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Sample records for age results suggest

  1. Calorie Restriction: What Recent Results Suggest for the Future of Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel L.; Nagy, Tim R.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Calorie Restriction (CR) research has expanded rapidly over the past few decades and CR remains the most highly reproducible, environmental intervention to improve health and extend lifespan in animal studies. Although many model organisms have consistently demonstrated positive responses to CR, it remains to be shown whether CR will extend lifespan in humans. Additionally, the current environment of excess caloric consumption and high incidence of overweight/obesity illustrate the improbable nature of the long-term adoption of a CR lifestyle by a significant proportion of the human population. Thus, the search for substances that can reproduce the beneficial physiologic responses of CR without a requisite calorie intake reduction, termed CR mimetics (CRMs), has gained momentum. Material & Methods Recent articles describing health and lifespan results of CR in nonhuman primates and short-term human studies are discussed. Additional consideration is given to the rapidly expanding search for CRMs. Results The first results from a long-term, randomized, controlled CR study in nonhuman primates showing statistically significant benefits on longevity have now been reported. Additionally, positive results from short-term, randomized, controlled CR studies in humans are suggestive of potential health and longevity gains, while test of proposed CRMs (including rapamycin, resveratrol, 2-deoxyglucose and metformin) have shown both positive and mixed results in rodents. Conclusion Whether current positive results will translate into longevity gains for humans remains an open question. However, the apparent health benefits that have been observed with CR suggest that regardless of longevity gains, the promotion of healthy aging and disease prevention may be attainable. PMID:20534066

  2. Suggestions for presenting the results of data analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, David R.; Link, William A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2001-01-01

    We give suggestions for the presentation of research results from frequentist, information-theoretic, and Bayesian analysis paradigms, followed by several general suggestions. The information-theoretic and Bayesian methods offer alternative approaches to data analysis and inference compared to traditionally used methods. Guidance is lacking on the presentation of results under these alternative procedures and on nontesting aspects of classical frequentists methods of statistical analysis. Null hypothesis testing has come under intense criticism. We recommend less reporting of the results of statistical tests of null hypotheses in cases where the null is surely false anyway, or where the null hypothesis is of little interest to science or management.

  3. Mobbing Experiences of Instructors: Causes, Results, and Solution Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celep, Cevat; Konakli, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible mobbing problems in universities, their causes and results, and to attract attention to precautions that can be taken. Phenomenology as one of the qualitative research methods was used in the study. Sample group of the study was selected through the criteria sampling method and eight instructors…

  4. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644

  5. Eliminating Age Differences in Children's and Adults' Suggestibility and Memory Conformity Effects.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Brackmann, Nathalie; van Helvoort, Daniël H J

    2017-03-30

    We examined whether typical developmental trends in suggestion-induced false memories (i.e., age-related decrease) could be changed. Using theoretical principles from the spontaneous false memory field, we adapted 2 often-used false memory procedures: misinformation (Experiment 1) and memory conformity (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 7- to 9-year-old children (n = 33) and adults (n = 39) received stories containing associatively related details. They then listened to misinformation in the form of short narratives preserving the meaning of the story. Children and adults were equally susceptible to the misinformation effect. In Experiment 2, younger (7- to 8-year-olds, n = 30) and older (11- to 12-year-olds, n = 30) children and adults (n = 30) viewed pictures containing associatively related details. They viewed these pictures in pairs. Although the pictures differed, participants believed they had viewed the same pictures. Participants had to report what they could recollect during collaborative and individual recall tests. Children and adults were equally susceptible to memory conformity effects. When correcting for response bias, adults' false memory scores were even higher than children's. Our results show that age trends in suggestion-induced false memories are not developmentally invariant. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Peptide bioregulation of aging: results and prospects.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Khavinson, Vladimir Kh

    2010-04-01

    The review comprises the results of author's long-term investigation in the mechanisms of aging and a role of peptide bioregulators in prevention of age-related pathology. A number of small peptides have been isolated from different organs and tissues and their analogues (di-, tri-, tetrapeptides) were synthesized from the amino acids. It was shown that long-term treatment with some peptide preparations increased mean life span by 20-40%, slow down the age-related changes in the biomarkers of aging and suppressed development of spontaneous and induced by chemical or radiation carcinogens tumorigenesis in rodents. Possible mechanisms of the biological effects of small peptides are discussed in the paper. The results of clinical applications of peptide preparation during the period of 6-12 years are presented as well.

  7. Results of LWR snubber aging research

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D P; Werry, E V; Blahnik, D E

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the aging research results and recommendations for snubbers used in commercial nuclear power plants. Snubbers are safety-related devices used to restrain undesirable dynamic loads at various piping and equipment locations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Each snubber must accommodate a plant's normal thermal movements and must be capable of restraining the maximum off-normal dynamic loads, such as a seismic event or a transient, postulated for its specific location. The effects of snubber aging and the factors that contribute to the degradation of their safety performance need to be better understood. Thus, Phase II of Nuclear Plant Aging Research was conducted to enhance the understanding of snubber aging and its consequences. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff and their subcontractors, Lake Engineering and Wyle Laboratories, visited eight sites (encompassing thirteen plants) to conduct interviews with NPP staff and to collect data on snubber aging, testing, and maintenance. The Phase II research methodology, evaluation, results, conclusions, and recommendations are described in the report. Effective methods for service-life monitoring of snubbers are included in the recommendations.

  8. Detection of a Novel, Integrative Aging Process Suggests Complex Physiological Integration

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alan A.; Milot, Emmanuel; Li, Qing; Bergeron, Patrick; Poirier, Roxane; Dusseault-Bélanger, Francis; Fülöp, Tamàs; Leroux, Maxime; Legault, Véronique; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Fried, Linda P.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Many studies of aging examine biomarkers one at a time, but complex systems theory and network theory suggest that interpretations of individual markers may be context-dependent. Here, we attempted to detect underlying processes governing the levels of many biomarkers simultaneously by applying principal components analysis to 43 common clinical biomarkers measured longitudinally in 3694 humans from three longitudinal cohort studies on two continents (Women’s Health and Aging I & II, InCHIANTI, and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging). The first axis was associated with anemia, inflammation, and low levels of calcium and albumin. The axis structure was precisely reproduced in all three populations and in all demographic sub-populations (by sex, race, etc.); we call the process represented by the axis “integrated albunemia.” Integrated albunemia increases and accelerates with age in all populations, and predicts mortality and frailty – but not chronic disease – even after controlling for age. This suggests a role in the aging process, though causality is not yet clear. Integrated albunemia behaves more stably across populations than its component biomarkers, and thus appears to represent a higher-order physiological process emerging from the structure of underlying regulatory networks. If this is correct, detection of this process has substantial implications for physiological organization more generally. PMID:25761112

  9. Out of Tibet: Pliocene woolly rhino suggests high-plateau origin of Ice Age megaherbivores.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tao; Wang, Xiaoming; Fortelius, Mikael; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yang; Tseng, Zhijie J; Takeuchi, Gary T; Saylor, Joel E; Säilä, Laura K; Xie, Guangpu

    2011-09-02

    Ice Age megafauna have long been known to be associated with global cooling during the Pleistocene, and their adaptations to cold environments, such as large body size, long hair, and snow-sweeping structures, are best exemplified by the woolly mammoths and woolly rhinos. These traits were assumed to have evolved as a response to the ice sheet expansion. We report a new Pliocene mammal assemblage from a high-altitude basin in the western Himalayas, including a primitive woolly rhino. These new Tibetan fossils suggest that some megaherbivores first evolved in Tibet before the beginning of the Ice Age. The cold winters in high Tibet served as a habituation ground for the megaherbivores, which became preadapted for the Ice Age, successfully expanding to the Eurasian mammoth steppe.

  10. Nucleon resonance electroproduction at high momentum transers: Results from SLAC and suggestions for CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, C.

    1994-04-01

    Nucleon resonance electroproduction results from SLAC Experiment E14OX are presented. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy would enable similar high momentum transfer measurements to be made with greater accuracy. Of particular interest are the Delta P{sub 33}(1232) resonance form factor and R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}, the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse components of the cross section. A suggestion is made to study these quantities in conjunction with Bloom-Gilman duality.

  11. Spatial gradients in Clovis-age radiocarbon dates across North America suggest rapid colonization from the north.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Buchanan, Briggs

    2007-10-02

    A key issue in the debate over the initial colonization of North America is whether there are spatial gradients in the distribution of the Clovis-age occupations across the continent. Such gradients would help indicate the timing, speed, and direction of the colonization process. In their recent reanalysis of Clovis-age radiocarbon dates, Waters and Stafford [Waters MR, Stafford TW, Jr (2007) Science 315:1122-1126] report that they find no spatial patterning. Furthermore, they suggest that the brevity of the Clovis time period indicates that the Clovis culture represents the diffusion of a technology across a preexisting pre-Clovis population rather than a population expansion. In this article, we focus on two questions. First, we ask whether there is spatial patterning to the timing of Clovis-age occupations and, second, whether the observed speed of colonization is consistent with demic processes. With time-delayed wave-of-advance models, we use the radiocarbon record to test several alternative colonization hypotheses. We find clear spatial gradients in the distribution of these dates across North America, which indicate a rapid wave of advance originating from the north. We show that the high velocity of this wave can be accounted for by a combination of demographic processes, habitat preferences, and mobility biases across complex landscapes. Our results suggest that the Clovis-age archaeological record represents a rapid demic colonization event originating from the north.

  12. Spatial gradients in Clovis-age radiocarbon dates across North America suggest rapid colonization from the north

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Buchanan, Briggs

    2007-01-01

    A key issue in the debate over the initial colonization of North America is whether there are spatial gradients in the distribution of the Clovis-age occupations across the continent. Such gradients would help indicate the timing, speed, and direction of the colonization process. In their recent reanalysis of Clovis-age radiocarbon dates, Waters and Stafford [Waters MR, Stafford TW, Jr (2007) Science 315:1122–1126] report that they find no spatial patterning. Furthermore, they suggest that the brevity of the Clovis time period indicates that the Clovis culture represents the diffusion of a technology across a preexisting pre-Clovis population rather than a population expansion. In this article, we focus on two questions. First, we ask whether there is spatial patterning to the timing of Clovis-age occupations and, second, whether the observed speed of colonization is consistent with demic processes. With time-delayed wave-of-advance models, we use the radiocarbon record to test several alternative colonization hypotheses. We find clear spatial gradients in the distribution of these dates across North America, which indicate a rapid wave of advance originating from the north. We show that the high velocity of this wave can be accounted for by a combination of demographic processes, habitat preferences, and mobility biases across complex landscapes. Our results suggest that the Clovis-age archaeological record represents a rapid demic colonization event originating from the north. PMID:17898176

  13. Child Characteristics Which Impact Accuracy of Recall and Suggestibility in Preschoolers: Is Age the Best Predictor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddie, Lane; Fradin, Sasha; Beer, Jessica

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-six children (ages 43 to 83 months) participated in an event conducted by two undergraduates dressed as clowns. Ten days later, interviews found metamemory ability, intellectual functioning, and temperament were helpful in determining a child's capacity to accurately recall information, although for the most part age was the best predictor.…

  14. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  15. Theory of Mind, Inhibitory Control, and Preschool-Age Children's Suggestibility in Different Interviewing Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Matthew H.; Bonner, Karri

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the relations among 3- to 5-year-olds' theory of mind, inhibitory control, and three measures of suggestibility: yielding to suggestive questions (yield), shifting answers in response to negative feedback (shift), and accuracy in response to misleading questions during a pressured interview about a live event. Theory of…

  16. Greater Intermanual Transfer in the Elderly Suggests Age-Related Bilateral Motor Cortex Activation Is Compensatory

    PubMed Central

    Graziadio, Sara; Nazarpour, Kianoush; Gretenkord, Sabine; Jackson, Andrew; Eyre, Janet A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Hemispheric lateralization of movement control diminishes with age; whether this is compensatory or maladaptive is debated. The authors hypothesized that if compensatory, bilateral activation would lead to greater intermanual transfer in older subjects learning tasks that activate the cortex unilaterally in young adults. They studied 10 young and 14 older subjects, learning a unimanual visuomotor task comprising a feedforward phase, where there is unilateral cortical activation in young adults, and a feedback phase, which activates the cortex bilaterally in both age groups. Increased intermanual transfer was demonstrated in older subjects during feedforward learning, with no difference between groups during feedback learning. This finding is consistent with bilateral cortical activation being compensatory to maintain performance despite declining computational efficiency in neural networks. PMID:25575222

  17. Aging Management of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures - Overview and Suggested Research Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and their operating experience noted. Primary considerations related to management of their aging are noted and an indication of their status provided: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, nondestructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Several activities are identified that provide background information and data on areas of concern with respect to nondestructive examination of nuclear power plant concrete structures: inspection of thick-walled, heavily-reinforced sections, basemats, and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. Topics are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  18. 'Cape capture': Geologic data and modeling results suggest the holocene loss of a Carolina Cape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thieler, E.R.; Ashton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, the origin and evolution of the set of cuspate forelands known as the Carolina Capes-Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain-off the eastern coast of the United States have been discussed and debated. The consensus conceptual model is not only that these capes existed through much or all of the Holocene transgression, but also that their number has not changed. Here we describe bathymetric, lithologic, seismic, and chronologic data that suggest another cape may have existed between Capes Hatteras and Lookout during the early to middle Holocene. This cape likely formed at the distal end of the Neuse-Tar-Pamlico fiuvial system during the early Holocene transgression, when this portion of the shelf was fiooded ca. 9 cal (calibrated) kyr B.P., and was probably abandoned by ca. 4 cal kyr B.P., when the shoreline attained its present general configuration. Previously proposed mechanisms for cape formation suggest that the large-scale, rhythmic pattern of the Carolina Capes arose from a hydrodynamic template or the preexisting geologic framework. Numerical modeling, however, suggests that the number and spacing of capes can be dynamic, and that a coast can self-organize in response to a high-angle-wave instability in shoreline shape. In shoreline evolution model simulations, smaller cuspate forelands are subsumed by larger neighbors over millennial time scales through a process of 'cape capture.' The suggested former cape in Raleigh Bay represents the first interpreted geological evidence of dynamic abandonment suggested by the self-organization hypothesis. Cape capture may be a widespread process in coastal environments with large-scale rhythmic shoreline features; its preservation in the sedimentary record will vary according to geologic setting, physical processes, and sea-level history. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  19. Results of animal studies suggest a nonlinear dose-response relationship for benzene effects

    SciTech Connect

    Parodi, S.; Taningher, M. ); Lutz, W.K. ); Colacci, A.; Mazzullo, M.; Grilli, S. )

    1989-07-01

    Considering the very large industrial usage of benzene, studies in risk assessment aimed at the evaluation of carcinogenic risk at low levels of exposure are important. Animal data can offer indications about what could happen in humans and provide more diverse information than epidemiological data with respect to dose-response consideration. The authors have considered experiments investigating metabolism, short-term genotoxicity tests, DNA adduct formation, and carcinogenicity long-term tests. According to the different experiments, a saturation of benzene metabolism and benzene effects in terms of genotoxicity seems evident above 30 to 100 ppm. Below 30 to 60 ppm the initiating effect of benzene seems to be linear for a large interval of dosages, at least judging from DNA adduct formation. Potential lack of a promoting effect of benzene (below 10 ppm) could generate a sublinear response at nontoxic levels of exposure. This possibility was suggested by epidemiological data in humans and is not confirmed or excluded by their observations with animals.

  20. Better options for work and retirement: some suggestions for improving economic security mechanisms for old age.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y P

    1988-01-01

    After identifying the income security system as a tripod structure symbolizing the efforts of the individual, the employer, and the government, the first section of this chapter suggested that economic security is a broader concept than income security, since a person is concerned not only with the acquisition of income and assets but also with the retention and disposal of them. Factors such as health care expenditures, housing and living arrangements, service delivery, and support networks affect income and asset retention. Both acquisition and retention of income and assets, furthermore, are influenced by macroeconomic policies. This section also discussed the possibility that the role of the individual in providing economic security may be underestimated. In the second section, the heterogeneity of older persons was demonstrated in terms of both income sources and the relative importance of these sources to persons in different income classes. Social Security declines in importance as income level rises, whereas assets and employment as sources of income increase with income levels. Occupational pensions are of minimal importance to persons in the lowest-income class. Though more important to persons in the higher-income classes, occupational pensions as a proportion to their total income lie between 10% and 20% for these groups. By definition, public assistance is important only to the lowest-income class. During the last two decades, the relative importance of these income sources has changed, as pointed out in the third section, which also speculated on their future roles. The fourth section proposed possible ways of improving the five income security mechanisms: to provide more child-care credit for women under Social Security, to strengthen portability under private pension plans, to make IRAs more accessible and more meaningful for retirement purposes, to enhance the role of employment for adults, and to raise SSI so as to eliminate poverty. The chapter

  1. Menopausal Estrogen Therapy Benefits and Risks Vary by Age, WHI Analysis Suggests | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Long-term follow-up data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) provide important new information about the potential risks and benefits of hormone therapy to treat symptoms or conditions related to menopause, including its effect on breast cancer risk. The results were published April 5 in the Journal of the American Medical Association. |

  2. Testing for variation in taxonomic extinction probabilities: a suggested methodology and some results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Several important questions in evolutionary biology and paleobiology involve sources of variation in extinction rates. In all cases of which we are aware, extinction rates have been estimated from data in which the probability that an observation (e.g., a fossil taxon) will occur is related both to extinction rates and to what we term encounter probabilities. Any statistical method for analyzing fossil data should at a minimum permit separate inferences on these two components. We develop a method for estimating taxonomic extinction rates from stratigraphic range data and for testing hypotheses about variability in these rates. We use this method to estimate extinction rates and to test the hypothesis of constant extinction rates for several sets of stratigraphic range data. The results of our tests support the hypothesis that extinction rates varied over the geologic time periods examined. We also present a test that can be used to identify periods of high or low extinction probabilities and provide an example using Phanerozoic invertebrate data. Extinction rates should be analyzed using stochastic models, in which it is recognized that stratigraphic samples are random varlates and that sampling is imperfect

  3. Gene expression profiling suggests a pathological role of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in aging-related skeletal diseases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shih Sheng; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Tseng, Kuo-Yun; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Wang, Ming Jen; Chang, I-Shou; Lin, Jiunn-Liang; Lin, Shankung

    2011-07-01

    Aging is associated with bone loss and degenerative joint diseases, in which the aging of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (bmMSC)[1] may play an important role. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of bmMSC from 14 donors between 36 and 74 years old, and obtained age-associated genes (in the background of osteoarthritis) and osteoarthritis-associated genes (in the background of old age). Pathway analysis of these genes suggests that alterations in glycobiology might play an important role in the aging of human bmMSC. On the other hand, antigen presentation and signaling of immune cells were the top pathways enriched by osteoarthritis-associated genes, suggesting that alteration in immunology of bmMSC might be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Most intriguingly, we found significant age-associated differential expression of HEXA, HEXB, CTSK, SULF1, ADAMTS5, SPP1, COL8A2, GPNMB, TNFAIP6, and RPL29; those genes have been implicated in the bone loss and the pathology of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis in aging. Collectively, our results suggest a pathological role of bmMSC in aging-related skeletal diseases, and suggest the possibility that alteration in the immunology of bmMSC might also play an important role in the etiology of adult-onset osteoarthritis.

  4. Tobacco Talk: Educating Young Children about Tobacco. Suggestions for Teachers, Parents, and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Carol

    This book provides adults with specific suggestions and advice for talking with children about the health and social hazards of tobacco use. The first two chapters provide background information and general principles for talking about tobacco with children up to the age of 10. Each of the following five chapters focuses on one topic about tobacco…

  5. Runx3 deficiency results in myeloproliferative disorder in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chelsia Qiuxia; Motoda, Lena; Satake, Masanobu; Ito, Yoshiaki; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Osato, Motomi

    2013-07-25

    The RUNX family genes encode transcription factors that are involved in development and human diseases. RUNX1 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human hematological malignancies and is a critical factor for the generation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. Another Runx family gene, Runx3, is known to be expressed in hematopoietic cells. However, its involvement in hematopoiesis remains unclear. Here we show the hematopoietic phenotypes in Runx3 conditional knockout (KO) mice (Runx3(fl/fl);Mx1-Cre(+)): whereas young Runx3 KO mice did not exhibit any significant hematopoietic defects, aged Runx3 KO mice developed a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by myeloid-dominant leukocytosis, splenomegaly, and an increase of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Notably, Runx3-deficient cells showed hypersensitivity to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, suggesting enhanced proliferative and mobilization capability of Runx3-deficient HSPCs when stimulated. These results suggest that, besides Runx1, Runx3 also plays a role in hematopoiesis.

  6. Intellectual functioning in old and very old age: cross-sectional results from the Berlin Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1997-09-01

    This study documents age trends, interrelations, and correlates of intellectual abilities in old and very old age (70-103 years) from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516). Fourteen tests were used to assess 5 abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the mechanic (broad fluid) domain and knowledge and fluency from the pragmatic (broad crystallized) domain. Intellectual abilities had negative linear age relations, with more pronounced age reductions in mechanic than in pragmatic abilities. Interrelations among intellectual abilities were highly positive and did not follow the mechanic-pragmatic distinction. Sociobiographical indicators were less closely linked to intellectual functioning than sensory-sensorimotor variables, which predicted 59% of the total reliable variance in general intelligence. Results suggest that aging-induced biological factors are a prominent source of individual differences in intelligence in old and very old age.

  7. [SOME RESULTS OF MOLECULAR GENETIC RESEARCHES OF AGING AND LONGEVITY].

    PubMed

    Mustafina, O E; Somova, R Sh

    2015-01-01

    This review is devoted to the description of research achievements in genetics of aging and longevity. It represents a certain interest for understanding of a problems of aging as a whole. There is a huge amount of results of diverse genetic studies of aging and longevity. Studies were performed with using different experimental strategies on model organisms or samples from different human populations of the world. The search for aging and longevity genes was carried out within international consortiums. The first results of whole genome sequences of super-centenarians were received. The genes influencing life expectancy were revealed in organisms of different systematic groups. Many of these genes are evolutionarily conservative. Associations between APOE, FOXO1A, FOXO3A, AKT1 gene polymorphisms and human longevity were confirmed in independent studies.

  8. [Cognitive capacity in advanced age: initial results of the Berlin Aging Study].

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1995-01-01

    This study reports data on intellectual functioning in old and very old age from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516; age range = 70-103 years; mean age = 85 years). A psychometric battery of 14 tests was used to assess five cognitive abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the broad fluid-mechanical as well as knowledge and fluency from the broad crystallized-pragmatic domains. Cognitive abilities had a negative linear relationship with age, with more pronounced age-based reductions in fluid-mechanical than crystallized-pragmatic abilities. At the same time, ability intercorrelations formed a highly positive manifold, and did not follow the fluid-crystallized distinction. Interindividual variability was of about equal magnitude across the entire age range studied. There was, however, no evidence for substantial sex differences. As to origins of individual differences, indicators of sensory and sensorimotor functioning were more powerful predictors of intellectual functioning than cultural-biographical variables, and the two sets of predictors were, consistent with theoretical expectations, differentially related to measures of fluid-mechanical (perceptual speed) and crystallized pragmatic (knowledge) functioning. Results, in general indicative of sizeable and general losses with age, are consistent with the view that aging-induced biological influences are a prominent source of individual differences in intellectual functioning in old and very old age. Longitudinal follow-ups are underway to examine the role of cohort effects, selective mortality, and interindividual differences in change trajectories.

  9. Greater Perceived Age Discrimination in England than the United States: Results from HRS and ELSA

    PubMed Central

    Zaninotto, Paola; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined cross-national differences in perceptions of age discrimination in England and the United States. Under the premise that the United States has had age discrimination legislation in place for considerably longer than England, we hypothesized that perceptions of age discrimination would be lower in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from two nationally representative studies of aging, the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (n = 4,818) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 7,478). Respondents aged 52 years and older who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination were significantly higher in England than the United States, with 34.8% of men and women in England reporting age discrimination compared with 29.1% in the United States. Associations between perceived age discrimination and older age and lower levels of household wealth were observed in both countries, but we found differences between England and the United States in the relationship between perceived age discrimination and education. Discussion. Our study revealed that levels of perceived age discrimination are lower in the United States than England and are less socially patterned. This suggests that differing social and political circumstances in the two countries may have an important role to play. PMID:26224759

  10. Age-dependent brain gene expression and copy number anomalies in autism suggest distinct pathological processes at young versus mature ages.

    PubMed

    Chow, Maggie L; Pramparo, Tiziano; Winn, Mary E; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Li, Hai-Ri; Weiss, Lauren; Fan, Jian-Bing; Murray, Sarah; April, Craig; Belinson, Haim; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Schork, Nicholas J; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs) in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess prefrontal neurons

  11. Age-Dependent Brain Gene Expression and Copy Number Anomalies in Autism Suggest Distinct Pathological Processes at Young Versus Mature Ages

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Mary E.; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Li, Hai-Ri; Weiss, Lauren; Fan, Jian-Bing; Murray, Sarah; April, Craig; Belinson, Haim; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Schork, Nicholas J.; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs) in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess prefrontal neurons

  12. Accelerated aging test results for aerospace wire insulation constructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Several wire insulation constructions were evaluated with and without continuous glow discharges at low pressure and high temperature to determine the aging characteristics of acceptable wire insulation constructions. It was known at the beginning of the test program that insulation aging takes several years when operated at normal ambient temperature and pressure of 20 C and 760 torr. Likewise, it was known that the accelerated aging process decreases insulation life by approximately 50% for each 10 C temperature rise. Therefore, the first phases of the program, not reported in these test results, were to select wire insulation constructions that could operate at high temperature and low pressure for over 10,000 hours with negligible shrinkage and little materials' deterioration.The final phase of the program was to determine accelerated aging characteristics. When an insulation construction is subjected to partial discharges the insulation is locally heated by the bombardment of the discharges, the insulation is also subjected to ozone and other deteriorating gas particles that may significantly increase the aging process. Several insulation systems using either a single material or combinations of teflon, kapton, and glass insulation constructions were tested. All constructions were rated to be partial discharge and/or corona-free at 240 volts, 400 Hz and 260 C (500 F) for 50, 000 hours at altitudes equivalent to the Paschen law. Minimum partial discharge aging tests were preceded by screening tests lasting 20 hours at 260 C. The aging process was accelerated by subjecting the test articles to temperatures up to 370 C (700 F) with and without partial discharges. After one month operation with continuous glow discharges surrounding the test articles, most insulation systems were either destroyed or became brittle, cracked, and unsafe for use. Time with space radiation as with partial discharges is accumulative.

  13. Aging in Sensory and Motor Neurons Results in Learning Failure in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Kempsell, Andrew T; Fieber, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and molecular mechanisms of age-related memory loss are complicated by the complexity of vertebrate nervous systems. This study takes advantage of a simple neural model to investigate nervous system aging, focusing on changes in learning and memory in the form of behavioral sensitization in vivo and synaptic facilitation in vitro. The effect of aging on the tail withdrawal reflex (TWR) was studied in Aplysia californica at maturity and late in the annual lifecycle. We found that short-term sensitization in TWR was absent in aged Aplysia. This implied that the neuronal machinery governing nonassociative learning was compromised during aging. Synaptic plasticity in the form of short-term facilitation between tail sensory and motor neurons decreased during aging whether the sensitizing stimulus was tail shock or the heterosynaptic modulator serotonin (5-HT). Together, these results suggest that the cellular mechanisms governing behavioral sensitization are compromised during aging, thereby nearly eliminating sensitization in aged Aplysia.

  14. Brief Report: Simulations Suggest Heterogeneous Category Learning and Generalization in Children with Autism Is a Result of Idiosyncratic Perceptual Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Eduardo, III; Church, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) sometimes have difficulties learning categories. Past computational work suggests that such deficits may result from atypical representations in cortical maps. Here we use neural networks to show that idiosyncratic transformations of inputs can result in the formation of feature maps that impair…

  15. Relocation at older age: results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Community environment might play an important role in supporting ageing in place. This paper aims to explore relocation at older age and its associations with individual and community level factors. Methods The postcodes of the 2424 people in the year-10 interview of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) in England were mapped onto Enumeration Districts and linked to their corresponding Townsend deprivation score and the 2011 rural/urban categories. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to examine the influence of the baseline individual (age, gender, education and social class) and community (rural/urban categories and area deprivation) level factors on relocation over 10 years. Results One-third of people moved residence after the age of 65 years and over. Older age, low education, low social class and living in rural areas at baseline were associated with higher probability of moving later in life. The likelihood of relocation in later life increased from least to most deprived areas (odds ratio: 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.8). Conclusions Urban/rural contexts and area deprivation are associated with relocation at older age and indicate that community environment may be relevant to ageing in place. PMID:25922369

  16. Preparing Corrections Staff for the Future: Results of a 2-Day Training About Aging Inmates.

    PubMed

    Masters, Julie L; Magnuson, Thomas M; Bayer, Barbara L; Potter, Jane F; Falkowski, Paul P

    2016-04-01

    The aging of the prison population presents corrections staff with unique challenges in knowing how to support inmates while maintaining security. This article describes a 2-day training program to introduce the aging process to select staff at all levels. While the results of a pre-posttest measure, using a modified version of Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz, did not produce a statistically significant difference at the conclusion of the training, attendees did express satisfaction with the training and their newfound insight into the challenges faced by aging inmates. They also offered recommendations for future training to include more practical suggestions for the work environment.

  17. Predictive aging results for cable materials in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In this report, we provide a detailed discussion of methodology of predicting cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature, and exposure time and its application to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicon rubber and two ethylenetetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7 to 9 years), low dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under nuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following generic'' materials: hypalon, ethylenetetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such generic'' behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated. Finally, to aid utilities in their cable life extension decisions, we utilize our modelling results to generate lifetime prediction curves for the materials modelled to data. These curves plot expected material lifetime versus dose rate and temperature down to the levels of interest to nuclear power plant aging. 18 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The Prevalence of Nocturia and Nocturnal Polyuria: Can New Cutoff Values Be Suggested According to Age and Sex?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of nocturia and nocturnal polyuria (NP) and to define new cutoff values according to age and sex for both conditions. Methods Data from a population-based prevalence survey conducted among a random sample of 2,128 adults were analyzed in this study. Participants were requested to fill out a questionnaire including the International Continence Society (ICS) definitions of lower urinary tract symptoms and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form. Additionally, a 1-day bladder diary was given to each individual. The participants were divided into 5 age groups. The prevalence of nocturia was calculated based on definitions of nocturia as ≥1 voiding episodes, ≥2 episodes, and ≥3 episodes. NP was evaluated according to the ICS definition. The mean±standard errors and 95th percentile values were calculated in each group as new cutoff values for NP. Results The prevalence of nocturia was estimated as 28.4%, 17.6%, and 8.9% for ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 voiding episodes each night, respectively. When nocturia was defined as 2 or more voiding episodes at night, the prevalence decreased significantly. The mean NP index was 29.4%±15.0% in men and 23.1%±11.8% in women. For the age groups of <50 years, 50–59 years, and ≥60 years, the new cutoff values for the diagnosis of NP were calculated as 48%, 69%, and 59% for men and 41%, 50%, and 42% for women, respectively. Conclusions We found that the definition of nocturia was still controversial and that waking up once for voiding might be within the normal spectrum of behavior. The definition of NP should be modified, and new cutoff values should be defined using the data presented in our study and in other forthcoming studies. PMID:28043108

  19. [Remote results of surgical treatment of aging ptosis of face and neck tissues].

    PubMed

    Ezrokhin, V M; Pavlovich, V A

    2008-01-01

    Remote results of surgical treatment of patients with aging ptosis of face and neck tissues during 15 years are presented. Results were good there where suggested incisions marking was carried out and for those face and neck skin regions which should be corrected. Unsatisfactory results were received in the cases when wounds edges were sewn by uninterrupted blanket sutures without skin deeper layers fixing.

  20. The I-Xe Age of Orgueil Magnetite: New Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A. P.

    2003-01-01

    I-Xe ages of Murchison and Orgueil magnetites were reported to be the oldest [1] and interpreted as the condensation time of the solar nebula. More recent measurements, conducted on a highly magnetic separate from Orgueil (but not pure magnetite), gave much younger I-Xe ages [2]. We have since performed new studies on two pure separates of Orgueil magnetite, confirming the later closing time of the I-Xe system in this mineral phase. In the previous work of Lewis and Anders [1] special attention was paid to the purity of the analyzed material. It was shown, that the trapped Xe resided mostly in hydrated silicates and the radiogenic 129Xe in magnetite [3]. Therefore, Orgueil was finely ground and stirred with a saturated LiCl solution for 8 days at 60 C to remove the silicate-magnetite intergrowth. Although this procedure yields magnetic fractions that are at least 90% pure [1], it could potentially contaminate the magnetite with iodine and produce noncorrelated 128Xe and spurious I-Xe ages. To avoid this possibility, in our first work with Orgueil we deliberately omitted separation in LiCl solution. Instead, the meteorite was ground into a fine powder and the highly magnetic fraction was separated with a hand magnet and was confirmed to be largely magnetite [2]. The new work, reported here, was done in order to confirm our previous results and investigate the effects of the LiCl treatment on the I-Xe system in magnetite.

  1. [Cardioversion by external electric shock for atrial fibrillation: does patient age affect immediate results?].

    PubMed

    Sbragia, P; Arquès, S; Franceschi, F; Thuny, F; Saadjian, A; Gélisse, R; Paganelli, F; Boccara, G; Ricard, P; Lévy, S

    2002-06-01

    The restoration of sinus rhythm by external electric shock in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation is a well established treatment. However, in current practice this treatment is generally indicated less in the elderly subject although this attitude is not factual. The objective of this work was to evaluate the immediate results of cardioversion by external electric shock, comparing the success rates in four age groups: under 60 years, between 60 and 69 years, between 70 and 79 years, and over 80 years. This study was performed on 182 consecutive patients aged from 25 to 89 years: 35 patients aged less than 60 years, 52 patients aged from 60 to 69 years, 65 patients aged from 70 to 79 years, and 30 patients aged 80 years or over. The success rates were 91.4% before 60 years, 90.4% between 60 and 69 years, 90.8% between 70 and 79 years, and 83.3% after 80 years. There was no significant difference between the success rates in the four age groups (p = 0.68). Among the other factors analysed, only the duration of atrial fibrillation and the body mass index significantly influenced the results of external electric shock in this series. This work suggests that age does not significantly influence the immediate results of external electric shock. According to these data it does not appear justified to contra-indicate cardioversion by external electric shock on the sole criterion of age.

  2. Barriers to and Suggestions on Improving Utilization of Eye Care in High-Risk Individuals: Focus Group Results.

    PubMed

    Elam, Angela R; Lee, Paul P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To understand barriers facing high-risk individuals and to solicit the suggestions of these individuals, especially nonusers, on how to change the eye care delivery system to better meet their needs. Methods. Four focus groups were conducted. All discussion was audiotaped and transcribed. Content analysis was performed by the authors and with the assistance of qualitative software, NUD(*)IST Vivo. Results. The most frequently cited barriers include (1) cost, (2) trust, (3) communication, (4) clinic accessibility (transportation/distance), and (5) doctor-patient relationship. In underutilizers, trust was the most identified barrier to care. Suggestions on increasing educational opportunities/awareness of eye care and addressing cost and insurance issues as a means of improving trust and communications were most frequently offered, including using the Department of Social Services as a focal point for eye care education and assessment. Discussion. Trust is a major barrier to eye care, especially among underutilizers of disadvantaged populations. Increasing trust and eye care education at the community and individual levels is essential to increasing eye care utilization.

  3. Analysis of genome-wide RNA-sequencing data suggests age of the CEPH/Utah (CEU) lymphoblastoid cell lines systematically biases gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Tian, Lei; Lu, Dongsheng; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-22

    In human, Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from the CEPH/CEU (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain - Utah) family resource have been extensively used for examining the genetics of gene expression levels. However, we noted that CEU/CEPH cell lines were collected and transformed approximately thirty years ago, much earlier than the other cell lines from the pertaining individuals, which we suspected could potentially affect gene expression, data analysis and results interpretation. In this study, by analyzing RNA sequencing data of CEU and the other three European populations as well as an African population, we systematically examined and evaluated the potential confounding effect of LCL age on gene expression levels and patterns. Our results indicated that gene expression profiles of CEU samples have been biased by the older age of CEU cell lines. Interestingly, most of CEU-specific expressions are associated with functions related to cell proliferation, which are more likely due to older age of cell lines than intrinsic characters of the population. We suggested the results be carefully explained when CEU LCLs are used for transcriptomic data analysis in future studies.

  4. False Memory in Aging Resulting From Self-Referential Processing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Referencing the self is known to enhance accurate memory, but less is known about how the strategy affects false memory, particularly for highly self-relevant information. Because older adults are more prone to false memories, we tested whether self-referencing increased false memories with age. Method. In 2 studies, older and younger adults rated adjectives for self-descriptiveness and later completed a surprise recognition test comprised of words rated previously for self-descriptiveness and novel lure words. Lure words were subsequently rated for self-descriptiveness in order to assess the impact of self-relevance on false memory. Study 2 introduced commonness judgments as a control condition, such that participants completed a recognition test on adjectives rated for commonness in addition to adjectives in the self-descriptiveness condition. Results. Across both studies, findings indicate an increased response bias to self-referencing that increased hit rates for both older and younger adults but also increased false alarms as information became more self-descriptive, particularly for older adults. Discussion. Although the present study supports previous literature showing a boost in memory for self-referenced information, the increase in false alarms, especially in older adults, highlights the potential for memory errors, particularly for information that is strongly related to the self. PMID:23576449

  5. Age-Appropriate Cues Facilitate Source-Monitoring and Reduce Suggestibility in 3- To 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright-Paul, A.; Jarrold, C.; Wright, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    Providing cues to facilitate the recovery of source information can reduce postevent misinformation effects in adults, implying that errors in source-monitoring contribute to suggestibility (e.g., [Lindsay, D. S., & Johnson, M. K. (1989). The eyewitness suggestibility effect and memory for source. Memory & Cognition, 17, 349-358]). The present…

  6. Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 132

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The data reveal significant age-related differences in proficiencies, strongly suggesting that proficiency tends to "naturally" decline with age. Age…

  7. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic.

  8. [Results, dilemmas, and suggestions concerning the demographic transition theory: causes of the decline of fertility in the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Diez Medrano, J

    1985-11-01

    This article discusses results of recent research on the fertility transition and some weak points in current knowledge whose further study could help orient research on Spain's fertility transition. The only completely valid conclusion to date on the demographic transition is that fertility and mortality are high in traditional societies and low in industrialized societies. It is clear that the demographic transition and modernization are inseparable, but the causal mechanisms producing the demographic changes remain unclear. The theory of demographic transition initially accorded great weight to the dual processes of urbanization and industrialization as causes of fertility decline, but the very early onset of the transition in France and the occurrence of fertility decline among peasants in Hungary constitute exceptions to the rule. The discovery by the Princeton group of researchers that there was no strong association between urbanization-industrialization and fertility decline in the European provinces they studied cast further doubt on the explanatory power of socioeconomic explanations. Recourse to cultural factors has been made in recent years, but few variables have been operationalized except language, religion, and political attitudes, and the weight of such variables has been found to have varied. Ideologic factors related to the crumbling of barriers to social mobility, the primacy of the individual, the importance attributed to education, and similar factors have been adduced to explain the transition. The diffusion of basic contraceptive knowledge or of the idea that family size is amenable to control has recently been advanced as a factor explaining fertility declines, but little empirical evidence is offered in support except that referring to the influence of family planning programs in developing countries, and the relevance of such data to earlier fertility transitions remains questionable. Demographic variables such as delayed age at marriage

  9. Structural aging program -- a summary of activities, results, and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. Primary program accomplishments have included formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, the Structural Aging Program conducted in-depth evaluations of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability.

  10. DIFFERENTIAL AND AGE-DEPENDENT EXPRESSION OF HYPERPOLARIZATION-ACTIVATED, CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-GATED CATION CHANNEL ISOFORMS 1–4 SUGGESTS EVOLVING ROLES IN THE DEVELOPING RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    BENDER, R. A.; BREWSTER, A.; SANTORO, B.; LUDWIG, A.; HOFMANN, F.; BIEL, M.; BARAM, T. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih) are found in several brain regions including thalamus and hippocampus. Important functions of these currents in promoting synchronized network activity and in determining neuronal membrane properties have been progressively recognized, but the molecular underpinnings of these currents are only emerging. Ih currents are generated by hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels (HCNs). These channel proteins are encoded by at least four HCN genes, that govern the kinetic and functional properties of the resulting channels. Because of the potential impact of Ih-mediated coordinated neuronal activity on the maturation of the functional hippocampal network, this study focused on determining the expression of the four members of the HCN gene family throughout postnatal hippocampal development at both the regional and single cell level. The results of these experiments demonstrated that HCNs 1, 2 and 4 are differentially expressed in interneuronal and principal cell populations of the rat hippocampal formation. Expression profiles of each HCN isoform evolve during postnatal development, and patterns observed during early postnatal ages differ significantly from those in mature hippocampus. The onset of HCN expression in interneurons of the hippocampus proper precedes that in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that HCN-mediated pacing activity may be generated in hippocampal interneurons prior to those in the hilus. Taken together, these findings indicate an age-dependent spatiotemporal evolution of specific HCN expression in distinct hippocampal cell populations, and suggest that these channels serve differing and evolving functions in the maturation of coordinated hippocampal activity. PMID:11682156

  11. ‘Cape capture’: Geologic data and modeling results suggest the Holocene loss of a Carolina Cape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thieler, E. Robert; Ashton, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, the origin and evolution of the set of cuspate forelands known as the Carolina Capes—Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain—off the eastern coast of the United States have been discussed and debated. The consensus conceptual model is not only that these capes existed through much or all of the Holocene transgression, but also that their number has not changed. Here we describe bathymetric, lithologic, seismic, and chronologic data that suggest another cape may have existed between Capes Hatteras and Lookout during the early to middle Holocene. This cape likely formed at the distal end of the Neuse-Tar-Pamlico fluvial system during the early Holocene transgression, when this portion of the shelf was flooded ca. 9 cal (calibrated) kyr B.P., and was probably abandoned by ca. 4 cal kyr B.P., when the shoreline attained its present general configuration. Previously proposed mechanisms for cape formation suggest that the large-scale, rhythmic pattern of the Carolina Capes arose from a hydrodynamic template or the preexisting geologic framework. Numerical modeling, however, suggests that the number and spacing of capes can be dynamic, and that a coast can self-organize in response to a high-angle-wave instability in shoreline shape. In shoreline evolution model simulations, smaller cuspate forelands are subsumed by larger neighbors over millennial time scales through a process of ‘cape capture.’ The suggested former cape in Raleigh Bay represents the first interpreted geological evidence of dynamic abandonment suggested by the self-organization hypothesis. Cape capture may be a widespread process in coastal environments with large-scale rhythmic shoreline features; its preservation in the sedimentary record will vary according to geologic setting, physical processes, and sea-level history.

  12. Age-related changes in the bimanual advantage and in brain oscillatory activity during tapping movements suggest a decline in processing sensory reafference.

    PubMed

    Sallard, Etienne; Spierer, Lucas; Ludwig, Catherine; Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Barral, Jérôme

    2014-02-01

    Deficits in the processing of sensory reafferences have been suggested as accounting for age-related decline in motor coordination. Whether sensory reafferences are accurately processed can be assessed based on the bimanual advantage in tapping: because of tapping with an additional hand increases kinesthetic reafferences, bimanual tapping is characterized by a reduced inter-tap interval variability than unimanual tapping. A suppression of the bimanual advantage would thus indicate a deficit in sensory reafference. We tested whether elderly indeed show a reduced bimanual advantage by measuring unimanual (UM) and bimanual (BM) self-paced tapping performance in groups of young (n = 29) and old (n = 27) healthy adults. Electroencephalogram was recorded to assess the underlying patterns of oscillatory activity, a neurophysiological mechanism advanced to support the integration of sensory reafferences. Behaviorally, there was a significant interaction between the factors tapping condition and age group at the level of the inter-tap interval variability, driven by a lower variability in BM than UM tapping in the young, but not in the elderly group. This result indicates that in self-paced tapping, the bimanual advantage is absent in elderly. Electrophysiological results revealed an interaction between tapping condition and age group on low beta band (14-20 Hz) activity. Beta activity varied depending on the tapping condition in the elderly but not in the young group. Source estimations localized this effect within left superior parietal and left occipital areas. We interpret our results in terms of engagement of different mechanisms in the elderly depending on the tapping mode: a 'kinesthetic' mechanism for UM and a 'visual imagery' mechanism for BM tapping movement.

  13. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 satellites resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome suggest a complex mechanism for uniparental disomy

    SciTech Connect

    Toth-Fijel, S.; Gunter, K.; Olson, S.

    1994-09-01

    We report two cases of PWS in which there was abnormal meiosis I segregation of chromosome 15 following a rare translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and an apparent meiotic recombination in the unstable region of 15q11.2. PWS and normal appearing chromosomes in case one prompted a chromosome 15 origin analysis. PCR analysis indicated maternal isodisomy for the long arm of chromosome. However, only one chromosome 15 had short arm heteromorphisms consistent with either paternal or maternal inheritance. VNTR DNA analysis and heteromorphism data suggest that a maternal de novo translocation between chromosome 14 and 15 occurred prior to meiosis I. This was followed by recombination between D15Z1 and D15S11 and subsequent meiosis I nondisjunction. Proband and maternal karyotype display a distamycin A-DAPI positive region on the chromosome 14 homolog involved in the translocation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of ONCOR probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S11 and GABRB 3 were normal, consistent with the molecular data. Case two received a Robertsonian translocation t(14;15)(p13;p13) of maternal origin. Chromosome analysis revealed a meiosis I error producing UPD. FISH analysis of the proband and parents showed normal hybridization of ONCOR probes D15Z1, D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10 and GABRB3. In both cases the PWS probands received a structurally altered chromosome 15 that had rearranged with chromosome 14 prior to meiosis. If proper meiotic segregation is dependent on the resolution of chiasmata and/or the binding to chromosome-specific spindle fibers, then it may be possible that rearrangements of pericentric or unstable regions of the genome disrupt normal disjunction and lead to uniparental disomy.

  14. New Ages on Old Arc Rocks, Preliminary Results From the Southern IBM Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohler, D.; Reagan, M.; Heizler, M.; Hickey-Vargas, R.

    2001-12-01

    The first results of our reevaluation of the geochemistry and geochronology of Eocene to Miocene volcanic rocks from the southern Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc include preliminary 40Ar/39Ar ages on rocks from Guam, and DSDP sites 447, 448, 458, 459B. Our new 40Ar/39Ar age of 44 Ma on a boninite series basalt from the Facpi formation, supports earlier work by Meijer et al. (1983, AGU Mono. 27, p349) who obtained a 44 Ma K-Ar age on a similar basalt from the same area in western Guam. Our 40Ar/39Ar age of 20 Ma age on a tholeiite dike in the southern portion of the Facpi formation is in the range of K-Ar ages in Cosca et al. (1998 Is. Arc 7 p.579) and Meijer et al. (1983) of 36 Ma to 16 Ma for the Facpi. These ages are younger than the Late Middle Eocene age assigned to the Facpi, and indicates either that a previously unrecognized unit of tholeiitic arc volcanics exists in southern Guam, or that zeolite facies metamorphism reset the ages. If the former is true, then this unit has ages within the gap in arc volcanism previously postulated for the late Oligocene and early Miocene on Guam. Our preliminary results on DSDP cores when combined with 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar dates from Cosca et al. (1998,), and older K-Ar ages from Meijer et al. (1983) suggest that tholeiitic to boninitic volcanism occurred at site 458 and perhaps 459 to east of Guam at about 50 Ma. Similarly, Cosca et al. (1998), showed that volcanism along the Palau-Kyushu ridge dates back to about 50 Ma. Thus, magmatism appears to have occurred around 5 Ma later on Guam than to the east and west, which is consistent with a center of Eocene forearc spreading near Guam. A single preliminary 40Ar/39Ar age of 20 Ma for a relatively intact diabase at site 447 and dates reported in Fujioka et al., (1999, Geology 27, p.1135) and Hickey-Vargas (1998 JGR 103, p. 20963) presents the possibility that volcanism continued in the West Philippine Basin into the early Miocene.

  15. Micromorphology of past urban soils: method and results (France, Iron Age - Middle Age)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, Cécilia

    2014-05-01

    Urban soils in French protohistoric and Roman towns and present-day towns of roman origin are several meters thick accumulations, with great spatial and vertical variability due to long duration of occupation. In order to improve our knowledge of both sedimentary and pedological characteristics as well as formation processes of urban soils, micromorphological analysis was carried out on buried towns. The studied sites include Iron Age towns (floodplain sites: Lattes or Lattara, Le Cailar; oppidum: Pech-Maho in the south of France), a roman buried town (Famars or Fanum Martis, North of France), and various towns occupied from the Roman period until now (urban and periurban sites in Paris, Strasbourg, Mâcon… North and East of France). Original method and sampling strategy were elaborated in order to try to encompass both spatial and vertical variability as well as the "mitage" of the present-day cities. In Lattes, representative elementary urban areas such as streets, courtyard, and houses were sampled for micromorphology during extensive excavation. These analyses revealed specific microscopic features related to complex anthropogenic processes (craft and domestic activities discarding, trampling, backfill, building), moisture and heat, and biological activity, which defined each kind of area. Comparison between well preserved buried town and current cities of roman origin, where the sequence of past urban soils is preserved in few place ("mitage") help to identify past activities, building rhythms as well as specific building materials. For example, in Paris, compacted sandy backfills alternate with watertight hardfloors during the Roman period (soils similar to Technosols). At the opposite, various kinds of loose bioturbated laminated dark earth resulting from activities such as craft refuses, backfills, compost or trampled layers were discriminated for Early Medieval Period (soils similar to Cumulic Anthroposol). Moreover, biological activity is usually

  16. MtDNA Haplogroup A10 Lineages in Bronze Age Samples Suggest That Ancient Autochthonous Human Groups Contributed to the Specificity of the Indigenous West Siberian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pilipenko, Aleksandr S.; Trapezov, Rostislav O.; Zhuravlev, Anton A.; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Romaschenko, Aida G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The craniometric specificity of the indigenous West Siberian human populations cannot be completely explained by the genetic interactions of the western and eastern Eurasian groups recorded in the archaeology of the area from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. Anthropologists have proposed another probable explanation: contribution to the genetic structure of West Siberian indigenous populations by ancient human groups, which separated from western and eastern Eurasian populations before the final formation of their phenotypic and genetic features and evolved independently in the region over a long period of time. This hypothesis remains untested. From the genetic point of view, it could be confirmed by the presence in the gene pool of indigenous populations of autochthonous components that evolved in the region over long time periods. The detection of such components, particularly in the mtDNA gene pool, is crucial for further clarification of early regional genetic history. Results and Conclusion We present the results of analysis of mtDNA samples (n = 10) belonging to the A10 haplogroup, from Bronze Age populations of West Siberian forest-steppe (V—I millennium BC), that were identified in a screening study of a large diachronic sample (n = 96). A10 lineages, which are very rare in modern Eurasian populations, were found in all the Bronze Age groups under study. Data on the A10 lineages’ phylogeny and phylogeography in ancient West Siberian and modern Eurasian populations suggest that A10 haplogroup underwent a long-term evolution in West Siberia or arose there autochthonously; thus, the presence of A10 lineages indicates the possible contribution of early autochthonous human groups to the genetic specificity of modern populations, in addition to contributions of later interactions of western and eastern Eurasian populations. PMID:25950581

  17. Literature-Informed Analysis of a Genome-Wide Association Study of Gestational Age in Norwegian Women and Children Suggests Involvement of Inflammatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bacelis, Jonas; Juodakis, Julius; Sengpiel, Verena; Zhang, Ge; Myhre, Ronny; Muglia, Louis J.; Nilsson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Five-to-eighteen percent of pregnancies worldwide end in preterm birth, which is the major cause of neonatal death and morbidity. Approximately 30% of the variation in gestational age at birth can be attributed to genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not shown robust evidence of association with genomic loci yet. Methods We separately investigated 1921 Norwegian mothers and 1199 children from pregnancies with spontaneous onset of delivery. Individuals were further divided based on the onset of delivery: initiated by labor or prelabor rupture of membranes. Genetic association with ultrasound-dated gestational age was evaluated using three genetic models and adaptive permutations. The top-ranked loci were tested for enrichment in 12 candidate gene-sets generated by text-mining PubMed abstracts containing pregnancy-related keywords. Results The six GWAS did not reveal significant associations, with the most extreme empirical p = 5.1 × 10−7. The top loci from maternal GWAS with deliveries initiated by labor showed significant enrichment in 10 PubMed gene-sets, e.g., p = 0.001 and 0.005 for keywords "uterus" and "preterm" respectively. Enrichment signals were mainly caused by infection/inflammation-related genes TLR4, NFKB1, ABCA1, MMP9. Literature-informed analysis of top loci revealed further immunity genes: IL1A, IL1B, CAMP, TREM1, TFRC, NFKBIA, MEFV, IRF8, WNT5A. Conclusion Our analyses support the role of inflammatory pathways in determining pregnancy duration and provide a list of 32 candidate genes for a follow-up work. We observed that the top regions from GWAS in mothers with labor-initiated deliveries significantly more often overlap with pregnancy-related genes than would be expected by chance, suggesting that increased sample size would benefit similar studies. PMID:27490719

  18. The influence of summary knowledge of results and aging on motor learning.

    PubMed

    Carnahan, H; Vandervoort, A A; Swanson, L R

    1996-09-01

    This study examined whether older adults (mean age = 75.0 years) use summary knowledge of results (KR) to facilitate learning in a manner similar to that of young adults (mean age = 22.5 years). All subjects were required to learn a computer-key-pressing task in a specified goal time. During acquisition, subjects received either KR after every trial, or summary KR. All subjects then performed no-KR retention trials. In acquisition, KR after every trial facilitated timing accuracy for both the younger and older groups in comparison to the summary KR groups. The young subjects were equally variable in both KR practice groups. For older subjects summary KR facilitated more consistent performance. In retention, the summary groups were more accurate than those subjects who received KR after every trial. There were no accuracy or variability differences between the two age groups during retention. These results suggest that older adults are able to use summary KR to facilitate learning in a manner similar to that of young adults.

  19. Lack of exon 10 in the murine tau gene results in mild sensorimotor defects with aging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complex species-specific, developmental- and tissue-dependent mechanisms regulate alternative splicing of tau, thereby diversifying tau protein synthesis. The functional role of alternative splicing of tau e.g. exon 10 has never been examined in vivo, although genetic studies suggest that it is important to neurodegenerative disease. Results Gene-targeting was used to delete exon 10 in murine tau on both alleles (E10−/−) to study its functional role. Moreover, mice devoid of exon 10 (E10+/−) on one allele were generated to investigate the effects of 1:1 balanced expression of 4R-/3R-tau protein, since equal amounts of 4R-/3R-tau protein are synthesized in human brain. Middle-aged E10−/− mice displayed sensorimotor disturbances in the rotarod when compared to age-matched E10+/− and wild-type mice, and their muscular grip strength was less than that of E10+/− mice. The performance of E10+/− mice and wild-type mice (E10+/+) was similar in sensorimotor tests. Cognitive abilities or anxiety-like behaviours did not depend on exon 10 in tau, and neither pathological inclusions nor gene-dependent morphological abnormalities were found. Conclusion Ablation of exon 10 in the murine tau gene alters alternative splicing and tau protein synthesis which results in mild sensorimotor phenotypes with aging. Presumably related microtubule-stabilizing genes rescue other functions. PMID:24261309

  20. Age, Stress, and Emotional Complexity: Results from Two Studies of Daily Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Stacey B.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Mogle, Jacqueline A.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing positive and negative emotions together (i.e., co-occurrence) has been described as a marker of positive adaptation during stress and a strength of socio-emotional aging. Using data from daily diary (N=2,022; ages 33-84) and ecological momentary assessment (N=190; ages 20-80) studies, we evaluate the utility of a common operationalization of co-occurrence, the within-person correlation between positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Then we test competing predictions regarding when co-occurrence will be observed and whether age differences will be present. Results indicate that the correlation is not an informative indicator of co-occurrence. Although correlations were stronger and more negative when stressors occurred (typically interpreted as lower co-occurrence), objective counts of emotion reports indicated that positive and negative emotions were more 3 to 4 times likely to co-occur when stressors were reported. This suggests that co-occurrence reflects the extent to which negative emotions intrude on typically positive emotional states, rather than the extent to which people maintain positive emotions during stress. The variances of both PA and NA increased at stressor reports, indicating that individuals reported a broader not narrower range of emotion during stress. Finally, older age was associated with less variability in NA and a lower likelihood of co-occurring positive and negative emotions. In sum, these findings cast doubt on the utility of the PA-NA correlation as an index of emotional co-occurrence, and question notion that greater emotional cooccurrence represents either a typical or adaptive emotional state in adults. PMID:25244477

  1. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia.

  2. Aging results in an unusual expression of Drosophila heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.E.; Walton, J.K.; Dubitsky, R.; Bensch, K.G. )

    1988-06-01

    The authors used high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to evaluate the effect of aging on the heat shock response in Drosophila melanogaster. Although the aging process is not well understood at the molecular level, recent observations suggest that quantitative changes in gene expression occur as these fruit flies approach senescence. Such genetic alterations are in accord with our present data, which clearly show marked differences in the synthesis of heat shock proteins between young and old fruit flies. In 10-day-old flies, a heat shock of 20 min results in the expression of 14 new proteins as detectable by two-dimensional electrophoresis of ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled polypeptides, whereas identical treatment of 45-day-old flies leads to the expression of at least 50 new or highly up-regulated proteins. In addition, there is also a concomitant increase in the rate of synthesis of a number of the normal proteins in the older animals. Microdensitometric determinations of the low molecular weight heat shock polypeptides on autoradiographs of five age groups revealed that their maximum expression occurs at 47 days for a population of flies with a mean life span of 33.7 days. Moreover, a heat shock effect similar to that observed in senescent flies occurs in young flies fed canavanine, an arginine analogue, before heat shock.

  3. Implications of IODP Expedition 349 Age Results for the Spreading History of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briais, Anne

    2016-04-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 in the South China Sea drilled three sites (U1431, U1433, and U1434) into the basaltic crustal basement near the fossil spreading center in the East and Southwest Subbasins. These results provided age constraints on the termination of seafloor spreading in the South China Sea (SCS) basin. Shipboard biostratigraphic analysis of microfossils from the sediment immediately above or between flows in the basaltic basement indicates early Miocene ages: 16.7-17.6 Ma for Site U1431 in the East Subbasin, ~18-21 Ma for Site U1433 in the Southwest Subbasin. Since Expedition 349, Ar/Ar dating of basalt samples from these two sites have confirmed these ages in the east, and have provided an age of 17 Ma in the Southwest. The similarity in crustal age between sites suggests that the last stages of spreading have been coeaval in both the East and Southwest Subbasins, forming a single mid-ocean ridge system with a series of transform faults and discontinuities between the two subbasins. Expedition 349 also drilled Site U1435 on a bathymetric high along the northwestern continent-ocean boundary. Onboard core description, biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy revealed that sediment at this site shows a sharp discontinuity at about 33 Ma, interpreted to represent the breakup unconformity and date the beginning of seafloor spreading in the East Subbasin. The results of IODP Exp. 349, as well as results from deep-towed magnetic surveys, thus imply that oceanic seafloor spreading in the SCS, from 33 to ~16-18 Ma, is coeval with a large part of the left-lateral motion along the Ailao Shan-Red River Fault Zone (dated 34 to 17 Ma). This episode of the extension of the South China Sea basin is therefore more likely driven by the extrusion of the Indochina tectonic block resulting from the collision of India with Eurasia than by the subduction of a proto-South China Sea to the south.

  4. Cosmogenic 10Be ages from the Meirs and Garwood Valleys, Denton Hills, West Antarctica, suggest an absence in LGM Ice Sheet expansion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, David; Joy, Kurt; Storey, Bryan

    2014-05-01

    It has been hypothesised that during interglacials, thinning of the Ross Ice Shelf allowed a more open water environment with increased local precipitation. This resulted in outlet glaciers, which drain the Transantarctic Mountains and fed by the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, advancing during moist warmer periods, apparently out of phase with colder arid dry periods. Significantly the ice core record during these warm periods also shows increased accumulation continent wide The geomorphology of the Denton Hills in the Royal Society Range, West Antarctica, is a result of Miocene fluvial incision reworked by subsequent glacial advances throughout the Quaternary. The Garwood and Miers glacial valleys drain ice across the Denton Hills into the Shelf, and should thus show maximum extent during interstadials. To understand the chronology of late Quaternary glaciations, 15 granitic boulders from terminal moraines were sampled for 10Be and 26Al cosmogenic dating. Obtaining reliable exposure ages of erratics within moraines that represent timing of deposition (i.e. glacial advances) is problematic in polar regions, where glacial activity is principally controlled by ice sheet dynamics. Recycling of previously exposed debris, uncertainty in provenance of glacially transported boulders and a lack of a post-depositional hydrologic process to remove previously exposed material from a valley system, leads to ambiguities in multiple exposure ages from a single coeval glacial landform. More importantly, cold-based ice advance can leave a landform unmodified resulting in young erratics deposited on bedrock that shows weathering and/or inconsistent age-altitude relationships. Primarily, inheritance becomes a difficulty in qualifying exposure ages from polar regions. Preliminary results from the Garwood and Miers Valleys indicate that glaciers in the Denton Hills had begun to retreat from their last maximum positions no later than 23-37 ka, and thus the local last glacial maximum

  5. Age and Region-Specific Responses of Microglia, but not Astrocytes, Suggest a Role in Selective Vulnerability of Dopamine Neurons After 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Exposure in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    KANAAN, NICHOLAS M.; KORDOWER, JEFFREY H.; COLLIER, TIMOTHY J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of aging, the strongest risk factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD), on glial responses to dopamine (DA) neuron degeneration in midbrain subregions that display selective vulnerability to degeneration. We evaluated the impact of aging on astrocytes and microglia in a regionally specific manner in a monkey model of PD. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was delivered unilaterally via the internal carotid artery of young, middle-aged, and old-aged rhesus monkeys. Astrocytes and microglia were identified using glial fibrillary acidic protein and human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) immunolabeling, respectively. Glial reactivity was assessed using (1) stereological cell counting, (2) fluorescence intensity, and (3) a morphology rating scale. In the midbrain contralateral and ipsilateral to the MPTP injection, astrocyte number and intensity did not change with age. In both sides of the midbrain, cellular morphology suggested astrocyte hypertrophy in middle-age dissipated in old-age, irrespective of DA subregion and regional differences in vulnerability to degeneration. In the contralateral midbrain, microglia became mildly activated (increased cell number and intensity, and morphological changes) with advancing age. Inflammation was evident at 3 months postlesion by severe microglial activation in the ipsilateral midbrain. HLA-DR fluorescence intensity and an abundance of activated microglia (based on morphological criteria) were consistently exacerbated in the vtSN of both sides of the midbrain. These results suggest the glial responses accompanying aging and DA neuron degeneration following a toxic insult represent persistent alterations in the microenvironment of surviving DA neurons that are important factors in understanding regional differences in susceptibility to degeneration. PMID:18484101

  6. Results from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program: Their use in inspection activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Taylor, J. )

    1990-09-01

    The US NCR's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has determined the susceptibility to aging of components and systems, and the potential for aging to impact plant safety and availability. The NPAR Program also identified methods for detecting and mitigating aging in components. This report describes the NPAR results which can enhance NRC inspection activities. Recommendations are provided for communicating pertinent information to NRC inspectors. These recommendations are based on a detailed assessment of the NRC's Inspection Program, and feedback from resident and regional inspectors as described within. Examples of NPAR report summaries and aging inspection guides for components and systems are included. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 Candidate Method Reference Method Applicant □First...

  8. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 Candidate Method Reference Method Applicant □First...

  9. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 Candidate Method Reference Method Applicant □First...

  10. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 Candidate Method Reference Method Applicant □First...

  11. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 Candidate Method Reference Method Applicant □First...

  12. Atypical coastal environmental change during Copper Age - Bronze Age transition (Rio de Moinhos, NW Portugal) - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Helena; Danielsen, Randi

    2015-04-01

    for its infilling. Furthermore dating of wooden remains of what was interpreted as a fish trap, found on the sediment surface gave the age 2055-1770 cal BP (Roman Period). The old age of the top level may hence be the result of truncation of the sediment sequence at least in parts of the platform. Landwards, the Roman period is represented by fine and dark sediments similar to those of Rio de Moinhos beach, found in deeper cores. Acknowledgments This research is included in the project PTDC/EPH-ARQ/5204/2012 supported by FCT (Foundation for Science and Technology, Portugal). It is financed also by COMPETE and PEsT-C/MAR/LA0015/2013.

  13. Mathematical results new and revisited on the distribution of groundwater age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginn, T. R.; Massoudieh, A.; Foglia, L.

    2009-12-01

    The equation governing the distribution of groundwater age under transient, 3D flow conditions is analyzed under several simplifying cases to illustrate some relations among groundwater age equations and some results about steady-state and transient age distributions. First linkages are made among the various groundwater age equations recently published, showing them all to be different simplifications of the same equation. The most basic analysis in 1D shows that groundwater age is at lease inverse-Gaussian distributed. More generally, steady state age moments, when they exist, are given by breakthrough curve moments and this allows us to use the temporal moment results from the solute transport literature as steady state age moments. In particular, age moment equations with arbitrary diffusive mass transfer (two-domain, radial microscopic, powerlaw) at steady state are already available as the temporal flux moment equations for solute transport under analogous boundary conditions. Lastly transient simulations of age in 1D are calculated to illustrate several aspects of the evolution of groundwater age distributions in time in the presences of multidomain diffusive transport.

  14. Some results on the ageing of wire chambers with dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibaly, Mohammed; Chrusch, Peter; Hilgenberg, Gregory; Majewski, Stan; Wojcik, Randolph; Weintraub, Randy; Sauli, Fabio

    1988-12-01

    Ageing results of three test wire detectors when filled with dimethyl ether (DME) are presented. DME gas was analyzed before and during the tests for the presence of electronegative impurities, such as Freons. A strong dependence of the rate of ageing on the wire composition was observed. The resistive wires, such as Stablohm and Nicotin, produced fast ageing. Also, even the best available purified DME, as of today, used with gold-plated wires, produced some slow ageing. The rate of amplitude decrease depended on the Freon impurity level.

  15. Graduate Training in Education and Aging: Results of a National Survey; Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, D. Barry

    1977-01-01

    The graduate departments of adult education at 88 universities in the United States were surveyed for information pertinent to their programs in and about aging. Results show that 55 percent of the departments offer no courses dealing exclusively with education and aging. (Author)

  16. Anti-inflammation activities of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in response to UV radiation suggest potential anti-skin aging activity.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Hwang, Jinik; Park, Mirye; Seo, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Shik; Lee, Jeong Hun; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2014-10-14

    Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells.

  17. Results of interlaboratory comparison of fission-track age standards: Fission-track workshop-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.S.; Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Hurford, A.J.; Naeser, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Five samples were made available as standards for the 1984 Fission Track Workshop held in the summer of 1984 (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York). Two zircons, two apatites and a sphene were distributed prior to the meeting to 40 different laboratories. To date, 24 different analysts have reported results. The isotopic ages of the standards ranged from 16.8 to 98.7 Myr. Only the statement that the age of each sample was less than 200 Myr was provided with the set of standards distributed. Consequently, each laboratory was required to use their laboratory's accepted treatment (irradiation level, etching conditions, counting conditions, etc.) for these samples. The results show that some workers have serious problems in achieving accurate age determinations. This emphasizes the need to calibrate experimental techniques and counting procedures against age standards before unknown ages are determined. Any fission-track age determination published or submitted for publication can only be considered reliable if it is supported by evidence of consistent determinations on age standards. Only this can provide the scientific community with the background to build up confidence concerning the validity of the fission-track method. ?? 1985.

  18. [The role of peptides in aging control: results and prospects of research].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Anisimov, V N

    2010-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of long-term research designed to elucidate mechanisms of aging and evaluate efficacy of peptide bioregulators for the prevention of age-specific pathology. Peptides obtained by up-to-date methods in Russia, U.S.A., U.K., Germany, Italy, Spain, and France are reviewed. A molecular model is proposed to describe complementary interactions of short-chain peptides with gene promoters underlying initiation of protein synthesis. Prospects for the use of peptide bioregulators to prevent premature aging of the employable population in Russia are discussed.

  19. Stability and Change in Intelligence from Age 12 to Age 52: Results from the Luxembourg MAGRIP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalke, Daniela; Brunner, Martin; Geiser, Christian; Preckel, Franzis; Keller, Ulrich; Spengler, Marion; Martin, Romain

    2013-01-01

    The present longitudinal study tackled 2 key aspects of the development of intelligence across a 40-year time period from age 12 to age 52 concerning (a) stability and change in the structure of intelligence with reference to the age differentiation-dedifferentiation hypothesis (how different cognitive abilities relate to each other across age)…

  20. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice.

  1. Combined Scopolamine and Ethanol Treatment Results in a Locomotor Stimulant Response Suggestive of Synergism That is Not Blocked by Dopamine Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Scibelli, Angela C.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are well positioned to mediate ethanol’s stimulant effects. To investigate this possibility, we examined the effects of scopolamine, a receptor subtype nonselective mAChR antagonist, on ethanol-induced stimulation in genotypes highly sensitive to this effect of ethanol. We also investigated whether the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH-23390 or the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, haloperidol, could block the extreme stimulant response found following co-administration of scopolamine and ethanol. Methods Scopolamine (0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, or 0.5 mg/kg) was given 10 minutes prior to saline or ethanol (0.75 to 2 g/kg) to female FAST (Experiment I) or DBA/2J (Experiment II) mice that were then tested for locomotion for 30 minutes. In Experiments III and IV, respectively, SCH-23390 (0, 0.015, or 0.03 mg/kg) was given 10 minutes prior, and haloperidol (0, 0.08, or 0.16 mg/kg) was given 2 minutes prior, to scopolamine (0 or 0.5 mg/kg), followed 10 minutes later by saline or ethanol (1.5 g/kg) and female DBA/2J mice were tested for locomotion for 30 minutes. Results FAST and DBA/2J mice displayed a robust enhancement of the locomotor effects of ethanol following pretreatment with scopolamine that was suggestive of synergism. SCH-23390 had no effect on the response to the scopolamine + ethanol drug combination, nor did it attenuate ethanol- or scopolamine-induced locomotor activity. Haloperidol, while attenuating the effects of ethanol, was not able to block the effects of scopolamine or the robust response to the scopolamine-ethanol drug combination. Conclusions These results suggest that while muscarinic receptor antagonism robustly enhances acute locomotor stimulation to ethanol, dopamine receptors are not involved in the super-additive interaction of scopolamine and ethanol treatment. They also suggest that in addition to cautions regarding the use of alcohol when scopolamine is clinically

  2. Sedimentation processes and new age constraints on rifting stages in Lake Baikal: results of deep-water drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, M. I.; Karabanov, E. B.; Prokopenko, A. A.; Gelety, V. F.; Antipin, V. S.; Williams, D. F.; Gvozdkov, A. N.

    With this paper we present a first attempt to combine the direct results on lithology, composition and age dating in the boreholes BDP-93, BDP-96 and BDP-97 with geological and seismic data from the areas where those sections were drilled. The sedimentary environments represented by the BDP boreholes are markedly different and possess characteristic lithological features. The results of the deep drilling provide the essential means for testing numerous age models used in geological reconstructions of the Lake Baikal rifting dynamics. Neither the basin-wide unconformity interpreted from seismic data, nor the interpreted change from shallow-water to deep-water facies at the boundary of the seismic stratigraphic complexes were found in the BDP-96 boreholes on Academician Ridge. Also, lithology does not support the proposed reconstructions of intense lake level fluctuations and transgressions during the Pliocene at Academician Ridge. The continuous deep-water hemipelagic sedimentation at Academician Ridge has existed for the past 5Ma. The beginning of an intense rifting phase of the Neobaikalian sub-stage and related drastic changes in sedimentation processes were interpreted on seismic sections as the basin-wide unconformity B10. Different age estimates for this boundary ranged from Late Pliocene (3.5Ma) to Plio-Pleistocene boundary. As shown by BDP-96 borehole, B10 is associated with a lithological change from diatomaceous ooze to dense silty clay and not with an erosional contact. The new age for this boundary in BDP-96 is approximately 2.5Ma. This new age constraint suggests that the upper sedimentary strata of Northern Baikal (1.5-1.7km thick) have formed during the past 2.5Ma with average sedimentation rates of 60-70cm/ka. The BDP-93 boreholes at Buguldeika suggest that uplift in Primorsky Range took place prior to 1.07-1.31Ma, a date which exceeds the age of previous geological models.

  3. Coupling survey data with drift model results suggests that local spawning is important for Calanus finmarchicus production in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvile, Kristina Øie; Fiksen, Øyvind; Prokopchuk, Irina; Opdal, Anders Frugård

    2017-01-01

    The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is an important part of the diet for several large fish stocks feeding in the Atlantic waters of the Barents Sea. Determining the origin of the new generation copepodites present on the Barents Sea shelf in spring can shed light on the importance of local versus imported production of C. finmarchicus biomass in this region. In this study, we couple large-scale spatiotemporal survey data (> 30 years in both Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea areas) with drift trajectories from a hydrodynamic model to back-calculate and map the spatial distribution of C. finmarchicus from copepod to egg, allowing us to identify potential adult spawning areas. Assuming the adult stage emerges from overwintering in the Norwegian Sea, our results suggest that copepodites sampled at the Barents Sea entrance are a mix of locally spawned individuals and long-distance-travellers advected northwards along the Norwegian shelf edge. However, copepodites sampled farther east in the Barents Sea (33°30‧E) are most likely spawned on the Barents Sea shelf, potentially from females that have overwintered locally. Our results support that C. finmarchicus dynamics in the Barents Sea are not, at least in the short-term, solely driven by advection from the Norwegian Sea, but that local production may be more important than commonly believed.

  4. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  5. I Don't Feel Good: A Guide to Childhood Complaints and Diseases. Suggestions for Teachers, Parents, and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammers, Jane W.

    This handbook discusses the most common childhood conditions that teachers, parents, and caregivers see in children between the ages of 4 and 10; describes signs and symptoms of over 30 common childhood health problems; provides practical strategies for getting children back to the well state once they are ill; and offers guidance as to when…

  6. Relationship between structural features and water chemistry in boreal headwater streams--evaluation based on results from two water management survey tools suggested for Swedish forestry.

    PubMed

    Lestander, Ragna; Löfgren, Stefan; Henrikson, Lennart; Ågren, Anneli M

    2015-04-01

    Forestry may cause adverse impacts on water quality, and the forestry planning process is a key factor for the outcome of forest operation effects on stream water. To optimise environmental considerations and to identify actions needed to improve or maintain the stream biodiversity, two silvicultural water management tools, BIS+ (biodiversity, impact, sensitivity and added values) and Blue targeting, have been developed. In this study, we evaluate the links between survey variables, based on BIS+ and Blue targeting data, and water chemistry in 173 randomly selected headwater streams in the hemiboreal zone. While BIS+ and Blue targeting cannot replace more sophisticated monitoring methods necessary for classifying water quality in streams according to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC), our results lend support to the idea that the BIS+ protocol can be used to prioritise the protection of riparian forests. The relationship between BIS+ and water quality indicators (concentrations of nutrients and organic matter) together with data from fish studies suggests that this field protocol can be used to give reaches with higher biodiversity and conservation values a better protection. The tools indicate an ability to mitigate forestry impacts on water quality if the operations are adjusted to this knowledge in located areas.

  7. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ≥66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ≥ 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and

  8. Implications of Extending the ADHD Age-of-Onset Criterion to Age 12: Results from a Prospectively Studied Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Kollins, Scott H.; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether including children with onset of symptoms between ages 7 and 12 years in the ADHD diagnostic category would: (a) increase the prevalence of the disorder at age 12, and (b) change the clinical and cognitive features, impairment profile, and risk factors for ADHD compared with findings in the literature based on the…

  9. Developing indicators for evaluation of age-friendly communities in Canada: process and results

    PubMed Central

    Orpana, H.; Chawla, M.; Gallagher, E.; Escaravage, E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: In 2006, the World Health Organization launched the Global Age-Friendly Cities Project to support active aging. Canada has a large number of age-friendly initiatives; however, little is known about the effectiveness and outcomes of age-friendly community (AFC) initiatives. In addition, stakeholders report that they lack the capacity and tools to develop and conduct evaluations of their AFC initiatives. In order to address these gaps, the Public Health Agency of Canada developed indicators to support the evaluation of AFC initiatives relevant to a wide range of Canadian communities. These indicators meet the varied needs of communities, but are not designed to evaluate collective impact or enable cross-community comparisons. Methods: An evidence-based, iterative consultation approach was used to develop indicators for AFCs. This involved a literature review and an environmental scan. Two rounds of key expert and stakeholder consultations were conducted to rate potential indicators according to their importance, actionability and feasibility. A final list of indicators and potential measures were developed based on results from these consultations, as well as key policy considerations. Results: Thirty-nine indicators emerged across eight AFC domains plus four indicators related to long-term health and social outcomes. All meet the intended purpose of evaluating AFC initiatives at the community level. A user-friendly guide is available to support and share this work. Conclusion: The AFC indicators can help communities evaluate age-friendly initiatives, which is the final step in completing a cycle of the Pan-Canadian AFC milestones. Communities are encouraged to use the evaluation results to improve their AFC initiatives, there by benefiting a broad range of Canadians. PMID:27768558

  10. The Basel longitudinal study on aging (1955-1978). Ophthalmo-gerontological research results.

    PubMed

    Brückner, R; Batschelet, E; Hugenschmidt, F

    1986-01-01

    In the prospective Basel longitudinal study on aging (1955-1978) 123 men (age at entry from 6-61 years) were investigated in 2 year (average) intervals. Complete case histories are available on 67 subjects over the entire period (19.6 +/- 0.85 years). Part I of the study was to confirm the hypothesis of Bernstein and of Steinhaus, according to which life expectancy can be estimated from the speed of development of presbyopia. Parallel to the measurement of accommodation range (after preliminary determination of refraction and visual acuity), the development of height, body weight, vital capacity, expiratory volume, chest circumference, abdominal circumference, blood pressure, ECG and pulse wave velocity were measured. Invasive investigations were not undertaken. Only when hypertension was combined with obesity was the diminution of accommodation range striking (Fig. 10c; however there were only 3 subjects in this risk group). Taking everything into consideration there was a concomitance between decrease of accommodation range and changes of medical parameters (Table 6). Intercurrent illness did not influence the accommodation range. Longitudinal measurements and cross-sectional comparisons (data averaged to the same point as of the same age) were carried out. The results did not always coincide. We could not confirm the hypothesis of Bernstein and of Steinhaus. In Part II the results of the objective measurements are given. Apparently growth of the skull does not stop entirely. The increase of interpupillary distance can be complete at 17 years of age, but also can continue to the 30th year. The palpebral fissure increases an average of 3 mm more horizontally between the 6th and the 20th year of life. The corneal diameter remains constant in all age classes, that is, the growth of the cornea should be complete before the 6th year of life. Early arcus senilis changes are found already in the 20-year-old. The increase in the course of time of arcus senilis is obvious

  11. Age and duration of magmatism on the Ontong Java Plateau: 40Ar-39Ar results from ODP Leg 192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. M.; Pringle, M. S.; Fitton, J. G.

    2002-12-01

    Large igneous provinces represent some of the most voluminous outpourings of magma in the last 200 million years. With a size roughly equivalent to Alaska, the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) is the largest of these provinces. Prior to ODP Leg 192, basaltic basement was recovered from 3 ODP sites (803, 807 and 289) as well as obducted sections on the Solomon Islands. Published 40Ar-39Ar results suggest that the OJP formed in at least two discrete episodes at 122 and 90 Ma, while samples from the Soloman Islands also indicate igneous activity at 60 and 36 Ma. From this limited data set it has been suggested that the Ontong Java Plateau was periodically active every 30 m.y. beginning at 122 Ma. During Leg 192 another 5 drill sites (1183, 1185, 1186 and 1187) successfully reached basaltic basement, which comprised a thick sequence of basaltic pillow lavas. In contrast, a sequence of volcaniclastics was recovered from Site 1184. Initial shipboard biostratigraphy suggested that the basaltic basement forms part of the older proposed pulse of activity at 118 Ma, and the volcaniclastics from Site 1184 are from NP16 or 41-43 Ma. New whole rock 40Ar-39Ar analyses on the basaltic basement recovered during Leg 192 show that the OJP is no younger than 117 Ma (L. cabri zone). Significantly, the volcaniclastic rocks recovered at Site 1184 yielded minimum 40Ar-39Ar ages of 70-80 Ma, and are therefore not Eocene in age. Reanalysis of OJP samples from other ODP sites (e.g. Site 807) has shown that analysis of rocks with low K/Ca ratios, containing 5 total incremental-heating steps, does not always resolve problems of argon recoil and can yield artificial age plateaus. These apparent age plateaus can break down into the typical stepwise decreasing age pattern of argon recoil, and can therefore significantly alter the age of the rock. Apart from having implications for the proposed pulsed nature of magmatism on the OJP, it also shows that the normal acceptance criteria for 40Ar-39Ar ages in

  12. The nuclear retention of transcription factor FOXO3a correlates with a DNA damage response and increased glutamine synthetase expression by astrocytes suggesting a neuroprotective role in the ageing brain

    PubMed Central

    Fluteau, Adeline; Ince, Paul G.; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol; Garwood, Claire J.; Ratcliffe, Laura E.; Morgan, Sarah; Heath, Paul R.; Shaw, Pamela J.; Wharton, Stephen B.; Simpson, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative damage and cell death plays an important role in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. FOXO3a, the main isoform of FOXO transcription factors, mediates the cellular response to oxidative stress by regulating the expression of genes involved in DNA repair and glutamine metabolism, including glutamine synthetase (GS). Immunohistochemical investigation of the population-based neuropathology cohort of the Medical Research Council’s Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS) demonstrates that nuclear retention of FOXO3a significantly correlates with a DNA damage response and with GS expression by astrocytes. Furthermore, we show that GS expression correlates with increasing Alzheimer-type pathology in this ageing cohort. Our findings suggest that in response to oxidative stress, the nuclear retention of FOXO3a in astrocytes upregulates expression of GS as a neuroprotective mechanism. However, the activity of GS may be compromised by increasing levels of oxidative stress in the ageing brain resulting in dysfunctional enzyme activity, neuronal excitotoxic damage and cognitive impairment. PMID:26455863

  13. The nuclear retention of transcription factor FOXO3a correlates with a DNA damage response and increased glutamine synthetase expression by astrocytes suggesting a neuroprotective role in the ageing brain.

    PubMed

    Fluteau, Adeline; Ince, Paul G; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Garwood, Claire J; Ratcliffe, Laura E; Morgan, Sarah; Heath, Paul R; Shaw, Pamela J; Wharton, Stephen B; Simpson, Julie E

    2015-11-16

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative damage and cell death plays an important role in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. FOXO3a, the main isoform of FOXO transcription factors, mediates the cellular response to oxidative stress by regulating the expression of genes involved in DNA repair and glutamine metabolism, including glutamine synthetase (GS). Immunohistochemical investigation of the population-based neuropathology cohort of the Medical Research Council's Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS) demonstrates that nuclear retention of FOXO3a significantly correlates with a DNA damage response and with GS expression by astrocytes. Furthermore, we show that GS expression correlates with increasing Alzheimer-type pathology in this ageing cohort. Our findings suggest that in response to oxidative stress, the nuclear retention of FOXO3a in astrocytes upregulates expression of GS as a neuroprotective mechanism. However, the activity of GS may be compromised by increasing levels of oxidative stress in the ageing brain resulting in dysfunctional enzyme activity, neuronal excitotoxic damage and cognitive impairment.

  14. Prevalence gradients of Friedreich's ataxia and R1b haplotype in Europe co-localize, suggesting a common Palaeolithic origin in the Franco-Cantabrian ice age refuge.

    PubMed

    Vankan, Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Combining data from epidemiological studies in Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) and patient organization membership lists, shows that FRDA prevalence exhibits large regional differences in Europe with a prevalence gradient from west to east. Highest levels are observed in northern Spain, south of France and Ireland, lowest levels in Scandinavia and Russia. The observed distribution of FRDA in Europe co-localizes with the gradient of the chromosomal R1b marker as detected within west Europe. This gradient is either derived from Palaeolithic migrations out of the Franco-Cantabrian Ice age refuge or from Neolithic migrations entering west Europe with the advance of agriculture. FRDA prevalence may have been increased in this population anytime after its separation from the closely related R1a carrying group. East European populations with a high frequency of the R1a marker show 10 fold lower prevalence of FRDA, indicating that the FRDA mutation was present in the common ancestor and was increased in the R1b carrying group. The FRDA carrying population went through a Palaeolithic population bottleneck supporting the view that the observed FRDA distribution and potentially the R1b distribution are derived from Palaeolithic migrations out of the Franco-Cantabrian ice age refuge.

  15. Low heel ultrasound parameters predict mortality in men: results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Boonen, Steven; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Lee, David M.; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Wu, Frederick C.; O'Neill, Terence W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: low bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is associated with increased mortality. The relationship between other skeletal phenotypes and mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quantitative heel ultrasound parameters and mortality in a cohort of European men. Methods: men aged 40–79 years were recruited for participation in a prospective study of male ageing: the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). At baseline, subjects attended for quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel (Hologic—SAHARA) and completed questionnaires on lifestyle factors and co-morbidities. Height and weight were measured. After a median of 4.3 years, subjects were invited to attend a follow-up assessment, and reasons for non-participation, including death, were recorded. The relationship between QUS parameters (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA] and speed of sound [SOS]) and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: from a total of 3,244 men (mean age 59.8, standard deviation [SD] 10.8 years), 185 (5.7%) died during the follow-up period. After adjusting for age, centre, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, number of co-morbidities and general health, each SD decrease in BUA was associated with a 20% higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.4). Compared with those in higher quintiles (2nd–5th), those in the lowest quintile of BUA and SOS had a greater mortality risk (BUA: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1–2.3 and SOS: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2–2.2). Conclusion: lower heel ultrasound parameters are associated with increased mortality in European men. PMID:26162912

  16. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  17. Muscleblind-like 3 deficit results in a spectrum of age-associated pathologies observed in myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jongkyu; Dixon, Donald M.; Dansithong, Warunee; Abdallah, Walid F.; Roos, Kenneth P.; Jordan, Maria C.; Trac, Brandon; Lee, Han Shin; Comai, Lucio; Reddy, Sita

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) exhibits distinctive disease specific phenotypes and the accelerated onset of a spectrum of age-associated pathologies. In DM1, dominant effects of expanded CUG repeats result in part from the inactivation of the muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins. To test the role of MBNL3, we deleted Mbnl3 exon 2 (Mbnl3ΔE2) in mice and examined the onset of age-associated diseases over 4 to 13 months of age. Accelerated onset of glucose intolerance with elevated insulin levels, cardiac systole deficits, left ventricle hypertrophy, a predictor of a later onset of heart failure and the development of subcapsular and cortical cataracts is observed in Mbnl3ΔE2 mice. Retention of embryonic splice isoforms in adult organs, a prominent defect in DM1, is not observed in multiple RNAs including the Insulin Receptor (Insr), Cardiac Troponin T (Tnnt2), Lim Domain Binding 3 (Ldb3) RNAs in Mbnl3ΔE2 mice. Although rare DM1-like splice errors underlying the observed phenotypes cannot be excluded, our data in conjunction with the reported absence of alternative splice errors in embryonic muscles of a similar Mbnl3ΔE2 mouse by RNA-seq studies, suggest that mechanisms distinct from the adult retention of embryonic splice patterns may make important contributions to the onset of age-associated pathologies in DM1. PMID:27484195

  18. Increased gene dosage of Ink4a/Arf results in cancer resistance and normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Matheu, Ander; Pantoja, Cristina; Efeyan, Alejo; Criado, Luis M.; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Flores, Juana M.; Klatt, Peter; Serrano, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian genes frequently present allelic variants that differ in their expression levels and that, in the case of tumor suppressor genes, can be of relevance for cancer susceptibility and aging. We report here the characterization of a novel mouse model with increased activity for the Ink4a and Arf tumor suppressors. We have generated a “super Ink4a/Arf” mouse strain carrying a transgenic copy of the entire Ink4a/Arf locus. Cells derived from super Ink4a/Arf mice have increased resistance to in vitro immortalization and oncogenic transformation. Importantly, super Ink4a/Arf mice manifest higher resistance to cancer compared to normal, nontransgenic, mice. Finally, super Ink4a/Arf mice have normal aging and lifespan. Together, these results indicate that modest increases in the activity of the Ink4a/Arf tumor suppressor result in a beneficial cancer-resistant phenotype without affecting normal viability or aging. PMID:15520276

  19. Stellar rotation at young ages: new results from Corot's monitoring NGC 2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favata, F.; Micela, G.; Alencar, S.; Aigrain, S.; Zwintz, K.

    2010-11-01

    Stellar rotation at young ages: new results from Corot's Angular momentum is one of the driving forces in the early evolution of stars. Issues such as the coupling between the star and the accretion disk (the so-called disk regulation paradigm), are traced by the evolution of rotational momentum, but affect the star-forming process as a whole. One of the features observed in star-forming regions (e.g. ONC and NGC 2264) of age between 1 and few Myr, for masses above 0.25 solar masses, is a bimodality of the rotational period distribution, with a peak around 1 day and the other at around 4 to 7 days. This bimodality has been interpreted as the smoking gun of the disk-locking mechanism (with the fast rotators having lost their disk and the slow ones still being regulated by their disks).

  20. The Onset of STI Diagnosis through Age 30: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine (1) whether onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. Design A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Setting Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle. Analysis Sample 608 participants in three intervention conditions interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions Teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome Cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Intervention Mechanisms Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested. Analysis and Results Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. Conclusions A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children’s social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI through age 30, especially for African

  1. Influence of social support on cognitive change and mortality in old age: results from the prospective multicentre cohort study AgeCoDe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support has been suggested to positively influence cognition and mortality in old age. However, this suggestion has been questioned due to inconsistent operationalisations of social support among studies and the small number of longitudinal studies available. This study aims to investigate the influence of perceived social support, understood as the emotional component of social support, on cognition and mortality in old age as part of a prospective longitudinal multicentre study in Germany. Methods A national subsample of 2,367 primary care patients was assessed twice over an observation period of 18 months regarding the influence of social support on cognitive function and mortality. Perceived social support was assessed using the 14-item version of the FSozU, which is a standardised and validated questionnaire of social support. Cognition was tested by the neuropsychological test battery of the Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia (SIDAM). The influence of perceived support on cognitive change was analysed by multivariate ANCOVA; mortality was analysed by multivariate logistic and cox regression. Results Sample cognitive change (N = 1,869): Mean age was 82.4 years (SD 3.3) at the beginning of the observation period, 65.9% were female, mean cognition was 49 (SD 4.4) in the SIDAM. Over the observation period cognitive function declined in 47.2% by a mean of 3.4 points. Sample mortality (N = 2,367): Mean age was 82.5 years (SD 3.4), 65.7% were female and 185 patients died during the observation period. Perceived social support showed no longitudinal association with cognitive change (F = 2.235; p = 0.135) and mortality (p = 0.332; CI 0.829-1.743). Conclusions Perceived social support did not influence cognition and mortality over an 18 months observation period. However, previous studies using different operationalisations of social support and longer observation periods indicate that such an influence may exist. This influence is

  2. Morbidity, mortality and quality of life in the ageing haemodialysis population: results from the ELDERLY study

    PubMed Central

    Dschietzig, Wilfried; Leimenstoll, Gerd; Rob, Peter M.; Kuhlmann, Martin K.; Pommer, Wolfgang; Fraass, Uwe; Ritz, Eberhard; Schwenger, Vedat

    2016-01-01

    Background The physical–functional and social–emotional health as well as survival of the elderly (≥75 years of age) haemodialysis patient is commonly thought to be poor. In a prospective, multicentre, non-interventional, observational study, the morbidity, mortality and quality of life (QoL) in this patient group were examined and compared with a younger cohort. Methods In 92 German dialysis centres, 2507 prevalent patients 19–98 years of age on haemodialysis for a median of 19.2 months were included in a drug monitoring study of darbepoetin alfa. To examine outcome and QoL parameters, 24 months of follow-up data in the age cohorts <75 and ≥75 years were analysed. Treatment parameters, adverse and intercurrent events, hospitalizations, morbidity and mortality were assessed. QoL was evaluated by means of the 47-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Anaemia score (FACT-An, version 4). Results The 2-year mortality rate was 34.7% for the older cohort and 15.8% for the younger cohort. The mortality rate for the haemodialysed elderly patients was 6.2% higher in absolute value compared with the age-matched background population. A powerful predictor of survival was the baseline FACT-An score and a close correlation with the 20-item anaemia subscale (AnS) was demonstrated. While the social QoL in the elderly patients was more stable than in the younger cohort (leading to equivalent values at the end of the study period), a pronounced deterioration of physical and functional status was observed. The median number of all-cause hospital days per patient-year was 12.3 for the elderly cohort and 8.9 for the younger patient population. The overall 24-month hospitalization rate was only marginally higher in the elderly cohort (34.0 versus 33.3%). Conclusions In this observational study, the mortality rate of elderly haemodialysis patients was not exceedingly high compared with the age-matched background population. Furthermore, the hospitalization

  3. The onset of STI diagnosis through age 30: results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hill, Karl G; Bailey, Jennifer A; Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine (1) whether the onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full-intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle are the setting of the study. Six hundred eight participants in three intervention conditions were interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions include teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome is the cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested as potential intervention mechanisms. Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full-intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding, and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children's social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI

  4. Single-agent lenalidomide in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma: results from a UK phase II study suggest activity and possible gender differences.

    PubMed

    Eve, Heather E; Carey, Sean; Richardson, Sarah J; Heise, Carla C; Mamidipudi, Vidya; Shi, Tao; Radford, John A; Auer, Rebecca L; Bullard, Sheila H; Rule, Simon A J

    2012-10-01

    We present data from a phase II study investigating a novel treatment strategy for relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Twenty-six patients received lenalidomide 25 mg/d (days 1-21 of a 28-d cycle) for up to 6 cycles followed by low-dose maintenance lenalidomide (15 mg) in responding patients. Eight patients achieved complete or partial response to give an overall response rate of 31% with median response duration of 22·2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·0-53·6] and median progression-free survival (PFS) of 3·9 months (95% CI 0·0-11·1). An additional six patients (23%) achieved stable disease. Eleven patients received maintenance with median PFS of 14·6 months (95% CI 7·3-21·9). Correlative studies showed that peripheral T and Natural Killer (NK) cells increased in responding patients by 40-60% over the first 6 cycles with an initial dip in NK cells suggestive of tumour infiltration. Peripheral regulatory T cells were increased in MCL patients (P = 0·001) and expanded further following lenalidomide. Sequential plasma analysis showed increased IL12 p40 and IL7 alongside decreased MMP9, IL10, and adiponectin. Finally, a significant correlation (P = 0·02) between gender and response suggested that female MCL patients were more sensitive to lenalidomide than males. In summary, we confirm the activity, safety and immunomodulatory properties of lenalidomide in MCL and highlight its potential as a low-dose maintenance agent.

  5. Familial factors related to lung function in children aged 6-10 years. Results from the PAARC epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, F; Tager, I B; Muñoz, A; Speizer, F E

    1989-06-01

    Familial factors related to lung function between six and 10 years of age have been studied among 1,160 children whose both parents were examined in 1975 in the French PAARC (Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques) Cooperative Study. The three indices FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and FEF25-75 (forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 per cent of the vital capacity) were studied after adjustment for sex, town, age, and height (and weight for children's FVC and FEV1). Maternal (but not paternal) smoking was associated with a significant decrease in FEV1 and FEF25-75, but not in FVC. Familial resemblance was observed for all indices between children and parents and between siblings. None of the environmental factors considered (i.e., parental smoking or education) or body habitus explained the familial resemblance observed. Conversely, after taking into account the aggregation between siblings, associations between children's lung function and parental characteristics (smoking, lung function) remained significant. Parental-children correlations exhibited an increasing temporal trend with increasing age of the children. All but one correlation for FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75 residuals of children with mothers' residuals were higher in the oldest age group compared with the youngest age group at the 0.10 level. Furthermore, correlations between siblings of opposite sex were significantly lower than correlations between siblings of like sex, especially for FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC. Results suggest that different growth patterns between boys and girls may be a critical factor in the study of lung function familial resemblance.

  6. Is It Safe? Injury Prevention for Young Children. Suggestions for Teachers, Parents and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Becky J.

    The United States has a higher child mortality rate than most other industrialized countries, but most childhood injuries, although called "accidents," are the result of predictable and preventable behavior. This book demonstrates how teachers, parents, and caregivers can provide and maintain safe environments while teaching children how to avoid…

  7. Music and Academic Success Go Together at Whitworth; University's Survey Results Also Suggest High School Music May Boost Chances of College Admittance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research by Whitworth University music professor Richard Strauch which assesses the freshman class for Whitworth's 2007-08 academic year. Strauch found that Whitworth students who stuck with their high school music program had higher GPAs and standardized test scores upon entering the university than…

  8. Loss of Niemann-Pick C1 or C2 protein results in similar biochemical changes suggesting that these proteins function in a common lysosomal pathway.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Sayali S; Jadot, Michel; Sohar, Istvan; Sleat, David E; Stock, Ann M; Lobel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the endolysosomal system. NPC disease results from a defect in either of two distinct cholesterol-binding proteins: a transmembrane protein, NPC1, and a small soluble protein, NPC2. NPC1 and NPC2 are thought to function closely in the export of lysosomal cholesterol with both proteins binding cholesterol in vitro but they may have unrelated lysosomal roles. To investigate this possibility, we compared biochemical consequences of the loss of either protein. Analyses of lysosome-enriched subcellular fractions from brain and liver revealed similar decreases in buoyant densities of lysosomes from NPC1 or NPC2 deficient mice compared to controls. The subcellular distribution of both proteins was similar and paralleled a lysosomal marker. In liver, absence of either NPC1 or NPC2 resulted in similar alterations in the carbohydrate processing of the lysosomal protease, tripeptidyl peptidase I. These results highlight biochemical alterations in the lysosomal system of the NPC-mutant mice that appear secondary to lipid storage. In addition, the similarity in biochemical phenotypes resulting from either NPC1 or NPC2 deficiency supports models in which the function of these two proteins within lysosomes are linked closely.

  9. Underestimation of urinary biomarker-to-creatinine ratio resulting from age-related gain in muscle mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Tonomura, Yutaka; Morikawa, Yuji; Takagi, Shingo; Torii, Mikinori; Matsubara, Mitsunobu

    2013-01-07

    Recent efforts have been made to identify useful urinary biomarkers of nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, the application of urine to the other toxicities as new biomarker source has been recently expanded. Meanwhile, correction of urinary biomarker concentrations according to fluctuations in urine flow rate is required for adequate interpretation of the alteration. The urinary biomarker-to-creatinine ratio (UBCR) is widely used because of the convenience, while the urinary biomarker-excretion rate is regarded as the gold standard corrective method. Because creatinine is a catabolite in energy production in muscles, we hypothesized that altered muscle mass could affect creatinine kinetics, ultimately affecting UBCR. However, no study has examined this hypothesis. In this study, we examined the influence of muscle mass gain on UBCR, using male Sprague-Dawley rats during the growth phase, 6-12-week old. Both plasma creatinine and excretion of urinary creatinine (Ucr excretion) showed increases with muscle mass gain in rats, in which the alterations of UBCR were lowered. The renal mRNA level of the organic cation transporter-2 (Oct2), a creatinine transporter, showed an age-related increase, whereas the mRNA level of multidrug and toxin extrusions-1 (Mate1) remained constant. Multiple regression analysis showed that the increase in creatinine clearance highly contributed to the age-related increase in Ucr excretion compared to the mRNA levels of Oct2 and Mate1. This suggested that the age-related increase in Ucr excretion may be attributable to the increased transglomerular passage of creatinine. In conclusion, the results suggest that muscle mass gain can affect creatinine kinetics, leading to underestimation of UBCR. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of the corrective method when using urinary biomarker, the failure of which can result in an incorrect diagnosis.

  10. Cognitive and Kidney Function: Results from a British Birth Cohort Reaching Retirement Age

    PubMed Central

    Silverwood, Richard J.; Richards, Marcus; Pierce, Mary; Hardy, Rebecca; Sattar, Naveed; Ferro, Charles; Savage, Caroline; Kuh, Diana; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between cognitive function and chronic kidney disease. We aimed to explore possible explanations for this association in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a prospective birth cohort representative of the general British population. Methods Cognitive function at age 60–64 years was quantified using five measures (verbal memory, letter search speed and accuracy, simple and choice reaction times) and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the same age was estimated using cystatin C. The cross-sectional association between cognitive function and eGFR was adjusted for background confounding factors (socioeconomic position, educational attainment), prior cognition, and potential explanations for any remaining association (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, obesity). Results Data on all the analysis variables were available for 1306–1320 study members (depending on cognitive measure). Verbal memory and simple and choice reaction times were strongly associated with eGFR. For example, the lowest quartile of verbal memory corresponded to a 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.0, 6.2) ml/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR relative to the highest quartile. Some of this association was explained by confounding due to socioeconomic factors, but very little of it by prior cognition. Smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation and obesity explained some but not all of the remaining association. Conclusions These analyses support the notion of a shared pathophysiology of impaired cognitive and kidney function at older age, which precedes clinical disease. The implications of these findings for clinical care and research are important and under-recognised, though further confirmatory studies are required. PMID:24482683

  11. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was −4.727% (95% CI: −4.821% to −4.634%) per year for men and −6.633% (95% CI: −6.751% to −6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994–2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20–24 years old and 15–24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  12. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: Results from a nationally representative United States sample

    PubMed Central

    Taillieu, Tamara L.; Afifi, Tracie O.; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M.; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n = 34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. PMID:25466426

  13. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: results from a nationally representative United States sample.

    PubMed

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time.

  14. [The shrinking brain: result of normal aging or of selection bias in research?].

    PubMed

    Burgmans, S; van Boxtel, M P J

    2012-02-01

    The volume of our brain decreases as we age. This has been demonstrated by several large studies on normal aging. A recent study indicates, however, that the extent of this decline in normal aging probably has been overestimated because these studies have included subjects with preclinical disorders. In this article, an example from science is used to describe what effect selection bias may have on our model of the aging brain.

  15. Dilepton Results from HADES Using Au+Au Data at 1.23 AGeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, C.

    The High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES) at GSI was designed to investigate the properties of hadrons inside dense nuclear matter. The latter is created in heavy-ion collisions at energies of 1-2 AGeV. HADES is currently the only running experiment that studies the region in the QCD phase diagram of very high net-baryon densities and low temperatures. Similar conditions are also present in one of the most fascinating objects of the universe: the neutron stars. Therefore, HADES has also the potential to improve our knowledge concerning the properties of such stars. The best probes that one can use to investigate a strongly interacting baryon-rich medium are the dileptons emerging from virtual photon decays. Since electromagnetic probes decouple from the dense interaction region once they are produced, their phase space distributions carry information about the temperature and structure of the dense QCD medium. Preliminary dilepton results from the Au+Au data of HADES at 1.23 AGeV will be presented. The analysis method will also be discussed.

  16. Validation of the FRAIL scale in Mexican elderly: results from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Díaz de León González, Enrique; Gutiérrez Hermosillo, Hugo; Martinez Beltran, Jesus Avilio; Medina Chavez, Juan Humberto; Palacios Corona, Rebeca; Salinas Garza, Deborah Patricia; Rodriguez Quintanilla, Karina Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The aging population in Latin America is characterized by not optimal conditions for good health, experiencing high burden of comorbidity, which contribute to increase the frequency of frailty; thus, identification should be a priority, to classify patients at high risk to develop its negative consequences. Aim The objective of this analysis was to validate the FRAIL instrument to measure frailty in Mexican elderly population, from the database of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Materials and methods Prospective, population study in Mexico, that included subjects of 60 years and older who were evaluated for the variables of frailty during the year 2001 (first wave of the study). Frailty was measured with the five-item FRAIL scale (fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illnesses, and weight loss). The robust, pre-frail or intermediate, and the frail group were considered when they had zero, one, and at least two components, respectively. Mortality, hospitalizations, falls, and functional dependency were evaluated during 2003 (second wave of the study). Relative risk was calculated for each complications, as well as hazard ratio (for mortality) through Cox regression model and odds ratio with logistic regression (for the rest of the outcomes), adjusted for covariates. Results The state of frailty was independently associated with mortality, hospitalizations, functional dependency, and falls. The pre-frailty state was only independently associated with hospitalizations, functional dependency, and falls. Conclusions Frailty measured through the FRAIL scale, is associated with an increase in the rate of mortality, hospitalizations, dependency in activities of daily life, and falls. PMID:26646253

  17. Influence of age on Salvia divinorum use: results of an Internet survey.

    PubMed

    Nyi, Pearl P; Lai, Emily P; Lee, Diana Y; Biglete, Shannon A; Torrecer, Gilsky I; Anderson, Ilene B

    2010-09-01

    An Internet-based survey of Salvia divinorum ("salvia") users was conducted to identify correlates surrounding its use. Salvia-knowledgeable persons were recruited via "social networking Internet websites" (n = 23) where notices were posted on recreational salvia group message boards (n = 69). Data collection included demographics, use circumstances, experiences, and age (current and at first salvia use). A total of 219 surveys were analyzed. Salvia users who were young adults (< or = 21 yrs) at first use favored salvia for fun (OR = 1.94, CI = 1.08-3.49, p = 0.03) or to relieve boredom (OR = 2.06 CI = 1.09-3.91, p = 0.02), while salvia users who were adults (> or = 22 yrs) at first use favored salvia for spiritual effects (OR = 2.63, CI = 1.02-6.75, p = 0.04). Being an adult at first use was associated with higher odds of concurrent marijuana (OR = 2.68, CI = 1.50-4.78, p = 0.0007) or tobacco use (OR = 1.94, CI = 1.05-3.60, p = 0.03). Over half of all respondents reported use reduction or cessation in the past 12 months (114 of 219, 52%), citing dislike of the high (33.3%) or loss of interest in salvia (28.9%). Reports of cessation suggest salvia use may be more attributed to curiosity than continual abuse.

  18. Results of interlaboratory comparison of fission track ages for 1992 fission track workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.S.; Crowley, K.D.; Dokka, R.K.; Galbraith, R.F.; Kowallis, B.J.; Naeser, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    Two apatites and one sphene were made available to the fission track research community for analysis prior to the 1992 Fission Track Workshop held in Philadelphia, U.S.A., 13-17 July. Eighteen laboratories throughout the world received aliquots of apatite and sphene. To date, analyses by 33 different scientists have been representing 15 different laboratories. With respect to the previous two interlaboratory comparisons, there is a noticeable improvement in the accuracy of the age results (Naeser and Cebula, 1978; Naeser et al., 1981; Miller et al., 1985;Miller et al.1990). Ninety-four percent of the analysis used the external detector method (EDM) combined with the zeta technique while the remaining individuals used the population method (POP). Track length measurements (requested for the first time in the interlaboratory comparison studies) were in relatively good agreement. ?? 1993.

  19. Motion of Hawaii and Louisville hotspots: Comparision of modeling results with new age and paleolatitude data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, B. M.; O'Connor, J. M.; Koppers, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    , but in addition rise buoyantly. Results typically show the base of plume conduits moving towards the center of large-scale upwellings, as under the Central Pacific. In the case of Hawaii, this leads to a tilted conduit, and a southward motion, as the tilted conduit rises buoyantly. Predicted motion for Louisville is less strong, but tends to be also in southeastward direction. This is in line with new age data, which confirm that their distance has decreased by several hundred km, mainly in the time interval 50-80 Ma, and an even larger southward motion of Hawaii inferred from paleomagnetic results obtained through ODP drilling of the Emperor chain.

  20. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing. PMID:27699078

  1. Preterm birth results in alterations in neural connectivity at age 16 years.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Katherine M; Vohr, Betty R; Katz, Karol H; Schneider, Karen C; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Makuch, Robert W; Reiss, Allan L; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2011-02-14

    Very low birth weight preterm (PT) children are at high risk for brain injury. Employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we tested the hypothesis that PT adolescents would demonstrate microstructural white matter disorganization relative to term controls at 16 years of age. Forty-four PT subjects (600-1250 g birth weight) without neonatal brain injury and 41 term controls were evaluated at age 16 years with DTI, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT), and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). PT subjects scored lower than term subjects on WISC full scale (p=0.003), verbal (p=0.043), and performance IQ tests (p=0.001), as well as CTOPP phonological awareness (p=0.004), but scored comparably to term subjects on PPVT and CTOPP Rapid Naming tests. PT subjects had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple regions including bilateral uncinate fasciculi (left: p=0.01; right: p=0.004), bilateral external capsules (left: p<0.001; right: p<0.001), the splenium of the corpus callosum (p=0.008), and white matter serving the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally (left: p<0.001; right: p=0.011). FA values in both the left and right uncinate fasciculi correlated with PPVT scores (a semantic language task) in the PT subjects (left: r=0.314, p=0.038; right: r=0.336, p=0.026). FA values in the left and right arcuate fasciculi correlated with CTOPP Rapid Naming scores (a phonologic task) in the PT subjects (left: r=0.424, p=0.004; right: r=0.301, p=0.047). These data support for the first time that dual pathways underlying language function are present in PT adolescents. The striking bilateral dorsal correlations for the PT group suggest that prematurely born subjects rely more heavily on the right hemisphere than typically developing adults for performance of phonological language tasks. These findings may represent either a delay in maturation or the engagement of alternative neural

  2. Preterm Birth Results in Alterations in Neural Connectivity at Age 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Katherine M.; Vohr, Betty R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan R.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    Very low birth weight preterm (PT) children are at high risk for brain injury. Employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we tested the hypothesis that PT adolescents would demonstrate microstructural white matter disorganization relative to term controls at 16 years of age. Forty-four PT subjects (600 - 1250 grams birth weight) without neonatal brain injury and 41 term controls were evaluated at age 16 years with DTI, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT), and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). PT subjects scored lower than term subjects on WISC full scale (p = 0.003), verbal (p = 0.043), and performance IQ tests (p = 0.001), as well as CTOPP phonological awareness (p = 0.004), but scored comparably to term subjects on PPVT and CTOPP Rapid Naming tests. PT subjects had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple regions including bilateral uncinate fasciculi (left: p = 0.01; right: p = 0.004), bilateral external capsules (left: p < 0.001; right: p < 0.001), the splenium of the corpus callosum (p = 0.008), and white matter serving the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally (left: p < 0.001; right: p = 0.011). FA values in both the left and right uncinate fasciculi correlated with PPVT scores (a semantic language task) in the PT subjects (left: r = 0.314, p = 0.038; right: r = 0.336, p = 0.026). FA values in the left and right arcuate fasciculi correlated with CTOPP Rapid Naming scores (a phonologic task) in the PT subjects (left: r = 0.424, p = 0.004; right: r = 0.301, p = 0.047). These data support for the first time that dual pathways underlying language function are present in PT adolescents. The striking bilateral dorsal correlations for the PT group suggest that prematurely born subjects rely more heavily on the right hemisphere than typically developing adults for performance of phonological language tasks. These findings may represent either a delay in

  3. Hospital Versus Home Death: Results from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Tovalín-Ahumada, Horacio; Nates, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Characterizing where people die is needed to inform palliative care programs in Mexico. Objectives To determine whether access to health care influences the place of death of older Mexicans and examine the modifying effects of demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods We analyzed 2001 baseline and 2003 follow-up data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Cases included adults who completed the baseline interview and died before the follow-up interview and for whom a proxy interview was obtained in 2003. The main outcome variable was the place of death (hospital vs. home). The predictors of the place of death were identified using logistic regression analysis. Results The study group included 473 deceased patients; 52.9% died at home. Factors associated with hospital death were having spent at least one night in a hospital during the last year of life (odds ratio [OR]: 6.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.29, 13.78) and dying in a city other than the city of usual residence (OR: 4.68, 95% CI: 2.56, 8.57). Factors associated with home death were not having health care coverage (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.34, 5.88), living in a city of less than 100,000 residents (OR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.43, 4.17), and older age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05). Conclusion Older Mexicans with access to health care services were more likely to die in the hospital even after controlling for important clinical and demographic characteristics. Findings from the study may be used to plan the provision of accessible end-of-life hospital and home-based services. PMID:21146354

  4. Health literacy in old age: results of a German cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Dominique; Schaeffer, Doris; Messer, Melanie; Berens, Eva-Maria; Hurrelmann, Klaus

    2017-03-22

    Health literacy is especially important for older people to maintain or enhance remaining health resources and self-management skills. The aim of the study was to determine the level of health literacy and the association between health literacy, demographic and socio-economic factors in German older adults aged 65 years and above stratified by age group. Health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using HLS-EU-Q47 on a representative sample of the German-speaking population. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression modelling stratified by age group were conducted to assess health literacy of 475 respondents aged 65 years and above. Overall, 66.3% of all respondents aged 65 years and above had limited health literacy. Limited health literacy was especially prevalent among respondents above 76 years of age (80.6%). Limited health literacy was associated with financial deprivation (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 1.99-4.67) and limited functional health literacy (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.29-3.61). Financial deprivation was strongest predictor for limited health literacy in the total sample and stratified by age group. Limited health literacy is a frequent phenomenon in German adults aged 65 years and above. Research on health literacy in old age and the role in health disparities is urgently needed.

  5. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  6. Social Work Faculty's Knowledge of Aging: Results from a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna S.; Chonody, Jill M.; Krase, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Social work students have reported in previous studies that they receive insufficient coursework and training to work effectively with older adults. A critical factor in these deficiencies may be the level of knowledge of social work faculty. This study sought to assess social work faculty's knowledge of aging using the Knowledge of Aging for…

  7. Immigrant Children's Age at Arrival and Assessment Results. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Anthony; Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina

    2012-01-01

    While a number of single-country studies have been done to explore whether or not there is a "critical age" at which the arrival in a new country becomes a steep disadvantage to the immigrant student, this study aims to determine whether the steepness of the age-at-arrival/test score profile varies across origin or destination countries. As…

  8. Sex-specific age associations of ankle proprioception test performance in older adults: results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung-Uk; Simonsick, Eleanor; Deshpande, Nandini; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: this study was aimed to test the hypothesis that ankle proprioception assessed by custom-designed proprioception testing equipment changes with ageing in men and women. Methods: ankle proprioception was assessed in 289 participants (131 women) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA); the participants aged 51–95 years and were blinded during testing. Results: the average minimum perceived ankle rotation was 1.11° (SE = 0.07) in women and 1.00° (SE = 0.06) in men, and it increased with ageing in both sexes (P < 0.001, for both). Ankle tracking performance, which is the ability to closely follow with the left ankle, a rotational movement induced on the right ankle by a torque motor, declines with ageing in both men and women (P = 0.018 and P = 0.011, respectively). Conclusions: a simple, standardised method for assessing ankle proprioception was introduced in this study using a customized test instrument, software and test protocol. Age-associated reduction in ankle proprioception was confirmed from two subtests of threshold and tracking separately for women and men. Findings in this study prompt future studies to determine whether these age-associated differences in the threshold for passive motion detection and movement tracking are evident in longitudinal study and how these specific deficits in ankle proprioception are related to age-associated chronic conditions such as knee or hip osteoarthritis and type II diabetes and affect daily activities such as gait. PMID:25637144

  9. The vertical age profile in sea ice: Theory and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietaer, Olivier; Deleersnijder, Eric; Fichefet, Thierry; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Comblen, Richard; Bouillon, Sylvain; Legat, Vincent

    The sea ice age is an interesting diagnostic tool because it may provide a proxy for the sea ice thickness and is easier to infer from observations than the sea ice thickness. Remote sensing algorithms and modeling approaches proposed in the literature indicate significant methodological uncertainties, leading to different ice age values and physical interpretations. In this work, we focus on the vertical age distribution in sea ice. Based on the age theory developed for marine modeling, we propose a vertically-variable sea ice age definition which gives a measure of the time elapsed since the accretion of the ice particle under consideration. An analytical solution is derived from Stefan's law for a horizontally homogeneous ice layer with a periodic ice thickness seasonal cycle. Two numerical methods to solve the age equation are proposed. In the first one, the domain is discretized adaptively in space thanks to Lagrangian particles in order to capture the age profile and its discontinuities. The second one focuses on the mean age of the ice using as few degrees of freedom as possible and is based on an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) spatial discretization and the finite element method. We observe an excellent agreement between the Lagrangian particles and the analytical solution. The mean value and the standard deviation of the finite element solution agree with the analytical solution and a linear approximation is found to represent the age profile the better, the older the ice gets. Both methods are finally applied to a stand-alone thermodynamic sea ice model of the Arctic. Computing the vertically-averaged ice age reduces by a factor of about 2 the simulated ice age compared to the oldest particle of the ice columns. A high correlation is found between the ice thickness and the age of the oldest particle. However, whether or not this will remain valid once ice dynamics is included should be investigated. In addition, the present study, based on

  10. Trends and correlates of age at menarche in Colombia: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erica C; Herrán, Oscar F; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of age at menarche could provide useful information on the impact of changing environmental conditions on child health. Nevertheless, nationally representative data are exceedingly rare. The aim of this study was to examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of age at menarche of Colombian girls. The study sample included 15,441 girls born between 1992 and 2000 who participated in the Colombian National Nutrition Survey of 2010. We estimated median menarcheal age using Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analyses. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated with Cox regression models. The median age at menarche was 12.6 years. There was an estimated decline of 0.54 years/decade (P<0.001) over the birth years; this decline was only observed among girls from urban areas, and was more pronounced among girls from wealthier versus poorer families. Child height and BMI, maternal BMI and education, and family wealth were each inversely associated with menarcheal age whereas food insecurity and number of children in the household were positively associated with age at menarche. In conclusion, a negative trend in age at menarche is ongoing in Colombia, especially in groups most likely to benefit from socioeconomic development.

  11. TNF Drives Monocyte Dysfunction with Age and Results in Impaired Anti-pneumococcal Immunity.

    PubMed

    Puchta, Alicja; Naidoo, Avee; Verschoor, Chris P; Loukov, Dessi; Thevaranjan, Netusha; Mandur, Talveer S; Nguyen, Phuong-Son; Jordana, Manel; Loeb, Mark; Xing, Zhou; Kobzik, Lester; Larché, Maggie J; Bowdish, Dawn M E

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte phenotype and output changes with age, but why this occurs and how it impacts anti-bacterial immunity are not clear. We found that, in both humans and mice, circulating monocyte phenotype and function was altered with age due to increasing levels of TNF in the circulation that occur as part of the aging process. Ly6C+ monocytes from old (18-22 mo) mice and CD14+CD16+ intermediate/inflammatory monocytes from older adults also contributed to this "age-associated inflammation" as they produced more of the inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNF in the steady state and when stimulated with bacterial products. Using an aged mouse model of pneumococcal colonization we found that chronic exposure to TNF with age altered the maturity of circulating monocytes, as measured by F4/80 expression, and this decrease in monocyte maturation was directly linked to susceptibility to infection. Ly6C+ monocytes from old mice had higher levels of CCR2 expression, which promoted premature egress from the bone marrow when challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although Ly6C+ monocyte recruitment and TNF levels in the blood and nasopharnyx were higher in old mice during S. pneumoniae colonization, bacterial clearance was impaired. Counterintuitively, elevated TNF and excessive monocyte recruitment in old mice contributed to impaired anti-pneumococcal immunity since bacterial clearance was improved upon pharmacological reduction of TNF or Ly6C+ monocytes, which were the major producers of TNF. Thus, with age TNF impairs inflammatory monocyte development, function and promotes premature egress, which contribute to systemic inflammation and is ultimately detrimental to anti-pneumococcal immunity.

  12. Articulating Assessments across Childhood: The Cross-Age Validity of the Desired Results Developmental Profile-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karelitz, Tzur M.; Parrish, Deborah Montgomery; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Wilson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Assessment systems that track children's progress across time need to be sensitive to the variegated nature of development. Although instruments are commonly designed to assess behaviors within a specific age range, some children advance slower or faster than others and, as a result, often show behaviors from a younger or older age group. This…

  13. Effects of Lowering the Minimum Alcohol Purchasing Age on Weekend Assaults Resulting in Hospitalization in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Gabrielle; McElduff, Patrick; Connor, Jennie; Langley, John

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effects on assault rates of lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age in New Zealand from 20 to 18 years. We hypothesized that the law change would increase assaults among young people aged 18 to 19 years (the target group) and those aged 15 to 17 years via illegal sales or alcohol supplied by older friends or family members. Methods. Using Poisson regression, we examined weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization from 1995 to 2011. Outcomes were assessed separately by gender among young people aged 15 to 17 years and those aged 18 to 19 years, with those aged 20 and 21 years included as a control group. Results. Relative to young men aged 20 to 21 years, assaults increased significantly among young men aged 18 to 19 years between 1995 and 1999 (the period before the law change), as well as the postchange periods 2003 to 2007 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.39) and 2008 to 2011 (IRR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.37). Among boys aged 15 to 17 years, assaults increased during the postchange periods 1999 to 2003 (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.49) and 2004 to 2007 (IRR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.45). There were no statistically significant effects among girls and young women. Conclusions. Lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age increased weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization among young males 15 to 19 years of age. PMID:24922142

  14. Modulation of gut microbiota and delayed immunosenescence as a result of syringaresinol consumption in middle-aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Si-Young; Kim, Juewon; Lee, Ji Hae; Sim, Ji Hyun; Cho, Dong-Hyun; Bae, Il-Hong; Lee, Hyunbok; Seol, Min A.; Shin, Hyun Mu; Kim, Tae-Joo; Kim, Dae-Yong; Lee, Su-Hyung; Shin, Song Seok; lm, Sin-Hyeog; Kim, Hang-Rae

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated immunological dysfunction (immunosenescence) is closely linked to perturbation of the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated whether syringaresinol (SYR), a polyphenolic lignan, modulates immune aging and the gut microbiota associated with this effect in middle-aged mice. Compared with age-matched control mice, SYR treatment delayed immunosenescence by enhancing the numbers of total CD3+ T cells and naïve T cells. SYR treatment induced the expression of Bim as well as activation of FOXO3 in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, SYR treatment significantly enhanced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio compared with that in age-matched controls by increasing beneficial bacteria, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, while reducing the opportunistic pathogenic genus, Akkermansia. In addition, SYR treatment reduced the serum level of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, an inflammatory marker, and enhanced humoral immunity against influenza vaccination to the level of young control mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that SYR may rejuvenate the immune system through modulation of gut integrity and microbiota diversity as well as composition in middle-aged mice, which may delay the immunosenescence associated with aging. PMID:27976725

  15. Modulation of gut microbiota and delayed immunosenescence as a result of syringaresinol consumption in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Si-Young; Kim, Juewon; Lee, Ji Hae; Sim, Ji Hyun; Cho, Dong-Hyun; Bae, Il-Hong; Lee, Hyunbok; Seol, Min A; Shin, Hyun Mu; Kim, Tae-Joo; Kim, Dae-Yong; Lee, Su-Hyung; Shin, Song Seok; Lm, Sin-Hyeog; Kim, Hang-Rae

    2016-12-15

    Age-associated immunological dysfunction (immunosenescence) is closely linked to perturbation of the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated whether syringaresinol (SYR), a polyphenolic lignan, modulates immune aging and the gut microbiota associated with this effect in middle-aged mice. Compared with age-matched control mice, SYR treatment delayed immunosenescence by enhancing the numbers of total CD3(+) T cells and naïve T cells. SYR treatment induced the expression of Bim as well as activation of FOXO3 in Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, SYR treatment significantly enhanced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio compared with that in age-matched controls by increasing beneficial bacteria, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, while reducing the opportunistic pathogenic genus, Akkermansia. In addition, SYR treatment reduced the serum level of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, an inflammatory marker, and enhanced humoral immunity against influenza vaccination to the level of young control mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that SYR may rejuvenate the immune system through modulation of gut integrity and microbiota diversity as well as composition in middle-aged mice, which may delay the immunosenescence associated with aging.

  16. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  17. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  18. Assessment of Aging Individuals with Down Syndrome in Clinical Trials: Results of Baseline Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul S.; Dalton, Arthur J.; Andrews, Howard F.; Tsai, Wei-Yann

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge to developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive loss and dementia in aging individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is the selection of appropriate outcome measures. This report describes the adaptation of the Brief Praxis Test (a nonverbal cognitive test) as a primary outcome measure, as well as the selection of secondary…

  19. Free T3 to free T4 ratio less than 2.0 suggests low T3 syndrome rather than central hypothyroidism from the age of two to eighteen years.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Risa; Miyai, Kentaro; Kuge, Rie; Okura, Takashi; Goto, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-02-27

    No serological cut-off exists to separate low T3 syndrome (LT) and central hypothyroidism (CH). The objective of this retrospective study was to propose such a cut-off. The first participant group comprised 52 patients from the age of six to twenty years. This group consisted of patients of 36 anorexia nervosa with LT and 16 CH. The second participant groups comprised 229 patients of all the same range of ages at the same hospital and included LT (n = 58) and CH (n = 4) patients, respectively. The third group of participants comprised 125 LT and 27 CH patients at the same hospital at all ages less than eighteen years. The last group of participants comprised 10 CH patients from the other two hospitals. The main outcome measure was fT3/fT4 ratio (pg/mL, ng/dL respectively). This ratio in the first group was significantly different (p < 0.05) between LT and CH. When the cut off value of fT3/fT4 was set as 2.0, the sensitivity of the LT and CH patients in the second group was 62% and 100%, respectively. This cut-off value of 2.0 was useful for distinguishing LT from CH only above the age of two years, as shown in the third group. The fT3/fT4 in 10 subjects with CH in the last group, aged 2 to 7 years, ranged from 2.55 to 7.71. In conclusion, fT3/fT4 less than 2.0 suggests LT rather than CH for patients from the age of two to eighteen years.

  20. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI) in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home). Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. Results In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders. PMID:21777439

  1. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Susanne; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Fuchs, Angela; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; Koppara, Alexander; Pentzek, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mösch, Edelgard; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in primary care patients over 75 years covering an observation period of 7.5 years. We used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to examine the relationship of SCD and mortality. Further, we estimated survival times by the Kaplan Meier method and case-fatality rates with regard to SCD. Results Among 971 individuals without objective cognitive impairment, 233 (24.0%) incidentally expressed SCD at follow-up I. Incident SCD was not significantly associated with increased mortality in the univariate (HR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.3, p = .90) as well as in the multivariate analysis (HR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2, p = .40). The same applied for SCD in relation to concerns. Mean survival time with SCD was 8.0 years (SD = 0.1) after onset. Conclusion Incident SCD in memory in individuals with unimpaired cognitive performance does not predict mortality. The main reason might be that SCD does not ultimately lead into future cognitive decline in any case. However, as prevalence studies suggest, subjectively perceived decline in non-memory cognitive domains might be associated with increased mortality. Future studies may address mortality in such other cognitive domains of SCD in incident cases. PMID:26766555

  2. Results of Aging Tests of Vendor-Produced Blended Feed Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Buchmiller, William C.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2009-04-21

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is procuring through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) a minimum of five 3,500 gallon batches of waste simulant for Phase 1 testing in the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). To make sure that the quality of the simulant is acceptable, the production method was scaled up starting from laboratory-prepared simulant through 15-gallon vendor prepared simulant and 250-gallon vendor prepared simulant before embarking on the production of the 3500-gallon simulant batch by the vendor. The 3500-gallon PEP simulant batches were packaged in 250-gallon high molecular weight polyethylene totes at NOAH Technologies. The simulant was stored in an environmentally controlled environment at NOAH Technologies within their warehouse before blending or shipping. For the 15-gallon, 250-gallon, and 3500-gallon batch 0, the simulant was shipped in ambient temperature trucks with shipment requiring nominally 3 days. The 3500-gallon batch 1 traveled in a 70-75°F temperature controlled truck. Typically the simulant was uploaded in a PEP receiving tank within 24-hours of receipt. The first uploading required longer with it stored outside. Physical and chemical characterization of the 250-gallon batch was necessary to determine the effect of aging on the simulant in transit from the vendor and in storage before its use in the PEP. Therefore, aging tests were conducted on the 250-gallon batch of the vendor-produced PEP blended feed simulant to identify and determine any changes to the physical characteristics of the simulant when in storage. The supernate was also chemically characterized. Four aging scenarios for the vendor-produced blended simulant were studied: 1) stored outside in a 250-gallon tote, 2) stored inside in a gallon plastic bottle, 3) stored inside in a well mixed 5-L tank, and 4) subject to extended temperature cycling under summer temperature conditions in a gallon plastic bottle. The following

  3. Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: The TERESA field results

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Choong-Min; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Lawrence, Joy E.; Rohr, Annette C.; Godleski, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions Source Aerosols (TERESA) study was carried out at three US coal-fired power plants to investigate the potential toxicological effects of primary and photochemically aged (secondary) particles using in situ stack emissions. The exposure system designed successfully simulated chemical reactions that power plant emissions undergo in a plume during transport from the stack to receptor areas (e.g., urban areas). Test atmospheres developed for toxicological experiments included scenarios to simulate a sequence of atmospheric reactions that can occur in a plume: (1) primary emissions only; (2) H2SO4 aerosol from oxidation of SO2; (3) H2SO4 aerosol neutralized by gas-phase NH3; (4) neutralized H2SO4 with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the reaction of α-pinene with O3; and (5) three control scenarios excluding primary particles. The aged particle mass concentrations varied significantly from 43.8 to 257.1 μg/m3 with respect to scenario and power plant. The highest was found when oxidized aerosols were neutralized by gas-phase NH3 with added SOA. The mass concentration depended primarily on the ratio of SO2 to NOx (particularly NO) emissions, which was determined mainly by coal composition and emissions controls. Particulate sulfate (H2SO4 + neutralized sulfate) and organic carbon (OC) were major components of the aged particles with added SOA, whereas trace elements were present at very low concentrations. Physical and chemical properties of aged particles appear to be influenced by coal type, emissions controls and the particular atmospheric scenarios employed. PMID:20462390

  4. Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: the TERESA field results.

    PubMed

    Kang, Choong-Min; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A; Wolfson, Jack M; Ferguson, Stephen T; Lawrence, Joy E; Rohr, Annette C; Godleski, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2011-08-01

    The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions Source Aerosols (TERESA) study was carried out at three US coal-fired power plants to investigate the potential toxicological effects of primary and photochemically aged (secondary) particles using in situ stack emissions. The exposure system designed successfully simulated chemical reactions that power plant emissions undergo in a plume during transport from the stack to receptor areas (e.g., urban areas). Test atmospheres developed for toxicological experiments included scenarios to simulate a sequence of atmospheric reactions that can occur in a plume: (1) primary emissions only; (2) H(2)SO(4) aerosol from oxidation of SO(2); (3) H(2)SO(4) aerosol neutralized by gas-phase NH(3); (4) neutralized H(2)SO(4) with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the reaction of α-pinene with O(3); and (5) three control scenarios excluding primary particles. The aged particle mass concentrations varied significantly from 43.8 to 257.1 µg/m(3) with respect to scenario and power plant. The highest was found when oxidized aerosols were neutralized by gas-phase NH(3) with added SOA. The mass concentration depended primarily on the ratio of SO(2) to NO(x) (particularly NO) emissions, which was determined mainly by coal composition and emissions controls. Particulate sulfate (H(2)SO(4) + neutralized sulfate) and organic carbon (OC) were major components of the aged particles with added SOA, whereas trace elements were present at very low concentrations. Physical and chemical properties of aged particles appear to be influenced by coal type, emissions controls and the particular atmospheric scenarios employed.

  5. Age Determination and Chemical and Petrological Features of Shock-Melted Antarctic H Chondrite Y 790746: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, T.; Nagao, K.; Nakamura, N.; Fujiwara, T.; Misawa, K.; Kagami, H.; Yanai, K.; Kojima, H.

    1995-09-01

    Extensive K-Ar age determinations have been carried out for shocked chondrites [1]. However the young shock ages obtained by the less susceptible clocks such as Rb-Sr isotopes are still rarely reported for chondritic meteorites [2,3], particulary only for H-chondrites [4]. In order to search for ages, chemical and petrological characteristics of shocked H-chondrites, we have carried out analyses of Rb-Sr, K-Ar and other rare gass isotopes along with isotope dilution analyses of K, Rb, Sr, Ba, Ca, Mg, and Fe for impact melted Antarctic H-chondreite, Y-790746. The meteorite contains shock veins (widths: 5-10mm) formed from melts. One intensely melted portion was sampled for the present study. The observations by an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope indicate that the specimen has basaltic texture consisting of relic olivine grains with several hundred micrometer sizes, cryptocrystalline subhedral olivines and pyroxenes associated with glassy groundmass. Relic olivines with undulatory extinction and planar fractures occasionally carry several micrometer sized Fe-Ni deposits and shock veins. Recrystallized olivines and pyroxenes are mostly zoned by Fe-rich overgrowth rims. Ca-rich pyroxenes also carry Ca depleted overgrowth rim materials. Numerous Fe-Ni metal droplets (several ten to hundred micrometer sizes) associated with troilites also exist in interstitial areas of mineral grains. No plagioclase nor maskerynite grains were identified but instead abundant glassy materials exist in the interstitial areas. Abundances of alkali metals (K, Rb) and alkaline earths (Ba, Sr) in the whole-rock are almost H-chondritic (x1.02, x1.41, x1.19, x1.1; relative to average H-chondrites). The major element abundances normalized to average H-chondrites are low in Mg (x0.84), Fe (x0.70), and Ca (x0.87), indicating that Y-790746 is depleted in mafic components. These results suggest that Fe-Ni metal, (possibly, olivines and pyroxenes) was removed from the source

  6. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  7. Evaluation of the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over☆

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; Santos, Pedro Doenux; Checchia, Sergio Luiz; Cohen, Carina; Giora, Taís Stedile Busin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over. Methods Between 1998 and 2009, 168 patients underwent operations. Five cases were excluded. The remaining 163 patients were stratified according to their age group: 65–69 years (49.1%), 70–74 (26.4%) and 75 years and over (24.5%). Their mean age was 71 years (range: 65–83). There were 63 male patients (38.7%). The mean length of time with pain, from the onset of symptoms to the surgery, was 23 months (range: 2 days to 240 months). Sixty-two patients (38%) reported histories of trauma and 26 (16%) reported that their pain worsened through exertion. Results From the UCLA criteria, 80.4% of the results were excellent, 16% good, 1.8% fair and 1.8% poor. Complications occurred in 11%. The final clinical result did not show any correlation with age progression, injury size or tendons affected. However, there was a significant association (p < 0.001) between the presence of trauma and larger injuries. The length of time between the onset of symptoms and the surgical procedure had a significant relationship (p < 0.027) with the postoperative results: the longer this time was, the worse the results were. Conclusion Arthroscopic treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over presented excellent and good results in 96.4% of the cases, according to the UCLA assessment, with a low complication rate. Advanced age did not show any influence on the postoperative clinical evolution, but the earlier the surgical treatment was instituted, the better the results were. PMID:26229935

  8. Age at Menarche and Its Association with the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components: Results from the KORA F4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Stöckl, Doris; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Huth, Cornelia; Heier, Margit; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Kowall, Bernd; Stöckl, Heidi; Döring, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objective The metabolic syndrome is a major public health challenge and identifies persons at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the association between age at menarche and the metabolic syndrome (IDF and NCEP ATP III classification) and its components. Design 1536 women aged 32 to 81 years of the German population based KORA F4 study were investigated. Data was collected by standardized interviews, physical examinations, and whole blood and serum measurements. Results Young age at menarche was significantly associated with elevated body mass index (BMI), greater waist circumference, higher fasting glucose levels, and 2 hour glucose (oral glucose tolerance test), even after adjusting for the difference between current BMI and BMI at age 25. The significant effect on elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure was attenuated after adjustment for the BMI change. Age at menarche was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome adjusting for age (p-values: <0.001 IDF, 0.003 NCEP classification) and additional potential confounders including lifestyle and reproductive history factors (p-values: 0.001, 0.005). Associations remain significant when additionally controlling for recollected BMI at age 25 (p-values: 0.008, 0.033) or the BMI change since age 25 (p-values: 0.005, 0.022). Conclusion Young age at menarche might play a role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. This association is only partially mediated by weight gain and increased BMI. A history of early menarche may help to identify women at risk for the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22028807

  9. Multifractality, sample entropy, and wavelet analyses for age-related changes in the peripheral cardiovascular system: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Humeau, Anne; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Rousseau, Pascal; Trzepizur, Wojciech; Abraham, Pierre

    2008-02-01

    Using signal processing measures we evaluate the effect of aging on the peripheral cardiovascular system. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals, reflecting the microvascular perfusion, are recorded on the forearm of 27 healthy subjects between 20-30, 40-50, or 60-70 years old. Wavelet-based representations, Hölder exponents, and sample entropy values are computed for each time series. The results indicate a possible modification of the peripheral cardiovascular system with aging. Thus, the endothelial-related metabolic activity decreases, but not significantly, with aging. Furthermore, LDF signals are more monofractal for elderly subjects than for young people for whom LDF signals are weakly multifractal: the average range of Holder exponents computed with a parametric generalized quadratic variation based estimation method is 0.13 for subjects between 20 and 30 years old and 0.06 for subjects between 60 and 70 years old. Moreover, the average mean sample entropy value of LDF signals slightly decreases with age: it is 1.34 for subjects between 20 and 30 years old and 1.19 for subjects between 60 and 70 years old. Our results could assist in gaining knowledge on the relationship between microvascular system status and age and could also lead to a more accurate age-related nonlinear modeling.

  10. Radiometric dating of the Earlier Stone Age sequence in excavation I at Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Chazan, Michael; Ron, Hagai; Matmon, Ari; Porat, Naomi; Goldberg, Paul; Yates, Royden; Avery, Margaret; Sumner, Alexandra; Horwitz, Liora Kolska

    2008-07-01

    We present here the results of 44 paleomagnetic measurements, and single cosmogenic burial and optically stimulated luminescence ages for the Earlier Stone Age deposits from Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape, South Africa. The resulting paleomagnetic sequence: N>R>N>R>N constrains the Earlier Stone Age strata in this part of the site to between approximately 0.78-1.96 Ma. A single cosmogenic date of approximately 2.0 Ma from the base of the section offers some corroboration for the paleomagnetic sequence. Preliminary results indicate that the small lithic assemblage from the basal stratum may contain an Oldowan facies. This is overlain by several strata containing Acheulean industries. The preliminary radiometric dates reported here place the onset of the Acheulean at this site to approximately 1.6 Ma, which is roughly contemporaneous with that of East Africa.

  11. Genetic variation in sex hormone genes influences heel ultrasound parameters in middle-aged and elderly men: results from the European Male Aging Study (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Limer, Kate L; Pye, Stephen R; Thomson, Wendy; Boonen, Steven; Borghs, Herman; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Platt, Hazel; Payne, Debbie; John, Sally L; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Wu, Frederick C; O'Neill, Terence W

    2009-02-01

    Genes involved in sex hormone pathways are candidates for influencing bone strength. Polymorphisms in these genes were tested for association with heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters in middle-aged and elderly European men. Men 40-79 yr of age were recruited from population registers in eight European centers for the European Male Aging Study (EMAS). Polymorphisms were genotyped in AR, ESR1, ESR2, CYP19A1, CYP17A1, SHBG, SRD5A2, LHB, and LHCGR. QUS parameters broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) were measured in the heel and used to derive BMD. The relationships between QUS parameters and polymorphisms were assessed using linear regression adjusting for age and center. A total of 2693 men, with a mean age of 60.1 +/- 11.1 (SD) yr were included in the analysis. Their mean BUA was 80.0 +/- 18.9 dB/Mhz, SOS was 1550.2 +/- 34.1 m/s, and BMD was 0.542 +/- 0.141 g/cm(2). Significant associations were observed between multiple SNPs in a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block within CYP19A1, peaking at the TCT indel with the deletion allele associating with reduced ultrasound BMD in heterozygotes (beta =-0.016, p = -0.005) and homozygotes (beta = -0.029, p = 0.001). The results for BUA and SOS were similar. Significant associations with QUS parameters were also observed for the CAG repeat in AR and SNPs in CYP17A1, LHCGR, and ESR1. Our data confirm evidence of association between bone QUS parameters and polymorphisms in CYP19A1, as well as modest associations with polymorphisms in CYP17A1, ESR1, LHCGR, and AR in a population sample of European men; this supports a role for genetically determined sex hormone actions in influencing male bone health.

  12. Association between Frailty, Osteoporosis, Falls and Hip Fractures among Community-Dwelling People Aged 50 Years and Older in Taiwan: Results from I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Kuo; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hwang, An-Chun; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2015-01-01

    Background Association of frailty with adverse clinical outcomes has been reported in Western countries, but data from the Asian population are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of frailty among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly population and to explore its association with musculoskeletal health in Taiwan. Methods I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study (ILAS) data were retrieved for this study. Frailty was defined by the Fried’s criteria; a comparison of demographic characteristics, physical performance, and body composition, including skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD), as well as recent falls, history of hip fractures and the functional status of subjects with different frailty statuses were accomplished. Results Overall, the data of 1,839 participants (mean age: 63.9±9.3 years, male 47.5%) were obtained for analysis. The prevalence of pre-frailty was 42.3% in men and 38.8% in women, whereas the prevalence of frailty was 6.9% and 6.7% in men and women, respectively. Frailty was significantly associated with older age, the male gender, larger waist circumference, lower skeletal muscle index, lower hip BMD, poorer physical function, poorer nutritional status, and poorer cognitive function. Also, frailty was significantly associated with osteoporosis (OR: 7.73, 95% CI: 5.01–11.90, p<0.001), history of hip fractures (OR: 8.66, 95% CI: 2.47–30.40, p = 0.001), and recent falls (O.R: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.35–4.76, p = 0.004). Conclusions Frailty and pre-frailty, in Taiwan, was closely associated with recent falls, history of hip fractures and osteoporosis among community-dwelling people 50 years of age and older. Furthermore, frailty intervention programs should take an integrated approach towards strengthening both and muscle mass, as well as prevention of falls. PMID:26348034

  13. The relation of airway obstruction to asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis and age: results from a population survey of adults

    PubMed Central

    Obaseki, D; Potts, J; Joos, G; Baelum, J; Haahtela, T; Ahlström, M; Matricardi, P; Kramer, U; Gjomarkaj, M; Fokkens, W; Makowska, J; Todo-Bom, A; Toren, K; Janson, C; Dahlen, S-E; Forsberg, B; Jarvis, D; Howarth, P; Brozek, G; Minov, J; Bachert, C; Burney, P

    2014-01-01

    Rationale There is conflicting evidence on whether patients with asthma experience an accelerated decline in lung function with age. We examined the association between postbronchodilator lung function, asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and atopy with age using a large European sample. Methods In 17 centers in 11 European countries, case–control studies were nested within representative cross-sectional surveys of adults aged less than 75 years. Representative samples of participants with asthma, CRS or both and controls were assessed for postbronchodilator ventilatory function, smoking history, atopy, and treatment. Multiple regression was used to assess the interactive effects of age and diagnostic group on decline in postbronchodilator ventilatory function. Results A total of 3337 participants provided adequate data (778 with asthma, 399 with CRS, 244 with both asthma and CRS and 1916 controls who had neither asthma nor CRS). Participants with asthma had lower FEV1/FVC (−4.09% (95% CI: −5.02, −3.15, P < 0.001) and a steeper slope of FEV1/FVC against age (−0.14%/annum [95%CI: −0.19, −0.08]) equivalent to smoking 1–2 packs of cigarettes per day. Those with atopy had a slope equivalent to controls. Conclusions People with asthma have a steeper decline in postbronchodilator lung function with age, but neither CRS nor atopy alone were associated with such decline. PMID:24841074

  14. Age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, northeastern California—40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, Michael A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Champion, Duane E.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Sawlan, Michael G.; Downs, Drew T.

    2017-03-22

    The age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, California, was investigated using stratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and 40Ar/39Ar techniques. The three youngest volcanic lava flows at Eagle Lake yielded ages of 130.0±5.1, 127.5±3.2 and 123.6±18.7 ka, and are statistically indistinguishable. Paleomagnetic results demonstrate that two of the lava flows are very closely spaced in time, whereas the third is different by centuries to at most a few millennia. These results indicate that the basalt lava flows at Eagle Lake are not Holocene in age, and were erupted during an episode of volcanism at about 130–125 ka that is unlikely to have spanned more than a few thousand years. Thus, the short-term potential for subsequent volcanism at Eagle Lake is considered low. 

  15. Land use mix and five-year mortality in later life: Results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Jones, Andy; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol; MRC CFAS

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the potential modifying effect of age and mediation effect of co-morbidity on the association between land use mix, a measure of neighbourhood walkability, and five-year mortality among the 2424 individuals participating in the year-10 follow-up of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study in England. Postcodes of participants were mapped onto Lower-layer Super Output Areas, a small area level geographical unit in the UK, and linked to Generalised Land Use data. Cox regression models were fitted to investigate the association. For the younger older age group (75–79 years), the effect of high land use mix on an elevated risk of mortality was mediated by co-morbidity. For older old age groups (80–84, 85+ years), a higher land use mix was directly associated with a 10% lower risk of five-year mortality. The findings suggest differential impacts of land use mix on the health of the younger and older old. PMID:26798962

  16. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  17. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  18. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  19. A comparison of zircon U-Pb age results of the Red Clay sequence on the central Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Hujun; Nie, Junsheng; Wang, Zhao; Peng, Wenbin; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yunxiang

    2016-08-01

    Single grain zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated great potentials in extracting tectonic and atmospheric circulation signal carried by aeolian, fluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments. A routine in this sort of studies is analyzing 100–150 grains and then compares zircon U-Pb age spectra between the measured sample and the potential sources. Here we compared the zircon U-Pb age results of the late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence of two neighboring sites from the Chinese Loess Plateau where similar provenance signal is expected. Although the results from the 5.5 Ma sediment support this prediction, the results from the 3 Ma sediment at these two sites differ from each other significantly. These results emphasize the importance of increasing analysis number per sample and combining the zircon U-Pb geochronology with other provenance tools in order to get reliable provenance information.

  20. A comparison of zircon U-Pb age results of the Red Clay sequence on the central Chinese Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hujun; Nie, Junsheng; Wang, Zhao; Peng, Wenbin; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yunxiang

    2016-08-19

    Single grain zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated great potentials in extracting tectonic and atmospheric circulation signal carried by aeolian, fluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments. A routine in this sort of studies is analyzing 100-150 grains and then compares zircon U-Pb age spectra between the measured sample and the potential sources. Here we compared the zircon U-Pb age results of the late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence of two neighboring sites from the Chinese Loess Plateau where similar provenance signal is expected. Although the results from the 5.5 Ma sediment support this prediction, the results from the 3 Ma sediment at these two sites differ from each other significantly. These results emphasize the importance of increasing analysis number per sample and combining the zircon U-Pb geochronology with other provenance tools in order to get reliable provenance information.

  1. A comparison of zircon U-Pb age results of the Red Clay sequence on the central Chinese Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Hujun; Nie, Junsheng; Wang, Zhao; Peng, Wenbin; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Single grain zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated great potentials in extracting tectonic and atmospheric circulation signal carried by aeolian, fluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments. A routine in this sort of studies is analyzing 100–150 grains and then compares zircon U-Pb age spectra between the measured sample and the potential sources. Here we compared the zircon U-Pb age results of the late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence of two neighboring sites from the Chinese Loess Plateau where similar provenance signal is expected. Although the results from the 5.5 Ma sediment support this prediction, the results from the 3 Ma sediment at these two sites differ from each other significantly. These results emphasize the importance of increasing analysis number per sample and combining the zircon U-Pb geochronology with other provenance tools in order to get reliable provenance information. PMID:27538343

  2. Aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests of Class 1E electrical cables: Summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1991-12-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approx_equal} 100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approx_equal}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approx_equal}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, were also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of the tests indicate that the feasibility of life extension of many popular nuclear power plant cable products is promising and that mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) were more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials. This paper presents some recent experimental data that are not yet available elsewhere and a summary of findings from the entire experimental program.

  3. Aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests of Class 1E electrical cables: Summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approx equal} 100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approx equal}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approx equal}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, were also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of the tests indicate that the feasibility of life extension of many popular nuclear power plant cable products is promising and that mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) were more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials. This paper presents some recent experimental data that are not yet available elsewhere and a summary of findings from the entire experimental program.

  4. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  5. Periodic inspection on crop sprayers: results according to age of sprayers.

    PubMed

    Antuniassi, Ulisses R; Gandolfo, Marco A

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the IPP Project--Periodic Inspection on Crop Sprayers--are to develop methods for sprayer certification, analyze quality on spray operation, propose an inspection system for crop sprayers in Brazil, improve environmental quality on spray operation, and reduce costs on chemical control for plant protection systems. Periodic inspections on crop sprayers are performed in several countries and are compulsory in most of them, and it is becoming an important tool for improvement and optimization of use of chemicals. The IPP Project in Brazil is funded by FAPESP--Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo. The results so far showed that all the sprayers presented failures. However, most of them could be approved with minor services. As an example, 56.6% of the sprayers with more than 2 years of use presented leaks, 47% of them had damaged hoses and 80.5% presented bad tips (nozzles). These results indicate the need for better procedures of use and maintenance of sprayers, justifying the periodic inspection system.

  6. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  7. Age differences in the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Birnbaum, Howard; Shahly, Victoria; Bromet, Evelyn; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura Helena; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Browne, Mark Oakley; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Stein, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although depression appears to decrease in late life, this could be due to misattribution of depressive symptoms to physical disorders that increase in late life. Methods We investigated this issue by studying age differences in comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes (MDE) with chronic physical conditions in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of community epidemiological surveys carried out in 10 developed countries (n = 51,771) and 8 developing countries (n = 37,265). MDE and other mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Organic exclusion rules were not used to avoid inappropriate exclusion of cases with physical comorbidity. Physical conditions were assessed with a standard chronic conditions checklist. Results Twelve-month DSM-IV/CIDI MDE was significantly less prevalent among respondents ages 65+ than younger respondents in developed but not developing countries. Prevalence of comorbid mental disorders generally either decreased or remained stable with age, while comorbidity of MDE with mental disorders generally increased with age. Prevalence of physical conditions, in comparison, generally increased with age, while comorbidity of MDE with physical conditions generally decreased with age. Depression treatment was lowest among the elderly in developed and developing countries. Conclusions The weakening associations between MDE and physical conditions with increasing age argue against the suggestion that the low estimated prevalence of MDE among the elderly is due to increased confounding with physical disorders. Future study is needed to investigate processes that might lead to a decreasing impact of physical illness on depression among the elderly. PMID:20037917

  8. Temporal and spatial relations between age specific mortality and ambient air quality in the United States: regression results for counties, 1960–97

    PubMed Central

    Lipfert, F; Morris, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate longitudinal and spatial relations between air pollution and age specific mortality for United States counties (except Alaska) from 1960 to the end of 1997. Methods: Cross sectional regressions for five specific periods using published data on mortality, air quality, demography, climate, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and diet. Outcome measures are statistical relations between air quality and county mortalities by age group for all causes of death, other than AIDS and trauma. Results: A specific regression model was developed for each period and age group, using variables that were significant (p<0.05), not substantially collinear (variance inflation factor <2), and had the expected algebraic sign. Models were initially developed without the air pollution variables, which varied in spatial coverage. Residuals were then regressed in turn against current and previous air quality, and dose-response plots were constructed. The validity of this two stage procedure was shown by comparing a subset of results with those obtained with single stage models that included air quality (correlation=0.88). On the basis of attributable risks computed for overall mean concentrations, the strongest associations were found in the earlier periods, with attributable risks usually less than 5%. Stronger relations were found when mortality and air quality were measured in the same period and when the locations considered were limited to those of previous cohort studies (for PM2.5 and SO42-). Thresholds were suggested at 100–130 µg/m3 for mean total suspended particulate (TSP), 7–10 µg/m3 for mean sulfate, 10–15 ppm for peak (95th percentile) CO, 20–40 ppb for mean SO2. Contrary to expectations, associations were often stronger for the younger age groups (<65 y). Responses to PM, CO, and SO2 declined over time; responses in elderly people to peak O3 increased over time as did responses to NO2 for the younger age groups. These results generally agreed

  9. Self-perceptions of aging predict mortality and change with approaching death: 16-year longitudinal results from the Berlin Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Kotter-Grühn, Dana; Kleinspehn-Ammerlahn, Anna; Gerstorf, Denis; Smith, Jacqui

    2009-09-01

    Satisfaction with one's own aging and feeling young are indicators of positive well-being in late life. Using 16-year longitudinal data from participants of the Berlin Aging Study (P. B. Baltes & K. U. Mayer, 1999; N = 439; 70- to 100-year-olds), the authors examined whether and how these self-perceptions of aging change with age and how such changes relate to distance from death. Extending previous studies, they found that it is not only higher aging satisfaction and younger subjective age but also more favorable change patterns (e.g., less decline in aging satisfaction) that are uniquely associated with lower mortality hazards. These effects are robust after controls for objective measures such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, diagnosis of dementia, or number of illnesses. As individuals approach death, they become less satisfied with their aging and report feeling older. For aging satisfaction, mortality-related decline is much steeper than age-related decline, whereas change in subjective age is best characterized as an age-related process. The authors discuss how self-perceptions of aging are embedded in mechanisms underlying pathways of dying late in life.

  10. Neighborhood Physical Disorder, Social Cohesion and Insomnia: Results from Participants Over Age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P.; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Augustinavicius, Jura L.; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Wennberg, Alexandra M. V.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    Background We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g., vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g., friendliness of people, availability of help when needed); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, feeling unrested). Results After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR)=1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.14), waking too early (OR=1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.02–1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11) and feeling unrested (OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). Conclusions Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population. PMID:25222023

  11. Neighborhood physical disorder, social cohesion, and insomnia: results from participants over age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Augustinavicius, Jura L; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M; Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Smith, Michael T; Spira, Adam P

    2014-09-15

    ABSTRACT Background: We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods: Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g. vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, and cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g. friendliness of people, availability of help when needed, etc.); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, and feeling unrested). Results: After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.14), waking too early (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 years (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and feeling unrested (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15). Conclusions: Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population.

  12. Chronic neck and shoulder pain, age, and working conditions: longitudinal results from a large random sample in France

    PubMed Central

    Cassou, B; Derriennic, F; Monfort, C; Norton, J; Touranchet, A

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To analyse the effects of age and occupational factors on both the incidence and the disappearance of chronic neck and shoulder pain after a five year follow up period. Methods: A prospective longitudinal investigation (ESTEV) was carried out in 1990 and 1995 in seven regions of France. A random sample of male and female workers born in 1938, 1943, 1948, and 1953 was selected from the occupational physicians' files. In 1990, 21 378 subjects were interviewed (88% of those contacted), and 87% were interviewed again in 1995. Chronic neck and shoulder pain satisfying specific criteria, and psychosocial working conditions were investigated by a structured self administered questionnaire and a clinical examination. Results: Prevalence (men 7.8%, women 14.8% in 1990) and incidence (men 7.3%, women 12.5% for the period 1990–95) of chronic neck and shoulder pain increased with age, and were more frequent among women than men in every birth cohort. The disappearance rate of chronic neck and shoulder pain decreased with age. Some adverse working conditions (repetitive work under time constraints, awkward work for men, repetitive work for women) contributed to the development of these disorders, independently of age. Psychosocial factors seemed to play a role in both the development and disappearance of chronic neck and shoulder pain. Data did not show specific interactions between age and working conditions. Conclusions: The aging of the workforce appears to contribute to the widespread concern about chronic neck and shoulder pain. A better understanding of work activity regulation of older workers can open up new preventive prospects. PMID:12151610

  13. Low LDL cholesterol and increased risk of Parkinson's disease: prospective results from Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuemei; Abbott, Robert D; Petrovitch, Helen; Mailman, Richard B; Ross, G Webster

    2008-05-15

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are suggested to be associated inversely with Parkinson's disease (PD). To test the hypothesis that LDL-C levels may increase PD risk, we studied a prospective cohort of 3,233 men (Honolulu-Asia Aging Study) for whom the LDL-C from fasting lipid profiles was obtained during 1991 to 1993. The cohort was followed longitudinally until 2001 for incident Parkinson's cases. During follow-up, 41 men developed PD (18.4/10,000 person-years). Although the incidence of PD increased with decreasing LDL-C in a dose-dependent manner, the association was only significant for men aged 71 to 75 years. In the latter group, risk of PD declined from 38.5/10,000 person-years in men with LDL-C levels <80 mg/dl to less than 9/10,000 person-years for concentrations that were > or =140 mg/dl. After adjustment for age, smoking, coffee intake, and other factors, the relative odds of PD for men at the 80th versus the 20th percentile of LDL-C (135 vs. 85 mg/dl) was 0.4 (95% confidence interval: 0.2, 0.9). This prospective study supports the hypothesis that low LDL-C is associated with an increased risk of PD. Although confirmation is required, the underlying mechanisms may be useful in understanding key aspects of PD.

  14. Impact of a Videoconference Educational Intervention on Physical Restraint and Antipsychotic Use in Nursing Homes: Results From the ECHO-AGE Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Stephen E.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Monti, Sara M.; Mattison, Melissa L.P.; Catic, Angela G.; Thomas, Cindy P.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives US nursing homes care for increasing numbers of residents with dementia and associated behavioral problems. They often lack access to specialized clinical expertise relevant to managing these problems. Project ECHO-AGE provides this expertise through videoconference sessions between frontline nursing home staff and clinical experts at an academic medical center. We hypothesized that ECHO-AGE would result in less use of physical and chemical restraints and other quality improvements in participating facilities. Design A 2:1 matched-cohort study comparing quality of care outcomes between ECHO-AGE facilities and matched controls for the period July 2012 to December 2013. Setting Eleven nursing homes in Massachusetts and Maine. Participants Nursing home staff and a hospital-based team of geriatrician, geropsychiatrist, and neurologist discussed anonymized residents with dementia. Intervention Biweekly online video case discussions and brief didactic sessions focused on the management of dementia and behavior disorders. Measurements The primary outcome variables were percentage of residents receiving antipsychotic medications and the percentage of residents who were physically restrained. Secondary outcomes included 9 other quality of care metrics from MDS 3.0. Results Residents in ECHO-AGE facilities were 75% less likely to be physically restrained compared with residents in control facilities over the 18-month intervention period (OR = 0.25, P = .05). Residents in ECHO-AGE facilities were 17% less likely to be prescribed antipsychotic medication compared with residents in control facilities (OR = 0.83, P = .07). Other outcomes were not significantly different. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that participation in Project ECHO-AGE reduces rates of physical restraint use and may reduce rates of antipsychotic use among long-term nursing home residents. PMID:27161317

  15. Chemistry Curricula. Course Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Listings of suggested topics aimed at helping university and college faculties plan courses in the main areas of the chemistry curricula are provided. The suggestions were originally offered as appendices to the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Committee on Professional Training's 1983 guidelines for ACS-approved schools. The course data included…

  16. EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS FROM ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR ON ROTATOR CUFF INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS UNDER 50 YEARS OF AGE

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Santos, Ruy Mesquita Maranhão; de Souza, Adriano; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries among patients under 50 years of age. Methods: Sixty-three patients with rotator cuff injuries who underwent arthroscopic surgical treatment performed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in the Fernandinho Simonsen wing of Santa Casa Medical School, São Paulo, between August 1998 and December 2007, were reassessed. The study included all patients with rotator cuff injuries who were under 50 years of age and had been followed up postoperatively for at least 24 months. Results: According to the UCLA evaluation criteria, 59 patients (92%) showed excellent and good results; five (8%) showed fair results; and none showed poor results. The postoperative evaluation showed that the mean range of motion was 145° for elevation, 47° for lateral rotation and T10 for medial rotation. Unsatisfactory results were associated with prolonged duration of the injury, with a statistically significant relationship. Conclusion: Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff injuries in young patients produces excellent or good results for most patients. PMID:27047819

  17. Donor Age and Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss 5 Years after Successful Corneal Transplantation: Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study Results

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether endothelial cell loss 5 years after successful corneal transplantation is related to the age of the donor. Design Multicenter, prospective, double-masked clinical trial. Participants Three hundred forty-seven subjects participating in the Cornea Donor Study who had not experienced graft failure 5 years after corneal transplantation for a moderate-risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema). Testing Specular microscopic images of donor corneas obtained before surgery and postoperatively at 6 months, 12 months, and then annually through 5 years were submitted to a central reading center to measure endothelial cell density (ECD). Main Outcome Measure Endothelial cell density at 5 years. Results At 5 years, there was a substantial decrease in ECD from baseline for all donor ages. Subjects who received a cornea from a donor 12 to 65 years old experienced a median cell loss of 69% in the study eye, resulting in a 5-year median ECD of 824 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 613–1342), whereas subjects who received a cornea from a donor 66 to 75 years old experienced a cell loss of 75%, resulting in a median 5-year ECD of 654 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 538–986) (P [adjusted for baseline ECD] = 0.04). Statistically, there was a weak negative association between ECD and donor age analyzed as a continuous variable (r [adjusted for baseline ECD] = −0.19; 95% confidence interval, −0.29 to −0.08). Conclusions Endothelial cell loss is substantial in the 5 years after corneal transplantation. There is a slight association between cell loss and donor age. This finding emphasizes the importance of longer-term follow-up of this cohort to determine if this relationship affects graft survival. PMID:18387408

  18. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  19. Thermal Aging Study of a Dow Corning SE 1700 Porous Structure Made by Direct Ink Writing: 1-Year Results and Long-Term Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Ward; Pearson, Mark A.; Maiti, Amitesh; Metz, Thomas R.; Duoss, Eric B.; Wilson, Thomas S.

    2015-11-13

    Dow Corning SE 1700 (reinforced polydimethylsiloxane) porous structures were made by direct ink writing (DIW). The specimens (~50% porosity) were subjected to various compressive strains (15, 30, 45%) and temperatures (room temperature, 35, 50, 70°C) in a nitrogen atmosphere (active purge) for 1 year. Compression set and load retention of the aged specimens were measured periodically during the study. Compression set increased with strain and temperature. After 1 year, specimens aged at room temperature, 35, and 50°C showed ~10% compression set (relative to the applied compressive deflection), while those aged at 70°C showed 20-40%. Due to the increasing compression set, load retention decreased with temperature, ranging from ~90% at room temperature to ~60-80% at 70°C. Long-term compression set and load retention at room temperature were predicted by applying time-temperature superposition (TTS). The predictions show compression set relative to the compressive deflection will be ~10-15% with ~70-90% load retention after 50 years at 15-45% strain, suggesting the material will continue to be mechanically functional. Comparison of the results to previously acquired data for cellular (M97*, M9760, M9763) and RTV (S5370) silicone foams suggests that the SE 1700 DIW porous specimens are on par with, or outperform, the legacy foams.

  20. The impact of experienced stress on aged spatial discrimination: Cortical overreliance as a result of hippocampal impairment.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Amanda C; Cooper, Nicholas R; Geeraert, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    A large body of neuroscientific work indicates that exposure to experienced stress causes damage to both cortical and hippocampal cells and results in impairments to cognitive abilities associated with these structures. Similarly, work within the domain of cognitive aging demonstrates that elderly participants who report experiencing greater amounts of stress show reduced levels of cognitive functioning. The present article attempted to combine both findings by collecting data from elderly and young participants who completed a spatial discrimination paradigm developed by Reagh and colleagues [Reagh et al. (2013) Hippocampus 24:303-314] to measure hippocampal-mediated cognitive processes. In order to investigate the effect of stress on the cortex and, indirectly, the hippocampus, it paired the paradigm with electroencephalographic recordings of the theta frequency band, which is thought to reflect cortical/hippocampal interactions. Findings revealed that elderly participants with high levels of experienced stress performed significantly worse on target recognition and lure discrimination and demonstrated heightened levels of cortical theta synchronization compared with young and elderly low stress counterparts. Results therefore provided further evidence for the adverse effect of stress on cognitive aging and indicate that impaired behavioral performance among high stress elderly may coincide with an overreliance on cortical cognitive processing strategies as a result of early damage to the hippocampus.

  1. Behavioral deficits during early stages of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans result from locomotory deficits possibly linked to muscle frailty.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Charles F; Chow, David K; David, Lawrence; Cooke, Carol A; Gami, Minaxi S; Iser, Wendy B; Hanselman, Keaton B; Goldberg, Ilya G; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2004-12-01

    Many behavioral responses require the coordination of sensory inputs with motor outputs. Aging is associated with progressive declines in both motor function and muscle structure. However, the consequences of age-related motor deficits on behavior have not been clearly defined. Here, we examined the effects of aging on behavior in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. As animals aged, mild locomotory deficits appeared that were sufficient to impair behavioral responses to sensory cues. In contrast, sensory ability appeared well maintained during aging. Age-related behavioral declines were delayed in animals with mutations in the daf-2/insulin-like pathway governing longevity. A decline in muscle tissue integrity was correlated with the onset of age-related behavioral deficits, although significant muscle deterioration was not. Treatment with a muscarinic agonist significantly improved locomotory behavior in aged animals, indicating that improved neuromuscular signaling may be one strategy for reducing the severity of age-related behavioral impairments.

  2. Clustered granules present in the hippocampus of aged mice result from a degenerative process affecting astrocytes and their surrounding neuropil.

    PubMed

    Manich, Gemma; Cabezón, Itsaso; Camins, Antoni; Pallàs, Mercè; Liberski, Pawel P; Vilaplana, Jordi; Pelegrí, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of pathological granular structures appear and progressively increase in number with age in the hippocampus of several mice strains, markedly in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 mice. In the present work, we performed an ultrastructural study of these granules paying special attention to the first stages of their formation, which have not been previously explored. The analysis of the immature granules allowed concluding that granules are not simple accumulations of molecular waste but the result of a degenerative process involving principally astrocytic processes, although nearby neuronal structures can be also affected. The granule generation includes the instability of the plasmatic membranes and the appearance of abnormal membranous structures that form intracellular bubbles or blebs of variable sizes and irregular shapes. These structures and some organelles degenerate producing some membranous fragments, and an assembly process of the resulting fragments generates the dense-core nucleus of the mature granule. Moreover, we found out that the neo-epitope recently described in the mature granules and localised abundantly in the membranous fragments of their dense-core nucleus emerges in the first stages of the granule formation. On the other hand, with this study, we increase the evidences that each cluster of granules is formed by the granules comprised in one astrocyte. A better knowledge of the causes of the granule formation and the function of the neo-epitope will help in both the interpretation of the physiological significance of the granules and their contribution to the degenerating processes in aging brain.

  3. Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific: Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; van der Plicht, Johannes; Uchida, Masao; Tanaka, Atsushi; Uehiro, Takashi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi; Ohno, Terufumi

    2000-10-01

    The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as archaeological interpretation around this region. The lack of adequate collection of the pre-bomb shell from western north Pacific was the biggest problem. Recently we had a chance to examine specimens from an old shell collection stored in Kyoto University, including shell specimens from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Micronesia of 1920s and 1930s. We explored the possibility for usage of specimen without clear evidence of live collection by measuring 30 apparent radiocarbon ages of pre-bomb mollusk shells from 18 sites in Western North Pacific. The preliminary results showed several discrepancies with previously reported results and with each other. We have to carefully select the shell specimen that has biological signs such as articulating fulcrum. In order to exploit this big resource of pre-bomb shell collection, the new technique to distinguish fossils from live collected samples should be developed by using chemical and physical methods.

  4. Hunting for the LCT-13910*T Allele between the Middle Neolithic and the Middle Ages Suggests Its Absence in Dairying LBK People Entering the Kuyavia Region in the 8th Millennium BP

    PubMed Central

    Witas, Henryk W.; Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Witas, Piotr J.; Masłowska, Alicja; Jerszyńska, Blandyna; Kozłowski, Tomasz; Osipowicz, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Populations from two medieval sites in Central Poland, Stary Brześć Kujawski-4 (SBK-4) and Gruczno, represented high level of lactase persistence (LP) as followed by the LCT-13910*T allele’s presence (0.86 and 0.82, respectively). It was twice as high as in contemporaneous Cedynia (0.4) and Śródka (0.43), both located outside the region, higher than in modern inhabitants of Poland (0.51) and almost as high as in modern Swedish population (0.9). In an attempt to explain the observed differences its frequency changes in time were followed between the Middle Neolithic and the Late Middle Ages in successive dairying populations on a relatively small area (radius ∼60km) containing the two sites. The introduction of the T allele to Kuyavia 7.4 Ka BP by dairying LBK people is not likely, as suggested by the obtained data. It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP. The identified frequency profile indicates that both the introduction and the beginning of selection could have taken place approx. 4 millennia after first LBK people arrived in the region, shifting the value of LP frequency from 0 to more than 0.8 during less than 130 generations. We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals. Facing the lack of the T allele in people living on two great European Neolithization routes, the Danubian and Mediterranean ones, and based on its high frequency in northern Iberia, its presence in Scandinavia and estimated occurrence in Central Poland, we propose an alternative Northern Route of its spreading as very likely. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR. PMID:25853887

  5. Murine Ccl2/Cx3cr1 Deficiency Results in Retinal Lesions Mimicking Human Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Jingsheng; Bojanowski, Christine M.; Zhou, Min; Shen, Defen; Ross, Robert J.; Rosenberg, Kevin I.; Cameron, D. Joshua; Yin, Chunyue; Kowalak, Jeffrey A.; Zhuang, Zhengping; Zhang, Kang; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Senescent Ccl2-/- mice are reported to develop cardinal features of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Loss-of-function single-nucleotide polymorphisms within CX3CR1 are also found to be associated with AMD. The authors generated Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mice to establish a more characteristic and reproducible AMD model. Methods Single Ccl2- and Cx3cr1-deficient mice were crossbred to obtain Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mice. Funduscopy, histopathology, retinal A2E quantification, proteomics, RT-PCR gene expression assay, immunochemistry, and Western blotting were used to examine the retina and to evaluate gene expression within the retinal tissue. Results By 6 weeks of age, all Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mice developed AMD-like retinal lesions, including drusen, retinal pigment epithelium alteration, and photoreceptor degeneration. Furthermore, choroidal neovascularization occurred in 15% of the mice. These degenerative lesions progressed with age. A2E, a major lipofuscin fluorophore that accumulated during AMD progression, was significantly higher in the Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- retina than in the wild-type retina. Complement cofactor was higher in the Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- RPE. Proteomics data indicated that four proteins were differentially expressed in Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- retina compared with control. One of these proteins, ERp29, an endoplasmic reticulum protein, functions as an escort chaperone and in protein folding. Conclusions The authors concluded that Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mice develop a broad spectrum of AMD abnormalities with early onset and high penetrance. These observations implicate certain chemokines and endoplasmic reticulum proteins in AMD pathogenesis. Similar to the mechanism of neurodegeneration caused by dysfunction of endoplasmic reticulum proteins, decreased chaperoning may cause misfolded protein accumulation, leading to drusen formation and retinal degeneration. PMID:17652758

  6. Intensive Weight Loss Intervention in Individuals Ages 65 Years or Older: Results from the Look AHEAD Type 2 Diabetes Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Rejeski, W. Jack; West, Delia S.; Bray, George A.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Peters, Anne L.; Chen, Haiying; Johnson, Karen C.; Horton, Edward S.; Hazuda, Helen P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the relative effects of four years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among older versus younger individuals DESIGN A randomized controlled clinical trial SETTING 16 US clinical sites PARTICIPANTS Individuals with type 2 diabetes: 1,053 aged 65–76 years and 4,092 aged 45–64 years INTERVENTIONS An intensive behavioral intervention designed to promote and maintain weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to a condition of diabetes support and education. MEASUREMENTS Standardized assessments of weight, fitness (based on graded exercise testing), and cardiovascular disease risk factors RESULTS Across four years, older individuals had greater intervention-related mean weight losses than younger participants, 6.2% versus 5.1% (interaction p=0.006) and comparable relative mean increases in fitness, 0.56 versus 0.53 metabolic equivalents (interaction p=0.72). These benefits were seen consistently across subgroups of older adults formed by many demographic and health factors. Among a panel of age-related health conditions, only self-reported worsening vision was associated with poorer intervention-related weight loss in older individuals. The intensive lifestyle intervention produced mean increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.03 mg/dl; p<0.001) and decreases in glycated hemoglobin (0.21%; p<0.001) and waist girth (3.52 cc; p<0.001) across 4 years that were at least as large in older compared to younger individuals. CONCLUSION Intensive lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss and increased physical activity is effective in overweight and obese older individuals to produce sustained weight loss and improvements in fitness and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23668423

  7. Enhancing Primary School Children's Knowledge of Online Safety and Risks with the CATZ Cooperative Cross-Age Teaching Intervention: Results from a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Michael J; Boulton, Louise; Camerone, Eleonora; Down, James; Hughes, Joanna; Kirkbride, Chloe; Kirkham, Rachel; Macaulay, Peter; Sanders, Jessica

    2016-10-01

    Children are heavy users of the Internet and prior studies have shown that many of them lack a good understanding of the risks of doing so and how to avoid them. This study examined if the cross-age teaching zone (CATZ) intervention could help children acquire important knowledge of online risks and safety. It allowed older students to act as CATZ tutors to design and deliver a lesson to younger schoolmates (tutees), using content material about online risks and safety provided by adults. Students in Year 6 (mean age = 11.5 years) were randomly assigned to act as either CATZ tutors (n = 100) or age-matched controls (n = 46) and students in Year 4 (mean age = 9.5 years) acted as either CATZ tutees (n = 117) or age-matched controls (n = 28) (total N = 291). CATZ tutors, but not matched controls scored significantly higher on objective measures of knowledge of both online risks and safety, and CATZ tutees, but not matched controls did so for online safety. Effect sizes were moderate or large. CATZ was highly acceptable to participants. The results suggest that CATZ is a viable way to help school students learn about online dangers and how to avoid them.

  8. Suggestion can help.

    PubMed

    Benson, P E

    2000-10-01

    One cannot practise dentistry without realising that for the patient, the control of pain and fear is extremely important. Modern technical advances have made painless dentistry a reality and yet research has shown that more people avoid dental treatment through fear of pain than all other factors combined. Dental surgeons and psychologists agree that patients frequently magnify their unpleasant dental experiences. There are deep-seated psychological reasons for this exaggerated fear; the mouth being a highly charged erotogenic region, is a primary zone of interaction with the environment and can have important far-reaching emotional significance. To many people the anticipation of dental treatment is sufficient to arouse extreme anxiety. Dental schools lay great emphasis on basic medical sciences and the technical excellence of students, the psychosomatic approach to the alleviation of apprehension, fear and pain is meanwhile often sadly neglected. The use of controlled suggestion and hypnosis can be shown to play a very important role in clinical dentistry.

  9. Pulmonary Disease and Age at Immigration among Hispanics. Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Davis, Sonia M.; Aldrich, Tom K.; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Henderson, Ashley G.; Kaplan, Robert C.; LaVange, Lisa; Liu, Kiang; Loredo, Jose S.; Mendes, Eliana S.; Ni, Ai; Ries, Andrew; Salathe, Matthias; Smith, Lewis J.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma has been reported to be more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanics and among Hispanics born in the United States or who immigrated as children than among those who came as adults; however, direct comparisons across Hispanic groups are lacking. Objectives: To test whether asthma is more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanic groups, whether asthma is associated with age of immigration, and whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease varies by heritage in a large, population-based cohort of Hispanics in the United States. Methods: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos researchers recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos, 18–74 years of age, in New York City, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-reported Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Central American, or South American heritage; birthplace; and, if relevant, age at immigration. A respiratory questionnaire and standardized spirometry were performed with post-bronchodilator measures for those with airflow limitation. Measurements and Main Results: The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among Puerto Ricans (36.5%; 95% confidence interval, 33.6–39.5%) was higher than among other Hispanics (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.3–4.6). Hispanics who were born in the mainland United States or had immigrated as children had a higher asthma prevalence than those who had immigrated as adults (19.6, 19.4, and 14.1%, respectively; P < 0.001). Current asthma, bronchodilator responsiveness, and wheeze followed similar patterns. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence was higher among Puerto Ricans (14.1%) and Cubans (9.8%) than among other Hispanics (<6.0%), but it did not vary across Hispanic heritages after adjustment for smoking and prior asthma (P = 0.22), by country of birth, or by age at immigration. Conclusions: Asthma

  10. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Sara; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Spissu, Nicoletta; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Fiore, Filippo; Cocco, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels in dogs' plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p < 0.005) and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p < 0.005) after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs. PMID:26464952

  11. [Age, marital status, fecundity and mortality of the population of Colombia: demographic results of the National Household Survey, June 1978].

    PubMed

    1980-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the National Household Survey conducted in Colombia in June 1978, which covered about 0.2% of the total population, and which interviewed 60,000 people in rural and in urban areas. Main findings were: 1) a decrease in the percentage of the population aged 0-4, and 5-9, as compared to the population aged 10-14; 2) a decrease in the number of live births, especially in young women; and, 3) average parity per woman was 3.7, a decrease of 12% since 1976. Crude birth rate was measured to be 27.4/1000, while it was 31.1/1000 in 1976. Life expectancy was estimated to be 65.1 for women, and 55.1 for men, much too low to be acceptable, and possibly caused by wrong information given to interviewers. Total mortality was 6.7/1000, too low to be acceptable, while infant mortality was 69/1000.

  12. Mid-to long-term results of revision total hip replacement in patients aged 50 years or younger.

    PubMed

    Lee, P T H; Lakstein, D L; Lozano, B; Safir, O; Backstein, J; Gross, A E

    2014-08-01

    Revision total hip replacement (THR) for young patients is challenging because of technical complexity and the potential need for subsequent further revisions. We have assessed the survivorship, functional outcome and complications of this procedure in patients aged < 50 years through a large longitudinal series with consistent treatment algorithms. Of 132 consecutive patients (181 hips) who underwent revision THR, 102 patients (151 hips) with a mean age of 43 years (22 to 50) were reviewed at a mean follow-up of 11 years (2 to 26) post-operatively. We attempted to restore bone stock with allograft where indicated. Using further revision for any reason as an end point, the survival of the acetabular component was 71% (sd 4) and 54% (sd 7) at ten- and 20 years. The survival of the femoral component was 80% (sd 4) and 62% (sd 6) at ten- and 20 years. Complications included 11 dislocations (6.1%), ten periprosthetic fractures (5.5%), two deep infections (1.1%), four sciatic nerve palsies (2.2%; three resolved without intervention, one improved after exploration and freeing from adhesions) and one vascular injury (0.6%). The mean modified Harris Hip Score was 41 (10 to 82) pre-operatively, 77 (39 to 93) one year post-operatively and 77 (38 to 93) at the latest review. This overall perspective on the mid- to long-term results is valuable when advising young patients on the prospects of revision surgery at the time of primary replacement.

  13. Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche (<11 years). Methods Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data were collected in 2006 by anonymous self-reported standardized questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of 1072 15 years old girls in school classrooms. Family environment, school experience, physical and psychological factors, risk behaviours (substance use and sexual initiation) were recorded. Logistic regression models were applied (analysing for crude and adjusted relationships between early menarche and risk behaviours controlled for family context). Results Median age at menarche was 13.0 years; 57 girls (5.3%) were early-matured. Controlled for familial environment, early menarche was associated with having had more than two life-drunkenness episodes (adjusted OR = 2.5 [1.3-4.6]), early sexual initiation (adjusted OR = 2.8 [1.3-6.0]) and overweight (adjusted OR = 7.3 [3.6-14.9]). Conclusion Early-maturing girls may affiliate with older adolescents, hence engage in risk behaviours linked to their appearance rather than their maturity level. Factors associated with early menarche highlight the need to focus attention on early-matured girls to prevent further health problems linked to risk behaviours. PMID:20353570

  14. Features of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the General Adults and Their Dependency on Age, Sex, and Smoking: Results from the German KORA Study

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, Caroline; Breinlich, Valentin; Stark, Klaus J.; Enzinger, Sabrina; Aßenmacher, Matthias; Olden, Matthias; Grassmann, Felix; Graw, Jochen; Heier, Margit; Peters, Annette; Helbig, Horst; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Heid, Iris M.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a vision impairing disease of the central retina characterized by early and late forms in individuals older than 50 years of age. However, there is little knowledge to what extent also younger adults are affected. We have thus set out to estimate the prevalence of early AMD features and late AMD in a general adult population by acquiring color fundus images in 2,840 individuals aged 25 to 74 years of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg project (KORA) in South Germany. Among the 2,546 participants with gradable images for each eye, 10.9% (n = 277) had early AMD features (applying the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study Severity Scale), 0.2% (n = 6) had late AMD. Prevalence increased with age, reaching 26.3% for early AMD features and 1.9% for late AMD at the age 70+. However, signs of early AMD were found in subjects as young as 25 years, with the risk for early AMD features increasing linearly by years of age in men, and, less consistent with a linear increase, in women. Risk for early AMD features increased linearly by pack years of smoking in men, not in women, nor was there any association with other lifestyle or metabolic factors. By providing much sought-after prevalence estimates for AMD from Central Europe, our data underscores a substantial proportion of the adult population with signs of early AMD, including individuals younger than 50 years. This supports the notion that early AMD features in the young might be under-acknowledged. PMID:27893849

  15. [Experiences and results in hypertension screening in women between 20 and 65 years of age in Karl-Marx-City].

    PubMed

    Voigt, G; Börker, G; Edelmann, S; Hartung, A; Hartung, G; Heyne, S; Töpfer, V

    1980-11-15

    From 1975 to 1979 in the district of the City of Karl-Marx-Stadt 91,130 females at the age between 20 and 65 years were summoned to a gynaecologico-cardiological mass examination which was supported by computer. 56,460 females underwent the examination. According to the WHO-criteria two measurements of blood pressure were carried out, when increased blood pressure was present a third one and a fourth one by an examination group. A diagnostic standard programme was used. In the second measurement of blood pressure we established 19.8% of patients with hypertension and 28.6% patients with borderline values. 52.8% of the hypertensions were known. Of 10,685 females with known or established hypertension 10.1% underwent an optimum therapy. On the basis of these results a programme for the fight against hypertension was developed for the county Karl-Marx-Stadt.

  16. Durability of a novel durable bait for control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): results of five-year field aging studies.

    PubMed

    Eger, J E; Hamm, R L; Demark, J J; Chin-Heady, E; Tolley, M P; Benson, E P; Zungoli, P A; Smith, M S; Spomer, N A

    2014-06-01

    A durable termite bait containing 0.5% noviflumuron was evaluated for physical durability, retention of active ingredient, consumption by termites, and toxicity to termites over 5 yr in field studies at locations in Indiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Plots in Indiana and Mississippi included both natural rainfall and irrigated plots, while plots in South Carolina received only natural rainfall. Samples collected every 3 mo for the first 4 yr were evaluated for consumption with a 7 d no-choice bioassay using Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). Consumption and toxicity of 5 yr samples were evaluated in similar bioassays conducted for 42 d. Durable baits received from field sites had some cracking, and a small amount of external flaking, but no major deterioration based on visual observation. There were no significant differences in noviflumuron concentration over the 5-yr period and no trend toward reduced concentrations of noviflumuron over time. Consumption of aged durable baits over 4 yr was variable, but termites usually consumed more aged durable bait than fresh durable bait and the differences were frequently significant. There were some exceptions, but termites consumed significantly more fresh durable bait than aged durable bait in only 4% of observations. When 5 yr samples were evaluated, consumption was lowest for fresh durable bait and termites consumed significantly more aged durable bait from irrigated plots in Indiana and from both natural and irrigated plots in Mississippi than fresh durable bait. Survival of termites fed blank durable bait was significantly higher than that for termites fed any of the baits containing noviflumuron and there were no significant differences in survival among the noviflumuron durable baits. Our results suggest that the bait would be durable for at least 5 yr and possibly longer under most environmental conditions.

  17. Evaluation of Little Ice Age cooling in Western Central Andes, suggested by paleoELAs, in contrast with global warming since late 19th century deduced from instrumental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, Jose; Palacios, David; Campos, Néstor; Giraldez, Claudia; García, Eduardo; Quiros, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate climate cooling (°C) during the glacial expansion phases using the product GTV•ΔELA, where GTV is the vertical air temperature gradient (°C/m) and ΔELA (m) the difference in level observed between the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reconstructions for current and past glaciers. With this aim the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio-(AABR) method was used to produce reconstructions of present ELAs (2002-2010) and paleoELAs corresponding to the last glacier advance phase. The reconstructions were produced in three study areas located along a N-S transect of the western cordillera in the Central Andes: the south-western sector of the Nevado Hualcán (9°S, 77°W; Giráldez 2011); the southern slope of the Cordillera Pariaqaqa (12°S, 76°W; Quirós, 2013) and the NW, NE, SE and SW quadrants of the Nevado Coropuna (16°S, 72°W; García 2013; Úbeda 2011; Campos, 2012). The three mountains exceed 6000 m altitude, their summit areas are covered by glaciers, and on their slopes there are existing well-conserved moraines deposited by the last advances near the present front of the ice masses. Although there are no absolute dates to confirm this hypothesis, it has been assumed that the last glacial advances occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), which the oxygen isotopes of the Nevado Huascarán (9°S, 77°W) date to the period 1500-1890. For the Hualcán and Pariaqaqa the mean global value of the Earth's GTV (6.5°C/km) was used, considered valid for the Tropics. On the Coropuna a GTV=8.4°C/km was used, based on high resolution sensors installed in situ since 2007 (Úbeda 2011). This gradient is approaching the upper limit of the dry adiabatic gradient (9.8°C/km), as the Coropuna region is more arid than the other case study areas. The climate cooling estimates deduced from the product GTV•ΔELA were compared with the global warming shown by the 1880-2012 series, ΔT=0.85°C, and 1850/1900-2003/2012, ΔT=0.78°C. The differences are

  18. [Long-Term Care Preferences Among Individuals of Advanced Age in Germany: Results of a Population-Based Study].

    PubMed

    Hajek, André; Lehnert, Thomas; Wegener, Annemarie; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-03-07

    The need for long-term care is expected to increase markedly in the next decades as a result of demographic ageing. Consequently, it is important to know the long-term care preferences. This study investigated the long-term care preferences among older individuals in Germany. Based on a systematic review and expert interviews, a questionnaire was designed to assess long-term care preferences. Data were gathered from a representative telephone survey of the German population (n=1,006; 65 years and above) in 2015. The mean age was 75.2 years (±6.6 years, ranging from 65 to 96 years). While nearly 90% of the individuals preferred home care, other care settings such as nursing care abroad were mostly undesired. In case of home care, most of the individuals preferred care provided by friends/family or formal caregivers, whereas the idea of all-day care services (such as employed private caregivers) was less popular. With respect to home care, additional services such as household assistance, transportation services, and emergency call systems were highly valued by the study participants, whereas continual supervision throughout the day was seen as less important. In case of inpatient care, more than 90% of the individuals preferred a private room, with the inpatient facility located near home or close to relatives' homes. A wide range of activities was appreciated. Given these preferences, it is assumed that there is a gap between expectations (preferences) and reality (utilization) regarding long-term care in Germany. Interventions aimed at minimizing this gap are urgently needed. For example, strategies to raise the awareness of private long-term care provision might be fruitful.

  19. Atmospheric Aging and Its Impacts on Physical Properties of Soot Aerosols: Results from the 2009 SHARP/SOOT Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Khalizov, A. F.; Zheng, J.; Reed, C. C.; Collins, D. R.; Olaguer, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols impact the Earth energy balance directly by scattering solar radiation back to space and indirectly by changing the albedo, frequency, and lifetime of clouds. Carbon soot (or black carbon) produced from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning represents a major component of primary aerosols. Because of high absorption cross-sections over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectra, black carbon contributes significantly to climate change by direct radiative forcing and is the second most important component causing global warming after carbon dioxide. In areas identified as aerosol hotspots, which include many megacities, solar heating by soot-containing aerosols is roughly comparable to heating due to greenhouse gases. In addition, light absorbing soot aerosols may reduce photolysis rates at the surface level, producing a noticeable impact on photochemistry. Enhanced light absorption and scattering by soot can stabilize the atmosphere, retarding vertical transport and exacerbating accumulation of gaseous and particulate matter (PM) pollutants within the planetary boundary layer. Less surface heating and atmospheric stabilization may decrease formation of clouds, and warming in the atmosphere can evaporate existing cloud droplets by lowering relative humidity. Furthermore, soot-containing aerosols represent a major type of PM that has adverse effects on human health. When first emitted, soot particles are low-density aggregates of loosely connected primary spherules. Freshly emitted soot particles are typically hydrophobic, but may become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) during atmospheric aging by acquiring hydrophilic coatings. Hygroscopic soot particles, being efficient CCN, can exert indirect forcing on climate. In this talk, results will be presented on measurements of soot properties during the 2009 SHARP/SOOT Campaign. Ambient aerosols and fresh soot particles injected into a captured air chamber were monitored to

  20. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  1. Vitamin D, PTH and the risk of overall and disease-specific mortality: Results of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    El Hilali, Jamila; de Koning, Elisa J; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Lips, Paul; Sohl, Evelien; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Visser, Marjolein; van Schoor, Natasja M

    2016-11-01

    Observational studies suggest that low concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and high concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with a higher risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether 25(OH)D and PTH concentrations are independently associated with overall and disease-specific (cardiovascular and cancer-related) mortality in a large, prospective population-based cohort of older adults. Data from 1317 men and women (65-85 years) of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to examine whether 25(OH)D and PTH at baseline were associated with overall mortality (with a follow-up of 18 years) and disease-specific mortality (with a follow-up of 13 years). Compared to persons in the reference category of ≥75nmol/L, persons with serum 25(OH)D <25nmol/L (HR 1.46; 95% CI: 1.12-1.91) and 25-49.9nmol/L (HR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.01-1.53) had a significantly higher risk of overall mortality, as well as men with baseline PTH concentrations ≥7pmol/L (HR 2.54 (95% CI: 1.58-4.08)), compared to the reference category of <2.33pmol/L. The relationship of 25(OH)D with overall mortality was partly mediated by PTH. Furthermore, men with PTH concentrations of ≥7pmol/L (HR 3.22; 95% CI: 1.40-7.42) had a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality, compared to the reference category. No significant associations of 25(OH)D or PTH with cancer-related mortality were observed. Both 25(OH)D and PTH should be considered as important health markers.

  2. Quantitative assessment of age-related macular degeneration using parametric modeling of the leakage transfer function: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Eldeeb, Safaa M; Abdelmoula, Walid M; Shah, Syed M; Fahmy, Ahmed S

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in older adults. The wet form of the disease is characterized by abnormal blood vessels forming a choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV), that result in destruction of normal architecture of the retina. Current evaluation and follow up of wet AMD include subjective evaluation of Fluorescein Angiograms (FA) to determine the activity of the lesion and monitor the progression or regression of the disease. However, this subjective evaluation prevents accurate monitoring of the disease progression or regression in response to a pharmacologic agent. In this work, we present a method that allows objective assessment of the activity of a CNV lesion which can be statistically compared across different patient and time points. The method is based on a hypothesis that the discrepancy in the time-intensity signals among the diseased and normal retinal areas are due to an implicit transfer function whose parameters can be used to characterize the retina. The method begins with parametric modeling of the temporal variation of the lesion and background intensities. Then, the values of the model parameters are used to evaluate the change in the activity of the disease. Preliminary results on five datasets show that the calculated parameters are highly correlated with the Visual Acuity (VA) of the patients.

  3. Prevalence of thrombophilia according to age at the first manifestation of venous thromboembolism: results from the MAISTHRO registry.

    PubMed

    Weingarz, Lea; Schwonberg, Jan; Schindewolf, Marc; Hecking, Carola; Wolf, Zsuzsanna; Erbe, Matthias; Weber, Adele; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard; Linnemann, Birgit

    2013-12-01

    Thrombophilia is a well-established risk factor for a venous thromboembolic event (VTE), and it has been proposed that hereditary thrombophilia may substantially contribute to the development of VTE in young patients. We aimed to analyse the prevalence of thrombophilia with special regard to the age of VTE manifestation. The study cohort consisted of 1490 patients (58% females) with a median age 43 years at the time of their first VTE. At least one thrombophilic disorder was identified in 50·1% of patients. The probability of detecting a hereditary thrombophilia declined significantly with advancing age (from 49·3% in patients aged 20 years and younger to 21·9% in patients over the age of 70 years; P < 0·001). This may be primarily attributed to the decreasing frequencies of the F5 R506Q (factor V Leiden) mutation and deficiencies of protein C or protein S with older age at the time of the initial VTE event. Moreover, thrombophilia was more prevalent in unprovoked compared with risk-associated VTE (57·7% vs. 47·7%; P = 0·001). The decline in the prevalence of hereditary thrombophilia with older ages supports the use of a selected thrombophilia screening strategy dependent on age and the presence or absence of additional VTE risk factors.

  4. Early Parental and Child Predictors of Recurrent Abdominal Pain at School Age: Results of a Large Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; Hotopf, Matthew; Wiles, Nicola J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether parental psychological and physical factors and child factors measured in the first year of life were associated with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children at age 6 3/4 years. Method: A longitudinal cohort study (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), followed 8,272 children from pregnancy to age 6…

  5. National Survey To Validate General Growth Outcomes for Children between Birth and Age Eight: Initial Results. Technical Report #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Scott; McEvoy, Mary; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Kaminski, Ruth; Good, Roland H., III; Shinn, Mark

    This monograph reports on a national mail survey to validate a set of general growth outcomes for children, including those with disabilities, between birth and age 8. The survey was part of a 5-year project to create a comprehensive measurement system to track the developmental progress of individual children with disabilities in this age range…

  6. A porosity gradient in 67P/C-G nucleus suggested from CONSERT and SESAME-PP results: an interpretation based on new laboratory permittivity measurements of porous icy analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Y.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Sabouroux, P.; Neves, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.; Le Gall, A.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Lethuillier, A.; Carrasco, N.; Szopa, C.

    2016-11-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft made a rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) in 2014 August, soon after the Philae module landed on the small lobe of the nucleus on 2014 November 12. The CONSERT instrument, onboard Rosetta and Philae, sounded the upper part of the interior of 67P with radiowaves at 90 MHz and determined an average of the real part of the permittivity (hereafter ɛ') equal to about 1.27. The SESAME-PP instrument, onboard Philae, sounded the near-surface of the small lobe in the 400-800 Hz range and determined a lower limit of ɛ' equal to 2.45. We use a semi-empirical formula obtained from measurements of ɛ' performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice and ice-basaltic dust mixtures, with a controlled porosity in the 31-91 percent range and a dust-to-ice volumetric ratio in the 0.1-2.8 range, to interpret the results of the two instruments, taking into account the temperature and frequency dependences. A graphical method is proposed to derive ranges of porosity and dust-mass fraction from a value of ɛ' derived from observations. The non-dispersive behaviour of ɛ' below 175 K, allows us to compare the values of ɛ' obtained by CONSERT and SESAME-PP. We show that the porosity of the small lobe of 67P increases with depth. Based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter, the so-called tholins, we also suggest that, for the dust component in the cometary material, the presence of silicates has more effect on ɛ' than organic materials.

  7. An interpretation of the CONSERT and SESAME-PP results based on new permittivity measurements of porous water ice and ice-basaltic/organic dust mixtures suggests an increase of porosity with depth in 67P.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Yann; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Sabouroux, Pierre; Neves, Luisa; Encrenaz, Pierre; Poch, Olivier; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas; Kofman, Wlodek; Le Gall, Alice; Ciarletti, Valérie; Hérique, Alain; Lethuillier, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    The CONSERT bistatic radar on Rosetta and Philae sounded the interior of the small lobe of 67P/C-G at 90 MHz and determined the average of the real part of the complex permittivity (hereafter ɛ') to be equal to 1.27±0.05 [1,2]. The permittivity probe (PP) of the SESAME package sounded the near-surface in the 400-800 Hz range and derived a lower limit of ɛ' equal to 2.45±0.20 [3,4]. At the time of the measurements, the temperature was found to be below 150 K at Philae's location and expected to be close or below 100 K inside the nucleus [4-6].The complex permittivity depends of the frequency, the composition, the porosity and the temperature of the material [7,8,9]. These parameters have to be taken into account to interpret the permittivity values. The non-dispersive behavior of ɛ' below 150 K [9], allows us to compare the CONSERT and SESAME-PP results and to interpret their difference in terms of porosity and/or composition. For this purpose we use a semi-empirical formula obtained from reproducible permittivity measurements performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice particles and ice-basaltic dust mixtures [10], with a controlled porosity in the 26-91% range and dust-to-ice volumetric ratios in the 0.1-2.8 range. The influence of the presence of organic materials on ɛ' is also discussed based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter [11]. Our results suggest an increase of the porosity of the small lobe of 67P with depth [11], in agreement Lethuillier et al. [4]'s conclusion using a different method.[1]Kofman et al., 1998. Adv. Space Res., 21, 1589.[2]Ciarletti et al., 2015. A&A, 583, A40.[3]Seidensticker et al., 2007. Space Sci. Rev., 128, 301.[4]Lethuillier et al., 2016. A&A, 591, A32.[5]Spohn et al., 2015. Science, 349, aab0464.[6]Festou et al. (Eds.), Comets II. Univ. of Arizona Press.[7]Campbell and Ulrichs, 1969. J. Geophys. Res., 74, 5867.[8]Brouet et al., 2015. A&A, 583, A39.[9]Mattei et al., 2014. Icarus

  8. Aging study of Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermally activated batteries. [Results of accelerated aging at 130/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Searcy, J. Q.; Neiswander, P. A.

    1980-05-01

    A technique for accelerating the aging process of thermally activated batteries that use iron disulfide was developed. In this approach, storage at 130/sup 0/C for one week was assumed equivalent to a shelf life of five years. Some of the batteries stored at 130/sup 0/C were discharged to test for functionality changes, and others were disassembled and carefully analyzed for evidence of deleterious reactions. Some functionality anomalies were observed. The only deleterious reaction observed was that of Li(Si) reacting with water vapor. 3 figures, 6 tables.

  9. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age.

    PubMed

    Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G

    2010-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.

  10. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H.; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G.

    2010-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.

  11. Association Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Older Adults: Results From the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Virginia J.; McClure, Leslie A.; Buys, Katie Crawford; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.; Levitan, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) on older adults’ prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. Methods. Data were from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, an observational study of 1000 community-dwelling Black and White Alabamians aged 65 years and older, in 1999 to 2001. We assessed hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control with blood pressure measurements and self-report data. We assessed ND with US Census data corresponding with participants’ census tracts, created tertiles of ND, and fit models with generalized estimating equations via a logit link function with a binomial distribution. Adjusted models included variables assessing personal advantage and disadvantage, place-based factors, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. Results. Living in mid-ND (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 2.1) and high-ND tertiles (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.3) was associated with higher hypertension prevalence, and living in high-ND tertiles was associated with lower odds of controlled hypertension (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6). In adjusted models, ND was not associated with hypertension awareness or treatment. Conclusions. These findings show that neighborhood environmental factors matter for hypertension outcomes and suggest the importance of ND for hypertension management in older adults. PMID:25322309

  12. THE PROFILE AND IMPACT OF PROBABLE DEMENTIA IN A SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COMMUNITY: RESULTS FROM THE IBADAN STUDY OF AGEING

    PubMed Central

    Gureje, Oye; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Kola, Lola

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the profile of dementia in a Sub-Saharan Africa country and assess its effects on role functioning and quality of life. Methods Using a multi-stage stratified clustered sampling of households in the Yoruba-speaking areas of Nigeria representing 22% of the national population, 2152 persons aged 65 years and over were studied. Probable dementia was evaluated with a validated cognitive test, the 10-word delayed recall test. Activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), as well as quality of life were also assessed. Results The prevalence of probable dementia in this sample was 10.1% (95% CI, 8.6 – 11.8%). Female gender and increasing age were risk factors. Also, lifetime history of alcohol use doubles the risk. Affected persons had relatively preserved functioning and quality of life. Conclusion The findings suggest that the diagnosis of dementia may be downwardly biased in this culture due to relatively preserved levels of social and functional roles. PMID:16938510

  13. Comparison of chlorofluorocarbon-age dating with particle-tracking results of a regional ground-water flow model of the Portland Basin, Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study in which chlorofluorocarbon-age dating was used to evaluate the results of a ground-water particle tracker for the Portland Basin in Oregon and Washington.

  14. Results of treatment with azacitidine in patients aged ≥ 75 years included in the Spanish Registry of Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Xicoy, Blanca; Jiménez, María-José; García, Olga; Bargay, Joan; Martínez-Robles, Violeta; Brunet, Salut; Arilla, María-Jesús; Pérez de Oteyza, Jaime; Andreu, Rafael; Casaño, Francisco-Javier; Cervero, Carlos-Javier; Bailén, Alicia; Díez, María; González, Bernardo; Vicente, Ana-Isabel; Pedro, Carme; Bernal, Teresa; Luño, Elisa; Cedena, María-Teresa; Palomera, Luis; Simiele, Adriana; Calvo, José-Manuel; Marco, Víctor; Gómez, Eduardo; Gómez, Marta; Gallardo, David; Muñoz, Juan; de Paz, Raquel; Grau, Javier; Ribera, Josep-Maria; Benlloch, Luis-Enrique; Sanz, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    The tolerability of azacitidine (AZA) allows its administration in elderly patients. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical and biological characteristics, transfusion independence (TI), overall survival (OS) and toxicity in a series of 107 patients ≥ 75 years of age from the Spanish Registry of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) treated with AZA. The median age (range) was 78 (75-90) years. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, 86/102 (84%) had MDS, 10/102 (10%) had mixed myeloproferative/myelodysplastic disorder and 6/102 (6%) had acute myeloblastic leukemia. Regarding MDS by the International Prognostic Scoring System on initiation of AZA, 38/84 (45%) were low-intermediate-1 risk and 46/84 (55%) were intermediate-2-high risk. Ninety-five patients (89%) were red blood cell or platelet transfusion dependent. The AZA schedule was 5-0-0 in 39/106 (37%) patients, 5-2-2 in 36/106 (34%) patients and 7 consecutive days in 31/106 (29%) patients. The median number of cycles administered was 8 (range, 1-30). Thirty-eight out of 94 (40%) patients achieved TI. Median OS (95% confidence interval [CI]) was significantly better in patients achieving TI (n = 38) compared to patients who did not (n = 56) (22 [20.1-23.9] months vs. 11.1 [4.8-17.5] months, p = 0.001). No significant differences were observed in TI rate and OS among the three different schedules. With a median follow-up of 14 (min-max, 1-50) months, the median OS (95% CI) of the 107 patients was 18 (12-23) months and the probability of OS (95% CI) at 2 years was 34% (22-46%). Cycles were delayed in 31/106 (29%) patients and 47/101 patients (47%) were hospitalized for infection. These results show that treatment with AZA was feasible and effective in this elderly population, with 40% achieving TI, having a better OS than patients not achieving it. The schedule of AZA administration did not affect efficacy and toxicity.

  15. Age Differences in the Trends of Smoking Among California Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans.

  16. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Structure: Results from the Physical Influences on Brain in Aging (PHIBRA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonasson, Lars S.; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F.; Lundquist, Anders; Riklund, Katrine; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64–78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests. Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher “Cognitive score,” a composite including episodic memory, processing speed, updating, and executive function tasks (p = 0.01). There were no group differences in cortical thickness, but additional analyses revealed that aerobic fitness at baseline was specifically related to larger thickness in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and hippocampus volume was positively associated with increased aerobic fitness over time. Moreover, “Cognitive score” was related to dlPFC thickness at baseline, but changes in “Cognitive score” and dlPFC thickness were associated over time in the aerobic group only. However, aerobic fitness did not predict dlPFC change, despite the improvement in “Cognitive score” in aerobic exercisers. Our interpretation of these observations is that potential exercise-induced changes in thickness are slow, and may be undetectable within 6-months, in contrast to change in hippocampus volume which in fact was predicted by the change in aerobic fitness. To conclude, our results add to a growing literature suggesting that aerobic exercise has a broad influence on cognitive functioning, which may aid in

  17. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Structure: Results from the Physical Influences on Brain in Aging (PHIBRA) Study.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Lars S; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F; Lundquist, Anders; Riklund, Katrine; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64-78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests. Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher "Cognitive score," a composite including episodic memory, processing speed, updating, and executive function tasks (p = 0.01). There were no group differences in cortical thickness, but additional analyses revealed that aerobic fitness at baseline was specifically related to larger thickness in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and hippocampus volume was positively associated with increased aerobic fitness over time. Moreover, "Cognitive score" was related to dlPFC thickness at baseline, but changes in "Cognitive score" and dlPFC thickness were associated over time in the aerobic group only. However, aerobic fitness did not predict dlPFC change, despite the improvement in "Cognitive score" in aerobic exercisers. Our interpretation of these observations is that potential exercise-induced changes in thickness are slow, and may be undetectable within 6-months, in contrast to change in hippocampus volume which in fact was predicted by the change in aerobic fitness. To conclude, our results add to a growing literature suggesting that aerobic exercise has a broad influence on cognitive functioning, which may aid in explaining why

  18. Dietary intake of soluble fiber and risk of islet autoimmunity by 5 y of age: results from the TEDDY study12

    PubMed Central

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Liu, Xiang; Uusitalo, Ulla M; Harsunen, Minna; Norris, Jill M; Foterek, Kristina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Rewers, Marian J; She, Jin-Xiong; Simell, Olli; Lernmark, Åke; Hagopian, William; Akolkar, Beena; Ziegler, Anette-G; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Hummel, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deficient soluble fiber intake has been suggested to dysregulate the immune response either directly or through alterations of the microbial composition in the gut. Objective: We hypothesized that a high intake of dietary soluble fiber in early childhood decreases the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D)–associated islet autoimmunity. Design: We analyzed 17,620 food records collected between age 9 and 48 mo from 3358 children from the United States and Germany prospectively followed in the TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study. HRs for the development of any/multiple islet autoantibodies (242 and 151 events, respectively) and T1D (71 events) by soluble fiber intake were calculated in Cox regression models and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: There were no statistically significantly protective associations observed between a high intake of soluble fiber and islet autoimmunity or T1D. For example, the adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for high intake (highest compared with lowest quintile) at age 12 mo were 0.90 (0.55, 1.45) for any islet autoantibody, 1.20 (0.69, 2.11) for multiple islet autoantibodies, and 1.24 (0.57, 2.70) for T1D. In analyzing soluble fiber intake as a time-varying covariate, there were also no short-term associations between soluble fiber intake and islet autoimmunity development, with adjusted HRs of 0.85 (0.51, 1.42) for high intake and development of any islet autoantibody, for example. Conclusion: These results indicate that the intake level of dietary soluble fiber is not associated with islet autoimmunity or T1D in early life. PMID:26156735

  19. Age Differences in the Association of Social Support and Mental Health in Male U.S. Veterans: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Melissa R.; Monin, Joan K.; Mota, Natalie; Pietrzak, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between multiple aspects of social support—perceived support, structural support, and community integration—and mental health difficulties in younger and older male veterans. Drawing from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), we hypothesized that greater support would be more strongly negatively related to mental health difficulties in older than younger veterans. Design Cross-sectional web survey of younger and older male veterans drawn from a contemporary, nationally representative sample of veterans residing in the United States. Setting Data were drawn from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). Participants Participants were 290 younger male veterans (mean age=37.0, SD=6.9, range=21–46) and 326 older male veterans (mean age=81.7, SD=3.2, range=78–96). Measurements Participants completed measures of socio-demographic and military characteristics, perceived and structural social support, community integration, and mental health difficulties. Results In contrast to SST, higher perceived support was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in younger but not older veterans. In line with SST, community integration was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in older but not younger veterans. Structural support was not associated with mental health difficulties in either group. Conclusion Results of this study provide mixed support for SST and suggest that different aspects of social support may help promote the mental health of younger and older male U.S. veterans. Promotion of community engagement may protect mental health in older veterans, while promotion of functional social support may protect mental health in younger veterans. PMID:26880612

  20. [CERAD-NP battery: Age-, gender- and education-specific reference values for selected subtests. Results of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe)].

    PubMed

    Luck, T; Riedel-Heller, S G; Wiese, B; Stein, J; Weyerer, S; Werle, J; Kaduszkiewicz, H; Wagner, M; Mösch, E; Zimmermann, T; Maier, W; Bickel, H; van den Bussche, H; Jessen, F; Fuchs, A; Pentzek, M

    2009-10-01

    The CERAD-NP battery represents well-established tests for the neuropsychological diagnosis of characteristic cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's dementia. However, the use of neuropsychological tests requires reliable standard values for the population under consideration, taking sociodemographic characteristics like age, education and gender into account. This report presents age-, education- and gender-specific reference values for the subtests verbal fluency, word list memory, word list recall and word list recognition as well as the word list savings score of the CERAD-NP battery. The study sample consists of 2891 general practitioners' patients from Germany aged 75 years and older. The study participants had a mean age of 80.2 years (SD=3.6); thus, this report provides reliable reference values for the neuropsychological diagnosis of dementia in older age groups.

  1. Psychosocial and Clinical Factors Associated with Family Communication of Cancer Genetic Test Results among Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer at a Young Age.

    PubMed

    Elrick, Ashley; Ashida, Sato; Ivanovich, Jennifer; Lyons, Sarah; Biesecker, Barbara B; Goodman, Melody S; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2017-02-01

    Genetic test results have medical implications beyond the patient that extend to biological family members. We examined psychosocial and clinical factors associated with communication of genetic test results within families. Women (N = 1080) diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger completed an online survey; 920 women that reported prior cancer genetic testing were included in analysis. We examined the proportion of immediate family members to whom they communicated genetic test results, and built multivariable regression models to examine clinical and psychosocial variables associated with the proportion score. Participants were most likely to communicate test results to their mother (83 %) and least likely to their son (45 %). Participants who carried a BRCA mutation (OR = 1.34; 95 % CI = 1.06, 1.70), had higher interest in genomic information (OR = 1.55; 95 % CI = 1.26, 1.91) and lower genetic worry (OR = 0.91; 95 % CI = 0.86, 0.96) communicated genetic test results to a greater proportion of their immediate family members. Participants with a BRCA1/2 mutation shared their genetic test results with more male family members (OR = 1.72; 95 % CI = 1.02, 2.89). Our findings suggest that patients with high worry about genetic risks, low interest in genomic information, or receive a negative genetic test result will likely need additional support to encourage family communication.

  2. Construction of a Danish CDI Short Form for Language Screening at the Age of 36 Months: Methodological Considerations and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vach, Werner; Bleses, Dorthe; Jorgensen, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Several research groups have previously constructed short forms of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) for different languages. We consider the specific aim of constructing such a short form to be used for language screening in a specific age group. We present a novel strategy for the construction, which is applicable…

  3. Community study suggests segmentation strategies.

    PubMed

    Gagnard, A

    1989-01-01

    Results of a sample survey commissioned by a voluntary health organization in a major metropolitan area describes why individuals give their time and money to charitable organizations and what approaches are likely to result in such donations. Within demographic subgroups, the variables of age and income proved to be important factors with respect to why people gave and what appeals they prefer. The variables of gender and education were found to be of somewhat less importance. Findings were compared with a national Gallup study conducted in 1987. In an era of increasingly specialized marketing for all organizations, the findings offer voluntary and fund-raising organizations a basis for determining appropriate appeals for demographic segments in a community.

  4. Organophosphate Insecticide Metabolites in Prenatal and Childhood Urine Samples and Intelligence Scores at 6 Years of Age: Results from the Mother–Child PELAGIE Cohort (France)

    PubMed Central

    Cartier, Chloé; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Saint-Amour, Dave; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in children. Objectives: We evaluated associations between biomarkers of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure and cognitive function of 6-year-olds in a French longitudinal birth cohort. Methods: In 2002–2006, the PELAGIE mother–child cohort enrolled pregnant women from Brittany. For a random subcohort, we measured nonspecific dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAP) of OP in one maternal urine sample, collected before 19 weeks’ gestation, and in one urine sample collected from their 6-year-old children. Six subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV) were administered when the children were 6 years of age to evaluate cognitive function (n = 231). Linear regression models controlling for factors including maternal intelligence and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score were used. Results: WISC-IV scores were not significantly associated with prenatal or childhood total DAP metabolites. WISC verbal comprehension score was significantly higher in association with the highest maternal urinary concentrations of diethylphosphate (DE) metabolites (5.5; 95% CI: 0.8, 10.3 for > 13.2 nmol/L vs. < LOQ), whereas WISC working memory score was significantly lower in association with the highest urinary concentrations of DE metabolites at age 6 years (–3.6; 95% CI: –7.8, –0.6 for > 11.1 nmol/L vs. < LOD). Conclusion: We found no evidence that prenatal OP exposure adversely affected cognitive function in 6-year-olds, perhaps because of the population’s socioeconomic status, which was higher than in previous studies, though other causal and noncausal explanations are also possible. The negative association between WISC score and concurrent DE urinary concentrations requires replication by longitudinal studies investigating childhood OP exposure. Citation: Cartier C, Warembourg C, Le Maner

  5. Associations between Safety from Crime, Cycling, and Obesity in a Dutch Elderly Population: Results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Thomése, G. C. Fleur; Visser, Marjolein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in associations between crime rates, cycling, and weight status between people living in low and high socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods. In total, 470 participants in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were included (age: 63–70 y). Body height and weight were measured using a stadiometer and calibrated weight scale, respectively. Cycling behaviour was assessed in a face-to-face interview, and neighbourhood crime rates were assessed using data from police reports. Men residing in high SES neighbourhoods cycled more than males residing in low SES neighbourhoods. Cycling was negatively related to crime rates among both men and women living in low SES neighbourhoods. Among men living in low SES neighbourhoods, more cycling was associated with lower BMI. Interventions aiming to prevent obesity in older people may consider aiming at increasing bicycle use in lower SES neighbourhoods, but neighbourhood safety issues should be considered. PMID:22523503

  6. Associations between safety from crime, cycling, and obesity in a Dutch elderly population: results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Stef P J; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Tommy L S; Deeg, Dorly J H; Thomése, G C Fleur; Visser, Marjolein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in associations between crime rates, cycling, and weight status between people living in low and high socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods. In total, 470 participants in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were included (age: 63-70 y). Body height and weight were measured using a stadiometer and calibrated weight scale, respectively. Cycling behaviour was assessed in a face-to-face interview, and neighbourhood crime rates were assessed using data from police reports. Men residing in high SES neighbourhoods cycled more than males residing in low SES neighbourhoods. Cycling was negatively related to crime rates among both men and women living in low SES neighbourhoods. Among men living in low SES neighbourhoods, more cycling was associated with lower BMI. Interventions aiming to prevent obesity in older people may consider aiming at increasing bicycle use in lower SES neighbourhoods, but neighbourhood safety issues should be considered.

  7. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  8. Accelerometer assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and successful ageing: results from the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Menai, Mehdi; van Hees, Vincent T.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Séverine

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is key for successful ageing, but questions remain regarding the optimal physical activity pattern. We examined the cross-sectional association between physical activity and successful ageing using data on 3,749 participants (age range = 60–83years) of the Whitehall II study. The participants underwent a clinical assessment, completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire, and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days. Successful ageing was defined as good cognitive, motor, and respiratory functioning, along with absence of disability, mental health problems, and major chronic diseases. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) episodes assessed by accelerometer was classified as “short” (1–9.59 minutes) and “long” (≥10 minutes) bouts. Linear multivariate regression showed that successful agers (N = 789) reported 3.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39–6.19) minutes more daily MVPA than other participants. Accelerometer data showed this difference to be 3.40 (95% CI:2.44–4.35) minutes for MVPA undertaken in short bouts, 4.16 (95% CI:3.11–5.20) minutes for long bouts, and 7.55 (95% CI:5.86–9.24) minutes for all MVPA bouts lasting 1 minute or more. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that participants undertaking ≥150 minutes of MVPA per week were more likely to be successful agers with both self-reported (Odd Ratio (OR) = 1.29,95% (CI):1.09–1.53) and accelerometer data (length bout ≥1 minute:OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.60–2.30). Successful agers practice more MVPA, having both more short and long bouts, than non-successful agers. PMID:28367987

  9. Aging results in copper accumulations in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells in the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Pushkar, Yulia; Robison, Gregory; Sullivan, Brendan; Fu, Sherleen X; Kohne, Meghan; Jiang, Wendy; Rohr, Sven; Lai, Barry; Marcus, Matthew A; Zakharova, Taisiya; Zheng, Wei

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of rodent brains with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy combined with immunohistochemistry allowed us to demonstrate that local Cu concentrations are thousands of times higher in the glia of the subventricular zone (SVZ) than in other cells. Using XRF microscopy with subcellular resolution and intracellular X-ray absorption spectroscopy we determined the copper (I) oxidation state and the sulfur ligand environment. Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy is consistent with Cu being bound as a multimetallic Cu-S cluster similar to one present in Cu-metallothionein. Analysis of age-related changes show that Cu content in astrocytes of the SVZ increases fourfold from 3 weeks to 9 months, while Cu concentration in other brain areas remain essentially constant. This increase in Cu correlates with a decrease in adult neurogenesis assessed using the Ki67 marker (both, however, can be age-related effects). We demonstrate that the Cu distribution and age-related concentration changes in the brain are highly cell specific.

  10. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique), haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height) and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test). Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005). Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004). Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002) and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001) compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs. PMID:22424138

  11. Exome sequencing and functional analyses suggest that SIX6 is a gene involved in an altered proliferation-differentiation balance early in life and optic nerve degeneration at old age.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Adriana I; Springelkamp, Henriët; van der Linde, Herma; Severijnen, Lies-Anne; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben; Kockx, Christel E M; van den Hout, Mirjam C G N; van Ijcken, Wilfred F J; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Verdijk, Rob M; Klaver, Caroline C W; Willemsen, Rob; van Duijn, Cornelia M

    2014-03-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease, characterized by optic nerve changes including increased excavation, notching and optic disc hemorrhages. The excavation can be described by the vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR). Previously, genome-wide significant evidence for the association of rs10483727 in SIX1-SIX6 locus with VCDR and subsequent POAG was found. Using 1000 genomes-based imputation of four independent population-based cohorts in the Netherlands, we identified a missense variant rs33912345 (His141Asn) in SIX6 associated with VCDR (Pmeta = 7.74 × 10(-7), n = 11 473) and POAG (Pmeta = 6.09 × 10(-3), n = 292). Exome sequencing analysis revealed another missense variant rs146737847 (Glu129Lys) also in SIX6 associated with VCDR (P = 5.09 × 10(-3), n = 1208). These two findings point to SIX6 as the responsible gene for the previously reported association signal. Functional characterization of SIX6 in zebrafish revealed that knockdown of six6b led to a small eye phenotype. Histological analysis showed retinal lamination, implying an apparent normal development of the eye, but an underdeveloped lens, and reduced optic nerve diameter. Expression analysis of morphants at 3 dpf showed a 5.5-fold up-regulation of cdkn2b, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, involved in cell cycle regulation and previously associated with VCDR and POAG in genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Since both six6b and cdkn2b play a key role in cell proliferation, we assessed the proliferative activity in the eye of morphants and found an alteration in the proliferative pattern of retinal cells. Our findings in humans and zebrafish suggest a functional involvement of six6b in early eye development, and open new insights into the genetic architecture of POAG.

  12. Disability rates for working-age adults and for the elderly have stabilized, but trends for each mean different results for costs.

    PubMed

    Kaye, H Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The aging of the baby-boom generation, as well as predicted growth in the number of people with disabilities, is expected to increase the demand for long-term services and supports dramatically. This study analyzed data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation from 1984 to 2010 to discern trends among noninstitutionalized working-age adults and the elderly who had some level of disability or need for help with activities of daily living. Some impairments among the elderly, such as in mobility and mental health, decreased. Meanwhile, some impairments among working-age adults, such as in cognitive ability, increased substantially. Of particular importance, the overall prevalence of disability for both age groups has largely stabilized since 2000. Among working-age adults, that stabilization is good news because it eases concern, fueled by prior research, that this population was becoming increasingly disabled and costly to public benefit programs such as Social Security Disability Insurance. However, the flattening of disability trends among the elderly is not good news, since it suggests that the number of elderly people with disabilities will continue to increase in direct proportion to the growing size of the elderly population. Among other implications, the need for both paid workers and unpaid caregivers to assist elderly people, especially those ages seventy-five and older, will continue to increase sharply.

  13. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    PubMed

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  14. Distribution of Groundwater Ages at Public-Supply Wells: Comparison of Results from Lumped Parameter and Numerical Inverse Models with Multiple Environmental Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberts, S.; Bohlke, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    Estimates of groundwater age distributions at public-supply wells can provide insight into the vulnerability of these wells to contamination. Such estimates can be used to explore past and future water-quality trends and contaminant peak concentrations when combined with information on contaminant input at the water table. Information on groundwater age distributions, however, is not routinely applied to water quality issues at public-supply wells. This may be due, in part, to the difficulty in obtaining such estimates from poorly characterized aquifers with limited environmental tracer data. To this end, we compared distributions of groundwater ages in discharge from public-supply wells estimated from age tracer data (SF6, CFCs, 3H, 3He) using two different inverse modeling approaches: relatively simple lumped parameter models and more complex distributed-parameter numerical flow models with particle tracking. These comparisons were made in four contrasting hydrogeologic settings across the United States: unconsolidated alluvial fan sediments, layered confined unconsolidated sediments, unconsolidated valley-fill sediments, and carbonate rocks. In all instances, multiple age tracer measurements for the public-supply well of interest were available. We compared the following quantities, which were derived from simulated breakthrough curves that were generated using the various estimated age distributions for the selected wells and assuming the same hypothetical contaminant input: time lag to peak concentration, dilution at peak concentration, and contaminant arrival and flush times. Apparent tracer-based ages and mean and median simulated ages also were compared. For each setting, both types of models yielded similar age distributions and concentration trends, when based on similar conceptual models of local hydrogeology and calibrated to the same tracer measurements. Results indicate carefully chosen and calibrated simple lumped parameter age distribution models

  15. U-Pb isotopic results for single shocked and polycrystalline zircons record 550-65.5-Ma ages for a K-T target site and 2700-1850-Ma ages for the Sudbury impact event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    The refractory mineral zircon develops distinct morphological features during shock metamorphism and retains these features under conditions that would anneal them in other minerals. In addition, weakly shocked zircon grains give primary ages for the impact site, while highly reconstituted (polycrystalline) single grains give ages that approach the age of the impact event. Data for a series of originally coeval grains will define a mixing line that gives both of these ages providing that no subsequent geological disturbances have overprinted the isotopic systematics. In this study, we have shown that the three zircon grain types described by Bohor, from both K-T distal ejecta (Fireball layer, Raton Basin, Colorado) and the Onaping Formation, represent a progressive increase in impact-related morphological change that coincides with a progressive increase in isotopic resetting in zircons from the ejecta and basement rocks. Unshocked grains are least affected by isotopic resetting while polycrystalline grains are most affected. U-Pb isotopic results for 12 of 14 single zircon grains from the Fireball layer plot on or close to a line recording a primary age of 550 +/- 10 Ma and a secondary age of 65.5 +/- 3 Ma. Data for the least and most shocked grains plot closest to the primary and secondary ages respectively. The two other grains each give ages between 300 and 350 Ma. This implies that the target ejecta was dominated by 550-Ma rocks and that the recrystallization features of the zircon were superimposed during the impact event at 65.5 Ma. A predominant age of 550 Ma for zircons from the Fireball layer provides an excellent opportunity to identify the impact site and to test the hypothesis that multiple impacts occurred at this time. A volcanic origin for the Fireball layer is ruled out by shock-related morphological changes in zircon and the fact that the least shocked grains are old. Basement Levack gneisses north of the Sudbury structure have a primary age of

  16. Geochronological constraints on the age of a Permo-Triassic impact event: U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar results for the 40 km Araguainha structure of central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, E.; Lana, C.; Cawood, P. A.; Fletcher, I. R.; Jourdan, F.; Sherlock, S.; Rasmussen, B.; Trindade, R. I. F.; Yokoyama, E.; Souza Filho, C. R.; Marangoni, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Impact cratering has been a fundamental geological process in Earth history with major ramifications for the biosphere. The complexity of shocked and melted rocks within impact structures presents difficulties for accurate and precise radiogenic isotope age determination, hampering the assessment of the effects of an individual event in the geological record. We demonstrate the utility of a multi-chronometer approach in our study of samples from the 40 km diameter Araguainha impact structure of central Brazil. Samples of uplifted basement granite display abundant evidence of shock deformation, but U/Pb ages of shocked zircons and the 40Ar/39Ar ages of feldspar from the granite largely preserve the igneous crystallization and cooling history. Mixed results are obtained from in situ40Ar/39Ar spot analyses of shocked igneous biotites in the granite, with deformation along kink-bands resulting in highly localized, partial resetting in these grains. Likewise, spot analyses of perlitic glass from pseudotachylitic breccia samples reflect a combination of argon inheritance from wall rock material, the age of the glass itself, and post-impact devitrification. The timing of crater formation is better assessed using samples of impact-generated melt rock where isotopic resetting is associated with textural evidence of melting and in situ crystallization. Granular aggregates of neocrystallized zircon form a cluster of ten U-Pb ages that yield a “Concordia” age of 247.8 ± 3.8 Ma. The possibility of Pb loss from this population suggests that this is a minimum age for the impact event. The best evidence for the age of the impact comes from the U-Th-Pb dating of neocrystallized monazite and 40Ar/39Ar step heating of three separate populations of post-impact, inclusion-rich quartz grains that are derived from the infill of miarolitic cavities. The 206Pb/238U age of 254.5 ± 3.2 Ma (2σ error) and 208Pb/232Th age of 255.2 ± 4.8 Ma (2σ error) of monazite, together with the

  17. False positive hepatitis C antibody test results in left ventricular assist device recipients: increased risk with age and transfusions.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Grace Y; Lee, Doreen; Colovai, Adriana; Levy, Dana; Vasovic, Ljiljana; Roach, Keith W; Shuter, Jonathan; Goldstein, Daniel; D'Alessandro, David; Jorde, Ulrich P; Muggia, Victoria A

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been successfully used in patients with heart failure. However, LVADs may trigger immune activation, leading to higher frequencies of autoantibodies. We describe the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of LVAD recipients with false positive hepatitis C (FPHC) serology among 39 consecutive adult LVAD recipients who bridged to heart transplantation from January 2007 to January 2013 at Montefiore Medical Center. FPHC patients were identified as those with post-LVAD positive hepatitis C ELISA antibody tests and negative confirmatory testing with hepatitis C RNA PCR and/or radioimmunoblot assay. Ten (26%) patients previously seronegative for hepatitis C were found to have FPHC after device placement. Of the 39 patients, 32 had HeartMate II devices. The mean age at LVAD placement was 55 years. FPHC correlated with older age at the time of LVAD implantation and with receipt of packed red blood cell transfusions, but not with gender, fresh frozen plasma transfusions, panel reactive antibodies, globulin fraction, rheumatoid factor, or anticardiolipin antibodies. Clinicians should be aware of this increased risk of FPHC in older LVAD patients and those more heavily transfused in order to avoid unnecessary apprehension and possible delay in transplantation. Further studies should be done to evaluate the possible relationship between transfused blood products and immunomodulation.

  18. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Cameron J; McGregor, Robin A; D'Souza, Randall F; Thorstensen, Eric B; Markworth, James F; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-10-21

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring (13)C₆ phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  19. False positive hepatitis C antibody test results in left ventricular assist device recipients: increased risk with age and transfusions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doreen; Colovai, Adriana; Levy, Dana; Vasovic, Ljiljana; Roach, Keith W.; Shuter, Jonathan; Goldstein, Daniel; D’Alessandro, David; Jorde, Ulrich P.; Muggia, Victoria A.

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been successfully used in patients with heart failure. However, LVADs may trigger immune activation, leading to higher frequencies of autoantibodies. We describe the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of LVAD recipients with false positive hepatitis C (FPHC) serology among 39 consecutive adult LVAD recipients who bridged to heart transplantation from January 2007 to January 2013 at Montefiore Medical Center. FPHC patients were identified as those with post-LVAD positive hepatitis C ELISA antibody tests and negative confirmatory testing with hepatitis C RNA PCR and/or radioimmunoblot assay. Ten (26%) patients previously seronegative for hepatitis C were found to have FPHC after device placement. Of the 39 patients, 32 had HeartMate II devices. The mean age at LVAD placement was 55 years. FPHC correlated with older age at the time of LVAD implantation and with receipt of packed red blood cell transfusions, but not with gender, fresh frozen plasma transfusions, panel reactive antibodies, globulin fraction, rheumatoid factor, or anticardiolipin antibodies. Clinicians should be aware of this increased risk of FPHC in older LVAD patients and those more heavily transfused in order to avoid unnecessary apprehension and possible delay in transplantation. Further studies should be done to evaluate the possible relationship between transfused blood products and immunomodulation. PMID:28203425

  20. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. PMID:26506377

  1. Children with developmental language delay at 24 months of age: results of a diagnostic work-up.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Anke; Jooss, Bettina; Rupp, André; Dockter, Sonja; Blaschtikowitz, Heike; Heggen, Iris; Pietz, Joachim

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if a diagnostic work-up should be recommended for 2-year-old children with developmental language delay (LD), or if the widely chosen 'wait and see' strategy is adequate. Children with LD were identified in paediatric practices during routine developmental check-ups using a German parent-report screening questionnaire (adapted from the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories). A standardized German instrument and the Netherlands version of Bayley Scales of Infant Development (2nd ed.) were used to assess language ability and nonverbal cognitive development respectively in 100 children with LD (65 males, 35 females; mean age 24.7 mo [SD 0.9]) and a control group of 53 children with normal language development (33 males, 20 females; mean age 24.6 mo [SD 0.8]). Neurological and audiometric testing were also performed. Sixty-one per cent of the LD group had specific expressive LD and 17% specific receptive-expressive LD. In 22%, LD was associated with other neurodevelopmental problems, 6% showed significant deficits in nonverbal cognitive abilities, and in 12%, nonverbal cognitive abilities were borderline. Four per cent fulfilled the criteria of childhood autism. LD at 2 years proved to represent a sensitive marker for different developmental problems. Adequate early intervention requires a clear distinction between specific expressive or receptive-expressive LD and LD associated with other neurodevelopmental problems. Though catch-up development is to be expected in a substantial proportion of 'late talkers', our data demonstrate that a general 'wait and see' approach is not justified in young children with LD. A proposal for a rational diagnostic work-up is presented.

  2. Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss in the extremes of reproductive age: results from a national cross- sectional multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and near miss (NM) cases among adolescent girls and women over 35 years of age in the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity, using a set of standard criteria, compared to pregnant women aged 20 to 34 years. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 27 referral obstetric units in Brazil. All pregnant women admitted to these centers during a one-year period of prospective surveillance were screened to identify cases of maternal death (MD), NM and other SMM. Indicators of maternal morbidity and mortality were evaluated for the three age groups. Sociodemographic, clinical and obstetric characteristics, gestational and perinatal outcomes, main causes of morbidity and delays in care were also compared. Two multiple analysis models were performed, to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratio for identified factors that were independently associated with the occurrence of severe maternal outcome (SMO = MNM + MD). Results Among SMM and MD cases identified, the proportion of adolescent girls and older women were 17% each. The risk of MNM or death was 25% higher among older women. Maternal near miss ratio and maternal mortality ratios increased with age, but these ratios were also higher among adolescents aged 10 to 14, although the absolute numbers were low. On multivariate analysis, younger age was not identified as an independent risk factor for SMO, while this was true for older age (PR 1.25; 1.07-1.45). Conclusions SMO was high among women below 14 years of age and increased with age in Brazilian pregnant women. PMID:24555831

  3. Intelligence and Achievement Test Results of Kindergarten-Age Children in England, Ireland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vane, Julia R.

    1973-01-01

    Results support the hypothesis that the differences between the test results of the middle and lower classes in the individual countries are greater than the differences between the same classes in the three different countries. (Author)

  4. New 40Ar/ 39Ar dating results from the Shanwang Basin, eastern China: Constraints on the age of the Shanwang Formation and associated biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Huaiyu; Deng, Chenglong; Pan, Yongxin; Deng, Tao; Luo, Zhaohua; Sun, Jimin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2011-07-01

    The fluvio-lacustrine sequence of the Shanwang Basin, eastern China, preserves a rich and important terrestrial fossil fauna and flora; the exceptional preservation of these fossils reveals the dynamics of ancient mammalian ecosystems and plant biology. However, the timing of this sedimentary sequence has been the subject of debate for decades. Here we contribute to this debate by presenting the detailed results of 40Ar/ 39Ar analysis of the basalts above, below, and within the Shanwang Formation. These dates place stringent constraints on the age of Shanwang Formation and associated biota. 40Ar/ 39Ar ages obtained from basalts of the Niushan and Yaoshan Formations, which underlie and overlie the Shanwang Formation, are 21.0 ± 2.5 Ma (2σ, full external error) and 17.3 ± 1.5 Ma (2σ, full external error), respectively. The 40Ar/ 39Ar age of the basalt in the Shanwang Formation is 17-18 Ma. Given the age constraints of the basalts of the Yaoshan and Shanwang Formations, the age of the Shanwang biota is estimated to be ca. 17 Ma, late Burdigalian of the Early Miocene, indicating that the deposition of this fauna coincided with the onset of the mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. The results provide new age constraints on the Shanwang mammal fauna, and independently support interpretations that this fauna can be assigned to chronozone MN4, and correlated with middle Orleanian of the European Land Mammal Age, and to late Hemingfordian of the North American Land Mammal Age. Biological diversity of the Shanwang Formation could reflect the global-scale mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum.

  5. [Sadness, worries and fears: depression and anxiety disorders in preschool age--results of relevance, symptoms and impairment].

    PubMed

    Otto, Yvonne; Andreas, Anna; von Klitzing, Kai; Fuchs, Sandra; Klein, Annette M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the current strain and impairment of children with depressive and anxiety disorders in terms of their development and family environment compared to children without mental disorders. Conclusions for dealing with clinical disorders in preschool are to be derived. Internalizing symptoms/disorders were measured dimensionally with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; multi-informant approach) and categorially with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). The sample consisted of n = 93 children with pure anxiety disorders, n = 20 children with depressive and anxiety disorders, n = 42 children with subclinical symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders, and n = 76 children without mental disorders. We assessed stability of symptoms, as well as agreement between mothers, fathers and kindergarten teachers regarding internalizing symptoms which was higher between mothers and fathers than between parents and kindergarten teachers. In comparison to kindergarten teachers parents reported more internalizing symptoms. Regarding the overall impairment, family adversity, family environment and maternal psychopathology children with depression and additional anxiety disorders showed the highest scores. There were no differences in overall impairment between children with pure anxiety disorders and without mental disorders. Finally, implications for practice are discussed.

  6. A new dermocosmetic containing retinaldehyde, delta-tocopherol glucoside and glycylglycine oleamide for managing naturally aged skin: results from in vitro to clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Rouvrais, Céline; Bacqueville, Daniel; Bogdanowicz, Patrick; Haure, Marie-José; Duprat, Laure; Coutanceau, Christine; Castex-Rizzi, Nathalie; Duplan, Hélène; Mengeaud, Valérie; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Natural aging of skin tissues, the addition of the cumulative action of the time and radiation exposure result in skin atrophy, wrinkles and degeneration of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of the study was to investigate the beneficial effect of a combination containing retinaldehyde (RAL), delta-tocopherol glucoside (delta-TC) and glycylglycine ole-amide (GGO) and of a dermocosmetic containing the combination. Materials and methods The protective effect of the combination was assessed through in vitro gene expression of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated fibroblasts. A skin aging assay using UV light on ex vivo skin samples and a clinical study conducted in 36 women aged from 35 to 55 years with a minimum of level 4 to a maximum of level 6 on the crow’s feet photoscale assessed the antiaging effect of the dermocosmetic. Results When added to UV-irradiated fibroblasts, the combination substantially improved the ECM in activating the elastin fiber production (fibrillin 2, fibulin 1 and 5 and lysyl oxidase-like 2) as well as that of proteins involved in the cellular ECM interactions (integrin b1, paxillin and actin a2). An ex vivo photodamaged human skin model showed that the dermocosmetic formulation containing the combination of the active ingredients protected the elastic network against UV-induced alterations including both elastin and fibrillin-rich fibers in the dermis. A daily application of the dermocosmetic for 2 months on naturally aged skin resulted in a statistically significant improvement (p<0.05) of visible signs of aging comprising crow’s feet, wrinkles and periocular fine lines. Finally, the formulation was well tolerated. Conclusion The dermocosmetic containing RAL, delta-TC and GGO provides a substantial benefit in the daily care of naturally aged skin in women aged 35–55 years. PMID:28203099

  7. General fusion approaches for the age determination of latent fingerprint traces: results for 2D and 3D binary pixel feature fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, Ronny; Gruhn, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Bräutigam, Anja

    2012-03-01

    Determining the age of latent fingerprint traces found at crime scenes is an unresolved research issue since decades. Solving this issue could provide criminal investigators with the specific time a fingerprint trace was left on a surface, and therefore would enable them to link potential suspects to the time a crime took place as well as to reconstruct the sequence of events or eliminate irrelevant fingerprints to ensure privacy constraints. Transferring imaging techniques from different application areas, such as 3D image acquisition, surface measurement and chemical analysis to the domain of lifting latent biometric fingerprint traces is an upcoming trend in forensics. Such non-destructive sensor devices might help to solve the challenge of determining the age of a latent fingerprint trace, since it provides the opportunity to create time series and process them using pattern recognition techniques and statistical methods on digitized 2D, 3D and chemical data, rather than classical, contact-based capturing techniques, which alter the fingerprint trace and therefore make continuous scans impossible. In prior work, we have suggested to use a feature called binary pixel, which is a novel approach in the working field of fingerprint age determination. The feature uses a Chromatic White Light (CWL) image sensor to continuously scan a fingerprint trace over time and retrieves a characteristic logarithmic aging tendency for 2D-intensity as well as 3D-topographic images from the sensor. In this paper, we propose to combine such two characteristic aging features with other 2D and 3D features from the domains of surface measurement, microscopy, photography and spectroscopy, to achieve an increase in accuracy and reliability of a potential future age determination scheme. Discussing the feasibility of such variety of sensor devices and possible aging features, we propose a general fusion approach, which might combine promising features to a joint age determination scheme

  8. Maternal caffeine consumption and small for gestational age births: results from a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Adrienne T; Browne, Marilyn; Richardson, Sandra; Romitti, Paul; Druschel, Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine is consumed in various forms during pregnancy, has increased half-life during pregnancy and crosses the placental barrier. Small for gestational age (SGA) is an important perinatal outcome and has been associated with long term complications. We examined the association between maternal caffeine intake and SGA using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data. Non-malformed live born infants with an estimated date of delivery from 1997-2007 (n = 7,943) were included in this analysis. Maternal caffeine exposure was examined as total caffeine intake and individual caffeinated beverage type (coffee, tea, and soda); sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves were constructed to estimate SGA births. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interaction with caffeine exposures was assessed for maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, and folic acid. Six hundred forty-eight infants (8.2%) were found to be SGA in this analysis. Increasing aORs were observed for increasing intakes of total caffeine and for each caffeinated beverage with aORs (adjusting for maternal education, high blood pressure, and smoking) ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 for the highest intake categories (300+ mg/day total caffeine and 3+ servings/day for each beverage type). Little indication of additive interaction by maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, or folic acid intake was observed. We observed an increase in SGA births for mothers with higher caffeine intake, particularly for those consuming 300+ mg of caffeine per day. Increased aORs were also observed for tea intake but were more attenuated for coffee and soda intake.

  9. Identification of aged bloodstains through mRNA profiling: Experiments results on selected markers of 30- and 50-year-old samples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hemiao; Wang, Chong; Yao, Lan; Lin, Qingluan; Xu, XiuLan; Hu, Lan; Li, Wanshui

    2017-03-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in recent years on the research of body fluid identification through messenger RNA(mRNA) profiling. In order to examine the viability of mRNA profiling as a method to identify aged bloodstains, this study tested two groups of bloodstain samples, dated 30 years and 50 years back respectively, on seven blood specific markers, i.e. HBB, HBA, GYPA, CD93, ALAS2, SPTB (91bp and 247bp primers), and PBGD. Test results indicate that HBA and HBB are the most stable markers in aged bloodstains, returning positive results in over 80% of the 50-year-old samples and over 90% of the 30-year-old samples. This finding proves mRNA profiling an effective way of identifying aged bloodstains.

  10. [The age and sex indicators of mortality of population and years of life lost as a result of premature mortality in the Russian Federation in 2012].

    PubMed

    Boiytsov, S A; Samorodskaya, I V

    2014-01-01

    The age-specific mortality coefficients and years of life lost as a result of premature mortality are among important medical demographic characteristics of population health. The study analyzed age and sex indicators of mortality of population in the Russian Federation. The number of years of life lost as a result of premature mortality is calculated. The comparison of values of years of life lost in various subjects of the Russian Federation was carried out. The data of Rosstat concerning population size and number of the deceased in year age groups in the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation in 2012 was used. The indicator was calculated on the basis of technique included into "The global burden of diseases report" (2010). The minimal indicators of mortality of males are noted at the age of 11 years (25.4 per 100 000 of population) and females at the age of 10 years (18.2 per 100 000 of population). The maximal differences in indicators of mortality of males and females are marked in the age group 20-29 years (314.5 of males and 92.3 of females per 100 000 of population). The percentage of deceased prior 70 years consists 63.2% among males and 29.9% among females. The total number of years of life lost in the Russian Federation consisted 36 864 309 and out of them 24 321 992 (65.9%) as a result of death of males and 12 542 317 (34.1%) as a result of death of females. The maximum percentage of years of life lost among males is marked in the age group of 51-60 years (24.61%) and among females in the age group of 71-80 years (22.38%). The indicator of years of life lost per 100 000 of population consisted 25769 for total population, 36 753 for male population and 16 314 for female population. The highest rate of indicator of years of life lost is marked in the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug and the lowest rate in the Republics of the Northern Caucasus and Moscow. However, in all subjects of the Russian Federation indicator of years of life lost is

  11. Results of the IEA Round Robin on Viscosity and Aging of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils: Long-Term Tests and Repeatability

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Oasmaa, Anja; Meier, Dietrich; Preto, Fernando; Bridgwater, Anthony V.

    2012-11-06

    An international round robin study of the viscosity and aging of fast pyrolysis bio-oil has been undertaken recently and this work is an outgrowth from that effort. Two bio-oil samples were distributed to the laboratories for aging tests and extended viscosity studies. The accelerated aging test was defined as the change in viscosity of a sealed sample of bio-oil held for 24 h at 80 °C. The test was repeated 10 times over consecutive days to determine the repeatability of the method. Other bio-oil samples were placed in storage at three temperatures, 21 °C, 4 °C and -17 °C for a period up to a year to evaluate the change in viscosity. The variation in the results of the aging test was shown to be low within a given laboratory. Storage of bio-oil under refrigeration can minimize the amount of change in viscosity. The accelerated aging test gives a measure of change similar to that of 6-12 months of storage at room temperature. These results can be helpful in setting standards for use of bio-oil, which is just coming into the marketplace.

  12. Inactivation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in myelinating glial cells results in significant loss of adult spiral ganglion neurons accompanied by age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Wang, S J; Furusho, M; D'Sa, C; Kuwada, S; Conti, L; Morest, D K; Bansal, R

    2009-11-15

    Hearing loss has been attributed to many factors, including degeneration of sensory neurons in the auditory pathway and demyelination along the cochlear nerve. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which signal through four receptors (Fgfrs), are produced by auditory neurons and play a key role in embryonic development of the cochlea and in neuroprotection against sound-induced injury. However, the role of FGF signaling in the maintenance of normal auditory function in adult and aging mice remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the contribution of glial cells, which myelinate the cochlear nerves, is poorly understood. To address these questions, we generated transgenic mice in which Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 were specifically inactivated in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes but not in neurons. Adult mutant mice exhibited late onset of hearing impairment, which progressed markedly with age. The hearing impairment was accompanied by significant loss of myelinated spiral ganglion neurons. The pathology extended into the cochlear nucleus, without apparent loss of myelin or of the deletion-bearing glial cells themselves. This suggests that perturbation of FGF receptor-mediated glial function leads to the attenuation of glial support of neurons, leading to their loss and impairment of auditory functions. Thus, FGF/FGF receptor signaling provides a potentially novel mechanism of maintaining reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia in adult and aging animals. Dysfunction of glial cells and FGF receptor signaling may therefore be implicated in neurodegenerative hearing loss associated with normal aging.

  13. Contextual Suggestion from Wikitravel: Exploiting Community-based Suggestions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    in a spe- cific location, at a specific time, taking into ac- count their personal preferences. As a source for travel suggestions we use Wikitravel...which is a community-based travel guide for destinations all over the world. From pages dedicated to cities in the US we extract suggestions for...formation on user preferences is valuable for pro- viding appropriate suggestions. 1 Introduction Wikitravel1 is a collaboratively created site for travel

  14. The AMS 14C dating of Iron Age rice chaff ceramic temper from Ban Non Wat, Thailand: First results and its interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higham, Charles F. W.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Burr, G. S.

    2010-04-01

    Pottery tempered with rice chaff from the early Iron Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat site, northeast Thailand, has been subjected to direct AMS 14C dating, using low temperature combustion with oxygen as originally developed by authors. The carbon yield (0.2-0.5%) testifies the suitability of this pottery for dating. However, not all the results are in agreement with expected archaeological ages and other 14C dates from the studied site and neighboring site of Noen U-Loke. This calls for a thorough analysis and interpretation of pottery temper dates from the region.

  15. [Nutrition, aging, old age].

    PubMed

    Iván, L

    1998-12-06

    In humans there is evidence that the restriction of total caloric intake appears to be more important than the restriction of any particular macronutrient. Today the mechanism of the effect of caloric restriction is unknown. With advancing age and the occurrence of concomitant illness there is an increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies. Altered nutritional status is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of common diseases of the elderly, thus it would appear that nutritional modulation and manipulation represents one possible approach to successful aging and a healthy longevity. The conceptual framework of the paper suggests the need of a newer light of the aging processes namely by a holistic human-gero-ecological model and a personality oriented geriatry. There are accentuated the role of the nutrients and vitamins, the food intake and drug-nutrients interactions and the meanings of the differences between the normal and pathological aging.

  16. A two-decade comparison of prevalence of dementia in individuals aged 65 years and older from three geographical areas of England: results of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study I and II

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Fiona E; Arthur, Antony; Barnes, Linda E; Bond, John; Jagger, Carol; Robinson, Louise; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    limited frailty information, 56% response). Using CFAS I age and sex specific estimates of prevalence in individuals aged 65 years or older, standardised to the 2011 population, 8·3% (884 000) of this population would be expected to have dementia in 2011. However, CFAS II shows that the prevalence is lower (6·5%; 670 000), a decrease of 1·8% (odds ratio for CFAS II vs CFAS I 0·7, 95% CI 0·6–0·9, p=0·003). Sensitivity analyses suggest that these estimates are robust to the change in response. Interpretation This study provides further evidence that a cohort effect exists in dementia prevalence. Later-born populations have a lower risk of prevalent dementia than those born earlier in the past century. Funding UK Medical Research Council. PMID:23871492

  17. Hypnotic suggestion: a musical mathaphor.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, I

    1997-04-01

    Conceptually, hypnotizability has always been associated with the increase in suggestibility produced by hypnosis. In practice, hypnotizability is measured as suggestibility following a hypnotic induction. Our understanding of hypnosis and suggestion has been hampered by this discordance between the conceptual and operational definitions of hypnotizability. For example, despite hundreds of studies purporting to use standardized scales to assess hypnotizability, we know next to nothing about that construct, as it has been defined conceptually. Neither the hypothesis that it is a stable trait nor the hypothesis that it is modifiable have been tested in any study, and correlations between hypnotizability and other psychological or physiological variables have not yet been assessed. Conversely, we have learned much about hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility. Suggestibility has been measured on reliable and valid instruments, and we have abundant data on its stability, modifiability, and correlates. Hypnosis enhances suggestibility to a modest degree and increases the effectiveness of psychotherapy.

  18. Prevalence of sexual problems in Portugal: results of a population-based study using a stratified sample of men aged 18 to 70 years.

    PubMed

    Quinta Gomes, Ana Luísa; Nobre, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the use of different methodologies, target populations, and clinical definitions of sexual problems, recent epidemiological studies have shown that the occurrence of sexual difficulties is a very common experience among men from the general population regardless of their age. The objective of this study was to present epidemiological data on the prevalence of sexual difficulties in a community sample of 650 sexually active Portuguese men, stratified by age, marital status, and educational level. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire assessing sexual function in the previous four weeks (International Index of Erectile Function). Results showed that sexual difficulties were relatively common among this sample. Rapid ejaculation was the most frequently reported sexual difficulty (23.2%), followed by erectile difficulties (10.2%), orgasm problems (8.2%), and low desire (2.9%) in the previous four weeks. With the exception of rapid ejaculation, all categories showed age-specific prevalence rates, with sexual difficulties increasing gradually in men above age 45. Age was a significant predictor of all sexual difficulties except rapid ejaculation, and lower educational levels were related to orgasm difficulties. Findings are consistent with the majority of epidemiological studies indicating a high prevalence of sexual difficulties among men in the general population and highlight the importance and the need to implement sexual health promotion programs in the target population.

  19. New potential determinants of disability in aged persons with myocardial infarction: results from the KORINNA-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Elderly individuals with coronary heart disease are a population particularly burdened by disability. However, to date many predictors of disability established in general populations have not been considered in studies examining disability in elderly acute myocardial infarction (AMI) survivors. Our study explores factors associated with the ability to perform basic activities of daily living in elderly patients with AMI. Methods Baseline data from 333 AMI-survivors older than 64 years included within the randomized controlled KORINNA-study were utilized to examine disability assessed by the Stanford Health Assessment Questionare Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Numerous potential determinants including demographic characteristics, clinical parameters, co-morbidities, interventions, lifestyle, behavioral and personal factors were measured. Disability was defined as a HAQ-DI ≥ 0.5. After bi-variate testing the probability of disability was modeled with logistic regression. Missing covariate values were imputed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Results Disability was significantly more frequent in older individuals (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.05-1.16), patients with deficient nutrition (OR: 3.38, 95% CI: 1.60-7.15), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) (OR: 3.26, 95% CI: 1.29-8.25), hearing loss in both ears (OR: 2.85, 95% CI: 1.41-5.74), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.39-4.72), and heart failure (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.79-6.16). It was reduced in patients with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.21-0.80) and male sex (OR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.27-0.85). Conclusions Effects of nutrition, hearing loss, and diametrical effects of PTCA and CABG on disability were identified as relevant for examination of causality in longitudinal trials. Trial registration ISRCTN02893746. PMID:24645907

  20. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-07-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008-2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood.

  1. Information Topics of Greatest Interest for Return of Genome Sequencing Results among Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer at a Young Age.

    PubMed

    Seo, Joann; Ivanovich, Jennifer; Goodman, Melody S; Biesecker, Barbara B; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2016-08-20

    We investigated what information women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age would want to learn when genome sequencing results are returned. We conducted 60 semi-structured interviews with women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger. We examined what specific information participants would want to learn across result types and for each type of result, as well as how much information they would want. Genome sequencing was not offered to participants as part of the study. Two coders independently coded interview transcripts; analysis was conducted using NVivo10. Across result types, participants wanted to learn about health implications, risk and prevalence in quantitative terms, causes of variants, and causes of diseases. Participants wanted to learn actionable information for variants affecting risk of preventable or treatable disease, medication response, and carrier status. The amount of desired information differed for variants affecting risk of unpreventable or untreatable disease, with uncertain significance, and not health-related. Women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age recognize the value of genome sequencing results in identifying potential causes and effective treatments and expressed interest in using the information to help relatives and to further understand their other health risks. Our findings can inform the development of effective feedback strategies for genome sequencing that meet patients' information needs and preferences.

  2. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  3. Autobiographical memory and suggestibility in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Maggie; London, Kamala; Landa, Rebecca; Goodman, June

    2007-01-01

    Two paradigms were developed to examine autobiographical memory (ABM) and suggestibility in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children with ASD (N = 30) and typically developing chronological age-matched children (N = 38) ranging in age from 5 to 10 years were administered an ABM questionnaire. Children were asked about details of current and past personally experienced events. Children also participated in a staged event, and later were provided with true and false reminders about that event. Later, children again were interviewed about the staged event. The results from both paradigms revealed that children with ASD showed poorer ABM compared to controls. Generally, their ABM was marked by errors of omission rather than by errors of commission, and memory was particularly poor for early-life events. In addition, they were as suggestible as the typically developing children. The results are discussed in terms of applied and theoretical implications.

  4. Age-dependent parathormone levels and different CKD-MBD treatment practices of dialysis patients in Hungary - results from a nationwide clinical audit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Achieving target levels of laboratory parameters of bone and mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is important but also difficult in those living with end-stage kidney disease. This study aimed to determine if there are age-related differences in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) characteristics, including treatment practice in Hungarian dialysis patients. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from a large cohort of dialysis patients in Hungary. Patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis were also included. The enrolled patients were allocated into two groups based on their age (<65 years and ≥65 years). Characteristics of the age groups and differences in disease-related (epidemiology, laboratory, and treatment practice) parameters between the groups were analyzed. Results A total of 5008 patients were included in the analysis and the mean age was 63.4±14.2 years. A total of 47.2% of patients were women, 32.8% had diabetes, and 11.4% were on peritoneal dialysis. Diabetes (37.9% vs 27.3%), bone disease (42.9% vs 34.1%), and soft tissue calcification (56.3% vs 44.7%) were more prevalent in the older group than the younger group (p<0.001 for all). We found an inverse relationship between age and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (p<0.001). Serum PTH levels were lower in patients with diabetes compared with those without diabetes below 80 years (p<0.001). Diabetes and age were independently associated with serum PTH levels (interaction: diabetes × age groups, p=0.138). Older patients were more likely than younger patients to achieve laboratory target ranges for each parameter (Ca: 66.9% vs 62.1%, p<0.001; PO4: 52.6% vs 49.2%, p<0.05; and PTH: 50.6% vs 46.6%, p<0.01), and for combined parameters (19.8% vs 15.8%, p<0.001). Older patients were less likely to receive related medication than younger patients (66.9% vs 79.7%, p<0.001). Conclusions The achievement of laboratory target ranges for bone

  5. Older Age Results in Differential Gene Expression after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Is Linked to Imaging Differences at Acute Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Eun; Latour, Lawrence L.; Kim, Hyungsuk; Turtzo, L. Christine; Olivera, Anlys; Livingston, Whitney S.; Wang, Dan; Martin, Christiana; Lai, Chen; Cashion, Ann; Gill, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Older age consistently relates to a lesser ability to fully recover from a traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, there is limited data to explicate the nature of age-related risks. This study was undertaken to determine the relationship of age on gene-activity following a TBI, and how this biomarker relates to changes in neuroimaging findings. A young group (between the ages of 19 and 35 years), and an old group (between the ages of 60 and 89 years) were compared on global gene-activity within 48 h following a TBI, and then at follow-up within 1-week. At each time-point, gene expression profiles, and imaging findings from both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography were obtained and compared. The young group was found to have greater gene expression of inflammatory regulatory genes at 48 h and 1-week in genes such as basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 (BACH2), leucine-rich repeat neuronal 3 (LRRN3), and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) compared to the old group. In the old group, there was increased activity in genes within S100 family, including calcium binding protein P (S100P) and S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8), which previous studies have linked to poor recovery from TBI. The old group also had reduced activity of the noggin (NOG) gene, which is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and is linked to neurorecovery and neuroregeneration compared to the young group. We link these gene expression findings that were validated to neuroimaging, reporting that in the old group with a MRI finding of TBI-related damage, there was a lesser likelihood to then have a negative MRI finding at follow-up compared to the young group. Together, these data indicate that age impacts gene activity following a TBI, and suggest that this differential activity related to immune regulation and neurorecovery contributes to a lesser likelihood of neuronal recovery in older patients as indicated through neuroimaging. PMID

  6. The ability of three different models of frailty to predict all-cause mortality: results from the European Male Aging Study (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Lee, David M; Pye, Stephen R; Gielen, Evelien; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Pendleton, Neil; Finn, Joseph D; Tajar, Abdelouahid; O'Connell, Matthew D L; Rockwood, Kenneth; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E J; Punab, Margus; Wu, Frederick C W; O'Neill, Terence W

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared the ability of the most commonly used models of frailty to predict mortality among community-dwelling individuals. Here, we used a frailty index (FI), frailty phenotype (FP), and FRAIL scale (FS) to predict mortality in the EMAS. Participants were aged 40-79 years (n=2929) at baseline and 6.6% (n=193) died over a median 4.3 years of follow-up. The FI was generated from 39 deficits, including self-reported health, morbidities, functional performance and psychological assessments. The FP and FS consisted of five phenotypic criteria and both categorized individuals as robust when they had 0 criteria, prefrail as 1-2 criteria and frail as 3+ criteria. The mean FI increased linearly with age (r(2)=0.21) and in Cox regression models adjusted for age, center, smoking and partner status the hazard ratio (HR) for death for each unit increase of the FI was 1.49. Men who were prefrail or frail by either the FP or FS definitions, had a significantly increased risk of death compared to their robust counterparts. Compared to robust men, those who were FP frail at baseline had a HR for death of 3.84, while those who were FS frail had a HR of 3.87. All three frailty models significantly predicted future mortality among community-dwelling, middle-aged and older European men after adjusting for potential confounders. Our data suggest that the choice of frailty model may not be of paramount importance when predicting future risk of death, enabling flexibility in the approach used.

  7. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Giovanna; Acevedo, Mónica; Orellana, Lorena; Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge; Navarrete, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0-1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92-3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender.

  8. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0‐1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92–3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender. PMID:28321254

  9. An Integrational Model of Quality of Life in Older Age. Results from the Esrc/mrc Hsrc Quality of Life Survey in Britain.(author Abstract)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, Ann; Gabriel, Zahava

    2004-01-01

    This paper is based on the results of a national survey of the quality of life of 999 randomly sampled people aged 65 and over, living at home in Britain. The survey was semi-structured, and a sample of survey respondents was followed up and interviewed in-depth in order to explore their perceptions of quality of life in full. Comparisons are made…

  10. Developmental Differences in Eyewitness Suggestibility and Memory for Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackil, Jennifer K.; Zaragoza, Maria S.

    1995-01-01

    Examined children's ability to accurately monitor sources of suggested information. Age differences were found in the degree to which a misleading suggestion led subjects to believe they actually remembered seeing events that had in fact only been suggested to them. Proposes that these age differences reflect developmental differences in the…

  11. Increased fracture incidence in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women: updated results from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anjali; Shi, Qiuhu; Hoover, Donald R.; Anastos, Kathryn; Tien, Phyllis C.; Young, Mary A.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Gustafson, Deborah; Yin, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously reported that fracture incidence rates did not differ by HIV status among predominantly premenopausal Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) participants. We now conduct a follow-up study with 5 additional observation years, to further characterize fracture risk associated with HIV infection in women as they age. Methods We measured time to first new fracture at any site in 2375 (1713 HIV-infected, 662 HIV-uninfected) WIHS participants, with median 10 years follow-up. Fractures were self-reported semiannually. Proportional Hazards models assessed predictors of incident fracture. Results At index visit, HIV-infected women were older (median age 40 yrs (IQR 34–46) vs. 35 (27–43), p<0.0001) and more likely to be postmenopausal, HCV-infected, and weigh less than HIV-uninfected women. Among HIV-infected women, mean CD4+ count was 480 cells/µL and 63% were taking HAART. Unadjusted incidence rates of any fracture were higher in HIV-infected than uninfected women (2.19/100 person-years (py) vs 1.54/100py, p=0.002). In multivariate models, HIV status, older age, white (vs. black) race, prior fracture, history of cocaine use, and history of injection drug use were significant predictors of incident fracture. Among HIV-infected women, age, white race, prior fracture, smoking, and prior AIDS were predictors of new fracture. Conclusion Middle-aged HIV-infected women had a higher adjusted fracture rate than uninfected women. Cocaine use and injection drug use were also associated with a greater risk of incident fracture. Further research is needed to understand whether the risk of fracture associated with cocaine use relates to increased rate of falls, or direct effects on bone metabolism. PMID:26322667

  12. Determinants of health-related quality of life in older primary care patients: results of the longitudinal observational AgeCoDe Study

    PubMed Central

    Eisele, Marion; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; König, Hans-Helmut; Lange, Carolin; Wiese, Birgitt; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Luppa, Melanie; Heser, Kathrin; Koppara, Alexander; Mösch, Edelgard; Weeg, Dagmar; Fuchs, Angela; Pentzek, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Hajek, André

    2015-01-01

    Background In older patients with chronic diseases, focusing on subjective, patient-relevant outcomes, such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL), is more pertinent than pursuing clinical or laboratory target values. Aim To investigate factors influencing the course of HRQoL in older (aged ≥78 years) primary care patients and to derive non-pharmacological recommendations for improving their quality of life. Design and setting A population-based prospective longitudinal observational study featuring data analysis from waves 2 to 5 of the AgeCoDe study, which was conducted in six cities in Germany. Method The HRQoL of 1968 patients over the course of 4.5 years was observed. Patients were, on average, aged 82.6 (±3.4) years and their HRQoL was measured using the EQ-5D visual analogue scale in a face-to-face assessment. Fixed-effects regression models were calculated to examine impact of change in potential influencing factors. This method allows unobserved heterogeneity to be controlled. Results The course of the participants’ HRQoL declined with increasing age, walking and incident hearing impairment. Increasing the number of physical activities improved the HRQoL. These findings were modified by sex, education level, and depression. Especially in females and patients with rather low education levels, increased physical activity improved the subjects’ HRQoL, while hearing impairment decreased it. Moving to an institution only improved the HRQoL in patients without depression or those with a low level of education (primary education). Conclusion Motivating patients to increase their weekly physical activity and to focus on preserving their ability to walk are promising approaches to improving HRQoL in older age. Less-educated patients and those without depression can also benefit from moving into an institution (for example, a care or retirement home). PMID:26500318

  13. Use of Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Bioidentical Hormone Therapy in Australian Women 50 to 69 Years of Age: Results from a National, Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Velentzis, Louiza S; Banks, Emily; Sitas, Freddy; Salagame, Usha; Tan, Eng Hooi; Canfell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) use in Australia fell by 55% from 2001 to 2005, following the release of large-scale findings on its risks and benefits. Comprehensive national data, including information on overall prevalence of MHT use as well as information on duration of use in Australia have not been reported since the 2004-5 National Health Survey, when 11% of women aged 45+ years were estimated to be current MHT users. No national data are available on prevalence of use of "bioidentical" hormone therapy (BHT). The objective of this study was to determine recent prevalence of MHT and BHT use. A cross-sectional, national, age-stratified, population survey was conducted in 2013. Eligible women, aged 50-69 years, resident in Australia were randomly sampled in 5-year age groups from the Medicare enrolment database (Australia's universal health scheme). The response rate was 22% based on return of completed questionnaires, and analyses were restricted to 4,389 women within the specified age range. The estimated population-weighted prevalence of current use of MHT was 13% (95%CI 12-14), which was broadly similar to the previously reported national figures in 2004-5, suggesting that the use of MHT in Australia has largely stabilised over the past decade. A total of 39% and 20% of current-users with an intact uterus reported use of oestrogen-progestagen MHT and oestrogen-only MHT, respectively, whereas 77% of hysterectomised current-users used oestrogen-only MHT. Almost three-quarters of current-users [population-weighted prevalence 9% (95%CI 8-10)] had used MHT for ≥5 years. In regard to BHT, estimated population-weighted prevalence of ever use was 6% (95%CI 6-7) and 2% (95%CI 2-3) for current use. The population-weighted prevalence of MHT and BHT combined, in current users in their fifties and sixties was 15% (95%CI 14-16). These data provide a recent national "snapshot" of Australian women's use of both conventional MHT and of BHT.

  14. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  15. [Suggestion and hypnosis in hysteria].

    PubMed

    Berner, P

    1995-12-15

    Suggestive influences allow to resolve ambiguities. Normally they are only accepted if they correspond with the knowledge and believes of the subject. Under hypnosis or under the impact of serious psychic perturbations one may take up reality constructions which are not in conformity with these criteria. The restriction of consciousness and the ignoring of certain functions permitting this are the common basis of hypnosis and hysteria. But suggestions do not cause the later; they may only shape the symptomatology. Hypnosis can create a terrain facilitating the resolution of the problems underlying hysteria but it does not represent the treatment of hysteria.

  16. Aging and Neuronal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.; Magnus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Everyone ages, but only some will acquire a neurodegenerative disorder in the process. Disease might occur when cells fail to respond adaptively to age-related increases in oxidative, metabolic and ionic stress resulting in excessive accumulation of damaged proteins, DNA and membranes. Determinants of neuronal vulnerability might include cell size and location, metabolism of disease-specific proteins, and repertoire of signal transduction pathways and stress resistance mechanisms. Emerging evidence on protein interaction networks that monitor and respond to the normal aging process suggests that successful neural aging is possible for most, but also cautions that cures for neurodegenerative disorders are unlikely in the near future. PMID:16552414

  17. The Effect of Mode of Delivery and Hospital Type on Newborn Hearing Screening Results Using Otoacoustic Emissions: Based on Screening Age.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Farhad; Hamidi Nahrani, Morteza; Seifrabiei, Mohammad Ali; Emadi, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    It is well known that false positive on newborn hearing screening increases cost and maternal anxiety and worry. We aimed to evaluate the influence of mode of delivery (cesarean, vaginal) and hospital type (private, public) on false positives first screening test based on screening age. Identification and control of these factors can reduce the rate of false positives. Overall, 2784 infants were evaluated by otoacoustic emissions test. Hearing screening test was performed before hospital discharge. Finally, rate of the false-positive between both delivery group and hospital types were compared on the basis of screening age. False-positive results are obtained when a condition is not present, but the test results indicate that it is present. False positive rate in the first screening test in vaginal delivery was significantly higher than cesarean delivery and rate of significantly decreased with screening age. This reduction was observed only in cesarean delivery. Also the rate of false positives in public hospital is 2.2 fold higher than private hospital (P = 0.000) and with increase in screening age, the rate of False positive is significantly reduced in private hospitals while this decrease is not observed in public hospital. Screening test be retarded as much as possible in cesarean group and private hospital and be conducted just prior to hospital discharge also in public hospital, screening test are done in a separate room. In this way, false positive can be reduced by about six times and the cost and concerns imposed by the rate of false positives minimized.

  18. 10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2)…

  19. Suggestions for Library Network Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Various approaches to the design of automatic library systems are described, suggestions for the design of rational and effective automated library processes are posed, and an attempt is made to assess the importance and effect of library network systems on library operations and library effectiveness. (Author/CWM)

  20. Online Training Sessions: Suggested Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabonell, Martha; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These planning and evaluative guidelines for online trainers utilize a sliding scale--from minimal to suggested to optimal--for five types of training sessions: (1) Search Service--Beginning; (2) Search Service--Advanced; (3) Search Service--Subject; (4) Database Producer; and (5) Independent Introductory Workshop. (RAA)

  1. Assessing the Influence of Age and Ethnicity on the Association Between Iron Status and Lead Concentration in Blood: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Ngueta, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Inverse association has been reported between iron intake and blood lead concentration (PbB) in epidemiological studies. Data on this association at a low dose of lead exposure are scarce, and the potential influence of ethnicity and age has not been previously reported. This study aimed to estimate the relation between serum ferritin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume and PbB among 6-18-year-old individuals. Data from Canadian Health and Measures Survey (CHMS), cycle 1 (2007-2009) and cycle 2 (2009-2011), were accessed. A household interview followed by a physical examination (including collection of blood) was performed. The quantification of lead and trace elements in blood was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean PbB was 0.79 μg/dL (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.75-0.82). Except for haemoglobin levels, no association was found between PbB and any of the parameters of iron status, independently of age. A significant interaction was observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to PbB (p = 0.07). We found a little evidence of an association between iron status and PbB in the whole sample of subjects aged 6-18 years exposed to low levels of environmental lead. The significant interaction observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to BPb suggests that the influence of ferritin levels on lead uptake may change by ethnicity, even at low exposure.

  2. Barriers and Motivators to Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Uptake among Different Age Groups of Men in Zimbabwe: Results from a Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Hatzold, Karin; Mavhu, Webster; Jasi, Phineas; Chatora, Kumbirai; Cowan, Frances M.; Taruberekera, Noah; Mugurungi, Owen; Ahanda, Kim; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background We conducted quantitative and qualitative studies to explore barriers and motivating factors to VMMC for HIV prevention, and to assess utilization of existing VMMC communication channels. Methods and Findings A population-based survey was conducted with 2350 respondents aged 15–49. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis between circumcision and selected demographics. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of male circumcision uptake compared to intention to circumcise. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with men purposively selected to represent a range of ethnicities. 68% and 53% of female/male respondents, respectively, had heard about VMMC for HIV prevention, mostly through the radio (71%). Among male respondents, 11.3% reported being circumcised and 49% reported willingness to undergo VMMC. Factors which men reported motivated them to undergo VMMC included HIV/STI prevention (44%), improved hygiene (26%), enhanced sexual performance (6%) and cervical cancer prevention for partner (6%). Factors that deterred men from undergoing VMMC included fear of pain (40%), not believing that they were at risk of HIV (18%), lack of partner support (6%). Additionally, there were differences in motivators and barriers by age. FGDs suggested additional barriers including fear of HIV testing, partner refusal, reluctance to abstain from sex and myths and misconceptions. Conclusions VMMC demand-creation messages need to be specifically tailored for different ages and should emphasize non-HIV prevention benefits, such as improved hygiene and sexual appeal, and need to address men's fear of pain. Promoting VMMC among women is crucial as they appear to have considerable influence over men's decision to get circumcised. PMID:24802746

  3. The influence of age, gender and socio-economic status on multimorbidity patterns in primary care. first results from the multicare cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a phenomenon with high burden and high prevalence in the elderly. Our previous research has shown that multimorbidity can be divided into the multimorbidity patterns of 1) anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders (ADS) and pain, and 2) cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known, how these patterns are influenced by patient characteristics. The objective of this paper is to analyze the association of socio-demographic variables, and especially socio-economic status with multimorbidity in general and with each multimorbidity pattern. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of 3.189 multimorbid patients aged 65+ randomly selected from 158 GP practices. Data were collected in GP interviews and comprehensive patient interviews. Missing values have been imputed by hot deck imputation based on Gower distance in morbidity and other variables. The association of patient characteristics with the number of chronic conditions is analysed by multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results Multimorbidity in general is associated with age (+0.07 chronic conditions per year), gender (-0.27 conditions for female), education (-0.26 conditions for medium and -0.29 conditions for high level vs. low level) and income (-0.27 conditions per logarithmic unit). The pattern of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders shows comparable associations with a higher coefficient for gender (-1.29 conditions for female), while multimorbidity within the pattern of ADS and pain correlates with gender (+0.79 conditions for female), but not with age or socioeconomic status. Conclusions Our study confirms that the morbidity load of multimorbid patients is associated with age, gender and the socioeconomic status of the patients, but there were no effects of living arrangements and marital status. We could also show that the influence of patient characteristics is dependent on the

  4. [Saving motives in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Preliminary results of a new inventory for exploring lifespan saving motives].

    PubMed

    Rager, B; Lang, F R; Wagner, G G

    2012-12-01

    There is some research on personal reasons for saving money in the economic sciences. However, not much is known about the age differences of saving motives. In this vein, the future time perspective (FTP) is known to play a critical role for motivation across the life span. In this study, we introduce a new Saving Motive Inventory (SMI), which also covers saving goals after retirement. Furthermore, it is argued that additional saving motives that are not based on economic models of life-cycle saving also exist. In accordance with the socio-emotional selectivity theory, we explored age differences in an online survey with 496 participants from young (19-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years), and older (65-86 years) adulthood, who completed a questionnaire on saving motives, personality, and future-related thinking (e.g., Future Time Perspective Scale, Life Orientation Test). Results of the explorative Factor Analysis (EFA) are consistent with the theoretical expectations. The factors are generativity, educational investment, consumption, indifference, and provision for death and dying. Together these five factors account for 67% of the variance. In general, the inventory is reliable and valid with respect to the expected internal and external criteria. It contributes to better understanding of saving motives over the lifespan, especially with respect to effects of the future time perspective.

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Pain in People Aged 60 Years and above in Singapore: Results from the WiSE Study

    PubMed Central

    Satghare, Pratika; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimansyah; Chua, Boon Yiang; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although pain is experienced among people of all ages, there is a need to study its risk factors and impact among older adults. Aims. The study sought to determine the prevalence, sociodemographics, and clinical correlates of pain along with association of pain with disability among older adults in Singapore. Methods. The WiSE study was a comprehensive cross-sectional, single phase, epidemiological survey conducted among the elderly aged 60 years and above and used a nationally representative sample of three main ethnic groups in Singapore: Chinese, Malays, and Indians. The survey administered 10/66 protocol pain questionnaire, sociodemographic questionnaire, health status questionnaire, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0), and Geriatric Mental State (GMS) examination. Results. A total of 2565 respondents completed the study giving a response rate of 65.5%. The prevalence of pain among the elderly aged 60 years and above is 19.5 %. Females, incomplete primary education Indians, and those diagnosed with any chronic health condition were associated with risk of pain and disability. Conclusion. Study findings showed that disability related to pain among the elderly is considerable making it a priority to reduce the morbidity and disability among the elderly with pain. PMID:27445628

  6. The Effect of Age, Gender, and Insertion Site on Marginal Bone Loss around Endosseous Implants: Results from a 3-Year Trial with Premium Implant System

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Massimiliano; Macaluso, Guido M.; Manfredi, Edoardo; Bonanini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The goal of this study was to evaluate bone changes around endosseous implants in partially edentulous patients. Materials and Methods. A total of 632 two-stage implants were placed in 252 patients. The implants had straight emergence profile, ZirTi surface, 3.3 to 5 mm diameter, and 8.5 to 13 mm length. Bone levels were assessed on orthopantomography immediately after surgery and after 36 months and marginal bone loss (MBL) was calculated from their difference. Results. Cumulative survival rate was 98.73%. Overall MBL was 0.8 mm ± 0.03 (mean ± SEM). Higher MBL was observed around implants in the maxilla than in the mandible (P < 0.007). A relation between implant diameter and MBL (P < 0.0001) was observed in male and, more limitedly, female patients. Older patients had higher MBL in the maxilla, but not in the mandible (P < 0.0001). MBL progressively increased with age in male patients, but reached a peak already in the 50–60 years age group in the female subset (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The overall MBL is consistent with the available literature. Site difference and patient age and gender appear to significantly affect MBL, representing important factors to be considered during implant placement. PMID:25187903

  7. Protective factors for child development at age 2 in the presence of poor maternal mental health: results from the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kehler, Heather L; Tough, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the combination of factors most protective of developmental delay at age 2 among children exposed to poor maternal mental health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Pregnant women were recruited from primary healthcare offices, the public health laboratory service and community posters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Participants 1596 mother–child dyads who participated in the All Our Babies study and who completed a follow-up questionnaire when their child was 2 years old. Among participants who completed the 2-year questionnaire and had complete mental health data (n=1146), 305 women (27%) were classified as high maternal mental health risk. Primary measures Child development at age 2 was described and a resilience analysis was performed among a subgroup of families at maternal mental health risk. The primary outcome was child development problems. Protective factors were identified among families at risk, defined as maternal mental health risk, a composite measure created from participants’ responses to mental health life course questions and standardised mental health measures. Results At age 2, 18% of children were classified as having development problems, 15% with behavioural problems and 13% with delayed social–emotional competencies. Among children living in a family with maternal mental health risk, protective factors against development problems included higher social support, higher optimism, more relationship happiness, less difficulty balancing work and family responsibilities, limiting the child's screen time to <1 hour per day and the child being able to fall asleep in <30 min and sleeping through the night by age 2. Conclusions Among families where the mother has poor mental health, public health and early intervention strategies that support interpersonal relationships, social support, optimism, work–life balance, limiting children's screen time and establishing good sleep habits in the child's first 2

  8. The effects of acid leaching on 40Ar/39Ar age dating results using samples from the Walvis Ridge hotspot trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klath, J. F.; Koppers, A. A.; Heaton, D. E.; Schnur, S.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we systematically explore how acid leaching can be used to reduce the negative effects of seawater alteration on the 40Ar/39Ar age dating of submarine basalts. Koppers et al (2000) showed that acid leaching of groundmass samples generated more consistent ages as well as ages more concordant with phenocrystic mineral phases, compared to samples that were left untreated. By studying the effects of progressively increasing the strength and length of acid treatment, we will show how acid leaching of groundmass separates reduces alteration while leaving the initial eruption signature intact. Samples were chosen from the Walvis ridge hotspot trail in the southeast Atlantic. Three samples were selected based on degree and style of alteration. Two samples (basalt and basaltic andesite) appear highly altered in thin section. The basalt contains diffuse iddingsite alteration that is pervasive throughout the groundmass. The basaltic andesite displays focused secondary mineral phases within and around abundant vesicles. The third sample, a trachyte, shows relatively minor degrees of alteration in thin section. These groundmass separates were divided into four splits and treated with a progressively stronger acid and for longer duration. One split from each rock was left untreated to act as a baseline. Of the other three splits from each sample, one was treated with a mild leach (1N HCl and 1N HNO3), one a strong leach (1N HCl, 1N HNO3, 6N HCl, and 3N HNO3), and lastly the strong leach performed twice. The samples were then handpicked to remove any remaining visible alteration. The untreated samples were picked as well, removing the most distinctly altered grains. All splits were analyzed by electron microprobe, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and the incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar dating method. We will report on the results of an image analysis of microprobe backscatter images and elemental maps taken of individual groundmass grains. This analysis will show the location

  9. Age Limits.

    PubMed

    Antfolk, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men-regardless of their age-have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes' age preferences is resolved according to women's preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest) of considered and actual sex partners in a population-based sample of 2,655 adults (aged 18-50 years). Over the investigated age span, women reported a narrower age range than men and women tended to prefer slightly older men. We also show that men's age range widens as they get older: While they continue to consider sex with young women, men also consider sex with women their own age or older. Contrary to earlier suggestions, men's sexual activity thus reflects also their own age range, although their potential interest in younger women is not likely converted into sexual activity. Compared to homosexual men, bisexual and heterosexual men were more unlikely to convert young preferences into actual behavior, supporting female-choice theory.

  10. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  11. Using postnatal age to determine test dates leads to misinterpretations when treatments alter gestation length: results from a collaborative behavioral teratology study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, T; Narita, H; Ogawa, T; Tanimura, T

    1998-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted by researchers from 18 laboratories that participated in the Behavioral Teratology Meeting in Japan. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats from four breeders received subcutaneous injections of nicotine (6 mg/kg body weight) from day 7 to day 20 of gestation. Results of preweaning tests were closely related to length of gestation, and prolonged gestation was seen in the nicotine group. The effects of nicotine were compared with and without the adjustment of the mean difference in gestational lengths. Without the adjustment (i.e., by employing assessment in terms of postnatal day) several perplexing results were obtained, indicating that the nicotine group developed more quickly than the control group on several preweaning tests. By employing the adjustment, these perplexing results disappeared, indicating that the nicotine group developed more slowly than the control group. The merit of employing gestational day (or postcoital age) as an alternative index is emphasized.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poor Sleep Quality among Chinese Elderly in an Urban Community: Results from the Shanghai Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disorders causes a significant negative effect on mental and physical health, particularly among the elderly. The disease burden and risk factors of poor sleep quality of the elderly need to be verified using a validated form of measurement in urban mainland China. Methods This study included 1086 community residents aged ≥60 years who completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI). Poor sleeper was defined by a CPSQI global score of >5. Subjects also accepted the neurological and neuropsychological assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS). A history of chronic diseases was confirmed by the medical records of each participant. Results The prevalence of poor sleep quality in this population was 41.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.6–44.5%), with a higher rate observed in elderly females (45.8% [95% CI = 41.9–49.7%]) than that in elderly males (35.8% [95% CI = 31.4–40.1%]). The prevalence rate increased with age, from 32.1% (95% CI = 27.8–36.4%) in those aged 60–69 years to 52.5% (95% CI = 45.9–59.1%) in those aged ≥80 years (p value for trend<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.03[95% CI = 1.01–1.05], p<0.001), less education duration (OR = 1.04 [95% CI = 1.01–1.08, p = 0.014), living alone (OR = 1.62 [95% CI = 1.02–2.58], p = 0.04), anxiety (ZSAS score: OR = 1.09 [95% CI = 1.05–1.12], p<0.001), number of chronic disease (OR = 1.18 [95% CI = 1.07–1.30], p = 0.14) and arthritis (OR = 1.45[95% CI = 1.05–2.01], p = 0.025) were risk factors of poor sleep quality. Conclusions Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent among elderly Chinese residents in urban Shanghai. Growing attention and comprehensive countermeasures involving psycho-social and personal activities

  13. Long-term (60-month) results for the implantable miniature telescope: efficacy and safety outcomes stratified by age in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, David; Freund, K Bailey; Regillo, Carl; Levy, Marc H; Garg, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of an implantable miniature telescope (IMT) in patients with bilateral, end-stage, age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical trial with fellow eye controls enrolled 217 patients (mean age 76 years) with AMD and moderate-to-profound bilateral central visual acuity loss (20/80–20/800) resulting from untreatable geographic atrophy, disciform scars, or both. A subgroup analysis was performed with stratification for age (patient age 65 to <75 years [group 1; n=70] and patient age ≥75 years [group 2; n=127]), with a comparative evaluation of change in best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), quality of life, ocular complications from surgery, adverse events, and endothelial cell density (ECD). Follow-up in an extension study was 60 months. Results Data were available for 22, 38, and 31 patients in group 1 and 42, 46, and 32 patients in group 2 at 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Mean BCDVA improvement from baseline to 60 months was 2.41±2.69 lines in all patients (n=76), with 2.64±2.55 lines in group 1 and 2.09±2.88 lines in group 2. Quality of life scores were significantly higher in group 1. The most common significant surgery-related ocular complications in group 1 were iritis >30 days after surgery (7/70; 10%) and persistent corneal edema (3/70; 4.3%); and in group 2 were a decrease in BCDVA in the implanted eye or IMT removal (10/127 each; 7.9%), corneal edema >30 days after surgery (9/127; 7.1%), and persistent corneal edema (6/127; 4.7%). Significant adverse events included four corneal transplants, comprising two (2.9%) in group 1 and two (1.6%) in group 2. At 60 months, one patient in group 1 (3.2%) and three patients in group 2 (9.4%) had lost ≥2 lines of vision. The IMT was removed in one (1.4%) and ten (7.9%) patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean ECD loss was 20% at 3 months. Chronic loss was 3% per

  14. U. S. -French Cooperative Research Program: U. S. test results for cable insulation and jacket materials at the completion of accelerated aging

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Eight different U.S. insulation and jacket products have been accelerated aged at Sandia. The experimental variables included: (1) sequential versus simultaneous accelerated aging exposures; (2) the order of the sequential exposures; and (3) ambient versus 70/sup 0/C irradiation temperatures during sequential aging exposures. We observed that the irradiation temperature (70/sup 0/C or ambient) was secondary in importance to the choice of sequence for thermal and radiation aging. For most materials studied (except TEFZEL) the irradiation then thermal aging sequence was as severe or more severe than the thermal then irradiation aging sequence.

  15. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults—Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study

    PubMed Central

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J.; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E.

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  16. Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has increased dramatically in recent years. The present report compares overall utilization and results for 25(OH)D orders at two academic medical centers - one in New York and one in Iowa – in order to characterize the vitamin D status of our inpatient and outpatient populations. Results are also compared to those from a national reference laboratory to determine whether patterns at these two institutions reflect those observed nationally. Methods Retrospective data queries of 25(OH)D orders and results were conducted using the laboratory information systems at Weill Cornell Medical College / New York Presbyterian Hospital (WCMC), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), and ARUP Laboratories (ARUP). Chart review was conducted for cases with very high or low serum 25(OH)D levels in the WCMC and UIHC datasets. Results The majority of tests were ordered on females and outpatients. Average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in female versus male patients across most ages in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. As expected, average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in outpatients than inpatients. Serum 25(OH)D levels showed seasonal periodicity, with average levels higher in summer than winter and correlating to regional UV index. Area plots demonstrated a peak of increased 25(OH)D insufficiency / deficiency in adolescent females, although overall worse 25(OH)D status was found in male versus female patients in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. Surprisingly, improved 25(OH)D status was observed in patients starting near age 50. Finally, chart review of WCMC and UIHC datasets revealed over-supplementation (especially of ≥ 50,000 IU weekly doses) in the rare cases of very high 25(OH)D levels. General nutritional deficiency and/or severe illness was found in most cases of severe 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusions 25(OH)D status of patients seen by healthcare providers varies according to age, gender, season

  17. Factors Influencing Suicidal Ideation Among Korean Adults by Age: Results of the 2010-2011 Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-ok; Lee, Hyo Young

    2015-11-01

    Suicidal ideation increases the risk of suicide. This study investigated the age-specific contributions of sociodemographic factors, health status, and health behaviors to suicidal ideation using nationally representative data. The factors associated with suicidal ideation differ by age. Perceived bad health, stress, and depression had a significant influence on suicidal ideation in all age groups, but their specific effects differed in different age groups. The influence of perceived bad health increased with age, and the effect of stress was strongest among those aged 45-64 years. Moreover, the effect of being depressed decreased by age and was strongest among those 20-44 years of age. Disease and marital status did not have a significant effect on suicidal ideation among those 45-64 years old, and education had no effect among those 65 years or older.

  18. Vitamin B12 status in women of childbearing age in the UK and its relationship with national nutrient intake guidelines: results from two National Diet and Nutrition Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Venkataraman, Hema; Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess serum B12, folate and the associated homocysteine (Hcy) levels among women of childbearing age in the UK and examine their association with dietary intake in relation to the UK Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for B12 and folate. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data from two publicly available National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS 2000/2001 and 2008/2012) were used. These were population-based surveys of randomly selected samples of adults which were carried out in their households. Participants Women of childbearing age (aged 19–39 years), representative of the UK population. Those who were pregnant or breastfeeding were excluded. Outcome measures The associations between micronutrient intakes and blood levels of B12, folate and Hcy were assessed by correlation and stepwise linear regression. B12 intake was divided into quintiles and plotted against blood B12 and Hcy concentrations to determine the threshold of any associations. Results 299 women from the first NDNS cohort had complete intake and biomarker data. The prevalence of serum vitamin B12 (≤150 pmol/L) and serum folate (≤10 nmol/L) deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia (≥12 µmol/L) was 12.4%, 6.4% and 21.2%, respectively, despite seemingly adequate B12 intakes (median 3.8 μg/day, 96% consumed more than the UK RNI of 1.5 μg/day). B12 concentrations increased across all quintiles of intake with serum levels in quintiles 4 and 5 (median intake 4.9 and 7.1 μg/day, respectively) significantly higher than quintile 1. However, Hcy concentrations levelled off between quintiles 4 and 5. Comparison of micronutrient intake between the two surveys found that folate intake has reduced in the more recent cohort. Conclusions The UK RNI for B12 intake should be increased for women of childbearing age with intakes of around 5–7 μg/day likely to be associated with stable biomarker levels. B12 levels should also be measured in women preconceptionally or in early

  19. Effect of Relative Age in the First Grade of Primary School on Long-Term Scholastic Results: International Comparative Evidence Using PISA 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprietsma, Maresa

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of pupil's relative age within the first grade of primary school on mathematics and reading test scores at age 15. The main objective is to evaluate the long-term causal effect of relative age in the first grades of primary school on pupil's test in 16 different countries. We use the national rule for…

  20. Results from in vitro and ex vivo skin aging models assessing the antiglycation and anti-elastase MMP-12 potential of glycylglycine oleamide

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanowicz, Patrick; Haure, Marie-José; Ceruti, Isabelle; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Castex-Rizzi, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycation is an aging reaction of naturally occurring sugars with dermal proteins. Type I collagen and elastin are most affected by glycation during intrinsic chronological aging. Aim To study the in vitro and ex vivo assays in human skin cells and explants and the antiaging effects of glycylglycine oleamide (GGO). Materials and methods The antiglycation effect of GGO was assessed in a noncellular in vitro study on collagen and, ex vivo, by immunohistochemical staining on human skin explants (elastin network glycation). The ability of GGO to contract fibroblasts was assessed in a functional assay, and its anti-elastase (MMP-12) activity was compared to that of oleic acid alone, glycylglycine (GG) alone, and oleic acid associated with GG. Results In vitro, GGO reduced the glycation of type I collagen. Ex vivo, GGO restored the expression of fibrillin-1 inhibited by glycation. Furthermore, GGO induced a tissue retraction of almost 30%. Moreover, the MMP-12 activity was inhibited by up to 60%. Conclusion Under the present in vitro and ex vivo conditions, GGO prevents glycation of the major structural proteins of the dermis, helping to reduce the risk of rigidification. By maintaining the elastic function of the skin, GGO may be a promising sparring partner for other topical antiaging agents. PMID:27382322

  1. Predictions of mortality from pleural mesothelioma in Italy: a model based on asbestos consumption figures supports results from age-period-cohort models.

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Montanaro, Fabio; Mastrantonio, Marina; Uccelli, Raffaella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Nesti, Massimo; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2005-05-20

    Italy was the second main asbestos producer in Europe, after the Soviet Union, until the end of the 1980s, and raw asbestos was imported on a large scale until 1992. The Italian pattern of asbestos consumption lags on average about 10 years behind the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom and the Nordic countries. Measures to reduce exposure were introduced in the mid-1970s in some workplaces. In 1986, limitations were imposed on the use of crocidolite and in 1992 asbestos was definitively banned. We have used primary pleural cancer mortality figures (1970-1999) to predict mortality from mesothelioma among Italian men in the next 30 years by age-cohort-period models and by a model based on asbestos consumption figures. The pleural cancer/mesothelioma ratio and mesothelioma misdiagnosis in the past were taken into account in the analysis. Estimated risks of birth cohorts born after 1945 decrease less quickly in Italy than in other Western countries. The findings predict a peak with about 800 mesothelioma annual deaths in the period 2012-2024. Results estimated using age-period-cohort models were similar to those obtained from the asbestos consumption model.

  2. Dengue in Vietnamese infants--results of infection-enhancement assays correlate with age-related disease epidemiology, and cellular immune responses correlate with disease severity.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tran Nguyen Bich; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Thuy, Tran Thi; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Hoang, Dang Minh; Dung, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Lien, Le Bich; Quy, Nguyen Thien; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Hieu, Lu Thi Minh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Farrar, Jeremy; Simmons, Cameron P

    2008-08-15

    The pathogenesis of severe dengue is not well understood. Maternally derived subneutralizing levels of dengue virus-reactive IgG are postulated to be a critical risk factor for severe dengue during infancy. In this study, we found that, in healthy Vietnamese infants, there was a strong temporal association between the Fc-dependent, dengue virus infection-enhancing activity of neat plasma and the age-related epidemiology of severe dengue. We then postulated that disease severity in infants with primary infections would be associated with a robust immune response, possibly as a consequence of higher viral burdens in vivo. Accordingly, in infants hospitalized with acute dengue, the activation phenotype of peripheral-blood NK cells and CD8+ and CD4+ T cells correlated with overall disease severity, but HLA-A*1101-restricted NS3(133-142)-specific CD8+ T cells were not measurable until early convalescence. Plasma levels of cytokines/chemokines were generally higher in infants with dengue shock syndrome. Collectively, these data support a model of dengue pathogenesis in infants whereby antibody-dependent enhancement of infection explains the age-related case epidemiology and could account for antigen-driven immune activation and its association with disease severity. These results also highlight potential risks in the use of live attenuated dengue vaccines in infants in countries where dengue is endemic.

  3. Personalized and not general suggestion produces false autobiographical memories and suggestion-consistent behavior.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Jarry, Josée L; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Suggesting false childhood events produces false autobiographical beliefs, memories and suggestion-consistent behavior. The mechanisms by which suggestion affects behavior are not understood, and whether false beliefs and memories are necessary for suggestions to impact behavior remains unexplored. We examined the relative effects of providing a personalized suggestion (suggesting that an event occurred to the person in the past), and/or a general suggestion (suggesting that an event happened to others in the past). Participants (N=122) received a personalized suggestion, a general suggestion, both or neither, about childhood illness due to spoiled peach yogurt. The personalized suggestion resulted in false beliefs, false memories, and suggestion-consistent behavioral intentions immediately after the suggestion. One week or one month later participants completed a taste test that involved eating varieties of crackers and yogurts. The personalized suggestion led to reduced consumption of only peach yogurt, and those who reported a false memory showed the most eating suppression. This effect on behavior was equally strong after one week and one month, showing a long lived influence of the personalized suggestion. The general suggestion showed no effects. Suggestions that convey personal information about a past event produce false autobiographical memories, which in turn impact behavior.

  4. Effect of Multimorbidity on Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults Aged 55 Years or Older: Results from the SU.VI.MAX 2 Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Perret-Guillaume, Christine; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Agrinier, Nelly; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Assmann, Karen E.; Briançon, Serge; Rotonda, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multimorbid chronic diseases are usually considered separately in trials. Here, we aimed to describe overall multimorbidity patterns in adults aged 55 years or older and assess their effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods We used data for 5,647 participants included in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants 2 (SU.VI.MAX 2) population-based trial. HRQoL was assessed by the French versions of the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 and the Duke Health Profile. An exploratory factor analysis was used to determine multimorbidity patterns, and a multimorbidity score for each resulting pattern was calculated. Adjusted multiple linear regression was used to examine the association between the identified multimorbidity and HRQoL scores by gender and for each age group (55–59, 60–64, 65–69, ≥ 70 years). Results More than 63% of the sample reported two or more chronic conditions (from 55.8% for those 55–59 years to 74.4% for those ≥ 70 years). Multimorbidity was more common among women than men (67.3% vs 60%). Two different multimorbidity patterns were identified. Pattern A was represented mainly by mental illness and bone impairments. Pattern B was represented mainly by cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. After adjusting for covariates, a high pattern A score was associated with reduced HRQoL for the physical and mental components of each HRQoL questionnaire, and a high pattern B score was associated with reduced HRQoL for only the physical component of each questionnaire. These multimorbidity scores affected HRQoL differently by age group. Conclusion Our study used a novel methodological approach to account for multimorbidity patterns in determining the link with chronic conditions. These multimorbidity scores (counted and weighted) can be used in clinical research to control for the effect of multimorbidity on patients’ HRQoL and may be useful for clinical practice. Clinical Trial Registration

  5. Indirect dark matter signatures in the cosmic dark ages. I. Generalizing the bound on s -wave dark matter annihilation from Planck results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies by Planck provide a sensitive probe of dark matter annihilation during the cosmic dark ages, and specifically constrain the annihilation parameter feff⟨σ v ⟩/mχ. Using new results (paper II) for the ionization produced by particles injected at arbitrary energies, we calculate and provide feff values for photons and e+e- pairs injected at keV-TeV energies; the feff value for any dark matter model can be obtained straightforwardly by weighting these results by the spectrum of annihilation products. This result allows the sensitive and robust constraints on dark matter annihilation presented by the Planck collaboration to be applied to arbitrary dark matter models with s -wave annihilation. We demonstrate the validity of this approach using principal component analysis. As an example, we integrate over the spectrum of annihilation products for a range of Standard Model final states to determine the CMB bounds on these models as a function of dark matter mass, and demonstrate that the new limits generically exclude models proposed to explain the observed high-energy rise in the cosmic ray positron fraction. We make our results publicly available at http://nebel.rc.fas.harvard.edu/epsilon.

  6. Assessment of influence of pro-health nutrition education and resulting changes of nutrition behavior of women aged 65-85 on their body content

    PubMed Central

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction One of systemic changes connected to body ageing is the change of body content and the possibility of formation and/or intensification of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension symptoms. Material and methods The research was conducted on 68 women aged 65-85 with body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 to 44.5 kg/m2 who have been educated for four months. The energy and nutritive value of 204 daily food rations (DFRs) was evaluated twice: first days of October and – after the diet correction and implementation of the basic rules – from the end of January. The measurements, anthropometric and body content (in 35 women under research) with the bio-impedance method was checked twice – before and after completing the education. Results After completing the education, there was a statistically significant increase in consumption of grain products, fermented milk products, potatoes, fruit and vegetables, as well as seeds of legumes. Consumption of meat and cold meats, sugar and sweets significantly decreased. In the course of education, an individual-specific decrease in body mass of the participants was noticed, which found its reflection in positive changes of the anthropometric indicators value. A significant decrease in fat content in bodies of women under research was also noticed, which was accompanied by a slight increase in fat-free body mass and water. Conclusions The four-month pro-health education of women influenced changes in improper nutrition habits resulting in, besides the improvement of organism functions and well-being of women under research, body mass loss and changes in content of the body. PMID:26848293

  7. Microgravity effects on Drosophila melanogaster development and aging: Comparative analysis of the results of the fly experiment in the Biokosmos 9 biosatellite flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, R.; González-Jurado, J.; Calleja, M.; Garesse, R.; Maroto, M.; Ramírez, E.; Holgado, M. C.; de Juan, E.; Miquel, J.

    The results are presented of the exposure of Drosophila melanogaster to microgravity conditions during a 15-day biosatellite flight, Biokosmos 9, in a joint ESA-URSS project. The experimental containers were loaded before launch with a set of Drosophila melanogaster Oregon R larvae so that imagoes were due to emerge half-way through the flight. A large number of normally developed larvae were recovered from the space-flown containers. These larvae were able to develop into normal adults confirming earlier results that Drosophila melanogaster of a wild-type constitution can develop normally in the absence of gravity. However, microgravity exposure clearly enhances the number of growing embryos laid by the flies and possibly slows down the developmental pace of the microgravity-exposed animals. Due to some problems in the experimental set-up, this slowing down needs to be verified in future experiments. No live adult that had been exposed to microgravity was recovered from the experiment, so that no life span studies could be carried out, but adult males emerged from the recovered embryos showed a slight shortening in life span and a lower performance in other experimental tests of aging. This agrees with the results of previous experiments performed by our groups.

  8. Microgravity effects on Drosophila melanogaster development and aging: comparative analysis of the results of the Fly experiment in the Biokosmos 9 biosatellite flight.

    PubMed

    Marco, R; González-Jurado, J; Calleja, M; Garesse, R; Maroto, M; Ramírez, E; Holgado, M C; de Juan, E; Miquel, J

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented of the exposure of Drosophila melanogaster to microgravity conditions during a 15-day biosatellite flight, Biokosmos 9, in a joint ESA-URSS project. The experimental containers were loaded before launch with a set of Drosophila melanogaster Oregon R larvae so that imagoes were due to emerge half-way through the flight. A large number of normally developed larvae were recovered from the space-flown containers. These larvae were able to develop into normal adults confirming earlier results that Drosophila melanogaster of a wild-type constitution can develop normally in the absence of gravity. However, microgravity exposure clearly enhances the number of growing embryos laid by the flies and possibly slows down the developmental pace of the microgravity-exposed animals. Due to some problems in the experimental set-up, this slowing down needs to be verified in future experiments. No live adult that had been exposed to microgravity was recovered from the experiment, so that no life span studies could be carried out, but adult males emerged from the recovered embyros showed a slight shortening in life span and a lower performance in other experimental tests of aging. This agrees with the results of previous experiments performed by our groups.

  9. Effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve child feeding practices and growth in rural China: updated results at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxu; Shi, Ling; Chen, Da-Fang; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practices have led to, in part, significant disparities in growth and nutritional status between rural and urban children in China. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial was implemented in Laishui, China to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on caregivers' feeding practices and children's growth. Eight townships were randomly assigned to the intervention or control. Five hundred ninety-nine healthy infants were enrolled at 2-4 months old, and were followed up at ages 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. The intervention group received information on enhanced home-prepared recipes and food preparation and hygiene through group training, counselling and home visit. Key outcomes were children's physical growth, caregivers' knowledge and behaviours on complementary feeding, and the infant and child feeding index (ICFI). Analysis was by intention to treat. The intervention group achieved better knowledge and practices related to complementary feeding, and significantly higher ICFI scores at each follow-up point. Children in the intervention group achieved higher z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) than the control (0.18 vs. 0.01 and 0.49 vs. 0.19, respectively) at 18 months old, and were less likely to have stunted growth (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.94). Mixed model showed that the intervention group achieved significantly better linear growth over time, including WAZ (P = 0.016), WHZ (P = 0.030) and HAZ (P = 0.078). These results indicated that an educational intervention delivered through local health services can enhance caregivers' knowledge and practices of complementary feeding and ultimately improve children's growth.

  10. Hospitalizations for Alcohol and Drug Overdoses in Young Adults Ages 18–24 in the United States, 1999–2008: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    PubMed Central

    White, Aaron M.; Hingson, Ralph W.; Pan, I-jen; yi, Hsiao-ye

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Recent reports indicate an increase in rates of hospitalizations for drug overdoses in the United States. The role of alcohol in hospitalizations for drug overdoses remains unclear. Excessive consumption of alcohol and drugs is prevalent in young adults ages 18–24. The present study explores rates and costs of inpatient hospital stays for alcohol overdoses, drug overdoses, and their co-occurrence in young adults ages 18–24 and changes in these rates between 1999 and 2008. Method: Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were used to estimate numbers, rates, and costs of inpatient hospital stays stemming from alcohol overdoses (and their subcategories, alcohol poisonings and excessive consumption of alcohol), drug overdoses (and their subcategories, drug poisonings and nondependent abuse of drugs), and their co-occurrence in 18- to 24-year-olds. Results: Hospitalization rates for alcohol overdoses alone increased 25% from 1999 to 2008, reaching 29,412 cases in 2008 at a cost of $266 million. Hospitalization rates for drug overdoses alone increased 55%, totaling 113,907 cases in 2008 at a cost of $737 million. Hospitalization rates for combined alcohol and drug overdoses increased 76%, with 29,202 cases in 2008 at a cost of $198 million. Conclusions: Rates of hospitalizations for alcohol overdoses, drug overdoses, and their combination all increased from 1999 to 2008 among 18- to 24-year-olds. The cost of such hospitalizations now exceeds $1.2 billion annually. The steepest increase occurred among cases of combined alcohol and drug overdoses. Stronger efforts are needed to educate medical practitioners and the public about the risk of overdoses, particularly when alcohol is combined with other drugs. PMID:21906505

  11. Marriage Protects Men from Clinically Meaningful Elevations in C-reactive Protein: Results from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP)

    PubMed Central

    Sbarra, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minor elevations in C-reactive Protein (CRP, > 3 mg/L) are a nonspecific marker of systemic inflammation and predict the future onset of cardiovascular disease. This report examines the association between marital status and CRP levels after accounting for a range of relevant of demographic, subjective and objective health indicators, and psychological variables. Methods Data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a population-based study of community-dwelling older adults in the United States, were used to study CRP elevations. Home-based interviews were conducted with the entire NSHAP sample, a subset of whom provided whole blood samples for the CRP analyses. The final sample consisted of 1,715 participants (838 men) with an average age of 69.51 years. Multiple and logistic regression analyses were conducted using CRP as a continuous and dichotomous outcome variable. Results Across the entire NSHAP sample, married men evidenced the lowest levels of CRP. After adjusting for the competing predictors, marriage remained a unique protective factor against elevated CRP for men (OR = .56, 95% CI: 39-.79). The absolute risk reduction (for being classified in the high-risk CRP group) associated with being a married man was roughly equivalent to that observed for adults who were normotensive, non-smokers, and those with a normal body mass index. Conclusions Remaining married in late adulthood affords men unique robust protection against elevated levels of CRP. The findings are discussed in terms of the pathways linking marital status and health outcomes among older adults. PMID:19661186

  12. Associations between Multiple Accelerometry-Assessed Physical Activity Parameters and Selected Health Outcomes in Elderly People – Results from the KORA-Age Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortlieb, Sandra; Gorzelniak, Lukas; Nowak, Dennis; Strobl, Ralf; Grill, Eva; Thorand, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Kuhn, Klaus A.; Karrasch, Stefan; Horsch, Alexander; Schulz, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Accelerometry is an important method for extending our knowledge about intensity, duration, frequency and patterns of physical activity needed to promote health. This study has used accelerometry to detect associations between intensity levels and related activity patterns with multimorbidity and disability. Moreover, the proportion of people meeting the physical activity recommendations for older people was assessed. Methods Physical activity was measured in 168 subjects (78 males; 65–89 years of age), using triaxial GT3X accelerometers for ten consecutive days. The associations between physical activity parameters and multimorbidity or disability was examined using multiple logistic regression models, which were adjusted for gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, lung function, nutrition and multimorbidity or disability. Results 35.7% of the participants met the physical activity recommendations of at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity per week. Only 11.9% reached these 150 minutes, when only bouts of at least 10 minutes were counted. Differences in moderate to vigorous activity between people with and without multimorbidity or disability were more obvious when shorter bouts instead of only longer bouts were included. Univariate analyses showed an inverse relationship between physical activity and multimorbidity or disability for light and moderate to vigorous physical activity. A higher proportion of long activity bouts spent sedentarily was associated with higher risk for multimorbidity, whereas a high proportion of long bouts in light activity seemed to prevent disability. After adjustment for covariates, there were no significant associations, anymore. Conclusions The accumulated time in moderate to vigorous physical activity seems to have a stronger relationship with health and functioning when shorter activity bouts and not only longer bouts were counted. We could not detect an association of the intensity

  13. Valence, Implicated Actor, and Children's Acquiescence to False Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Kyndra C; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects of suggestive interviewing on children's accuracy are well documented, it remains unclear as to whether these effects vary depending on the valence of and the actor implicated in suggestions. In this study, 124 3-8-year-olds participated in a classroom activity and were later questioned about positive and negative false details. The interviewer provided positive reinforcement when children acquiesced to suggestions and negative feedback when they did not. Following reinforcement or feedback, young children were comparably suggestible for positive and negative details. With age, resistance to suggestions about negative details emerged first, followed by resistance to suggestions about positive details. Across age, more negative feedback was required to induce acquiescence to negative than positive false details. Finally, children were less willing to acquiesce when they (versus the confederate) were implicated. Findings highlight the interactive effects of valence and children's age on their eyewitness performance in suggestive contexts.

  14. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  15. Work-related stress in midlife is associated with higher number of mobility limitation in older age-results from the FLAME study.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, Jenni; Hinrichs, Timo; Törmäkangas, Timo; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Klockars, Matti; Seitsamo, Jorma; Ilmarinen, Juhani; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether work-related stress symptoms in midlife are associated with a number of mobility limitations during three decades from midlife to late life. Data for the study come from the Finnish Longitudinal Study of Municipal Employees (FLAME). The study includes a total of 5429 public sector employees aged 44-58 years at baseline who had information available on work-related stress symptoms in 1981 and 1985 and mobility limitation score during the subsequent 28-year follow-up. Four midlife work-related stress profiles were identified: negative reactions to work and depressiveness, perceived decrease in cognition, sleep disturbances, and somatic symptoms. People with a high number of stress symptoms in 1981 and 1985 were categorized as having constant stress. The number of self-reported mobility limitations was computed based on an eight-item list of mobility tasks presented to the participants in 1992, 1997, and 2009. Data were analyzed using joint Poisson regression models. The study showed that depending on the stress profile, persons suffering from constant stress in midlife had a higher risk of 30-70 % for having one more mobility limitation during the following 28 years compared to persons without stress after adjusting for mortality, several lifestyle factors, and chronic conditions. A less pronounced risk increase (20-40 %) was observed for persons with occasional symptoms. The study suggests that effective interventions aiming to reduce work-related stress should focus on both primary and secondary prevention.

  16. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  17. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work.

  18. Do Type of Childcare and Age of Entry Predict Behavior Problems during Early Childhood? Results from a Large Norwegian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekhal, Ratib

    2012-01-01

    Associations between type and age of entry into Norwegian universally-accessible childcare and children's behavior problems at age 3 years were examined in this study. Data from 73,068 children in the large population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) were used, and included information about childcare arrangements,…

  19. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2003. Volume II: College Students & Adults Ages 19-45, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2004-01-01

    This is the second volume in a two-volume set, presenting findings from the Monitoring the Future study. The first volume presents findings from American secondary students in grades 8, 10, and 12. This second volume contains findings from American college students, their age peers not in college, young adult high school graduates through age 30…

  20. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL) will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. Methods A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging") studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living) scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a - Regularly Active; b - Insufficiently Active and c - Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P < 0.01), older (80 y vs. 65 y, OR = 6.29, 95% CI = 2.69-14.67; P < 0.01), dependent on help from others for activities in the ADL scale (moderate-severe = 4-7+ vs. 0 ADLs) (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.20-4.21; P < 0.011) or had experienced a history of falls with

  1. Combination verteporfin photodynamic therapy ranibizumab-dexamethasone in choroidal neovascularization due to age-related macular degeneration: results of a phase II randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Gallemore, Ron P; Wallsh, Josh; Hudson, Henry L; Ho, Allen C; Chace, Richard; Pearlman, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether combination therapy (CT) reduces retreatments when compared to ranibizumab monotherapy (RM), while safely maintaining similar vision outcomes. Methods In this 24-month trial, patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were randomized to 1) quarter-fluence or 2) half-fluence triple therapy (verteporfin photodynamic therapy [vPDT] + ranibizumab + dexamethasone), 3) half-fluence double therapy (vPDT + ranibizumab), or 4) RM. The primary outcomes were number of retreatment visits and change from baseline in visual acuity (VA) at 12 months. Results One hundred sixty-two subjects enrolled. There were 4.0 (P=0.02), 3.2 (P<0.001), 4.1 (P=0.03), and 5.7 retreatment visits through month 12, and 5.9 (P=0.03), 4.3 (P<0.001), 5.9 (P=0.02) and 8.7 through month 24, in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (P-value comparing with RM). Month 12 VA score change from baseline (95% confidence interval) was +3.6 (−0.9 to +8.1), +6.8 (+2.4 to +11.1), +5.0 (+0.6 to +9.3), and +6.5 (+1.7 to +11.4), respectively. Conclusion CT resulted in significantly fewer retreatment visits than a RM regimen at months 12 and 24. VA results appeared similar although wide confidence intervals preclude conclusions regarding vision outcomes. PMID:28182161

  2. Palynology as an age-control tool for ice cores. First results of PAMOGIS - Pollen Analyses of the Mt. Ortles Glacier Ice Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festi, Daniela; Kofler, Werner; Gabrielli, Paolo; Oeggl, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Glacier ice cores from the mid latitude are capable of retaining essential information on past climate, environmental and human activities on a seasonal/annual time resolution. However, for a correct interpretation of the ice record a good chronological control is essential. Absolute time markers such as 3H peaks and Sahara dust horizons, together with radiometric methods such as 210Pb, radiocarbon from carbonaceous aerosol particles and AMS-dating are commonly used to obtain the age depth model of ice cores. In this frame we present the first pollen-based chronology from the Eastern Alps. Results of pollen analyses performed on a 10 m firn core taken on the top of Alto dell'Ortles Glacier (3905 m a.s.l.) will be discussed. Palynological data are compared and complemented with stable isotopes, major ions and trace elements analyses. Based on the single species flowering periods, our results show that the pollen spectrum presents seasonal and inter-annual variability that enables to distinguish snow accumulated in the three different flowering seasons and winter snow. According to these four components a seasonal and annual chronology was established, proving that the 10 m firn core encompasses four years of snow accumulation and presents a clear seasonal palynological signal. These first results reveal the potential of pollen content of glacier snow and ice as a chronological tool that can contribute to the construction of a robust chronological model with a seasonal to annual resolution. This study is the first step and the base for future research on deeper ice cores on the Alto dell'Ortles Glacier (Ortles project: www.ortles.org).

  3. The LITAF/SIMPLE I92V sequence variant results in an earlier age of onset of CMT1A/HNPP diseases.

    PubMed

    Sinkiewicz-Darol, Elena; Lacerda, Andressa Ferreira; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Sokołowska, Beata; Kabzińska, Dagmara; Brunetti, Craig R; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, Irena; Kochański, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) represent the most common heritable neuromuscular disorders. Molecular diagnostics of CMT1A/HNPP diseases confirm clinical diagnosis, but their value is limited to the clinical course and prognosis. However, no biomarkers of CMT1A/HNPP have been identified. We decided to explore if the LITAF/SIMPLE gene shared a functional link to the PMP22 gene, whose duplication or deletion results in CMT1A and HNPP, respectively. By studying a large cohort of CMT1A/HNPP-affected patients, we found that the LITAF I92V sequence variant predisposes patients to an earlier age of onset of both the CMT1A and HNPP diseases. Using cell transfection experiments, we showed that the LITAF I92V sequence variant partially mislocalizes to the mitochondria in contrast to wild-type LITAF which localizes to the late endosome/lysosomes and is associated with a tendency for PMP22 to accumulate in the cells. Overall, this study shows that the I92V LITAF sequence variant would be a good candidate for a biomarker in the case of the CMT1A/HNPP disorders.

  4. Effects of Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection on Chinese Patients with Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration: 5-Year Follow-Up Results

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingyi; Huang, Jianfeng; Zhao, Jing; Long, Li

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To observe the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab injection on wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD) over 5 years in Chinese patients. Methods. Thirty-seven patients who were diagnosed with wAMD in our hospital from June 2007 to June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The PRN regimen and the treatment and extend regimen were applied. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of ranibizumab injections, and changes in the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesion over 5 years were analyzed. Results. The mean BCVA measured by the ETDRS chart at baseline was 47.4 and 5 years after the treatment it was 34.89 letters, which was significantly different (p = 0.013). Fourteen eyes (37.8%) had improved visual acuity after 5 years. The number of injections in 5 years was 11.53, and most of the injections were in the first two years. Seventeen (45.9%) cases developed fibrous lesions, and 2 (5.4%) cases had atrophic lesions after 5 years. The fibrosis/atrophy was significantly correlated with the injection numbers (Pearson, r = 0.663, and p = 0.000). Conclusion. Most of the patients can maintain visual acuity treated by ranibizumab in the first 3 years. After 5 years, some patients can still improve or maintain visual acuity. Fibrous scarring of the lesion is the main reason for a decrease in vision of wAMD patients. PMID:27885338

  5. Serum bilirubin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from two independent cohorts in middle-aged and elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Li, Yaru; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Cheng, Weihong; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Yuan, Jianmin; Koh, Woon-Puay; Hu, Frank B.; Wu, Tangchun; Pan, An; He, Meian

    2017-01-01

    Serum bilirubin is a potent endogenous antioxidant and has been identified as cardiovascular risk in cohort studies, while the relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the elderly remains unclear. We investigated both cross-sectional and prospective associations between serum bilirubin levels and T2D risk in the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) cohort, and replicated the prospective findings in a nested case-control study (509 cases and 509 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS). In the cross-sectional analysis of DFTJ cohort (15,575 participants with 2,532 diabetes cases), serum bilirubin levels (total, direct and indirect) increased in new on-set diabetes and decreased with the diabetic duration. In the longitudinal analysis of DFTJ cohort (772 incident diabetes cases during 4.5 years of follow-up among 12,530 diabetes-free participants at baseline), positive association was found between direct bilirubin and T2D risk comparing extreme quartiles, similar results were observed in the nested case-control study within SCHS. Total and indirect bilirubin levels were not significantly associated with T2D in either cohort. In conclusion, our findings do not support the protective association between serum bilirubin levels and incident T2D in the middle-aged and elderly adults; instead, direct bilirubin levels were associated with increased risk of T2D. PMID:28164994

  6. Long-Term Effects of Physical Exercise on Verbal Learning and Memory in Middle-Aged Adults: Results of a One-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hötting, Kirsten; Schauenburg, Gesche; Röder, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    A few months of physical exercise have been shown to increase cognition and to modulate brain functions in previously sedentary, mainly older adults. However, whether the preservation of newly gained cognitive capacities requires an active maintenance of the achieved fitness level during the intervention is not yet known. The aim of the present study was to test whether cardiovascular fitness one year after an exercise intervention was linked to cognitive variables. Twenty-five healthy participants (42-57 years of age) took part in a follow-up assessment one year after the end of a supervised exercise intervention. Measurements included a cardiovascular fitness test, psychometric tests of verbal learning and memory and selective attention as well as questionnaires assessing physical activity and self-efficacy beliefs. Recognition scores of participants with higher cardiovascular fitness at follow-up did not change significantly during the follow-up period; however, the scores of participants with lower cardiovascular fitness decreased. One year after the end of the physical training intervention, previously sedentary participants spent more hours exercising than prior to the intervention. The time participants spent exercising correlated with their self-efficacy beliefs. These results demonstrate a direct link between verbal learning and cardiovascular fitness and show that positive effects of physical interventions on learning and memory do need an active maintenance of cardiovascular fitness. PMID:24961197

  7. Serum bilirubin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from two independent cohorts in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Yaru; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Cheng, Weihong; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Yuan, Jianmin; Koh, Woon-Puay; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; Pan, An; He, Meian

    2017-02-06

    Serum bilirubin is a potent endogenous antioxidant and has been identified as cardiovascular risk in cohort studies, while the relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the elderly remains unclear. We investigated both cross-sectional and prospective associations between serum bilirubin levels and T2D risk in the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) cohort, and replicated the prospective findings in a nested case-control study (509 cases and 509 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS). In the cross-sectional analysis of DFTJ cohort (15,575 participants with 2,532 diabetes cases), serum bilirubin levels (total, direct and indirect) increased in new on-set diabetes and decreased with the diabetic duration. In the longitudinal analysis of DFTJ cohort (772 incident diabetes cases during 4.5 years of follow-up among 12,530 diabetes-free participants at baseline), positive association was found between direct bilirubin and T2D risk comparing extreme quartiles, similar results were observed in the nested case-control study within SCHS. Total and indirect bilirubin levels were not significantly associated with T2D in either cohort. In conclusion, our findings do not support the protective association between serum bilirubin levels and incident T2D in the middle-aged and elderly adults; instead, direct bilirubin levels were associated with increased risk of T2D.

  8. Transgenic Over-expression of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Results in Age-dependent and Gender-specific Increases in Bone Strength and Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, S.M.; Carleton, S.M.; Carson, W.L.; Eren, M.; Phillips, C.L.; Vaughan, D.E.

    2014-01-01

    The plasminogen activation system (PAS) and its principal inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor- 1 (PAI-1), are recognized modulators of matrix. In addition, the PAS has previously been implicated in the regulation of bone homeostasis. Our objective was to study the influence of active PAI-1 on geometric, biomechanical, and mineral characteristics of bone using transgenic mice that over-expresses a variant of human PAI-1 that exhibits enhanced functional stability. Femora were isolated from male and female, wildtype (WT) and transgenic (PAI-1.stab) mice at 16 and 32 weeks of age (n=10). Femora were imaged via DEXA for BMD and µCT for cortical mid-slice geometry. Torsional testing was employed for biomechanical properties. Mineral composition was analyzed via instrumental neutron activation analysis. Female femora were further analyzed for trabecular bone histomorphometry (n=11). Whole animal DEXA scans were performed on PAI-1.stab females and additional transgenic lines in which the functional domains of the PAI-1 protein were specifically disrupted. Thirty-two week female PAI-1.stab femora exhibited decreased mid-slice diameters and reduced polar moment of area compared to WT, while maintaining similar cortical bone width. Greater biomechanical strength and stiffness was demonstrated by 32 week PAI-1.stab female femora in addition to a 52% increase in BMD. PAI-1.stab trabecular bone architecture was comparable to WT. Osteoid area was decreased in PAI-1.stab mice while mineral apposition rate increased by 78% over WT. Transgenic mice expressing a reactive-site mutant form of PAI-1 showed an increase in BMD similar to PAI-1.stab, whereas transgenic mice expressing a PAI-1 with reduced affinity for vitronectin were comparable to WT. Over-expression of PAI-1 resulted in increased mineralization and biomechanical properties of mouse femora in an age-dependent and gender-specific manner. Changes in mineral preceded increases in strength/stiffness and deterred

  9. Transgenic over-expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 results in age-dependent and gender-specific increases in bone strength and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, S M; Carleton, S M; Carson, W L; Eren, M; Phillips, C L; Vaughan, D E

    2007-12-01

    The plasminogen activation system (PAS) and its principal inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), are recognized modulators of matrix. In addition, the PAS has previously been implicated in the regulation of bone homeostasis. Our objective was to study the influence of active PAI-1 on geometric, biomechanical, and mineral characteristics of bone using transgenic mice that over-express a variant of human PAI-1 that exhibits enhanced functional stability. Femora were isolated from male and female, wildtype (WT) and transgenic (PAI-1.stab) mice at 16 and 32 weeks of age (n=10). Femora were imaged via DEXA for BMD and muCT for cortical mid-slice geometry. Torsional testing was employed for biomechanical properties. Mineral composition was analyzed via instrumental neutron activation analysis. Female femora were further analyzed for trabecular bone histomorphometry (n=11). Whole animal DEXA scans were performed on PAI-1.stab females and additional transgenic lines in which the functional domains of the PAI-1 protein were specifically disrupted. Thirty-two week female PAI-1.stab femora exhibited decreased mid-slice diameters and reduced polar moment of area compared to WT, while maintaining similar cortical bone width. Greater biomechanical strength and stiffness were demonstrated by 32 week PAI-1.stab female femora in addition to a 52% increase in BMD. PAI-1.stab trabecular bone architecture was comparable to WT. Osteoid area was decreased in PAI-1.stab mice while mineral apposition rate increased by 78% over WT. Transgenic mice expressing a reactive-site mutant form of PAI-1 showed an increase in BMD similar to PAI-1.stab, whereas transgenic mice expressing a PAI-1 with reduced affinity for vitronectin were comparable to WT. Over-expression of PAI-1 resulted in increased mineralization and biomechanical properties of mouse femora in an age-dependent and gender-specific manner. Changes in mineral preceded increases in strength/stiffness and deterred normal

  10. Do effects of early child care extend to age 15 years? Results from the NICHD study of early child care and youth development.

    PubMed

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret; Steinberg, Laurence; Vandergrift, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4(1/2) years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1,364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with escalating positive effects at higher levels of quality. The association between quality and achievement was mediated, in part, by earlier child-care effects on achievement. High-quality early child care also predicted youth reports of less externalizing behavior. More hours of nonrelative care predicted greater risk taking and impulsivity at age 15, relations that were partially mediated by earlier child-care effects on externalizing behaviors.

  11. Lunar surface dynamics: Some general conclusions and new results from Apollo 16 and 17. [exposure age determination of lunar rocks, boulders, and craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, G.; Drozd, R.; Hohenberg, C.; Morgan, C.; Ralston, C.; Walker, R.; Yuhas, D.

    1974-01-01

    Exposure ages of Apollo 17 rocks as measured by tracks and the Kr-Kr rare gas method are reported. Concordant ages of 22 - or + 1 million year (my) are obtained for the station 6 boulder sample 76315. This value is interpreted as the time when the station 6 boulder was emplaced in its present position. Reasonable agreement is also obtained by the two methods for another station 6 boulder, sample 76015. Discordant ages (respectively 5 and 28 my by the track and rare gas methods) are obtained for the station 7 boulder sample, 77135, indicating that the boulder was emplaced at least 5 my ago. The 72 my exposure age of 75035, in general agreement with previous measurements of approximately 85 my for another Camelot boulder, may well date the formation of Camelot. Rock 76015 was split and one surface exposed to the sky through a very small solid angle.

  12. Joint loads resulting in ACL rupture: Effects of age, sex, and body mass on injury load and mode of failure in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Blaker, Carina L; Little, Christopher B; Clarke, Elizabeth C

    2016-09-07

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common knee injury with a known but poorly understood association with secondary joint injuries and post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA). Female sex and age are known risk factors for ACL injury but these variables are rarely explored in mouse models of injury. This study aimed to further characterize a non-surgical ACL injury model to determine its clinical relevance across a wider range of mouse specifications. Cadaveric and anesthetized C57BL/6 mice (9-52 weeks of age) underwent joint loading to investigate the effects of age, sex, and body mass on ACL injury mechanisms. The ACL injury load (whole joint load required to rupture the ACL) was measured from force-displacement data, and mode of failure was assessed using micro-dissection and histology. ACL injury load was found to increase with body mass and age (p < 0.001) but age was not significant when controlling for mass. Sex had no effect. In contrast, the mode of ACL failure varied with both age and sex groups. Avulsion fractures (complete or mixed with mid-substance tears) were common in all age groups but the proportion of mixed and mid-substance failures increased with age. Females were more likely than males to have a major avulsion relative to a mid-substance tear (p < 0.01). This data compliments studies in human cadaveric knees, and provides a basis for determining the severity of joint injury relative to a major ACL tear in mice, and for selecting joint loading conditions in future experiments using this model. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

  13. Age-related changes in physical fall risk factors: results from a 3 year follow-up of community dwelling older adults in Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bird, Marie-Louise; Pittaway, Jane K; Cuisick, Isobel; Rattray, Megan; Ahuja, Kiran D K

    2013-11-11

    As the population ages, fall rates are expected to increase, leading to a rise in accidental injury and injury-related deaths, and placing an escalating burden on health care systems. Sixty-nine independent community-dwelling adults (60-85 years, 18 males) had their leg strength, physical activity levels and their annual fall rate assessed at two timepoints over three years, (summer 2010 and summer 2013) monitoring balance. Force platform measures of medio-lateral sway range increased significantly under conditions of eyes open (mean difference MD 2.5 cm; 95% CI 2.2 to 2.8 cm) and eyes closed (MD 3.2 cm; 95% CI 2.8 to 3.6 cm), respectively (all p < 0.001) indicating worsening static balance control. Dynamic balance showed similar changes (p < 0.036). Leg strength was not significantly different between visits (p > 0.26). Physical activity reduced significantly (MD -909 Cal/week; 95% CI -347 to -1,470 Cal/week; p = 0.002) during the course of the study. Participants maintained aerobic activities, however resistance and balance exercise levels decreased non-significantly. The likelihood of falling was higher at the end of the study compared to the first timepoint (odds ratio 1.93, 95% CI 0.94 to 3.94; p = 0.07). Results of this study indicate that despite maintenance of leg strength there was an increase in medio-lateral sway over a relatively short time frame, with higher than expected increases in fall rates.

  14. Age at onset, course of illness and response to psychotherapy in bipolar disorder: results from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD)

    PubMed Central

    Peters, A.; Sylvia, L. G.; da Silva Magalhães, P. V.; Miklowitz, D. J.; Frank, E.; Otto, M. W.; Hansen, N. S.; Dougherty, D. D.; Berk, M.; Nierenberg, A. A.; Deckersbach, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The course of bipolar disorder progressively worsens in some patients. Although responses to pharmacotherapy appear to diminish with greater chronicity, less is known about whether patients’ prior courses of illness are related to responses to psychotherapy. Method Embedded in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) was a randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy for bipolar depression comparing the efficacy of intensive psychotherapy with collaborative care (a three-session psycho-educational intervention). We assessed whether the number of previous mood episodes, age of illness onset, and illness duration predicted or moderated the likelihood of recovery and time until recovery from a depressive episode in patients in the two treatments. Results Independently of treatment condition, participants with one to nine prior depressive episodes were more likely to recover and had faster time to recovery than those with 20 or more prior depressive episodes. Participants with fewer than 20 prior manic episodes had faster time to recovery than those with 20 or more episodes. Longer illness duration predicted a longer time to recovery. Participants were more likely to recover in intensive psychotherapy than collaborative care if they had 10–20 prior episodes of depression [number needed to treat (NNT)=2.0], but equally likely to respond to psychotherapy and collaborative care if they had one to nine (NNT=32.0) or >20 (NNT=9.0) depressive episodes. Conclusions Number of previous mood episodes and illness duration are associated with the likelihood and speed of recovery among bipolar patients receiving psychosocial treatments for depression. PMID:25066366

  15. [Evolution of the nutritional status of Chilean children from preschool to school age: anthropometric results according to the source of the data].

    PubMed

    Kain, Juliana; Galván, Marcos; Taibo, Marcela; Corvalán, Camila; Lera, Lydia; Uauy, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    Because the results of the nutritional status released by Chilean institutions which collect anthropometric data on their population under control, show different increments in the prevalence of obesity between preschoolers and children in 1st grade, we decided to verify the real magnitude of this increase. This study is based on a longitudinal investigation which began in 2006 and included 1100, three-year old children, which we evaluated when they were 4, 5 and 6 y. The nutritional status was determined according to BMI Z and WHO References 2006/2007. The information was also used to determine the concordance between the anthropometric data collected on first graders by teachers from public schools in 2009 (JUNAEB data set) and the same children assessed in parallel by INTA (INTA data set). The sample included 474, six-year olds. No differences were found between the average BMI Z and HAZ of the two data sets, and the degree of concordance between the BMI Z's was good (rho = 0.73), however there were differences in the nutritional status, since the prevalence of low weight was significantly greater when assessed with JUNAEB's data (9.5% vs. 3.6% ), while that for obesity was lower with INTA's data, 17.5% vs. 19.2% (not significantly different). At 4 and 5 y, obesity prevalence of the children was 13.3% and 15.7% respectively (INTA's data). Considering the observed nutritional trajectory, it is likely that the rise in obesity between 4 and 6 y of age, was 4 percentage points and not 6, as was determined with INTA's data.

  16. Functional visual improvement after cataract surgery in eyes with age-related macular degeneration; Results of the Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data (OSOD) Project.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michael V; Vollman, David E; Baze, Elizabeth F; Chomsky, Amy S; Daly, Mary K; Lawrence, Mary

    2015-03-03

    Purpose: To determine if cataract surgery on eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) confers as much functional visual improvement as on eyes without retinal pathology. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 4,924 cataract surgeries from the VA Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project. We included cases of eyes with AMD which had both preoperative and postoperative NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaires submitted and compared their outcomes to controls without retinal pathology. We excluded patients with other retinal pathologies. The analyses compared changes in visual acuity and overall functional visual improvement and its subscales. Results: Preoperative and postoperative questionnaires were submitted by 58.3% of AMD and 63.8% of controls. Analysis of overall score showed that cataract surgery on eyes with AMD led to increased visual function (13.8± 2.4 NEI-VFQ units, P<0.0001); however, increases were significantly less when compared to controls (-6.4± 2.9 NEI-VFQ units, P<0.0001). Preoperative best corrected visual acuity (preBCVA) in AMD was predictive of postoperative visual function (r=-0.38, P<0.0001). In controls, postoperative visual function was only weakly associated with preBCVA (r=-0.075, P=0.0002). AMD patients with vision of 20/40 or better had overall outcomes similar to controls (-2.2± 4.7 NEI-VFQ units, P=0.37). Conclusions: Cataract surgery on eyes with AMD offers an increase in functional visual improvement; however, the amount of benefit is associated with the eye's preBCVA. For eyes with preBCVA ≥20/40, the improvement is similar to that of patients without retinal pathology. However, if preBCVA is <20/40, the amount of improvement was shown to be significantly less and decreased with decreasing preBCVA.

  17. Cervical vertebral bone age in girls.

    PubMed

    Mito, Toshinori; Sato, Koshi; Mitani, Hideo

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish cervical vertebral bone age as a new index for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation on cephalometric radiographs. Using cephalometric radiographs of 176 girls (ages 7.0-14.9 years), we measured cervical vertebral bodies and determined a regression formula to obtain cervical vertebral bone age. Next, using cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs of another 66 girls (ages 8.0-13.9 years), we determined the correlation between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age using the Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method. The following results were obtained: (1) a regression formula was determined to obtain cervical vertebral bone age based on ratios of measurements in the third and fourth cervical vertebral bodies; (2) the correlation coefficient for the relationship between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age (0.869) was significantly (P <.05) higher than that for the relationship between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (0.705); and (3) the difference (absolute value) between the cervical vertebral bone age and bone age (0.75 years) was significantly (P <.001) smaller than that between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (1.17 years). These results suggest that cervical vertebral bone age reflects skeletal maturity because it approximates bone age, which is considered to be the most reliable method for evaluating skeletal maturation. Using cervical vertebral bone age, it might be possible to evaluate maturity in a detailed and objective manner on cephalometric radiographs.

  18. Aging in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, Nancy J.; Weil, Joyce; Felmban, Wejdan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults’ own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes. PMID:28138483

  19. Suggested terminology for Quaternary dating methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Pierce, K.L.; Birkeland, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Classification of Quaternary dating methods should be based on the level of quantitative information and the degree of confidence contained in the age estimates produced by the dating methods. We recommend the use of the terms numerical-age, calibrated-age, relative-age, and correlated-age to describe these levels. We also classify dating methods by type into sideral, isotopic, radiogenic, chemical and biological, geomorphic, and correlation methods. The use of "absolute" is inappropriate for most dating methods, and should be replaced by "numerical." The use of "date" should be minimized in favor of "age" or "age estimate." We recommend use of the abbreviations ka and Ma for most ages; calender dates can be used where appropriate and yr B.P. can be used for radiocarbon ages. ?? 1987.

  20. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A; Knudsen, Gitte M; Henn, Fritz; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

    2010-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging. Brains from young (5 months old) and old (13 months old) congenital Learned Helplessness rats (cLH), and congenital Non Learned Helplessness rats (cNLH) were immunohistochemically stained for the serotonin transporter and subsequently stereologically quantified for estimating hippocampal serotonin fiber density. Hippocampal BDNF protein levels were measured by ELISA. An exacerbated age-related loss of serotonin fiber density specific for the CA1 area was observed in the cLH animals, whereas reduced hippocampal BDNF levels were seen in young and old cLH when compared with age-matched cNLH controls. These observations indicate that aging should be taken into account when studying the neurobiological factors behind the vulnerability for depression and that understanding the effect of aging on genetically predisposed individuals may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology behind depression, particularly in the elderly.

  1. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government) of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES). Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES) students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES) students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p<0.01). More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p<0.05). A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6%) was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2%) or never (22.9%) consumed breakfast (p<0.05 for trend). This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p<0.05 for trend) but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5), 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5) and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5) times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image

  2. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees’ shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (Mage = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals’ perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  3. INFLUENCE OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR BINDING PROTEINS (IGFBP)-1 AND IGFBP-3 ON BONE HEALTH: RESULTS FROM THE EUROPEAN MALE AGEING STUDY (EMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R; Almusalam, Bader; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Borghs, Herman; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Labrie, Fernand; Lean, Michael EJ; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Wu, Frederick CW; O’Neill, Terence W

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3, and IGF-1 on calcaneal ultrasound parameters in middle-aged and elderly European men. Men aged 40 to 79 years were recruited from population registers for participation in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). Subjects were invited by letter to complete a postal questionnaire and to attend for an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus and a fasting blood sample from which serum levels of IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, IGF-1, oestradiol (E2) and SHBG were assayed. The questionnaires included the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and questions about smoking and alcohol consumption. Estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) was derived as a function of the QUS parameters, speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation. Height and weight were measured in all subjects. 3057 men, mean age 59.7 years (standard deviation [SD]=11.0) were included in the analysis. After adjusting for age, centre and BMI, higher levels of IGFBP-1 were associated with lower eBMD. Higher levels of both IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 were associated with higher eBMD. After further adjustment for PASE score, current smoking, alcohol consumption, free E2 and SHBG, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1, though not IGFBP-1, remained significantly associated with eBMD. IGFBP-1 was associated with bone health though the effect could be explained by other factors. IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 were independent determinants of bone health in middle aged and elderly European men. PMID:21503646

  4. Influence of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3 on bone health: results from the European Male Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Pye, Stephen R; Almusalam, Bader; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Borghs, Herman; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Labrie, Fernand; Lean, Michael E J; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Wu, Frederick C W; O'Neill, Terence W

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF-I on calcaneal ultrasound parameters in middle-aged and elderly European men. Men aged 40-79 years were recruited from population registers for participation in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). Subjects were invited by letter to complete a postal questionnaire and to attend for an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus, and a fasting blood sample from which serum levels of IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, IGF-I, estradiol (E(2)), and SHBG were assayed. The questionnaires included the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and questions about smoking and alcohol consumption. Estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) was derived as a function of the QUS parameters speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation. Height and weight were measured in all subjects. 3057 men, mean age 59.7 years (standard deviation 11.0) were included in the analysis. After adjusting for age, center, and BMI, higher levels of IGFBP-1 were associated with lower eBMD. Higher levels of both IGFBP-3 and IGF-I were associated with higher eBMD. After further adjustment for PASE score, current smoking, alcohol consumption, free E(2), and SHBG, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I, though not IGFBP-1, remained significantly associated with eBMD. IGFBP-1 was associated with bone health, though the effect could be explained by other factors. IGFBP-3 and IGF-I were independent determinants of bone health in middle-aged and elderly European men.

  5. [Neuronal ageing].

    PubMed

    Piechota, Małgorzata; Sunderland, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Ageing leads to irreversible alterations in the nervous system, which to various extent impair its functions such as capacity to learn and memory. In old neurons and brain, similarly to what may take place in other cells, there is increased oxidative stress, disturbed energetic homeostasis and metabolism, accumulation of damage in proteins and nucleic acids. Characteristic of old neurons are alterations in plasticity, synaptic transmission, sensitivity to neurotrophic factors and cytoskeletal changes. Some markers of senescence, whose one of them is SA-beta-galactosidase were used to show the process of neuronal ageing both in vitro, and in vivo. Some research suggest that, despite the fact that neurons are postmitotic cells, it is cell cycle proteins which play a certain role in their biology, e.g. differentiation. However, their role in neuronal ageing is not known or explained. Ageing is the serious factor of development of neurodegenerative diseases among others Alzheimer disease.

  6. Overweight among students aged 11–15 years and its relationship with breakfast, area of residence and parents’ education: results from the Italian HBSC 2010 cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The international increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents over the past three decades confirms that childhood obesity is a global ‘epidemic’. The World Health Organization considers childhood obesity to be a major public health concern. Childhood obesity is associated with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal complications, and may have psycho-social consequences. The aim of this paper is to examine overweight (including obesity) prevalence and its association with geographic area of residence, parental education and daily breakfast consumption in Italian students aged 11–15 yrs. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11–15 year old students from 20 Italian Regions (Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2010-HBSC) was randomly selected (2,504 schools and 77,113 students). Self-reported anonymous questionnaires, prepared by the international HBSC network, were used to collect the data. BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height and the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess the relationship between the risk of overweight and parental education, area of residence and breakfast consumption in each age group and gender. Results Boys were more likely to be overweight or obese than girls (28.1% vs. 18.9% at 11 yrs-old, 24.8% vs. 16.5% at 13 yrs and 25.4 vs. 11.8% at 15 yrs). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower among the older girls. Overweight and obesity rates increased from the North of Italy to the South in both boys and girls and in all age groups. Boys 11-15 yrs living in southern Italy had an OR=2.05 (1.77-2.38) and girls 2.04 (95% CI 1.70-2.44) for overweight (including obesity) compared with those living in the North. Parent’s low educational level and no daily breakfast consumption were also associated with overweight including obesity (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of

  7. Oxidative stress and ageing.

    PubMed

    Birch-Machin, M A; Bowman, A

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress is the resultant damage due to redox imbalances (increase in destructive free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and reduction in antioxidant protection/pathways) and is linked to ageing in many tissues including skin. In ageing skin there are bioenergetic differences between keratinocytes and fibroblasts which provide a potential ageing biomarker. The differences in skin bioenergy are part of the mitochondrial theory of ageing which remains one of the most widely accepted ageing theories describing subsequent increasing free radical generation. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and form part of the vicious cycle theory of ageing. External and internal sources of oxidative stress include UVR/IR, pollution (environment), lifestyle (exercise and diet), alcohol and smoking all of which may potentially impact on skin although many exogenous actives and endogenous antioxidant defence systems have been described to help abrogate the increased stress. This also links to differences in skin cell types in terms of the UVR action spectrum for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage (the latter a previously described UVR biomarker in skin). Recent work associates bioenergy production and oxidative stress with pigment production thereby providing another additional potential avenue for targeted anti-ageing intervention in skin. This new data supporting the detrimental effects of the numerous wavelengths of UVR may aid in the development of cosmetic/sunscreen design to reduce the effects of photoageing. Recently, complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain appears to be more important than previously thought in the generation of free radicals (suggested predominantly by non-human studies). We investigated the relationship between complex II and ageing using human skin as a model tissue. The rate of complex II activity per unit of mitochondria was determined in fibroblasts and keratinocytes cultured from skin covering

  8. The etiology of prostate cancer: what does the epidemiology suggest

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.K.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Henderson, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    The two most important demographic characteristics of prostate cancer in Los Angeles are the high rates among blacks, which are two times those among whites and four times those among Asians, and the rapid increase in rates with age after age 40. Despite the high rates among blacks, a birth cohort analysis indicates that mortality rates among black men born after 1900 have decreased. In this report, epidemiologic and experimental evidence supporting each of three etiologic hypotheses--industrial exposure to cadmium, sexual transmission by an infectious agent, and endocrine factors--are reviewed. Evidence from descriptive data in Los Angeles suggests that only a small portion of cases might be attributable to industrial exposures. In a cohort study of Catholic priests, we found no deficit of prostate cancer mortality, strong evidence against sexual transmission of the disease. Experimental evidence and a limited amount of human data support an endocrine hypothesis. Preliminary results of a case-control study of prostate cancer are presented, but these results are unable to distinguish among these hypotheses further. This study finds a substantial protective effect of vasectomy, an event that is accompanied by reduced prostatic function and size, but this result is thus far statistically insignificant.

  9. BJUT at TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    Exploiting homophily effect for trust prediction. In Proceedings of the sixth ACM international conference on Web search and data mining , pages 53–62. ACM...experiments to evaluate the proposed framework on TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion data set, and, as would be expected, the results demonstrate its generality...time, recommending according to user’s personalized needs the data describes the user’s interest accurately. The data about spots crawled from open-web

  10. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  11. Neurocognitive Function Among Middle-aged and Older Hispanic/Latinos: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    González, Hector M.; Tarraf, Wassim; Gouskova, Natalia; Gallo, Linda C.; Penedo, Frank J.; Davis, Sonia M.; Lipton, Richard B.; Argüelles, William; Choca, James P.; Catellier, Diane J.; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to examine and describe neurocognitive function among middle-aged and older Hispanic/Latino Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) participants. We analyzed baseline cross-sectional data from the middle-aged and older (ages 45–74 years old) participants (n = 9,063) to calculate neurocognitive function scores and their correlates. Older age and higher depressive symptoms scores were associated with lower average neurocognitive performance, whereas greater educational attainment and household income were associated with higher neurocognitive performance. Hispanic/Latino heritage groups significantly varied in neurocognitive performances. Some neurocognitive differences between Hispanics/Latinos were maintained after controlling for language preference, education, household income, and depressive symptoms. We found notable differences in neurocognitive scores between Hispanic/Latino heritage groups that were not fully explained by the cultural and socioeconomic correlates examined in this study. Further investigations into plausible biological and environmental factors contributing to the Hispanic/Latino heritage group differences in neurocognitive found in the HCHS/SOL are warranted. PMID:25451561

  12. Young People in 1988. The Health Related Behaviour Questionnaire Results for 33,459 Pupils between the Ages of 11 and 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balding, John

    Since 1983 the Health Education Authority Schools Education Unit has been providing a survey service to schools throughout the United Kingdom. The service enables a school to survey the health behavior of boys and girls at different ages. The purpose is to make the planning of programs in Health and Social Education in the schools more realistic.…

  13. Radiation May Indirectly Impair Growth Resulting in Reduced Standing Height via Subclinical Inflammation in Atomic-Bomb Survivors Exposed at Young Ages

    DOE PAGES

    Nakashima, Eiji; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hsu, Wan-Ling

    2015-01-01

    For youngmore » atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, A-bomb radiation’s (total) effect on standing height is thought to comprise the sum of direct effect and indirect effect via inflammation. With the data of five inflammatory markers—white blood cell count, sialic acid, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), α 1 globulin, and α 2 globulin—obtained in adulthood during the period 1988 to 1992, a summary inflammatory index was constructed as a surrogate for the five subclinical inflammatory markers. For 3,327 A-bomb survivors exposed at ages of less than 25 years, a structural equation model was analyzed to measure direct radiation effects on adult height as well as mediating effect of radiation via inflammation on the height after adjustment for other risk factors, smoking, cancer, inflammatory disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The mediation proportion of the radiation effect on height via inflammation was approximately 5% for both sexes for all ages, and indirect dose effects via inflammation were statistically significant for both sexes combined and for females exposed at ages 0 to 5 years. Indirect dose effects for all ages via sialic acid, corrected ESR, and α 2 globulin were marginally significant for both sexes combined and for females. These proportions are likely underestimated.« less

  14. Feasibility of Eight Physical Fitness Tests in 1,050 Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Results of the Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Although physical fitness is relevant for well-being and health, knowledge on the feasibility of instruments to measure physical fitness in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) is lacking. As part of the study Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities with 1,050 older clients with ID in three Dutch care services, the feasibility of 8…

  15. Neurocognitive function among middle-aged and older Hispanic/Latinos: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    González, Hector M; Tarraf, Wassim; Gouskova, Natalia; Gallo, Linda C; Penedo, Frank J; Davis, Sonia M; Lipton, Richard B; Argüelles, William; Choca, James P; Catellier, Diane J; Mosley, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    We sought to examine and describe neurocognitive function among middle-aged and older Hispanic/Latino Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) participants. We analyzed baseline cross-sectional data from the middle-aged and older (ages 45-74 years old) participants (n = 9,063) to calculate neurocognitive function scores and their correlates. Older age and higher depressive symptoms scores were associated with lower average neurocognitive performance, whereas greater educational attainment and household income were associated with higher neurocognitive performance. Hispanic/Latino heritage groups significantly varied in neurocognitive performances. Some neurocognitive differences between Hispanics/Latinos were maintained after controlling for language preference, education, household income, and depressive symptoms. We found notable differences in neurocognitive scores between Hispanic/Latino heritage groups that were not fully explained by the cultural and socioeconomic correlates examined in this study. Further investigations into plausible biological and environmental factors contributing to the Hispanic/Latino heritage group differences in neurocognitive found in the HCHS/SOL are warranted.

  16. Anemia and activities of daily living in the Korean urban elderly population: results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    PubMed

    Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Lim, Soo; Kim, Jee Hyun; Park, Young Joo; Chin, Ho Jun; Kim, Ki Woong; Jang, Hak-Chul; Lee, Jong Seok

    2013-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of anemia and its impact on health-related quality of life and activities of daily living (ADL) in elderly Koreans. Of the 1,118 randomly sampled elderly Koreans aged 65 years or older living in Seongnam, Korea, on Aug. 1, 2005, we estimated the prevalence of anemia from 695 responders. We investigated the risk factors of anemia using a merged sample of this random sample and 270 volunteers enrolled from Seongnam residents aged 85 years or older. We diagnosed anemia according to the World Health Organization criteria. The estimated age- and gender-standardized prevalence of anemia was 8.33 % for the overall random sample (95 % confidence intervals (CI) 6.28-10.39), 10.58 % in men (95 % CI 7.09-14.07), and 6.85 % in women (95 % CI 4.37-9.34). The identified risk factors were age ≥80 years, male, iron deficiency, history of stroke, renal dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Anemia was associated with impairment in physical functioning (p = 0.031) and instrumental ADL (p < 0.001). This is the first report about anemia's prevalence in community-dwelling Korean elders, adjusted and standardized according to the city's and nation's population. Timely diagnosis of anemia and correction of its treatable cause may improve QOL and ADL in elderly individuals.

  17. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-50. NIH Publication No. 10-7585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF), now in its 35th year, has become one of the nation's most relied-upon sources of information on changes taking place in licit and illicit psychoactive drug use among American adolescents, college students, young adults, and more recently, middle-aged adults. During the last three and a half decades, the study has…

  18. [The rotation of autowaves as a result of their penetration through a system of unexcitable obstacles. A mechanism of arrhythmias associated with aging].

    PubMed

    Rusakov, A V; Medvinskiĭ, A B

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of the frequency of occurrence of excitation vortices rotating around unexcitable obstacles on the size and the number of the obstacles and also on the medium excitation threshold was studied. It was shown that the vortex formation takes place in a wide range of the model parameter values. The assumption was formulated that the mechanism of formation of excitation vortices under study underlies the increase in the heart arrhythmias associated with aging.

  19. Age at menarche in relation to prenatal rainy season exposure and altitude of residence: results from a nationally representative survey in a tropical country.

    PubMed

    Jansen, E C; Herrán, O F; Fleischer, N L; Mondul, A M; Villamor, E

    2017-04-01

    Intrauterine exposure to the rainy season in the tropics may be accompanied by high rates of infection and nutritional deficiencies. It is unknown whether this exposure is related to the extrauterine timing of development. Our aim was to evaluate the relations of prenatal exposure to the rainy season and altitude of residence with age at menarche. The study included 15,370 girls 10 to <18 years old who participated in Colombia's 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Primary exposures included the number of days exposed to the rainy season during the 40 weeks preceding birth, and altitude of residence at the time of the survey. We estimated median menarcheal ages and hazard ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI) according to exposure categories using Kaplan-Meier cumulative probabilities and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. All tests incorporated the complex survey design. Girls in the highest quintile of gestation days exposed to the rainy season had an earlier age at menarche compared with those in the lowest (adjusted hazard ratios (HR)=1.08; 95% CI 1.00-1.18, P-trend=0.03). Girls living at altitudes ⩾2000 m had a later age at menarche compared with those living <1000 m (adjusted HR=0.88; 95% CI 0.82-0.94, P-trend <0.001). The inverse association between gestation days during the rainy season and menarche was most apparent among girls living at altitudes ⩾2000 m (P, interaction=0.04). Gestation days exposed to the rainy season and altitude of residence were associated with the timing of sexual maturation among Colombian girls independent of socioeconomic status and ethnicity.

  20. Effect of a family history of psoriasis and age on comorbidities and quality of life in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis: Results from the ARIZONA study.

    PubMed

    López-Estebaranz, Jose Luis; Sánchez-Carazo, Jose Luis; Sulleiro, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease whose clinical characteristics vary from patient to patient. We aimed to analyze how comorbidities and quality of life (QoL, as per the Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI]) may be affected by a family history of psoriasis and by age. The ARIZONA study was a multicenter, cross-sectional study in 1022 adult patients diagnosed with moderate to severe psoriasis at least 6 months prior to inclusion. The severity of psoriasis and the proportion of patients with comorbidities were not affected by the presence of a family history. The regression analysis revealed that the presence of a family history of psoriasis was associated with the effect on the patient's QoL (P = 0.002), regardless of disease severity. The mean DLQI total score varied significantly across age groups (5.1 ± 5.3 for the 18-30-year group, 5.7 ± 6.5 for the 31-60-year group and 3.8 ± 5.1 for the >60-year group; P = 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of a family history of psoriasis appears to disrupt QoL in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, but it hardly affected the prevalence of comorbid conditions. The effect of age on QoL was particularly noticeable in younger patients, highlighting its negative impact. As expected, older patients appeared to be burdened with a higher number of comorbidities than their younger counterparts.

  1. Clustering of geriatric deficits emerges to be an essential feature of ageing - results of a cross-sectional study in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Karolina, Piotrowicz; Agnieszka, Pac; Barbara, Skalska Anna; Jerzy, Chudek; Alicja, Klich-Rączka; Aleksandra, Szybalska; Jean-Pierre, Michel; Tomasz, Grodzicki

    2016-01-01

    The majority of old people suffer from various clinical conditions that affect health, functioning and quality of life. This research is a part of a cross-sectional, nationwide PolSenior Study that provides a comprehensive assessment of eight geriatric impairments and their co-occurrence in a representative sample (3471 participant aged 65-104 years, mean age 78.3 years) of the old adults living in the community in Poland. The participants were recruited randomly from all administrative regions of Poland by a three-stage, proportional, stratified-by-age group selection process. Eight geriatric conditions were assessed: falls, incontinences, cognitive impairment, mood disorders, vision and hearing impairments, malnutrition, and functional dependence. We showed that the most common deficits causing disability were vision and hearing impairments, and mood disorders, with more than two thirds of the participants presented at least one geriatric deficit. We showed that presence any of the analyzed conditions significantly increased the risk for co-occurrence of other examined weaknesses. The highest prevalence odds ratios were for functional dependence and, respectively: malnutrition (8.61, 95%CI: 4.70-15.80), incontinences (8.0, 95%CI:5.93-10.70), and cognitive impairment (7.22; 95%CI:5.91-8.83). We concluded that the majority of the old people living in the community present various clinical conditions that prompt disability. PMID:27794563

  2. Prion protein and aging

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Lisa; Legname, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been widely investigated ever since its conformational isoform, the prion (or PrPSc), was identified as the etiological agent of prion disorders. The high homology shared by the PrPC-encoding gene among mammals, its high turnover rate and expression in every tissue strongly suggest that PrPC may possess key physiological functions. Therefore, defining PrPC roles, properties and fate in the physiology of mammalian cells would be fundamental to understand its pathological involvement in prion diseases. Since the incidence of these neurodegenerative disorders is enhanced in aging, understanding PrPC functions in this life phase may be of crucial importance. Indeed, a large body of evidence suggests that PrPC plays a neuroprotective and antioxidant role. Moreover, it has been suggested that PrPC is involved in Alzheimer disease, another neurodegenerative pathology that develops predominantly in the aging population. In prion diseases, PrPC function is likely lost upon protein aggregation occurring in the course of the disease. Additionally, the aging process may alter PrPC biochemical properties, thus influencing its propensity to convert into PrPSc. Both phenomena may contribute to the disease development and progression. In Alzheimer disease, PrPC has a controversial role because its presence seems to mediate β-amyloid toxicity, while its down-regulation correlates with neuronal death. The role of PrPC in aging has been investigated from different perspectives, often leading to contrasting results. The putative protein functions in aging have been studied in relation to memory, behavior and myelin maintenance. In aging mice, PrPC changes in subcellular localization and post-translational modifications have been explored in an attempt to relate them to different protein roles and propensity to convert into PrPSc. Here we provide an overview of the most relevant studies attempting to delineate PrPC functions and fate in aging

  3. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.

  4. Sleep problems and depression in adolescence: results from a large population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-18 years.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, Børge; Harvey, Allison G; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari

    2014-08-01

    Both sleep problems and depression are common problems in adolescence, but well-defined large epidemiological studies on the relationship are missing in this age group. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depression and several sleep parameters, including insomnia, in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-18 years, and to explore potential gender differences. A large population-based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012, the ung@hordaland study, surveyed 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls) about sleep and depression. The sleep assessment included measures of the basic sleep parameters for weekdays and weekends. Depression was defined as scoring above the 90th percentile on the total score of Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). There was a large overlap between insomnia and depression in both genders and across depressive symptoms. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly shorter sleep duration and time in bed as well as significantly longer sleep onset latency (SOL) and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Adolescents with insomnia had a 4- to 5-fold increased odds of depression compared to good sleepers. There was also a significant interaction between insomnia, sleep duration and depression, with a more than eightfold increase in odds of depression for those who met criteria for insomnia and who slept <6 h. These associations held for both genders, but were stronger in boys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to investigate sleep and insomnia in relation to depression among adolescents. The findings call for increased awareness of sleep problems and depression as a major public health issue.

  5. Dyspareunia in the Context of Psychopathology, Personality Traits, and Coping Resources: Results From a Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study From Age 30 to 50.

    PubMed

    Leeners, Brigitte; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf; Angst, Jules

    2015-08-01

    Although dyspareunia has a major impact on sexual and general wellbeing, there are few data on the longitudinal development of its prevalence in representative study groups. Therefore, it was the aim of the present study to fill this gap by evaluating the prevalence of dyspareunia in a representative sample at age 30, 35, 41, and 50. Additional aims were to determine the association between dyspareunia, psychopathological covariates, personality characteristics, and coping resources. Semi-structured interviews with single-item questions on sexual problems in general as well as dyspareunia were used to gain information on 1-year as well as long-time prevalence rates. Psychopathological covariates were explored with the SCL-90-R. The Freiburger Personality Inventory (Freiburger Persönlichkeits Inventar, FPI) assessed personality characteristics. Scales of sense of mastery and self-esteem were used to investigate coping resources. Twelve months prevalence of dyspareunia varied between 4.5 and 6.4 % with a mean of 5.6 % and a long-time risk of 19.3 %. No relation between age and the prevalence rates was found. Dyspareunia was related to psychopathological covariates, especially depression. With respect to personality traits as measured with the FPI only nervousness showed a significant association with dyspareunia, whereas coping resources were unrelated. As dyspareunia is experienced by about 20 % of all women, it represents a frequent sexual problem. Therefore, assessment of dyspareunia should be integrated into primary care of women at any age and diagnostic as well as therapeutic strategies should be based on physiological and psychological factors.

  6. PROX1 is a novel pathway-specific prognostic biomarker for high-grade astrocytomas; results from independent glioblastoma cohorts stratified by age and IDH mutation status

    PubMed Central

    Edqvist, Per-Henrik D.; Hägerstrand, Daniel; Carlson, Joseph; Lysiak, Malgorzata; Henriksson, Roger; Pontén, Fredrik; Rosell, Johan; Söderkvist, Peter; Stupp, Roger; Tchougounova, Elena; Nistér, Monica; Malmström, Annika; Smits, Anja

    2016-01-01

    PROX1 is a transcription factor with an essential role in embryonic development and determination of cell fate. In addition, PROX1 has been ascribed suppressive as well as oncogenic roles in several human cancers, including brain tumors. In this study we explored the correlation between PROX1 expression and patient survival in high-grade astrocytomas. For this purpose, we analyzed protein expression in tissue microarrays of tumor samples stratified by patient age and IDH mutation status. We initially screened 86 unselected high-grade astrocytomas, followed by 174 IDH1-R132H1 immunonegative glioblastomas derived from patients aged 60 years and older enrolled in the Nordic phase III trial of elderly patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Representing the younger population of glioblastomas, we studied 80 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas from patients aged 18-60 years. There was no correlation between PROX1 protein and survival for patients with primary glioblastomas included in these cohorts. In contrast, high expression of PROX1 protein predicted shorter survival in the group of patients with IDH-mutant anaplastic astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas. The prognostic impact of PROX1 in IDH-mutant 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas, as well as the negative findings in primary glioblastomas, was corroborated by gene expression data extracted from the Cancer Genome Atlas. We conclude that PROX1 is a new prognostic biomarker for 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas that have progressed from pre-existing low-grade tumors and harbor IDH mutations. PMID:27626492

  7. PROX1 is a novel pathway-specific prognostic biomarker for high-grade astrocytomas; results from independent glioblastoma cohorts stratified by age and IDH mutation status.

    PubMed

    Roodakker, Kenney R; Elsir, Tamador; Edqvist, Per-Henrik D; Hägerstrand, Daniel; Carlson, Joseph; Lysiak, Malgorzata; Henriksson, Roger; Pontén, Fredrik; Rosell, Johan; Söderkvist, Peter; Stupp, Roger; Tchougounova, Elena; Nistér, Monica; Malmström, Annika; Smits, Anja

    2016-11-08

    PROX1 is a transcription factor with an essential role in embryonic development and determination of cell fate. In addition, PROX1 has been ascribed suppressive as well as oncogenic roles in several human cancers, including brain tumors. In this study we explored the correlation between PROX1 expression and patient survival in high-grade astrocytomas. For this purpose, we analyzed protein expression in tissue microarrays of tumor samples stratified by patient age and IDH mutation status. We initially screened 86 unselected high-grade astrocytomas, followed by 174 IDH1-R132H1 immunonegative glioblastomas derived from patients aged 60 years and older enrolled in the Nordic phase III trial of elderly patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Representing the younger population of glioblastomas, we studied 80 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas from patients aged 18-60 years. There was no correlation between PROX1 protein and survival for patients with primary glioblastomas included in these cohorts. In contrast, high expression of PROX1 protein predicted shorter survival in the group of patients with IDH-mutant anaplastic astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas. The prognostic impact of PROX1 in IDH-mutant 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas, as well as the negative findings in primary glioblastomas, was corroborated by gene expression data extracted from the Cancer Genome Atlas. We conclude that PROX1 is a new prognostic biomarker for 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas that have progressed from pre-existing low-grade tumors and harbor IDH mutations.

  8. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking-related behaviours among students aged 13 to 15 years in Montenegro: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey of 2008.

    PubMed

    Ljaljević, Agima; Zvrko, Elvir; Mugosa, Boban; Matijević, Snezana; Andjelić, Jasmina

    2010-06-01

    The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is an international study that provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. It is a school-based survey that uses a standardised methodology for sampling, core questionnaire items, training protocol, field procedures, and data management. This article reports the findings from a GYTS conducted in Montenegro in 2008, which included 5723 adolescents. More than 30 % of students aged 13 to 15 tried smoking, 5.1 % smoked cigarettes, and 3.6 % of students used tobacco products other than cigarettes. Four in 10 ever smokers started to smoke before the age of 10. More than half the students reported secondary smoke exposure at home. Almost all (96.5 %) current smokers bought cigarettes in a store. Two in 10 students owned an artifact with a cigarette or tobacco brand logo on it. The GYTS study has shown that there is an urgent need to introduce effective child-oriented smoking prevention programmes in early elementary school classes. These should be accompanied by public awareness campaigns on smoke-free homes.

  9. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  10. Age Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  11. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.

  12. [Assessment of the effects of age at start of puberty on mental health in pre-adolescence: results of a longitudinal study (1989-1991)].

    PubMed

    Bolognini, M; Plancherel, B; Nuñez, R; Bettschart, W

    1993-01-01

    The transition from childhood to adolescence is widely believed to be a stressful period in which the child faces multiple changes: physical changes, school choices, development of new social roles, and changes in the relation with his or her parents and friends. We investigated the effects of the timing of puberty on mental health, studied in a population of 219 young adolescents who were followed during three years (mean age at the beginning of the study was 12.5 years). The changes in the perception of the individual's body associated with puberty depended on the child's gender. Significant events during puberty had a negative effect on mental health. Although puberty remains a critical period of temporary unstable and fragile transition, most of the young adolescents coped relatively well with the physiological, psychological and social changes they faced.

  13. Influence of pre-incubation treatment on hatching results of broiler breeder eggs produced at 37 and 59 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Meijerhof, R; Noordhuizen, J P; Leenstra, F R

    1994-05-01

    1. The influence of temperature in the nest box, temperature during storage, storage time and pre-setting temperature on the hatchability of broiler breeder eggs produced by birds of 37 and 59 weeks of age was examined. 2. All treatments that can be characterised as being less optimal for embryo survival than the control treatment affected the hatchability of fertile eggs more in the case of eggs produced by older birds. 3. A higher temperature in the nest box, longer storage periods, higher storage temperature, especially at longer storage periods, and higher pre-setting temperature significantly reduced the hatchability of fertile eggs from the older birds. 4. For the younger birds, a significant reduction of hatchability was found only for the longest storage period.

  14. Regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Rønning, John A; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz Bredrup; Kaaresen, Per Ivar

    2012-02-01

    Temperamental regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age was studied in a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at enhancing maternal sensitive responsiveness. Surviving infants <2000 g from a geographically defined area were randomized to an intervention (71) or a control group (69), and compared with term infants (74). The intervention was a modified version of the "Mother-Infant Transaction Program". Regulatory competence was measured with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and social communication with the Early Social Communication Scales. Preterm intervention infants with low regulatory competence had higher responding to joint attention than preterm control infants. A sensitizing intervention may moderate the association between temperament and social communication, and thus allow an alternative functional outlet for preterm infants low in regulatory competence. The finding may have implications for conceptualizations of the role of early sensitizing interventions in promoting important developmental outcomes for premature infants.

  15. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems. Generally, time spent by employees outside of their regular working hours in developing suggestions under...

  16. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems. Generally, time spent by employees outside of their regular working hours in developing suggestions under...

  17. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  18. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs.

  19. Effect of chemical etching and aging in boiling water on the corrosion resistance of Nitinol wires with black oxide resulting from manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Shabalovskaya, S; Rondelli, G; Anderegg, J; Simpson, B; Budko, S

    2003-07-15

    The effect of chemical etching in a HF/HNO(3) acid solution and aging in boiling water on the corrosion resistance of Nitinol wires with black oxide has been evaluated with the use of potentiodynamic, modified potentiostatic ASTM F746, and scratch tests. Scanning-electron microscopy, elemental XPS, and Auger analysis were employed to characterize surface alterations induced by surface treatment and corrosion testing. The effect of aging in boiling water on the temperatures of martensitic transformations and shape recovery was evaluated by means of measuring the wire electroresistance. After corrosion tests, as-received wires revealed uniformly cracked surfaces reminiscent of the stress-corrosion-cracking phenomenon. These wires exhibited negative breakdown potentials in potentiostatic tests and variable breakdown potentials in potentiodynamic tests (- 100 mV to + 400 mV versus SCE). Wires with treated surfaces did not reveal cracking or other traces of corrosion attacks in potentiodynamic tests up to + 900-1400-mV potentials and no pitting after stimulation at + 800 mV in potentiostatic tests. They exhibited corrosion behavior satisfactory for medical applications. Significant improvement of corrosion parameters was observed on the reverse scans in potentiodynamic tests after exposure of treated wires to potentials > 1000 mV. In scratch tests, the prepared surfaces repassivated only at low potentials, comparable to that of stainless steel. Tremendous improvement of the corrosion behavior of treated Nitinol wires is associated with the removal of defect surface material and the growth of stable TiO(2) oxide. The role of precipitates in the corrosion resistance of Nitinol-scratch repassivation capacity in particular-is emphasized in the discussion.

  20. Burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Japanese adults 60 years of age or older: Results from an observational, prospective, physician practice-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Adachi, Koichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Asano, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Akihiro; Adachi, Riri; Kiuchi, Mariko; Kobayashi, Keiju; Matsuki, Taizo; Kaise, Toshihiko; Gopala, Kusuma; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2016-12-05

    Approximately one in three persons will develop herpes zoster during their lifetime, and it can lead to serious complications such as postherpetic neuralgia. However, evidence on burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Japan is limited. This prospective, observational, multicenter, physician practice-based cohort study was conducted in Kushiro, Hokkaido, Japan (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01873365) to assess the incidence and hospitalization rates of herpes zoster, and the proportion, clinical burden and risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia in adults aged 60 years or more. Within the study area, 800 subjects developed herpes zoster and 412 were eligible for the study. Herpes zoster incidence was 10.2/1000 person-years and higher among women and older subjects. Subjects with herpes zoster required on average 5.7 outpatient consultations. Herpes zoster-associated hospitalization rate was 3.4% (27/800). The proportion of postherpetic neuralgia and other complications was 9.2% (38/412) and 26.5% (109/412), respectively. Statistically significant association with the development of postherpetic neuralgia was male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-5.38), age of 70-74 years (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.09-11.3), immunosuppressive therapy (OR, 6.44; 95% CI, 1.26-32.9), severe herpes zoster pain at first consultation (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.10-8.62) and rash on upper arms (vs no rash on upper arms; OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.10-10.9). Considerable herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia burden exists among elderly in Japan, and there may be predictive factors at the first visit which could be indicative of the risk of developing postherpetic neuralgia.

  1. Polyphenols and aging.

    PubMed

    Queen, Brannon L; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2010-02-01

    Age-associated changes within an individual are inherently complex and occur at multiple levels of organismal function. The overall decline in function of various tissues is known to play a key role in both aging and the complex etiology of certain age-associated diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Continuing research highlights the dynamic capacity of polyphenols to protect against age-associated disorders through a variety of important mechanisms. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that dietary polyphenols such as resveratrol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and curcumin have the capacity to mitigate age-associated cellular damage induced via metabolic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, recently acquired evidence also demonstrates a likely role for these polyphenols as anticancer agents capable of preventing formation of new vasculature in neoplastic tissues. Polyphenols have also been shown to possess other anticancer properties such as specific cell-signaling actions that may stimulate the activity of the regulatory protein SIRT1. Additionally, polyphenolic compounds have demonstrated their inhibitory effects against chronic vascular inflammation associated with atherosclerosis. These increasingly well-documented results have begun to provide a basis for considering the use of polyphenols in the development of novel therapies for certain human diseases. And while the mechanisms by which these effects occur are yet to be fully understood, it is evident that further investigation may yield a potential use for polyphenols as pharmacological interventions against specific age-associated diseases.

  2. Safety of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine plus Amodiaquine when Delivered to Children under 10 Years of Age by District Health Services in Senegal: Results from a Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    NDiaye, J. L.; Cissé, B.; Ba, E. H.; Gomis, J. F.; Ndour, C. T.; Molez, J. F.; Fall, F. B.; Sokhna, C.; Faye, B.; Kouevijdin, E.; Niane, F. K.; Cairns, M.; Trape, J. F.; Rogier, C.; Gaye, O.; Greenwood, B. M.; Milligan, P. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is recommended that children aged 3 months to five years of age living in areas of seasonal transmission in the sub-Sahel should receive Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SPAQ) during the malaria transmission season. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of SMC with SPAQ in children when delivered by community health workers in three districts in Senegal where SMC was introduced over three years, in children from 3 months of age to five years of age in the first year, then in children up to 10 years of age. Methods A surveillance system was established to record all deaths and all malaria cases diagnosed at health facilities and a pharmacovigilance system was established to detect adverse drug reactions. Health posts were randomized to introduce SMC in a stepped wedge design. SMC with SPAQ was administered once per month from September to November, by nine health-posts in 2008, by 27 in 2009 and by 45 in 2010. Results After three years, 780,000 documented courses of SMC had been administered. High coverage was achieved. No serious adverse events attributable to the intervention were detected, despite a high level of surveillance. Conclusions SMC is being implemented in countries of the sub-Sahel for children under 5 years of age, but in some areas the age distribution of cases of malaria may justify extending this age limit, as has been done in Senegal. Our results show that SMC is well tolerated in children under five and in older children. However, pharmacovigilance should be maintained where SMC is implemented and provision for strengthening national pharmacovigilance systems should be included in plans for SMC implementation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00712374 PMID:27764102

  3. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    SciTech Connect

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  4. [Suggestions for buying medical equipment in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Trontzos, Christos

    2004-01-01

    TO THE EDITOR: Both in Greece and in other European countries there are plans to buy more medical equipment. If the whole procedure is not effective, it may result to a large deficit in the hospital budget. The total hospital deficit now in Greece is about 2.5 billion euros. It is suggested that in every hospital, the Authorized Committee for Medical Equipment Purchasing, should include the following: One Director of a Medical Department related to the equipment to be bought and another Director of a Medical Department, unrelated. One accountant. One legal advisor specialized in hospital affairs. One economical advisor specialized in banking who will be able to suggest leasing or other means of financing the purchase of the relevant equipment. A cost accounting analysis described by a detailed report, should be provided to secure that the equipment to be bought should be cost-effective and leaving a reasonable surplus after not more than 10 years from the time it is installed. Finally, the possibility of using one expensive equipment to cover the needs of more than one hospitals either by moving the equipment (i.e. the PET/CT camera by a large vehicle) or by transferring the patients to a central hospital, may be provided by the above Authorized Committee.

  5. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Deborah L; Schieve, Laura A; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2014-07-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case-control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n=198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n=253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference -21.4, 95% CI: -24.0, -18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference -5.1, 95% CI: -9.5, -0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born at both of the

  6. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  7. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  8. Nutrition and age-associated inflammation: implications for disease prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence suggests that aging is associated with dysregulated immune and inflammatory responses. Investigation into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon suggests that an up-regulated cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, and resulting increase in production of pr...

  9. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later).

  10. The biochemistry of aging.

    PubMed

    Knight, J A

    2000-01-01

    results in an increased production of reactive oxygen species is, however, only partially understood. There is considerable additional indirect evidence supporting the free radical theory of aging. Not only are several major age-associated diseases clearly affected by increased oxidative stress (atherosclerosis, cancer, etc.), but the fact that there are numerous natural protective mechanisms to prevent oxyradical-induced cellular damage speaks loudly that this theory has a key role in aging [the presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, among others; various important intrinsic (uric acid, bilirubin, -SH proteins, glutathione, etc.) and extrinsic (vitamins C, E, carotenoids, flavonoids, etc.) antioxidants; and metal chelating proteins to prevent Fenton and Haber-Weiss chemistry]. In addition, a major part of the free radical theory involves the damaging role of reactive oxygen species and various toxins on mitochondria. These lead to numerous mitochondrial DNA mutations which result in a progressive reduction in energy output, significantly below that needed in body tissues. This can result in various signs of aging, such as loss of memory, hearing, vision, and stamina. Oxidative stress also inactivates critical enzymes and other proteins. In addition to these factors, caloric restriction is the only known method that increases the life span of rodents; studies currently underway suggest that this also applies to primates, and presumably to humans. Certainly, oxidative stress plays an important role here, although other, as yet unknown, factors are also presumably involved. Exactly how the other major theories (i.e., immune, neuroendocrine, somatic mutation, error catastrophe) control aging is more difficult to define. The immune and neuroendocrine systems clearly deteriorate with age. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  11. Rare genetic variants in the CFI gene are associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration and commonly result in reduced serum factor I levels.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, David; Yu, Yi; Schramm, Elizabeth C; Triebwasser, Michael; Wagner, Erin K; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Daly, Mark J; Atkinson, John P; Seddon, Johanna M

    2015-07-01

    To assess a potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sequenced the complement factor I gene (CFI) in 2266 individuals with AMD and 1400 without, identifying 231 individuals with rare genetic variants. We evaluated the functional impact by measuring circulating serum factor I (FI) protein levels in individuals with and without rare CFI variants. The burden of very rare (frequency <1/1000) variants in CFI was strongly associated with disease (P = 1.1 × 10(-8)). In addition, we examined eight coding variants with counts ≥5 and saw evidence for association with AMD in three variants. Individuals with advanced AMD carrying a rare CFI variant had lower mean FI compared with non-AMD subjects carrying a variant (P < 0.001). Further new evidence that FI levels drive AMD risk comes from analyses showing individuals with a CFI rare variant and low FI were more likely to have advanced AMD (P = 5.6 × 10(-5)). Controlling for covariates, low FI increased the risk of advanced AMD among those with a variant compared with individuals without advanced AMD with a rare CFI variant (OR 13.6, P = 1.6 × 10(-4)), and also compared with control individuals without a rare CFI variant (OR 19.0, P = 1.1 × 10(-5)). Thus, low FI levels are strongly associated with rare CFI variants and AMD. Enhancing FI activity may be therapeutic and measuring FI provides a screening tool for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from complement inhibitory therapy.

  12. Gait patterns during different walking conditions in older adults with and without knee osteoarthritis--results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seung-uk; Ling, Shari M; Schreiber, Catherine; Nesbitt, Mark; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-02-01

    Biomechanical analysis of lower extremity activities while walking at different speeds and in challenging conditions may help to identify specific gait patterns associated with knee osteoarthritis (knee-OA). We hypothesized that individuals with asymptomatic knee-OA have lower ankle activity, while individuals with symptomatic knee-OA have similar or higher ankle activity compared to individuals without knee-OA, and that such differences are enhanced during challenging gait tasks. We tested this hypothesis by examining gait characteristics in multiple gait tasks using data from 153 Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) participants (112 without knee-OA, 41 with knee-OA; 53-87 years, 52% women). All participants who could walk unassisted were evaluated in the BLSA gait lab while walking at self-selected speed (usual-walking), at maximum speed (fast-walking) and again at self-selected speed after 30-min of walking activities (usual-walking-after-30 min). Knee range of motion was lower for knee-OA participants in the fast-walking and usual-walking-after-30 min tasks (p<0.030). Ankle range of motion for symptomatic knee-OA was greater compared to asymptomatic knee-OA for all walking tasks (p<0.050). Symptomatic knee-OA had greater generative MWE of the ankle compared to asymptomatic knee-OA (p=0.034), while keeping similar absorptive MWE of the knee when compared to no-OA controls (p=0.151). Symptomatic knee-OA individuals seem to adapt an ankle kinematic gait pattern aimed at avoiding knee pain, by enhancing forward propulsion so to minimize knee joint load. Whether these conditions represent subsequent steps in the causal pathway from knee-OA to changes in gait is still not clear.

  13. Suggestive techniques connected to medical interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a series of articles where several detailed clinical examples will be presented on the effectiveness of using suggestive techniques in various fields of interventional medicine. The aim of this series is to raise the attention to the patients heightened openness to suggestions. By recognizing the unavoidable nature of suggestive effects on one hand we can eliminate unfavourable, negative suggestions and on the other hand go on and consciously apply positive, helpful variations. Research materials, reviews and case study will describe the way suggestions can reduce anxiety and stress connected to medical intervention, improve subjective well-being and cooperation, and increase efficiency by reducing treatment costs. PMID:24265898

  14. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    PubMed

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  15. Juvenile age estimation from facial images.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eilidh; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Age determination from images can be of vital importance, particularly in cases involving suspected child sexual abuse (CSA). It is imperative to determine if an individual depicted in such an image is indeed a child, with a more concise age often sought, as this may affect the severity of offender sentencing. The aims of this study were to establish the accuracy of visual age estimation of the juvenile face in children aged between 0 and 16years and to determine if varying levels of exposure to children affected an individual's ability to assess age from the face. An online questionnaire consisting of 30 juvenile face images was created using SurveyMonkey®. The overall results suggested poor accuracy for visual age estimation of juvenile faces. The age, sex, occupation and number of children of the participants did not affect the ability to estimate age from facial images. Similarly, the sex and age of the juvenile faces did not appear to affect the accuracy of age estimation. When specific age groups are considered, sex may have an influence on age estimation, with female faces being aged more accurately in the younger age groups and male faces more accurate after the age of 11years, however this is based on a small sample. This study suggests that the accuracy of juvenile age estimation from the face alone is poor using simple visual assessment of images. Further research is required to determine exactly how age is assessed from a facial image, if there are indicators, or features in particular that lead to over- or under-estimation of juvenile age.

  16. How Prepared Are Transition-Age Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students for Adult Living? Results of the Transition Competence Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Pamela; Huff, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    One result of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act and related legislation is that most deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students attend local public schools. Although such placements may provide greater access to general education classrooms and curriculum, DHH students' specialized needs are less likely to be addressed. Using the…

  17. Mean corpuscular volume of control red blood cells determines the interpretation of eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) test result in infants aged less than 6 months.

    PubMed

    Ciepiela, Olga; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Bystrzycka, Weronika; Łukasik, Jan; Kotuła, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    Eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test is a flow cytometric test used to detect hereditary spherocytosis (HS). To perform the test sample from patients, 5-6 reference samples of red blood are needed. Our aim was to investigate how the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells influences on the value of fluorescence of bounded EMA dye and how the choice of reference samples affects the test result. EMA test was performed in peripheral blood from 404 individuals, including 31 children suffering from HS. Mean fluorescence channel of EMA-RBCs was measured with Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer. Mean corpuscular volume of RBCs was assessed with LH750 Beckman Coulter. Statistical analysis was performed using Graph Pad Prism. The correlation Spearman coefficient between mean channel of fluorescence of EMA-RBCs and MCV was r = 0.39, p < 0.0001. Interpretation of EMA test depends on MCV of the reference samples. If reference blood samples have lower MCV than the patients MCV, EMA test result might be negative. Due to different MCV values of RBCs in infancy and ca. Three months later, EMA test in neonates might be interpreted falsely negative. Samples from children younger than 3 months old had EMA test result 86.1 ± 11.7 %, whereas same samples that analyzed 4.1 ± 2.1 later had results of 75.4 ± 4.5 %, p < 0.05. Mean fluorescence of EMA-bound RBC depends on RBC's volume. MCV of reference samples affects EMA test results; thus, we recommend selection of reference samples with MCV in range of ±2 fL compared to MCV of patient RBC's.

  18. Comparative field performance and adherence to test results of four malaria rapid diagnostic tests among febrile patients more than five years of age in Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs) can increase availability of laboratory-based diagnosis and improve the overall management of febrile patients in malaria endemic areas. In preparation to scale-up RDTs in health facilities in Malawi, an evaluation of four RDTs to help guide national-level decision-making was conducted. Methods A cross sectional study of four histidine rich-protein-type-2- (HRP2) based RDTs at four health centres in Blantyre, Malawi, was undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs, assess prescriber adherence to RDT test results and explore operational issues regarding RDT implementation. Three RDTs were evaluated in only one health centre each and one RDT was evaluated in two health centres. Light microscopy in a reference laboratory was used as the gold standard. Results A total of 2,576 patients were included in the analysis. All of the RDTs tested had relatively high sensitivity for detecting any parasitaemia [Bioline SD (97%), First response malaria (92%), Paracheck (91%), ICT diagnostics (90%)], but low specificity [Bioline SD (39%), First response malaria (42%), Paracheck (68%), ICT diagnostics (54%)]. Specificity was significantly lower in patients who self-treated with an anti-malarial in the previous two weeks (odds ratio (OR) 0.5; p-value < 0.001), patients 5-15 years old versus patients > 15 years old (OR 0.4, p-value < 0.001) and when the RDT was performed by a community health worker versus a laboratory technician (OR 0.4; p-value < 0.001). Health workers correctly prescribed anti-malarials for patients with positive RDT results, but ignored negative RDT results with 58% of patients with a negative RDT result treated with an anti-malarial. Conclusions The results of this evaluation, combined with other published data and global recommendations, have been used to select RDTs for national scale-up. In addition, the study identified some key issues that need to be further delineated: the low field

  19. Final Progress Report for Collaborative Research: Aging of Black Carbon during Atmospheric Transport: Understanding Results from the DOE’s 2010 CARES and 2012 ClearfLo Campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzoleni, Claudio; Subramanian, R.

    2016-08-31

    Over the course of this project, we have analyzed data and samples from the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Clear air for London (ClearfLo) campaign, as well as conducted or participated in laboratory experiments designed to better understand black carbon mixing state and climate-relevant properties. The laboratory campaigns took place at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Carnegie Mellon University to study various climate-relevant aerosol properties of different sources of soot mixing with secondary organic aerosol precursors. Results from some of these activities were summarized in the previous progress report. This final report presents the manuscripts that have been published (many in the period since the last progress report), lists presentations at different conferences based on grant-related activities, and presents some results that are likely to be submitted for publication in the near future.

  20. Rejuvenation of aging hearts.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Andrew R; Larrick, James W

    2013-08-01

    Specific subtle changes in regulation or activity of factors that maintain homeostasis and cell differentiation may play significant roles in mammalian aging. Drift resulting from reaching the end of an organism's developmental program might involve a specific ordered set of changes. Several studies have suggested that dysfunctional changes associated with aging in skeletal muscle, neurons, and hematopoietic stem cells may be caused by specific changes either in the extracellular environment or in intracellular regulatory networks and that such dysfunction may be reversible. On the basis these data, Loffredo et al. hypothesized that extrinsic circulating factors in young mice might reverse cardiac aging. Parabiosis, the surgical linking of circulations between old and young mice, was employed to identify an anti-hypertrophic factor (growth differentiation factor 11 [GDF-11]) that appears to rejuvenate aging murine hearts, raising exciting prospects for the development of anti-aging therapeutics. However, much work remains to be done to evaluate the utility of GDF-11 as a therapeutic rejuvenation factor. Similar rejuvenating factors for diverse tissues may exist as well and will hopefully be identified in the near future.

  1. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  2. Positive Suggestion: It Helps LD Students Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldridge, O. A. "Buff"

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews his experiences in remediating reading problems of learning disabled students through hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestion. Research on the use of hypnosis is briefly summarized and recommendations on the use of nonhypnotic suggestion in the classroom are given. (CL)

  3. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  4. [On suggestion and its related problems].

    PubMed

    Oka, Kazutaro

    2013-01-01

    Recently, intensive discussions about dissociative disorders have led to the rediscovery of the psychology of P. Janet, that has been under the shadow of Freud's psychoanalysis. Nevertheless, psychiatry, "Schulpsychiatrie" in German, has still paid little attention to the suggestion with which Janet has occupied himself throughout his long career. In this paper, the author examined suggestion from another point of view other than psychodynamic. It is presented that Freud reduced suggestion to a specific relation between an active subject and a passive object, as his precursors, F.A. Mesmer and R. de Puységur did the same. In contrast, Janet's early studies influenced by the philosophy of M. de Biran seem to focus on another aspect of suggestion. From this aspect, suggestion is based on a spontaneous intersubjective process that should be expressed by the middle voice. Referring to H. Bergson, with whom Janet corresponded, the author pointed out that one is not always one's own self that reflects one's whole life history, regardless of the presence/absence of mental abnormality, as is the case with a person under suggestion. Taking into account these factors of suggestion, i. e., the middle voice and fragile selfhood that is not firmly rooted in one's own life history, the author investigated hysteria as a distinct phenomenon that has a particularly close relation with suggestion. Furthermore, depersonalization and schizophrenia were discussed concerning their relation with hysteria. In this approach, the author suggested that the unconscious could be topographically localized not only in a deep portion of the mental apparatus, but also in its most superficial portion, unlike in the case of Freud's psychoanalysis.

  5. The indirect costs of back problems (dorsopathies) in Australians aged 45 to 64 years from 2015 to 2030: results from a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD2030.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Deborah; Cunich, Michelle M; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Tanton, Robert; Veerman, Lennert; Kelly, Simon J; Passey, Megan E

    2016-12-01

    This study projected the indirect costs of back problems through lost productive life years (PLYs) from the individual's perspective (lost disposable income), the governmental perspective (reduced taxation revenue, greater welfare spending), and the societal perspective (lost gross domestic product, GDP) from 2015 to 2030, using Health&WealthMOD2030-Australia's first microsimulation model on the long-term impacts of ill-health. Quantile regression analysis was used to examine differences in median weekly income, welfare payments, and taxes of people unable to work due to back problems with working full-time without back problems as comparator. National costs and lost GDP resulting from missing workers due to back problems were also projected. We projected that 90,000 people have lost PLYs due to back problems in 2015, increasing to 104,600 in 2030 (16.2% increase). People with lost PLYs due to back problems are projected to receive AU$340.91 less in total income and AU$339.77 more in welfare payments per week than full-time workers without back problems in 2030 and pay no income tax on average. National costs consisted of a loss of AU$2931 million in annual income in 2015, increasing to AU$4660 million in 2030 (60% increase). For government, extra annual welfare payments are projected to increase from AU$1462 million in 2015 to AU$1709 million in 2030 (16.9% increase), and lost annual taxation revenue to increase from AU$671 million in 2015 to $961 million in 2030 (43.2% increase). We projected losses in GDP of AU$10,543 million in 2015, increasing to AU$14,522 million in 2030 due to back problems.

  6. P values: from suggestion to superstition

    PubMed Central

    Concato, John; Hartigan, John A

    2016-01-01

    A threshold probability value of ‘p≤0.05’ is commonly used in clinical investigations to indicate statistical significance. To allow clinicians to better understand evidence generated by research studies, this review defines the p value, summarizes the historical origins of the p value approach to hypothesis testing, describes various applications of p≤0.05 in the context of clinical research and discusses the emergence of p≤5×10−8 and other values as thresholds for genomic statistical analyses. Corresponding issues include a conceptual approach of evaluating whether data do not conform to a null hypothesis (ie, no exposure–outcome association). Importantly, and in the historical context of when p≤0.05 was first proposed, the 1-in-20 chance of a false-positive inference (ie, falsely concluding the existence of an exposure–outcome association) was offered only as a suggestion. In current usage, however, p≤0.05 is often misunderstood as a rigid threshold, sometimes with a misguided ‘win’ (p≤0.05) or ‘lose’ (p>0.05) approach. Also, in contemporary genomic studies, a threshold of p≤10−8 has been endorsed as a boundary for statistical significance when analyzing numerous genetic comparisons for each participant. A value of p≤0.05, or other thresholds, should not be employed reflexively to determine whether a clinical research investigation is trustworthy from a scientific perspective. Rather, and in parallel with conceptual issues of validity and generalizability, quantitative results should be interpreted using a combined assessment of strength of association, p values, CIs, and sample size. PMID:27489256

  7. Canadian prediction equations of spirometric lung function for Caucasian adults 20 to 90 years of age: Results from the Canadian Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) study and the Lung Health Canadian Environment (LHCE) study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, WC; Bourbeau, J; Hernandez, P; Chapman, K; Cowie, R; FitzGerald, MJ; Aaron, S; Marciniuk, DD; Maltais, F; O’Donnell, DE; Goldstein, R; Sin, D; Chan-Yeung, M; Manfreda, J; Anthonisen, NR; Tate, RB; Sears, MR; Siersted, HC; Becklake, MR; Ernst, P; Bowie, DM; Sweet, L; Van Til, L

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, no reference or normative values for spirometry based on a randomly selected Canadian population exist. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present analysis was to construct spirometric reference values for Canadian adults 20 to 90 years of age by combining data collected from healthy lifelong nonsmokers in two population-based studies. METHOD: Both studies similarly used random population sampling, conducted using validated epidemiological protocols in the Canadian Obstructive Lung Disease study, and the Lung Health Canadian Environment study. Spirometric lung function data were available from 3042 subjects in the COLD study, which was completed in 2009, and from 2571 subjects in the LHCE study completed in 1995. A total of 844 subjects 40 to 90 years of age, and 812 subjects 20 to 44 years of age, were identified as healthy, asymptomatic, lifelong nonsmokers, and provided normative reference values for spirometry. Multiple regression models were constructed separately for Caucasian men and women for the following spirometric parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC ratio, with covariates of height, sex and age. Comparison with published regression equations showed that the best agreement was obtained from data derived from random populations. RESULTS: The best-fitting regression models for healthy, never-smoking, asymptomatic European-Canadian men and women 20 to 90 years of age were constructed. When age- and height-corrected FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio were compared with other spirometry reference studies, mean values were similar, with the closest being derived from population-based studies. CONCLUSION: These spirometry reference equations, derived from randomly selected population-based cohorts with stringently monitored lung function measurements, provide data currently lacking in Canada. PMID:22187687

  8. A suggested method for reporting a landslide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fell, Robin; Lacerda, W.; Cruden, D.M.; Evans, S.G.; LaRochelle, P.; Martinez, Fernando; Beltran, Lisandro; Jesenak, J.; Novograd, S.; Krauter, E.; Slunga, E.; Pilot, G.A.; Brand, E.W.; Farkas, J.; Bhandari, R.K.; Cotecchia, V.; Esu, Franco; Fujita, H.; Nakamura, H.; Sassa, K.; Ting, W.H.; Salt, Graham; Janbu, Nilmar; Nespak, A.M.; Gongxian, Wang; Zhuoyuan , Zhang; Michelena, R.; Popescu, Mihai; Viberg, Leif; Bonnard, C.; Hutchinson, J.N.; Einstein , H.H.; Schuster, R.L.; Varnes, D.J.; Ter-Martiros­ian, Z.G.; Ter-Stepanian, G.I.; Anagnosti, P.; Hashizume, M.; Watanabe, Masayuki

    1990-01-01

    The Landslide Report is a Suggested Method developed by the International Geotechnical Societies' UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory for reporting the position, date, type, geometry, volume and damage of significant landslides.

  9. Suggested Format for Acute Toxicity Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document suggests the format for final reports on pesticide studies (right column of the tables in the document) and provides instructions for the creation of PDF Version 1.3 electronic submission documents (left column of the tables).

  10. FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... 162726.html FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics Agency notes most products already below recommended level ... limit on how much lead can be in cosmetics ranging from lipstick and eye shadow to blush ...

  11. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    PubMed

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  12. Associations of quality of life, pain, and self-reported arthritis with age, employment, bleed rate, and utilization of hemophilia treatment center and health care provider services: results in adults with hemophilia in the HERO study

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Angela L; Witkop, Michelle; Lambing, Angela; Garrido, Cesar; Dunn, Spencer; Cooper, David L; Nugent, Diane J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Severe hemophilia and subsequent hemophilic arthropathy result in joint pain and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Assessment of HRQoL in persons with hemophilia (PWH), including underlying factors that drive HRQoL differences, is important in determining health care resource allocation and in making individualized clinical decisions. Aim To examine potential associations between HRQoL, pain interference, and self-reported arthritis and age, employment, activity, bleed frequency, and hemophilia treatment center and health care professional utilization. Methods PWH (age ≥18 years) from ten countries completed a 5-point Likert scale on pain interference over the previous 4 weeks, the EQ-5D-3L scale (mobility, usual activities, self-care, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression) including a health-related visual analog scale (0–100, coded as an 11-point categorical response). Results Pain interference (extreme/a lot) was higher in PWH aged >40 years (31%) compared to those aged 31–40 years (27%) or ≤30 years (21%). In an analysis of eight countries with home treatment, PWH who reported EQ-5D mobility issues were less likely to be employed (53% vs 79%, with no mobility issues). Median annual bleed frequency increased with worsening EQ-5D pain or discomfort. The percentage of PWH with inhibitors reporting visual analog scale scores of 80–90–100 was lower (20%) than those without inhibitors (34%). Median bleed frequency increased with pain. Globally, nurse and social worker involvement increased with disability and pain; physiotherapist utilization was moderate regardless of the extent of disability or pain. Conclusion Increased disability and pain were associated with increased age, lower employment, higher reported bleed frequency, and lower HRQoL. PMID:26604708

  13. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Vonetta M.; Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Sozda, Christopher N.; Kirton, Joshua W.; Green, Mackenzie L.; O’Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E.; Anton, Stephen D.; Manini, Todd M.; Woods, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness. PMID:26834623

  14. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Vonetta M; Szymkowicz, Sarah M; Sozda, Christopher N; Kirton, Joshua W; Green, Mackenzie L; O'Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E; Anton, Stephen D; Manini, Todd M; Woods, Adam J

    2015-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness.

  15. Family Violence Among Older Adult Patients Consulting in Primary Care Clinics: Results From the ESA (Enquête sur la santé des aînés) Services Study on Mental Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Mathieu, Véronique; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To document the reliability and construct validity of the Family Violence Scale (FVS) in the older adult population aged 65 years and older. Method: Data came from a cross-sectional survey, the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study), conducted in 2011–2013 using a probabilistic sample of older adults waiting for medical services in primary care clinics (n = 1765). Family violence was defined as a latent variable, coming from a spouse and from children. Results: A model with 2 indicators of violence; that is, psychological and financial violence, and physical violence, adequately fitted the observed data. The reliability of the FVS was 0.95. According to our results, 16% of older adults reported experiencing some form of family violence in the past 12 months of their interview, and 3% reported a high level of family violence (FVS > 0.36). Our results showed that the victim’s sex was not associated with the degree of violence (β = 0.02). However, the victim’s age was associated with family violence (β = −0.12). Older adults, aged 75 years and older, reported less violence than those aged between 65 and 74 years. Conclusion: Our results lead us to conclude that family violence against older adults is common and warrants greater public health and political attention. General practitioners could play an active role in the detection of violence among older adults. PMID:25161067

  16. Multiple lifestyle behaviours and overweight and obesity among children aged 9–11 years: results from the UK site of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Hannah J; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Cumming, Sean P; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the independent associations between multiple lifestyle behaviours (physical activity, sleep, screen time (ST) and diet) and overweight and obesity in UK children. The second objective was to compare body mass index (BMI) z-score between children who meet health guidelines for each lifestyle behaviour and those who do not and to explore the impact of interactions between lifestyle behaviours on BMI z-score. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional study on children aged 9–11 years in the UK (n=374). Outcome measures Participants were classified as overweight or obese using the WHO BMI cut-points. Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sleep duration were measured using an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer, whereas ST and dietary habits were assessed using questionnaires. Multilevel multiple logistic regression was employed to analyse associations between lifestyle behaviours and overweight/obesity. Participants were then categorised according to whether or not they met specific health criteria for MVPA, ST, sleep and diet. Multilevel multiple linear regression was used to compare these groupings on the outcome of BMI z-score and interactions were explored. Results MVPA and longer sleep duration were associated with lower odds of overweight or obesity, whereas ST and a healthy diet score were associated with increased odds of overweight/obesity. No association was found for an unhealthy diet score. Meeting MVPA guidelines was significantly associated with a lower BMI z-score in all models, and significant two-way interactions were observed for physical activity and sleep, ST and sleep, and physical activity and diet. Conclusions MVPA, sleep and ST are important lifestyle behaviours associated with overweight/obesity among children. More research is required to confirm the role of diet on adiposity and such work would benefit from objective assessment. Overall, this work suggests that

  17. Separate physical tests of lower extremities and postural control are associated with cognitive impairment. Results from the general population study Good Aging in Skåne (GÅS-SNAC)

    PubMed Central

    Bramell-Risberg, Eva; Jarnlo, Gun-Britt; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether separate physical tests of the lower extremities, that assess movement speed and postural control, were associated with cognitive impairment in older community-dwelling subjects. Subjects and methods In this population-based, cross-sectional, cohort study, the following items were assessed: walking speed, walking 2 × 15 m, Timed Up and Go (TUG) at self-selected and fast speeds, one-leg standing, and performance in step- and five chair-stand tests. The study comprised 2115 subjects, aged 60–93 years, with values adjusted for demographics, health-related factors, and comorbidity. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and cognitive impairment was defined by the three-word delayed recall task of the MMSE. Subjects who scored 0/3 on the three-word delayed recall task were defined as cases (n = 328), those who scored 1/3 were defined as intermediates (n = 457), and the others as controls (n = 1330). Results Physical tests performed rapidly were significantly associated with cognitive impairment; this was the case in increased time of five chair stands (P = 0.009, odds ratio [OR] = 1.03), TUG (P < 0.001, OR = 1.11) and walking 2 × 15 m (P < 0.001, OR = 1.05). Inability to stand on one leg for 10 seconds was associated with increased risk of being a case (P < 0.001, OR = 1.78), compared to those able to stand for 30 seconds or longer. More steps during the step test (P < 0.001, OR = 0.95) and higher fast walking speed (P < 0.001, OR = 0.51) were associated with lower risk of being a case. Conclusion Slower movements and reduced postural control were related to an increased risk of being cognitively impaired. All tests that were performed rapidly were able to separate cases from controls. These findings suggest that physical tests that are related to lower extremity and postural control, emphasizing velocity, might be useful in investigating relationships between physical and cognitive

  18. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  19. Technology Is Power: Suggestions for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Shanklin knows it can be hard for new teachers to incorporate all they know about technology with the realities of a classroom. She suggests setting incremental, monthly technology goals; investing in equipment; assessing students' grasp of the technology at their disposal and their use of it in classroom projects; searching purposefully for…

  20. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  1. Integrating Composition and Literature: Some Practical Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daiker, Donald A.

    This paper suggests that it is possible to construct a course that integrates the teaching of composition with the teaching of literature without allowing the secondary goal of heightened literary understanding to overwhelm the primary goal of improved expository writing. It presents a syllabus for a four-week unit on Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun…

  2. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  3. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  4. Reading Aloud--Suggestions for Classroom Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rews, Alun L. W.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an introductory summary in defense of "reading aloud" in the English as a foreign language classroom and a more substantial section offering practical suggestions for handling it. The defense centers on a clarification of the purpose of reading aloud. Descriptions of different reading activities are included along with methods of…

  5. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  6. Suggestions for Teaching the Migratory Pupil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dolly; And Others

    Suggestions for teachers of migrant children are offered in seven individual teaching guides which were developed as part of a research and curriculum development project to improve the teaching of migratory pupils. Levels of study include grades four, five, six, and seven, and one general unit deals with providing an effective learning…

  7. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  8. Childhood Asthma May Encourage Obesity, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163160.html Childhood Asthma May Encourage Obesity, Study Suggests Fear of flare-ups might spur ... elementary school students in California, researchers found that childhood asthma ... increased risk of obesity over the next 10 years. "I was surprised ...

  9. Applications and suggested directions of transition research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes many of the applications of transition research having significant technological importance and suggests critical general areas for further research. Critical research requirements include identification and quantification of initial disturbance fields, disturbance internalization by inviscid and viscous flow fields and amplification in nonboundary-layer flows, along with elucidation of the roughness-induced destabilization physics.

  10. Suggested Outline for Auditory Perception Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Clare A.

    Presented are suggestions for speech therapists to use in auditory perception training and screening of language handicapped children in kindergarten through grade 3. Directions are given for using the program, which is based on games. Each component is presented in terms of purpose, materials, a description of the game, and directions for…

  11. Determinants of undernutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in rural Zambézia Province, Mozambique: Results of two population-based serial cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Elizabeth S.; Blevins, Meridith; González-Calvo, Lazaro; Ndatimana, Elisée; Green, Ann F.; Lopez, Melanie; Olupona, Omo; Vermund, Sten H.; Moon, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background While many countries are transitioning from epidemics of undernutrition to overnutrition, Mozambique’s very high 44% prevalence of stunting in children under age 5 years is cause for serious concern. Methods We conducted two population-based cross-sectional surveys of ~4000 female heads of households each in Zambézia Province, Mozambique from August–September 2010 (Baseline) and April–May 2014 (Endline) as part of the USAID funded Strengthening Communities through Integrated Programs (SCIP) grant. Anthropometric measurements were collected on 560 children aged 6–59 months at Baseline and 912 children at Endline and classified as: “stunted,” a height-for-age z-score less than -2; “wasted,” weight-for-height z-score less than -2; and “underweight,” weight-for-age z-score less than -2. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression using Stata 13.1 were used to examine factors associated with undernutrition. Results Of children under age five years, 43% were undernourished in 2010 and 55% in 2014. The most common form of undernutrition was stunting (39% in 2010, 51% in 2014), followed by underweight (13% in both 2010 and 2014), and wasting (7% in 2010, 5% in 2014). Child’s age was found to have a non-linear association with stunting. Vitamin A supplementation was associated with a 31% (p=0.04) decreased odds of stunting. Children who were exclusively breastfed for at least six months had an 80% (p=0.02) lower odds of wasting in 2014 and 57% (p=0.05) decreased odds of being underweight in 2014. Introducing other foods after age six months was associated with a five-fold increased odds of wasting in 2014 (p=0.02); household food insecurity was associated with wasting (OR=2.08; p=0.03) and underweight in 2010 (OR=2.31; p=0.05). Children whose mother washed her hands with a cleaning agent had a 40% (p=0.05) decreased odds of being underweight. Surprisingly, per point increase in household dietary diversity score, children had 12% greater

  12. Ice age paleotopography

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, W.R. )

    1994-07-08

    A gravitationally self-consistent theory of postglacial relative sea level change is used to infer the variation of surface ice and water cover since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results show that LGM ice volume was approximately 35 percent lower than suggested by the CLIMAP reconstruction and the maximum heights of the main Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice complexes are inferred to have been commensurately lower with respect to sea level. Use of these Ice Age boundary conditions in atmospheric general circulation models will yield climates that differ significantly from those previously inferred on the basis of the CLIMAP data set.

  13. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research.

  14. In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary referral clinic specialized in conservative treatment of spinal deformities. Inclusion criteria: idiopathic scoliosis; European Risser 0–2; 25 degrees to 45 degrees Cobb; start treatment age: 10 years or more, never treated before. Exclusion criteria: secondary scoliosis, neurological etiology, prior treatment for scoliosis (brace or surgery). Groups: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria for the AJIS, (Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis treated in adolescence), demonstrated by an x-ray before 10 year of age, and treatment start after 10 years of age. AIS group included 45 adolescents with a diagnostic x-ray made after the threshold of age 10 years. Results at the end of growth were analysed; the threshold of 5 Cobb degree to define worsened, improved and stabilized curves was considered. Statistics: Mean and SD were used for descriptive statistics of clinical and radiographic changes. Relative Risk of failure (RR), Chi-square and T-test of all data was calculated to find differences among the two groups. 95% Confidence Interval (CI) , and of radiographic changes have been calculated. Results We did not find any Cobb angle significant differences among groups at baseline and at the end of treatment. The only difference was in the number of patients progressed above 45 degrees, found in the JIS group. The RR of progression of AJIS was, 1.35 (IC95% 0.57-3.17) versus AIS, and it wasn't statistically significant in the AJIS group, in respect to AIS group (p = 0.5338). Conclusion

  15. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  16. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.

    2016-02-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  17. Mentoring in biostatistics: some suggestions for reform

    PubMed Central

    Odueyungbo, Adefowope; Thabane, Lehana

    2012-01-01

    Mentoring is routinely used as a tool to facilitate acquisition of skills by new professionals in fields like medicine, nursing, surgery, and business. While mentoring has been proposed as an effective strategy for knowledge and skills transfer in biostatistics and related fields, there is still much to be done to facilitate adoption by stakeholders, including academia and employers of biostatisticians. This is especially troubling given that biostatisticians play a key role in the success or otherwise of clinical research conducted for evidence-based decisions. In this paper, we offer suggestions on how mentoring can be applied in practice to advance the statistical training of future biostatisticians. In particular, we propose steps that academic statistics departments, professional statistical societies, and statistics organizations can take to advance the mentoring of young biostatisticians. Our suggestions also cover what mentors and mentees can do to facilitate a successful mentoring relationship. PMID:23093907

  18. Reprogramming aging and progeria.

    PubMed

    Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The aging rate of an organism depends on the ratio of tissue degeneration to tissue repair. As a consequence, molecular alterations that tip this balance toward degeneration cause accelerated aging. Conversely, interventions can be pursued to reduce tissue degeneration or to increase tissue repair with the aim of delaying the onset of age-associated manifestations. Recent studies on the biology of stem cells in aging have revealed the influence of systemic factors on their functionality and demonstrated the feasibility of reprogramming aged and progeroid cells. These results illustrate the reversibility of some aspects of the aging process and encourage the search for new anti-aging and anti-progeria interventions.

  19. Contrasting age related changes in autism spectrum disorder phenomenology in Cornelia de Lange, Fragile X, and Cri du Chat syndromes: Results from a 2.5 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Lisa; Moss, Joanna; Nelson, Lisa; Oliver, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the way in which the characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) develop and manifest across the age span in individuals with genetic syndromes. In this study we present findings from a two and a half year follow-up of the characteristics associated with ASD in three syndromes: Cornelia de Lange (CdLS), Fragile X (FXS), and Cri du Chat (CdCS). Parents and carers of 251 individuals (CdLS=67, CdCS=42, and FXS=142) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) at Time 1 (T1) and again two and a half years later (T2). The FXS and CdLS groups were more likely to meet the cut-offs for both autism and ASD and show greater severity of ASD related behaviors, at both T1 and T2, compared to the CdCS group. Older individuals (>15yrs) with CdLS were more likely to meet the cut off for ASD than younger individuals (≤15 yrs) with the syndrome and more likely to show greater severity of social impairments. In FXS repetitive behaviors were found to become less prominent with age and in CdCS social impairments were reported to be more severe with age. There were no significant changes between T1 and T2 in the severity of ASD characteristics in the CdCS and CdLS groups. The FXS group showed significantly fewer repetitive behaviors and less severe impairments in social interaction over this time frame. The findings suggest that while there may be similarities in overall severity and presentation of ASD characteristics in CdLS and FXS, these characteristics have divergent patterns of development within these groups.

  20. Comparative Endocrinology of Aging and Longevity Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Allard, John B.; Duan, Cunming

    2011-01-01

    Hormones regulate growth, development, metabolism, and other complex processes in multicellular animals. For many years it has been suggested that hormones may also influence the rate of the aging process. Aging is a multifactorial process that causes biological systems to break down and cease to function in adult organisms as time passes, eventually leading to death. The exact underlying causes of the aging process remain a topic for debate, and clues that may shed light on these causes are eagerly sought after. In the last two decades, gene mutations that result in delayed aging and extended longevity have been discovered, and many of the affected genes have been components of endocrine signaling pathways. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the roles of endocrine signaling in the regulation of aging and longevity in various animals. We begin by discussing the notion that conserved systems, including endocrine signaling pathways, “regulate” the aging process. Findings from the major model organisms: worms, flies, and rodents, are then outlined. Unique lessons from studies of non-traditional models: bees, salmon, and naked mole rats, are also discussed. Finally, we summarize the endocrinology of aging in humans, including changes in hormone levels with age, and the involvement of hormones in aging-related diseases. The most well studied and widely conserved endocrine pathway that affects aging is the insulin/insulin-like growth factor system. Mutations in genes of this pathway increase the lifespan of worms, flies, and mice. Population genetic evidence also suggests this pathway’s involvement in human aging. Other hormones including steroids have been linked to aging only in a subset of the models studied. Because of the value of comparative studies, it is suggested that the aging field could benefit from adoption of additional model organisms. PMID:22654825

  1. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  2. New evidence suggesting segmentation of Cocos Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, L.R.; Sauermann, R.P.; De Boer, J.

    1985-02-01

    Compilation and analysis of geophysical and geological data indicate that the Cocos plate consists of three segments that have individual poles of rotation and independent motion vectors. Contoured heat-flow and gravity maps of the region delineate the boundaries of the segments within the Cocos plate. These segments have different focal-plane solutions along the Middle America Trench and different sedimentary-basin configurations within the Central America-Mexico island arc. Recent studies of seismic data from the region also have suggested that the subducted Cocos plate consists of three segments. The proposed northern and central segments are separated by the northeast-trending Siqueros-Tehuantepec Ridge fracture zone. The proposed central and southern segments are separated by the northeast-trending Costa Rica fracture zone that is located just northwest of the Cocos Ridge and extends from the Galapagos rift to the central valley of Costa Rica. Poles of rotation and relative motion vectors have been calculated with respect to the Caribbean plate for each segment. The northern segment is moving N75/sup 0/E, oblique to the trench; the central segment is moving N50/sup 0/E, perpendicular to the trench; the southern segment is moving north, perpendicular to the trench. The Siqueros-Tehuantepec and Costa Rice fracture zones appear to join with tectonized zones that dissect the Central America-Mexico island arc and extend across the Caribbean plate, suggesting that it too is segmented. Structural and stratigraphic data from the sedimentary basins on the island arc suggest that these fracture zones have existed throughout the Tertiary history of the region.

  3. Guidelines and Suggestions for Balloon Gondola Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility is responsible for ensuring that science payloads meet the appropriate design requirements. The ultimate goal is to ensure that payloads stay within the allowable launch limits as well as survive the termination event. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines for Gondola Design. These include rules and reasons on why CSBF has a certain preference and location for certain components within the gondola as well as other suggestions. Additionally, some recommendations are given on how to avoid common pitfalls.

  4. Anatomy of ageing face.

    PubMed

    Ilankovan, V

    2014-03-01

    Ageing is a biological process that results from changes at a cellular level, particularly modification of mRNA. The face is affected by the same physiological process and results in skeletal, muscular, and cutaneous ageing; ligamentous attenuation, descent of fat, and ageing of the appendages. I describe these changes on a structural and clinical basis and summarise possible solutions for a rejuvenation surgeon.

  5. Aging and Health: Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems Glaucoma Macular Degeneration Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Cataracts Basic Facts & Information ... Are Cataracts? Cataracts are a common result of aging and occur frequently in older people. About one ...

  6. Activation of the canonical nuclear factor-κB pathway is involved in isoflurane-induced hippocampal interleukin-1β elevation and the resultant cognitive deficits in aged rats

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zheng-Qian; Rong, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Ya-Jie; Ni, Cheng; Tian, Xiao-Sheng; Mo, Na; Chui, De-Hua; Guo, Xiang-Yang

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Isoflurane induces hippocampal IL-1β elevation and cognitive deficits in aged rats. •Isoflurane transiently activates the canonical NF-κB pathway in aged rat hippocampus. •NF-κB inhibitor mitigates isoflurane-induced IL-1β elevation and cognitive deficits. •We report a linkage between NF-κB signaling, IL-1β expression, and cognitive changes. -- Abstract: Although much recent evidence has demonstrated that neuroinflammation contributes to volatile anesthetic-induced cognitive deficits, there are few existing mechanistic explanations for this inflammatory process. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane on canonical nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling, and to explore its association with hippocampal interleukin (IL)-1β levels and anesthetic-related cognitive changes in aged rats. After a 4-h exposure to 1.5% isoflurane in 20-month-old rats, increases in IκB kinase and IκB phosphorylation, as well as a reduction in the NF-κB inhibitory protein (IκBα), were observed in the hippocampi of isoflurane-exposed rats compared with control rats. These events were accompanied by an increase in NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation at 6 h after isoflurane exposure and hippocampal IL-1β elevation from 1 to 6 h after isoflurane exposure. Nevertheless, no significant neuroglia activation was observed. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate markedly suppressed the IL-1β increase and NF-κB signaling, and also mitigated the severity of cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze task. Overall, our results demonstrate that isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits may stem from upregulation of hippocampal IL-1β, partially via activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway, in aged rats.

  7. Hypoglycemia Detection and Carbohydrate Suggestion in an Artificial Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Kilkus, Jennifer; Hajizadeh, Iman; Samadi, Sediqeh; Feng, Jianyuan; Sevil, Mert; Lazaro, Caterina; Frantz, Nicole; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Fear of hypoglycemia is a major concern for many patients with type 1 diabetes and affects patient decisions for use of an artificial pancreas system. We propose an alternative way for prevention of hypoglycemia by issuing predictive hypoglycemia alarms and encouraging patients to consume carbohydrates in a timely manner. The algorithm has been tested on 6 subjects (3 males and 3 females, age 24.2 ± 4.5 years, weight 79.2 ± 16.2 kg, height 172.7 ± 9.4 cm, HbA1C 7.3 ± 0.48%, duration of diabetes 209.2 ± 87.9 months) over 3-day closed-loop clinical experiments as part of a multivariable artificial pancreas control system. Over 6 three-day clinical experiments, there were only 5 real hypoglycemia episodes, of which only 1 hypoglycemia episode occurred due to being missed by the proposed algorithm. The average hypoglycemia alarms per day and per subject was 3. Average glucose value when the first alarms were triggered was recorded to be 117 ± 30.6 mg/dl. Average carbohydrate consumption per alarm was 14 ± 7.8 grams. Our results have shown that most low glucose concentrations can be predicted in advance and the glucose levels can be raised back to the desired levels by consuming an appropriate amount of carbohydrate. The proposed algorithm is able to prevent most hypoglycemic events by suggesting appropriate levels of carbohydrate consumption before the actual occurrence of hypoglycemia.

  8. Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task.

    PubMed

    Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, Pedro A; Slama, Hichem; Caspar, Emilie A; Gevers, Wim; Cleeremans, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction) can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a "brain wave" machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion). We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion's contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion.

  9. Suggested noise criteria for plumbing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, Jerry

    2005-09-01

    The issue of noise that is generated by plumbing systems has been addressed in several articles and texts in the acoustic literature, but most of this information deals with a description of the various noise generation mechanisms and recommended methods of controlling noise from plumbing fixtures and piping. As with any noise source that has the potential for generating annoyance, the question of how much noise is too much noise eventually arises. Chapter 47 of the 2003 ASHRAE Applications Handbook contains newly published guidelines for plumbing noise criteria as it impacts building occupants. This paper discusses the ASHRAE guidelines, and it also suggests additional noise criteria for other plumbing-related sources of noise in multitenant buildings.

  10. Exploration of Opinion-aware Approach to Contextual Suggestion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...suggestion are crawled. Approximately 60,442 candidate sug- gestions are crawled for all contexts, resulting in average 1208 candidate suggestions per

  11. Vertebral bomb radiocarbon suggests extreme longevity in white sharks.

    PubMed

    Hamady, Li Ling; Natanson, Lisa J; Skomal, Gregory B; Thorrold, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and management efforts for white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) remain hampered by a lack of basic demographic information including age and growth rates. Sharks are typically aged by counting growth bands sequentially deposited in their vertebrae, but the assumption of annual deposition of these band pairs requires testing. We compared radiocarbon (Δ(14)C) values in vertebrae from four female and four male white sharks from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean (NWA) with reference chronologies documenting the marine uptake of (14)C produced by atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices to generate the first radiocarbon age estimates for adult white sharks. Age estimates were up to 40 years old for the largest female (fork length [FL]: 526 cm) and 73 years old for the largest male (FL: 493 cm). Our results dramatically extend the maximum age and longevity of white sharks compared to earlier studies, hint at possible sexual dimorphism in growth rates, and raise concerns that white shark populations are considerably more sensitive to human-induced mortality than previously thought.

  12. Personality Stability From Age 14 to Age 77 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for differential stability in personality trait differences, even over decades. The authors used data from a sample of the Scottish Mental Survey, 1947 to study personality stability from childhood to older age. The 6-Day Sample (N = 1,208) were rated on six personality characteristics by their teachers at around age 14. In 2012, the authors traced as many of these participants as possible and invited them to take part in a follow-up study. Those who agreed (N = 174) completed a questionnaire booklet at age 77 years, which included rating themselves and asking someone who knew them well to rate them on the same 6 characteristics on which they were rated in adolescence. Each set of 6 ratings was reduced to the same single underlying factor, denoted dependability, a trait comparable to conscientiousness. Participants’ and others’ older-age personality characteristic ratings were moderately correlated with each other, and with other measures of personality and wellbeing, but correlations suggested no significant stability of any of the 6 characteristics or their underlying factor, dependability, over the 63-year interval. However, a more complex model, controlling rater effects, indicated significant 63-year stability of 1 personality characteristic, Stability of Moods, and near-significant stability of another, Conscientiousness. Results suggest that lifelong differential stability of personality is generally quite low, but that some aspects of personality in older age may relate to personality in childhood. PMID:27929341

  13. Economic costs of chronic disease through lost productive life years (PLYs) among Australians aged 45–64 years from 2015 to 2030: results from a microsimulation model

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Deborah; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle M; Tanton, Robert; Veerman, Lennert; Kelly, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To project the number of older workers with lost productive life years (PLYs) due to chronic disease and resultant lost income; and lost taxes and increased welfare payments from 2015 to 2030. Design, setting and participants Using a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD2030, the costs of chronic disease in Australians aged 45–64 were projected to 2030. The model integrates household survey data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Surveys of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDACs) 2003 and 2009, output from long-standing microsimulation models (STINMOD (Static Incomes Model) and APPSIM (Australian Population and Policy Simulation Model)) used by various government departments, population and labour force growth data from Treasury, and disease trends data from the Australian Burden of Disease and Injury Study (2003). Respondents aged 45–64 years in the SDACs 2003 and 2009 formed the base population. Main outcome measures Lost PLYs due to chronic disease; resultant lost income, lost taxes and increased welfare payments in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. Results We projected 380 000 (6.4%) people aged 45–64 years with lost PLYs in 2015, increasing to 462 000 (6.5%) in 2030—a 22% increase in absolute numbers. Those with lost PLYs experience the largest reduction in income than any other group in each year compared to those employed full time without a chronic disease, and this income gap widens over time. The total economic loss due to lost PLYs consisted of lost income modelled at $A12.6 billion in 2015, increasing to $A20.5 billion in 2030—a 62.7% increase. Additional costs to the government consisted of increased welfare payments at $A6.2 billion in 2015, increasing to $A7.3 billion in 2030—a 17.7% increase; and a loss of $A3.1 billion in taxes in 2015, increasing to $A4.7 billion in 2030—a growth of 51.6%. Conclusions There is a need for greater investment in effective preventive health interventions which improve workers’ health

  14. Aging and Work Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Harris T.; Waring, Joan M.

    Business firms are an integral part of the age stratification structure of society. Although the age structures of people and roles within the organization are dynamic, these structures yield a fairly stable strata in which norms exist to suggest the various roles expected of certain persons. Those in roles with greater financial rewards, power,…

  15. Associations between Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Cognitive Test Performance among Older Adults from Six Middle Income Countries: Results from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Gildner, Theresa E.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Snodgrass, J. Josh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alterations in sleep architecture are common among older adults. Previous studies have documented associations between sleep duration, sleep quality, and cognitive performance in older individuals, yet few studies have examined these trends using population-based samples from non-Western societies. The present cross-sectional study uses nationally representative datasets from six countries to test several hypotheses related to sleep patterns and cognitive function. Methods: Data were drawn from the first wave of the World Health Organization's study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE), a longitudinal study using samples of older adults (≥ 50 years old) in 6 middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Mexico). Self-report data provided information on sleep quality and sleep duration over the previous 2 nights, and 5 cognitive tests (immediate and delayed verbal recall, forward and backward digit span, and verbal fluency) were used to create a composite z-score of cognitive performance. Results: Individuals with intermediate sleep durations (> 6-9 h/night) exhibited significantly higher cognitive scores than individuals with short sleep (0-6 h/night; p < 0.001) or long sleep duration (> 9 h/night; p < 0.001). Self-reported sleep quality was positively correlated with cognitive z-score (p < 0.05). Significant sex differences were observed; men generally had higher sleep quality and cognitive scores, while women reported longer sleep durations. Discussion: This study documented positive correlations between cognitive scores and sleep quality, and between cognitive z-scores and intermediate sleep duration. These findings are clinically important given the growing rates of dementia and aging populations globally. Citation: Gildner TE, Liebert MA, Kowal P, Chatterji S, Snodgrass JJ. Associations between sleep duration, sleep quality, and cognitive test performance among older adults from six middle income

  16. California foreshock sequences suggest aseismic triggering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Shearer, Peter M.

    2013-06-01

    Foreshocks are one of the few well-documented precursors to large earthquakes; therefore, understanding their nature is very important for earthquake prediction and hazard mitigation. However, the triggering role of foreshocks is not yet clear. It is possible that foreshocks are a self-triggering cascade of events that simply happen to trigger an unusually large aftershock; alternatively, foreshocks might originate from an external aseismic process that ultimately triggers the mainshock. In the former case, the foreshocks will have limited utility for forecasting. The latter case has been observed for several individual large earthquakes; however, it remains unclear how common it is and how to distinguish foreshock sequences from other seismicity clusters that do not lead to large earthquakes. Here we analyze foreshocks of three M>7 mainshocks in southern California. These foreshock sequences appear similar to earthquake swarms, in that they do not start with their largest events and they exhibit spatial migration of seismicity. Analysis of source spectra shows that all three foreshock sequences feature lower average stress drops and depletion of high-frequency energy compared with the aftershocks of their corresponding mainshocks. Using a longer-term stress-drop catalog, we find that the average stress drop of the Landers and Hector Mine foreshock sequences is comparable to nearby swarms. Our observations suggest that these foreshock sequences are manifestations of aseismic transients occurring close to the mainshock hypocenters, possibly related to localized fault zone complexity, which have promoted the occurrence of both the foreshocks and the eventual mainshock.

  17. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-26

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose &gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  18. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  19. Arsenic and bladder cancer: observations and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Radosavljević, Vladan; Jakovljević, Branko

    2008-10-01

    Arsenic from drinking water is a well-known risk factor for bladder cancer. The purpose of this paper is to systematize some important yet often overlooked facts considering the relationship between arsenic exposure and the occurrence of bladder cancer. Since the exposure to inorganic arsenic from food, inhaled air, and skin absorption as well as arsenic methylation ability are not fully investigated, our assumption is that the exposure of arsenic only from drinking water is underestimated and its role as a risk factor is highly overestimated. This paper proposes some qualitative and quantitative parameters of arsenic as a risk factor for bladder cancer. The recommended qualitative parameters of arsenic intake are first, pathways of exposure, and second, toxicity and metabolism. The suggested quantitative parameters of arsenic intake include amounts of arsenic absorbed in the body, duration of arsenic exposure, and duration of arsenic presence in the urinary bladder. This approach can be implemented in a systematic classification and explanation of various risk factors and their mutual interactions for other types of cancer or diseases in general.

  20. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  1. Placebo-Suggestion Modulates Conflict Resolution in the Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, Emilie A.; Gevers, Wim; Cleeremans, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction) can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a “brain wave” machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion). We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion’s contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. PMID:24130735

  2. SUGGESTED OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR AQUIFER PUMPING TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been an increased interest in ground water resources throughout the United States. This interest has resulted from a combination of an increase in fund water development for public and domestic use; an increase in mining, agricultural, and industrial activities which mi...

  3. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    PubMed

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    PubMed

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  5. Age-Related Effects of Advanced Glycation End Products (Ages) in Bone Matrix on Osteoclastic Resorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Gandhi, Chintan; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Appleford, Mark; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2015-12-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in bone extracellular matrix as people age. Previous studies have shown controversial results regarding the role of in situ AGEs accumulation in osteoclastic resorption. To address this issue, this study cultured human osteoclast cells directly on human cadaveric bone slices from different age groups (young and elderly) to warrant its relevance to in vivo conditions. The cell culture was terminated on the 3rd, 7th, and 10th day, respectively, to assess temporal changes in the number of differentiated osteoclasts, the number and size of osteoclastic resorption pits, the amount of bone resorbed, as well as the amount of matrix AGEs released in the medium by resorption. In addition, the in situ concentration of matrix AGEs at each resorption pit was also estimated based on its AGEs autofluorescent intensity. The results indicated that (1) osteoclastic resorption activities were significantly correlated with the donor age, showing larger but shallower resorption pits on the elderly bone substrates than on the younger ones; (2) osteoclast resorption activities were not significantly dependent on the in situ AGEs concentration in bone matrix, and (3) a correlation was observed between osteoclast activities and the concentration of AGEs released by the resorption. These results suggest that osteoclasts tend to migrate away from initial anchoring sites on elderly bone substrate during resorption compared to younger bone substrates. However, such behavior is not directly related to the in situ concentration of AGEs in bone matrix at the resorption sites.

  6. Health Services for the School-Age Child: Suggested Guidelines for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Organized around eight topics, this document provides guidelines for Oregon school district health services programs for students in preschool/kindergarten through grade twelve. A list of principles related to health program development, a summary of related health legislation, and a checklist for assessing compliance with Oregon administration…

  7. Menopausal Estrogen Therapy Benefits and Risks Vary by Age, WHI Analysis Suggests

    Cancer.gov

    Long-term follow-up data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) provide new information about the potential risks and benefits of hormone therapy to treat symptoms related to menopause, including its effect on breast cancer risk,

  8. Gathering Ideas Online: Results of the Navy Personnel Command (NPC) Telework Virtual Suggestion Box

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    SUBTITLE 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...13 Key Themes – Work Plan...collaborative efforts, of interest to NPRST and the Navy as this type of mechanism is utilized for future work . 3 This project had two main objectives

  9. Describing sequencing results of structural chromosome rearrangements with a suggested next-generation cytogenetic nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Ordulu, Zehra; Wong, Kristen E; Currall, Benjamin B; Ivanov, Andrew R; Pereira, Shahrin; Althari, Sara; Gusella, James F; Talkowski, Michael E; Morton, Cynthia C

    2014-05-01

    With recent rapid advances in genomic technologies, precise delineation of structural chromosome rearrangements at the nucleotide level is becoming increasingly feasible. In this era of "next-generation cytogenetics" (i.e., an integration of traditional cytogenetic techniques and next-generation sequencing), a consensus nomenclature is essential for accurate communication and data sharing. Currently, nomenclature for describing the sequencing data of these aberrations is lacking. Herein, we present a system called Next-Gen Cytogenetic Nomenclature, which is concordant with the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). This system starts with the alignment of rearrangement sequences by BLAT or BLAST (alignment tools) and arrives at a concise and detailed description of chromosomal changes. To facilitate usage and implementation of this nomenclature, we are developing a program designated BLA(S)T Output Sequence Tool of Nomenclature (BOSToN), a demonstrative version of which is accessible online. A standardized characterization of structural chromosomal rearrangements is essential both for research analyses and for application in the clinica