and with receipt of packed red blood cell transfusions, but not with gender, fresh frozen plasma transfusions, panel reactive antibodies, globulin fraction, rheumatoid factor, or anticardiolipin antibodies. Clinicians should be aware of this increased risk of FPHC in older LVAD patients and those more heavily transfused in order to avoid unnecessary apprehension and possible delay in transplantation. Further studies should be done to evaluate the possible relationship between transfused blood products and immunomodulation. PMID:28203425

  17. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. PMID:26506377

  18. Quantification of butyryl CoA:acetate CoA-transferase genes reveals different butyrate production capacity in individuals according to diet and age.

    PubMed

    Hippe, Berit; Zwielehner, Jutta; Liszt, Kathrin; Lassl, Cornelia; Unger, Frank; Haslberger, Alexander G

    2011-03-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota produces short-chain fatty acids, especially butyrate, which affect colonic health, immune function and epigenetic regulation. To assess the effects of nutrition and aging on the production of butyrate, the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene and population shifts of Clostridium clusters lV and XlVa, the main butyrate producers, were analysed. Faecal samples of young healthy omnivores (24 ± 2.5 years), vegetarians (26 ± 5 years) and elderly (86 ± 8 years) omnivores were evaluated. Diet and lifestyle were assessed in questionnaire-based interviews. The elderly had significantly fewer copies of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene than young omnivores (P=0.014), while vegetarians showed the highest number of copies (P=0.048). The thermal denaturation of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene variant melting curve related to Roseburia/Eubacterium rectale spp. was significantly more variable in the vegetarians than in the elderly. The Clostridium cluster XIVa was more abundant in vegetarians (P=0.049) and in omnivores (P<0.01) than in the elderly group. Gastrointestinal microbiota of the elderly is characterized by decreased butyrate production capacity, reflecting increased risk of degenerative diseases. These results suggest that the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene is a valuable marker for gastrointestinal microbiota function.

  19. Smith-Magenis syndrome results in disruption of CLOCK gene transcription and reveals an integral role for RAI1 in the maintenance of circadian rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephen R; Zies, Deborah; Mullegama, Sureni V; Grotewiel, Michael S; Elsea, Sarah H

    2012-06-08

    Haploinsufficiency of RAI1 results in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a disorder characterized by intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, obesity, neurobehavioral abnormalities, and a disrupted circadian sleep-wake pattern. An inverted melatonin rhythm (i.e., melatonin peaks during the day instead of at night) and associated sleep-phase disturbances in individuals with SMS, as well as a short-period circadian rhythm in mice with a chromosomal deletion of Rai1, support SMS as a circadian-rhythm-dysfunction disorder. However, the molecular cause of the circadian defect in SMS has not been described. The circadian oscillator temporally orchestrates metabolism, physiology, and behavior largely through transcriptional modulation. Data support RAI1 as a transcriptional regulator, but the genes it might regulate are largely unknown. Investigation into the role that RAI1 plays in the regulation of gene transcription and circadian maintenance revealed that RAI1 regulates the transcription of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), a key component of the mammalian circadian oscillator that transcriptionally regulates many critical circadian genes. Data further show that haploinsufficiency of RAI1 and Rai1 in SMS fibroblasts and the mouse hypothalamus, respectively, results in the transcriptional dysregulation of the circadian clock and causes altered expression and regulation of multiple circadian genes, including PER2, PER3, CRY1, BMAL1, and others. These data suggest that heterozygous mutation of RAI1 and Rai1 leads to a disrupted circadian rhythm and thus results in an abnormal sleep-wake cycle, which can contribute to an abnormal feeding pattern and dependent cognitive performance. Finally, we conclude that RAI1 is a positive transcriptional regulator of CLOCK, pinpointing a novel and important role for this gene in the circadian oscillator.

  20. Children with developmental language delay at 24 months of age: results of a diagnostic work-up.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Anke; Jooss, Bettina; Rupp, André; Dockter, Sonja; Blaschtikowitz, Heike; Heggen, Iris; Pietz, Joachim

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if a diagnostic work-up should be recommended for 2-year-old children with developmental language delay (LD), or if the widely chosen 'wait and see' strategy is adequate. Children with LD were identified in paediatric practices during routine developmental check-ups using a German parent-report screening questionnaire (adapted from the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories). A standardized German instrument and the Netherlands version of Bayley Scales of Infant Development (2nd ed.) were used to assess language ability and nonverbal cognitive development respectively in 100 children with LD (65 males, 35 females; mean age 24.7 mo [SD 0.9]) and a control group of 53 children with normal language development (33 males, 20 females; mean age 24.6 mo [SD 0.8]). Neurological and audiometric testing were also performed. Sixty-one per cent of the LD group had specific expressive LD and 17% specific receptive-expressive LD. In 22%, LD was associated with other neurodevelopmental problems, 6% showed significant deficits in nonverbal cognitive abilities, and in 12%, nonverbal cognitive abilities were borderline. Four per cent fulfilled the criteria of childhood autism. LD at 2 years proved to represent a sensitive marker for different developmental problems. Adequate early intervention requires a clear distinction between specific expressive or receptive-expressive LD and LD associated with other neurodevelopmental problems. Though catch-up development is to be expected in a substantial proportion of 'late talkers', our data demonstrate that a general 'wait and see' approach is not justified in young children with LD. A proposal for a rational diagnostic work-up is presented.

  1. Half-width plots, a simple tool to predict peak shape, reveal column kinetics and characterise chromatographic columns in liquid chromatography: state of the art and new results.

    PubMed

    Baeza-Baeza, J J; Ruiz-Ángel, M J; García-Álvarez-Coque, M C; Carda-Broch, S

    2013-11-01

    Peak profiles in chromatography are characterised by their height, position, width and asymmetry; the two latter depend on the values of the left and right peak half-widths. Simple correlations have been found between the peak half-widths and the retention times. The representation of such correlations has been called half-width plots. For isocratic elution, the plots are parabolic, although often, the parabolas can be approximated to straight-lines. The plots can be obtained with the half-widths/retention time data for a set of solutes experiencing the same kinetics, eluted with a mobile phase at fixed or varying composition. When the analysed solutes experience different resistance to mass transfer, the plots will be solute dependent, and should be obtained with the data for each solute eluted with mobile phases at varying composition. The half-width plots approach is a simple tool that facilitates the prediction of peak shape (width and asymmetry) with optimisation purposes, reveal the interaction kinetics of solutes in different columns, and characterise chromatographic columns. This work shows half-width plots for different situations in isocratic elution, including the use of different flows, the effect of temperature, the modification of the stationary phase surface by an additive, the existence of specific interactions within the column, and the comparison of columns. The adaptation to gradient elution is also described. Previous knowledge on half-width plots is structured and analysed, to which new results are added.

  2. Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss in the extremes of reproductive age: results from a national cross- sectional multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and near miss (NM) cases among adolescent girls and women over 35 years of age in the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity, using a set of standard criteria, compared to pregnant women aged 20 to 34 years. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 27 referral obstetric units in Brazil. All pregnant women admitted to these centers during a one-year period of prospective surveillance were screened to identify cases of maternal death (MD), NM and other SMM. Indicators of maternal morbidity and mortality were evaluated for the three age groups. Sociodemographic, clinical and obstetric characteristics, gestational and perinatal outcomes, main causes of morbidity and delays in care were also compared. Two multiple analysis models were performed, to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratio for identified factors that were independently associated with the occurrence of severe maternal outcome (SMO = MNM + MD). Results Among SMM and MD cases identified, the proportion of adolescent girls and older women were 17% each. The risk of MNM or death was 25% higher among older women. Maternal near miss ratio and maternal mortality ratios increased with age, but these ratios were also higher among adolescents aged 10 to 14, although the absolute numbers were low. On multivariate analysis, younger age was not identified as an independent risk factor for SMO, while this was true for older age (PR 1.25; 1.07-1.45). Conclusions SMO was high among women below 14 years of age and increased with age in Brazilian pregnant women. PMID:24555831

  3. Plasma Proteins Modified by Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Reveal Site-specific Susceptibilities to Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Greifenhagen, Uta; Frolov, Andrej; Blüher, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-04-29

    Protein glycation refers to the reversible reaction between aldoses (or ketoses) and amino groups yielding relatively stable Amadori (or Heyns) products. Consecutive oxidative cleavage reactions of these products or the reaction of amino groups with other reactive substances (e.g. α-dicarbonyls) yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can alter the structures and functions of proteins. AGEs have been identified in all organisms, and their contents appear to rise with some diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Here, we report a pilot study using highly sensitive and specific proteomics approach to identify and quantify AGE modification sites in plasma proteins by reversed phase HPLC mass spectrometry in tryptic plasma digests. In total, 19 AGE modification sites corresponding to 11 proteins were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under poor glycemic control. The modification degrees of 15 modification sites did not differ among cohorts of normoglycemic lean or obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients under good and poor glycemic control. The contents of two amide-AGEs in human serum albumin and apolipoprotein A-II were significantly higher in patients with poor glycemic control, although the plasma levels of both proteins were similar among all plasma samples. These two modification sites might be useful to predict long term, AGE-related complications in diabetic patients, such as impaired vision, increased arterial stiffness, or decreased kidney function.

  4. Aging of marine organic matter during cross-shelf lateral transport in the Benguela upwelling system revealed by compound-specific radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, Gesine; Inthorn, Maik; Vogt, Thomas; Zabel, Matthias; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2007-09-01

    Organic matter accumulation and burial on the Namibian shelf and upper slope are spatially heterogeneous and strongly controlled by lateral transport in subsurface nepheloid layers. Much of the material deposited in depo-centers on the slope ultimately derives from the shelf. Supply of organic matter from the shelf involves selective transport of organic matter. We studied these selective transport processes by analyzing the radiocarbon content of co-occurring sediment fractions. Here we present radiocarbon data for total organic carbon as well as three tracers of surface ocean productivity (phytoplankton-derived alkenones, membrane lipids of pelagic crenarchaeota (crenarchaeol), and calcareous microfossils of planktic foraminifera) in core-top and near-surface sediment samples. The samples were collected on the Namibian margin along a shelf-slope transect (85 to 1040 m) at 24°S and from the upper slope depo-center at 25.5°S. In core-top sediments, alkenone ages gradually increased from modern to 3490 radiocarbon years with distance from shore and with water depth. Crenarchaeol, while younger than alkenones, also increased in age with distance offshore. It was concluded that the observed ages were a consequence of cross-shelf transport and associated aging of organic matter. Radiocarbon ages of preserved lipid biomarkers in sediments thus at least partially depend on the relative amount of laterally supplied, pre-aged material present in a sample, highlighting the importance of nepheloid transport for the sedimentation of organic matter over the Namibian margin.

  5. Aged monkey brains reveal the role of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2N in the synaptosomal accumulation of mutant huntingtin

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Peng; Tu, Zhuchi; Yin, An; Zhao, Ting; Yan, Sen; Guo, Xiangyu; Chang, Renbao; Zhang, Lianhe; Hong, Yan; Huang, Xiahe; Zhou, Junxia; Wang, Yingchun; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Although misfolded proteins are ubiquitinated and cleared by the proteasome, they can accumulate in synapses in aged neurons to promote synaptic dysfunction in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease (HD), which is caused by polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin. The mechanism behind this aging-related phenomenon is unknown and has been difficult to investigate using animals with short life spans. With brain tissues from longer-lived rhesus monkeys of different ages, we found that aging reduces ubiquitin-proteasomal activity and also increases the level of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2N (Ubc13) in synaptosomes. Synaptosomal fractions from aged monkey brain increase in vitro ubiquitinated huntingtin, whereas depletion of UBE2N markedly reduces this increase. Overexpressing UBE2N increases the aggregation of mutant huntingtin, and reducing UBE2N attenuates huntingtin aggregation in cellular and mouse models of HD. Our studies suggest that increased UBE2N plays a critical role in the synaptosomal accumulation of mutant huntingtin with age. PMID:25343992

  6. Revealing a cancer diagnosis to patients: attitudes of patients, families, friends, nurses, and physicians in Lebanon—results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, F.; Othman, A.; el Baba, G.; Kattan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Disclosure of a cancer diagnosis to patients is a major problem for physicians in Lebanon. Our survey aimed to identify the attitudes of patients, families and friends, nurses, and physicians regarding disclosure of a cancer diagnosis. Methods Study participants included 343 physicians, nurses, cancer patients, families, and friends from clinics in two major hospitals in Lebanon. All completed a 29-item questionnaire that assessed, by demographic group, the information provided about cancer, opinions about the disclosure of the diagnosis to cancer patients, perceived consequences to patients, and the roles of family, friends, and religion. Results Overall, 7.8% of the patients were convinced that cancer is incurable. Nearly 82% preferred to be informed about their diagnosis. Similarly, 83% of physicians were in favour of disclosing a cancer diagnosis to their patients. However, only 14% of the physicians said that they revealed the truth to the patients themselves, with only 9% doing so immediately after confirmation of the diagnosis. Disclosure of a cancer diagnosis was preferred before the start of the treatment by 59% of the patients and immediately after confirmation of the diagnosis by 72% of the physicians. Overall, 86% of physicians, 51% of nurses, and 69% of patients and their families believed that religion helped with the acceptance of a cancer diagnosis. A role for family in accepting the diagnosis was reported by 74% of the patients, 56% of the nurses, and 88% of the physicians. All participants considered that fear was the most difficult feeling (63%) experienced by cancer patients, followed by pain (29%), pity (8%), and death (1%), with no statistically significant difference between the answers given by the participant groups. Conclusions The social background in Lebanese society is the main obstacle to revealing the truth to cancer patients. Lebanese patients seem to prefer direct communication of the truth, but families take the opposite

  7. Ar-Ar Age of the L Chondrite Northwest Africa 091: More Evidence that Multiple Isochrons Reveal a Link to Fossil Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, J. R.; Isachsen, C. E.; Swindle, T. D.

    2011-03-01

    The multiple isochron approach on NWA 091 reveals impacts at 472 ± 6 and 799 ± 71 Ma, with different trapped components at different release temperatures. Two trapped components >1000°C suggests multiple high temperature K domains.

  8. Intelligence and Achievement Test Results of Kindergarten-Age Children in England, Ireland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vane, Julia R.

    1973-01-01

    Results support the hypothesis that the differences between the test results of the middle and lower classes in the individual countries are greater than the differences between the same classes in the three different countries. (Author)

  9. Groundwater age structure and palaeo hydrogeology over a 500 kyr time scale revealed from Krypton 81and a multiple tracer study: Great Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, A. J.; Purtschert, R.; Jiang, W.; Lu, Z.; Tosaki, Y.; Fulton, S.; Wohling, D.; Shand, P.; Broder, L.; Aeschbach, W.; Rousseau=Gueutin, P.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the most comprehensive set of krypton -81 data to be analysed so far. Our study site is on the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB). The study area is focused on the western margin of the GAB between the Finke River system in the Northern Territory and the iconic Dalhousie springs in South Australia. This represents the direction of groundwater flow from recharge to discharge through the Dalhousie spring complex. Because of its vast size and the potential for large regional flow systems to occur, the GAB has been considered an ideal basin to test emerging groundwater dating techniques such as Cl-36 and He-4. However both of these techniques are subjected to large degrees of uncertainty, as they require a detailed understanding of different sources and sinks of these two isotopes. Contrasting this Kr-81 is considered to be an ideal tracer as it contains only one source, the atmosphere with no or at most minimal sub surface production. For the first time we have provided a comprehensive suite of analyse not only of Cl-36, He-4, C-14, Ar-39, stable isotopes of the water molecule and noble gases but also, Kr-85 and Kr-81. Our results indicate a spectrum of 'groundwater ages' ranging from modern as indicated by thermonuclear C-14 and Ar-39 up to hundreds of thousands of years as indicated by Kr-81, Cl-36 and He-4. The data set indicates a wide range of stable isotopes of the water molecule as well as variability in noble gas recharge temperatures that suggest that not only has this region been subjected to changes in climate in the recharge zone but also testaments to a changes in the dominate direction of rainfall indicated by a change in recharge mechanism at the beginning of the Holocene. As suggested previously this groundwater flow transect may represent an ideal 'type section' for testing new and emerging environmental tracers in hydrogeology.

  10. [Sadness, worries and fears: depression and anxiety disorders in preschool age--results of relevance, symptoms and impairment].

    PubMed

    Otto, Yvonne; Andreas, Anna; von Klitzing, Kai; Fuchs, Sandra; Klein, Annette M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the current strain and impairment of children with depressive and anxiety disorders in terms of their development and family environment compared to children without mental disorders. Conclusions for dealing with clinical disorders in preschool are to be derived. Internalizing symptoms/disorders were measured dimensionally with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; multi-informant approach) and categorially with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). The sample consisted of n = 93 children with pure anxiety disorders, n = 20 children with depressive and anxiety disorders, n = 42 children with subclinical symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders, and n = 76 children without mental disorders. We assessed stability of symptoms, as well as agreement between mothers, fathers and kindergarten teachers regarding internalizing symptoms which was higher between mothers and fathers than between parents and kindergarten teachers. In comparison to kindergarten teachers parents reported more internalizing symptoms. Regarding the overall impairment, family adversity, family environment and maternal psychopathology children with depression and additional anxiety disorders showed the highest scores. There were no differences in overall impairment between children with pure anxiety disorders and without mental disorders. Finally, implications for practice are discussed.

  11. A new dermocosmetic containing retinaldehyde, delta-tocopherol glucoside and glycylglycine oleamide for managing naturally aged skin: results from in vitro to clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Rouvrais, Céline; Bacqueville, Daniel; Bogdanowicz, Patrick; Haure, Marie-José; Duprat, Laure; Coutanceau, Christine; Castex-Rizzi, Nathalie; Duplan, Hélène; Mengeaud, Valérie; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Natural aging of skin tissues, the addition of the cumulative action of the time and radiation exposure result in skin atrophy, wrinkles and degeneration of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of the study was to investigate the beneficial effect of a combination containing retinaldehyde (RAL), delta-tocopherol glucoside (delta-TC) and glycylglycine ole-amide (GGO) and of a dermocosmetic containing the combination. Materials and methods The protective effect of the combination was assessed through in vitro gene expression of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated fibroblasts. A skin aging assay using UV light on ex vivo skin samples and a clinical study conducted in 36 women aged from 35 to 55 years with a minimum of level 4 to a maximum of level 6 on the crow’s feet photoscale assessed the antiaging effect of the dermocosmetic. Results When added to UV-irradiated fibroblasts, the combination substantially improved the ECM in activating the elastin fiber production (fibrillin 2, fibulin 1 and 5 and lysyl oxidase-like 2) as well as that of proteins involved in the cellular ECM interactions (integrin b1, paxillin and actin a2). An ex vivo photodamaged human skin model showed that the dermocosmetic formulation containing the combination of the active ingredients protected the elastic network against UV-induced alterations including both elastin and fibrillin-rich fibers in the dermis. A daily application of the dermocosmetic for 2 months on naturally aged skin resulted in a statistically significant improvement (p<0.05) of visible signs of aging comprising crow’s feet, wrinkles and periocular fine lines. Finally, the formulation was well tolerated. Conclusion The dermocosmetic containing RAL, delta-TC and GGO provides a substantial benefit in the daily care of naturally aged skin in women aged 35–55 years. PMID:28203099

  12. Longitudinal epigenetic and gene expression profiles analyzed by three-component analysis reveal down-regulation of genes involved in protein translation in human aging

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Marc; Jin, Seung-Gi; Zhang, Xiaoying; Xiong, Wenying; Gogoshin, Grigoriy; Rodin, Andrei S.; Pfeifer, Gerd P.

    2015-01-01

    Data on biological mechanisms of aging are mostly obtained from cross-sectional study designs. An inherent disadvantage of this design is that inter-individual differences can mask small but biologically significant age-dependent changes. A serially sampled design (same individual at different time points) would overcome this problem but is often limited by the relatively small numbers of available paired samples and the statistics being used. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a new vector-based approach, termed three-component analysis, which incorporates temporal distance, signal intensity and variance into one single score for gene ranking and is combined with gene set enrichment analysis. We tested our method on a unique age-based sample set of human skin fibroblasts and combined genome-wide transcription, DNA methylation and histone methylation (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) data. Importantly, our method can now for the first time demonstrate a clear age-dependent decrease in expression of genes coding for proteins involved in translation and ribosome function. Using analogies with data from lower organisms, we propose a model where age-dependent down-regulation of protein translation-related components contributes to extend human lifespan. PMID:25977295

  13. Maternal caffeine consumption and small for gestational age births: results from a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Adrienne T; Browne, Marilyn; Richardson, Sandra; Romitti, Paul; Druschel, Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine is consumed in various forms during pregnancy, has increased half-life during pregnancy and crosses the placental barrier. Small for gestational age (SGA) is an important perinatal outcome and has been associated with long term complications. We examined the association between maternal caffeine intake and SGA using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data. Non-malformed live born infants with an estimated date of delivery from 1997-2007 (n = 7,943) were included in this analysis. Maternal caffeine exposure was examined as total caffeine intake and individual caffeinated beverage type (coffee, tea, and soda); sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves were constructed to estimate SGA births. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interaction with caffeine exposures was assessed for maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, and folic acid. Six hundred forty-eight infants (8.2%) were found to be SGA in this analysis. Increasing aORs were observed for increasing intakes of total caffeine and for each caffeinated beverage with aORs (adjusting for maternal education, high blood pressure, and smoking) ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 for the highest intake categories (300+ mg/day total caffeine and 3+ servings/day for each beverage type). Little indication of additive interaction by maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, or folic acid intake was observed. We observed an increase in SGA births for mothers with higher caffeine intake, particularly for those consuming 300+ mg of caffeine per day. Increased aORs were also observed for tea intake but were more attenuated for coffee and soda intake.

  14. Vitamin D, PTH and the risk of overall and disease-specific mortality: Results of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    El Hilali, Jamila; de Koning, Elisa J; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Lips, Paul; Sohl, Evelien; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Visser, Marjolein; van Schoor, Natasja M

    2016-11-01

    Observational studies suggest that low concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and high concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with a higher risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether 25(OH)D and PTH concentrations are independently associated with overall and disease-specific (cardiovascular and cancer-related) mortality in a large, prospective population-based cohort of older adults. Data from 1317 men and women (65-85 years) of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to examine whether 25(OH)D and PTH at baseline were associated with overall mortality (with a follow-up of 18 years) and disease-specific mortality (with a follow-up of 13 years). Compared to persons in the reference category of ≥75nmol/L, persons with serum 25(OH)D <25nmol/L (HR 1.46; 95% CI: 1.12-1.91) and 25-49.9nmol/L (HR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.01-1.53) had a significantly higher risk of overall mortality, as well as men with baseline PTH concentrations ≥7pmol/L (HR 2.54 (95% CI: 1.58-4.08)), compared to the reference category of <2.33pmol/L. The relationship of 25(OH)D with overall mortality was partly mediated by PTH. Furthermore, men with PTH concentrations of ≥7pmol/L (HR 3.22; 95% CI: 1.40-7.42) had a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality, compared to the reference category. No significant associations of 25(OH)D or PTH with cancer-related mortality were observed. Both 25(OH)D and PTH should be considered as important health markers.

  15. Identification of aged bloodstains through mRNA profiling: Experiments results on selected markers of 30- and 50-year-old samples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hemiao; Wang, Chong; Yao, Lan; Lin, Qingluan; Xu, XiuLan; Hu, Lan; Li, Wanshui

    2017-03-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in recent years on the research of body fluid identification through messenger RNA(mRNA) profiling. In order to examine the viability of mRNA profiling as a method to identify aged bloodstains, this study tested two groups of bloodstain samples, dated 30 years and 50 years back respectively, on seven blood specific markers, i.e. HBB, HBA, GYPA, CD93, ALAS2, SPTB (91bp and 247bp primers), and PBGD. Test results indicate that HBA and HBB are the most stable markers in aged bloodstains, returning positive results in over 80% of the 50-year-old samples and over 90% of the 30-year-old samples. This finding proves mRNA profiling an effective way of identifying aged bloodstains.

  16. [The age and sex indicators of mortality of population and years of life lost as a result of premature mortality in the Russian Federation in 2012].

    PubMed

    Boiytsov, S A; Samorodskaya, I V

    2014-01-01

    The age-specific mortality coefficients and years of life lost as a result of premature mortality are among important medical demographic characteristics of population health. The study analyzed age and sex indicators of mortality of population in the Russian Federation. The number of years of life lost as a result of premature mortality is calculated. The comparison of values of years of life lost in various subjects of the Russian Federation was carried out. The data of Rosstat concerning population size and number of the deceased in year age groups in the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation in 2012 was used. The indicator was calculated on the basis of technique included into "The global burden of diseases report" (2010). The minimal indicators of mortality of males are noted at the age of 11 years (25.4 per 100 000 of population) and females at the age of 10 years (18.2 per 100 000 of population). The maximal differences in indicators of mortality of males and females are marked in the age group 20-29 years (314.5 of males and 92.3 of females per 100 000 of population). The percentage of deceased prior 70 years consists 63.2% among males and 29.9% among females. The total number of years of life lost in the Russian Federation consisted 36 864 309 and out of them 24 321 992 (65.9%) as a result of death of males and 12 542 317 (34.1%) as a result of death of females. The maximum percentage of years of life lost among males is marked in the age group of 51-60 years (24.61%) and among females in the age group of 71-80 years (22.38%). The indicator of years of life lost per 100 000 of population consisted 25769 for total population, 36 753 for male population and 16 314 for female population. The highest rate of indicator of years of life lost is marked in the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug and the lowest rate in the Republics of the Northern Caucasus and Moscow. However, in all subjects of the Russian Federation indicator of years of life lost is

  17. Holistic microstructural techniques reveal synchronous and alternating andalusite and staurolite growth during three tectonic events resulted from shifting partitioning of growth vs deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, T. H.; Fay, C.

    2016-10-01

    Excellent inclusion trails in a sample containing both staurolite and andalusite porphyroblasts are used to demonstrate techniques that allow the intimate relationships between deformation and porphyroblast growth to be recognized, described in detail and understood. This approach reveals three main phases of growth of both mineral phases, some of which was demonstrably synchronous, during three tectonic events. Each main period of growth occurred during the early stages of three deformations that were successively near orthogonal. However, extra periods are distinguishable in andalusite in some of these events because this phase occurs as clusters of large crystals that vary in orientation by 2° to > 10°. All foliations defined by all inclusion trails within every porphyroblast inflect/intersect about an axis trending at 025° (called a FIA). This indicates that the direction of the horizontal component of bulk shortening was identical for the first and third of the three deformations recorded by porphyroblast growth. Portions of sigmoidal to slightly spiral-shaped inclusion trails in most porphyroblast clusters locally diverge in opposite directions due to overprinting orthogonal bulk shortening typical of that which forms millipede geometries. These microstructures confirm the role of coaxial bulk shortening in initiating porphyroblast growth in an environment that locally becomes strongly non-coaxial as the deformation intensifies in the same event. In this sample, increasing non-coaxiality as the deformation intensified resulted in the same asymmetry for each of the three events and thus an overall spiral-like shape. Differing stages in the development of these bulk-shortening geometries preserved in adjacent or touching phases negate any role for porphyroblast rotation during ductile deformation. Andalusite and staurolite grew without any inter-reaction in locations where they lie in contact. This multiply repeated growth behaviour initiated within zones of

  18. Initial Results from a New Lake Elsinore Sediment Core Reveal Evidence for Hydrologic Change During the Late-Glacial/Holocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantozzi, J. M.; Kirby, M. E.; Lund, S.; Hiner, C.

    2010-12-01

    While there are several well-developed records of marine climate from Southern California that span the late-Glacial/Holocene transition, there are currently no high-resolution terrestrial counterparts. In June 2010, a 20 meter sediment core covering 10-30 meters below the sediment-water interface was extracted from the depocenter of Lake Elsinore, California - the largest natural, permanent lake in the region. Here, we present the initial results of a multi-proxy study on the section of this sediment core that spans the late-Glacial/Holocene transition (10-18.5 m below the sediment-water line [bswl]). Initial results reveal three distinct sediment units. Unit I (10-15m bswl) is composed of a homogeneous, often mottled (bioturbated?), gray mud with high and moderately variable magnetic susceptibility values (avg=1.20±0.29x10-7m3/kg), low organic matter content (6.50±0.83%), and highly variable carbonate content (12.21±4.89%). Unit II (15-17m bswl) is a transitional unit that begins as a gray mud similar to that of Unit I and transitions into a massive to laminated brown mud with low and variable magnetic susceptibility values (0.88±0.38x10-7m3/kg), increasing organic matter content (11.52±2.19%), and highly variable carbonate content (10.84±4.75%). Unit III (17-18.5m bswl) is characterized by a massive to laminated brown mud with very low and stable magnetic susceptibility values (0.87±0.19x10-7m3/kg), declining organic matter content (11.21±2.02%), and low to negligible carbonate content (5.0±0.87%). Together, these data indicate a significant change in Lake Elsinore’s depositional environment that is likely related to hydrologic change (i.e. average lake level) during the late Glacial to Holocene transition - a change that has not previously been documented in Southern California.

  19. Effect of a family history of psoriasis and age on comorbidities and quality of life in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis: Results from the ARIZONA study.

    PubMed

    López-Estebaranz, Jose Luis; Sánchez-Carazo, Jose Luis; Sulleiro, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease whose clinical characteristics vary from patient to patient. We aimed to analyze how comorbidities and quality of life (QoL, as per the Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI]) may be affected by a family history of psoriasis and by age. The ARIZONA study was a multicenter, cross-sectional study in 1022 adult patients diagnosed with moderate to severe psoriasis at least 6 months prior to inclusion. The severity of psoriasis and the proportion of patients with comorbidities were not affected by the presence of a family history. The regression analysis revealed that the presence of a family history of psoriasis was associated with the effect on the patient's QoL (P = 0.002), regardless of disease severity. The mean DLQI total score varied significantly across age groups (5.1 ± 5.3 for the 18-30-year group, 5.7 ± 6.5 for the 31-60-year group and 3.8 ± 5.1 for the >60-year group; P = 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of a family history of psoriasis appears to disrupt QoL in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, but it hardly affected the prevalence of comorbid conditions. The effect of age on QoL was particularly noticeable in younger patients, highlighting its negative impact. As expected, older patients appeared to be burdened with a higher number of comorbidities than their younger counterparts.

  20. Results of the IEA Round Robin on Viscosity and Aging of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils: Long-Term Tests and Repeatability

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Oasmaa, Anja; Meier, Dietrich; Preto, Fernando; Bridgwater, Anthony V.

    2012-11-06

    An international round robin study of the viscosity and aging of fast pyrolysis bio-oil has been undertaken recently and this work is an outgrowth from that effort. Two bio-oil samples were distributed to the laboratories for aging tests and extended viscosity studies. The accelerated aging test was defined as the change in viscosity of a sealed sample of bio-oil held for 24 h at 80 °C. The test was repeated 10 times over consecutive days to determine the repeatability of the method. Other bio-oil samples were placed in storage at three temperatures, 21 °C, 4 °C and -17 °C for a period up to a year to evaluate the change in viscosity. The variation in the results of the aging test was shown to be low within a given laboratory. Storage of bio-oil under refrigeration can minimize the amount of change in viscosity. The accelerated aging test gives a measure of change similar to that of 6-12 months of storage at room temperature. These results can be helpful in setting standards for use of bio-oil, which is just coming into the marketplace.

  1. The Afragola settlement near Vesuvius, Italy: The destruction and abandonment of a Bronze Age village revealed by archaeology, volcanology and rock-magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vito, Mauro A.; Zanella, Elena; Gurioli, Lucia; Lanza, Roberto; Sulpizio, Roberto; Bishop, Jim; Tema, Evdokia; Boenzi, Giuliana; Laforgia, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Public works in progress in the Campanian plain north of Somma-Vesuvius recently encountered the remains of a prehistoric settlement close to the town of Afragola. Rescue excavations brought to light a Bronze Age village partially destroyed and buried by pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) of the Vesuvian Pomici di Avellino eruption (3.8 14C ka BP) and subsequently sealed by alluvial deposits. Volcanological and rock-magnetic investigations supplemented the excavations. Careful comparison between volcanological and archaeological stratigraphies led to an understanding of the timing of the damage the buildings suffered when they were struck by a series of PDCs. The first engulfed the village, located some 14 km to the north of the inferred vent, and penetrated into the dwellings without causing major damage. The buildings were able to withstand the weak dynamic pressure of the currents and deviate their path, as shown by the magnetic fabric analyses. Some later collapsed under the load of the deposits piled up by successive currents. Stepwise demagnetization of the thermal remanent magnetization (TRM) carried by potsherds embedded in the deposits yields deposition temperatures in the order of 260-320 °C, fully consistent with those derived from pottery and lithic fragments from other distal and proximal sites. The fairly uniform temperature of the deposits is here ascribed to the lack of pervasive air entrainment into the currents. This, in turn, resulted from the lack of major topographical obstacles along the flat plain. The coupling of structural damage and sedimentological analyses indicates that the currents were not destructive in the Afragola area, but TRM data indicate they were still hot enough to cause death or severe injury to humans and animals. The successful escape of the entire population is apparent from the lack of human remains and from thousands of human footprints on the surface of the deposits left by the first PDCs. People were thus able to

  2. A study of common Mendelian disease carriers across ageing British cohorts: meta-analyses reveal heterozygosity for alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency increases respiratory capacity and height

    PubMed Central

    North, Teri-Louise; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Gallacher, John; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Martin, Richard M; Pattie, Alison; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Starr, John M; Wong, Andrew; Kuh, Diana; Rodriguez, Santiago; Day, Ian N M

    2016-01-01

    Background Several recessive Mendelian disorders are common in Europeans, including cystic fibrosis (CFTR), medium-chain-acyl-Co-A-dehydrogenase deficiency (ACADM), phenylketonuria (PAH) and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (SERPINA1). Methods In a multicohort study of >19 000 older individuals, we investigated the relevant phenotypes in heterozygotes for these genes: lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC)) for CFTR and SERPINA1; cognitive measures for ACADM and PAH; and physical capability for ACADM, PAH and SERPINA1. Results Findings were mostly negative but lung function in SERPINA1 (protease inhibitor (PI) Z allele, rs28929474) showed enhanced FEV1 and FVC (0.13 z-score increase in FEV1 (p=1.7×10−5) and 0.16 z-score increase in FVC (p=5.2×10−8)) in PI-MZ individuals. Height adjustment (a known, strong correlate of FEV1 and FVC) revealed strong positive height associations of the Z allele (1.50 cm increase in height (p=3.6×10−10)). Conclusions The PI-MZ rare (2%) SNP effect is nearly four times greater than the ‘top’ common height SNP in HMGA2. However, height only partially attenuates the SERPINA1-FEV1 or FVC association (around 50%) and vice versa. Height SNP variants have recently been shown to be positively selected collectively in North versus South Europeans, while the Z allele high frequency is localised to North Europe. Although PI-ZZ is clinically disadvantageous to lung function, PI-MZ increases both height and respiratory function; potentially a balanced polymorphism. Partial blockade of PI could conceivably form part of a future poly-therapeutic approach in very short children. The notion that elastase inhibition should benefit patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may also merit re-evaluation. PI is already a therapeutic target: our findings invite a reconsideration of the optimum level in respiratory care and novel pathway potential for development of agents for the

  3. The AMS 14C dating of Iron Age rice chaff ceramic temper from Ban Non Wat, Thailand: First results and its interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higham, Charles F. W.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Burr, G. S.

    2010-04-01

    Pottery tempered with rice chaff from the early Iron Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat site, northeast Thailand, has been subjected to direct AMS 14C dating, using low temperature combustion with oxygen as originally developed by authors. The carbon yield (0.2-0.5%) testifies the suitability of this pottery for dating. However, not all the results are in agreement with expected archaeological ages and other 14C dates from the studied site and neighboring site of Noen U-Loke. This calls for a thorough analysis and interpretation of pottery temper dates from the region.

  4. Age differences in the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Birnbaum, Howard; Shahly, Victoria; Bromet, Evelyn; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura Helena; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Browne, Mark Oakley; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Stein, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although depression appears to decrease in late life, this could be due to misattribution of depressive symptoms to physical disorders that increase in late life. Methods We investigated this issue by studying age differences in comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes (MDE) with chronic physical conditions in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of community epidemiological surveys carried out in 10 developed countries (n = 51,771) and 8 developing countries (n = 37,265). MDE and other mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Organic exclusion rules were not used to avoid inappropriate exclusion of cases with physical comorbidity. Physical conditions were assessed with a standard chronic conditions checklist. Results Twelve-month DSM-IV/CIDI MDE was significantly less prevalent among respondents ages 65+ than younger respondents in developed but not developing countries. Prevalence of comorbid mental disorders generally either decreased or remained stable with age, while comorbidity of MDE with mental disorders generally increased with age. Prevalence of physical conditions, in comparison, generally increased with age, while comorbidity of MDE with physical conditions generally decreased with age. Depression treatment was lowest among the elderly in developed and developing countries. Conclusions The weakening associations between MDE and physical conditions with increasing age argue against the suggestion that the low estimated prevalence of MDE among the elderly is due to increased confounding with physical disorders. Future study is needed to investigate processes that might lead to a decreasing impact of physical illness on depression among the elderly. PMID:20037917

  5. Prevalence of sexual problems in Portugal: results of a population-based study using a stratified sample of men aged 18 to 70 years.

    PubMed

    Quinta Gomes, Ana Luísa; Nobre, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the use of different methodologies, target populations, and clinical definitions of sexual problems, recent epidemiological studies have shown that the occurrence of sexual difficulties is a very common experience among men from the general population regardless of their age. The objective of this study was to present epidemiological data on the prevalence of sexual difficulties in a community sample of 650 sexually active Portuguese men, stratified by age, marital status, and educational level. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire assessing sexual function in the previous four weeks (International Index of Erectile Function). Results showed that sexual difficulties were relatively common among this sample. Rapid ejaculation was the most frequently reported sexual difficulty (23.2%), followed by erectile difficulties (10.2%), orgasm problems (8.2%), and low desire (2.9%) in the previous four weeks. With the exception of rapid ejaculation, all categories showed age-specific prevalence rates, with sexual difficulties increasing gradually in men above age 45. Age was a significant predictor of all sexual difficulties except rapid ejaculation, and lower educational levels were related to orgasm difficulties. Findings are consistent with the majority of epidemiological studies indicating a high prevalence of sexual difficulties among men in the general population and highlight the importance and the need to implement sexual health promotion programs in the target population.

  6. Impact of a Videoconference Educational Intervention on Physical Restraint and Antipsychotic Use in Nursing Homes: Results From the ECHO-AGE Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Stephen E.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Monti, Sara M.; Mattison, Melissa L.P.; Catic, Angela G.; Thomas, Cindy P.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives US nursing homes care for increasing numbers of residents with dementia and associated behavioral problems. They often lack access to specialized clinical expertise relevant to managing these problems. Project ECHO-AGE provides this expertise through videoconference sessions between frontline nursing home staff and clinical experts at an academic medical center. We hypothesized that ECHO-AGE would result in less use of physical and chemical restraints and other quality improvements in participating facilities. Design A 2:1 matched-cohort study comparing quality of care outcomes between ECHO-AGE facilities and matched controls for the period July 2012 to December 2013. Setting Eleven nursing homes in Massachusetts and Maine. Participants Nursing home staff and a hospital-based team of geriatrician, geropsychiatrist, and neurologist discussed anonymized residents with dementia. Intervention Biweekly online video case discussions and brief didactic sessions focused on the management of dementia and behavior disorders. Measurements The primary outcome variables were percentage of residents receiving antipsychotic medications and the percentage of residents who were physically restrained. Secondary outcomes included 9 other quality of care metrics from MDS 3.0. Results Residents in ECHO-AGE facilities were 75% less likely to be physically restrained compared with residents in control facilities over the 18-month intervention period (OR = 0.25, P = .05). Residents in ECHO-AGE facilities were 17% less likely to be prescribed antipsychotic medication compared with residents in control facilities (OR = 0.83, P = .07). Other outcomes were not significantly different. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that participation in Project ECHO-AGE reduces rates of physical restraint use and may reduce rates of antipsychotic use among long-term nursing home residents. PMID:27161317

  7. Temporal and spatial relations between age specific mortality and ambient air quality in the United States: regression results for counties, 1960–97

    PubMed Central

    Lipfert, F; Morris, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate longitudinal and spatial relations between air pollution and age specific mortality for United States counties (except Alaska) from 1960 to the end of 1997. Methods: Cross sectional regressions for five specific periods using published data on mortality, air quality, demography, climate, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and diet. Outcome measures are statistical relations between air quality and county mortalities by age group for all causes of death, other than AIDS and trauma. Results: A specific regression model was developed for each period and age group, using variables that were significant (p<0.05), not substantially collinear (variance inflation factor <2), and had the expected algebraic sign. Models were initially developed without the air pollution variables, which varied in spatial coverage. Residuals were then regressed in turn against current and previous air quality, and dose-response plots were constructed. The validity of this two stage procedure was shown by comparing a subset of results with those obtained with single stage models that included air quality (correlation=0.88). On the basis of attributable risks computed for overall mean concentrations, the strongest associations were found in the earlier periods, with attributable risks usually less than 5%. Stronger relations were found when mortality and air quality were measured in the same period and when the locations considered were limited to those of previous cohort studies (for PM2.5 and SO42-). Thresholds were suggested at 100–130 µg/m3 for mean total suspended particulate (TSP), 7–10 µg/m3 for mean sulfate, 10–15 ppm for peak (95th percentile) CO, 20–40 ppb for mean SO2. Contrary to expectations, associations were often stronger for the younger age groups (<65 y). Responses to PM, CO, and SO2 declined over time; responses in elderly people to peak O3 increased over time as did responses to NO2 for the younger age groups. These results generally agreed

  8. New potential determinants of disability in aged persons with myocardial infarction: results from the KORINNA-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Elderly individuals with coronary heart disease are a population particularly burdened by disability. However, to date many predictors of disability established in general populations have not been considered in studies examining disability in elderly acute myocardial infarction (AMI) survivors. Our study explores factors associated with the ability to perform basic activities of daily living in elderly patients with AMI. Methods Baseline data from 333 AMI-survivors older than 64 years included within the randomized controlled KORINNA-study were utilized to examine disability assessed by the Stanford Health Assessment Questionare Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Numerous potential determinants including demographic characteristics, clinical parameters, co-morbidities, interventions, lifestyle, behavioral and personal factors were measured. Disability was defined as a HAQ-DI ≥ 0.5. After bi-variate testing the probability of disability was modeled with logistic regression. Missing covariate values were imputed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Results Disability was significantly more frequent in older individuals (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.05-1.16), patients with deficient nutrition (OR: 3.38, 95% CI: 1.60-7.15), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) (OR: 3.26, 95% CI: 1.29-8.25), hearing loss in both ears (OR: 2.85, 95% CI: 1.41-5.74), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.39-4.72), and heart failure (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.79-6.16). It was reduced in patients with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.21-0.80) and male sex (OR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.27-0.85). Conclusions Effects of nutrition, hearing loss, and diametrical effects of PTCA and CABG on disability were identified as relevant for examination of causality in longitudinal trials. Trial registration ISRCTN02893746. PMID:24645907

  9. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-07-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008-2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood.

  10. Information Topics of Greatest Interest for Return of Genome Sequencing Results among Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer at a Young Age.

    PubMed

    Seo, Joann; Ivanovich, Jennifer; Goodman, Melody S; Biesecker, Barbara B; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2016-08-20

    We investigated what information women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age would want to learn when genome sequencing results are returned. We conducted 60 semi-structured interviews with women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger. We examined what specific information participants would want to learn across result types and for each type of result, as well as how much information they would want. Genome sequencing was not offered to participants as part of the study. Two coders independently coded interview transcripts; analysis was conducted using NVivo10. Across result types, participants wanted to learn about health implications, risk and prevalence in quantitative terms, causes of variants, and causes of diseases. Participants wanted to learn actionable information for variants affecting risk of preventable or treatable disease, medication response, and carrier status. The amount of desired information differed for variants affecting risk of unpreventable or untreatable disease, with uncertain significance, and not health-related. Women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age recognize the value of genome sequencing results in identifying potential causes and effective treatments and expressed interest in using the information to help relatives and to further understand their other health risks. Our findings can inform the development of effective feedback strategies for genome sequencing that meet patients' information needs and preferences.

  11. Effect of chemical etching and aging in boiling water on the corrosion resistance of Nitinol wires with black oxide resulting from manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Shabalovskaya, S; Rondelli, G; Anderegg, J; Simpson, B; Budko, S

    2003-07-15

    The effect of chemical etching in a HF/HNO(3) acid solution and aging in boiling water on the corrosion resistance of Nitinol wires with black oxide has been evaluated with the use of potentiodynamic, modified potentiostatic ASTM F746, and scratch tests. Scanning-electron microscopy, elemental XPS, and Auger analysis were employed to characterize surface alterations induced by surface treatment and corrosion testing. The effect of aging in boiling water on the temperatures of martensitic transformations and shape recovery was evaluated by means of measuring the wire electroresistance. After corrosion tests, as-received wires revealed uniformly cracked surfaces reminiscent of the stress-corrosion-cracking phenomenon. These wires exhibited negative breakdown potentials in potentiostatic tests and variable breakdown potentials in potentiodynamic tests (- 100 mV to + 400 mV versus SCE). Wires with treated surfaces did not reveal cracking or other traces of corrosion attacks in potentiodynamic tests up to + 900-1400-mV potentials and no pitting after stimulation at + 800 mV in potentiostatic tests. They exhibited corrosion behavior satisfactory for medical applications. Significant improvement of corrosion parameters was observed on the reverse scans in potentiodynamic tests after exposure of treated wires to potentials > 1000 mV. In scratch tests, the prepared surfaces repassivated only at low potentials, comparable to that of stainless steel. Tremendous improvement of the corrosion behavior of treated Nitinol wires is associated with the removal of defect surface material and the growth of stable TiO(2) oxide. The role of precipitates in the corrosion resistance of Nitinol-scratch repassivation capacity in particular-is emphasized in the discussion.

  12. Age-dependent parathormone levels and different CKD-MBD treatment practices of dialysis patients in Hungary - results from a nationwide clinical audit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Achieving target levels of laboratory parameters of bone and mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is important but also difficult in those living with end-stage kidney disease. This study aimed to determine if there are age-related differences in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) characteristics, including treatment practice in Hungarian dialysis patients. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from a large cohort of dialysis patients in Hungary. Patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis were also included. The enrolled patients were allocated into two groups based on their age (<65 years and ≥65 years). Characteristics of the age groups and differences in disease-related (epidemiology, laboratory, and treatment practice) parameters between the groups were analyzed. Results A total of 5008 patients were included in the analysis and the mean age was 63.4±14.2 years. A total of 47.2% of patients were women, 32.8% had diabetes, and 11.4% were on peritoneal dialysis. Diabetes (37.9% vs 27.3%), bone disease (42.9% vs 34.1%), and soft tissue calcification (56.3% vs 44.7%) were more prevalent in the older group than the younger group (p<0.001 for all). We found an inverse relationship between age and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (p<0.001). Serum PTH levels were lower in patients with diabetes compared with those without diabetes below 80 years (p<0.001). Diabetes and age were independently associated with serum PTH levels (interaction: diabetes × age groups, p=0.138). Older patients were more likely than younger patients to achieve laboratory target ranges for each parameter (Ca: 66.9% vs 62.1%, p<0.001; PO4: 52.6% vs 49.2%, p<0.05; and PTH: 50.6% vs 46.6%, p<0.01), and for combined parameters (19.8% vs 15.8%, p<0.001). Older patients were less likely to receive related medication than younger patients (66.9% vs 79.7%, p<0.001). Conclusions The achievement of laboratory target ranges for bone

  13. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Giovanna; Acevedo, Mónica; Orellana, Lorena; Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge; Navarrete, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0-1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92-3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender.

  14. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0‐1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92–3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender. PMID:28321254

  15. Aging Parents as Family Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jan S.; Becker, Marion

    1988-01-01

    Investigated extent to which aging parents experience stress when problems arise in lives of their adult children, and ways in which they serve as resources to their children in need. Findings from 29 couples over age 60 revealed that mothers experienced significant stress resulting from adult children's problems, whereas fathers experienced…

  16. Faculty Training in Aging Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of a research training program by 58 psychology faculty participants revealed four outcomes: improved knowledge of methodology, increased interest in aging research, expanded networking, and stronger undergraduate programs. Grant writing training resulted in 10 participants obtaining National Institute on Aging funding. (SK)

  17. An Integrational Model of Quality of Life in Older Age. Results from the Esrc/mrc Hsrc Quality of Life Survey in Britain.(author Abstract)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, Ann; Gabriel, Zahava

    2004-01-01

    This paper is based on the results of a national survey of the quality of life of 999 randomly sampled people aged 65 and over, living at home in Britain. The survey was semi-structured, and a sample of survey respondents was followed up and interviewed in-depth in order to explore their perceptions of quality of life in full. Comparisons are made…

  18. Chemical and isotopic heterogeneity in the Yellowstone magma reservoir revealed through sub-crystal-scale zircon age, trace-element, and Hf-isotopic analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelten, M. E.; Cooper, K. M.; Vazquez, J. A.; Barfod, G. H.; Yin, Q.; Wimpenny, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau (USA) hosts one of the largest Quaternary magmatic systems in the world, with caldera forming eruptions at ~2.1 Ma, ~1.3 Ma, and ~0.64 Ma, as well as numerous intracaldera and extracaldera eruptions between caldera-forming events. The most recent eruptive episode at Yellowstone caldera produced the intracaldera Central Plateau Member (CPM) of the Plateau Rhyolite, which erupted intermittently between ~170-70 ka with a cumulative volume ≥600 km3, approaching the volume of rhyolite erupted during the caldera-forming eruptions. Thus, the CPM rhyolites provide snapshots of a large silicic magmatic system though time. In this study we examine the degree of compositional heterogeneity in the Yellowstone magma reservoir by comparing SHRIMP age, SHRIMP trace element, and LA-MC-ICPMS Hf-isotopic data for zircons hosted in five CPM rhyolites. The CPM rhyolites included in this study are: 1) the Solfatara Plateau flow (SPF) and Hayden Valley flow (HVF), which erupted ca. 103 ka from the east side of Yellowstone caldera, 2) the West Yellowstone flow (WYF), which erupted ca. 114 ka from the west side of the caldera, and 3) the Pitchstone Plateau flow (PPF) and Grants Pass flow (GPF), which erupted from the west side of the caldera ca. 75 ka. Linking the age, trace-element, and Hf-isotopic compositions of zones within individual zircons provides a robust method for recognizing distinct crystal populations within the CPM rhyolites and tracking the chemical evolution of the magma reservoir through time. Comparing crystal populations in coeval rhyolites erupted from different parts of the caldera allows for assessment of whether the entire reservoir hosts similar crystal populations at a given time and thus provides insight into the degree of compositional heterogeneity within the magma reservoir. Zircons hosted in the SPF, HVF, and WYF have cores with ages that vary from near eruption age to 200 ka and display a wide range in trace-element and Hf

  19. Ties between ageing plasticity and reproductive physiology in honey bees (Apis mellifera) reveal a positive relation between fecundity and longevity as consequence of advanced social evolution.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Aumer, Denise; Moritz, Robin Fa

    2016-08-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the best studied model of ageing among the social insects. As in other social insects, the reproductive queen far outlives her non-reproductive workers despite developing from the same genome in the same colony environment. Thus, the different social roles of the two female castes are critical for the profound phenotypic plasticity. In several special cases, such as the reproductive workers of Apis mellifera capensis, within-caste plasticity enables further studies of the fecundity-longevity syndrome in honey bees. At present, molecular evidence suggests that a reorganization of physiological control pathways may facilitate longevity of reproductive individuals. However, the social role and social environment of the different colony members are also very important and one of the key future questions is how much social facilitation versus internal regulation is responsible for the positive association between fecundity and longevity in honey bees.

  20. Development of a new Sonovue™ contrast-enhanced ultrasound approach reveals temporal and age-related features of muscle microvascular responses to feeding

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, William Kyle; Phillips, Bethan E; Williams, John P; Rankin, Debbie; Smith, Kenneth; Lund, Jonathan N; Atherton, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Compromised limb blood flow in aging may contribute to the development of sarcopenia, frailty, and the metabolic syndrome. We developed a novel contrast-enhanced ultrasound technique using Sonovue™ to characterize muscle microvasculature responses to an oral feeding stimulus (15 g essential amino acids) in young (∼20 years) and older (∼70 years) men. Intensity-time replenishment curves were made via an ultrasound probe “fixed” over the quadriceps, with intermittent high mechanical index destruction of microbubbles within muscle vasculature. This permitted real-time measures of microvascular blood volume (MBV), microvascular flow velocity (MFV) and their product, microvascular blood flow (MBF). Leg blood flow (LBF) was measured by Doppler and insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Steady-state contrast concentrations needed for comparison between different physiological states were achieved <150 sec from commencing Sonovue™ infusion, and MFV and MBV measurements were completed <120 sec thereafter. Interindividual coefficients of variation in MBV and MFV were 35–40%, (N = 36). Younger men (N = 6) exhibited biphasic vascular responses to feeding with early increases in MBV (+36%, P < 0.008 45 min post feed) reflecting capillary recruitment, and late increases in MFV (+77%, P < 0.008) and MBF (+130%, P < 0.007 195 min post feed) reflecting more proximal vessel dilatation. Early MBV responses were synchronized with peak insulin but not increased LBF, while later changes in MFV and MBF occurred with insulin at post absorptive values but alongside increased LBF. All circulatory responses were absent in old men (N = 7). Thus, impaired postprandial circulation could impact age-related declines in muscle glucose disposal, protein anabolism, and muscle mass. PMID:24303186

  1. Increased fracture incidence in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women: updated results from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anjali; Shi, Qiuhu; Hoover, Donald R.; Anastos, Kathryn; Tien, Phyllis C.; Young, Mary A.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Gustafson, Deborah; Yin, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously reported that fracture incidence rates did not differ by HIV status among predominantly premenopausal Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) participants. We now conduct a follow-up study with 5 additional observation years, to further characterize fracture risk associated with HIV infection in women as they age. Methods We measured time to first new fracture at any site in 2375 (1713 HIV-infected, 662 HIV-uninfected) WIHS participants, with median 10 years follow-up. Fractures were self-reported semiannually. Proportional Hazards models assessed predictors of incident fracture. Results At index visit, HIV-infected women were older (median age 40 yrs (IQR 34–46) vs. 35 (27–43), p<0.0001) and more likely to be postmenopausal, HCV-infected, and weigh less than HIV-uninfected women. Among HIV-infected women, mean CD4+ count was 480 cells/µL and 63% were taking HAART. Unadjusted incidence rates of any fracture were higher in HIV-infected than uninfected women (2.19/100 person-years (py) vs 1.54/100py, p=0.002). In multivariate models, HIV status, older age, white (vs. black) race, prior fracture, history of cocaine use, and history of injection drug use were significant predictors of incident fracture. Among HIV-infected women, age, white race, prior fracture, smoking, and prior AIDS were predictors of new fracture. Conclusion Middle-aged HIV-infected women had a higher adjusted fracture rate than uninfected women. Cocaine use and injection drug use were also associated with a greater risk of incident fracture. Further research is needed to understand whether the risk of fracture associated with cocaine use relates to increased rate of falls, or direct effects on bone metabolism. PMID:26322667

  2. Determinants of health-related quality of life in older primary care patients: results of the longitudinal observational AgeCoDe Study

    PubMed Central

    Eisele, Marion; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; König, Hans-Helmut; Lange, Carolin; Wiese, Birgitt; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Luppa, Melanie; Heser, Kathrin; Koppara, Alexander; Mösch, Edelgard; Weeg, Dagmar; Fuchs, Angela; Pentzek, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Hajek, André

    2015-01-01

    Background In older patients with chronic diseases, focusing on subjective, patient-relevant outcomes, such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL), is more pertinent than pursuing clinical or laboratory target values. Aim To investigate factors influencing the course of HRQoL in older (aged ≥78 years) primary care patients and to derive non-pharmacological recommendations for improving their quality of life. Design and setting A population-based prospective longitudinal observational study featuring data analysis from waves 2 to 5 of the AgeCoDe study, which was conducted in six cities in Germany. Method The HRQoL of 1968 patients over the course of 4.5 years was observed. Patients were, on average, aged 82.6 (±3.4) years and their HRQoL was measured using the EQ-5D visual analogue scale in a face-to-face assessment. Fixed-effects regression models were calculated to examine impact of change in potential influencing factors. This method allows unobserved heterogeneity to be controlled. Results The course of the participants’ HRQoL declined with increasing age, walking and incident hearing impairment. Increasing the number of physical activities improved the HRQoL. These findings were modified by sex, education level, and depression. Especially in females and patients with rather low education levels, increased physical activity improved the subjects’ HRQoL, while hearing impairment decreased it. Moving to an institution only improved the HRQoL in patients without depression or those with a low level of education (primary education). Conclusion Motivating patients to increase their weekly physical activity and to focus on preserving their ability to walk are promising approaches to improving HRQoL in older age. Less-educated patients and those without depression can also benefit from moving into an institution (for example, a care or retirement home). PMID:26500318

  3. Comparison of different cells of Haematococcus pluvialis reveals an extensive acclimation mechanism during its aging process: from a perspective of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenhui; Xie, Xiujun; Gao, Shan; Zhou, Wei; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2013-01-01

    Both biomass dominated green vegetative cells (GV) and astaxanthin-dominated orange resting cells (OR) affect the final astaxanthin yield in industry. Examination of Haematococcus pluvialis revealed that the OR cells greatly varied from the GV cells at both cellular and subcellular levels. In particular, the thylakoid membranes in the OR were disassembled and fragmented. Furthermore, the OR conserved most of the photosynthetic pigments, with elevated concentrations of violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and neoxanthin. Notably, moderate photosynthesis was detected in OR, even though most of the thylakoid membranes were disassembled, when compared with those in the GV. However, the energy distribution pattern between photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII) in the OR favored PSI, which was also confirmed by 77-K fluorescence. As zeaxanthin was not detected in the OR, we attribute the acclimation role to astaxanthin, instead of xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, proteomic-scale comparison analysis of thylakoids of the OR and GV indicated no photosynthetically remarkable variations. However, an extensive acclimation mechanism of H. pluvialis was proposed, in which proteins in thylakoid of GV were noted to be involved in biomass accumulation and those in OR were involved in stress response. Conclusions of the comparative analysis might provide some physiological background of OR for astaxanthin production by using H. pluvialis.

  4. The Effect of Mode of Delivery and Hospital Type on Newborn Hearing Screening Results Using Otoacoustic Emissions: Based on Screening Age.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Farhad; Hamidi Nahrani, Morteza; Seifrabiei, Mohammad Ali; Emadi, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    It is well known that false positive on newborn hearing screening increases cost and maternal anxiety and worry. We aimed to evaluate the influence of mode of delivery (cesarean, vaginal) and hospital type (private, public) on false positives first screening test based on screening age. Identification and control of these factors can reduce the rate of false positives. Overall, 2784 infants were evaluated by otoacoustic emissions test. Hearing screening test was performed before hospital discharge. Finally, rate of the false-positive between both delivery group and hospital types were compared on the basis of screening age. False-positive results are obtained when a condition is not present, but the test results indicate that it is present. False positive rate in the first screening test in vaginal delivery was significantly higher than cesarean delivery and rate of significantly decreased with screening age. This reduction was observed only in cesarean delivery. Also the rate of false positives in public hospital is 2.2 fold higher than private hospital (P = 0.000) and with increase in screening age, the rate of False positive is significantly reduced in private hospitals while this decrease is not observed in public hospital. Screening test be retarded as much as possible in cesarean group and private hospital and be conducted just prior to hospital discharge also in public hospital, screening test are done in a separate room. In this way, false positive can be reduced by about six times and the cost and concerns imposed by the rate of false positives minimized.

  5. The influence of age, gender and socio-economic status on multimorbidity patterns in primary care. first results from the multicare cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a phenomenon with high burden and high prevalence in the elderly. Our previous research has shown that multimorbidity can be divided into the multimorbidity patterns of 1) anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders (ADS) and pain, and 2) cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known, how these patterns are influenced by patient characteristics. The objective of this paper is to analyze the association of socio-demographic variables, and especially socio-economic status with multimorbidity in general and with each multimorbidity pattern. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of 3.189 multimorbid patients aged 65+ randomly selected from 158 GP practices. Data were collected in GP interviews and comprehensive patient interviews. Missing values have been imputed by hot deck imputation based on Gower distance in morbidity and other variables. The association of patient characteristics with the number of chronic conditions is analysed by multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results Multimorbidity in general is associated with age (+0.07 chronic conditions per year), gender (-0.27 conditions for female), education (-0.26 conditions for medium and -0.29 conditions for high level vs. low level) and income (-0.27 conditions per logarithmic unit). The pattern of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders shows comparable associations with a higher coefficient for gender (-1.29 conditions for female), while multimorbidity within the pattern of ADS and pain correlates with gender (+0.79 conditions for female), but not with age or socioeconomic status. Conclusions Our study confirms that the morbidity load of multimorbid patients is associated with age, gender and the socioeconomic status of the patients, but there were no effects of living arrangements and marital status. We could also show that the influence of patient characteristics is dependent on the

  6. Dissection of Genomewide-Scan Data in Extended Families Reveals a Major Locus and Oligogenic Susceptibility for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Sudha K.; Song, Danhong; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Schick, James H.; Humphrey, Jennifer; Millard, Christopher; Liptak, Rachel; Russo, Karlie; Jun, Gyungah; Lee, Kristine E.; Fijal, Bonnie; Elston, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the genetic basis of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), a degenerative disease of the retinal pigment epithelium and neurosensory retina, we conducted a genomewide scan in 34 extended families (297 individuals, 349 sib pairs) ascertained through index cases with neovascular disease or geographic atrophy. Family and medical history was obtained from index cases and family members. Fundus photographs were taken of all participating family members, and these were graded for severity by use of a quantitative scale. Model-free linkage analysis was performed, and tests of heterogeneity and epistasis were conducted. We have evidence of a major locus on chromosome 15q (GATA50C03 multipoint P=1.98×10-7; empirical P⩽1.0×10-5; single-point P=3.6×10-7). This locus was present as a weak linkage signal in our previous genome scan for ARMD, in the Beaver Dam Eye Study sample (D15S659, multipoint P=.047), but is otherwise novel. In this genome scan, we observed a total of 13 regions on 11 chromosomes (1q31, 2p21, 4p16, 5q34, 9p24, 9q31, 10q26, 12q13, 12q23, 15q21, 16p12, 18p11, and 20q13), with a nominal multipoint significance level of P⩽.01 or LOD ⩾1.18. Family-by-family analysis of the data, performed using model-free linkage methods, suggests that there is evidence of heterogeneity in these families. For example, a single family (family 460) individually shows linkage evidence at 8 loci, at the level of P<.0001. We conducted tests for heterogeneity, which suggest that ARMD susceptibility loci on chromosomes 9p24, 10q26, and 15q21 are not present in all families. We tested for mutations in linked families and examined SNPs in two candidate genes, hemicentin-1 and EFEMP1, in subsamples (145 and 189 sib pairs, respectively) of the data. Mutations were not observed in any of the 11 exons of EFEMP1 nor in exon 104 of hemicentin-1. The SNP analysis for hemicentin-1 on 1q31 suggests that variants within or in very close proximity to this gene cause ARMD

  7. Genome-wide analysis of copy number variations reveals that aging processes influence body fat distribution in Korea Associated Resource (KARE) cohorts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Young; Shin, Dong Hyun; Cho, Seoae; Seo, Kang-Seok; Kim, Heebal

    2012-11-01

    associated with the aging process. In addition to structural variation, dosage effect analysis of genes based on CNV is useful to gain an understanding of the comprehensive biological phenomena underlying particular phenotypes and/or diseases.

  8. Enhancing Primary School Children's Knowledge of Online Safety and Risks with the CATZ Cooperative Cross-Age Teaching Intervention: Results from a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Michael J; Boulton, Louise; Camerone, Eleonora; Down, James; Hughes, Joanna; Kirkbride, Chloe; Kirkham, Rachel; Macaulay, Peter; Sanders, Jessica

    2016-10-01

    Children are heavy users of the Internet and prior studies have shown that many of them lack a good understanding of the risks of doing so and how to avoid them. This study examined if the cross-age teaching zone (CATZ) intervention could help children acquire important knowledge of online risks and safety. It allowed older students to act as CATZ tutors to design and deliver a lesson to younger schoolmates (tutees), using content material about online risks and safety provided by adults. Students in Year 6 (mean age = 11.5 years) were randomly assigned to act as either CATZ tutors (n = 100) or age-matched controls (n = 46) and students in Year 4 (mean age = 9.5 years) acted as either CATZ tutees (n = 117) or age-matched controls (n = 28) (total N = 291). CATZ tutors, but not matched controls scored significantly higher on objective measures of knowledge of both online risks and safety, and CATZ tutees, but not matched controls did so for online safety. Effect sizes were moderate or large. CATZ was highly acceptable to participants. The results suggest that CATZ is a viable way to help school students learn about online dangers and how to avoid them.

  9. [Saving motives in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Preliminary results of a new inventory for exploring lifespan saving motives].

    PubMed

    Rager, B; Lang, F R; Wagner, G G

    2012-12-01

    There is some research on personal reasons for saving money in the economic sciences. However, not much is known about the age differences of saving motives. In this vein, the future time perspective (FTP) is known to play a critical role for motivation across the life span. In this study, we introduce a new Saving Motive Inventory (SMI), which also covers saving goals after retirement. Furthermore, it is argued that additional saving motives that are not based on economic models of life-cycle saving also exist. In accordance with the socio-emotional selectivity theory, we explored age differences in an online survey with 496 participants from young (19-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years), and older (65-86 years) adulthood, who completed a questionnaire on saving motives, personality, and future-related thinking (e.g., Future Time Perspective Scale, Life Orientation Test). Results of the explorative Factor Analysis (EFA) are consistent with the theoretical expectations. The factors are generativity, educational investment, consumption, indifference, and provision for death and dying. Together these five factors account for 67% of the variance. In general, the inventory is reliable and valid with respect to the expected internal and external criteria. It contributes to better understanding of saving motives over the lifespan, especially with respect to effects of the future time perspective.

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Pain in People Aged 60 Years and above in Singapore: Results from the WiSE Study

    PubMed Central

    Satghare, Pratika; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimansyah; Chua, Boon Yiang; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although pain is experienced among people of all ages, there is a need to study its risk factors and impact among older adults. Aims. The study sought to determine the prevalence, sociodemographics, and clinical correlates of pain along with association of pain with disability among older adults in Singapore. Methods. The WiSE study was a comprehensive cross-sectional, single phase, epidemiological survey conducted among the elderly aged 60 years and above and used a nationally representative sample of three main ethnic groups in Singapore: Chinese, Malays, and Indians. The survey administered 10/66 protocol pain questionnaire, sociodemographic questionnaire, health status questionnaire, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0), and Geriatric Mental State (GMS) examination. Results. A total of 2565 respondents completed the study giving a response rate of 65.5%. The prevalence of pain among the elderly aged 60 years and above is 19.5 %. Females, incomplete primary education Indians, and those diagnosed with any chronic health condition were associated with risk of pain and disability. Conclusion. Study findings showed that disability related to pain among the elderly is considerable making it a priority to reduce the morbidity and disability among the elderly with pain. PMID:27445628

  11. Thermal Aging Study of a Dow Corning SE 1700 Porous Structure Made by Direct Ink Writing: 1-Year Results and Long-Term Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Ward; Pearson, Mark A.; Maiti, Amitesh; Metz, Thomas R.; Duoss, Eric B.; Wilson, Thomas S.

    2015-11-13

    Dow Corning SE 1700 (reinforced polydimethylsiloxane) porous structures were made by direct ink writing (DIW). The specimens (~50% porosity) were subjected to various compressive strains (15, 30, 45%) and temperatures (room temperature, 35, 50, 70°C) in a nitrogen atmosphere (active purge) for 1 year. Compression set and load retention of the aged specimens were measured periodically during the study. Compression set increased with strain and temperature. After 1 year, specimens aged at room temperature, 35, and 50°C showed ~10% compression set (relative to the applied compressive deflection), while those aged at 70°C showed 20-40%. Due to the increasing compression set, load retention decreased with temperature, ranging from ~90% at room temperature to ~60-80% at 70°C. Long-term compression set and load retention at room temperature were predicted by applying time-temperature superposition (TTS). The predictions show compression set relative to the compressive deflection will be ~10-15% with ~70-90% load retention after 50 years at 15-45% strain, suggesting the material will continue to be mechanically functional. Comparison of the results to previously acquired data for cellular (M97*, M9760, M9763) and RTV (S5370) silicone foams suggests that the SE 1700 DIW porous specimens are on par with, or outperform, the legacy foams.

  12. The Effect of Age, Gender, and Insertion Site on Marginal Bone Loss around Endosseous Implants: Results from a 3-Year Trial with Premium Implant System

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Massimiliano; Macaluso, Guido M.; Manfredi, Edoardo; Bonanini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The goal of this study was to evaluate bone changes around endosseous implants in partially edentulous patients. Materials and Methods. A total of 632 two-stage implants were placed in 252 patients. The implants had straight emergence profile, ZirTi surface, 3.3 to 5 mm diameter, and 8.5 to 13 mm length. Bone levels were assessed on orthopantomography immediately after surgery and after 36 months and marginal bone loss (MBL) was calculated from their difference. Results. Cumulative survival rate was 98.73%. Overall MBL was 0.8 mm ± 0.03 (mean ± SEM). Higher MBL was observed around implants in the maxilla than in the mandible (P < 0.007). A relation between implant diameter and MBL (P < 0.0001) was observed in male and, more limitedly, female patients. Older patients had higher MBL in the maxilla, but not in the mandible (P < 0.0001). MBL progressively increased with age in male patients, but reached a peak already in the 50–60 years age group in the female subset (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The overall MBL is consistent with the available literature. Site difference and patient age and gender appear to significantly affect MBL, representing important factors to be considered during implant placement. PMID:25187903

  13. Durability of a novel durable bait for control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): results of five-year field aging studies.

    PubMed

    Eger, J E; Hamm, R L; Demark, J J; Chin-Heady, E; Tolley, M P; Benson, E P; Zungoli, P A; Smith, M S; Spomer, N A

    2014-06-01

    A durable termite bait containing 0.5% noviflumuron was evaluated for physical durability, retention of active ingredient, consumption by termites, and toxicity to termites over 5 yr in field studies at locations in Indiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Plots in Indiana and Mississippi included both natural rainfall and irrigated plots, while plots in South Carolina received only natural rainfall. Samples collected every 3 mo for the first 4 yr were evaluated for consumption with a 7 d no-choice bioassay using Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). Consumption and toxicity of 5 yr samples were evaluated in similar bioassays conducted for 42 d. Durable baits received from field sites had some cracking, and a small amount of external flaking, but no major deterioration based on visual observation. There were no significant differences in noviflumuron concentration over the 5-yr period and no trend toward reduced concentrations of noviflumuron over time. Consumption of aged durable baits over 4 yr was variable, but termites usually consumed more aged durable bait than fresh durable bait and the differences were frequently significant. There were some exceptions, but termites consumed significantly more fresh durable bait than aged durable bait in only 4% of observations. When 5 yr samples were evaluated, consumption was lowest for fresh durable bait and termites consumed significantly more aged durable bait from irrigated plots in Indiana and from both natural and irrigated plots in Mississippi than fresh durable bait. Survival of termites fed blank durable bait was significantly higher than that for termites fed any of the baits containing noviflumuron and there were no significant differences in survival among the noviflumuron durable baits. Our results suggest that the bait would be durable for at least 5 yr and possibly longer under most environmental conditions.

  14. Protective factors for child development at age 2 in the presence of poor maternal mental health: results from the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kehler, Heather L; Tough, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the combination of factors most protective of developmental delay at age 2 among children exposed to poor maternal mental health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Pregnant women were recruited from primary healthcare offices, the public health laboratory service and community posters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Participants 1596 mother–child dyads who participated in the All Our Babies study and who completed a follow-up questionnaire when their child was 2 years old. Among participants who completed the 2-year questionnaire and had complete mental health data (n=1146), 305 women (27%) were classified as high maternal mental health risk. Primary measures Child development at age 2 was described and a resilience analysis was performed among a subgroup of families at maternal mental health risk. The primary outcome was child development problems. Protective factors were identified among families at risk, defined as maternal mental health risk, a composite measure created from participants’ responses to mental health life course questions and standardised mental health measures. Results At age 2, 18% of children were classified as having development problems, 15% with behavioural problems and 13% with delayed social–emotional competencies. Among children living in a family with maternal mental health risk, protective factors against development problems included higher social support, higher optimism, more relationship happiness, less difficulty balancing work and family responsibilities, limiting the child's screen time to <1 hour per day and the child being able to fall asleep in <30 min and sleeping through the night by age 2. Conclusions Among families where the mother has poor mental health, public health and early intervention strategies that support interpersonal relationships, social support, optimism, work–life balance, limiting children's screen time and establishing good sleep habits in the child's first 2

  15. The effects of acid leaching on 40Ar/39Ar age dating results using samples from the Walvis Ridge hotspot trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klath, J. F.; Koppers, A. A.; Heaton, D. E.; Schnur, S.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we systematically explore how acid leaching can be used to reduce the negative effects of seawater alteration on the 40Ar/39Ar age dating of submarine basalts. Koppers et al (2000) showed that acid leaching of groundmass samples generated more consistent ages as well as ages more concordant with phenocrystic mineral phases, compared to samples that were left untreated. By studying the effects of progressively increasing the strength and length of acid treatment, we will show how acid leaching of groundmass separates reduces alteration while leaving the initial eruption signature intact. Samples were chosen from the Walvis ridge hotspot trail in the southeast Atlantic. Three samples were selected based on degree and style of alteration. Two samples (basalt and basaltic andesite) appear highly altered in thin section. The basalt contains diffuse iddingsite alteration that is pervasive throughout the groundmass. The basaltic andesite displays focused secondary mineral phases within and around abundant vesicles. The third sample, a trachyte, shows relatively minor degrees of alteration in thin section. These groundmass separates were divided into four splits and treated with a progressively stronger acid and for longer duration. One split from each rock was left untreated to act as a baseline. Of the other three splits from each sample, one was treated with a mild leach (1N HCl and 1N HNO3), one a strong leach (1N HCl, 1N HNO3, 6N HCl, and 3N HNO3), and lastly the strong leach performed twice. The samples were then handpicked to remove any remaining visible alteration. The untreated samples were picked as well, removing the most distinctly altered grains. All splits were analyzed by electron microprobe, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and the incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar dating method. We will report on the results of an image analysis of microprobe backscatter images and elemental maps taken of individual groundmass grains. This analysis will show the location

  16. Using postnatal age to determine test dates leads to misinterpretations when treatments alter gestation length: results from a collaborative behavioral teratology study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, T; Narita, H; Ogawa, T; Tanimura, T

    1998-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted by researchers from 18 laboratories that participated in the Behavioral Teratology Meeting in Japan. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats from four breeders received subcutaneous injections of nicotine (6 mg/kg body weight) from day 7 to day 20 of gestation. Results of preweaning tests were closely related to length of gestation, and prolonged gestation was seen in the nicotine group. The effects of nicotine were compared with and without the adjustment of the mean difference in gestational lengths. Without the adjustment (i.e., by employing assessment in terms of postnatal day) several perplexing results were obtained, indicating that the nicotine group developed more quickly than the control group on several preweaning tests. By employing the adjustment, these perplexing results disappeared, indicating that the nicotine group developed more slowly than the control group. The merit of employing gestational day (or postcoital age) as an alternative index is emphasized.

  17. Investigation of geological structures with a view to HLRW disposal, as revealed through 3D inversion of aeromagnetic and gravity data and the results of CSAMT exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhiguo; Di, Qingyun

    2016-12-01

    The Alxa area in Inner Mongolia has been selected as a possible site for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Based on results of a previous study on crustal stability, the Tamusu rock mass has been chosen as the target. To determine the geological structure of this rock mass, aeromagnetic and gravity data are collected and inverted. Three-dimensional (3D) inversion horizontal slices show that the internal density of the rock mass and the distribution of magnetic properties are not uniform, with fractures and fragmentation being present. To confirm this result, the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric method (CSAMT) was applied to explore the geological structures, the typical CSAMT sounding curve was analyzed, and the response characteristics of the geological structure and surrounding rock are distinguished. The original data were processed and interpreted in combination with data from surface geology and drilling and logging data. It is found that the CSAMT results were consistent with those from 3D inversion of the gravity and magnetic data, confirming the existence of fractures and fragmentation in the exploration area.

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poor Sleep Quality among Chinese Elderly in an Urban Community: Results from the Shanghai Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disorders causes a significant negative effect on mental and physical health, particularly among the elderly. The disease burden and risk factors of poor sleep quality of the elderly need to be verified using a validated form of measurement in urban mainland China. Methods This study included 1086 community residents aged ≥60 years who completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI). Poor sleeper was defined by a CPSQI global score of >5. Subjects also accepted the neurological and neuropsychological assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS). A history of chronic diseases was confirmed by the medical records of each participant. Results The prevalence of poor sleep quality in this population was 41.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.6–44.5%), with a higher rate observed in elderly females (45.8% [95% CI = 41.9–49.7%]) than that in elderly males (35.8% [95% CI = 31.4–40.1%]). The prevalence rate increased with age, from 32.1% (95% CI = 27.8–36.4%) in those aged 60–69 years to 52.5% (95% CI = 45.9–59.1%) in those aged ≥80 years (p value for trend<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.03[95% CI = 1.01–1.05], p<0.001), less education duration (OR = 1.04 [95% CI = 1.01–1.08, p = 0.014), living alone (OR = 1.62 [95% CI = 1.02–2.58], p = 0.04), anxiety (ZSAS score: OR = 1.09 [95% CI = 1.05–1.12], p<0.001), number of chronic disease (OR = 1.18 [95% CI = 1.07–1.30], p = 0.14) and arthritis (OR = 1.45[95% CI = 1.05–2.01], p = 0.025) were risk factors of poor sleep quality. Conclusions Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent among elderly Chinese residents in urban Shanghai. Growing attention and comprehensive countermeasures involving psycho-social and personal activities

  19. Long-term (60-month) results for the implantable miniature telescope: efficacy and safety outcomes stratified by age in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, David; Freund, K Bailey; Regillo, Carl; Levy, Marc H; Garg, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of an implantable miniature telescope (IMT) in patients with bilateral, end-stage, age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical trial with fellow eye controls enrolled 217 patients (mean age 76 years) with AMD and moderate-to-profound bilateral central visual acuity loss (20/80–20/800) resulting from untreatable geographic atrophy, disciform scars, or both. A subgroup analysis was performed with stratification for age (patient age 65 to <75 years [group 1; n=70] and patient age ≥75 years [group 2; n=127]), with a comparative evaluation of change in best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), quality of life, ocular complications from surgery, adverse events, and endothelial cell density (ECD). Follow-up in an extension study was 60 months. Results Data were available for 22, 38, and 31 patients in group 1 and 42, 46, and 32 patients in group 2 at 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Mean BCDVA improvement from baseline to 60 months was 2.41±2.69 lines in all patients (n=76), with 2.64±2.55 lines in group 1 and 2.09±2.88 lines in group 2. Quality of life scores were significantly higher in group 1. The most common significant surgery-related ocular complications in group 1 were iritis >30 days after surgery (7/70; 10%) and persistent corneal edema (3/70; 4.3%); and in group 2 were a decrease in BCDVA in the implanted eye or IMT removal (10/127 each; 7.9%), corneal edema >30 days after surgery (9/127; 7.1%), and persistent corneal edema (6/127; 4.7%). Significant adverse events included four corneal transplants, comprising two (2.9%) in group 1 and two (1.6%) in group 2. At 60 months, one patient in group 1 (3.2%) and three patients in group 2 (9.4%) had lost ≥2 lines of vision. The IMT was removed in one (1.4%) and ten (7.9%) patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean ECD loss was 20% at 3 months. Chronic loss was 3% per

  20. U. S. -French Cooperative Research Program: U. S. test results for cable insulation and jacket materials at the completion of accelerated aging

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Eight different U.S. insulation and jacket products have been accelerated aged at Sandia. The experimental variables included: (1) sequential versus simultaneous accelerated aging exposures; (2) the order of the sequential exposures; and (3) ambient versus 70/sup 0/C irradiation temperatures during sequential aging exposures. We observed that the irradiation temperature (70/sup 0/C or ambient) was secondary in importance to the choice of sequence for thermal and radiation aging. For most materials studied (except TEFZEL) the irradiation then thermal aging sequence was as severe or more severe than the thermal then irradiation aging sequence.

  1. Pilot Study on Folate Bioavailability from a Camembert Cheese Reveals Contradictory Findings to Recent Results from a Human Short-term Study

    PubMed Central

    Mönch, Sabine; Netzel, Michael; Netzel, Gabriele; Ott, Undine; Frank, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Different dietary sources of folate have differing bioavailabilities, which may affect their nutritional “value.” In order to examine if these differences also occur within the same food products, a short-term human pilot study was undertaken as a follow-up study to a previously published human trial to evaluate the relative native folate bioavailabilities from low-fat Camembert cheese compared to pteroylmonoglutamic acid as the reference dose. Two healthy human subjects received the test foods in a randomized cross-over design separated by a 14-day equilibrium phase. Folate body pools were saturated with a pteroylmonoglutamic acid supplement before the first testing and between the testings. Folates in test foods and blood plasma were analyzed by stable isotope dilution assays. The biokinetic parameters Cmax, tmax, and area under the curve (AUC) were determined in plasma within the interval of 0–12 h. When comparing the ratio estimates of AUC and Cmax for the different Camembert cheeses, a higher bioavailability was found for the low-fat Camembert assessed in the present study (≥64%) compared to a different brand in our previous investigation (8.8%). It is suggested that these differences may arise from the different folate distribution in the soft dough and firm rind as well as differing individual folate vitamer proportions. The results clearly underline the importance of the food matrix, even within the same type of food product, in terms of folate bioavailability. Moreover, our findings add to the increasing number of studies questioning the general assumption of 50% bioavailability as the rationale behind the definition of folate equivalents. However, more research is needed to better understand the interactions between individual folate vitamers and other food components and the potential impact on folate bioavailability and metabolism. PMID:27092303

  2. A highly potent agonist to protease-activated receptor-2 reveals apical activation of the airway epithelium resulting in Ca2+-regulated ion conductance

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Cara L.; Daines, Michael O.; Price, Theodore J.; Vagner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The airway epithelium provides a barrier that separates inhaled air and its various particulates from the underlying tissues. It provides key physiological functions in both sensing the environment and initiating appropriate innate immune defenses to protect the lung. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is expressed both apically and basolaterally throughout the airway epithelium. One consequence of basolateral PAR2 activation is the rapid, Ca2+-dependent ion flux that favors secretion in the normally absorptive airway epithelium. However, roles for apically expressed PAR2 activation have not been demonstrated, in part due to the lack of specific, high-potency PAR2 ligands. In the present study, we used the newly developed PAR2 ligand 2at-LIGRLO(PEG3-Pam)-NH2 in combination with well-differentiated, primary cultured airway epithelial cells from wild-type and PAR2−/− mice to examine the physiological role of PAR2 in the conducting airway after apical activation. Using digital imaging microscopy of intracellular Ca2+ concentration changes, we verified ligand potency on PAR2 in primary cultured airway cells. Examination of airway epithelial tissue in an Ussing chamber showed that apical activation of PAR2 by 2at-LIGRLO(PEG3-Pam)-NH2 resulted in a transient decrease in transepithelial resistance that was due to increased apical ion efflux. We determined pharmacologically that this increase in ion conductance was through Ca2+-activated Cl− and large-conductance K+ channels that were blocked with a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel inhibitor and clotrimazole, respectively. Stimulation of Cl− efflux via PAR2 activation at the airway epithelial surface can increase airway surface liquid that would aid in clearing the airway of noxious inhaled agents. PMID:25143347

  3. Factors Influencing Suicidal Ideation Among Korean Adults by Age: Results of the 2010-2011 Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-ok; Lee, Hyo Young

    2015-11-01

    Suicidal ideation increases the risk of suicide. This study investigated the age-specific contributions of sociodemographic factors, health status, and health behaviors to suicidal ideation using nationally representative data. The factors associated with suicidal ideation differ by age. Perceived bad health, stress, and depression had a significant influence on suicidal ideation in all age groups, but their specific effects differed in different age groups. The influence of perceived bad health increased with age, and the effect of stress was strongest among those aged 45-64 years. Moreover, the effect of being depressed decreased by age and was strongest among those 20-44 years of age. Disease and marital status did not have a significant effect on suicidal ideation among those 45-64 years old, and education had no effect among those 65 years or older.

  4. cDNA cloning reveals two mouse beta5 integrin transcripts distinct in cytoplasmic domains as a result of alternative splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H; Tan, S M; Lu, J

    1998-01-01

    The integrin beta5 subunit has only been found to form a heterodimer with subunit alphav which acts as a vitronectin receptor. Integrin alphavbeta5 has been implicated in cell migration and growth factor-induced angiogenesis. In the present study, a mouse liver cDNA library was screened using a human beta5 cDNA fragment obtained by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Three of the clones (MB5, MB15 and MB17) overlapped to give an open reading frame, called beta5A, which is homologous to the human beta5 subunit. The sequence of another clone (MB26), called beta5B, was identical with beta5A, except for a deletion of 29 bp near the 3' end of the open reading frame. The 29 bp deletion resulted in an open-reading-frame shift and a completely different C-terminal sequence in beta5B. beta5A and beta5B were shown, by RT-PCR, to be co-expressed in most mouse tissues tested, although beta5B mRNA was detected at much lower levels than beta5A. beta5A and beta5B mRNAs were also detected in the mouse monocytic cell line, J774, and in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Adhesion of peritoneal macrophages has been shown to up-regulate the expression of both beta5A and beta5B mRNAs. The 29 bp sequence begins with a putative intron-splicing donor site (GTGAT...). A 3' fragment of the mouse integrin beta5 gene was cloned by PCR and sequenced showing that the 29 bp sequence was also immediately followed by an intron. Therefore, the 29 bp sequence was apparently expressed as part of the beta5A mRNA but was spliced out as part of the downstream intron in beta5B. Since the cytoplasmic domains of the integrin beta subunits are important in cytoskeleton attachment and signalling, the two alternatively spliced beta5 isoforms may have distinct roles in cell adhesion and other cellular functions. PMID:9531507

  5. Vitamin B12 status in women of childbearing age in the UK and its relationship with national nutrient intake guidelines: results from two National Diet and Nutrition Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Venkataraman, Hema; Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess serum B12, folate and the associated homocysteine (Hcy) levels among women of childbearing age in the UK and examine their association with dietary intake in relation to the UK Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for B12 and folate. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data from two publicly available National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS 2000/2001 and 2008/2012) were used. These were population-based surveys of randomly selected samples of adults which were carried out in their households. Participants Women of childbearing age (aged 19–39 years), representative of the UK population. Those who were pregnant or breastfeeding were excluded. Outcome measures The associations between micronutrient intakes and blood levels of B12, folate and Hcy were assessed by correlation and stepwise linear regression. B12 intake was divided into quintiles and plotted against blood B12 and Hcy concentrations to determine the threshold of any associations. Results 299 women from the first NDNS cohort had complete intake and biomarker data. The prevalence of serum vitamin B12 (≤150 pmol/L) and serum folate (≤10 nmol/L) deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia (≥12 µmol/L) was 12.4%, 6.4% and 21.2%, respectively, despite seemingly adequate B12 intakes (median 3.8 μg/day, 96% consumed more than the UK RNI of 1.5 μg/day). B12 concentrations increased across all quintiles of intake with serum levels in quintiles 4 and 5 (median intake 4.9 and 7.1 μg/day, respectively) significantly higher than quintile 1. However, Hcy concentrations levelled off between quintiles 4 and 5. Comparison of micronutrient intake between the two surveys found that folate intake has reduced in the more recent cohort. Conclusions The UK RNI for B12 intake should be increased for women of childbearing age with intakes of around 5–7 μg/day likely to be associated with stable biomarker levels. B12 levels should also be measured in women preconceptionally or in early

  6. Effect of Relative Age in the First Grade of Primary School on Long-Term Scholastic Results: International Comparative Evidence Using PISA 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprietsma, Maresa

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of pupil's relative age within the first grade of primary school on mathematics and reading test scores at age 15. The main objective is to evaluate the long-term causal effect of relative age in the first grades of primary school on pupil's test in 16 different countries. We use the national rule for…

  7. Results from in vitro and ex vivo skin aging models assessing the antiglycation and anti-elastase MMP-12 potential of glycylglycine oleamide

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanowicz, Patrick; Haure, Marie-José; Ceruti, Isabelle; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Castex-Rizzi, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycation is an aging reaction of naturally occurring sugars with dermal proteins. Type I collagen and elastin are most affected by glycation during intrinsic chronological aging. Aim To study the in vitro and ex vivo assays in human skin cells and explants and the antiaging effects of glycylglycine oleamide (GGO). Materials and methods The antiglycation effect of GGO was assessed in a noncellular in vitro study on collagen and, ex vivo, by immunohistochemical staining on human skin explants (elastin network glycation). The ability of GGO to contract fibroblasts was assessed in a functional assay, and its anti-elastase (MMP-12) activity was compared to that of oleic acid alone, glycylglycine (GG) alone, and oleic acid associated with GG. Results In vitro, GGO reduced the glycation of type I collagen. Ex vivo, GGO restored the expression of fibrillin-1 inhibited by glycation. Furthermore, GGO induced a tissue retraction of almost 30%. Moreover, the MMP-12 activity was inhibited by up to 60%. Conclusion Under the present in vitro and ex vivo conditions, GGO prevents glycation of the major structural proteins of the dermis, helping to reduce the risk of rigidification. By maintaining the elastic function of the skin, GGO may be a promising sparring partner for other topical antiaging agents. PMID:27382322

  8. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age.

    PubMed

    Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G

    2010-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.

  9. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H.; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G.

    2010-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.

  10. Predictions of mortality from pleural mesothelioma in Italy: a model based on asbestos consumption figures supports results from age-period-cohort models.

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Montanaro, Fabio; Mastrantonio, Marina; Uccelli, Raffaella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Nesti, Massimo; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2005-05-20

    Italy was the second main asbestos producer in Europe, after the Soviet Union, until the end of the 1980s, and raw asbestos was imported on a large scale until 1992. The Italian pattern of asbestos consumption lags on average about 10 years behind the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom and the Nordic countries. Measures to reduce exposure were introduced in the mid-1970s in some workplaces. In 1986, limitations were imposed on the use of crocidolite and in 1992 asbestos was definitively banned. We have used primary pleural cancer mortality figures (1970-1999) to predict mortality from mesothelioma among Italian men in the next 30 years by age-cohort-period models and by a model based on asbestos consumption figures. The pleural cancer/mesothelioma ratio and mesothelioma misdiagnosis in the past were taken into account in the analysis. Estimated risks of birth cohorts born after 1945 decrease less quickly in Italy than in other Western countries. The findings predict a peak with about 800 mesothelioma annual deaths in the period 2012-2024. Results estimated using age-period-cohort models were similar to those obtained from the asbestos consumption model.

  11. Association Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Older Adults: Results From the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Virginia J.; McClure, Leslie A.; Buys, Katie Crawford; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.; Levitan, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) on older adults’ prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. Methods. Data were from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, an observational study of 1000 community-dwelling Black and White Alabamians aged 65 years and older, in 1999 to 2001. We assessed hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control with blood pressure measurements and self-report data. We assessed ND with US Census data corresponding with participants’ census tracts, created tertiles of ND, and fit models with generalized estimating equations via a logit link function with a binomial distribution. Adjusted models included variables assessing personal advantage and disadvantage, place-based factors, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. Results. Living in mid-ND (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 2.1) and high-ND tertiles (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.3) was associated with higher hypertension prevalence, and living in high-ND tertiles was associated with lower odds of controlled hypertension (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6). In adjusted models, ND was not associated with hypertension awareness or treatment. Conclusions. These findings show that neighborhood environmental factors matter for hypertension outcomes and suggest the importance of ND for hypertension management in older adults. PMID:25322309

  12. THE PROFILE AND IMPACT OF PROBABLE DEMENTIA IN A SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COMMUNITY: RESULTS FROM THE IBADAN STUDY OF AGEING

    PubMed Central

    Gureje, Oye; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Kola, Lola

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the profile of dementia in a Sub-Saharan Africa country and assess its effects on role functioning and quality of life. Methods Using a multi-stage stratified clustered sampling of households in the Yoruba-speaking areas of Nigeria representing 22% of the national population, 2152 persons aged 65 years and over were studied. Probable dementia was evaluated with a validated cognitive test, the 10-word delayed recall test. Activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), as well as quality of life were also assessed. Results The prevalence of probable dementia in this sample was 10.1% (95% CI, 8.6 – 11.8%). Female gender and increasing age were risk factors. Also, lifetime history of alcohol use doubles the risk. Affected persons had relatively preserved functioning and quality of life. Conclusion The findings suggest that the diagnosis of dementia may be downwardly biased in this culture due to relatively preserved levels of social and functional roles. PMID:16938510

  13. Dengue in Vietnamese infants--results of infection-enhancement assays correlate with age-related disease epidemiology, and cellular immune responses correlate with disease severity.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tran Nguyen Bich; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Thuy, Tran Thi; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Hoang, Dang Minh; Dung, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Lien, Le Bich; Quy, Nguyen Thien; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Hieu, Lu Thi Minh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Farrar, Jeremy; Simmons, Cameron P

    2008-08-15

    The pathogenesis of severe dengue is not well understood. Maternally derived subneutralizing levels of dengue virus-reactive IgG are postulated to be a critical risk factor for severe dengue during infancy. In this study, we found that, in healthy Vietnamese infants, there was a strong temporal association between the Fc-dependent, dengue virus infection-enhancing activity of neat plasma and the age-related epidemiology of severe dengue. We then postulated that disease severity in infants with primary infections would be associated with a robust immune response, possibly as a consequence of higher viral burdens in vivo. Accordingly, in infants hospitalized with acute dengue, the activation phenotype of peripheral-blood NK cells and CD8+ and CD4+ T cells correlated with overall disease severity, but HLA-A*1101-restricted NS3(133-142)-specific CD8+ T cells were not measurable until early convalescence. Plasma levels of cytokines/chemokines were generally higher in infants with dengue shock syndrome. Collectively, these data support a model of dengue pathogenesis in infants whereby antibody-dependent enhancement of infection explains the age-related case epidemiology and could account for antigen-driven immune activation and its association with disease severity. These results also highlight potential risks in the use of live attenuated dengue vaccines in infants in countries where dengue is endemic.

  14. Revealing Rembrandt

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasized the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt's portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings. PMID:24795552

  15. Effect of Multimorbidity on Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults Aged 55 Years or Older: Results from the SU.VI.MAX 2 Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Perret-Guillaume, Christine; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Agrinier, Nelly; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Assmann, Karen E.; Briançon, Serge; Rotonda, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multimorbid chronic diseases are usually considered separately in trials. Here, we aimed to describe overall multimorbidity patterns in adults aged 55 years or older and assess their effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods We used data for 5,647 participants included in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants 2 (SU.VI.MAX 2) population-based trial. HRQoL was assessed by the French versions of the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 and the Duke Health Profile. An exploratory factor analysis was used to determine multimorbidity patterns, and a multimorbidity score for each resulting pattern was calculated. Adjusted multiple linear regression was used to examine the association between the identified multimorbidity and HRQoL scores by gender and for each age group (55–59, 60–64, 65–69, ≥ 70 years). Results More than 63% of the sample reported two or more chronic conditions (from 55.8% for those 55–59 years to 74.4% for those ≥ 70 years). Multimorbidity was more common among women than men (67.3% vs 60%). Two different multimorbidity patterns were identified. Pattern A was represented mainly by mental illness and bone impairments. Pattern B was represented mainly by cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. After adjusting for covariates, a high pattern A score was associated with reduced HRQoL for the physical and mental components of each HRQoL questionnaire, and a high pattern B score was associated with reduced HRQoL for only the physical component of each questionnaire. These multimorbidity scores affected HRQoL differently by age group. Conclusion Our study used a novel methodological approach to account for multimorbidity patterns in determining the link with chronic conditions. These multimorbidity scores (counted and weighted) can be used in clinical research to control for the effect of multimorbidity on patients’ HRQoL and may be useful for clinical practice. Clinical Trial Registration

  16. Organophosphate Insecticide Metabolites in Prenatal and Childhood Urine Samples and Intelligence Scores at 6 Years of Age: Results from the Mother–Child PELAGIE Cohort (France)

    PubMed Central

    Cartier, Chloé; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Saint-Amour, Dave; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in children. Objectives: We evaluated associations between biomarkers of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure and cognitive function of 6-year-olds in a French longitudinal birth cohort. Methods: In 2002–2006, the PELAGIE mother–child cohort enrolled pregnant women from Brittany. For a random subcohort, we measured nonspecific dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAP) of OP in one maternal urine sample, collected before 19 weeks’ gestation, and in one urine sample collected from their 6-year-old children. Six subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV) were administered when the children were 6 years of age to evaluate cognitive function (n = 231). Linear regression models controlling for factors including maternal intelligence and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score were used. Results: WISC-IV scores were not significantly associated with prenatal or childhood total DAP metabolites. WISC verbal comprehension score was significantly higher in association with the highest maternal urinary concentrations of diethylphosphate (DE) metabolites (5.5; 95% CI: 0.8, 10.3 for > 13.2 nmol/L vs. < LOQ), whereas WISC working memory score was significantly lower in association with the highest urinary concentrations of DE metabolites at age 6 years (–3.6; 95% CI: –7.8, –0.6 for > 11.1 nmol/L vs. < LOD). Conclusion: We found no evidence that prenatal OP exposure adversely affected cognitive function in 6-year-olds, perhaps because of the population’s socioeconomic status, which was higher than in previous studies, though other causal and noncausal explanations are also possible. The negative association between WISC score and concurrent DE urinary concentrations requires replication by longitudinal studies investigating childhood OP exposure. Citation: Cartier C, Warembourg C, Le Maner

  17. Indirect dark matter signatures in the cosmic dark ages. I. Generalizing the bound on s -wave dark matter annihilation from Planck results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies by Planck provide a sensitive probe of dark matter annihilation during the cosmic dark ages, and specifically constrain the annihilation parameter feff⟨σ v ⟩/mχ. Using new results (paper II) for the ionization produced by particles injected at arbitrary energies, we calculate and provide feff values for photons and e+e- pairs injected at keV-TeV energies; the feff value for any dark matter model can be obtained straightforwardly by weighting these results by the spectrum of annihilation products. This result allows the sensitive and robust constraints on dark matter annihilation presented by the Planck collaboration to be applied to arbitrary dark matter models with s -wave annihilation. We demonstrate the validity of this approach using principal component analysis. As an example, we integrate over the spectrum of annihilation products for a range of Standard Model final states to determine the CMB bounds on these models as a function of dark matter mass, and demonstrate that the new limits generically exclude models proposed to explain the observed high-energy rise in the cosmic ray positron fraction. We make our results publicly available at http://nebel.rc.fas.harvard.edu/epsilon.

  18. Dietary intake of soluble fiber and risk of islet autoimmunity by 5 y of age: results from the TEDDY study12

    PubMed Central

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Liu, Xiang; Uusitalo, Ulla M; Harsunen, Minna; Norris, Jill M; Foterek, Kristina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Rewers, Marian J; She, Jin-Xiong; Simell, Olli; Lernmark, Åke; Hagopian, William; Akolkar, Beena; Ziegler, Anette-G; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Hummel, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deficient soluble fiber intake has been suggested to dysregulate the immune response either directly or through alterations of the microbial composition in the gut. Objective: We hypothesized that a high intake of dietary soluble fiber in early childhood decreases the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D)–associated islet autoimmunity. Design: We analyzed 17,620 food records collected between age 9 and 48 mo from 3358 children from the United States and Germany prospectively followed in the TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study. HRs for the development of any/multiple islet autoantibodies (242 and 151 events, respectively) and T1D (71 events) by soluble fiber intake were calculated in Cox regression models and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: There were no statistically significantly protective associations observed between a high intake of soluble fiber and islet autoimmunity or T1D. For example, the adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for high intake (highest compared with lowest quintile) at age 12 mo were 0.90 (0.55, 1.45) for any islet autoantibody, 1.20 (0.69, 2.11) for multiple islet autoantibodies, and 1.24 (0.57, 2.70) for T1D. In analyzing soluble fiber intake as a time-varying covariate, there were also no short-term associations between soluble fiber intake and islet autoimmunity development, with adjusted HRs of 0.85 (0.51, 1.42) for high intake and development of any islet autoantibody, for example. Conclusion: These results indicate that the intake level of dietary soluble fiber is not associated with islet autoimmunity or T1D in early life. PMID:26156735

  19. Age Differences in the Association of Social Support and Mental Health in Male U.S. Veterans: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Melissa R.; Monin, Joan K.; Mota, Natalie; Pietrzak, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between multiple aspects of social support—perceived support, structural support, and community integration—and mental health difficulties in younger and older male veterans. Drawing from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), we hypothesized that greater support would be more strongly negatively related to mental health difficulties in older than younger veterans. Design Cross-sectional web survey of younger and older male veterans drawn from a contemporary, nationally representative sample of veterans residing in the United States. Setting Data were drawn from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). Participants Participants were 290 younger male veterans (mean age=37.0, SD=6.9, range=21–46) and 326 older male veterans (mean age=81.7, SD=3.2, range=78–96). Measurements Participants completed measures of socio-demographic and military characteristics, perceived and structural social support, community integration, and mental health difficulties. Results In contrast to SST, higher perceived support was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in younger but not older veterans. In line with SST, community integration was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in older but not younger veterans. Structural support was not associated with mental health difficulties in either group. Conclusion Results of this study provide mixed support for SST and suggest that different aspects of social support may help promote the mental health of younger and older male U.S. veterans. Promotion of community engagement may protect mental health in older veterans, while promotion of functional social support may protect mental health in younger veterans. PMID:26880612

  20. Assessment of influence of pro-health nutrition education and resulting changes of nutrition behavior of women aged 65-85 on their body content

    PubMed Central

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction One of systemic changes connected to body ageing is the change of body content and the possibility of formation and/or intensification of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension symptoms. Material and methods The research was conducted on 68 women aged 65-85 with body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 to 44.5 kg/m2 who have been educated for four months. The energy and nutritive value of 204 daily food rations (DFRs) was evaluated twice: first days of October and – after the diet correction and implementation of the basic rules – from the end of January. The measurements, anthropometric and body content (in 35 women under research) with the bio-impedance method was checked twice – before and after completing the education. Results After completing the education, there was a statistically significant increase in consumption of grain products, fermented milk products, potatoes, fruit and vegetables, as well as seeds of legumes. Consumption of meat and cold meats, sugar and sweets significantly decreased. In the course of education, an individual-specific decrease in body mass of the participants was noticed, which found its reflection in positive changes of the anthropometric indicators value. A significant decrease in fat content in bodies of women under research was also noticed, which was accompanied by a slight increase in fat-free body mass and water. Conclusions The four-month pro-health education of women influenced changes in improper nutrition habits resulting in, besides the improvement of organism functions and well-being of women under research, body mass loss and changes in content of the body. PMID:26848293

  1. Psychosocial and Clinical Factors Associated with Family Communication of Cancer Genetic Test Results among Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer at a Young Age.

    PubMed

    Elrick, Ashley; Ashida, Sato; Ivanovich, Jennifer; Lyons, Sarah; Biesecker, Barbara B; Goodman, Melody S; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2017-02-01

    Genetic test results have medical implications beyond the patient that extend to biological family members. We examined psychosocial and clinical factors associated with communication of genetic test results within families. Women (N = 1080) diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger completed an online survey; 920 women that reported prior cancer genetic testing were included in analysis. We examined the proportion of immediate family members to whom they communicated genetic test results, and built multivariable regression models to examine clinical and psychosocial variables associated with the proportion score. Participants were most likely to communicate test results to their mother (83 %) and least likely to their son (45 %). Participants who carried a BRCA mutation (OR = 1.34; 95 % CI = 1.06, 1.70), had higher interest in genomic information (OR = 1.55; 95 % CI = 1.26, 1.91) and lower genetic worry (OR = 0.91; 95 % CI = 0.86, 0.96) communicated genetic test results to a greater proportion of their immediate family members. Participants with a BRCA1/2 mutation shared their genetic test results with more male family members (OR = 1.72; 95 % CI = 1.02, 2.89). Our findings suggest that patients with high worry about genetic risks, low interest in genomic information, or receive a negative genetic test result will likely need additional support to encourage family communication.

  2. Microgravity effects on Drosophila melanogaster development and aging: Comparative analysis of the results of the fly experiment in the Biokosmos 9 biosatellite flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, R.; González-Jurado, J.; Calleja, M.; Garesse, R.; Maroto, M.; Ramírez, E.; Holgado, M. C.; de Juan, E.; Miquel, J.

    The results are presented of the exposure of Drosophila melanogaster to microgravity conditions during a 15-day biosatellite flight, Biokosmos 9, in a joint ESA-URSS project. The experimental containers were loaded before launch with a set of Drosophila melanogaster Oregon R larvae so that imagoes were due to emerge half-way through the flight. A large number of normally developed larvae were recovered from the space-flown containers. These larvae were able to develop into normal adults confirming earlier results that Drosophila melanogaster of a wild-type constitution can develop normally in the absence of gravity. However, microgravity exposure clearly enhances the number of growing embryos laid by the flies and possibly slows down the developmental pace of the microgravity-exposed animals. Due to some problems in the experimental set-up, this slowing down needs to be verified in future experiments. No live adult that had been exposed to microgravity was recovered from the experiment, so that no life span studies could be carried out, but adult males emerged from the recovered embryos showed a slight shortening in life span and a lower performance in other experimental tests of aging. This agrees with the results of previous experiments performed by our groups.

  3. Microgravity effects on Drosophila melanogaster development and aging: comparative analysis of the results of the Fly experiment in the Biokosmos 9 biosatellite flight.

    PubMed

    Marco, R; González-Jurado, J; Calleja, M; Garesse, R; Maroto, M; Ramírez, E; Holgado, M C; de Juan, E; Miquel, J

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented of the exposure of Drosophila melanogaster to microgravity conditions during a 15-day biosatellite flight, Biokosmos 9, in a joint ESA-URSS project. The experimental containers were loaded before launch with a set of Drosophila melanogaster Oregon R larvae so that imagoes were due to emerge half-way through the flight. A large number of normally developed larvae were recovered from the space-flown containers. These larvae were able to develop into normal adults confirming earlier results that Drosophila melanogaster of a wild-type constitution can develop normally in the absence of gravity. However, microgravity exposure clearly enhances the number of growing embryos laid by the flies and possibly slows down the developmental pace of the microgravity-exposed animals. Due to some problems in the experimental set-up, this slowing down needs to be verified in future experiments. No live adult that had been exposed to microgravity was recovered from the experiment, so that no life span studies could be carried out, but adult males emerged from the recovered embyros showed a slight shortening in life span and a lower performance in other experimental tests of aging. This agrees with the results of previous experiments performed by our groups.

  4. Down regulation of miR-124 in both Werner syndrome DNA helicase mutant mice and mutant Caenorhabditis elegans wrn-1 reveals the importance of this microRNA in accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Alexandra; Garand, Chantal; Paquel, Eric R; Mitchell, Sarah J; de Cabo, Rafael; Simard, Martin J; Lebel, Michel

    2012-09-01

    Small non-coding microRNAs are believed to be involved in the mechanism of aging but nothing is known on the impact of microRNAs in the progeroid disorder Werner syndrome (WS). WS is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a RecQ-like DNA helicase. Mice lacking the helicase domain of the WRN ortholog exhibit many phenotypic features of WS, including a pro-oxidant status and a shorter mean life span.Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) with a nonfunctional wrn-1 DNA helicase also exhibit a shorter life span. Thus, both models are relevant to study the expression of microRNAs involved in WS. In this study, we show that miR-124 expression is lost in the liver of Wrn helicase mutant mice. Interestingly, the expression of this conserved miR-124 in whole wrn-1 mutant worms is also significantly reduced. The loss of mir-124 in C. elegans increases reactive oxygen species formation and accumulation of the aging marker lipofuscin, reduces whole body ATP levels and results in a reduction in life span. Finally, supplementation of vitamin C normalizes the median life span of wrn-1 and mir-124 mutant worms. These results suggest that biological pathways involving WRN and miR-124 are conserved in the aging process across different species.

  5. Effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve child feeding practices and growth in rural China: updated results at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxu; Shi, Ling; Chen, Da-Fang; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practices have led to, in part, significant disparities in growth and nutritional status between rural and urban children in China. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial was implemented in Laishui, China to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on caregivers' feeding practices and children's growth. Eight townships were randomly assigned to the intervention or control. Five hundred ninety-nine healthy infants were enrolled at 2-4 months old, and were followed up at ages 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. The intervention group received information on enhanced home-prepared recipes and food preparation and hygiene through group training, counselling and home visit. Key outcomes were children's physical growth, caregivers' knowledge and behaviours on complementary feeding, and the infant and child feeding index (ICFI). Analysis was by intention to treat. The intervention group achieved better knowledge and practices related to complementary feeding, and significantly higher ICFI scores at each follow-up point. Children in the intervention group achieved higher z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) than the control (0.18 vs. 0.01 and 0.49 vs. 0.19, respectively) at 18 months old, and were less likely to have stunted growth (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.94). Mixed model showed that the intervention group achieved significantly better linear growth over time, including WAZ (P = 0.016), WHZ (P = 0.030) and HAZ (P = 0.078). These results indicated that an educational intervention delivered through local health services can enhance caregivers' knowledge and practices of complementary feeding and ultimately improve children's growth.

  6. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique), haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height) and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test). Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005). Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004). Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002) and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001) compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs. PMID:22424138

  7. Hospitalizations for Alcohol and Drug Overdoses in Young Adults Ages 18–24 in the United States, 1999–2008: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    PubMed Central

    White, Aaron M.; Hingson, Ralph W.; Pan, I-jen; yi, Hsiao-ye

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Recent reports indicate an increase in rates of hospitalizations for drug overdoses in the United States. The role of alcohol in hospitalizations for drug overdoses remains unclear. Excessive consumption of alcohol and drugs is prevalent in young adults ages 18–24. The present study explores rates and costs of inpatient hospital stays for alcohol overdoses, drug overdoses, and their co-occurrence in young adults ages 18–24 and changes in these rates between 1999 and 2008. Method: Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were used to estimate numbers, rates, and costs of inpatient hospital stays stemming from alcohol overdoses (and their subcategories, alcohol poisonings and excessive consumption of alcohol), drug overdoses (and their subcategories, drug poisonings and nondependent abuse of drugs), and their co-occurrence in 18- to 24-year-olds. Results: Hospitalization rates for alcohol overdoses alone increased 25% from 1999 to 2008, reaching 29,412 cases in 2008 at a cost of $266 million. Hospitalization rates for drug overdoses alone increased 55%, totaling 113,907 cases in 2008 at a cost of $737 million. Hospitalization rates for combined alcohol and drug overdoses increased 76%, with 29,202 cases in 2008 at a cost of $198 million. Conclusions: Rates of hospitalizations for alcohol overdoses, drug overdoses, and their combination all increased from 1999 to 2008 among 18- to 24-year-olds. The cost of such hospitalizations now exceeds $1.2 billion annually. The steepest increase occurred among cases of combined alcohol and drug overdoses. Stronger efforts are needed to educate medical practitioners and the public about the risk of overdoses, particularly when alcohol is combined with other drugs. PMID:21906505

  8. Marriage Protects Men from Clinically Meaningful Elevations in C-reactive Protein: Results from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP)

    PubMed Central

    Sbarra, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minor elevations in C-reactive Protein (CRP, > 3 mg/L) are a nonspecific marker of systemic inflammation and predict the future onset of cardiovascular disease. This report examines the association between marital status and CRP levels after accounting for a range of relevant of demographic, subjective and objective health indicators, and psychological variables. Methods Data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a population-based study of community-dwelling older adults in the United States, were used to study CRP elevations. Home-based interviews were conducted with the entire NSHAP sample, a subset of whom provided whole blood samples for the CRP analyses. The final sample consisted of 1,715 participants (838 men) with an average age of 69.51 years. Multiple and logistic regression analyses were conducted using CRP as a continuous and dichotomous outcome variable. Results Across the entire NSHAP sample, married men evidenced the lowest levels of CRP. After adjusting for the competing predictors, marriage remained a unique protective factor against elevated CRP for men (OR = .56, 95% CI: 39-.79). The absolute risk reduction (for being classified in the high-risk CRP group) associated with being a married man was roughly equivalent to that observed for adults who were normotensive, non-smokers, and those with a normal body mass index. Conclusions Remaining married in late adulthood affords men unique robust protection against elevated levels of CRP. The findings are discussed in terms of the pathways linking marital status and health outcomes among older adults. PMID:19661186

  9. Associations between Multiple Accelerometry-Assessed Physical Activity Parameters and Selected Health Outcomes in Elderly People – Results from the KORA-Age Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortlieb, Sandra; Gorzelniak, Lukas; Nowak, Dennis; Strobl, Ralf; Grill, Eva; Thorand, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Kuhn, Klaus A.; Karrasch, Stefan; Horsch, Alexander; Schulz, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Accelerometry is an important method for extending our knowledge about intensity, duration, frequency and patterns of physical activity needed to promote health. This study has used accelerometry to detect associations between intensity levels and related activity patterns with multimorbidity and disability. Moreover, the proportion of people meeting the physical activity recommendations for older people was assessed. Methods Physical activity was measured in 168 subjects (78 males; 65–89 years of age), using triaxial GT3X accelerometers for ten consecutive days. The associations between physical activity parameters and multimorbidity or disability was examined using multiple logistic regression models, which were adjusted for gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, lung function, nutrition and multimorbidity or disability. Results 35.7% of the participants met the physical activity recommendations of at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity per week. Only 11.9% reached these 150 minutes, when only bouts of at least 10 minutes were counted. Differences in moderate to vigorous activity between people with and without multimorbidity or disability were more obvious when shorter bouts instead of only longer bouts were included. Univariate analyses showed an inverse relationship between physical activity and multimorbidity or disability for light and moderate to vigorous physical activity. A higher proportion of long activity bouts spent sedentarily was associated with higher risk for multimorbidity, whereas a high proportion of long bouts in light activity seemed to prevent disability. After adjustment for covariates, there were no significant associations, anymore. Conclusions The accumulated time in moderate to vigorous physical activity seems to have a stronger relationship with health and functioning when shorter activity bouts and not only longer bouts were counted. We could not detect an association of the intensity

  10. Do Type of Childcare and Age of Entry Predict Behavior Problems during Early Childhood? Results from a Large Norwegian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekhal, Ratib

    2012-01-01

    Associations between type and age of entry into Norwegian universally-accessible childcare and children's behavior problems at age 3 years were examined in this study. Data from 73,068 children in the large population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) were used, and included information about childcare arrangements,…

  11. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2003. Volume II: College Students & Adults Ages 19-45, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2004-01-01

    This is the second volume in a two-volume set, presenting findings from the Monitoring the Future study. The first volume presents findings from American secondary students in grades 8, 10, and 12. This second volume contains findings from American college students, their