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Sample records for age risk factors

  1. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  2. Genetic risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Maryam; Armstrong, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in individuals older than 65 years of age. It is a multifactorial disorder and identification of risk factors enables individuals to make lifestyle choices that may reduce the risk of disease. Collaboration between geneticists, ophthalmologists, and optometrists suggests that genetic risk factors play a more significant role in AMD than previously thought. The most important genes are associated with immune system modulation and the complement system, e.g., complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB), factor C3, and serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPING1). Genes associated with membrane transport, e.g., ATP-binding cassette protein (ABCR) and voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma 3 (CACNG3), the vascular system, e.g., fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), fibulin-5, lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL1) and selectin-P (SELP), and with lipid metabolism, e.g., apolipoprotein E (APOE) and hepatic lipase (LIPC) have also been implicated. In addition, several other genes exhibit some statistical association with AMD, e.g., age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2 (ARMS2) and DNA excision repair protein gene (ERCC6) but more research is needed to establish their significance. Modifiable risk factors for AMD should be discussed with patients whose lifestyle and/or family history place them in an increased risk category. Furthermore, calculation of AMD risk using current models should be recommended as a tool for patient education. It is likely that AMD management in future will be increasingly influenced by assessment of genetic risk as such screening methods become more widely available.

  3. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles.

  4. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  5. Screening for Future Cardiovascular Disease Using Age Alone Compared with Multiple Risk Factors and Age

    PubMed Central

    Wald, Nicholas J.; Simmonds, Mark; Morris, Joan K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Risk factors such as blood pressure and serum cholesterol are used, with age, in screening for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The value of using these risk factors with age compared with using age alone is not known. We compared screening for future CVD events using age alone with screening using age and multiple risk factors based on regular Framingham risk assessments. Methods Ten-year CVD risk was estimated using Framingham risk equations in a hypothetical sample population of 500,000 people aged 0–89 years. Risk estimates were used to identify individuals who did and did not have a CVD event over a ten-year period. For screening using age alone (age screening) and screening using multiple risk factors and age (Framingham screening) we estimated the (i) detection rate (sensitivity); (ii) false–positive rate; (iii) proportion of CVD-free years of life lost in affected individuals with positive results (person-years detection rate); and (iv) cost per CVD-free life year gained from preventive treatment. Results Age screening using a cut-off of 55 years detected 86% of all first CVD events arising in the population every year and 72% of CVD-free years of life lost for a 24% false-positive rate; for five yearly Framingham screening the false-positive rate was 21% for the same 86% detection rate. The estimated cost per CVD-free year of life gained was £2,000 for age screening and £2,200 for Framingham screening if a Framingham screen costs £150 and the annual cost of preventive treatment is £200. Conclusion Age screening for future CVD events is simpler than Framingham screening with a similar screening performance and cost-effectiveness. It avoids blood tests and medical examinations. The advantages of age screening in the prevention of heart attack and stroke warrant considering its use in preference to multiple risk factor screening. PMID:21573224

  6. Management of the aging risk factor for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, Oliver T

    2014-04-01

    The aging risk factor for Parkinson's disease is described in terms of specific disease markers including mitochondrial and gene dysfunctions relevant to energy metabolism. This review details evidence for the ability of nutritional agents to manage these aging risk factors. The combination of alpha lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, and melatonin supports energy metabolism via carbohydrate and fatty acid utilization, assists electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis, counters oxidative and nitrosative stress, and raises defenses against protein misfolding, inflammatory stimuli, iron, and other endogenous or xenobiotic toxins. These effects are supported by gene expression via the antioxidant response element (ARE; Keap/Nrf2 pathway), and by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha), a transcription coactivator, which regulates gene expression for energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintains the structural integrity of mitochondria. The effectiveness and synergies of the combination against disease risks are discussed in relation to gene action, dopamine cell loss, and the accumulation and spread of pathology via misfolded alpha-synuclein. In addition there are potential synergies to support a neurorestorative role via glial derived neurotrophic factor expression.

  7. Risk factors for premature death in middle aged men

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Bo; Trell, Erik; Henningsen, Nels-Christian; Hood, Bertil

    1984-01-01

    The causes of premature death and the associated risk factors were analysed in a cohort of 7935 middle aged men participating in a preventive population programme in Malmö. They were screened when aged 46-48 and then followed up for 3½-8 years. Two hundred and eighteen died, of whom 181 (83%) underwent necropsy. Three major causes of death were established: cancer in 61 (28%), deaths related to consumption of alcohol in 55 (25%), and coronary heart disease in 50 (23%). Distinctly different patterns of risk factors were found to be associated with each of the three main causes of premature death. In death due to coronary heart disease smoking (p=0·0062), serum cholesterol concentration (p=0·00014), serum triglyceride concentration (p=0·00013), systolic blood pressure (p=0·000012), and diastolic blood pressure (p=0·0021) were the strongest single determinants but diastolic blood pressure ceased to be a predictive factor in a multivariate analysis whereas all the other variables could be combined in a highly predictive logistic model. In death related to consumption of alcohol equal or even stronger associations were found for serum γ glutamyltransferase activity (p<0·0001), points scored in a questionnaire screening for alcoholism (p<0·0001), and, inversely, serum cholesterol (p=0·0046) and serum creatinine (p<0·0001) concentrations both when applied independently and when combined in a logistic model. In death due to cancer significant associations were found for serum urate concentration (p=0·023) and, inversely, serum cholesterol concentration (p=0·056-0·031). Malignant diseases and diseases related to consumption of alcohol were at least as prominent as cardiovascular disorders in causing premature death in the cohort of men studied. All three types of conditions are potentially avoidable and seem to be associated with significant and distinctive patterns of risk factors. These patterns should be used, as blood pressure and serum lipid

  8. Lifestyle and health-related risk factors and risk of cognitive aging among older veterans.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Kristine; Hoang, Tina D; Byers, Amy L; Barnes, Deborah E; Friedl, Karl E

    2014-06-01

    Lifestyle and health-related factors are critical components of the risk for cognitive aging among veterans. Because dementia has a prolonged prodromal phase, understanding effects across the life course could help focus the timing and duration of prevention targets. This perspective may be especially relevant for veterans and health behaviors. Military service may promote development and maintenance of healthy lifestyle behaviors, but the period directly after active duty has ended could be an important transition stage and opportunity to address some important risk factors. Targeting multiple pathways in one intervention may maximize efficiency and benefits for veterans. A recent review of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease estimated that a 25% reduction of a combination of seven modifiable risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, depression, physical inactivity, smoking, and education/cognitive inactivity could prevent up to 3 million cases worldwide and 492,000 cases in the United States. Lifestyle interventions to address cardiovascular health in veterans may serve as useful models with both physical and cognitive activity components, dietary intervention, and vascular risk factor management. Although the evidence is accumulating for lifestyle and health-related risk factors as well as military risk factors, more studies are needed to characterize these factors in veterans and to examine the potential interactions between them.

  9. Anorexia of aging: a modifiable risk factor for frailty.

    PubMed

    Martone, Anna Maria; Onder, Graziano; Vetrano, Davide Liborio; Ortolani, Elena; Tosato, Matteo; Marzetti, Emanuele; Landi, Francesco

    2013-10-14

    Anorexia of aging, defined as a loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, affects a significant number of elderly people and is far more prevalent among frail individuals. Anorexia recognizes a multifactorial origin characterized by various combinations of medical, environmental and social factors. Given the interconnection between weight loss, sarcopenia and frailty, anorexia is a powerful, independent predictor of poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality in older persons. One of the most important goals in the management of older, frail people is to optimize their nutritional status. To achieve this objective it is important to identify subjects at risk of anorexia and to provide multi-stimulus interventions that ensure an adequate amount of food to limit and/or reverse weight loss and functional decline. Here, we provide a brief overview on the relevance of anorexia in the context of sarcopenia and frailty. Major pathways supposedly involved in the pathogenesis of anorexia are also illustrated. Finally, the importance of treating anorexia to achieve health benefits in frail elders is highlighted.

  10. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments.

    PubMed

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-27

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an "ageist" approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons.

  11. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an “ageist” approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons. PMID:26828516

  12. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  13. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...

  14. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Risk Perceptions for Chronic Diseases in Younger and Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of disease risk play an important role in motivating people to adopt healthy behaviors. However, little is known about psychosocial factors that influence women’s perceived risk for developing disease. The present study investigated the extent to which individual traits, social influences, objective risk factors, and demographic characteristics were associated with women’s risk perceptions for cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Using structural equation modeling, we examined hypothesized associations among 452 younger (ages 18-25 years) and 167 middle-aged (ages 40-64 years) women. A greater number and variety of factors were associated with middle-aged women’s risk perceptions compared to younger women. For both groups, some objective risk factors were associated with risk perceptions; yet, associations also existed between multiple psychosocial variables (optimism, health locus of control, social exposure to disease, perceived stigma) and risk perceptions. Results suggested that women may base their risk estimates on factors beyond those considered important by healthcare providers. PMID:26110993

  15. Risk factors for fracture in middle- and older-age men of African descent

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Yahtyng; Cauley, Jane A.; Patrick, Alan L.; Wheeler, Victor W.; Bunker, Clareann H.; Zmuda, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Although fracture rates are lower in individuals of African descent compared to individuals of European ancestry, morbidity and mortality following a fracture may be greater in African ancestry individuals. However, fracture risk and associated clinical risk factors have not been well-defined among African ancestry populations, especially among African ancestry men. We used data collected from the Tobago Bone Health Study to examine potential clinical risk factors for incident fractures including demographic information, anthropometric measurements, medical history, lifestyle factors, bone mineral density (BMD) and hip structural geometry. Among 1,933 Afro-Caribbean men aged ≥40 years at study entry (mean age: 57.2 ± 11.0 years), 65 reported at least one new fracture during 10 years of subsequent follow-up. Younger age, mixed Afro-Caribbean ancestry, prior fracture history, BMD and hip structural geometry were statistically significant risk factors for incident fractures. One Standard deviation change in several skeletal parameters (hip BMD, cross-sectional area, outer diameter, cortical thickness and buckling ratio) were each associated with a 35% to 56% increase in incident fracture risk after adjusting for age. Men with a prior fracture history were 3 times more likely to experience a new fracture during follow-up, and the association remained strong after adjusting for age, mixed Afro-Caribbean ancestry and skeletal parameters (hazard ratios ranged 2.72–2.82). Our findings suggest that except for age, risk factors for fracture in men of African ancestry are similar to established risk factors in Caucasian populations. Prior fracture history is a powerful and independent risk factor for incident fractures among African ancestry men and could easily be incorporated into clinical risk evaluation. PMID:23775783

  16. Overview of Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD).

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Richard A; Mousavi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in individuals older than 65 years of age. It is a multifactorial disorder and identification of risk factors enables individuals to make life style choices that may reduce the risk of disease. This review discusses the role of genetics, sunlight, diet, cardiovascular factors, smoking, and alcohol as possible risk factors for AMD. Genetics plays a more significant role in AMD than previously thought, especially in younger patients, histocompatibility locus antigen (HLA) and complement system genes being the most significant. Whether the risk of AMD is increased by exposure to sunlight, cardiovascular risk factors, and diet is more controversial. Smoking is the risk factor most consistently associated with AMD. Current smokers are exposed to a two to three times higher risk of AMD than non-smokers and the risk increases with intensity of smoking. Moderate alcohol consumption is unlikely to increase the risk of AMD. Optometrists as front-line informers and educators of ocular health play a significant role in increasing public awareness of the risks of AMD. Cessation of smoking, the use of eye protection in high light conditions, dietary changes, and regular use of dietary supplements should all be considered to reduce the lifetime risk of AMD.

  17. Rates and risk factors for progression to incident dementia vary by age in a population cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ching-Wen; Snitz, Beth E.; Hughes, Tiffany F.; McDade, Eric; Chang, Chung-Chou H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate rate of progression from normal cognition or mild impairment to dementia, and to identify potential risk and protective factors for incident dementia, based on age at dementia onset in a prospective study of a population-based cohort (n = 1,982) aged 65 years and older. Methods: Following the cohort annually for up to 5 years, we estimated incidence of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ≥1) among individuals previously normal or mildly impaired (Clinical Dementia Rating 0 or 0.5). In the whole cohort, and also stratified by median onset age, we examined several vascular, metabolic, and inflammatory variables as potential risk factors for developing dementia, using interval-censored survival models. Results: Based on 67 incident cases of dementia, incidence rate (per 1,000 person-years) was 10.0 overall, 5.8 in those with median onset age of 87 years or younger, and 31.5 in those with onset age after 87 years. Adjusting for demographics, the risk of incident dementia with onset age of 87 years or younger (n = 33) was significantly increased by baseline smoking, stroke, low systolic blood pressure, and APOE*4 genotype, and reduced by current alcohol use. Among those with dementia with onset after 87 years (n = 34), no risk or protective factor was significant. Conclusion: Risk and protective factors were only found for incident dementia with onset before the median onset age of 87 years, and not for those with later onset. Either unexplored risk factors explain the continued increase in incidence with age, or unknown protective factors are allowing some individuals to delay onset into very old age. PMID:25471390

  18. [Risk and protective factors in adolescents' drug use, and differences by age and sex].

    PubMed

    López Larrosa, Silvia; Rodríguez-Arias Palomo, José Luis

    2010-11-01

    Adolescents' drug use has huge social and personal implications, so it is essential to identify risk and protective factors. In this research, the CTCYS was used with 2440 adolescents to detect risk and protective factors for drug use in the community, family, school and peers/individual; differences in risk and protective factors by age and sex; and relationships between risk and protective factors and substance use. Protective factors are high. Risk factors are high in the community, the school and the individual. Older adolescents have more risks and less protection than the youngest; and there are sex differences, because males have less protection and more risks. The risk factors more closely related to drug use are availability of drugs in the community, family attitudes favourable to drug use, family history of antisocial behaviour, early start and use of drugs by friends, perceived risk and attitudes favourable to drug use. In the protective factors, the role played by social skills for alcohol use is important.

  19. Age trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zeljko, Hrvojka Marija; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Barešić, Ana; Tomas, Zeljka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Miličić, Jasna; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Janićijević, Branka

    2013-07-01

    The Roma (Gypsy) are the largest European minority population characterized by poverty, social exclusion as well as by numerous life-style and cultural specificities, which all could have an adverse impact on their cardiovascular health. This study assesses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in community-based sample of 430 adult Roma, living in rural area of Croatia, by providing the actual and age-adjusted estimates using the European standard population. The most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes (blood pressure, obesity, smoking, glucose and lipid profile) were selected, and the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The study has shown that compared to general population of Croatia, the Roma population bears a high CVD risk factors load related to smoking and high glucose level. The CVD risk factors prevalence in Roma also showed important sex and age patterns, the most imposing of which are the findings of higher prevalence of CVD risks in women (especially obesity and triglyceride levels) and the trend of higher body mass index (BMI) level in younger age group (18-34 years) which both stand in contrast to the trends characterizing the general population of Croatia. These findings are complemented by the trend of decreased risk in the oldest age group (65+ years) for all investigated CVD risk factors (with exception of triglycerides level) compared to the 50-64 age group. We conclude that the age and sex CVD risks pattern point to the health transition of this rural Roma population. As we expect the proportion of CVD in the Roma minority of Croatia to increase in the future along with further modernization of their lifestyle, the CVD prevention measures in this population are urgent and should be primarily targeted at women and at the younger segment of this population.

  20. Modifiable risk factors in periodontitis: at the intersection of aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammation is a prominent feature of aging and of common age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer and periodontitis. This volume examines modifiable risk factors for periodontitis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Oral bacterial communities and viral infections, particularly with cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses, elicit distinct immune responses and are central in the initiation of periodontal diseases. Risk of disease is dynamic and changes in response to complex interactions of genetic, environmental and stochastic factors over the lifespan. Many modifiable risk factors, such as smoking and excess caloric intake, contribute to increases in systemic markers of inflammation and can modify gene regulation through a variety of biologic mechanisms (e.g. epigenetic modifications). Periodontitis and other common chronic inflammatory diseases share multiple modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, psychological stress and depression, alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. Interventions that target modifiable risk factors have the potential to improve risk profiles for periodontitis as well as for other common chronic diseases.

  1. Age- and sex-specific causal effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Willems, Sara M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S; Moreno, Luis A; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W G; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John B; Martin, Nicholas G; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D; Magnusson, Patrik K; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I; Nilsson, Peter M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10(-30)). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Age- and Sex-Specific Causal Effects of Adiposity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H.M.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S.; de Bruijn, Renée F.A.G.; Willems, Sara M.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S.; Moreno, Luis A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W.G.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Franco, Oscar H.; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S.; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10−107) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10−30). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  3. Fasting-mimicking diet and markers/risk factors for aging, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Shelehchi, Mahshid; Mirzaei, Hamed; Cheng, Chia Wei; Budniak, Julia; Groshen, Susan; Mack, Wendy J; Guen, Esra; Di Biase, Stefano; Cohen, Pinchas; Morgan, Todd E; Dorff, Tanya; Hong, Kurt; Michalsen, Andreas; Laviano, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D

    2017-02-15

    Calorie restriction or changes in dietary composition can enhance healthy aging, but the inability of most subjects to adhere to chronic and extreme diets, as well as potentially adverse effects, limits their application. We randomized 100 generally healthy participants from the United States into two study arms and tested the effects of a fasting-mimicking diet (FMD)-low in calories, sugars, and protein but high in unsaturated fats-on markers/risk factors associated with aging and age-related diseases. We compared subjects who followed 3 months of an unrestricted diet to subjects who consumed the FMD for 5 consecutive days per month for 3 months. Three FMD cycles reduced body weight, trunk, and total body fat; lowered blood pressure; and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). No serious adverse effects were reported. After 3 months, control diet subjects were crossed over to the FMD program, resulting in a total of 71 subjects completing three FMD cycles. A post hoc analysis of subjects from both FMD arms showed that body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, IGF-1, triglycerides, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were more beneficially affected in participants at risk for disease than in subjects who were not at risk. Thus, cycles of a 5-day FMD are safe, feasible, and effective in reducing markers/risk factors for aging and age-related diseases. Larger studies in patients with diagnosed diseases or selected on the basis of risk factors are warranted to confirm the effect of the FMD on disease prevention and treatment.

  4. Socioeconomic inequalities in coronary heart disease risk in older age: contribution of established and novel coronary risk factors

    PubMed Central

    RAMSAY, S E; MORRIS, R W; WHINCUP, P H; PAPACOSTA, O; RUMLEY, A; LENNON, L; LOWE, G; WANNAMETHEE, S G

    2009-01-01

    Background:Evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and their pathways in the elderly is limited. Little is also known about the contributions that novel coronary risk factors (particularly inflammatory/hemostatic markers) make to socioeconomic inequalities in CHD. Objectives:To examine the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in CHD in older age, and the contributions (relative and absolute) of established and novel coronary risk factors. Methods:A population-based cohort of 3761 British men aged 60–79 years was followed up for 6.5 years for CHD mortality and incidence (fatal and non-fatal). Social class was based on longest-held occupation recorded at 40–59 years. Results:There was a graded relationship between social class and CHD incidence. The hazard ratio for CHD incidence comparing social class V (unskilled workers) with social class I (professionals) was 2.70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37–5.35; P-value for trend = 0.008]. This was reduced to 2.14 (95% CI 1.06–4.33; P-value for trend = 0.11) after adjustment for behavioral factors (cigarette smoking, physical activity, body mass index, and alcohol consumption), which explained 38% of the relative risk gradient (41% of absolute risk). Additional adjustment for inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and von Willebrand factor) explained 55% of the relative risk gradient (59% of absolute risk). Blood pressure and lipids made little difference to these estimates; results were similar for CHD mortality. Conclusions:Socioeconomic inequalities in CHD persist in the elderly and are at least partly explained by behavioral risk factors; novel (inflammatory) coronary risk markers made some further contribution. Reducing inequalities in behavioral factors (especially cigarette smoking) could reduce these social inequalities by at least one-third. PMID:20015318

  5. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Fraser-Bell, Samantha; Wu, Joanne; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley P.; Hooper, Claire; Foong, Athena W. P.; Varma, Rohit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To assess the association of cardiovascular risk factors, ocular perfusion pressure with early and advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Latinos. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Methods Data were collected from a population-based sample of self-identified adult Latinos using standardized protocols for assessing blood pressure and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement and stereoscopic macular photography. Hypertension was defined as either a history of hypertension or systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140mmHg +/− diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥85mmHg. Ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) was defined as the difference between mean arterial blood pressure and IOP. AMD was diagnosed from photographic grading by masked trained graders. Logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results Gradable retinal photographs were available in 5875 participants. After adjusting for age, sex, and cigarette smoking, higher DBP and uncontrolled diastolic hypertension were associated with exudative AMD (Odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1−2.8; and OR, 3.3; CI, 1.2−9.3, respectively). Higher OPP was associated with a decreased risk of GA (OR, 0.4 per 10mmHg; CI, 0.3−0.5). Low pulse pressure was associated with a lower risk of exudative AMD (OR, 0.2; CI, 0.1−0.6). Obesity was associated with increased retinal pigment (OR, 1.6; CI, 1.0−2.3). Conclusion These data suggest that in Latinos cardiovascular risk factors may play a role in advanced AMD. Given that Latinos have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, an intervention aimed at reducing these risk factors may also have a beneficial impact on the risk of having early and advanced AMD. PMID:18222193

  6. Risk factors for deaths in under-age-five children attending a diarrhoea treatment centre.

    PubMed

    Teka, T; Faruque, A S; Fuchs, G J

    1996-09-01

    Few case-control studies have examined possible risk factors for diarrhoeal deaths in under-age-five children in the developing countries. We analysed data from the surveillance system of our diarrhoea treatment centre/hospital for the period 1990-94 on 928 children less than 5 years of age. In univariate analysis, 11 factors were significantly associated with death: lack of breastfeeding, severe malnutrition, complicated diarrhoea, pneumonia, xerophthalmia, duration of diarrhoea 7-14 days, moderate or severe dehydration, recent history of measles, Shigella flexneri infection, maternal illiteracy, and very low household income. Rotavirus diarrhoea was negatively associated with fatal outcome. In the assessment of severe malnutrition, weight-for-height measurement discriminated mortality risk better than weight-for-age or height-for-age indices. Only two factors retained their significance, severe malnutrition and non-breastfeeding in the multivariate analysis with adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 84.2 (9.1, 775.9) and 4.2 (1.3, 13.2) respectively.

  7. Age as a Risk Factor for Burnout Syndrome in Nursing Professionals: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Urquiza, José L; Vargas, Cristina; De la Fuente, Emilia I; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A

    2017-04-01

    Although past research has highlighted the possibility of a direct relationship between the age of nursing professionals and burnout syndrome, results have been far from conclusive. The aim of this study was to conduct a wider analysis of the influence of age on the three dimensions of burnout syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) in nurses. We performed a meta-analysis of 51 publications extracted from health sciences and psychology databases that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There were 47 reports of information on emotional exhaustion in 50 samples, 39 reports on depersonalization for 42 samples, and 31 reports on personal accomplishment in 34 samples. The mean effect sizes indicated that younger age was a significant factor in the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization of nurses, although it was somewhat less influential in the dimension of personal accomplishment. Because of heterogeneity in the effect sizes, moderating variables that might explain the association between age and burnout were also analyzed. Gender, marital status, and study characteristics moderated the relationship between age and burnout and may be crucial for the identification of high-risk groups. More research is needed on other variables for which there were only a small number of studies. Identification of burnout risk factors will facilitate establishment of burnout prevention programs for nurses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Risk Factors for Dementia in a Senegalese Elderly Population Aged 65 Years and Over

    PubMed Central

    Toure, K.; Coume, M.; Ndiaye, M.; Zunzunegui, M. V.; Bacher, Y.; Diop, A. G.; Ndiaye, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background With the aging of the population, dementia is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for dementia in an elderly population utilizing a primary health care service in Dakar, Senegal. Methods Through a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2004 to December 31, 2005, 507 elderly patients aged ≥65 years who came to the Social and Medical Center of IPRES, Dakar, Senegal, were first screened with the screening interview questionnaire ‘Aging in Senegal’. Those who were cognitively impaired underwent a clinical examination to detect dementia. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results The whole population had a mean age of 72.4 years (±5.2) and was mostly male, married, and non-educated. Hypertension, arthritis, and gastrointestinal diseases were the main health conditions reported in the past medical history. Smoking was important while alcohol consumption was rare. Social network was high. Forty-five patients (8.87%) had dementia. In the multivariate model, only advanced age, education, epilepsy, and family history of dementia were independently associated with dementia. Conclusion The risk factors identified are also found in developed countries confirming their role in dementia. It is important to take dementia into consideration in Senegal and to sensitize the community for prevention. PMID:22590476

  9. Age of the mother as a risk factor and timing of hypospadias repair according to severity

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Brayfield, Marcos Raymond; Torres, Camille M.; Piñeyro-Ruiz, Coriness; Torres, Naillil

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives Hypospadias is characterized by a displacement of the urethral opening in males that can change from the typical position within the glans penis to a subcoronal position (Type I), to anywhere along the ventral shaft (Type II), to penoscrotal, scrotal, or perineal positions (Type III). We and others have previously reported that age of the mother (≥ 40 years old) is a risk factor for having a child with hypospadias, but there is a scarcity of reports on whether such risk is higher for having a child with the mild (Type I) or the more severe forms (Types II and III). In addition, we aimed to assess the timing of hypospadias repair according to severity. Methods Parents of children with hypospadias were interviewed by using a series of questionnaires (n = 128 cases). Severity was confirmed in the clinic and age of the mother was self-reported. Number of surgeries, age of child by the first and the last intervention was also assessed. Ordered logistic regression and the Brant test were employed to calculate risk between mild (Type I) and severe cases (Types II and III), and the assumption of proportional odds, respectively. The Mann-Whitney U Test was used to compare number of surgeries and age by the last repair between mild and severe cases. One-way ANOVA was employed to compare age of the child at the time of first surgery across severities (Types I - III). Results Women ≥ 40 years of age are 3.89 times [95% CI: 1.20-12.64] at a higher risk for having a child with the more severe forms of the condition than younger women. Repair of Type I was accomplished with 1 intervention whereas more severe cases required 1 – 4 (2 ± 0.5) surgical interventions. The timing for hypospadias repair of Type I cases occurred at an average age of 16.2 ± 4.88 months, of Type II cases occurred at an average age of 20.3 ± 8.15 months whereas the average age of the first hypospadias repair among Type III cases was 12.68 ± 2.52 months. Number of surgeries

  10. [Risk factors of serious bleeding among ambulatory patients taking antivitamin K aged 75 and over].

    PubMed

    Blas-Châtelain, C; Chauvelier, S; Foti, P; Debure, C; Hanon, O

    2014-05-01

    The benefits of anti-vitamin K (AVK) drugs have been acknowledged in several indications. Such indications increasing with increasing age, AVK prescriptions also increases with age. At the same time, conditions involving significant bleeding are common in this elderly population. It is thus essential to recognize the determining factors. This study included all patients taking AVK drugs aged 75 years and older who sought emergency care at the Cochin Hospital from January to December 2011 for significant bleeding. These patients were compared with a cohort of patients aged 75 years or older who were taking AVK drugs and who were admitted to the same unit during the same time period for other reasons. The case-control comparison included demographic data, comorbidity factors, multiple medications, emergency measured INR, and CHA2DS2VASC level. The hemorrhagic risk was evaluated by HEMORR2HAGES and HAS-BLED. A total of 34 patients were studied and compared with 70 case-controls. The Charlson comorbidity index was higher in patients than case-controls (P<0.05), with a much higher hemorrhagic risk for scores ≥ 9 (OR=2.5; P<0.05). Multiple medication was also more predominant in patients (P<0.05). The risk of serious hemorrhage was also higher when the hemorrhagic scores were high, especially for HEMORR2HAGES (P<0.0001) and HAS-BLED (P<0.001). The risk of serious hemorrhage in elderly outpatients taking AVK drugs is related to their higher comorbidity and hemorrhagic levels which need to be evaluated before starting or stopping AVK treatment.

  11. Risk and protective factors for cognitive impairment in persons aged 85 years and older

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Ruth H.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Machulda, Mary M.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine risk and protective factors for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among persons 85 years and older. Methods: Participants in the population-based prospective Mayo Clinic Study of Aging were comprehensively evaluated at baseline and at 15 monthly intervals to determine incident MCI. At baseline, lifestyle factors in midlife and late life were assessed by self-reported questionnaire; vascular and comorbid conditions were abstracted from participants' medical records. Results: Of 256 participants who were cognitively normal at enrollment (median age 87.3 years, 62% women), 121 developed MCI at a median 4.1 years of follow-up. Predictors of MCI were APOE ε4 allele (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89; p = 0.008), current depressive symptoms (HR 1.78; p = 0.02), midlife onset of hypertension (HR 2.43; p = 0.005), increasing number of vascular diseases (HR 1.13; p = 0.02), and chronic conditions from the Charlson Comorbidity Index (HR 1.08; p = 0.006). Models were adjusted for sex and education, with age as the time variable. The risk of MCI was reduced for participants who reported engagement in artistic (HR 0.27; p = 0.03), craft (HR 0.55; p = 0.02), and social (HR 0.45; p = 0.005) activities in both midlife and late life, and in the use of a computer in late life (HR 0.47; p = 0.008). Conclusions: Chronic disease burden increases risk of MCI, whereas certain lifestyle factors reduce risk in persons 85 years and older. This implies that preventive strategies for MCI may need to begin in midlife and should persist throughout late life. PMID:25854867

  12. Age, breed, sex and seasonality as risk factors for equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Polzer, J; Slater, M R

    1997-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted at the Texas Veterinary Medical Center between January 1, 1986 and December 31, 1991. Logistic regression was used to assess age, breed, sex, and seasonality as risk factors for equine laminitis. There were 70 acute cases, 183 chronic cases, and 779 controls. No statistical association was found between age, breed, sex, or seasonality and the diagnosis of acute laminitis. For chronic cases, the estimated odds ratio was statistically significant for age (OR = 1.05, 95% CI (1.02, 1.08)) and for the diagnosis of laminitis in the third quarter of the year (OR = 2.57, 95% CI (1.55, 4.25)) relative to the first quarter. There was no statistical association between breed or sex and chronic laminitis.

  13. Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue

    2015-12-04

    Telomeres are the protective end-complexes at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere attrition can lead to potentially maladaptive cellular changes, block cell division, and interfere with tissue replenishment. Recent advances in the understanding of human disease processes have clarified the roles of telomere biology, especially in diseases of human aging and in some aging-related processes. Greater overall telomere attrition predicts mortality and aging-related diseases in inherited telomere syndrome patients, and also in general human cohorts. However, genetically caused variations in telomere maintenance either raise or lower risks and progression of cancers, in a highly cancer type-specific fashion. Telomere maintenance is determined by genetic factors and is also cumulatively shaped by nongenetic influences throughout human life; both can interact. These and other recent findings highlight both causal and potentiating roles for telomere attrition in human diseases.

  14. Systemic, Ocular and Genetic Risk Factors for Age-related Macular Degeneration and Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy in Singaporeans

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Laude, Augustinus; Yeo, Ian; Tan, Shu-Pei; Fan, Qiao; Mathur, Ranjana; Lee, Shu Yen; Chan, Choi Mun; Tan, Gavin; Lim, Tock Han; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-01-01

    To examine the association of systemic, ocular and genetic risk factors in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in a large cohort of Asian patients, and to further compare risk factors between those with typical AMD and polypoidal choroidal vasculoapthy (PCV) subtypes. We recruited 456 cases and 1,824 controls matched for age, gender and ethnicity. Data on systemic and ocular risk factors were collected on questionnaires. In a subgroup of subjects, we included genetic data on four AMD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Risk factors for nAMD and subtypes were analyzed. Systemic risk factors for nAMD included older age, male gender, higher BMI and higher HDL-cholesterol. Ocular risk factors included pseudophakic and shorter axial length. Risk factors common to both typical AMD and PCV subtypes included age, BMI and HDL-cholesterol. Shorter axial length was only associated with PCV, while male gender and pseudophakia were only associated with typical AMD. In the subgroup with genotype data, ARMS2 rs10490924 and CFH rs800292 were associated with nAMD. None of the risk factors were significantly different between PCV and typical AMD. Systemic, ocular and genetic risk factors were largely similar for typical AMD and PCV subtypes in this Asian population based in Singapore. PMID:28120909

  15. The Problem of the Aging Surgeon: When Surgeon Age Becomes a Surgical Risk Factor

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The question of when a surgeon should retire has been the subject of debate for decades. Both anecdotal evidence and objective testing of surgeons suggest age causes deterioration in physical and cognitive performance. Medical education, residency and fellowship training, and technology evolve at a rapid pace, and the older a surgeon is, the more likely it is he or she is remote from his or her initial education in his or her specialty. Research also shows surgeons are reluctant to plan for retirement. Although there is no federally mandated retirement age for surgeons in the United States, surgeons must realize their skills will decline, a properly planned retirement can be satisfying, and the retired surgeon has much to offer the medical and teaching community. PMID:18975041

  16. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  17. Risk factors for vitamin A deficiency among preschool aged children in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Carrie M; Sullivan, Kevin M; van der Haar, Frits; Auerbach, Steven B; Iohp, Kidsen K

    2004-02-01

    In 1993, the Department of Health of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) conducted a population-based stratified random survey among 355 children aged 24-48 months in Pohnpei, one of the four FSM States. The objective was to determine the prevalence, and explore risk factors for vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Trained field workers collected data from a range of demographic, dietary and socioeconomic variables related to the children. The serum retinol concentration was 19.4 +/- 7.5 microg/dl (mean +/- SD), and the VAD prevalence (serum retinol <20 microg/dl) 53.1 per cent. The significant independent risk factors, determined by logistic regression, were: mother's work at home, sibling <2 years older, rural household located on the main island, early weaning, and child anemia, controlling for pipe water and electricity in the household. If compared with a reference of apparently healthy children of similar age in the USA, the distribution of serum retinol among young Pohnpei children was shifted entirely to low levels. We conclude that eliminating the pervasive VAD problem in Pohnpei would require a multi-pronged tactical approach that combines dietary improvement strategies with the ongoing supplementation effort.

  18. Awareness of Age-related Macular Degeneration and Its Risk Factors among Beijing Residents in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen-Xi; Zhang, Gu-Muyang; Ma, Nan; Xia, Song; Yang, Jing-Yuan; Chen, You-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness, and awareness of this disease is important in the prevention of blindness. However, lack of public awareness of AMD was shown in previous studies, and there was no report of AMD awareness in the Mainland of China. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the awareness of AMD and its risk factors among Beijing residents in China. Methods: A cross-sectional, computer-assisted, telephone investigation was conducted to measure the awareness of AMD among Beijing residents. All the contacts of potential respondents were randomly generated by computer. Only those above 18 years of age and willing to participate in the study were included. The questionnaire for the study was modified from the AMD Alliance International Global Report. Pearson's Chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis were used to identify the factors that affected the knowledge of AMD. Results: Among 385 Beijing residents who agreed to participate, the awareness of AMD was 6.8%, far below than that of cataract and glaucoma. Participants who were above 30 years of age (odds ratio [OR] 6.17, confidence interval [CI] 1.44–26.57), with experience of health-related work (OR 8.11, CI 3.25–20.27), and whose relatives/friends or themselves suffering from AMD (OR 32.18, CI 11.29–91.68) had better AMD awareness. Among those familiar with AMD, only 35% of them identified smoking as a risk factor, and only 23.1% of the residents believed that smoking could lead to blindness. Conclusions: The sample of Chinese population had limited knowledge of AMD. Educational programs need to be carried out to raise public awareness of AMD. PMID:28091406

  19. Increased Waist-to-height Ratio May Contribute to Age-related Increase in Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Kamali, Majid; Dastsouz, Farideh; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Amanat, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases with age. The objective was to determine whether lifestyle and dietary behaviors and anthropometric measures, which are affected by these behaviors, contribute to the increase of CVD risk factors across age categories of 20–50-year-old. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 437 adults aged 20–50-year-old were selected from households living in Shiraz. Risk factors of CVD, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) as well as lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and smoking), dietary habits, and food intakes were assessed across the age categories of 20–29, 30–39, and 40–50 years. Linear regression was used to examine the contribution of different variables to the age-related increase of CVD risk factors. Results: All CVD risk factors, except for HDL-C, significantly increased across age categories. Older subjects had healthier dietary habits and food intakes, but they possessed nonsignificantly lower physical activity and higher smoking rate compared to younger adults. Adjusting for physical activity, smoking, and BMI did not change the significant positive association between age and CVD risk factors but adjusting for WHtR disappeared associations for blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome although significant associations remained for FBG and total and LDL-C. Conclusions: Age-related increase of CVD risk factors occurred independent of lifestyle habits. WHtR, but not BMI, may partially contribute to the age-related increase in CVD risk factors. PMID:27195100

  20. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lehert, Philippe; Villaseca, Paulina; Hogervorst, Eef; Maki, Pauline M.; Henderson, Victor W.

    2016-01-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually-modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For 10 of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least six months), randomized controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11 to 0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging. PMID:26361790

  1. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W

    2015-10-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging.

  2. Why is there a modifying effect of gestational age on risk factors for cerebral palsy?

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, C; Yudkin, P; Sellers, S; Impey, L; Doyle, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate risk factors for cerebral palsy in relation to gestational age. Design: Three case-control studies within a geographically defined cohort. Setting: The former Oxfordshire Health Authority. Participants: A total of 235 singleton children with cerebral palsy not of postnatal origin, born between 1984 and 1993, identified from the Oxford Register of Early Childhood Impairment; 646 controls matched for gestation in three bands: ⩽32 weeks; 33–36 weeks; ⩾37 weeks. Results: Markers of intrapartum hypoxia and infection were associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy in term and preterm infants. The odds ratio (OR) for hypoxia was 12.2 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 119) at ⩽32 weeks and 146 (7.4 to 3651) at ⩾37 weeks. Corresponding ORs for neonatal sepsis were 3.1 (1.8 to 5.4) and 10.6 (2.1 to 51.9). In contrast, pre-eclampsia carried an increased risk of cerebral palsy at ⩾37 weeks (OR 5.1 (2.2 to 12.0)) but a decreased risk at ⩽32 weeks (OR 0.4 (0.2 to 1.0)). However, all infants ⩽32 weeks with maternal pre-eclampsia were delivered electively, and their risk of cerebral palsy was no lower than that of other electively delivered ⩽32 week infants (OR 0.9 (0.3 to 2.7)). Nearly 60% of ⩽32 week controls were delivered after spontaneous preterm labour, itself an abnormal event. Conclusion: Inflammatory processes, including pre-eclampsia, are important in the aetiology of cerebral palsy. The apparent reduced risk of cerebral palsy associated with pre-eclampsia in very preterm infants is driven by the characteristics of the gestation matched control group. Use of the term "protective" in this context should be abandoned. PMID:15724038

  3. Hepatitis A virus age-specific sero-prevalence and risk factors among Jordanian children.

    PubMed

    Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Faouri, Samir

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) has been a significant cause of infections among the children and adolescents of Jordan. Availability of safe vaccines made it necessary to identify the ill-defined temporal immunity trends for HAV and possible age-specific prevalence transitions. This community-based cross sectional study was conducted during the period July-August 2008 on 3,066 recruited subjects from the 12 governorates of Jordan, with pre-defined criteria. Several households were chosen at random within each selected block to enroll the subjects. They were interviewed and data were collected. Their sera were tested for total antibodies against HAV. A multivariate model was then performed to identify the possible risk factors. The HAV sero-prevalence rates among the age categories-second year, 2-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, 15-19 years, and those above 20 years were 26%, 32%, 44%, 63%, 78%, and 94%, respectively. The model revealed the association of several risk factors for higher HAV sero-prevalence rates: (i) older age groups; (ii) lower maternal education levels; (iii) residing in certain governorates; (iv) using public net drinking water; and (v) avoiding use of public net sewage system. This study provided strong evidence for continuous transition of HAV epidemiology towards intermediate endemicity in Jordan, with more susceptible adolescents and adults. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for countries with intermediate endemicity, large-scale hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for children in Jordan. This is strengthened by the availability of effective and safe HAV vaccines, improving the socio-economic status of the Jordanians, and increasing life expectancy among Jordanians.

  4. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Colombara, Danny V.; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R.; Desai, Sima S.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B.; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011–2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ2 tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0–5 months, those 6–23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  5. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  6. [Pneumococcal meningitis in France: age and medical risk factors in children].

    PubMed

    Bingen, E; Lévy, C; De la Rocque, F; Boucherat, M; Aujard, Y; Cohen, R

    2005-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among paediatric infectious diseases. The aim of this study is to analyse specific data on Sp meningitis out of the Bacterial Meningitis (BM) French Surveillance Network about mean age of BM cases and clinical features. Overall 367 Sp BM were reported between January 2001 to January 2004 (sex ratio M/F: 1.3), 69.7% were < 2 years old, median age 0.8 year (minmax 0-16.8 years). Before two years old children, 94.1% had no medical risk factor and no underlying conditions: on the other hand, after two years old, these factors were reported in 27% cases (P < 0.001). Mortality rate was 10.9%. On account of a Sp BM's pic at five months, data of the BM French Surveillance Network confirm the necessity of an early vaccination. The vaccine administration at two, three, four months with a booster during the second year, recommended in the vaccinal french calendar, seems particularly adapted to the Sp BM in France.

  7. Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of bullying at schools in the Greater Beirut Area and the extent to which differences in children's sociodemographics, family and school environment, and coping strategies could account for variation in academic achievement, PTSD and emotional and behavioral disorders. Participants were 665 male and female children of mean age 13.8 years. Results indicated that a high proportion of children had been involved in bullying on a regular basis with victims having a higher prevalence ratio than bullies and bully/victims. Verbal bullying including spreading rumors was the most common type of victimization, followed by being rejected from a group. Being bullied about one's religion or sect comprised one of the most common bullying behaviors in schools. Students rarely tried to stop a student from being bullied and teachers were reported to have done relatively little or nothing to counteract bullying. Prevalence of bullying was more among boys than girls. School bullying was not associated with academic achievement or with having difficulties in reading and math. Children who were identified as bully/victim, victim, and bully suffered from PTSD compared to those who were not identified as being involved in bullying The study showed that both bullies and victims are at-risk for short term and long-term adjustment difficulties including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. Child's gender and emotion-focused coping stood out as risk factors for the development of bullying behaviors whereas age, problem-focused coping, family environment, and school environment were significant protective factors.

  8. Diabetes Mellitus and Younger Age Are Risk Factors for Hyperphosphatemia in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Rameez; Hawken, Steven; McCormick, Brendan B; Leung, Simon; Hiremath, Swapnil; Zimmerman, Deborah L

    2017-02-17

    Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This information will be used to develop a patient specific phosphate binder application to facilitate patient self-management of serum phosphate. Adult PD patients documented their food, beverage, and phosphate binder intake for three days using a dietitian developed food journal. Phosphate content of meals was calculated using the ESHA Food Processor SQL Software (ESHA Research, Salem, UT, USA). Clinic biochemistry tests and an adequacy assessment (Baxter Adequest program) were done. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of serum phosphate >1.78 mmol/L. A multivariable logistic regression model was then fit including those variables that achieved a significance level of p < 0.20 in univariate analyses. Sixty patients (38 men, 22 women) completed the protocol; they were 60 ± 17 years old, 50% had a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and 33% had hyperphosphatemia (PO₄ > 1.78 mmol/L). In univariate analysis, the variables associated with an increased risk of hyperphosphatemia with a p-value < 0.2 were male gender (p = 0.13), younger age (0.07), presence of DM (0.005), higher dose of calcium carbonate (0.08), higher parathyroid serum concentration (0.08), lower phosphate intake (0.03), lower measured glomerular filtration rate (0.15), higher phosphate excretion (0.11), and a higher body mass index (0.15). After multivariable logistic regression analysis, younger age (odds ratio (OR) 0.023 per decade, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00065 to 0.455; p = 0.012), presence of diabetes (OR 11.40, 95 CI 2.82 to 61.55; p = 0.0003), and measured GFR (OR 0.052 per mL/min decrease; 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.66) were associated with hyperphosphatemia. Our results support that younger age and diabetes mellitus are

  9. Diabetes Mellitus and Younger Age Are Risk Factors for Hyperphosphatemia in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, Rameez; Hawken, Steven; McCormick, Brendan B.; Leung, Simon; Hiremath, Swapnil; Zimmerman, Deborah L.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This information will be used to develop a patient specific phosphate binder application to facilitate patient self-management of serum phosphate. Adult PD patients documented their food, beverage, and phosphate binder intake for three days using a dietitian developed food journal. Phosphate content of meals was calculated using the ESHA Food Processor SQL Software (ESHA Research, Salem, UT, USA). Clinic biochemistry tests and an adequacy assessment (Baxter Adequest program) were done. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of serum phosphate >1.78 mmol/L. A multivariable logistic regression model was then fit including those variables that achieved a significance level of p < 0.20 in univariate analyses. Sixty patients (38 men, 22 women) completed the protocol; they were 60 ± 17 years old, 50% had a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and 33% had hyperphosphatemia (PO4 > 1.78 mmol/L). In univariate analysis, the variables associated with an increased risk of hyperphosphatemia with a p-value < 0.2 were male gender (p = 0.13), younger age (0.07), presence of DM (0.005), higher dose of calcium carbonate (0.08), higher parathyroid serum concentration (0.08), lower phosphate intake (0.03), lower measured glomerular filtration rate (0.15), higher phosphate excretion (0.11), and a higher body mass index (0.15). After multivariable logistic regression analysis, younger age (odds ratio (OR) 0.023 per decade, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00065 to 0.455; p = 0.012), presence of diabetes (OR 11.40, 95 CI 2.82 to 61.55; p = 0.0003), and measured GFR (OR 0.052 per mL/min decrease; 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.66) were associated with hyperphosphatemia. Our results support that younger age and diabetes mellitus are

  10. Unintentional Injury Risk in School-Age Children: Examining Interrelations between Parent and Child Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Melissa; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Kane, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research on children's risk of injury reveals that parent and child factors are often interrelated. This study examined relations between children's risk taking, parent appraisal of this risk taking, and children's rate of injury in youth 8 and 9 years old. Methods: Responses to questionnaires and laboratory tasks were used to examine…

  11. Associations between genetic polymorphisms of insulin-like growth factor axis genes and risk for age-related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Our objective was to investigate if insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis genes affect the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: 864 Caucasian non-diabetic participants from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) Genetic Repository were used in this case control st...

  12. Age Is a Critical Risk Factor for Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shujun; Niu, Guoyu; Xu, Xuehua; Li, Jinping; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yin, Haiying; Zhang, Naijie; Jiang, Xiaolin; Wang, Shiwen; Liang, Mifang; Wang, Xianjun; Yu, Xue-jie

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease in East Asia. SFTS is a tick borne hemorrhagic fever caused by SFTSV, a new bunyavirus named after the syndrome. We investigated the epidemiology of SFTS in Laizhou County, Shandong Province, China. Methods We collected serum specimens of all patients who were clinically diagnosed as suspected SFTS cases in 2010 and 2011 in Laizhou County. The patients' serum specimens were tested for SFTSV by real time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). We collected 1,060 serum specimens from healthy human volunteers by random sampling in Laizhou County in 2011. Healthy persons' serum specimens were tested for specific SFTSV IgG antibody by ELISA. Results 71 SFTS cases were diagnosed in Laizhou County in 2010 and 2011, which resulted in the incidence rate of 4.1/100,000 annually. The patients ranged from 15 years old to 87 years old and the median age of the patients were 59 years old. The incidence rate of SFTS was significantly higher in patients over 40 years old and fatal cases only occurred in patients over 50 years old. 3.3% (35/1,060) of healthy people were positive to SFTSV IgG antibody. The SFTSV antibody positive rate was not significantly different among people at different age groups. Conclusion Our results revealed that seroprevalence of SFTSV in healthy people in Laizhou County was not significantly different among age groups, but SFTS patients were mainly elderly people, suggesting that age is the critical risk factor or determinant for SFTS morbidity and mortality. PMID:25369237

  13. Maternal pregravid weight, age, and smoking status as risk factors for low birth weight births.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, C; Nelson, M R

    1992-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Public Health, in cooperation with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), monitors trends in the prevalence of prenatal risk factors that are major predictors of infant mortality and low birth weight (LBW). Analyzed data from CDC are available to the department annually. During 1988, a total of 26,767 records of Illinois women giving birth were submitted to CDC. These surveillance data support the fact that women older than 30 years who smoke and enter pregnancy underweight are at greatest risk of delivering LBW babies. Overall, 13.9 percent of underweight smokers had LBW infants compared with 8 percent of underweight nonsmokers. Prevalence of LBW among underweight and smoking women older than 34 years was much higher (29.6 percent) than among those between ages 30 and 34 (15.2 percent). The prevalence of LBW decreased as the pregravid weight increased among normal weight smokers (10 percent) and overweight smokers (8.6 percent). PMID:1333619

  14. Risk factor for accidental injuries within senior citizens' homes: analysis of the Canadian Survey on Ageing and Independence.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Paula C; Hirdes, John P

    2005-02-01

    Using data from the Survey on Ageing and Independence (SAI), risk factors for unintentional injuries occurring within the homes of individuals older than 65 are identified. For the SAI, conducted by Statistics Canada in 1991, data were collected on a representative sample of approximately 20,000 individuals between ages 45 and 102. For each household contacted, one individual older than 45 was interviewed via the telephone. For the present analysis, only individuals older than 65 (n = 10,059) were used. Approximately 5% of senior citizens experienced an injury that limited their activity for at least 1 day. Using logistic regression, the following risk factors for injury were identified: education, alcohol consumption, smoking, rest and sleep patterns, support, and interactions between age and gender, activity limitations and age, and home maintenance and gender. The present findings are important to the body of research concerning injuries among older adults. The results expand current univariate analysis of data identifying risk factors for injuries within the literature and provide comprehensive information pertaining to risk factors for accidental injuries at the multivariate level. Identification of risk factors provides health care professionals, particularly front line nurses, with insight into factors that, if modified, have the potential to decrease accidental injuries and improve or maintain quality of life.

  15. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  16. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Woodward, Mark; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Whitlock, Gary; Qiao, Qing; Lewington, Sarah; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. Methods We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. Results Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55–64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09–2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39–1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57–1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29–1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15–1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m2 higher BMI for ages 55–64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04–2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40–1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08–1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01–1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. Conclusion Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group. PMID:23935815

  17. Cannabis exposure as an interactive cardiovascular risk factor and accelerant of organismal ageing: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Albert Stuart; Hulse, Gary Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many reports exist of the cardiovascular toxicity of smoked cannabis but none of arterial stiffness measures or vascular age (VA). In view of its diverse toxicology, the possibility that cannabis-exposed patients may be ageing more quickly requires investigation. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal, observational. Prospective. Setting Single primary care addiction clinic in Brisbane, Australia. Participants 11 cannabis-only smokers, 504 tobacco-only smokers, 114 tobacco and cannabis smokers and 534 non-smokers. Exclusions: known cardiovascular disease or therapy or acute exposure to alcohol, amphetamine, heroin or methadone. Intervention Radial arterial pulse wave tonometry (AtCor, SphygmoCor, Sydney) performed opportunistically and sequentially on patients between 2006 and 2011. Main outcome measure Algorithmically calculated VA. Secondary outcomes: other central haemodynamic variables. Results Differences between group chronological ages (CA, 30.47±0.48 to 40.36±2.44, mean±SEM) were controlled with linear regression. Between-group sex differences were controlled by single-sex analysis. Mean cannabis exposure among patients was 37.67±7.16 g-years. In regression models controlling for CA, Body Mass Index (BMI), time and inhalant group, the effect of cannabis use on VA was significant in males (p=0.0156) and females (p=0.0084). The effect size in males was 11.84%. A dose–response relationship was demonstrated with lifetime exposure (p<0.002) additional to that of tobacco and opioids. In both sexes, the effect of cannabis was robust to adjustment and was unrelated to its acute effects. Significant power interactions between cannabis exposure and the square and cube of CA were demonstrated (from p<0.002). Conclusions Cannabis is an interactive cardiovascular risk factor (additional to tobacco and opioids), shows a prominent dose–response effect and is robust to adjustment. Cannabis use is associated with an acceleration of the cardiovascular

  18. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  19. Risk factor burden in middle age and lifetime risks for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death (Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry).

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Dyer, Alan R; Wang, Renwei; Daviglus, Martha L; Greenland, Philip

    2007-02-15

    Few data exist regarding the association of risk factor burden in middle age with lifetime risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-CVD death. In this study, participants in the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry aged 40 to 59 years in 1967 to 1973 were stratified into 5 groups on the basis of risk factor burden: favorable risk factor profile (untreated blood pressure or=1 unfavorable; or any 1, any 2, or >or=3 elevated (systolic >or=140 mm Hg or diastolic >or=90 mm Hg or treated hypertension; total cholesterol >or=240 mg/dl; current smoking; or body mass index >or=30 kg/m2). Remaining lifetime risks for CVD and non-CVD death were estimated through the age of 85 years. Eight thousand thirty-three men and 6,493 women were followed for 409,987 person-years; 2,582 died of CVD, and 3,955 died of non-CVD causes. A greater risk factor burden was associated with a higher incidence of CVD and non-CVD death. Compared with participants with >or=3 risk factors, those with favorable profiles had substantially lower lifetime risks for CVD death (20.5% vs 35.2% in men, 6.7% vs 31.9% in women) and markedly longer median Kaplan-Meier survival (>35 vs 26 years in men, >35 vs 28 years in women). In conclusion, having favorable risk factors in middle age is associated with a lower lifetime risk for CVD death and markedly longer survival. These results should encourage efforts aimed at preventing the development of risk factors in younger subjects to decrease CVD mortality and promote longevity.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for adult paternity among adolescent females ages 14 through 16 years.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita

    2010-11-01

    To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.

  1. Eye Diseases and Impaired Vision as Possible Risk Factors for Recurrent Falls in the Aged: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Liisa; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recurrent falls are common among the aged. Vision is needed in maintaining balance, and impaired vision may be an intrinsic risk factor of recurrent falls. The aim was to perform a systematic review about the relationships between eye diseases or impaired vision and the risk of recurrent falls in the aged. Material and Methods. MEDLINE and CINAHL databases were searched in order to find longitudinal epidemiological studies about the associations between eye diseases or impaired vision and the risk of recurrent falls. Altogether 19 studies were found. A qualitative systematic analysis of these studies was performed. Results and Conclusions. The evidence about poor depth perception/stereoacuity and poor low-contrast visual acuity as risk factors of recurrent falls is quite convincing. Discrepant vision, a decrease in visual acuity, and loss of visual field may be risk factors, but more studies are needed. The results concerning the relationships between poor visual acuity and poor contrast sensitivity and the risk of recurrent falls are controversial. More studies about the relationships between different measures of vision and the risk of recurrent falls are needed before final conclusions about poor vision as a risk factor for recurrent falling can be done. PMID:22927843

  2. Hearing Sensitivity in Older Adults: Associations with cardiovascular risk factors in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Helzner, Elizabeth P.; Patel, Ami S.; Pratt, Sheila; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Cauley, Jane A; Talbott, Evelyn; Kenyon, Emily; Harris, Tamara B.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ding, Jingzhong; Newman, Anne B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors with age-associated hearing loss, in a cohort of older black and white adults. Study Design Cross-sectional cohort study Setting The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study; A community-based cohort study of older adults from Pittsburgh, PA and Memphis TN. Participants 2,049 well-functioning adults (mean age: 77.5 years; 37% black) Measurements Pure-tone audiometry and history of clinical CVD were obtained at the 4th annual follow-up visit. Pure-tone averages in decibels reflecting low frequencies (250, 500, and 1000 Hz) middle frequencies (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz) and high frequencies (2000, 4000, and 8000Hz) were calculated for each ear. CVD risk factors, aortic pulse-wave velocity, and ankle-arm index were obtained at the study baseline. Results In gender-stratified models, after adjustment for age, race, study site and occupational noise exposure, risk factors associated with poorer hearing sensitivity among men included higher triglyceride levels, higher resting heart rate and history of smoking. Among women, poorer hearing sensitivity was associated with higher BMI, higher resting heart rate, faster pulse-wave velocity, and low ankle-arm index. Conclusion Modifiable risk factors for CVD may play a role in the development of age-related hearing loss. PMID:21649629

  3. Progression of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Subjects Born Small and Large for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Valentina; Marcovecchio, Maria Loredana; de Giorgis, Tommaso; Diesse, Laura; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Background Subjects born small (SGA) and large (LGA) for gestational age have an increased risk of cardio-metabolic alterations already during prepuberty. Nevertheless, the progression of their cardio-metabolic profile from childhood to adolescence has not been fully explored. Our aim was to assess potential changes in the cardio-metabolic profile from childhood to adolescence in subjects born SGA and LGA compared to those born appropriate (AGA) for gestational age. Methods This longitudinal study included 35 AGA, 24 SGA and 31 LGA subjects evaluated during childhood (mean age (±SD) 8.4±1.4 yr) and then re-assessed during adolescence (mean age 13.3±1.8 yr). BMI, blood pressure, insulin resistance (fasting insulin, HOMA-IR) and lipids were assessed. A cardio-metabolic risk z-score was applied and this consisted in calculating the sum of sex-specific z-scores for BMI, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, triglycerides and triglycerides:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. Results Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were higher in SGA and LGA than AGA subjects both during childhood (all P<0.01) and adolescence (all P<0.01). Similarly, the clustered cardio-metabolic risk score was higher in SGA and LGA than AGA children (both P<0.05), and these differences among groups increased during adolescence (both P<0.05). Of note, a progression of the clustered cardio-metabolic risk score was observed from childhood to adolescence within SGA and within LGA subjects (both P<0.05). Conclusions SGA and LGA subjects showed an adverse cardio-metabolic profile during childhood when compared to AGA peers, with a worsening of this profile during adolescence. These findings indicate an overtime progression of insulin resistance and overall estimated cardiovascular risk from childhood to adolescence in SGA and LGA populations. PMID:25117750

  4. Telomere length and cardiovascular risk factors in a middle-aged population free of overt cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, Sofie; De Meyer, Tim; Rietzschel, Ernst R; De Buyzere, Marc L; De Bacquer, Dirk; Langlois, Michel; Segers, Patrick; Cooman, Luc; Van Damme, Piet; Cassiman, Peter; Van Criekinge, Wim; Verdonck, Pascal; De Backer, Guy G; Gillebert, Thierry C; Van Oostveldt, Patrick

    2007-10-01

    Evidence assembled over the last decade shows that average telomere length (TL) acts as a biomarker for biological aging and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in particular. Although essential for a more profound understanding of the underlying mechanisms, little reference information is available on TL. We therefore sought to provide baseline TL information and assess the association of prevalent CVD risk factors with TL in subjects free of overt CVD within a small age range. We measured mean telomere restriction fragment length of peripheral blood leukocytes in a large, representative Asklepios study cohort of 2509 community-dwelling, Caucasian female and male volunteers aged approximately 35-55 years and free of overt CVD. We found a manifest age-dependent telomere attrition, at a significantly faster rate in men as compared to women. No significant associations were established with classical CVD risk factors such as cholesterol status and blood pressure, yet shorter TL was associated with increased levels of several inflammation and oxidative stress markers. Importantly, shorter telomere length was associated with an increasingly unhealthy lifestyle, particularly in men. All findings were age and gender adjusted where appropriate. With these cross-sectional results we show that TL of peripheral blood leukocytes primarily reflects the burden of increased oxidative stress and inflammation, whether or not determined by an increasingly unhealthy lifestyle, while the association with classical CVD risk factors is limited. This further clarifies the added value of TL as a biomarker for biological aging and might improve our understanding of how TL is associated with CVD.

  5. Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS Sexual Risk Among Young Women Aged 15-24 Years in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    M’Lan, Cyr E.; Schensul, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    The growing rate of sexual risk-taking among young people contributes significantly to the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. This study, explores the influence of socio-demographic, HIV/AIDS awareness and female empowerment on the sexual risk behaviors of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24. The data presented in this paper was drawn from the 2003 Nigeria National Demographic and Health Survey. The sample consisted of unmarried women aged 15-24 in the dataset. Data was collected through a structured and interviewer administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the most important predictors of sexual risk behaviors. Sexual risk-taking is relatively high among unmarried young women. Among those who are sexually active, 80% indicated that they did not use a condom during their first sexual encounter. Regression analysis revealed that younger age, lower HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission knowledge, lower knowledge of where to obtain condoms, lower material standard of living and greater intimate partner violence were significantly associated with sexual risk-taking in this population. Findings revealed that the sexual behavior of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24 is influenced by a complex matrix of factors. Identifying specific processes and contexts that promote the concentration of risk among sub-sections of young unmarried women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria should be a research and intervention priority.

  6. Risk factors associated with pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation in slaughter-aged pigs.

    PubMed

    Fraile, L; Alegre, A; López-Jiménez, R; Nofrarías, M; Segalés, J

    2010-06-01

    Examination of lung lesions at the slaughterhouse is a useful tool to estimate the importance of respiratory disease at farm, regional or national level. The objective of the present work was to describe the prevalence of gross lung lesions at slaughter, with a special focus on pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation, and to identify major risk factors for these lesions. Data from 107 farms involving approximately 11,000 pigs enabled gross lung lesions to be correlated with serology to different swine respiratory pathogens as well as with production system characteristics and vaccination schedules. Pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation lesions were recorded in 26.8% and 55.7% of slaughter-aged pigs, respectively. Among lungs with pleuritis, 50.1% had lesions compatible with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) infection. Antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV), three subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) of swine influenza virus (SIV), App and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) were highly prevalent (>82%) in most of the farms. In a multivariable analysis, it was estimated (R(2)=0.40) that the percentage of animals with pleuritis compatible with App infection depended on the existence of an all in-all out by room management system and App and PRRSV herd seroprevalence. Moreover, it was possible to foresee (R(2)=0.59) that cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation lesions (EP-like lesions) were affected by the type of farm ventilation, the presence of respiratory symptoms during the fattening period and Mhyo and SIV H1N2 herd seroprevalence.

  7. Age as a risk factor of nosocomial infection after hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Encarnacion; Cano, Juan Ramon; Benitez-Parejo, Nicolás; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Guerado, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Surgery for the treatment of hip fractures is considered the gold standard even among nonagerians with a heavy comorbidity burden. Therefore, a study of an association between surgical complications and some variables in elderly individuals appears to be very important. We designed a transverse study in which we determined patient age at the time of development of a nosocomial infection (NI) in patients who underwent surgery to treat a hip fracture. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by simple and multiple logistic regression. We found that age was a determinant in NI after surgical treatment for hip fracture. The older the patient was, the higher the risk of development of an NI after surgical treatment for hip fracture (operative hypothesis). However, the risk of infection changed depending on the treatment. No association with other variables was found.

  8. Multiple, but not traditional risk factors predict mortality in older people: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Vasant; Naganathan, Vasi; Blyth, Fiona; Le Couteur, David G; Gnjidic, Danijela; Stanaway, Fiona F; Seibel, Markus J; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J; Cumming, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify the common risk factors for mortality in community-dwelling older men. A prospective population-based study was conducted with a median of 6.7 years of follow-up. Participants included 1705 men aged ≥70 years at baseline (2005-2007) living in the community in Sydney, Australia. Demographic information, lifestyle factors, health status, self-reported history of diseases, physical performance measures, blood pressure, height and weight, disability (activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADLs, instrumental ADLs (IADLs)), cognitive status, depressive symptoms and blood analyte measures were considered. Cox regression analyses were conducted to model predictors delete time until of mortality. During follow-up, 461 men (27 %) died. Using Cox proportional hazards model, significant predictors of delete time to time to mortality included in the final model (p < 0.05) were older age, body mass index < 20 kg m(2), high white cell count, anaemia, low albumin, current smoking, history of cancer, history of myocardial infarction, history of congestive heart failure, depressive symptoms and ADL and IADL disability and impaired chair stands. We found that overweight and obesity and/or being a lifelong non-drinker of alcohol were protective against mortality. Compared to men with less than or equal to one risk factor, the hazard ratio in men with three risk factors was 2.5; with four risk factors, it was 4.0; with five risk factors, it was 4.9; and for six or more risk factors, it was 11.4, respectively. We have identified common risk factors that predict mortality that may be useful in making clinical decisions among older people living in the community. Our findings suggest that, in primary care, screening and management of multiple risk factors are important to consider for extending survival, rather than simply considering individual risk factors in isolation. Some of the "traditional" risk factors for mortality in a

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for falls in older men and women: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R.; Cooper, Cyrus; Aihie Sayer, Avan

    2016-01-01

    Background falls are a major cause of disability and death in older people. Women are more likely to fall than men, but little is known about whether risk factors for falls differ between the sexes. We used data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing to investigate the prevalence of falls by sex and to examine cross-sectionally sex-specific associations between a range of potential risk factors and likelihood of falling. Methods participants were 4,301 men and women aged 60 and over who had taken part in the 2012–13 survey of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. They provided information about sociodemographic, lifestyle and behavioural and medical factors, had their physical and cognitive function assessed and responded to a question about whether they had fallen down in the last two years. Results in multivariable logistic regression models, severe pain and diagnosis of at least one chronic disease were independently associated with falls in both sexes. Sex-specific risk factors were incontinence (odds ratio (OR), 1.48; 95% CI, 1.19, 1.85) and frailty (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.06, 2.69) in women, and older age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.04, 1.07), high levels of depressive symptoms (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.05, 1.68), and being unable to perform a standing balance test (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.09, 5.29) in men. Conclusion although we found some homogeneity between the sexes in the risk factors that were associated with falls, the existence of several sex-specific risk factors suggests that gender should be taken into account in designing fall-prevention strategies. PMID:27496938

  10. Heart disease - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  11. Observed changes in cardiovascular risk factors among high-risk middle-aged men who received lifestyle counselling: a 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Siren, Reijo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vanhanen, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the long-term impact of health counselling among middle-aged men at high risk of CVD. Design An observational study with a 5-year follow-up. Setting and intervention All men aged 40 years in Helsinki have been invited to a visit to evaluate CVD risk from 2006 onwards. A modified version of the North Karelia project risk tool (CVD risk score) served to assess the risk. High-risk men received lifestyle counselling based on their individual risk profile in 2006 and were invited to a follow-up visit in 2011. Subjects Of the 389 originally high-risk men, 159 participated in the follow-up visits in 2011. Based on their follow-up in relation the further risk communication, we divided the participants into three groups: primary health care, occupational health care and no control visits. Main outcome measures Lifestyle and CVD risk score change. Results All groups showed improvements in lifestyles. The CVD risk score decreased the most in the group that continued the risk communication visits in their primary health care centre (6.1 to 4.8 [95% CI −1.6 to −0.6]) compared to those who continued risk communication visits in their occupational health care (6.0 to 5.4 [95% CI −1.3 to 0.3]), and to those with no risk communication visits (6.0 to 5.9 [95% CI −0.5 to 0.4]). Conclusions These findings indicate that individualized lifestyle counselling improves health behaviour and reduces total CVD risk among middle-aged men at high risk of CVD. Sustained improvement in risk factor status requires ongoing risk communication with health care providers. KEY POINTSStudies of short duration have shown that lifestyle changes reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among high-risk individuals.Sustaining these lifestyle changes and maintaining the lower disease risk attained can prove challenging.Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and individualized health counselling for high-risk men, when implemented in primary health care, have the potential

  12. [Diabetes mellitus and aging as a risk factor for cerebral vascular disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology and prevention].

    PubMed

    Cantú-Brito, Carlos; Mimenza-Alvarado, Alberto; Sánchez-Hernández, Juan José

    2010-01-01

    Older patients with diabetes have a high risk of vascular complications. They have an increase of approximately 3 times for developing stroke compared with subjects without diabetes. In addition, up to 75-80% of deaths in diabetic patients are associated with major cardiovascular events including stroke. The risk of stroke is high within 5 years of diagnosis for type 2 diabetes is 9% (mortality 21%), that is more than doubles the rate for the general population. From observational registries in a collaborative stroke study in Mexico, we analyzed clinical data, risk factors, and outcome of 1182 diabetic patients with cerebral ischemia, with focus in elderly subjects. There was a high frequency of hyperglycemia during the acute phase of stroke: the median value was 140 mg/dL and 40% had values higher than 180 mg/dL. Clinical outcome was usually unfavorable in elderly stroke patients with diabetes: case fatality rate was 30% at 30 days and survivors had moderate to severe disability, usually as consequence of the propensity to develop more systemic medical complications during hospital stay. Primary stroke prevention studies in patients with diabetes reveal that tight control of glucose is not associated with reduction in stroke risk. Therefore, proper control of other vascular risk factors is mandatory in patients with diabetes, in particular of arterial hypertension.

  13. Risk factors identified for owner-reported feline obesity at around one year of age: Dry diet and indoor lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Elizabeth; Browne, William; Casey, Rachel; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Murray, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. Previous studies investigating risk factors for feline obesity have been cross-sectional, where reverse causality cannot be ruled out. This study is the first to use prospective data from a large scale longitudinal study of pet cats ('Bristol Cats') to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity at around one year of age. Data analysed were collected via three owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged 2-4 months, 6.5-7 months and 12.5-13 months) completed between May 2010 and August 2013. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age 12.5-13 months, using the 5-point system, were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 4-5) and not overweight (BCS 1-3) and used as the dependent variable. Cat breed, neuter status, outdoor access, type of diet, frequency of wet and dry food fed and frequency of treats fed were analysed as potential risk factors. Of the 966 cats for which data were available, 7.0% were reported by their owners to be overweight/obese at 12.5-13 months of age. Descriptive data on type of diet fed at different cat ages suggest that a dry diet is the most popular choice for UK domestic cats. Significant potential explanatory variables from univariable logistic regression models were included in multivariable logistic regression models built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering of data due to multi-cat households these were extended to two-level random intercept models. Models were compared using Wald test p- values. Clustering had no impact on the analysis. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified two risk factors that were independently associated with an increased risk of feline obesity developing at 12.5-13 months of age: restricted or no outdoor access and feeding dry food as the only or major (>50%) type of food in the diet at age 12

  14. Risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1–3 years in NSW Australia: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unintentional poisoning in young children is an important public health issue. Age pattern studies have demonstrated that children aged 1–3 years have the highest levels of poisoning risk among children aged 0–4 years, yet little research has been conducted regarding risk factors specific to this three-year age group and the methodologies employed varied greatly. The purpose of the current study is to investigate a broad range of potential risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1–3 years using appropriate methodologies. Methods Four groups of children, one case group (children who had experienced a poisoning event) and three control groups (children who had been ‘injured’, ‘sick’ or who were ‘healthy’), and their mothers (mother-child dyads) were enrolled into a case–control study. All mother-child dyads participated in a 1.5-hour child developmental screening and observation, with mothers responding to a series of questionnaires at home. Data were analysed as three case–control pairs with multivariate analyses used to control for age and sex differences between child cases and controls. Results Five risk factors were included in the final multivariate models for one or more case–control pairs. All three models found that children whose mothers used more positive control in their interactions during a structured task had higher odds of poisoning. Two models showed that maternal psychiatric distress increased poisoning risk (poisoning-injury and poisoning-healthy). Individual models identified the following variables as risk factors: less proximal maternal supervision during risk taking activities (poisoning-injury), medicinal substances stored in more accessible locations in bathrooms (poisoning-sick) and lower total parenting stress (poisoning-healthy). Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that the nature of the caregiver-child relationship and caregiver attributes play an important role in

  15. RISK FACTORS FOR SLOW GAIT SPEED: A NESTED CASE-CONTROL SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF THE MEXICAN HEALTH AND AGING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; González-Chavero, J.G.; Salinas-Martinez, R.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical performance tests play a major role in the geriatric assessment. In particular, gait speed has shown to be useful for predicting adverse outcomes. However, risk factors for slow gait speed (slowness) are not clearly described. Objectives To determine risk factors associated with slowness in Mexican older adults. Design A two-step process was adopted for exploring the antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed. First, the cut-off values for gait speed were determined in a representative sample of Mexican older adults. Then, antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed (defined using the identified cut-points) were explored in a nested, cohort case-control study. Setting, participants One representative sample of a cross-sectional survey for the first step and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (a cohort characterized by a 10-year follow-up). Measurements A 4-meter usual gait speed test was conducted. Lowest gender and height-stratified groups were considered as defining slow gait speed. Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, psychological and health-care related variables were explored to find those associated with the subsequent development of slow gait speed. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were performed. Results In the final model, age, diabetes, hypertension, and history of fractures were associated with the development of slow gait speed. Conclusions Early identification of subjects at risk of developing slow gait speed may halt the path to disability due to the robust association of this physical performance test with functional decline. PMID:26889463

  16. [Risk factors associated to growth retardation in children 12 to 120 months of age in Arandas, Jalisco, México].

    PubMed

    Vásquez Garibay, Edgar M; Ortiz Ortega, Miguel Angel; Romero Velarde, Enrique; Nápoles Rodríguez, Francisco

    2008-12-01

    The purpose was to identify risk factors associated to deficit on linear growth in children from a semi-rural population in Arandas, Jalisco, Mexico. In a cross sectional study 432 children, 12 to 120 months old were included. Social, demographic, economical, dietetic and pathological characteristics and deficit in the height/age index (< - 1 and - 2 z score) were considered. A chi square test and Odds Ratio (CI 95%) to identify the risk and protection factors were also obtained. Risk factors for height/age deficit were: > 3 children in the family [OR 1.71 (1.01, 2.87)], soft drinks consumption > 4 times a week [OR 2.36 (1.19-4.73)], family's monthly income < 200 USA dollars [OR 3.5 (1.28, 9.76)] and per capita food expenses < 10% of a minimum salary (100 USA dollars a month) [OR 1.81 (1.06, 3.09)]; age < 24 months [OR 2.02 (1.09, 3.75)], adding sweeteners to the bottle [OR 8.56 (1.84, 54.9)], diet modification during diarrhea [OR 2.40 (1.02, 5.77)], milk intake < 4 times a week [OR 2.71 (1.55, 4.73)] and nearly significant, bean consumption [1.75 (0.98, 3.13). Protection factors: nuclear family [OR 0.28 (0.09, 0.85)] and an adequate infant formula dilution [OR 0.71 (0.60, 0.85)]. In multivariate models associated factors to deficit of height were higher consumption of soft drinks, beans and the addition of sweeteners to the bottle. In addition to socioeconomic variables, lower consumption of high quality food and proteins and higher intake of legumes were important risk factors for mild and moderate deficit height/age.

  17. Risk factors associated with typhoid fever in children aged 2-16 years in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, M I; Ochiai, R L; Soofi, S B; Von-Seidlein, L; Khan, M J; Sahito, S M; Habib, M A; Puri, M K; Park, J K; You, Y A; Ali, M; Nizami, S Q; Acosta, C J; Bradley-Sack, R; Clemens, J D; Bhutta, Z A

    2012-04-01

    We analysed the data from the control group in a typhoid vaccine trial in Karachi to assess the differences in individual-, household- and cluster-level characteristics for developing typhoid fever. The annual incidence of typhoid in children aged 2-16 years in the control arm of the vaccine trial was 151/100 000 population. After adjustment, the risk of typhoid was lower with increasing age [risk ratio (RR) 0·89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·83-0·95], was higher with an increase in population density (RR 1·13, 95% CI 1·05-1·21) and was lower in the households using a safe drinking-water source (RR 0·63, 95% CI 0·41-0·99). Typhoid fever affects younger children living in areas of high population density and lack of access to safe water in Pakistan. A combination of environmental and biological interventions is required to prevent the continued epidemiological and economic impact of typhoid fever in high-risk areas of Pakistan.

  18. Cumulative Risk of Colon Cancer up to Age 70 Years by Risk Factor Status Using Data From the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Graham A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Rosner, Bernard A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a comprehensive model of colon cancer incidence that allows for nonproportional hazards and accounts for the temporal nature of risk factors. They estimated relative risk based on cumulative incidence of colon cancer by age 70 years. Using multivariate, nonlinear Poisson regression, they determined colon cancer risk among 83,767 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study. The authors observed 701 cases of colon cancer between 1980 and June 1, 2004. There was increased risk for a positive family history of colon or rectal cancer (55%), 10 or more pack-years of cigarette smoking before age 30 years (16%), and tallness (67 inches (170 cm) vs. 61 inches (155 cm): 19%). Reduced risk was observed for current postmenopausal hormone use (−23%), being physically active (21 metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours/week vs. 2 MET-hours/week: −49%), taking aspirin (7 tablets/week vs. none: −29%), and being screened (−24%). Women who smoked, had a consistently high relative weight, had a low physical activity level, consumed red or processed meat daily, were never screened, and consumed low daily amounts of folate had almost a 4-fold higher cumulative risk of colon cancer by age 70 years. For women with a high risk factor profile, adopting a healthier lifestyle could dramatically reduce colon cancer risk. PMID:19723749

  19. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.

  20. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-01-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population. PMID:26697266

  1. Antibiotics in the first week of life is a risk factor for allergic rhinitis at school age

    PubMed Central

    Alm, Bernt; Goksör, Emma; Pettersson, Rolf; Möllborg, Per; Erdes, Laslo; Loid, Petra; Åberg, Nils; Wennergren, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Background Heredity as well as external factors influences the development of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to analyse early risk factors and protective factors for allergic rhinitis at school age. Methods This is a prospective, longitudinal study of children born in western Sweden in 2003 where 50% of the birth cohort was randomly selected. The parents answered questionnaires at 6 months, 12 months, 4.5 yr and 8 yr. At 8 yr, 5044 questionnaires were distributed. Of these, 4051 responded, that is, 80.3%. Current allergic rhinitis was defined as symptoms and use of medication during the past 12 months. Results Current allergic rhinitis at 8 yr was reported by 10.9%. Mean onset age was 5.7 yr, and 61.9% were boys. In a multivariate analysis, antibiotics in the first week of life increased the risk of allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval (1.03, 2.97)). Increased risk was also seen with parental allergic rhinitis (aOR 2.73 (2.12, 3.52)), food allergy first year (aOR 2.45 (1.61, 3.73)), eczema first year (aOR 1.97 (1.50, 2.59)) and male gender (aOR 1.35 (1.05, 1.74)). Living on a farm at 4.5 yr reduced the risk (aOR 0.31 (0.13, 0.78)). Conclusion Antibiotics in the first week of life increased the risk of allergic rhinitis at school age, while living on a farm at preschool age reduced the risk. Both findings are compatible with the hygiene hypothesis. PMID:24912441

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Carotid Plaque Among Middle-aged and Elderly Adults in Rural Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Changqing; Shi, Min; Yang, Ying; Pang, Hongbo; Fei, Shizao; Bai, Lingling; Liu, Bin; Tu, Jun; Huo, Yong; Ning, Xianjia; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jinghua

    2016-03-31

    Carotid plaque (CP) is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. However, population-based studies with a large sample are rare in China, particularly those in the low-income population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CP and the associated risk factors in the rural areas of northern China. Between April 2014 and June 2014, we recruited 3789 residents aged ≥45 years. B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure the extent of CP. The prevalence of CP was 40.3% overall, 47.1% in men, and 35.4% in women (P < 0.001). The prevalence of CP increased with increasing age (P < 0.001). The participants with CP were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, high total cholesterol (TC) levels, and high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and be a current smoker; however, they were less likely to be obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, indicated that age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, and high LDL-C levels were the independent risk factors for CP. There was a lower risk of CP with alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that managing the conventional risk factors is crucial to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the low-income population in China.

  3. Prevalence, age at onset, and risk factors of self-reported asthma among Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Aerobic Power and Coronary Risk Factors in 40 and over Aged Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-18

    ergometer ), the results ate not directly comparable. fIowever, if one takes into account the lower values obtained using the cycle ergometer , it can be...30.0 Present Study 40 -53 260 TM 38.1 *CE = Cycle Ergometer ; TM = Treadmill TABLE 3. Selected risk f ators of subijects dWring the pretraining period...Canadian forces personnel aged 40-55 reported a mean value of 32.4 m/kg- min using a subrnaximal predictive cycle ergometer test. If these dbta are

  5. Frequency and risk factors for the birth of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a public maternity hospital

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Marina Parca Cavelagna; Queiroga, Tatiana Peloso Reis; Mesquita, Maria dos Anjos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio. The significance level used was 0.050. Results: There was a 17.9% frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns. The statistically significant factors associated with the birth of these babies were female sex (p=0.012); positive history of another small-for-gestational-age child (p=0.006); inadequate prenatal care (p=0.019); smoking (p=0.003); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (p=0.007); placental bleeding (p=0.009) and infarction (p=0.001). Conclusion: In the population studied, the frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns was high and associated with sex, inappropriate prenatal care, presence of maternal diseases and addictions, and placental abnormalities. PMID:27759818

  6. Advanced age a risk factor for illness temporally associated with yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, M.; Weld, L. H.; Tsai, T. F.; Mootrey, G. T.; Chen, R. T.; Niu, M.; Cetron, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was notified of severe illnesses and one death, temporally associated with yellow fever (YF) vaccination, in two elderly U.S. residents. Because the cases were unusual and adverse events following YF vaccination had not been studied, we estimated age-related reporting rates for systemic illness following YF vaccination. We found that the rate of reported adverse events among elderly vaccinees was higher than among vaccinees 25 to 44 years of age. We also found two additional deaths among elderly YF vaccinees. These data signal a potential problem but are not sufficient to reliably estimate incidence rates or to understand potential underlying mechanisms; therefore, enhanced surveillance is needed. YF remains an important cause of severe illness and death, and travel to disease-endemic regions is increasing. For elderly travelers, the risk for severe illness and death due to YF infection should be balanced against the risk for systemic illness due to YF vaccine. PMID:11747720

  7. Contrast medium administration in the elderly patient: is advancing age an independent risk factor for contrast nephropathy after angiographic procedures?

    PubMed

    Detrenis, Simona; Meschi, Michele; Bertolini, Laura; Savazzi, Giorgio

    2007-02-01

    Contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CMIN) is the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute renal dysfunction. Even if the number of patients over 75 years of age undergoing diagnostic and/or interventional procedures and requiring administration of contrast medium (CM) is growing constantly, at present there is no definitive consensus regarding the role of advancing age and related morphologic or functional renal changes as an independent risk factor for CMIN. The authors review the evidence from recent medical literature on the definition, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of CMIN as well as therapeutic approaches to its prophylaxis. Attention is focused on advancing age as a preexisting physiologic condition that is, per se, able to predispose the patient to CM-induced renal impairment, assuming that every elderly patient is potentially at risk for CMIN.

  8. Risk and Protective Factors Affecting Sexual Risk Behavior Among School-Aged Adolescents in Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-07-01

    There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population.

  9. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  10. Suicidal Behaviour and Related Risk Factors among School-Aged Youth in the Republic of Benin

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Jason R.; Doku, David; Wilson, Michael L.; Peltzer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. Methods Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. Discussion The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence. PMID:24505443

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for malnutrition among children aged 5 years and less in the Lefaragatlha village of Bophuthatswana.

    PubMed

    Setswe, G

    1994-08-01

    A cross-sectioned study was conducted at the Lefaragatha village of Bophuthatswana to document the prevalence and risk factors for malnutrition in children aged 0-5 years in June 1991. Fifty four households, in which there were children in the right age groups, were interviewed over three weeks. Of these children 14 (25.9%) were below the 3rd percentile of weight for age of the 1976 National Centre for Health Statistics standards; in the age group of 2 years and less, this figure was 28.6%, while in children older than 2 years the corresponding figure was 71.4%. Malnutrition was associated with a mother's consumption of alcohol and lack of resources such as water and an inappropriate staple diet. Education and income were not significant variables.

  12. Risk factors for wrist fracture: effect of age, cigarettes, alcohol, body height, relative weight, and handedness on the risk for distal forearm fractures in men.

    PubMed

    Hemenway, D; Azrael, D R; Rimm, E B; Feskanich, D; Willett, W C

    1994-08-15

    Fractures of the distal forearm (wrist) are among the most common of all fractures. While evidence exists concerning risk factors for wrist fracture among women, little is known about risk factors among men. This study examines the relation of lifestyle characteristics (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, relative weight) as well as body height and handedness to the risk for fracture in a male population that has been followed up for 6 years. The 51,529 men, who were between the ages of 40 and 75 years in 1986, were participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a national prospective cohort study. In 271,552 person-years of follow-up, 271 respondents reported a wrist fracture. The risk for wrist fracture in this population did not vary with age. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, body height, and relative weight also were not related to risk for wrist fracture. Handedness, which was divided into four mutually exclusive categories (right-handed, left-handed, forced to change, and ambidextrous), was significantly associated with wrist fracture. Left-handers had a multivariate relative risk for wrist fracture 1.56 times that of right-handers (95% confidence interval 1.02-2.37), and men who reported they had been forced to change from left-handed to right-handed had a multivariate relative risk 2.47 times greater than right-handers (95 percent confidence interval 1.21-5.04).

  13. Ocular Risk Factors for Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES)

    PubMed Central

    Fraser-Bell, Samantha; Choudhury, Farzana; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley; Varma, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess the association of ocular factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Latinos. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study of 6357 self-identified Latinos aged 40 years and older. Methods Ophthalmic examination included subjective refraction, measurement of axial length, evaluation of iris color, Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II) grading of cataracts, and stereoscopic macular photographs for AMD lesions. Generalized estimating equation analysis incorporated data from both eyes to estimate odds ratios adjusted for covariates. Results After controlling for confounders (age, gender and smoking), prior cataract surgery was associated with advanced AMD (OR: 2.8, 95% CI 1.0, 7.8), increased retinal pigment (OR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.0, 1.5) and retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (OR: 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.4). The presence of any lens opacity was associated with soft drusen (OR: 1.2; 95% CI 1.0, 1.5). Longer axial length (per mm) was associated with a decreased odds of soft drusen, increased retinal pigment, and geographic atrophy (GA) (ORs: 0.8 [95% CI 0.7, 0.9], 0.8 [95% CI 0.7, 0.9], 0.7 [95% CI 0.5, 0.9], respectively. Myopia was inversely associated with soft drusen (OR: 0.8; 95% CI 0.7, 1.0). Lighter colored irises were associated with GA (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 1.0, 25.3). Conclusions Cross-sectional associations of ocular factors such as cataract, cataract surgery, and refractive errors with early AMD lesions found in Latinos were consistent with those in whites. Additionally, prior cataract surgery was associated with advanced AMD. PMID:20138605

  14. INCIDENCE OF, AND RISK FACTORS FOR, MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN AGED 5-7 YEARS IN SOUTH INDIA.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Yadav, Bijesh

    2016-05-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health problem contributing to the burden of disease in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of, and risk factors for, malnutrition among school-going children in south India. A total of 2496 children aged 5-7 years from rural and urban areas of south India were recruited in 1982 and followed up for malnutrition over a period of 9 years. Their body heights and weights were measured every six months and socio-demographic factors such as mother's education and father's education and relevant household characteristics and hygiene practices collected. Body mass index and height-for-age z-scores were used to determine children's levels of underweight and stunting, respectively, classified as normal, mild/moderate or severe. Risk factor analysis was done for pre-pubertal ages only using Generalized Estimating Equations with cumulative odds assumption. There was a significant difference between male and female children in the incidence of severe underweight and stunting (6.4% and 4.2% respectively). Children in households with no separate kitchen had 1.3 (1.0-1.6) times higher odds of being severely underweight (p=0.044) compared with those with a kitchen. Children without a toilet facility had significantly higher odds of severe underweight compared with those who did. Children with illiterate parents had higher odds of severe stunting than those with literate parents. In conclusion, the prevalence of malnutrition among these south Indian children has not changed over the years, and the incidence of severe malnutrition was highest in children when they were at pubertal age. The risk factors for stunting were mostly poverty-related, and those for underweight were mostly hygiene-related. Adolescent children in south India should be screened periodically at school for malnutrition and provided with nutritional intervention if necessary.

  15. Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Chinese women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is still inconsistent across studies, and there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contribution of CRF to different CVD risk factors in Chinese women. This study investigated the relationship between CRF and CVD risk factors in 40–49 year old women in Beijing. Methods The study included 231 urban-dwelling asymptomatic 40–49 year old women. Body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at rest. Cycle ergometer exercise tests were conducted to assess CRF as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Participants were categorized into three CRF levels (low, moderate and high). Results High CRF level was associated with significantly less BF%, lower PWV, and higher weekly physical activity compared with low and moderate CRF (P < 0.05). Compared to high CRF, the odds ratios for having ≥3 main CVD risk factors (overweight, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) in low and moderate CRF were 2.09 (95% CI: 1.48-2.94) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.29-2.62), respectively. The proportion of participants with clinical ST segment depression and prolonged QTC interval during cycle ergometer testing was significantly higher in women with low CRF. Conclusions Overall, Chinese middle-aged women demonstrated a moderate level of CRF. CRF was independently associated with CVD risk factors, including overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia, arterial stiffness, and abnormal ECG during exercise, with the least fit women exhibiting the highest number of CVD risk factors. PMID:24885417

  16. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Young and Middle-Aged Rural Population in Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ching Thon, Chang; Ping Yein, Lee; Whye Lian, Cheah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) was the second leading cause of death in Malaysia in 2006. CHD has known risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among 260 participants aged 20 to 65 years in a rural community in Sarawak. Results: The prevalences of overweight and obesity in this study were 39.6% and 11.9%, respectively. Approximately 13% of participants had hypertension, and 1.5% had a random blood sugar greater than 11.1 mmol/L. Chi-square tests showed significant associations between obesity and gender (P = 0.007), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and race (P = 0.05), high total cholesterol and age (P = 0.007), age and hypertension (P = 0.011), smoking and gender (P < 0.001), and smoking and income (P = 0.050). Age-adjusted logistic regression showed that women were 0.246 times more likely to be obese, that older participants (> 45 years) were 0.395 times more likely to have high cholesterol and that those with a higher monthly household income (> RM830) were 2.471 times more likely to smoke. Conclusion: These findings indicate that we should be concerned about the high rates of overweight in this rural community to prevent obesity. PMID:22973135

  17. Age and Sex Specific Reference Intervals for Modifiable Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases for Gujarati Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sibasis; Shah, Komal H.; Konat, Ashwati R.; Sharma, Kamal H.; Tripathi, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to establish age and sex specific percentile reference data for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI in apparently healthy and disease-free Gujarati population. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 3265 apparently healthy and disease-free individuals of both genders residing in Gujarat state. Fasting samples of blood were used for biochemical estimations of lipids and sugar. The measurement of BMI and blood pressure was also done according to the standard guidelines. Age and gender specific 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were obtained. Results. The mean values of lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males as compared to female population. Age-wise distribution trends showed increase in the risk factors from the 2nd decade until the 5th to 6th decade in most of the cases, where loss of premenopausal protection in females was also observed. Specific trends according to gender and age were observed in percentile values of various parameters. Conclusion. The outcome of current study will contribute significantly to proposing clinically important reference values of various lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI that could be used to screen the asymptomatic Gujarati Indian population with a propensity of developing dyslipidemia, diabetes, blood pressure, and obesity. PMID:26824054

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to measure the anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 5249 students were included in our study. The overall rate of anxiety status among students was 14.1%. A significant difference was observed between anxiety status and sex, mothers education level, dietary and siesta habit (P < 0.05), only-child family, gentle temper, regular breakfast habit, friend support was associated with lower scores on anxiety status. The findings indicated that anxiety status is common among school students. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended. PMID:25550963

  19. Opiate Dependence as an Independent and Interactive Risk Factor for Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Ageing - A Longitudinal Study in Females

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Albert Stuart; Hulse, Gary Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite intriguing observational cross-sectional data there are no longitudinal studies of opiate related arterial disease. As opiates act via P16INK4A/CDKN2A, and vascular ageing has been thought to be a surrogate for organismal ageing, the subject has far-reaching implications. Methods Pulse Wave Analysis (PWA) by radial arterial tonometry (SphygmoCor) was performed on control and opiate dependent patients. Results A total of 37 controls were compared with 93 opiate dependents. They were studied on 117 and 275 occasions respectively up to 1,797 days. The mean (± S.E.M.) ages were 38.72 ± 2.64 and 33.78 ± 0.90 years (P = 0.0260), 91.4% and 10.8% smoked (P < 0.0001). Body mass index rose more in controls (P = 0.0185) and in interaction with time (P = 0.0025). When controlled for time and BMI, opiate dependency status was shown to be associated with vascular age and central arterial stiffness and pressure indices (all P < 0.05). When repeated measures multiple regression was performed on all traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the opiate dose-duration interaction was significant and appeared in 12 terms in the final model. It was also independently significant (P = 0.0153). Opiate dose or duration appeared in a further 15 terms. The model was shown to be significantly improved by the inclusion of terms for opiate dependency (A.I.C. 71.10 v 54.31, P < 0.0001). Conclusion These data confirm increased vascular stiffness and ageing in a longitudinal study, and thereby imply advanced organismal ageing. These multivariate studies are consistent with opiate dependency as an interactive and multivariate cardiovascular risk factor and emphasize the role of treatment duration. PMID:23976908

  20. Preceding infection as an important risk factor for ischaemic brain infarction in young and middle aged patients

    PubMed Central

    Syrjänen, Jaana; Valtonen, Ville V; Iivanainen, Matti; Kaste, Markku; Huttunen, Jussi K

    1988-01-01

    The role of preceding infection as a risk factor for ischaemic stroke was investigated in a case-control study of 54 consecutive patients under 50 years of age with brain infarction and 54 randomly selected controls from the community matched for sex and age. Information about previous illnesses, smoking, consumption of alcohol, and use of drugs was taken. A blood sample was analysed for standard biochemical variables and serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting blood glucose concentrations determined. Titres of antimicrobial antibodies against various bacteria, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Yersinia, and Salmonella and several viruses were determined. Febrile infection was found in patients during the month before the brain infarction significantly more often than in controls one month before their examination (19 patients v three controls; estimated relative risk 9·0 (95% confidence interval 2·2 to 80·0)). The most common preceding febrile infection was respiratory infection (80%). Infections preceding brain infarction were mostly of bacterial origin based on cultural, serological, and clinical data. In conditional logistic regression analysis for matched pairs the effect of preceding febrile infection remained significant (estimated relative risk 14·5 (95% confidence interval 1·9 to 112·3)) when tested with triglyceride concentration, hypertension, smoking, and preceding intoxication with alcohol. Although causality cannot be inferred from these data and plausible underlying mechanisms remain undetermined, preceding febrile infection may play an important part in the development of brain infarction in young and middle aged patients. PMID:3132245

  1. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P < 0.01). After 3 years of follow-up, the ⊿baPWV was significantly greater in subjects with persistent depression compared with those with no depression (36 ± 28 vs. 18 ± 10 cm s(-1), P = 0.02). After adjustment for conventional risk factors, persistent depression was significantly associated with ⊿baPWV by multiple regression analysis (β = 0.261, P < 0.01). To sum up, persistent depression was a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  2. Evidence-based sentencing: Public openness and opposition to using gender, age, and race as risk factors for recidivism.

    PubMed

    Scurich, Nicholas; Monahan, John

    2016-02-01

    The incarceration of criminal offenders in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. One way to scale back the prison population is by using empirical risk assessment methods to apportion prison sentences based on the likelihood of the offender recidivating, so-called "evidence-based sentencing." This practice has been denounced by some legal scholars, who claim that the use of certain empirically relevant risk factors--including gender, age, and race--is plainly immoral. This study tested whether lay individuals share their sentiment. More than 600 participants weighted to be representative of the United States population were asked about the extent to which they would support imposing shorter sentences for old versus young offenders, female versus male offenders, and white versus black offenders, all else being equal. The results indicate that very few participants (<3%) had no settled opinion about using evidence-based sentencing, and approximately half were unequivocally opposed to the practice. Whereas more than 3-quarters of participants were against using race to determine prison sentences, almost half were open to the possibility of using gender and more than 3-quarters of the participants were open to the possibility of using age to determine prison sentences. Individual differences as a function of participants' own demographic characteristics, or of their belief in "just deserts" as the primary purpose of sentencing, or of their political outlook, were either inconsistently or meagerly related to these findings. The profoundly disparate views held by the general public regarding the use of specific risk factors do not bode well for the use of demographic risk factors in sentencing as a way to roll back mass incarceration.

  3. Age-related differences in recommended anthropometric cut-off point validity to identify cardiovascular risk factors in ostensibly healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Björkelund, Cecilia; Guo, Xinxin; Skoog, Ingmar; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate validity of widely recommended anthropometric and total fat percentage cut-off points in screening for cardiovascular risk factors in women of different ages. Methods: A population-based sample of 1002 Swedish women aged 38, 50, 75 (younger, middle-aged and elderly, respectively) underwent anthropometry, health examinations and blood tests. Total fat was estimated (bioimpedance) in 670 women. Sensitivity, specificity of body mass index (BMI; ≥25 and ≥30), waist circumference (WC; ≥80 cm and ≥88 cm) and total fat percentage (TF; ≥35%) cut-off points for cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidaemias, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) were calculated for each age. Cut-off points yielding high sensitivity together with modest specificity were considered valid. Women reporting hospital admission for cardiovascular disease were excluded. Results: The sensitivity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was ~60% in younger and middle-aged women, and 80% in elderly women. The specificity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was 69%, 57% and 40% at the three ages (p < .05 for age trends). WC ≥80 cm yielded ~80% sensitivity for two or more risk factors across all ages. However, specificity decreased with increasing age (p < .0001), being 33% in elderly. WC ≥88 cm provided better specificity in elderly women. BMI and TF % cut-off points were not better than WC. Conclusions: Validity of recommended anthropometric cut-off points in screening asymptomatic women varies with age. In younger and middle-age, WC ≥80 cm yielded high sensitivity and modest specificity for two or more risk factors, however, sensitivity for one or more risk factor was less than optimal. WC ≥88 cm showed better validity than WC ≥80 cm in elderly. Our results support age-specific screening cut-off points for women. PMID:25294689

  4. The Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Those with Inflammatory Connective Tissue Disease by Race, Age, and Traditional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alenghat, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory connective tissue diseases (CTD) like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis associate with cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown whether particular groups of patients have enhanced propensity for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) associated with their CTD. Analysis of aggregate health record data at a large U.S. academic center identified CTD and ASCVD status for 287,467 African American and white adults. ASCVD prevalence in those with CTD was 29.7% for African Americans and 14.7% for white patients with prevalence ratios, compared to those without CTD, of 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. When different types of CTD were analyzed individually (rheumatoid arthritis; lupus; scleroderma; Sjögren Syndrome; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; unspecified/mixed CTD; other inflammatory arthropathy), increased ASCVD rates were found in nearly all subsets, always with higher prevalence ratios in African Americans. The prevalence ratio of ASCVD was particularly high in young African Americans. Furthermore, individuals lacking traditional cardiovascular risk factors had more ASCVD if they had CTD (prevalence ratio 2.9). Multivariate analysis confirmed a positive interaction between CTD and African-American race and a negative interaction between CTD and age. The factors driving the observed disproportionate CTD-associated ASCVD in African Americans, young adults, and those without traditional risk factors warrant further study. PMID:26842423

  5. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764

  6. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns

    PubMed Central

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-01-01

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20–90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (P<0.05), anti-hypertensive (P<0.05), anti-diabetic drug use (men P<0.05, women P=0.06) and waist circumference for the male cohort (P<0.05), after adjusting for age. Subjects with ABA had spatially extensive gray matter loss in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes (false-discovery-rate-corrected q<0.001). ABA patterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD. PMID:27045845

  7. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns.

    PubMed

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-04-05

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20-90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (P<0.05), anti-hypertensive (P<0.05), anti-diabetic drug use (men P<0.05, women P=0.06) and waist circumference for the male cohort (P<0.05), after adjusting for age. Subjects with ABA had spatially extensive gray matter loss in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes (false-discovery-rate-corrected q<0.001). ABA patterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD.

  8. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and risk of depression in older people: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Chigogora, S; Zaninotto, P; Kivimaki, M; Steptoe, A; Batty, G D

    2016-01-01

    Depressive disorders are a leading cause of disability in older age. Although the role of psychosocial and behavioural predictors has been well examined, little is known about the biological origins of depression. Findings from animal studies have implicated insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the aetiology of this disorder. A total of 6017 older adults (mean age of 65.7 years; 55% women) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing provided serum levels of IGF-1 (mean=15.9 nmol l−1, s.d. 5.7) during a nurse visit in 2008. Depression symptoms were assessed in the same year and again in 2012 using the eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Self-reports of a physician-diagnosis of depression were also collected at both time points. In separate analyses for men and women, the results from both the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed a ‘U'-shaped pattern of association, such that lower and higher levels of IGF-1 were associated with a slightly elevated risk of depression, whereas the lowest risk was seen around the median levels. Thus, in men, with the lowest quintile of IGF-1 as the referent, the age-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of developing depression symptoms after 4 years of follow-up, for increasing quintiles of IGF-1, were: 0.51 (0.28–0.91), 0.50 (0.27–0.92), 0.63 (0.35–1.15) and 0.63 (0.35–1.13) (P-value for quadratic association 0.002). Some attenuation of these effects was apparent after adjustment for co-morbidity, socioeconomic status and health behaviours. In conclusion, in the present study of older adults, there was some evidence that moderate levels of IGF-1 levels conferred a reduced risk of depression. PMID:27648920

  9. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs--occurrence and management associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjaer, Rikke B; Enemark, Heidi L; Vigre, Håkan

    2006-10-10

    To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows, 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

  10. Metabolic risk factors, coping with stress, and psychological well-being in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cavar, Ivan; Lovrić, Sanjin; Vukojević, Mladenka; Sesar, Irena; Petric-Vicković, Ivanka; Sesar, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the risk factors (age, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, consumption of alchohol and drugs, positive family history, and exposure to sunlight), coping with stress, psychological well-being and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Forty patients with ARMD (case group) and 63 presbyopes (control group) participated in the study. Patient data were collected through general information questionnaire including patient habits, the COPE questionnaire that showed the way the patients handling stress, and the GHQ that analyzed the psychological aspects of their quality of life. These questionnaires were administered to the patients during ophthalmologic examination. The study involved 46 (44.66%) men and 57 (55.33%) women. Statistical analysis showed that the major risks for the development of ARMD were elevated cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in plasma. A significantly higher number ofARMD patients had a positive family history when compared with presbyopes. This study showed presbyopes to cope with emotional problems significantly better and to have a lower level of social dysfunction when compared with ARMD patients. However, it is necessary to conduct further studies in a large number of patients to determine more accurately the pathophysiological mechanisms of metabolic factors as well as the impact of the disease on the quality of life in patients with ARMD.

  11. Body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xin; Song, Zhen-ya; Zhao, Chang-jun; Jiang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women. Methods: A total of 3011 women (1938 young women, 1073 middle-aged women), who visited our health care center for a related health checkup, were eligible for study. BMI and WC were measured. The subjects were divided into normal and overweight/obesity groups based on BMI, and normal and abdominal obesity groups based on WC. Cardiometabolic variables included triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure (BP). Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in middle-aged women (32.4%) than in young women (12.0%). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was also higher in middle-aged women (60.3%) than in young women (36.2%). There were significant differences in the comparison of all related cardiometabolic variables between different BMI (or WC) categories in young and middle-aged women groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, partial correlation analysis indicated that both BMI and WC were correlated significantly with all related cardiometabolic variables. After adjustment for age and WC, although the correlation coefficient r′ was attenuated, BMI was still correlated significantly with all related cardiometabolic variables in young and middle-aged women. After adjustment for age and BMI, partial correlation analysis showed that WC was correlated significantly with TG, FBG, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C in young women and significantly with TG, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C in middle-aged women. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was high in Chinese young and middle-aged women. BMI was a better predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes than WC in young and middle-aged women, and moreover, measurement of both WC and BMI

  12. Spatial heterogeneity and risk factors for stunting among children under age five in Ethiopia: A Bayesian geo-statistical model

    PubMed Central

    Hagos, Seifu; Hailemariam, Damen; WoldeHanna, Tasew; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the spatial distribution of stunting and underlying factors operating at meso-scale is of paramount importance for intervention designing and implementations. Yet, little is known about the spatial distribution of stunting and some discrepancies are documented on the relative importance of reported risk factors. Therefore, the present study aims at exploring the spatial distribution of stunting at meso- (district) scale, and evaluates the effect of spatial dependency on the identification of risk factors and their relative contribution to the occurrence of stunting and severe stunting in a rural area of Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted to measure the occurrence of stunting and severe stunting among children aged 0–59 months. Additionally, we collected relevant information on anthropometric measures, dietary habits, parent and child-related demographic and socio-economic status. Latitude and longitude of surveyed households were also recorded. Local Anselin Moran's I was calculated to investigate the spatial variation of stunting prevalence and identify potential local pockets (hotspots) of high prevalence. Finally, we employed a Bayesian geo-statistical model, which accounted for spatial dependency structure in the data, to identify potential risk factors for stunting in the study area. Results Overall, the prevalence of stunting and severe stunting in the district was 43.7% [95%CI: 40.9, 46.4] and 21.3% [95%CI: 19.5, 23.3] respectively. We identified statistically significant clusters of high prevalence of stunting (hotspots) in the eastern part of the district and clusters of low prevalence (cold spots) in the western. We found out that the inclusion of spatial structure of the data into the Bayesian model has shown to improve the fit for stunting model. The Bayesian geo-statistical model indicated that the risk of stunting increased as the child’s age increased (OR 4.74; 95% Bayesian credible

  13. Aging is Not a Risk Factor for Femoral and Tibial Fractures in Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Ryb, Gabriel; Dischinger, Patricia; Kleinberger, Michael; Burch, Cynthia; Ho, Shiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of aging on the occurence of femoral and tibial fractures during vehicular crashes. Methods The Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN), which includes occupants of a vehicle < 8 years old with at least one AIS ≥3 or two AIS ≥2 injuries in different body regions, comprised the study population. The occurrence of femoral and tibial fractures during vehicular crashes was analyzed in relation to age and other confounders [gender, BMI, stature, change in velocity (Δv), restraint use, occupant position (driver vs. passenger) and principal direction of force (PDOF)] using χ2, Mantel-Haenszel χ2 and student t test. Multiple logistic regression (MLR) models were built for the prediction of femoral and tibial fractures with age as the independent variable and possible confounders as co-variates. An α = 0.05 was used for all statistics. Results The incidence of femoral and tibial fractures in the study population (N=1,418) was 23% and 27%, respectively. Univariate analyses revealed a negative association between increasing age and femoral fractures and no association between age and tibial fractures. MLR models revealed no clear effect of increasing age on the occurrence of either femoral or tibial fractures. Obesity, frontal PDOF, and high Delta;v affected the occurrence of femoral fractures. Tibial fractures were influenced by occupant position (driver), frontal PDOF, high Δv and shorter stature. Conclusion Despite the known changes in bone composition and strength with aging, elderly vehicular occupants do not experience higher odds of incurring femoral and tibial fractures during crashes. PMID:19026239

  14. Physical, Heritable and Age-Related Factors as Modifiers of Radiation Cancer Risk in Patched Heterozygous Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzaglia, Simonetta Pasquali, Emanuela M.Sc.; Tanori, Mirella; Mancuso, Mariateresa; Leonardi, Simona; Di Majo, Vincenzo; Rebessi, Simonetta; Saran, Anna

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To address the tumorigenic potential of exposure to low/intermediate doses of ionizing radiation and to identify biological factors influencing tumor response in a mouse model highly susceptible to radiogenic cancer. Methods and Materials: Newborn Ptc1 heterozygous mice were exposed to X-ray doses of 100, 250, and 500 mGy, and tumor development was monitored for their lifetime. Additional groups were irradiated with the same doses and sacrificed at fixed times for determination of short-term endpoints, such as apoptosis and early preneoplastic lesions in cerebellum. Finally, groups of Ptc1 heterozygous mice were bred on the C57BL/6 background to study the influence of common variant genes on radiation response. Results: We have identified a significant effect of low-intermediate doses of radiation (250 and 500 mGy) in shortening mean survival and inducing early and more progressed stages of tumor development in the cerebellum of Ptc1{sup +/-} mice. In addition, we show that age at exposure and heritable factors are potent modifiers of radiation-related cancer risk. Conclusions: The Ptc1 knockout mouse model offers a highly sensitive system that may potentially help to improve understanding and quantification of risk at low doses, such as doses experienced in occupational and medical exposures, and clarify the complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors underlying cancer susceptibility.

  15. The Association of Age and Gender with Risk Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases among Employees in West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Nahid; Babanejad, Mehran; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Karim, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationships that age and gender share with risk factors (RFs) of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) were assessed among a large-scale employ in Western Iran. Methods: In this epidemiologic cross-sectional study, 7129 employees from Kermanshah Province were assessed using a census method in 2012. Data on RFs of NCD were collected using a standard questionnaire. Demographic information, diet, physical activity, tobacco use, and history of hypertension, history of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and cancer were studied. Results: The proportion of ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables consumption per day was lower in higher ages (P = 0.001), and this proportion was greater in females than males (72.1% vs. 47.8%; P < 0.0001). Tobacco use was more in higher ages and was higher among males than females (13.3% vs. 0.6%; P < 0.0001). Overweight and obesity prevalence increased in higher ages and was more prominent among males than females (67.8% vs. 55.3%; P < 0.0001). Overall, the prevalence of having 3–5 RFs was greater among those with ≥55 years and among males than females (20.4% vs. 6.6%; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The prevalence of major RFs of NCDs was greater among older persons and male participants. More preventive programs such as health education on employees of Kermanshah are recommended. PMID:28299033

  16. Parent-reported Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity symptomatology in preschool-aged children: factor structure, developmental change, and early risk factors.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Michael T; Pek, Jolynn; Greenberg, Mark T

    2012-11-01

    Although Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increasingly been studied in preschool-aged children, relatively few studies have provided a comprehensive evaluation of the factor structure and patterns of developmental changes in parent-reported ADHD symptomatology across the early childhood period. This study used confirmatory factor analyses to test for longitudinal measurement invariance of ADHD symptoms and semi-parametric finite mixture models to identify prototypic patterns of developmental changes in ADHD symptomatology from 3 to 5 years of age. Participants were 1155 children and their parents who participated in a prospective longitudinal study involving a representative sample of children who resided in six non-metropolitan counties in the United States. Results indicated that (1) ADHD symptomatology was best represented by a single latent factor that exhibited partial measurement invariance from 3 to 5 years of age, (2) 8.5 % of children exhibited sustained high levels of ADHD symptoms from age 3-5 years, and (3) a variety of risk factors differentiated children with sustained high from those with sustained low levels of ADHD, relatively few (most notably caregiver education) were able to differentiate children with sustained high levels of ADHD symptoms from all other groups. Children who exhibit persistent ADHD symptomatology across the early childhood period may define a clinically important group for etiologic research and/or early intervention efforts.

  17. Adolescent rats are more prone to binge eating behavior: a study of age and obesity as risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Liza; Barnea, Royi; Brauner, Akiva; Weller, Aron

    2014-08-15

    Binge eating (BE) is characterized by repeated, intermittent over-consumption of food in a brief period of time. This study aims to advance the understanding of potential risk factors for BE such as obesity, overeating and adolescence as an age group. We used the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic overeating-induced obesity model with increased preferences for sweet and fat. Adolescent and adult rats from both strains (OLETF and the lean control strain, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) received limited access to a palatable liquid diet (Ensure vanilla) for three weeks. Water and chow were available throughout the study, but access to Ensure was limited to two hours, three times a week (3TW group) or every work day (5TW group). As expected, OLETF rats consumed more Ensure and were more BE-prone (BEP) than LETO rats at both ages. Adolescent rats showed a significantly larger binge size as demonstrated by a greater increase in Ensure intake, compared to adults. Furthermore, while the adults reduced their chow intake, compensating for increased Ensure intake, the adolescents increased their chow intake too. Finally, the adolescent rats showed binge like behavior earlier in the study and they tended to be BEP more than the adults. Our findings in rats suggest that adolescents and in particular obese adolescents are at risk for BE, and BE can lead to overweight, thus providing the basis for examination of biological mechanisms of this process in animal models.

  18. Effect of secular trends on age-related trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors: the Whitehall II longitudinal study 1985–2009

    PubMed Central

    Hulmán, Adam; Tabák, Adam G; Nyári, Tibor A; Vistisen, Dorte; Kivimäki, Mika; Brunner, Eric J; Witte, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors have been described, but few studies have examined simultaneously the effects of both ageing and secular trends within the same cohort. Methods: Development of cardiovascular risk factors over the past three decades was analysed using serial measurements from 10 308 participants aged from 35 to 80 years over 25 years of follow-up from five clinical examination phases of the Whitehall II study. Changes of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol distribution characteristics were analysed with quantile regression models in the 57–61 age group. Age-related trajectories of risk factors were assessed by fitting mixed-effects models with adjustment for year of birth to reveal secular trends. Results: Average body mass index and waist circumference increased faster with age in women than in men, but the unfavourable secular trend was more marked in men. Distributions showed a fattening of the right tail in each consecutive phase, meaning a stronger increase in higher percentiles. Despite the higher obesity levels in younger birth cohorts, total cholesterol decreased markedly in the 57–61 age group along the entire distribution rather than in higher extremes only. Conclusion: The past three decades brought strong and heterogeneous changes in cardiovascular risk factor distributions. Secular trends appear to modify age-related trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors, which may be a source of bias in longitudinal analyses. PMID:24464190

  19. Aging: Characteristics, Exposure Factors, Epigenetics, and Assessment of Health Risks of Older Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter is organized into three sections. The first part describes the characteristics of the older adult population and the U.S. EPA’s efforts to protect elders form environmental hazards. Section II covers available exposure factor data, activity pattern and the pot...

  20. Risk factors associated with temporomandibular joint sounds in children 6 to 12 years of age.

    PubMed

    Keeling, S D; McGorray, S; Wheeler, T T; King, G J

    1994-03-01

    The relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds and a person's dental and skeletal characteristics is poorly understood. In this study, data were obtained from 3428 grade schoolchildren (mean age = 9.0 years, SD = 0.8, range 6 to 12 years), without a history of orthodontic treatment. Each child had been examined independently by one of six orthodontists to assess: TMJ sounds (none, click, crepitus), gender, age, race (white/black), skeletal relationships (convexity, maxillary, and mandibular positions), malocclusion (molar class, overjet, overbite, anterior crowding, posterior crossbite), maximum opening, chin trauma (none, cut, scar), and history of lower facial trauma. Temporomandibular joint sounds were present in 344 children (10.0% of the sample); 276 (8.1%) had an isolated unilateral sound, 254 (7.4%) had unilateral clicking, 50 (1.5%) had bilateral clicking, 22 (0.6%) had unilateral crepitus, and 11 (0.3%) had bilateral crepitus. Univariate analyses compared children with and without sounds for each variable; logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between groups of variables and TMJ sounds. The prevalence of TMJ sounds was associated with examiner (chi 2 = 23.4, df = 5, p < 0.001); increased prevalence of TMJ sounds occurred in children with maxillary anterior crowding (t = 2.8, p < 0.006), mandibular anterior crowding (t = 3.0, p < 0.002), and increased maximum opening (t = 4.7, p < 0.001). In contrast to other reports on children, the prevalence of joint sounds was not associated with age, race, gender, or molar class.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. [Immune dysfunction and cognitive deficit in stress and physiological aging (Part I): Pathogenesis and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Pukhal'skiĭ, A L; Shmarina, G V; Aleshkin, V A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of stressful cognitive dysfunction, which is under consideration in this review, allows picking out several therapeutic targets. The brain, immune and endocrine systems being the principal adaptive systems in the body permanently share information both in the form of neural impulses and soluble mediators. The CNS differs from other organs due to several peculiarities that affect local immune surveillance. The brain cells secluded from the blood flow by a specialized blood-brain-barrier (BBB) can endogenously express pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines without the intervention of the immune system. In normal brain the cytokine signaling rather contributes to exclusive brain function (e.g. long-term potentiation, synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis) than serves as immune communicator. The stress of different origin increases the serum cytokine levels and disrupts BBB. As a result peripheral cytokines penetrate into the brain where they begin to perform new functions. Mass intrusion of biologically active peptides having a lot of specific targets alters the brain work that we can observe both in humans and in animal experiments. In addition owing to BBB disruption dendritic cells and T cells also penetrate into the brain where they take up a perivascular position. The changes observed in stressed subject may accumulate during repeated episodes of stress forming a picture typical of the aging brain. Moreover long-term stress as well as physiological aging result in hormonal and immunological disturbances including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis depletion, regulatory T-cell accumulation and dehydroepiandrosterone decrease.

  2. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes type 2 in women at late reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Grineva, E N; Karonova, T; Micheeva, E; Belyaeva, O; Nikitina, I L

    2013-07-01

    It was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content depend on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We studied 320 healthy women at late reproductive age of 40 to 52 years old (mean age 46.1±4.5) from St. Petersburg (North-West region of Russia). 25(ОН)D levels were from 19.4 to 134.0 nMol/L (mean 52.9±22.7). Vitamin D deficiency (lower than 50 nMol/L) and insufficiency (50-75 nMol/L) was revealed in 59.1% and 27.8% of women, respectively. The study showed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with obesity (r=-0.35, p$#X003C0.01), increased plasma glucose levels after OGTT (r=-0.31, p$#X003C0.01) and decreased insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.28, p$#X003C0.01). We found that 25(OH)D levels below 50 nMol/L were associated with obesity risk (OR 2.25[1.05-3.95], CI 95%) but not with risk of impaired glucose metabolism (1.07[0.54-2.12],CI95%). Our results showed that vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in the population of healthy women. Low 25(OH)D levels correlated with high body fat, glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is a potential risk factor for obesity and development of insulin resistance leading to diabetes type 2.

  3. [Smoking among military personnel of young age: bad habit and risk factor].

    PubMed

    Moroz, H Z; Hrytsenko, O O; Piteĭ, M V

    2006-01-01

    Anonymous questioning was done among military personnel to study their attitude to healthy way of living and smoking. 80 military persons aged from 18 till 30 participated in the study (40 officers and 40 soldiers). Obtained results showed that 72,5% of soldiers and 42,5% of officers smoked it in connection with compromised heredity may lead to the development of chronic non-infectious disease. Military personnel realize their own responsibility in relation to their health and have all necessary knowledge of healthy way of living but apply their knowledge not in full extent to maintain and strengthen their health. Revealed discrepancy shows that military personnel underestimate bad effect of smoking on health. It necessitates enhancing sanitary and educational measures and individual responsibility of military personal toward their health and providing influence on motivation to lead healthy way of living.

  4. Limitations in Activities of Daily Living in Community-Dwelling People Aged 75 and Over: A Systematic Literature Review of Risk and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zijlstra, G. A. Rixt; Witte, Nico De; Duppen, Daan; Stuck, Andreas E.; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Schols, Jos M. G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Most older people wish to age in place, for which functional status or being able to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) is an important precondition. However, along with the substantial growth of the (oldest) old, the number of people who develop limitations in ADLs or have functional decline dramatically increases in this part of the population. Therefore, it is important to gain insight into factors that can contribute to developing intervention strategies at older ages. As a first step, this systematic review was conducted to identify risk and protective factors as predictors for developing limitations in ADLs in community-dwelling people aged 75 and over. Methods Four electronic databases (CINAHL (EBSCO), EMBASE, PsycINFO and PubMed) were searched systematically for potentially relevant studies published between January 1998 and March 2016. Results After a careful selection process, 6,910 studies were identified and 25 were included. By far most factors were examined in one study only, and most were considered risk factors. Several factors do not seem to be able to predict the development of limitations in ADLs in people aged 75 years and over, and for some factors ambiguous associations were found. The following risk factors were found in at least two studies: higher age, female gender, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. A high level of physical activity and being married were protective in multiple studies. Notwithstanding the fact that research in people aged 65 years and over is more extensive, risk and protective factors seem to differ between the ‘younger’ and ‘older’ olds. Conclusion Only a few risk and protective factors in community-dwelling people aged 75 years and over have been analysed in multiple studies. However, the identified factors could serve both detection and prevention purposes, and implications for future research are given as well. PMID:27760234

  5. Genetic risk factors for the development of osteonecrosis in children under age 10 treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Karol, Seth E; Mattano, Leonard A; Yang, Wenjian; Maloney, Kelly W; Smith, Colton; Liu, ChengCheng; Ramsey, Laura B; Fernandez, Christian A; Chang, Tamara Y; Neale, Geoffrey; Cheng, Cheng; Mardis, Elaine; Fulton, Robert; Scheet, Paul; San Lucas, F Anthony; Larsen, Eric C; Loh, Mignon L; Raetz, Elizabeth A; Hunger, Stephen P; Devidas, Meenakshi; Relling, Mary V

    2016-02-04

    Osteonecrosis is a dose-limiting toxicity in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Prior studies on the genetics of osteonecrosis have focused on patients ≥10 years of age, leaving the genetic risk factors for the larger group of children <10 years incompletely understood. Here, we perform the first evaluation of genetic risk factors for osteonecrosis in children <10 years. The discovery cohort comprised 82 cases of osteonecrosis and 287 controls treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) standard-risk ALL protocol AALL0331 (NCT00103285, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00103285), with results tested for replication in 817 children <10 years treated on COG protocol AALL0232 (NCT00075725, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00075725). The top replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were near bone morphogenic protein 7 [BMP7: rs75161997, P = 5.34 × 10(-8) (odds ratio [OR] 15.0) and P = .0498 (OR 8.44) in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively] and PROX1-antisense RNA1 (PROX1-AS1: rs1891059, P = 2.28 × 10(-7) [OR 6.48] and P = .0077 [OR 3.78] for the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). The top replicated nonsynonymous SNP, rs34144324, was in a glutamate receptor gene (GRID2, P = 8.65 × 10(-6) [OR 3.46] and P = .0136 [OR 10.8] in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). In a meta-analysis, the BMP7 and PROX1-AS1 variants (rs75161997 and rs1891059, respectively) met the significance threshold of <5 × 10(-8). Top replicated SNPs were enriched in enhancers active in mesenchymal stem cells, and analysis of annotated genes demonstrated enrichment in glutamate receptor and adipogenesis pathways. These data may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis.

  6. Genetic risk factors for the development of osteonecrosis in children under age 10 treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Karol, Seth E.; Mattano, Leonard A.; Yang, Wenjian; Maloney, Kelly W.; Smith, Colton; Liu, ChengCheng; Ramsey, Laura B.; Fernandez, Christian A.; Chang, Tamara Y.; Neale, Geoffrey; Cheng, Cheng; Mardis, Elaine; Fulton, Robert; Scheet, Paul; San Lucas, F. Anthony; Larsen, Eric C.; Loh, Mignon L.; Raetz, Elizabeth A.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Devidas, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is a dose-limiting toxicity in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Prior studies on the genetics of osteonecrosis have focused on patients ≥10 years of age, leaving the genetic risk factors for the larger group of children <10 years incompletely understood. Here, we perform the first evaluation of genetic risk factors for osteonecrosis in children <10 years. The discovery cohort comprised 82 cases of osteonecrosis and 287 controls treated on Children’s Oncology Group (COG) standard-risk ALL protocol AALL0331 (NCT00103285, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00103285), with results tested for replication in 817 children <10 years treated on COG protocol AALL0232 (NCT00075725, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00075725). The top replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were near bone morphogenic protein 7 [BMP7: rs75161997, P = 5.34 × 10−8 (odds ratio [OR] 15.0) and P = .0498 (OR 8.44) in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively] and PROX1-antisense RNA1 (PROX1-AS1: rs1891059, P = 2.28 × 10−7 [OR 6.48] and P = .0077 [OR 3.78] for the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). The top replicated nonsynonymous SNP, rs34144324, was in a glutamate receptor gene (GRID2, P = 8.65 × 10−6 [OR 3.46] and P = .0136 [OR 10.8] in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). In a meta-analysis, the BMP7 and PROX1-AS1 variants (rs75161997 and rs1891059, respectively) met the significance threshold of <5 × 10−8. Top replicated SNPs were enriched in enhancers active in mesenchymal stem cells, and analysis of annotated genes demonstrated enrichment in glutamate receptor and adipogenesis pathways. These data may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis. PMID:26590194

  7. Smoking during Pregnancy Is a Risk Factor for Executive Function Deficits in Preschool-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Daseking, M.; Petermann, F.; Tischler, T.; Waldmann, H.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal nicotine use during pregnancy has a negative impact on the child. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between smoking during pregnancy and psychological deficits. This study looks at deficits in executive functioning in preschool-aged children. Methods: The executive functioning of preschool children was assessed by asking parents to complete the parental form of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P, German version). The results for preschool children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy (n = 71) were compared with those of a control group. In a subsample, parental assessments of children of smokers (n = 42) and non-smokers (n = 27) were complemented by the teacher form of the BRIEF-P (German version), which allowed inter-rater agreement (parents vs. preschool teachers) to be assessed. Results: An increased incidence of executive function deficits was noted in the children of smokers, based on parental assessment. Clinically relevant deficits were particularly evident with regard to inhibition, with inhibitory deficits in children of smokers found to be almost four times higher than in the control group (p = 0.006). Inhibitory deficits were reported both by parents and by preschool teachers. Discussion: The increased percentage of executive function deficits described here, particularly the increased inhibitory deficits, confirms the current state of research on smoking during pregnancy. Poor inhibition or impulse control is a key symptom of ADHD. PMID:25684788

  8. Incidence and risk factors of retreatment after three-monthly aflibercept therapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kikushima, Wataru; Sakurada, Yoichi; Yoneyama, Seigo; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Tanabe, Naohiko; Kume, Atsuki; Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Iijima, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Though anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy has become the standard treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retreatment after the initial loading injection is inevitable in most eyes with residual or recurrent exudative changes. In the present study, we studied 140 treatment naïve eyes with typical neovascular AMD (n = 71) or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) (n = 69) and investigated the incidence and risk factors of retreatment after 3-monthly intravitreal aflibercept injection for exudative AMD during the 12-month period. At 12 months, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved significantly from 0.45 ± 0.39 to 0.26 ± 0.33 (P = 4.1 × 10−11). Multiple regression analysis revealed that better baseline BCVA (P = 3.6 × 10−14) and thicker subfoveal choroidal thickness (P = 0.039) were associated with better BCVA at 12-months. Retreatment was required in 94 out of 140 (67.1%) eyes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (P = 7.2 × 10−3) and T-allele of ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924) variants (P = 1.9 × 10−3) were associated with retreatment. Cox-regression analysis revealed that older age (P = 1.0 × 10−2) and T-allele of the ARMS2 gene (P = 6.0 × 10−3) were associated with retreatment-free period. The number of retreatment episodes was significantly different among the ARMS2 genotypes (P = 8.1 × 10−4). These findings might be helpful for physicians when considering the optimal treatment regimen for exudative AMD. PMID:28266609

  9. Association of body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis with metabolic risk factor clustering among middle-aged Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linfeng; Wang, Zengwu; Chen, Zuo; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Manlu

    2017-06-01

    Body composition monitor (BCM) based on the bioelectric impedance analysis is very convenient to use. However, whether percentage body fat (PBF) and visceral fat index (VFI) that acquired by BCM are superior to anthropometric measures is unknown. The study explored whether PBF and VFI are better than anthropometric indexes [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist circumference to height ratio(WHtR)] in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in a representive sample across China which included 9574 Chinese men and women that were investigated in 2009-2010. PBF and VFI were compared with the BMI, WC, and WHtR through the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression. The results showed that the AUC for VFI was higher than BMI and PBF but lower than WHtR and WC in both men and Women. The AUC for WHtR, WC, VFI, BMI and PBF was 0.710, 0.706, 0.700, 0.693, 0.656 in men and 0.705, 0.699, 0.698, 0.675, 0.657 in women, respectively. After adjusting for the potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) tended to increase with all the indexes. The curve of ORs for WHtR was steepest and the curve for PBF was flattest in both men and women; the curve for VFI was similar to WC in women, but flatter than WC in men. From the data we concluded that VFI seems better than BMI and PBF, but not superior to WC and WHtR in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in the middle-aged Chinese.

  10. Risk factors for excessive benzodiazepine use in a working age population: a nationwide 5-year survey in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Fride Tvete, Ingunn; Bjørner, Trine; Skomedal, Tor

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify risk factors for becoming an excessive user over time. Setting: Prescription database study over five years. Subjects and method: Norwegians between 30 and 60 years with a first dispensation of a benzodiazepine during 2006, encompassing 23 227 individuals. A Cox hazard regression model was defined, initially stratifying on gender, age, county, previous relevant drug dispensations, household income, education level, and vocational rehabilitation support. Main outcome measure: The time from the first redemption until excessive use was defined as using more than two DDDs per day on average within a three-month period. Results: Women’s risk was lower than men’s for excessive use (HR = 0.42, CI 0.35–0.51). Initial oxazepam, alprazolam, or nitrazepam/flunitrazepam use indicated higher risk compared with diazepam (HR = 1.51, CI 1.24–1.85, HR = 2.75, CI 1.54–4.91, HR = 1.67, CI 1.29–2.16). Previous antidepressants or lithium, antipsychotics or opioids, anti-alcohol and smoke cessation treatment indicated a higher risk compared with no such use (HR = 1.4, CI 1.16–1.69, HR = 1.92, CI 1.54–2.4, and HR = 2.88, CI 2–4.15). Higher education and average or high household income were associated with a low risk compared with low education and income (HR = 0.68, CI 0.57–0.81, HR = 0.58, CI 0.46–0.73, and HR = 0.37, CI 0.26–0.54). Working in the private or public sector was associated with a low risk compared with no registered work (HR = 0.53, CI 0.4–0.71 and HR = 0.57, CI 0.45–0.74). Conclusion: The prevalence of excessive use over a five-year observation period was 2.34%. Risk factors were indications of psychiatric illness, first benzodiazepine choice, low income, and education. Excessive users were also characterized by a more severe disease, indicated by having prescription fulfilments by a psychiatrist and by switching benzodiazepines.Key pointsGuidelines state that

  11. Ear Infection and Its Associated Risk Factors in First Nations and Rural School-Aged Canadian Children

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Albritton, William; Rennie, Donna C.; Lawson, Joshua A.; McCallum, Laura; Gardipy, P. Jenny; Seeseequasis, Jeremy; Naytowhow, Arnold; Hagel, Louise; McMullin, Kathleen; Ramsden, Vivian; Abonyi, Sylvia; Episkenew, Jo-Ann; Dosman, James A.; Pahwa, Punam; Project Research Team, The First Nations Lung Health; Study Team, The Saskatchewan Rural Health

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ear infections in children are a major health problem and may be associated with hearing impairment and delayed language development. Objective. To determine the prevalence and the associated risk factors of ear infections in children 6–17 years old residing on two reserves and rural areas in the province of Saskatchewan. Methodology. Data were provided from two rural cross-sectional children studies. Outcome variable of interest was presence/absence of an ear infection. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between ear infection and the other covariates. Results. The prevalence of ear infection was 57.8% for rural Caucasian children and 43.6% for First Nations children living on-reserve. First Nations children had a lower risk of ear infection. Ear infection prevalence was positively associated with younger age; first born in the family; self-reported physician-diagnosed tonsillitis; self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma; and any respiratory related allergy. Protective effect of breastfeeding longer than three months was observed on the prevalence of ear infection. Conclusions. While ear infection is a prevalent condition of childhood, First Nations children were less likely to have a history of ear infections when compared to their rural Caucasian counterparts. PMID:26977160

  12. The aged cardiovascular risk patient.

    PubMed

    Priebe, H J

    2000-11-01

    factors contribute most of the increased perioperative risk related to advanced age. First, physiological ageing is accompanied by a progressive decline in resting organ function. Consequently, the reserve capacity to compensate for impaired organ function, drug metabolism and added physiological demands is increasingly impaired. Functional disability will occur more quickly and take longer to be cured. Second, ageing is associated with progressive manifestation of chronic disease which further limits baseline function and accelerates loss of functional reserve in the affected organ. Some of the age-related decline in organ function (e.g. impaired pulmonary gas exchange, diminished renal capacity to conserve and eliminate water and salt, or disturbed thermoregulation) will increase cardiovascular risk. The unpredictable interaction between age-related and disease-associated changes in organ functions, and the altered neurohumoral response to various forms of stress in the elderly may result in a rather atypical clinical presentation of a disease. This may, in turn, delay the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment and, ultimately, worsen outcome. Third, related to the increased intake of medications and altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, the incidence of untoward reactions to medications, anaesthetic agents, and medical and surgical interventions increases with advancing age. On the basis of various clinical studies and observations, it must be concluded that advanced age is an independent predictor of adverse perioperative cardiac outcome. It is to be expected that the aged cardiovascular risk patient carries an even higher perioperative cardiac risk than the younger cardiovascular risk patient. Although knowledge of the physiology of ageing should help reduce age-related complications, successful prophylaxis is hindered by the heterogeneity of age-related changes, unpredictable physiological and pharmacological interactions and diagnostic difficultie

  13. Factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and perceptions of risk factors among reproductive age women in Soba LGA, Kaduna State 2013

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Aishatu Abubakar; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Sabitu, Kabir; Abubakar, Aisha; Puone, Thandi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maternal mortality defined as deaths due to complications of pregnancy or childbirth remains a public health concern. Although statistics show a decline in maternal mortality ratio from 380 deaths to 210 deaths per 100,000 live births from1990 to 2013, in Sub-Saharan Africa, maternal mortality rates remain unacceptably high. Maternal mortality In Nigeria is currently 560/100,000 live births. This study was conducted to identify the associated risk factors and perceptions of adverse pregnancy outcomes among reproductive age women in Soba local government area (LGA). Methods A 1:1 unmatched case control study with 138 respondents was used. Cases were women aged 15-49 years with a history of adverse pregnancy outcome. Controls: 15-49 years without a history of adverse outcomes. Adverse outcomes were: pregnancy induced hypertension and spontaneous abortions. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were taken. Six focus group discussions (FGDs) with grandmothers, mothers and teenagers were used to explore perceptions. Quantitative data was analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.3. Qualitative data analyzed by thematic approach. Results The median age of cases was: 25 years (Range: 16-44years), Median age of controls: 27 years (Range: 16-43years). Commencement of Antenatal care (ANC) attendance <4months (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.32; 95% CI: 0.12-0.81) and Number of pregnancies ≥4 (AOR: 5.02; 95% CI: 1.97-12.82) were found to be associated with adverse outcomes. Conclusion Risk factors associated with outcomes are multiple pregnancies and delayed commencement of antenatal care. There was poor perception of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We recommended frequent community health talks, early commencement of antenatal and Utilization of Family planning services. PMID:28292074

  14. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  15. Risk factors for osteoporosis are common in young and middle-aged patients with femoral neck fractures regardless of trauma mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose There have been few prospective studies examining young and middle-aged patients with hip fracture. We therefore investigated background data, risk factors, and the trauma mechanism in young and middle-aged patients with femoral neck fracture. Patients and methods 185 patients, 27 young (20–49 years old) and 158 middle-aged (50–69 years old) were prospectively included in a multicenter study lasting 3 years. Background data and risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture were obtained, and the type of injury was classified as low-energy trauma, high-energy trauma, or sports injury. Results In the young age group, the fracture occurred because of low-energy trauma in two-fifths of patients and because of sport injury in two-fifths of patients. The rest occurred because of high-energy trauma. The corresponding proportions for the middle-aged group were four-fifths, one tenth, and one tenth (p < 0.001). There was a higher proportion of men (19/27) in the young group than in the middle-aged group (69/158) (p = 0.001). One fifth of the young patients were smokers as compared to two-fifths in the middle-age group (p = 0.04). One quarter of the patients reported high-volume alcohol drinking, with no difference between the two groups. Furthermore, three-quarters of the young patients and four-fifths of the middle-aged patients had one or more risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture. Interpretation A minority of patients in each age group had high-energy trauma as the cause of their femoral neck fracture. Lifestyle factors and other non-trauma-related risk factors appear to have been important contributors to the occurrence of femoral neck fracture in both age groups. PMID:23343373

  16. Rheological blood behavior is not only influenced by cardiovascular risk factors but also by aging itself. Research into 927 healthy Spanish Mediterranean subjects.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Alis, Rafael; Romagnoli, Marco; Pérez, Rafael; Bautista, Daniel; Alonso, Ricardo; Laiz, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    It is not well-established whether the alterations that the hemorheological profile undergoes with aging are an effect of concomitant cardiovascular risk factors or are due to age itself. To clarify this issue, we investigated the effect of age on blood rheology in a population of 927 healthy subjects from eastern Spain aged between 16-85 years, divided into four age groups (<30, 30-44, 45-50, ≥60 years) with and without cardiovascular risk factors. We determined blood viscosity, corrected blood viscosity (BVc), plasma viscosity (PV), erythrocyte aggregation (EA), erythrocyte deformability (EEI60) and fibrinogen, along with glucose and plasma lipids. We found that corrected blood viscosity (p = 0.007), plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation, fibrinogen, glucose, and plasma lipids increased with age (p < 0.001). When subjects with cardiovascular risk factors were excluded, the effect of age on blood rheology persisted for all the cited parameters (p < 0.028). EEI60 increased with age (p = 0.033), and it was attributable to a concomitant increase in mean corpuscular volume (p < 0.001). In the Pearson's correlations, age was related to all the parameters analyzed (P < 0.019). The logistic regression analysis revealed that PV ≥1.30 mPa·s, BVc ≥4.90 mPa·s and EA1 ≥8.3 were associated with age ≥60 years (*p = 0.049, *p = 0.013, *p = 0.045, respectively). These results indicate that, although the presence of cardiovascular risk factors influences rheological properties, aging itself is associated with deterioration of rheological blood behavior, mostly related to inflammatory and lipidic changes.

  17. Soluble cluster of differentiation 36 concentrations are not associated with cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged subjects

    PubMed Central

    ALKHATATBEH, MOHAMMAD J.; AYOUB, NEHAD M.; MHAIDAT, NIZAR M.; SAADEH, NESREEN A.; LINCZ, LISA F.

    2016-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is involved in the development of atherosclerosis by enhancing macrophage endocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoproteins and foam cell formation. Soluble CD36 (sCD36) was found to be elevated in type 2 diabetic patients and possibly acted as a marker of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In young subjects, sCD36 was associated with cardiovascular risk factors including obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. The present study was conducted to further investigate the association between plasma sCD36 and cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and healthy controls. sCD36 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for 41 patients with MetS and 36 healthy controls. Data for other variables were obtained from patient medical records. sCD36 concentrations were relatively low compared to the majority of other studies and were not significantly different between the MetS group and controls (P=0.17). sCD36 was also not correlated with age, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, serum electrolytes and blood counts. sCD36 was not significantly different between subjects with obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension or cardiovascular disease, and those without these abnormalities (P>0.05). The inconsistency between results reported in the present study and other studies may be unique to the study population or be a result of the lack of a reliable standardized method for determining absolute sCD36 concentrations. However, further investigations are required to assess CD36 tissue expression in the study population and to assess the accuracy of various commercially available sCD36 ELISA kits. Thus, the availability of a standardized simple sCD36 ELISA that could be performed in any basic laboratory would be more favorable to the specialized flow cytometry methods that detect CD36+ microparticles if it was to be used as a biomarker. PMID:27123261

  18. Burden of cancer mortality and differences attributable to demographic aging and risk factors in Argentina, 1986-2011.

    PubMed

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Tumas, Natalia; Coquet, Julia Becaria; Niclis, Camila; Román, María Dolores; Díaz, María Del Pilar

    2017-03-09

    The world faces an aging population that implies a large number of people affected with chronic diseases. Argentina has reached an advanced stage of demographic transition and presents a comparatively high rate of cancer mortality within Latin America. The objectives of this study were to examine cancer mortality trends in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, between 1986 and 2011, and to analyze the differences attributable to risk variations and demographic changes. Longitudinal series of age-standardized mortality rates for overall, breast and prostate cancers were modeled by Joinpoint regression to estimate the annual percent change. The Bashir & Estève method was used to split crude mortality rate variation into three components: mortality risk, population age structure and population size. A decreasing cancer age-standardized mortality rates trend was observed (1986-2011 annual percent change: -1.4, 95%CI: -1.6, -1.2 in men; -0.8, 95%CI: -1.0, -0.6 in women), with a significant shift in 1996. There were positive crude mortality rate net changes for overall female cancer, breast and prostate cancers, which were primarily attributable to demographic changes. Inversely, overall male cancer crude mortality rate showed a 9.15% decrease, mostly due to mortality risk. Despite favorable age-standardized mortality rates trends, the influence of population aging reinforces the challenge to control cancer in populations with an increasingly aged demographic structure.

  19. The influence of gestational age on the dynamic behavior of other risk factors associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Valiatti, Fabiana Borba; dos Santos, Paula Gabriela Batista; da Costa, Marlene Coelho; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2009-01-01

    Background Improved survival of preterm neonates has increased the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in many middle-income countries. Aim This study aimed to verify the main risk factors for the development of ROP according to different gestational age (GA) groups. Methods A prospective cohort study including infants weighing ≤1,500 g or GA ≤32 weeks at birth was conducted. The main clinical outcomes were the occurrence of any stage of ROP and severe ROP. The perinatal variables considered for the study were: birth weight; GA; gender; to be small for GA (SGA); weight gain from birth to the sixth week of life; use of oxygen in mechanical ventilation or nasal CPAP; multiple gestations; therapeutic use of surfactant, indomethacin, and erythropoietin; occurrence of sepsis, meningitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus; need for and volume of blood transfusion; and 10-min Apgar score. The patients were divided into three groups according to GA: (group 1) infants of GA ≤28 weeks at birth (n = 100); (group 2) infants of GA = 29–31 weeks at birth (n = 215); and (group 3) infants of GA ≥32 weeks at birth (n = 152). Results A total of 467 newborn infants were included. Mean BW and GA in the total cohort were 1,216.5 g (±278.3) and 30.3 weeks (±2.2), respectively. Gestational age groups were not matched for BW and SGA. Any stage of ROP occurred in 111 patients (23.8%) and 24 (5.1%) patients developed severe ROP. Only BW and volume of blood transfusion were significant factors for the occurrence of any stage of ROP in all groups. In group 1, GA, the twin situation, and use of erythropoietin were statistically significant factors. In group 2, only GA and need for blood transfusion were significant. In group 3, use of oxygen in mechanical ventilation, sepsis, and need for blood transfusion were significant for ROP onset. The logistic regression determined that patients in groups 2 and 3 were less likely to

  20. Stepping characteristics and Centre of Mass control during stair descent: Effects of age, fall risk and visual factors.

    PubMed

    Zietz, Doerte; Johannsen, Leif; Hollands, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Stair edges provide important visual cues for appropriate foot placement on the stair and balance control during stair descent. Previous studies explored age-related changes in stepping performance and balance control during stair descent and included fit older adults. The present study investigates both age- and frailty-related changes to stepping parameters and Centre of Mass (COM) control during stair descent and how these measures are affected by visual factors. Older adults were split into two groups containing participants with the lowest (LROA, n=7) and highest (HROA, n=8) combined scores on tests of balance and confidence to negotiate stairs. Data were also collected from younger adult participants (YA, n=8). Kinematic data were collected from participants while they descended stairs under combinations of ambient light (bright and dimmed) and stair edge contrast conditions (high and low). A three (group) × two (illumination)×two (contrast) ANCOVA was performed with average stair walking speed as covariate. HROA cleared the stair edge vertically (p=0.001) and horizontally (p<0.001) with less distance than LROA. Dimmed ambient light resulted in decreased step length in HROA (p=0.006) compared to bright lighting. High stair edge contrast led to reduced vertical COM acceleration variability in HROA (p=0.009) and increased distance between COM and anterior base of support (p=0.017) in LROA. YA increased horizontal foot clearance (p=0.011) when stair edge contrast was high. We conclude that the aforementioned differences in stepping behaviour shown by HROA may contribute towards an increased risk of tripping and that high stair edge contrast has a beneficial effect on balance control in older adults.

  1. Associations among Risk Factors, Individual Resources, and Indices of School-Related Asthma Morbidity in Urban, School-Aged Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Daphne Koinis; Adams, Sue K.; Murdock, Karla Klein

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model including examples of risk and resource factors associated with indices of school-related asthma morbidity (eg, missed sleep, participation in activities, school absences) in a group of urban, school-aged children with asthma from ethnic minority backgrounds. Specifically, the current longitudinal study…

  2. Aging is a primary risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias: disruption of intracellular Ca2+ regulation as a key suspect.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Fiona; Lancaster, Matthew K; Jones, Sandra A

    2011-08-01

    Aging is an inevitable time-dependent progression associated with a functional decline of the cardiovascular system even in 'healthy' individuals. Age positively correlates with an increasing risk of cardiac problems including arrhythmias. Not only the prevalence but also the severity of arrhythmias escalates with age. The reasons for this are multifactorial but dysregulation of intracellular calcium within the heart is likely to play a key role in initiating and perpetuating these life-threatening events. We now know that several aspects of cardiac calcium regulation significantly change with advancing age - changes that could produce electrical instability. Further development of knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these changes will allow us to reduce what currently is an inevitable increase in the incidence of arrhythmias in the elderly.

  3. Prevalence of Fracture in Healthy Iranian Children Aged 9–18 Years and Associated Risk Factors; A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Marjan; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Kharmandar, Alireza; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of fractures and associated risk factors in healthy Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, 478 healthy Iranian children and adolescents aged 9–18 years old participated. Baseline data and bone mineral content and density have been determined. One questionnaire was completed for all individuals including previous history of fracture, its location, and level of trauma. Albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D levels were measured. Results: We found a prevalence of 12.9% for fracture. (34.5% for girls and 65.5% for boys); about 71% suffered long bone fracture with distal forearm as the most common site. Totally 58% of the boys and 54% of the girls had fracture with low-energy trauma. The fracture group had lower bone mineral apparent density in the lumbar spine (0.19±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.03, p=0.04), lower serum albumin (4.6±0.5 vs 4.8±0.4, p=0.02), and higher serum alkaline phosphatase level (446±174 vs. 361±188, p=0.02) compared with non-fracture subjects. By logistic regression analysis, we found a significant association for sex, and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine with fracture (p=0.003, p=0.039). Conclusion: Compared to other studies, our subjects had lower rate of fracture. We found an association between low bone density and fracture in children and adolescents. This finding has important implications for public health. Further research may contribute to recognition of preventive measures. PMID:28246621

  4. The age of production system and previous Salmonella infections on-farm are risk factors for low-level Salmonella infections in laying hen flocks.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorebeke, S; Van Immerseel, F; De Vylder, J; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F; Pasmans, F; de Kruif, A; Dewulf, J

    2010-06-01

    An explorative field study was carried out to determine risk factors for Salmonella infections in commercial laying hen flocks. For this purpose, 29 laying hen farms, including farms using conventional and alternative housing systems, were intensively sampled. An on-farm questionnaire was used to collect information on general management practices and specific characteristics of the sampled flock such as flock size, age of the hens, and age of the infrastructure. Salmonella was detected in laying hens from 6 of the 29 sampled farms. Using multivariate logistic regression with the Salmonella status of the flock as an outcome variable, a previous Salmonella contamination on the farm and the age of the production system were identified as risk factors for the presence of Salmonella in laying hens (P<0.05). The housing system did not have a significant influence on the prevalence of Salmonella in the current study.

  5. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  6. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5-7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50-90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41-76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men.

  7. Estimated Autism Risk and Older Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    King, Marissa D.; Fountain, Christine; Dakhlallah, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to estimate the risk for autism associated with maternal and paternal age across successive birth cohorts. Methods. We linked birth records and autism diagnostic records from the California Department of Developmental Services for children born in California between 1992 and 2000 to calculate the risk associated with maternal and paternal age for each birth cohort as well as for the pooled data. Results. The categorical risks associated with maternal age over 40 years ranged from a high of 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37, 2.47) to a low of 1.27 (95% CI = 0.95, 1.69). The risk associated with paternal age ranged from 1.29 (95% CI = 1.03, 1.6) to 1.71 (95% CI = 1.41, 2.08). Conclusions. Pooling data across multiple birth cohorts inflates the risk associated with paternal age. Analyses that do not suffer from problems produced by pooling across birth cohorts demonstrated that advanced maternal age, rather than paternal age, may pose greater risk. Future research examining parental age as a risk factor must be careful to avoid the paradoxes that can arise from pooling data, particularly during periods of social demographic change. PMID:19608957

  8. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Fractures in Postmenopausal Women Between 50 and 65 Years of Age in a Primary Care Setting in Spain: A Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Luz Rentero, Maria; Carbonell, Cristina; Casillas, Marta; González Béjar, Milagros; Berenguer, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis (OP) is a major, highly prevalent health problem and osteoporosis-related fractures account for high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prevention and early detection of osteoporosis should strive to substantially reduce this risk of fracture. Objective The present observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study sought to assess the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures in a large sample of postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years attending Primary Care facilities in Spain. Methods We recruited 4,960 women, at 96 Primary Care centers. Demographic and anthropometrical data, as well as information regarding risk factors for OP were collected using a questionnaire. Results The prevalence rates for the major osteoporosis risk factors in our population were: low calcium intake, 43%; benzodiazepine use, 35.1%, and height loss, 30.1%. Other relatively prevalent factors include: having suffered at least one fall during the preceding year; positive family history of falls (particularly on the mother’s side), smoking, kyphosis, presence of any disease affecting bone metabolism, personal history of falls, and inability to rise from a chair without using one’s arms. The least frequent factors were weight loss of greater than 10% over the preceding 10 years and problems in sensory perception that affect patient’s ability to walk. Conclusions The main risk factors for osteoporosis in women 50-65 years of age are low calcium intake, use of benzodiazepines, and observed loss of height. Our results may help physicians to identify groups at risk for OP and fractures at early stages and consequently, optimize prevention and early diagnosis of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:19088873

  9. Detection of mild cognitive impairment in people older than 65 years of age and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors (DECRIVAM)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies centered on the detection of cognitive impairment and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in elderly people have gained special relevance in recent years. Knowledge of the cardiovascular risk factors that may be associated to cognitive impairment could be very useful for introducing treatments in early stages - thereby possibly contributing to improve patient quality of life. The present study explores cognitive performance in people over 65 years of age in Salamanca (Spain), with special emphasis on the identification of early symptoms of cognitive impairment, with the purpose of detecting mild cognitive impairment and of studying the relationships between this clinical situation and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods/Design A longitudinal study is contemplated. The reference population will consist of 420 people over 65 years of age enrolled through randomized sampling stratified by healthcare area, and who previously participated in another study. Measurement: a) Sociodemographic variables; b) Cardiovascular risk factors; c) Comorbidity; d) Functional level for daily life activities; and e) Study of higher cognitive functions based on a neuropsychological battery especially adapted to the evaluation of elderly people. Discussion We hope that this study will afford objective information on the representative prevalence of cognitive impairment in the population over 65 years of age in Salamanca. We also hope to obtain data on the relationship between cognitive impairment and cardiovascular risk factors in this specific population group. Based on the results obtained, we also will be able to establish the usefulness of some of the screening tests applied during the study, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and the 7 Minute Screen test. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01327196 PMID:21708036

  10. A nested case-control study on the high-normal blood pressure as a risk factor of hypertension in Korean middle-aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the 'high-normal blood pressure' as a risk factor of hypertension for applying primary prevention strategy in Korean people. To keep time sequence of events, and to prevent information bias, nested case control study was chosen for avoiding measurement errors because hypertension is a benign disease. Source population consisted of the 'Seoul Cohort' participants and follow-up was done by using Korea Medical Insurance Corporation's database on the utilization of health services from January 1, 1993 to June 30, 1997. Incidence cases were ascertained through the chart review, telephone contacts, and direct blood pressure measurements. Controls included the pairing of 4 individuals to each case on the basis of age. The statistically significant risk factors of hypertension were body mass index, dietary fiber, alcohol consumption, weekly activity, and history of quitting smoking as well as high-normal blood pressure (p<0.05). The multivariate odds ratio of high-normal blood pressure adjusted for all risk factors was 1.84 (95% CI, 1.31-2.56). Thus, the 'high-normal blood pressure' is considered as a risk factor for hypertension in Korean middle-aged men, which suggests that the vigorous lifestyle modification for persons with 'high-normal blood pressure' is needed. PMID:12068135

  11. Risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women whose age is less than 40 years: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Hasswane, Nadia; Kerbach, Aicha; Aguenaou, Hassan; Taboz, Youness; Benkirane, Hassna; Mrabet, Mustapha; Amina, Barkat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in morocco women were it occupies the first place in term of incidence and mortality. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women. Methods A case-control study was conducted with population women whose age is less than 40 years during 2008-2010 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. These women were interviewed for Epidemiological information and risk factor for breast cancer. Results Included in this study were 124 cases and 148 age matched controls. No statistically significant case-control difference was found for the early age of menarche (OR = 2.474; CI 95%: 1.354- 4.521), and family antecedents of first degree of breast cancer (OR = 11.556; 95% CI: 2.548-52.411). However physical activity (OR = 0.507; 95% CI: 0.339 -0.757) early maternity age (OR = 0.212; 95% CI: 0.087 - 0.514), multiparity (OR = 0.742; 95% CI: 0.359 -1.539) and breastfeeding than 6 months (OR = 0.739; 95% CI: 0.357 -1.523) appear as significant protective factors. Conclusion This study show the criminalization of only part of the known risk factors of breast cancer in this age group and confirms the probable protective role of physical activity and factors related to life reproductive women in our study (early childbearing, multiparity and lactation). PMID:27583083

  12. Risk Factors and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... atherosclerosis (“clogged” arteries) and High Blood Pressure . Preventing Arrhythmias and Heart Disease Prevent heart disease by lowering ... cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following conditions can increase ...

  13. [Perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Martinez, A M; Martínez-Sanchez, C; Pérez-Segura, J

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify risk perception on several factors related to reproductive health, with the goal of implementing an educational intervention based on detected needs. 405 women between 12 and 44 years were interviewed at home. 62.2% perceived the risk of pregnancy at 17 years and younger; 78.8% the risk of pregnancy at 35 years and older; 76.6% the risk of parity of 5 and higher; and 55.1% the risk of birth interval of 2 years and less. 60.5% recognized family history of birth defects, 80.2% age 35 years and older, and 84.4% rubella during pregnancy, as risk factors for newborns with congenital malformations. 27.7% identified history of a low birth weight and 61.0% birth interval of 1 year and less, as risk factors for low birth weight. The majority perceived the risk of tobacco, alcohol and drugs consumption during pregnancy, diseases with no treatment and deficient nutrition. There was an inconsistent influence of social and obstetric variables on risk perception. No linear correlation was detected. Health educators should recognize differences on knowledge and behavior of future receptors before an educational intervention starts.

  14. Cigarette smoking and male sex are independent and age concomitant risk factors for the development of ocular sarcoidosis in a new orleans sarcoidosis population

    PubMed Central

    Janot, Adam C.; Huscher, Dörte; Walker, McCall; Grewal, Harmanjot K.; Yu, Mary; Lammi, Matthew R.; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ system granulomatous disease of unknown origin with an incidence of 1–40/100,000. Though pulmonary manifestations are predominant, ocular sarcoidosis (OS) affects 25–50% of patients with sarcoidosis and can lead to blindness. Methods A retrospective, single-center chart review of sarcoidosis cases investigated variables associated with the development of OS. Inclusion criteria were biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, disease duration greater than 1 year, documented smoking status on chart review and documentation of sarcoid-related eye disease. Multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors for OS. Results Of 269 charts reviewed, 109 patients met inclusion criteria. The OS group had a significantly higher proportion of smokers (71.4%) than without OS (42.0%, p=0.027) with no difference (p=0.61) in median number of pack years. Male sex was significantly higher in the OS group (57.1% versus 26.1%, p=0.009). Median duration of sarcoidosis was higher in the OS group (10 versus 4 years, p=0.031). Multivariate regression identified tobacco exposure (OR=5.25, p=0.007, 95% CI 1.58–17.41), male sex (OR=7.48, p=0.002, 95% CI 2.15–26.01), and age (OR=1.114, p=0.002, 95% CI 1.04–1.19) as concomitant risk factors for the development of OS. Conclusion To date, there are few dedicated investigations of risk factors for OS, especially smoking. This investigation identified male sex, age, and tobacco exposure as independent risk factors for OS. Though disease duration did not withstand regression analysis in this moderately sized group, age at chart review suggests screening for OS should not remit but rather intensify in aging patients with sarcoidosis. PMID:26278693

  15. Risk Factors for Four-Year Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    CHOUDHURY, FARZANA; VARMA, ROHIT; MCKEAN-COWDIN, ROBERTA; KLEIN, RONALD; AZEN, STANLEY P.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify risk factors for 4-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in adult Latinos. DESIGN Population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS Participants, aged 40 or older, from The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) underwent standardized comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations at baseline and at 4 years of follow-up. Age-related macular degeneration was detected by grading 30-degree stereoscopic fundus photographs using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was used to examine the independent association of incidence and progression of AMD and baseline sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and ocular characteristics. RESULTS Multivariate analyses revealed that older age (OR per decade of age: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.29, 1.85) and higher pulse pressure (OR per 10 mm Hg: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.36, 4.76) were independently associated with the incidence of any AMD. The same factors were associated with early AMD, soft indistinct drusen, and retinal pigmentary abnormalities. Additionally, presence of clinically diagnosed diabetes mellitus was independently associated with increased retinal pigment (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.85), and male gender was associated with retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (OR 2.50; 95% CI: 1.48, 4.23). Older age (OR per decade of age: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.82, 2.67) and current smoking (OR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.66, 4.90) were independently associated with progression of AMD. CONCLUSIONS Several modifiable risk factors were associated with 4-year incidence and progression of AMD in Latinos. The results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing pulse pressure and promoting smoking cessation may reduce incidence and progression of AMD, respectively. PMID:21679916

  16. Association between Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study from 2003 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chao, Jane C-J

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and loss of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries. This study derived a dietary pattern using an a priori method and additionally derived dietary patterns using a posteriori methods, and assessed the relationship with CVD risk factors in Taiwanese middle-aged and elderly adults. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of 62,965 subjects aged 40 years and above from the Mei Jau (MJ) database collected between 2003 and 2012 in Taiwan. Diet was assessed using a 22 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using this information, three dietary patterns were generated. The a priori diet was labeled the Taiwanese dietary pattern and was derived using hypothesized effect of 22 food groups, while two a posteriori dietary patterns, “vegi-fruits” and “meat-processed”, were derived using principal component analysis. The association between dietary patterns and a range of CVD risk factors (i.e. blood lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein) was evaluated using linear regression. Results The results showed that high intake (Q5, quintile 5) of Taiwanese diet was negatively associated with CVD risk factors at (p < 0.001, model 3), but not with triacylglycerol. In addition, high intake of vegi-fruit dietary pattern (Q5) was negatively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001), but not with high-density lipoprotein, while high consumption of meat-processed dietary pattern (Q5) was positively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001), but negatively related with triacylglycerol in Q3 level and no association with C-reactive protein. Conclusion A negative association was observed between Taiwanese or vegi-fruit dietary patterns and CVD risk factors, while a positive association was found between meat-processed dietary pattern and CVD risk factors. The findings suggested that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has a beneficial effect in the management of CVD risk

  17. [Behavioral risk factors and readiness in amateur marathon runners 18-64 years of age in Bogotá, Colombia, 2014].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Góngora, María Del Pilar; Prieto-Alvarado, Franklyn Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Participation in amateur street marathons has become increasingly popular and requires prior individual health risk assessment. The objective was to identify risk factors and readiness in registered runners. This was a cross-sectional study in a random sample (n = 510) of registered amateur runners 18-64 years of age, using a digital survey with IPAQ, Par-Q+, and STEPwise, with an expected physical inactivity rate of 35% (±5%). The study explored physical activity, (binge) alcohol consumption, fruit, vegetable, and salt intake, smoking, and readiness. Self-reported rates were: 97.4% recommended level of physical activity, 2.4% optimal fruit and vegetable intake, 3.7% smoking, and 44.1% binge drinking. 19.8% were Par-Q+ positive and 5.7% practiced supervised exercise. The analysis showed differences by age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Recreational runners followed the recommended levels of physical activity but did not score well on other risk factors. Prior evaluation of lifestyle-related risk factors and readiness provides a safer athletic strategy.

  18. Changes in coronary heart disease risk factors in the 1980s: evidence of a male-female crossover effect with age.

    PubMed

    Williams, E L; Winkleby, M A; Fortmann, S P

    1993-05-15

    The Stanford Five-City Project was initiated in 1978 to evaluate the effects of community-wide health education on coronary heart disease risk factors in two control (San Luis Obispo and Modesto) and two treatment (Monterey and Salinas) cities. This paper examines sex differences in the prevalence of smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension from the baseline survey in 1979-1980 through the conclusion of the intervention in 1985-1986. Four independent cross-sectional surveys (n = 1,713, 1,709, 1,848, and 1,768) and four repeated surveys of a cohort (n = 817) were conducted. This analysis presents findings separately for a younger age group (25-49 years) and an older age group (50-74 years). Smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension were more prevalent among younger men than younger women in both treatment and control cities. In general, this excess risk among younger men disappeared or reversed in the older age group. Over the 7-year study, the prevalence of hypertension and smoking decreased for both men and women in all surveys, the prevalence of hyper-cholesterolemia displayed no definite change, and male/female ratios of risk factor prevalence showed either no change or a slight decrease. This study confirms a higher prevalence of the three major risk factors for coronary heart disease among younger men, with the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and, to a lesser extent, the prevalence of smoking becoming greater among women than men in the older age group and the prevalence of hypertension becoming equivalent.

  19. Parent-Reported Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptomatology in Preschool-Aged Children: Factor Structure, Developmental Change, and Early Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Pek, Jolynn; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Although Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increasingly been studied in preschool-aged children, relatively few studies have provided a comprehensive evaluation of the factor structure and patterns of developmental changes in parent-reported ADHD symptomatology across the early childhood period. This study used confirmatory…

  20. The prevalence and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration in rural-urban India, Sankara Nethralaya Rural-Urban Age-related Macular degeneration study, Report No. 1.

    PubMed

    Raman, R; Pal, S S; Ganesan, S; Gella, L; Vaitheeswaran, K; Sharma, T

    2016-05-01

    PurposeTo report the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence rates of early and late age-related maculopathy (ARM) and associated risk factors in rural and urban Indian population.MethodsA population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in South India between 2009 and 2011. Of the 6617 subjects ≥60 years enumerated ones, 5495 (83.04%) participated in the eye examination. A detailed history including data on demographic, socioeconomic, and ocular history was obtained. Participants underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation including 30° 3-field photograph as per Age-Related Eye Disease Study protocol. The ARM was graded according to the International ARM Epidemiological Study Group.ResultsAge- and gender-adjusted prevalence of early ARM was 20.91% (20.86-20.94) in the rural population and 16.37% (16.32-16.42) in the urban population. Similarly, the prevalence of late ARM was 2.26% (2.24-2.29) and 2.32% (2.29-2.34) in the rural and urban population, respectively. In both rural and urban populations, risk factors that were related to both early and late ARM were age, per year increase (OR, range 1.00-1.08); middle socioeconomic status (OR, range 1.05-1.83); and smokeless tobacco (OR, range 1.11-2.21). Protective factor in both was the presence of diabetes mellitus in all ARM (OR, range 0.34-0.83). Risk factors, only in the rural arm, were female gender (OR, range 1.06-1.64), past smoker (OR, 1.14), and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (OR, 1.03).ConclusionsThe study reports smokessless tobacco as a risk factor for both early and late ARM and identified a higher prevalence of early ARM in the rural population compared with urban population.

  1. Frontal Gray Matter Atrophy in Middle Aged Adults with Type 1 Diabetes is Independent of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Diabetes Complications

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Timothy M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Nunley, Karen; Gianaros, Peter J.; Miller, Rachel; Costacou, Tina; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Rosano, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine if regional gray matter volume (GMV) differences in middle-aged adults with and without type-1 diabetes (T1D) are localized in areas most vulnerable to aging, e.g. fronto-subcortical networks; and if these differences are explained by cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes complications. Methods Regional GMV was computed using 3 Tesla MRI of 104 adults with a childhood onset of T1D (mean age: 49+7 and duration: 41±6 years) and 151 adults without diabetes (mean age: 40+6). A Bonferroni threshold (n=45, p≤0.001) was applied to account for multiple between-group comparisons and analyses were repeated in an age- and gender-matched subset of participants with T1D and controls (n=44 in each group, mean age [SD] and range: 44.0, [4.3], 17.4 and 44.6 [4.3], 17.0, respectively). Results Compared to controls, T1D patients had smaller GMV in the frontal lobe (6 to 19% smaller) and adjacent supramarginal and postcentral gyri (8 to 13% smaller). Between-group differences were independent of age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting total cholesterol and smoking status and were similar in sensitivity analyses restricted to age- and gender-matched participants. Associations between GMV and diabetes complications were not significant. Conclusions These findings extend the notion of accelerated brain aging in T1D to middle-aged adults. The pathophysiology of frontal gray matter atrophy and its impact on future development of disability and dementia need further study, especially as middle-aged T1D patients progress to older age. PMID:23994432

  2. Health belief model perceptions, knowledge of heart disease, and its risk factors in educated African-American women: an exploration of the relationships of socioeconomic status and age.

    PubMed

    Jones, Deborah E; Weaver, Michael T; Grimley, Diane; Appel, Susan J; Ard, Jamy

    2006-12-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death for African-American women in the United States. Although African-American women experience higher rates of heart disease with earlier onset and more severe consequences than White women do, they are not aware of their risk for the disease. The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been commonly used to guide preventive interventions in cardiovascular health. However, the HBM has not been evaluated for African-American women regarding its effectiveness. This study explored the perceptions of susceptibility and seriousness of heart disease, and the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES), age, and knowledge of heart disease and its risk factors among 194 educated African-American women from the southern United States. Participants did not perceive themselves to be at high risk for developing heart disease while perceiving heart disease as serious. African-American women who were older perceived heart disease to be more serious than their younger counterparts did. Older women and those with higher SES knew more about heart disease and risk factors. Neither SES nor age moderated the relationship between knowledge and perceived susceptibility or seriousness.

  3. [Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines level at early age as the risk factor of neurological and mental pathology development].

    PubMed

    Zubarev, O E; Klimenko, V M

    2011-10-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 (IL-1, IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the key mediators of neuroimmune interactions, are the common pathogenic part of various kinds of the perinatal pathology leading to severe neurological and mental diseases. In the review, features of expression of the proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors in the brain at early age under normal and pathological conditions, their influence on processes of maturing of the CNS cells are described, the data of experimental and clinical researches of disturbances of the mental functions arising in adults owing to elevation of the IL-1, IL-6 levels and TNFalpha in early ontogenesis are cited. The role of the cytokines in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, a syndrome of attention deficiency, autism and a Parkinsonism is discussed.

  4. Prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and risk factors among residents less than 6 years of age, Puerto Rico - 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dignam, Timothy; García, Brenda Rivera; De León, Maridali; Curtis, Gerald; Creanga, Andreea A.; Azofeifa, Alejandro; O'Neill, Maureen; Blanton, Curtis; Kennedy, Chinaro; Rullán, Maria; Caldwell, Kathy; Rullán, John; Brown, Mary Jean

    2015-01-01

    Context Limited data exist about blood lead levels and potential exposures among children living in Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Department of Health has no formal blood lead surveillance program. Objectives We assessed the prevalence of elevated BLLs [≥ 5 micrograms (μg) of lead per deciliter (dL) of blood], household environmental lead levels, and risk factors for BLL among children less than 6 years old living in Puerto Rico in 2010. Methods We used a population-based cross-sectional sampling strategy to enroll an island-representative sample of Puerto Rican children less than 6 years old. We estimate the island-wide weighted prevalence of elevated BLL, and conducted bivariable and multivariable linear regression analyses to ascertain risk factors for elevated BLLs. Results The analytic dataset included 363 households and 439 children less than 6 years old throughout Puerto Rico. The weighted geometric mean BLL of children less than 6 years old was 1.57 μg/dL [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.27, 1.88). The weighted prevalence of children less than 6 years old with BLLs ≥ 5 μg/dL was 3.18% (95% CI = 0.93, 5.43) and for BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.50% (95% CI = 0, 1.31). Higher mean BLLs were significantly associated with data collection during the summer months, a lead-related activity or hobby of anyone in the residence and maternal education less than 12 years. Few environmental lead hazards were identified. Conclusions The prevalence of elevated BLLs among Puerto Rican children less than 6 years old is comparable to the most recent (2007 – 2010) U.S. national estimate [BLLs ≥ 5 μg/dL = 2.6% (95% CI = 1.6, 4.0)]. Our findings suggest targeted screening of specific higher-risk groups of children less than 6 years old can replace island-wide or insurance specific policies of mandatory blood lead testing in Puerto Rico. PMID:25822901

  5. Personal history of breast cancer as a significant risk factor for endometrial serous carcinoma in women aged 55 years old or younger.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sharon X; Pearl, Micheal; Liang, Shu; Xiang, Li; Jia, Lin; Yang, Binlie; Fadare, Oluwole; Schwartz, Peter E; Chambers, Setsuko K; Kong, Beihua; Zheng, Wenxin

    2011-02-15

    A comparative study between endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC) and endometrial endometrioid carcinoma (EEC) was performed to determine whether a personal history of breast cancer is a risk factor for ESC in women aged ≤ 55 yr. Study subjects consisted of 348 women who were diagnosed with ESC and 830 comparison subjects who had EEC. Variables studied included age at diagnosis, a history of breast cancer, tamoxifen therapy, hormonal replacement therapy and smoking history. Overall, 19.4% of women with ESC had a history of breast cancer, which was significantly higher than that of 3% in comparison subjects. Among the study subjects, the incidence of a prior breast cancer was significantly higher in patients who were 55 yr of age or younger (41.5%) than those who were older than 55 yr (16%). The statistical significance of both of the aforementioned comparisons was independent of tamoxifen usage on multivariate analyses. The mean time interval between prior breast cancer and endometrial cancer was 92.5 mo (range 7-240 mo) in the study group and 79 mo (range 7-192 mo) in the comparison group. For the whole cohort and individual subgroups (ESC, EEC, ≤ 55 yr and >55 yr), a personal history of breast cancer did not adversely affect the patient outcomes, which was largely dependent on standard clinicopathologic parameters such as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, as has previously been demonstrated. These findings suggest that a personal history of breast cancer may be a significant risk factor for the development of ESC in women aged ≤ 55 yr. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between these two cancers in this age group and whether this increased risk is reflective of a genetic predisposition.

  6. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Shahid, N S; Sack, D A; Rahman, M; Alam, A N; Rahman, N

    1988-10-22

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks.

  7. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, N. S.; Sack, D. A.; Rahman, M.; Alam, A. N.; Rahman, N.

    1988-01-01

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks. PMID:3142603

  8. Prevalence of low bone health using quantitative ultrasound in Indian women aged 41-60 years: Its association with nutrition and other related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Shweta; Chawla, Jasmine Kaur; Gupta, Swati; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh

    2017-02-02

    The purpose of this study was to find the prevalence of low bone health conditions and assess associated nutritional and other risk factors in Indian women aged 41-60 years. A total of 1,911 women participated in this cross-sectional study. Bone health was assessed using an Omnisense multisite quantitative ultrasound bone densitometer on two sites (radius and tibia). Crude prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was found to be 30.09% and 19.89%, respectively. The Indian women were deficient in a majority of nutrients. Postmenopause, hysterectomy, hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, hypertension, low physical activity, low sun exposure, high stress levels, and low calcium levels were found to be independent risk factors of low bone health.

  9. Diarrheal Disease in Rural Mozambique: Burden, Risk Factors and Etiology of Diarrheal Disease among Children Aged 0–59 Months Seeking Care at Health Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Nhampossa, Tacilta; Mandomando, Inacio; Acacio, Sozinho; Quintó, Llorenç; Vubil, Delfino; Ruiz, Joaquin; Nhalungo, Delino; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhabanga, Arnaldo; Nhacolo, Ariel; Aide, Pedro; Machevo, Sónia; Sigaúque, Betuel; Nhama, Abel; Kotloff, Karen; Farag, Tamer; Nasrin, Dilruba; Bassat, Quique; Macete, Eusebio; Levine, Myron M.; Alonso, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrheal disease remains a leading cause of illness and death, particularly in low-income countries. Its burden, microbiological causes and risk factors were examined in children aged 0–59 months living in Manhiça, rural southern Mozambique. Methods Trends of diarrhea-related burden of disease were estimated during the period 2001–2012. A prospective, age-stratified and matched (by age, gender and geographical origin), case-control study was conducted during 2007–2011. Clinical, epidemiology, anthropometric measurement and fecal samples obtained from recruited children were used to estimate moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) weighted attributable fractions. Results Over the last decade the incidence of acute diarrhea has dropped by about 80%. Incidence of MSD per 100 child years at risk for the period 2007–2011 was 9.85, 7.73 and 2.10 for children aged 0–11, 12–23 and 24–59 months respectively. By adjusted population attributable fractions, most cases of MSD were due to rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, ETEC ST (ST only or ST/LT), Shigella and Adenovirus 40/41. Washing hands and having facilities to dispose child’s stools were associated with a reduced risk of MSD, while giving stored water to the child was associated with an increased risk of MSD. Conclusions Despite the predominantly decreasing trends observed throughout the last decade, diarrheal diseases remain today a major cause of morbidity among children aged 0–59 months living in this rural Mozambican area. Rotavirus, cryptosporidium, Shigella, ETEC ST and Adenovirus 40/41 were the most important aetiologies of MSD. Thus, well-known preventive strategies such as washing hands, improving the treatment of stored water, having facilities to dispose children stools, and accelerating the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine should be promoted on a wider scale to reduce the current burden of diarrheal diseases. PMID:25973880

  10. Managing Multiple Risk Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    cardiovascular disease among black women can be better controlled through the use of a stress reduction intervention that reduces the sympathetic nervous...All participants will have high normal (130/80) or mild hypertension and at least two additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g

  11. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-11-17

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  12. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health. PMID:28058102

  13. Age at first introduction to complementary foods is associated with sociodemographic factors in children with increased genetic risk of developing type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Andrén Aronsson, Carin; Uusitalo, Ulla; Vehik, Kendra; Yang, Jimin; Silvis, Katherine; Hummel, Sandra; Virtanen, Suvi M; Norris, Jill M

    2015-10-01

    Infant's age at introduction to certain complementary foods (CF) has in previous studies been associated with islet autoimmunity, which is an early marker for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Various maternal sociodemographic factors have been found to be associated with early introduction to CF. The aims of this study were to describe early infant feeding and identify sociodemographic factors associated with early introduction to CF in a multinational cohort of infants with an increased genetic risk for T1D. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young study is a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study. Infants (N = 6404) screened for T1D high risk human leucocyte antigen-DQ genotypes (DR3/4, DR4/4, DR4/8, DR3/3, DR4/4, DR4/1, DR4/13, DR4/9 and DR3/9) were followed for 2 years at six clinical research centres: three in the United States (Colorado, Georgia/Florida, Washington) and three in Europe (Sweden, Finland, Germany). Age at first introduction to any food was reported at clinical visits every third month from the age of 3 months. Maternal sociodemographic data were self-reported through questionnaires. Age at first introduction to CF was primarily associated with country of residence. Root vegetables and fruits were usually the first CF introduced in Finland and Sweden and cereals were usually the first CF introduced in the United States. Between 15% and 20% of the infants were introduced to solid foods before the age of 4 months. Young maternal age (<25 years), low educational level (<12 years) and smoking during pregnancy were significant predictors of early introduction to CF in this cohort. Infants with a relative with T1D were more likely to be introduced to CF later.

  14. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score <-2 was categorised as underweight, height-for-age-z-score <-2 as stunted, and BMI-z-score >+1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all P<0.01). Stunting and underweight were related to lower birth weight, being breastfed for 6 months or more, having parents who were underweight or had short stature, and mothers who never attended formal education. Stunting was also higher in rural areas. Being at-risk, or overweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  15. Age-dependent glomerular damage in the rat. Dissociation between glomerular injury and both glomerular hypertension and hypertrophy. Male gender as a primary risk factor.

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, C

    1994-01-01

    The glomerulus develops progressive injury with advancing age which is particularly pronounced in males and is not the result of any specific disease process. In the present studies conducted in rats, glomerular function and structure were examined in adult (8 mo), elderly (12 mo), and old (19 mo) Munich Wistar rats. Intact males and females and castrated rats of both sexes were studied to determine the role of the sex hormones in mediating age-dependent glomerular damage. Intact males developed glomerular injury and proteinuria whereas females, both intact and ovariectomized, and castrated males were protected from injury. Glomerular blood pressure did not increase with advancing age in any group and did not correlate with glomerular damage. Glomerular volume did increase with advancing age in all groups but did not correlate with glomerular damage. We found that the presence of the androgens rather than the absence of the estrogens provide the risk factor for development of age-dependent glomerular damage. Neither glomerular hypertension nor glomerular hypertrophy provide the primary mechanism by which age-dependent glomerular injury occurs in the intact male. PMID:7962527

  16. Association between fish and shellfish, and omega-3 PUFAs intake and CVD risk factors in middle-aged female patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyesook; Park, Seokyung; Yang, Hyesu; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the association between the dietary intake of fish and shellfish, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the middle-aged Korean female patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was performed with 356 female patients (means age: 55.5 years), who were recruited from the Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul, Korea between 2005 and 2011. The dietary intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and analyzed using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis program (CAN-Pro) version 4.0 software. RESULTS In a multiple regression analysis after the adjustment for confounding factors such as age, BMI, duration of diagnosed T2D, alcohol consumption, fiber intake, sodium intake, and total energy intake, fish and shellfish intake of the subjects was negatively associated with triglyceride and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Omega-3 PUFAs intake was negatively associated with triglyceride, systolic blood pressures, diastolic blood pressures, and PWV. The multiple logistic regression analysis with the covariates showed a significant inverse relationship between the omega-3 PUFAs consumption and prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [OR (95% CI) for greater than the median compared to less than the median: 0.395 (0.207-0.753)]. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the consumption of fish and shellfish, good sources of omega-3 PUFAs, may reduce the risk factors for CVD in the middle-aged female patients with T2D. PMID:26425279

  17. Usefulness of desirable lifestyle factors to attenuate the risk of heart failure among offspring whose parents had myocardial infarction before age 55 years.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Owais; Kotler, Gregory; Gaziano, John Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of hospitalization and death in the United States and throughout Europe. Although a higher risk for HF with antecedent myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported in offspring whose parents had MIs before age 55 years, it is unclear whether adherence to healthful behaviors can mitigate that risk. The aim of the present study was therefore to prospectively examine if adherence to healthy weight, regular exercise, moderate alcohol consumption, and abstinence from smoking can attenuate such increased HF risk. Information on parental history of MI and lifestyle factors was collected using questionnaires. Subjects adhering to ≥3 healthy lifestyle factors were classified as having good versus poor lifestyle scores. Incident HF was assessed via yearly follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample. During an average follow up of 21.7 ± 6.5 years, 1,323 new HF cases (6.6%), of which 190 (14.4%) were preceded by MI, occurred. Compared to subjects with good lifestyle scores and no parental histories of premature MI, multivariate adjusted hazard ratios for incident HF with antecedent MI were 3.21 (95% confidence interval 1.74 to 5.91) for subjects with good lifestyle score and parental histories of premature MI, 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.12 to 2.07) for those with poor lifestyle score and no parental histories of premature MI, and 4.60 (95% confidence interval 2.55 to 8.30) for those with poor lifestyle scores and parental histories of premature MI. In conclusion, our data suggest that even in subjects at higher risk for HF because of genetic predisposition, adherence to healthful lifestyle factors may attenuate such an elevated HF risk.

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Children Aged 6–59 Months in Cameroon: A Multistage, Stratified Cluster Sampling Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Tchoubi, Sébastien; Sobngwi-Tambekou, Joëlle; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Asangbeh, Serra Lem; Nkoum, Benjamin Alexandre; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children (<5 years) in Cameroon, based on weight-for-height index, has doubled between 1991 and 2006. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of overweight and obesity among children aged 6 months to 5 years in Cameroon in 2011. Methods Four thousand five hundred and eighteen children (2205 boys and 2313 girls) aged between 6 to 59 months were sampled in the 2011 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) database. Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores based on WHO 2006 reference population was chosen to estimate overweight (BMI z-score > 2) and obesity (BMI for age > 3). Regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors of overweight/obesity. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 8% (1.7% for obesity alone). Boys were more affected by overweight than girls with a prevalence of 9.7% and 6.4% respectively. The highest prevalence of overweight was observed in the Grassfield area (including people living in West and North-West regions) (15.3%). Factors that were independently associated with overweight and obesity included: having overweight mother (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.51; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.97) and obese mother (aOR = 2.19; 95% CI = 155 to 3.07), compared to having normal weight mother; high birth weight (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.28) compared to normal birth weight; male gender (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.95); low birth rank (aOR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.72); being aged between 13–24 months (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.66) and 25–36 months (aOR = 2.79; 95% CI 1.93 to 4.13) compared to being aged 45 to 49 months; living in the grassfield area (aOR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.87 to 3.79) compared to living in Forest area. Muslim appeared as a protective factor (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95).compared to Christian religion. Conclusion This study underlines a high prevalence of

  19. Obstructive Sleep Apnea as a Risk Factor for Cerebral White Matter Change in a Middle-Aged and Older General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun; Yun, Chang-Ho; Thomas, Robert Joseph; Lee, Seung Hoon; Seo, Hyung Suk; Cho, Eo Rin; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Suh, Sooyeon; Shin, Chol

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) contributes to the development of systemic hypertension, and hypertension strongly predicts the development of white matter change (WMC). Thus, it is plausible that OSA mediates WMC. The goal of the current study is to determine whether a contextual relationship exists between OSA and cerebral WMC. Design: Cross-sectional analyses conducted in a population-based study. Setting: Korean community-based sample from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) who attended examinations in 2011 at a medical center. Participants: There were 503 individuals (mean ± SD, age 59.63 ± 7.48 y) who were free of previously diagnosed cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. Measurements and Results: Participants underwent 1-night polysomnography and were classified as no OSA (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] < 5, n = 289), mild OSA (AHI 5-15, n = 161), and moderate to severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15, n = 53). WMC was identified with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and was found in 199 individuals (39.56%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for covariates revealed that moderate to severe OSA was significantly associated with the presence of WMC (odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 95%, confidence interval [CI] 1.05-4.13) compared with no OSA. Additional adjustment of hypertension to the model did not alter the significance of the association (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.02-4.05). Conclusions: Moderate to severe OSA is an independent risk factor for WMC in middle-aged and older individuals. Thus, early recognition and treatment of OSA could reduce the risk of stroke and vascular dementia. Citation: Kim H; Yun CH; Thomas RJ; Lee SH; Seo HS; Cho ER; Lee SK; Yoon DW; Suh S; Shin C. Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for cerebral white matter change in a middle-aged and older general population. SLEEP 2013;36(5):709-715. PMID:23633753

  20. Risk factors for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) originates, in most of the cases (95 %), from a full trisomy of chromosome 21. The remaining cases are due to either mosaicism for chromosome 21 or the inheritance of a structural rearrangement leading to partial trisomy of the majority of its content. Full trisomy 21 and mosaicism are not inherited, but originate from errors in cell divisions during the development of the egg, sperm or embryo. In addition, full trisomy for chromosome 21 should be further divided into cases of maternal origin, the majority, and cases of paternal origin, less than 10 %. Among cases of maternal origin, a further stratification should be performed into errors that have occurred or originated during the first meiotic division in the maternal grandmother's body and errors that occurred later in life during the second maternal meiotic division. This complex scenario suggests that our understanding of the risk factors for trisomy 21 should take into account the above stratification as it reflects different individuals and generations in which the first error has occurred. Unfortunately, most of the available literature is focused on maternal risk factors, and the only certain risk factors for the birth of a child with DS are advanced maternal age at conception and recombination errors, even though the molecular mechanisms leading to chromosome 21 nondisjunction are still a matter of debate. This article critically reviews the hypotheses and the risk factors which have been suggested to contribute to the birth of a child with DS, including folate metabolism, dietary, lifestyle, environmental, occupational, genetic and epigenetic factors, with focus on maternal and paternal risk factors, and taking into account the possible contribution of the maternal grandmother and that of the developing trisomic embryo, in a complex scenario depicting the birth of a child with DS as the result of complex gene-environment interactions and selection processes involving different

  1. Important Risk Factors of Mortality Among Children Aged 1-59 Months in Rural Areas of Shahroud, Iran: A Community-based Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaman, Reza; Alami, Ali; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Entezarmahdi, Rasool; Shati, Mohsen; Shariati, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate potential risk factors of children mortality between 1-59 months of age. Methods: This nested case-control study was conducted among children born from June 1999 to March 2009 in rural areas of Shahroud, located in the central region of Iran using health care visit reports and follow-up data available in household health records. Results: Mortality was significantly associated with breastfeeding duration (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81-0.93), total health care visits (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.98) and low birth weight (LBW) (OR: 7.38, 95% CI: 1.37-39.67). Conclusion: In our study, a longer breastfeeding period and more frequent health care visits were two important protective factors, while LBW was an important risk factor for 1-59 month child mortality. It seems, that complex and multiple factors may be involved in mortality of under 5-year-old children, so combined efforts would be necessary to improve child health indicators. PMID:23272287

  2. Influence of Age at Diagnosis and Time-Dependent Risk Factors on the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Forga, Luis; Goñi, María José; Cambra, Koldo; García-Mouriz, Marta; Iriarte, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To determine the influence of age at onset of type 1 diabetes and of traditional vascular risk factors on the development of diabetic retinopathy, in a cohort of patients who have been followed up after onset. Methods. Observational, retrospective study. The cohort consists of 989 patients who were followed up after diagnosis for a mean of 10.1 (SD: 6.8) years. The influence of age at diagnosis, glycemic control, duration of diabetes, sex, blood pressure, lipids, BMI, and smoking is analyzed using Cox univariate and multivariate models with fixed and time-dependent variables. Results. 135 patients (13.7%) developed diabetic retinopathy. The cumulative incidence was 0.7, 5.9, and 21.8% at 5-, 10-, and 15-year follow-up, respectively. Compared to the group with onset at age <10 years, the risk of retinopathy increased 2.5-, 3-, 3.3-, and 3.7-fold in the groups with onset at 10–14, 15–29, 30–44, and >44 years, respectively. During follow-up we also observed an association between diabetic retinopathy and HbA1c levels, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion. The rate of diabetic retinopathy is higher in patients who were older at type 1 diabetes diagnosis. In addition, we confirmed the influence of glycemic control, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure on the occurrence of retinopathy. PMID:27213158

  3. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  4. Population-based survey of prevalence, causes, and risk factors for blindness and visual impairment in an aging Chinese metropolitan population

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian-Yan; Yan, Liang; Chen, Yong-Dong; Du, Xin-Hua; Li, Ting-Ting; Liu, De-An; Xu, Dong-Hong; Huang, Yi-Min; Wu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the prevalence, causes, and risk factors for blindness and visual impairment among elderly (≥60 years of age) Chinese people in a metropolitan area of Shanghai, China. METHODS Random cluster sampling was conducted to identify participants among residents ≥60 years of age living in the Xietu Block, Xuhui District, Shanghai, China. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were checked by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual chart. All eligible participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination. Blindness and visual impairment were defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. RESULTS A total of 4190 persons (1688 men and 2502 women) participated in the study, and the response rate was 91.1%. Based on PVA, the prevalence of blindness was 1.1% and that of visual impairment was 7.6%. Based on BCVA, the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment decreased to 0.9% and 3.9%, respectively. Older (≥80 years of age) women, with low educational levels and smoking habits, exhibited a significantly greater chance for blindness and visual impairment than did those with high educational levels and no smoking habits (P<0.05). Based on PVA and BCVA, the main causes of blindness were cataract, myopic maculopathy, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). CONCLUSION Our findings help to identify the population in need of intervention, to highlight the need for additional eye healthcare services in urban China. PMID:28149791

  5. Sexual Dysfunction among Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors from a Nationally Representative U.S. Probability Sample of Men and Women 57–85 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Laumann, Edward O.; Das, Aniruddha; Waite, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Despite increasing demand for clinical interventions into sexual problems in an aging population, epidemiological data on the subject are scarce. Aims To examine the prevalence of sexual problems across different sociodemographic groups, and risk factors for these problems in multiple domains of life. Methods Statistical analysis of data from the 2005–2006 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative U.S. probability sample of 1,550 women and 1,455 men aged 57–85 at the time of interview. Main Outcome Measures Likelihood of experiencing sexual dysfunction in the preceding 12 months. Results Sexual problems among the elderly are not an inevitable consequence of aging, but instead are responses to the presence of stressors in multiple life domains. This impact may partly be gender differentiated, with older women's sexual health more sensitive to their physical health than is true for men. The mechanism linking life stress with sexual problems is likely to be poor mental health and relationship dissatisfaction. The NSHAP results demonstrate the consistent impact of poor mental health on women's reports of sexual problems and the less consistent association with men's problems. Conclusions The results point to a need for physicians who are treating older adults experiencing sexual problems to take into account not simply their physical health, but also their psychosocial health and satisfaction with their intimate relationship. PMID:18702640

  6. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    PubMed

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  7. Behavioural Risk Factors in Mid-Life Associated with Successful Ageing, Disability, Dementia and Frailty in Later Life: A Rapid Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lafortune, Louise; Martin, Steven; Kelly, Sarah; Kuhn, Isla; Remes, Olivia; Cowan, Andy; Brayne, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet and low levels of physical activity significantly contribute to the burden of illness in developed countries. Whilst the links between specific and multiple risk behaviours and individual chronic conditions are well documented, the impact of these behaviours in mid-life across a range of later life outcomes has yet to be comprehensively assessed. This review aimed to provide an overview of behavioural risk factors in mid-life that are associated with successful ageing and the primary prevention or delay of disability, dementia, frailty and non-communicable chronic conditions. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify cohort studies published in English since 2000 up to Dec 2014. Multivariate analyses and a minimum follow-up of five years were required for inclusion. Two reviewers screened titles, abstracts and papers independently. Studies were assessed for quality. Evidence was synthesised by mid-life behavioural risk for a range of late life outcomes. Findings This search located 10,338 individual references, of which 164 are included in this review. Follow-up data ranged from five years to 36 years. Outcomes include dementia, frailty, disability and cardiovascular disease. There is consistent evidence of beneficial associations between mid-life physical activity, healthy ageing and disease outcomes. Across all populations studied there is consistent evidence that mid-life smoking has a detrimental effect on health. Evidence specific to alcohol consumption was mixed. Limited, but supportive, evidence was available relating specifically to mid-life diet, leisure and social activities or health inequalities. Conclusions There is consistent evidence of associations between mid-life behaviours and a range of late life outcomes. The promotion of physical activity, healthy diet and smoking cessation in all mid-life populations should be encouraged for successful ageing and the prevention of disability and

  8. Chronic disease, risk factors and disability in adults aged 50 and above living with and without HIV: findings from the Wellbeing of Older People Study in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mugisha, Joseph O.; Schatz, Enid J.; Randell, Madeleine; Kuteesa, Monica; Kowal, Paul; Negin, Joel; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on the prevalence of chronic conditions, their risk factors, and their associations with disability in older people living with and without HIV are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives In older people living with and without HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: 1) to describe the prevalence of chronic conditions and their risk factors and 2) to draw attention to associations between chronic conditions and disability. Methods Cross-sectional individual-level survey data from people aged 50 years and over living with and without HIV were analyzed from three study sites in Uganda. Diagnoses of chronic conditions were made through self-report, and disability was determined using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS). We used ordered logistic regression and calculated predicted probabilities to show differences in the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions across HIV status, age groups, and locality. We used linear regression to determine associations between chronic conditions and the WHODAS. Results In total, 471 participants were surveyed; about half the respondents were living with HIV. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and eye problems (except for those aged 60–69 years) was higher in the HIV-positive participants and increased with age. The prevalence of diabetes and angina was higher in HIV-negative participants. The odds of having one or more compared with no chronic conditions were higher in women (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) and in those aged 70 years and above (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.6). Sleep problems (coefficient 14.2, 95% CI 7.3–21.0) and depression (coefficient 9.4, 95% CI 1.2–17.0) were strongly associated with higher disability scores. Conclusion Chronic conditions are common in older adults and affect their functioning. Many of these conditions are not currently addressed by health services in Uganda. There is a need to revise health care policy and practice in Uganda to consider the health needs of

  9. Core features of suicide. Gender, age, alcohol and other putative risk factors in a low-incidence population.

    PubMed

    Wang, August G; Stórá, Tormódur

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate some supposed core features of suicide through a study of suicide in a low-incidence population. The material covered all suicides and undetermined deaths 1945-2004 in the Faroe Islands (a low-incidence population) and the study made use of all available information. Results showed that suicide rate had been low since the Second World War. However, there was an increase throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Supposed core features of suicide, such as gender, marital status, former psychiatric admittance, former suicidal behaviour, alcohol and method preference were confirmed. Others were not, such as an increasing rate with old age. In diagnostics, the role of psychiatric disorders was confirmed, but so was a substantial role of "no disorder". Increase period revealed a high proportion of cases with alcohol involved and a substantial part included males, in age groups 25-64 years, unmarried, divorced and alcohol intoxicated. The main conclusion was that a low-incidence population of suicide population confirmed some supposed core features of the suicide phenomenon. Others, related to age and psychiatric disorders, were only partially confirmed. In periods of increase, the most vulnerable were the young and middle-aged males, unmarried, divorced, and alcohol played a crucial role.

  10. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  11. Prediction of Small for Gestational Age Infants in Healthy Nulliparous Women Using Clinical and Ultrasound Risk Factors Combined with Early Pregnancy Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    McCowan, Lesley M. E.; Thompson, John M. D.; Taylor, Rennae S.; Baker, Philip N.; North, Robyn A.; Poston, Lucilla; Roberts, Claire T.; Simpson, Nigel A. B.; Walker, James J.; Myers, Jenny; Kenny, Louise C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Most small for gestational age pregnancies are unrecognised before birth, resulting in substantial avoidable perinatal mortality and morbidity. Our objective was to develop multivariable prediction models for small for gestational age combining clinical risk factors and biomarkers at 15±1 weeks’ with ultrasound parameters at 20±1 weeks’ gestation. Methods Data from 5606 participants in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort study were divided into Training (n = 3735) and Validation datasets (n = 1871). The primary outcomes were All-SGA (small for gestational age with birthweight <10th customised centile), Normotensive-SGA (small for gestational age with a normotensive mother) and Hypertensive-SGA (small for gestational age with an hypertensive mother). The comparison group comprised women without the respective small for gestational age phenotype. Multivariable analysis was performed using stepwise logistic regression beginning with clinical variables, and subsequent additions of biomarker and then ultrasound (biometry and Doppler) variables. Model performance was assessed in Training and Validation datasets by calculating area under the curve. Results 633 (11.2%) infants were All-SGA, 465(8.2%) Normotensive-SGA and 168 (3%) Hypertensive-SGA. Area under the curve (95% Confidence Intervals) for All-SGA using 15±1 weeks’ clinical variables, 15±1 weeks’ clinical+ biomarker variables and clinical + biomarkers + biometry /Doppler at 20±1 weeks’ were: 0.63 (0.59–0.67), 0.64 (0.60–0.68) and 0.69 (0.66–0.73) respectively in the Validation dataset; Normotensive-SGA results were similar: 0.61 (0.57–0.66), 0.61 (0.56–0.66) and 0.68 (0.64–0.73) with small increases in performance in the Training datasets. Area under the curve (95% Confidence Intervals) for Hypertensive-SGA were: 0.76 (0.70–0.82), 0.80 (0.75–0.86) and 0.84 (0.78–0.89) with minimal change in the Training datasets. Conclusion Models for prediction of small

  12. Risk factors of a reduced response to ranibizumab treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration – evaluation in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To identify risk factors for being a “reduced responder” to ranibizumab treatment in a clinical setting in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Methods This retrospective study included 165 eyes of 165 consecutive patients with choroidal neovascularisation secondary to neovascular, age-related macular degeneration. Eyes were treated with three intravitreal injections of ranibizumab, followed by PRN (pro re nata) dosing thereafter. All patients were reevaluated every four weeks and then followed for six months. Reduced responders were defined as patients with a loss in visual acuity of at least 1 visual acuity line at the last follow-up and/or persistent intraretinal or subretinal fluid or detectable choroidal neovascularisation at the last follow-up, compared to baseline. Results Overall, 58 out of 165 eyes (35.2%) were considered to be reduced responders to treatment at the end of follow-up. The initial CNV size at baseline was correlated with the risk of being a reduced responder at the end of follow-up (p = 0.017). Conclusion We identified the initial lesion size as a predictor for a reduced response to treatment in this study. Patients with a large initial lesion size should be thoroughly informed about the possible poorer response to the intravitreal treatment. PMID:24359591

  13. Risk perception and new age beliefs.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart; af Wåhlberg, Anders

    2002-08-01

    This is a study of risk perception in relation to New Age (NA) beliefs, including traditional folk superstition and belief in paranormal phenomena, as well as use of alternative healing practices. Data were also obtained on trust dimensions and on personality and psychopathology variables, as well as religious involvement. It was found that four factors accounted for the investigated NA beliefs, which were termed higher consciousness beliefs, denial of analytic knowledge, traditional superstition, and belief in the physical reality of the soul. NA beliefs were strongly and positively related to religious involvement, and negatively to educational level. These beliefs were also positively related to maladjustment and to concerns over tampering with nature. In regression analyses, it was found that NA beliefs explained about 15% of the variance of perceived risk, and that the most powerful explanatory factors were higher consciousness beliefs and beliefs in paranormal phenomena. Traditional superstition and use of healing practices did not contribute to explaining perceived risk.

  14. Disability Stage Is an Independent Risk Factor for Mortality in Medicare Beneficiaries 65 Years of Age and Older

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Sean; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Pan, Qiang; Streim, Joel E.; Bogner, Hillary; Xie, Dawei; Stineman, Margaret G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stages of activity limitation based on activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) have been found to predict mortality in those age 70 years and above but have not been examined in Medicare beneficiaries age 65 years and older using routinely collected data. Objective To examine the association between functional stages based on activities of ADLs and IADLs with three-year mortality in Medicare beneficiaries age 65 years and older, accounting for baseline sociodemographics, heath status, smoking, subjective health, and psychological well-being. Design Cohort study using the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) and associated health care utilization data. Setting Community administered survey. Participants We included 9698 Medicare beneficiaries 65 years of age and older who entered the MCBS in 2005–07. Main outcome measures Death within three years of cohort entry. Results The overall mortality rate was 3.6 per 100 person years, and three-year cumulative mortality was 10.3%. Unadjusted three-year mortality was monotonically associated with both ADL stage and IADL stag. Adjusted three-year mortality was associated with ADL and IADL stages, except that in some models the hazard ratio for stage III (which includes persons with atypical activity limitation patterns) was numerically lower than that for stage II. Conclusion We found nearly monotonic relationships between ADL and IADL stage and adjusted three-year mortality. These findings could aid in the development of population health approaches and metrics for evaluating the success of alternative economic, social, or health policies on the longevity of older adults with activity limitations. PMID:26003869

  15. Hookworm Infection among School Age Children in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: Nutritional Risk Factors and Response to Albendazole Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T.; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M.; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Children (n = 812) 6–11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana. PMID:23836564

  16. Hookworm infection among school age children in Kintampo north municipality, Ghana: nutritional risk factors and response to albendazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Children (n = 812) 6-11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana.

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poor Sleep Quality among Chinese Elderly in an Urban Community: Results from the Shanghai Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disorders causes a significant negative effect on mental and physical health, particularly among the elderly. The disease burden and risk factors of poor sleep quality of the elderly need to be verified using a validated form of measurement in urban mainland China. Methods This study included 1086 community residents aged ≥60 years who completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI). Poor sleeper was defined by a CPSQI global score of >5. Subjects also accepted the neurological and neuropsychological assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS). A history of chronic diseases was confirmed by the medical records of each participant. Results The prevalence of poor sleep quality in this population was 41.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.6–44.5%), with a higher rate observed in elderly females (45.8% [95% CI = 41.9–49.7%]) than that in elderly males (35.8% [95% CI = 31.4–40.1%]). The prevalence rate increased with age, from 32.1% (95% CI = 27.8–36.4%) in those aged 60–69 years to 52.5% (95% CI = 45.9–59.1%) in those aged ≥80 years (p value for trend<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.03[95% CI = 1.01–1.05], p<0.001), less education duration (OR = 1.04 [95% CI = 1.01–1.08, p = 0.014), living alone (OR = 1.62 [95% CI = 1.02–2.58], p = 0.04), anxiety (ZSAS score: OR = 1.09 [95% CI = 1.05–1.12], p<0.001), number of chronic disease (OR = 1.18 [95% CI = 1.07–1.30], p = 0.14) and arthritis (OR = 1.45[95% CI = 1.05–2.01], p = 0.025) were risk factors of poor sleep quality. Conclusions Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent among elderly Chinese residents in urban Shanghai. Growing attention and comprehensive countermeasures involving psycho-social and personal activities

  18. Pediatric rhinitis risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk factors especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27698737

  19. Lifecourse Socioeconomic Status and Cancer-Related Risk Factors: Analysis of the WHO study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Ogunsina, Kemi; Okwali, Michelle; Sakhuja, Swati; Braithwaite, Dejana

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined cancer-related risk factors in relation to SES across the lifecourse in low to middle income countries. This analysis focuses on adult women in India, China, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, and examines the association between individual, parental and lifecourse SES with smoking, alcohol, BMI, nutrition and physical activity. Data on 22,283 women aged 18 years and older were obtained from the 2007 WHO Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (SAGE). Overall, 34% of women had no formal education, 73% had mothers with no formal education and 73% of women had low lifecourse SES. Low SES women were almost 4 times more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.23–12.10), and 68% more likely to smoke (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.01–2.80) compared with higher SES. Women with low SES mothers and fathers were more likely to have poor nutrition (Mothers OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.17–2.16; Fathers OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11–1.59) and more likely to smoke (Mothers OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15–1.87; Fathers OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.80–2.63) compared with those with high SES parents. Women with stable low lifecourse SES were more likely to smoke (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.47–4.43), while those with declining lifecourse SES were more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.63, 95% CI: 1.07–12.34). Cancer-related risk factors varied significantly by lifecourse SES, suggesting that cancer prevention strategies will need to be tailored to specific subgroups in order to be most effective. PMID:27813060

  20. Lifecourse socioeconomic status and cancer-related risk factors: Analysis of the WHO study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Ogunsina, Kemi; Okwali, Michelle; Sakhuja, Swati; Braithwaite, Dejana

    2017-02-15

    Few studies have examined cancer-related risk factors in relation to SES across the lifecourse in low to middle income countries. This analysis focuses on adult women in India, China, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, and examines the association between individual, parental and lifecourse SES with smoking, alcohol, BMI, nutrition and physical activity. Data on 22,283 women aged 18 years and older were obtained from the 2007 WHO Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (SAGE). Overall, 34% of women had no formal education, 73% had mothers with no formal education and 73% of women had low lifecourse SES. Low SES women were almost four times more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.23-12.10), and 68% more likely to smoke (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.01-2.80) compared with higher SES. Women with low SES mothers and fathers were more likely to have poor nutrition (Mothers OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.17-2.16; Fathers OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11-1.59) and more likely to smoke (Mothers OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15-1.87; Fathers OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.80-2.63) compared with those with high SES parents. Women with stable low lifecourse SES were more likely to smoke (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.47-4.43), while those with declining lifecourse SES were more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.63, 95% CI: 1.07-12.34). Cancer-related risk factors varied significantly by lifecourse SES, suggesting that cancer prevention strategies will need to be tailored to specific sub-groups in order to be most effective.

  1. Usual dietary glycemic load is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Cocate, Paula G; Natali, Antônio J; de Oliveira, Alessandro; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Longo, Giana Z; Buthers, Jéssica M; dos Santos, Eliziária C; de Oliveira, Leandro L; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia G

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: Los efectos de la carga glucémica (CG) de la dieta sobre los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en sujetos físicamente activos no están establecidos por completo. Objetivo: Este estudio transversal evaluó la asociación entre la CG de la dieta habitual y los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres brasileños de mediana edad físicamente activos. Métodos: Ciento setenta y seis sujetos (índice de masa corporal: 25,5 ± 3,6 kg/m2; edad: 50,6 ± 5,0 años) fueron evaluados. Antropometría, características del estilo de vida, la resistencia a la insulina, biomarcadores del estrés oxidativo (8-iso-prostaglandina F2, 8-iso-PGF2y 8 hidroxideoxiguanosina, 8-OHdG) y el perfil lipídico fueron evaluados. La ingesta dietética se estimó por medio de un cuestionario cuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo. Resultados: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con las concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres (= 0,311, r2 = 0,13, P = 0,034) y la razón triglicéridos/colesterol HDL (= 0,598, r2 = 0,19, P = 0,028), independientemente de los factores de confusión (obesidad central, consumo de carne roja, edad e ingesta calórica). El biomarcador del estrés oxidativo, 8-OHdG, también se asoció con CG de la dieta habitual (= 0,432, r2 = 0,11, P = 0,004), independientemente de los factores de confusión anteriores más el consumo excesivo de alcohol, la ingesta de hierro y tabaquismo actual. Conclusiones: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con el perfil lipídico (concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres y razón triglicéridos/HDL colesterol) y el biomarcador de estrés oxidativo 8-OHdG. Estos resultados indican el potencial de nocividad de una dieta con mayor CG respecto a los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres de mediana edad, incluso en aquellos físicamente activos.

  2. Vigorous exercise in leisure time, coronary risk-factors, and resting electrocardiogram in middle-aged male civil servants.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, L; Miller, G J; Stitt, F W; Morris, J N

    1976-01-01

    During 1968 to 1970, approximately 17 000 middle-aged male executive grade civil service officers, all of them engaged in sedentary or very light work, recorded on a Monday morning their leisure time activities over the previous Friday and Saturday. In 1971 a sample of 509 of these men completed further questionnaires for medical, social, and smoking history; these men had a resting electrocardiogram, and height, weight, skinfold thickness, blood pressure, and plasma total cholesterol were measured. Vigorous exercise in leisure time had previously been reported by 125 (25%) of the men, and these as a group had significantly fewer electrocardiographic abnormalities (changes compatible with myocardial ischaemia, ectopic beats, and sinus tachycardia) than the men not reporting vigorous exercise (P less than 0-02). This difference remained when all men with any history suggestive of cardiovascular disease were excluded from the analysis. Blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, and smoking habits were examined with respect both to vigorous exercise and to the electrocardiogram, but the only relation found was that electrocardiographic abnormality increased with increasing blood pressure. Even among men with higher pressures, however, those reporting vigorous exercise had fewer electrographic abnormalities than the others. The results provide further support for the association of habitual physical activity with coronary health. PMID:1267984

  3. Patient Age, Ethnicity, Medical History, and Risk Factor Profile, but Not Drug Insurance Coverage, Predict Successful Attainment of Glycemic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Hwee; Braga, Manoela F.B.; Casanova, Amparo; Drouin, Denis; Goodman, Shaun G.; Harris, Stewart B.; Langer, Anatoly; Tan, Mary K.; Ur, Ehud; Yan, Andrew T.; Zinman, Bernard; Leiter, Lawrence A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify factors in patients with type 2 diabetes and A1C >7.0% associated with attainment of A1C ≤7.0%. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used a prospective registry of 5,280 Canadian patients in primary care settings enrolled in a 12-month glycemic pharmacotherapy optimization strategy based on national guidelines. RESULTS At close out, median A1C was 7.1% (vs. 7.8% at baseline) with 48% of subjects achieving A1C ≤7.0% (P < 0.0001). Older patients of Asian or black origin, those with longer diabetes duration, those with lower baseline A1C, BMI, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure, and those on angiotensin receptor blockers and a lower number of antihyperglycemic agents, were more likely to achieve A1C ≤7.0% at some point during the study (all P < 0.0235). Access to private versus public drug coverage did not impact glycemic target realization. CONCLUSIONS Patient demography, cardiometabolic health, and ongoing pharmacotherapy, but not access to private drug insurance coverage, contribute to the care gap in type 2 diabetes. PMID:20823344

  4. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency, respectively. The risk thresholds for boys and girls were established at two developmental stages (late childhood: ages 10–12 years, and adolescence: ages 13–16 years) and compared between boys and girls. Sex similarities as well as differences existed in risk and promotive factors for delinquency. ROC analyses revealed only small sex differences in delinquency thresholds, that varied by age. Accumulative risk level had a linear relationship with boys’ delinquency and a quadratic relationship with girls’ delinquency, indicating stronger effects for girls at higher levels of risk. PMID:23183920

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus in a central district in Islamic Republic of Iran: a population-based study on adults aged 40-80 years.

    PubMed

    Katibeh, M; Hosseini, S; Soleimanizad, R; Manaviat, M R; Kheiri, B; Khabazkhoob, M; Daftarian, N; Dehghan, M H

    2015-09-08

    Previous studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Islamic Republic of Iran were mainly performed in provinces with large populations. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus in an adult population (40-80 years old) from Yazd district. Multistage, systematic cluster random sampling was used in a crosssectional, population-based survey. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected, with diabetes defined as fasting blood sugar ≥ 7 mmol/L or a positive medical history of diabetes. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of diabetes in 2090 individuals participants was 24.5% (95% CI: 22.2-26.8%), including 10.5% new cases. For each year of ageing, the prevalence of diabetes increased significantly by 4% and this trend was more pronounced in females than males. Low education and hypertension were significantly associated with diabetes prevalence. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Yazd is greater than the average levels nationwide and those of nearby countries.

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Ovarian Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients < 41 Years of Age in the Netherlands: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Inge T. A.; van Zwet, Erik W.; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Liefers, Gerrit Jan; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Hilders, Carina G. J. M.; Trimbos, J. Baptist

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer is one of the primary indications for cryopreservation and subsequent autotransplantation of ovarian tissue. The safety of this fertility preservation method remains questionable, as the presence of disseminated breast tumor cells cannot yet be excluded in the ovarian autografts. We explored the prevalence of ovarian metastases among young breast cancer patients and determined risk factors for the development of ovarian metastases. Methods Using the nationwide database of the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA), we identified a cohort of 2648 women with primary invasive breast cancer at age < 41 years in the period 2000–2010 in the Netherlands who subsequently underwent an oophorectomy. From this source population, all cases who had histologically confirmed ovarian metastases were included. For each case of whom clinical data were available, one control without ovarian metastases who matched the time interval between breast cancer diagnosis and oophorectomy was selected. Data were collected on patient characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Results Ovarian metastases were found in 63 out of 2648 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The risk of developing ovarian metastases increased with time passed since breast cancer diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed significant association between tumor stage and the development of ovarian metastases (p = 0.024). Conclusions The prevalence of ovarian metastases was 2.4% among young breast cancer patients. Early ovary removal may reduce the risk of developing ovarian metastases. In breast cancer patients with tumors > 5 cm and/or inflammatory carcinoma, we recommend a cautious approach to ovarian tissue autotransplantation. PMID:28125710

  7. Neighbourhood risk factors for Common Mental Disorders among young people aged 10-20 years: a structured review of quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Sarah; Pain, Rachel; Fuller, Sara; Khatib, Yasmin; Rothon, Catherine; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Daya, Shari

    2013-03-01

    We present a critical review of research concerning the vulnerability of mental health of young people in the 10-20 year age range to neighbourhood factors that are theoretically associated with increased risk of Common Mental Disorders (CMDs). We interpreted 'neighbourhood factors' as attributes and processes in the local social and physical environment that young people inhabit, beyond the immediate household. We conducted an extensive search, and a structured method of assessment of the research papers that met our search criteria. We draw conclusions about the research evidence on this topic and identify issues needing further discussion and investigation. We focus particularly on quantitative research that aims to measure these relationships. We note that parallel to this research, a significant body of qualitative research on the geographical experiences of young people (though not specifically on their mental health) offers a rich source of background information to illuminate the statistical findings. We conclude with some reflections on the future challenges for research in this field.

  8. Age-related changes of healthy bone marrow cell signaling in response to growth factors provide insight into low risk MDS.

    PubMed

    Kornblau, Steven M; Cohen, Aileen C; Soper, David; Huang, Ying-Wen; Cesano, Alessandra

    2013-08-20

    Background Single Cell Network Profiling (SCNP) is a multiparametric flow cytometry-based assay that quantifiably and simultaneously measures changes in intracellular signaling proteins in response to in vitro extracellular modulators at the single cell level. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous clonal disorder of hematopoietic stem cells that occurs in elderly subjects and is characterized by dysplasia and ineffective hematopoiesis. The functional responsiveness of MDS bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic cells, including functionally distinct myeloid and erythroid precursor subsets, to hematopoietic growth factors (HGF) and the relationship of modulated signaling to disease characteristics is poorly understood. Methods SCNP was used first to examine the effects of age on erythropoietin (EPO) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF)-induced signaling in myeloid, nucleated red blood cells (nRBC), and CD34 expressing cell subsets in healthy BM (n=15). SCNP was then used to map functional signaling profiles in low risk (LR) MDS (n=7) for comparison to signaling in samples from healthy donors and to probe signaling associations within clinically defined subgroups. Results In healthy BM samples, signaling responses to HGF were quite homogeneous (i.e. tightly regulated) with age-dependent effects observed in response to EPO but not to GCSF. Despite the relatively small number of samples assayed in the study, LR MDS could be classified into distinct subgroups based on both cell subset frequency and signaling profiles. Conclusion As a correlate of underlying genetic abnormalities, signal transduction analyses may provide a functional and potentially clinically relevant classification of MDS. Further evaluation in a larger cohort is warranted. © 2013 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  9. A thermographic study on eyes affected by Age-related Macular Degeneration: Comparison among various forms of the pathology and analysis of risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Biagini, Ilaria; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Sodi, Andrea; Corvi, Andrea; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate (1) the ocular thermographic profiles in eyes affected by Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities that could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, (2) whether any risk factors associated with the disease could affect the development of a form of AMD rather than another. Thirty-four eyes with Age-Related Maculopathy (ARM), 41 eyes with dry AMD, 60 eyes affected by wet AMD, and 74 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included in the study. The control group consisted of 48 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, systemic diseases and a body temperature higher than 37.5 °C. A total of 210 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The Ocular Surface Temperature (OST) of five ocular areas was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test, one-way ANOVA test and multivariate analysis were used for statistical analyses. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P-value > 0.05), however, OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P-value < 0.0001). Smokers showed higher possibility (P-value = 0.012) of developing wet AMD instead of dry AMD. Infrared thermography may be a helpful, non-invasive and not time-consuming method to be used in the management of patients with this common degenerative maculopathy.

  10. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  11. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    PubMed

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors.

  12. Independent effects of age-related changes in waist circumference and BMI z scores in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors in a prospective cohort of adolescent females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data indicate that central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, independent of total adiposity. The use of longitudinal data to investigate the relation between changes in fat distribution and the emergence of risk factors is limited. OBJECTIVE: We ...

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Adults Age 20–49 Years in the United States, 1971–2012: A Series of Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Sarah S.; Menke, Andy; Cowie, Catherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The health of younger adults in the U.S. has important public health and economic-related implications. However, previous literature is insufficient to fully understand how the health of this group has changed over time. This study examined generational differences in cardiovascular risk factors of younger adults over the past 40 years. Methods Data were from 6 nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971–2012; N = 44,670). Participants were adults age 20–49 years who self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health conditions, and had examination/laboratory measures for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease. Prevalences of sociodemographic characteristics and health status were determined by study period. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval] of health conditions by study period: models adjusted only for age, sex, and race, and fully adjusted models additionally adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and/or hypertension (depending on the outcome) were assessed. Results Participants in 2009–2012 were significantly more likely to be obese and have diabetes compared to those in 1971–1975 (OR = 4.98, 3.57–6.97; OR = 3.49, 1.59–7.65, respectively, fully adjusted). Participants in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 were significantly more likely to have had hypertension but uncontrolled hypertension was significantly less likely (OR = 0.67, 0.52–0.86, fully adjusted). There was no difference over time for high cholesterol, but uncontrolled high cholesterol was significantly less likely in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 (OR = 0.80, 0.68–0.94, fully adjusted). The use of hypertensive and cholesterol medications increased while chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases were relatively stable. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors of younger U.S. adults have worsened over

  14. Atrial Septal Aneurysm and Patent Foramen Ovale as Risk Factors for Cryptogenic Stroke in Patients Less Than 55 Years of Age: A Study using Transesophageal Echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabanes, L.; Mas, J. L.; Cohen, A.; Amarenco, P.; Cabanes, P. A.; Oubary, P.; Chedru, F.; Guerin, F.; Bousser, M. G.; deRecondo, J.

    1993-01-01

    Background and Purpose: An association between atrial septal aneurysm and embolic events has been suggested. Atrial septal aneurysm has been shown to be associated with patent foramen ovale and,.in some reports, with mitral valve prolapse. These two latter cardiac disorder; have been identified as potential risk factors for ischemic stroke. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the role of atrial septal aneurysm as an independent risk factor for stroke, especially for cryptogenic stroke. Methods: We studied the prevalence of atrial septal aneurysm, patent foramen ovale, and mitral valve prolapse in 100 consecutive patients <55 years of age with ischemic stroke who underwent extensive etiological investigations. We compared these results with those in a control group of 50 consecutive patients. The diagnosis of atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale relied on transesophageal echocardiography with a contrast study and that of mitral valve prolapse, on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. Results: Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that atrial septal aneurysm (odds ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 14.6; P=.01) and patent foramen ovale (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 10; P=.003) but not mitral valve prolapse were significantly associated with the diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke. The stroke odds of a patient with both atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale were 33.3 times (95% confidence interval, 4.1 to 270) the stroke odds of a patient with neither of these cardiac disorders. For a patient with atrial septal aneurysm of >lo-mm excursion, the stroke odds were approximately 8 times the stroke odds of a patient with atrial septal aneurysm of <10 mm. Conclusions: This study shows that atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale are both significantly associated with cryptogenic stroke and that their association has a marked synergistic effect. Atrial septal aneurysms of >lo-mm excursion are

  15. Is age an independent risk factor for medical complications following minimally invasive radical prostatectomy? An evaluation of contemporary American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement (ACS-NSQIP) data.

    PubMed

    Dagrosa, Lawrence M; Ingimarsson, Johann P; Gorlov, Ivan P; Higgins, John H; Hyams, Elias S

    2016-12-01

    While robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) is an effective treatment for localized prostate cancer, the risk of complications in older patients can be a deterrent to surgery. We evaluated the rate of medical complications following RALRP in a national dataset of safety events, and assessed whether age is an independent risk factor for these complications. Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing RALRP between 2009 and 2012 in the prospectively maintained American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement (ACS-NSQIP) database was performed. Demographic and comorbid data were collated, medical complications occurring during the 30-day post-operative period were identified. We identified age-related comorbidities, and complications associated with these comorbidities. A binary logistic regression model with age and age-related comorbidities as predictors and specific complication as outcome, was used to evaluate whether age is an independent risk factor for these complications. 12,123 patients underwent RALRP between 2009 and 2012, with a mean age of 62 (22-92). Post-operative medical complications included urinary tract infection (UTI) (1.77 %), deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (0.67 %), pulmonary embolism (PE) (0.45 %), pneumonia (PNA) (0.27 %), myocardial infarction (MI) (0.12 %), and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (0.01 %). Nine comorbidities were positively correlated with age (p < 0.05). Four medical complications were associated with these age-related comorbidities: MI, CVA, PNA, and UTI. On multivariate analysis, age was an independent risk factor for post-operative PNA (p < 0.05), but not for MI (p = 0.09), UTI (p = 0.3) or CVA (p = 0.2). Patient age was independently associated with post-operative pneumonia only. These data suggest that RALRP can be considered as a treatment option in selected older patients with minimal increased risk for post-operative complications.

  16. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... common than normal in children who lived near Chernobyl, the site of a 1986 nuclear plant accident ... exposure was much, much lower than that around Chernobyl. A higher risk of thyroid cancer has not ...

  17. Stroke - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... a higher risk. Diseases such as cancer, chronic kidney disease, and some types of arthritis. Weak areas in an artery wall or abnormal arteries and veins . Pregnancy. Both during and in the weeks right after ...

  18. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... age at the time of diagnosis is 71. Gender Men are slightly more likely to develop pancreatic ... would like to unsubscribe/opt out from our communications, please follow this link: http://www.cancer.org/ ...

  19. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection and Associated Risk Factors among School-Age Children in Chencha District, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zerdo, Zerihun; Yohanes, Tsegaye; Tariku, Befikadu

    2016-01-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) to the most risky population including school-age children (SAC) is the central strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of STHs reinfection three months posttreatment and associated risk factors among SAC in Chencha district. A cross-sectional study design was employed from April 20 to May 5, 2015, to enroll 408 SAC. Structured questionnaire and Kato-Katz thick smear technique were used to interview parents or guardians and quantify the number of eggs per gram of stool. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess the association between predictor variable and STH reinfection. The prevalence of STHs within three months of mass chemotherapy among SAC was 36.8% which is 93.4% of the prevalence (39.4%) before treatment. The estimated prevalence of reinfection (95%CI) for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms was 23.8% (21.1–28.2), 16.2% (12.7–20.1), and 1.0% (0.3–2.5), respectively. Children of merchant fathers were more likely to be reinfected by STHs in Chencha district. In conclusion, there is rapid reinfection after mass chemotherapy among SAC in Chencha district. Further studies should be carried out to generate cost efficient methods that can supplement mass drug administration to accelerate the control of STHs. PMID:26941997

  20. Developing a Comprehensive Model of Risk and Protective Factors That Can Predict Spelling at Age Seven: Findings from a Community Sample of Victorian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serry, Tanya Anne; Castles, Anne; Mensah, Fiona K.; Bavin, Edith L.; Eadie, Patricia; Pezic, Angela; Prior, Margot; Bretherton, Lesley; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on a study designed to develop a risk model that can best predict single-word spelling in seven-year-old children when they were aged 4 and 5. Test measures, personal characteristics and environmental influences were all considered as variables from a community sample of 971 children. Strong concurrent correlations were found…

  1. Risk factors for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors

  2. [Preeclampsia as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death in women. Guidelines for identifying high-risk individuals have been developed, e.g. the Dutch Guideline on Cardiovascular Risk Management. In the most recent version of this guideline, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are cited as cardiovascular risk factors; therefore, individuals with these conditions are identified as being at high risk. As with DM and RA, there is strong evidence that the experience of having a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy is a cardiovascular risk factor. This is particularly the case for early preeclampsia, which constitutes a 7-fold increased risk of ischemic heart disease. However, in the Netherlands, there are no guidelines and there is no consensus on how to screen or treat these women. Trial evidence is therefore urgently needed to substantiate the value of cardiovascular risk management for those women with a history of hypertension during pregnancy.

  3. “Incidence and risk factors for clinically diagnosed knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis: influences of age, gender and osteoarthritis affecting other joints”

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Judge, Andrew; Javaid, M Kassim; Cooper, Cyrus; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Arden, Nigel K

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Data on the incidence of symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) are scarce. We estimated incidence of clinical hip, knee and hand osteoarthritis, and studied the effect of prevalent OA on joint-specific incident OA. Methods SIDIAP contains primary care records for >5 million people from Catalonia (Spain). Participants aged ≥40 years with an incident diagnosis of knee, hip or hand OA between 2006 and 2010 were identified using ICD-10 codes. Incidence rates and female-to-male Rate Ratios (RR) for each joint site were calculated. Age, gender and body mass index-adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR) for future joint-specific OA according to prevalent OA at other sites were estimated using Cox regression. Results 3,266,826 participants were studied for a median of 4.45 years. Knee and hip OA rates increased continuously with age, and female-to-male RRs were highest at age 70-75 years. In contrast, female hand OA risk peaked at age 60-64 years, and corresponding female-to-male RR was highest at age 50-55. Adjusted HR for prevalent knee OA on risk of hip OA was 1.35 (99%CI 1.28-1.43); prevalent hip OA on incident knee OA 1.15 (1.08-1.23). Prevalent hand OA predicted both incident knee and hip OA: HR 1.20 (1.14-1.26) and 1.23 (1.13-1.34) respectively. Conclusions The effect of age is greatest in the elderly for knee and hip OA, but around the menopause for hand OA. OA clusters within individuals, with higher risk of incident knee and hip disease from prevalent lower limb and hand OA. PMID:23744977

  4. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  5. Risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures.

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, J L

    1989-01-01

    Established risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures are increasing age, female sex, white race, removal of the ovaries at an early age, prolonged immobility, and prolonged use of corticosteroids. Obesity and use of estrogen replacement therapy are protective. Factors that probably or possibly increase risk in postmenopausal white women include a low calcium intake, cigarette smoking, and, at least for hip fractures, use of long half-life psychotrophic drugs and heavy alcohol consumption. Factors probably or possibly associated with a decreased risk include ingestion of vitamin D and its metabolites, fluoride levels of 2 ppm or more in drinking water, moderate physical activity, pregnancies and breast feeding, use of thiazide diuretics, and progestogens. Some evidence suggests that calcium intake and physical activity at young ages may be important determinants of peak bone mass. Few studies have been undertaken in males and blacks, although at least some risk factors in males may be similar to those in females. Preventive efforts may be aimed at increasing peak bone mass at young ages, preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women, and preventing fractures and their adverse consequences in older people with osteoporosis. PMID:2517695

  6. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Giovanna; Acevedo, Mónica; Orellana, Lorena; Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge; Navarrete, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0-1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92-3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender.

  7. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0‐1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92–3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender. PMID:28321254

  8. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  9. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  10. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... previous history of clots in the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and livedo reticularis, a mottled purplish discoloration of the skin. “Risk factors are cumulative,” Dr. Kittner adds. “Reducing even one ...

  11. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk.

  12. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  13. Presence of asthma risk factors and environmental exposures related to upper respiratory infection-triggered wheezing in middle school-age children.

    PubMed Central

    Sotir, Mark; Yeatts, Karin; Shy, Carl

    2003-01-01

    Viral respiratory infections and exposure to environmental constituents such as tobacco smoke are known or suspected to trigger wheezing/asthma exacerbations in children. However, few population-based data exist that examine the relationship between wheezing triggered by viral respiratory infections and environmental exposures. In this investigation we used population-based data to evaluate differences in exposures between symptomatic middle school-age children who did and did not report wheezing triggered by viral respiratory infections. As part of the North Carolina School Asthma Survey (NCSAS), a 66-question data instrument was used to collect information from children enrolled in North Carolina public middle schools during the 1999-2000 school year. Associations between exposures and upper respiratory infection-triggered wheezing (URI-TW) among symptomatic children were examined using adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs). Video methods developed for the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were used to assess wheezing. Among the 33,534 NCSAS symptomatic participants, positive associations were observed between most exposures and URI-TW. Reported presence of all allergy variables (PORs ranging from 2.11 to 2.45) was more strongly associated with URI-TW than either smoking or other exposures. Presence of URI-TW was higher at increasing levels of tobacco smoke exposure, but no apparent dose-response effect was observed for other indoor air pollutants. URI-TW in middle school children is most associated with reported allergen sensitivity, relative to other asthma risk factors and environmental exposures. Data from this investigation may be useful in developing assessment, screening, and targeting strategies to improve asthma and wheezing management in children. PMID:12676631

  14. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-aged Japanese Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Yoshiharu; Maejima, Yuko; Shimomura, Kenju; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Ishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Akuzawa, Masako; Shimomura, Yohnosuke; Nakajima, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Objective Emerging studies have focused on the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to investigate whether NAFLD diagnosed by ultrasonography could predict the risk of future T2DM in a Japanese middle-aged health check population. Methods We conducted a 10-year observational study in a health checkup population of middle-aged Japanese men and women at Hidaka Hospital from 2004 to 2013. We excluded cases with an alcohol intake exceeding 20 g/day and those with impaired glucose tolerance. The remaining 1,544 men and 864 women were classified into fatty liver and non-fatty liver groups based on the findings of abdominal ultrasonography. Both groups were followed for the development of diabetes. A multiple regression analysis was performed for each variable to predict the risk of future diabetes. Results The median age of the participants was 46.0 years at the entry, and the follow-up period was 10 years. The incidence of diabetes in the fatty liver group was 12.5% (29/232) in men and 26.3% (10/38) in women, whereas the incidence of diabetes in the non-fatty liver group was 2.5% (34/1,312) in men and 1.8% (15/826) in women. The relative risk of diabetes associated with fatty liver was 4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-7.8, p<0.0001] in men and 14.5 (95% CI 7.0-30.1, p<0.0001) in women. Conclusion NAFLD was a significant predictor for future diabetes in a Japanese middle-aged health check population, especially in women.

  15. Risk Factors For Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    KAPLAN, Yüksel; KURT, Semiha; KARAER ÜNALDI, Hatice; ERKORKMAZ, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for distal symmetric sensory-motor polyneuropathy (DSP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Method Sixty seven patients with type 2 DM (33 males and 34 females) were included in the study. In addition to a detailed neurological examination, the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument was administered to all patients and their total neuropathy scores were calculated. Nerve conduction examinations were performed for all patients. Results The mean age of the patients was 52.83±.87 years. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) value was 8.56±2.07% (normal: 3–6.5%). The total neuropathy score significantly correlated with diabetes duration, hypertension, retinopathy, and HbA1C. Conclusion This study confirms the previous reports regarding the association of neuropathy with poor glycaemic control and duration of the disease. The association of neuropathy with retinopathy and hypertension is important.

  16. Heart Disease Risk Factors for Children and Teenagers

    MedlinePlus

    ... called risk factors . Some risk factors can be changed, treated, or modified, and some cannot. Many risk ... would not date someone who smokes. Be a role model for your child. If you ... aging, gender, lifestyle, and illness. Obesity in children is dangerous ...

  17. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The most common complication after lumbar discectomy is reherniation. As the first step in reducing the rate of recurrence, many studies have been conducted to find out the factors that may increase the reherniation risk. Some reported factors are age, sex, the type of lumbar disc herniation, the amount of fragments removed, smoking, alcohol consumption and the length of restricted activities. In this review, the factors studied thus far are summarized, excepting factors which cannot be chosen or changed, such as age or sex. Apart from the factors shown here, many other risk factors such as diabetes, family history, history of external injury, duration of illness and body mass index are considered. Few are agreed upon by all. The reason for the diverse opinions may be that many clinical and biomechanical variables are involved in the prognosis following operation. For the investigation of risk factors in recurrent lumbar disc herniation, large-scale multicenter prospective studies will be required in the future. PMID:24761206

  18. Life events, mood, mental strain and cardiovascular risk factors in Swedish middle-aged men. Data from the Swedish part of the Renault/Volvo Coeur Study.

    PubMed

    Rose, G; Bengtsson, C; Dimberg, L; Kumlin, L; Eriksson, B

    1998-07-01

    The associations between life events, mood, mental strain and cardiovascular risk factors were investigated in the Renault/Volvo Coeur Study. About 1,000 men, blue-collar and white-collar workers, were asked by means of interview-administered questionnaires about life events experienced during the year preceding the screening, about mood and mental strain and about smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise habits. Blood pressure, concentration of serum lipids and blood glucose, and anthropometric measures were determined in a screening procedure. Negative life events, especially work-related, were associated with depressed mood and mental strain but not with elevation of biological risk factors such as elevated blood pressure and serum lipids. Depressed mood and mental strain were related to increased tobacco consumption in blue-collar workers and increased alcohol consumption in white-collar workers.

  19. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  20. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  1. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  2. Predicting Dyslexia at Age 11 from a Risk Index Questionnaire at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid; Plante, Elena; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on predicting dyslexia in children ahead of formal literacy training. Because dyslexia is a constitutional impairment, risk factors should be seen in preschool. It was hypothesized that data gathered at age 5 using questions targeting the dyslexia endophenotype should be reliable and valid predictors of dyslexia at age 11. A…

  3. Association between different risk factors and vascular accelerated ageing (EVA study): study protocol for a cross-sectional, descriptive observational study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Martinez-Salgado, Carlos; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus Ma; Sanchez-Fernandez, Pedro L; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The process of population ageing that is occurring in developed societies represents a major challenge for the health system. The aim of this study is to analyse factors that have an influence on early vascular ageing (EVA), estimated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and Cardio Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI), and to determine differences by gender in a Spanish population. Methods and analysis An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Study population From the population assigned to the participating healthcare centres, a cluster random sampling stratified by age and gender will be performed to obtain 500 participants aged between 35 and 75. Those who meet the inclusion criteria and give written informed consent will be included in the study. Measurements Main dependent variables: cf-PWV determined using the SphygmoCor System and CAVI estimated using VASERA. Secondary dependent variables: telomere length, carotid intima-media thickness, central and peripheral augmentation index, ankle-brachial pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial index, retinal arteriovenous index, and renal and cardiac organ damage. Independent variables: lifestyles (physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, alcohol and tobacco consumption); psychological factors (depression, anxiety and chronic stress); inflammatory factors and oxidative stress. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee of the healthcare area of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent form agreeing to participate in the study in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow the understanding of the relationship of the different influencing factors and their relative weight in the development of EVA. At least 5 publications in first-quartile scientific journals are planned. Trial registration number NCT02623894; Pre

  4. Child sexual assault: risk factors for girls.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2013-09-01

    To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health.

  5. Centenarians as super-controls to assess the biological relevance of genetic risk factors for common age-related diseases: a proof of principle on type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Garagnani, Paolo; Giuliani, Cristina; Pirazzini, Chiara; Olivieri, Fabiola; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Ostan, Rita; Mari, Daniela; Passarino, Giuseppe; Monti, Daniela; Bonfigli, Anna Rita; Boemi, Massimo; Ceriello, Antonio; Genovese, Stefano; Sevini, Federica; Luiselli, Donata; Tieri, Paolo; Capri, Miriam; Salvioli, Stefano; Vijg, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Delledonne, Massimo; Testa, Roberto; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-05-01

    Genetic association studies of age-related, chronic human diseases often suffer from a lack of power to detect modest effects. Here we propose an alternative approach of including healthy centenarians as a more homogeneous and extreme control group. As a proof of principle we focused on type 2 diabetes (T2D) and assessed /genotypic associations of 31 SNPs associated with T2D, diabetes complications and metabolic diseases and SNPs of genes relevant for telomere stability and age-related diseases. We hypothesized that the frequencies of risk variants are inversely correlated with decreasing health and longevity. We performed association analyses comparing diabetic patients and non-diabetic controls followed by association analyses with extreme phenotypic groups (T2D patients with complications and centenarians). Results drew attention to rs7903146 (TCF7L2 gene) that showed a constant increase in the frequencies of risk genotype (TT) from centenarians to diabetic patients who developed macro-complications and the strongest genotypic association was detected when diabetic patients were compared to centenarians (p_value = 9.066*10⁻⁷). We conclude that robust and biologically relevant associations can be obtained when extreme phenotypes, even with a small sample size, are compared.

  6. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  7. Opposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences

    PubMed Central

    Byars, Sean G.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. Methodology: To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. Results: We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers’ age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. Conclusions and implications: We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy. PMID:27637201

  8. A candidate gene approach identifies the CHRNA5-A3-B4 region as a risk factor for age-dependent nicotine addiction.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Robert B; Baker, Timothy B; Cannon, Dale S; von Niederhausern, Andrew; Dunn, Diane M; Matsunami, Nori; Singh, Nanda A; Baird, Lisa; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M; Piper, Megan E; Fiore, Michael C; Scholand, Mary Beth; Connett, John E; Kanner, Richard E; Gahring, Lorise C; Rogers, Scott W; Hoidal, John R; Leppert, Mark F

    2008-07-11

    People who begin daily smoking at an early age are at greater risk of long-term nicotine addiction. We tested the hypothesis that associations between nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genetic variants and nicotine dependence assessed in adulthood will be stronger among smokers who began daily nicotine exposure during adolescence. We compared nicotine addiction-measured by the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence-in three cohorts of long-term smokers recruited in Utah, Wisconsin, and by the NHLBI Lung Health Study, using a candidate-gene approach with the neuronal nAChR subunit genes. This SNP panel included common coding variants and haplotypes detected in eight alpha and three beta nAChR subunit genes found in European American populations. In the 2,827 long-term smokers examined, common susceptibility and protective haplotypes at the CHRNA5-A3-B4 locus were associated with nicotine dependence severity (p = 2.0x10(-5); odds ratio = 1.82; 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.39) in subjects who began daily smoking at or before the age of 16, an exposure period that results in a more severe form of adult nicotine dependence. A substantial shift in susceptibility versus protective diplotype frequency (AA versus BC = 17%, AA versus CC = 27%) was observed in the group that began smoking by age 16. This genetic effect was not observed in subjects who began daily nicotine use after the age of 16. These results establish a strong mechanistic link among early nicotine exposure, common CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotypes, and adult nicotine addiction in three independent populations of European origins. The identification of an age-dependent susceptibility haplotype reinforces the importance of preventing early exposure to tobacco through public health policies.

  9. The role of social networks and media receptivity in predicting age of smoking initiation: a proportional hazards model of risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Unger, J B; Chen, X

    1999-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of adolescent smoking demonstrates the need to identify factors associated with early smoking initiation. Previous studies have shown that smoking by social network members and receptivity to pro-tobacco marketing are associated with smoking among adolescents. It is not clear, however, whether these variables also are associated with the age of smoking initiation. Using data from 10,030 California adolescents, this study identified significant correlates of age of smoking initiation using bivariate methods and a multivariate proportional hazards model. Age of smoking initiation was earlier among those adolescents whose friends, siblings, or parents were smokers, and among those adolescents who had a favorite tobacco advertisement, had received tobacco promotional items, or would be willing to use tobacco promotional items. Results suggest that the smoking behavior of social network members and pro-tobacco media influences are important determinants of age of smoking initiation. Because early smoking initiation is associated with higher levels of addiction in adulthood, tobacco control programs should attempt to counter these influences.

  10. Occupational noise, smoking, and a high body mass index are risk factors for age-related hearing impairment and moderate alcohol consumption is protective: a European population-based multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Erik; Topsakal, Vedat; Hendrickx, Jan-Jaap; Van Laer, Lut; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Van Eyken, Els; Lemkens, Nele; Hannula, Samuli; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Jensen, Mona; Demeester, Kelly; Tropitzsch, Anke; Bonaconsa, Amanda; Mazzoli, Manuela; Espeso, Angeles; Verbruggen, Katia; Huyghe, Joke; Huygen, Patrick L M; Kunst, Sylvia; Manninen, Minna; Diaz-Lacava, Amalia; Steffens, Michael; Wienker, Thomas F; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Cremers, Cor W R J; Kremer, Hannie; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Stephens, Dafydd; Orzan, Eva; Pfister, Markus; Bille, Michael; Parving, Agnete; Sorri, Martti; Van de Heyning, Paul; Van Camp, Guy

    2008-09-01

    A multicenter study was set up to elucidate the environmental and medical risk factors contributing to age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Nine subsamples, collected by nine audiological centers across Europe, added up to a total of 4,083 subjects between 53 and 67 years. Audiometric data (pure-tone average [PTA]) were collected and the participants filled out a questionnaire on environmental risk factors and medical history. People with a history of disease that could affect hearing were excluded. PTAs were adjusted for age and sex and tested for association with exposure to risk factors. Noise exposure was associated with a significant loss of hearing at high sound frequencies (>1 kHz). Smoking significantly increased high-frequency hearing loss, and the effect was dose-dependent. The effect of smoking remained significant when accounting for cardiovascular disease events. Taller people had better hearing on average with a more pronounced effect at low sound frequencies (<2 kHz). A high body mass index (BMI) correlated with hearing loss across the frequency range tested. Moderate alcohol consumption was inversely correlated with hearing loss. Significant associations were found in the high as well as in the low frequencies. The results suggest that a healthy lifestyle can protect against age-related hearing impairment.

  11. Occupational Noise, Smoking, and a High Body Mass Index are Risk Factors for Age-related Hearing Impairment and Moderate Alcohol Consumption is Protective: A European Population-based Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Erik; Topsakal, Vedat; Hendrickx, Jan-Jaap; Van Laer, Lut; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Van Eyken, Els; Lemkens, Nele; Hannula, Samuli; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Jensen, Mona; Demeester, Kelly; Tropitzsch, Anke; Bonaconsa, Amanda; Mazzoli, Manuela; Espeso, Angeles; Verbruggen, Katia; Huyghe, Joke; Huygen, Patrick L. M.; Kunst, Sylvia; Manninen, Minna; Diaz-Lacava, Amalia; Steffens, Michael; Wienker, Thomas F.; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Cremers, Cor W. R. J.; Kremer, Hannie; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Stephens, Dafydd; Orzan, Eva; Pfister, Markus; Bille, Michael; Parving, Agnete; Sorri, Martti; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A multicenter study was set up to elucidate the environmental and medical risk factors contributing to age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Nine subsamples, collected by nine audiological centers across Europe, added up to a total of 4,083 subjects between 53 and 67 years. Audiometric data (pure-tone average [PTA]) were collected and the participants filled out a questionnaire on environmental risk factors and medical history. People with a history of disease that could affect hearing were excluded. PTAs were adjusted for age and sex and tested for association with exposure to risk factors. Noise exposure was associated with a significant loss of hearing at high sound frequencies (>1 kHz). Smoking significantly increased high-frequency hearing loss, and the effect was dose-dependent. The effect of smoking remained significant when accounting for cardiovascular disease events. Taller people had better hearing on average with a more pronounced effect at low sound frequencies (<2 kHz). A high body mass index (BMI) correlated with hearing loss across the frequency range tested. Moderate alcohol consumption was inversely correlated with hearing loss. Significant associations were found in the high as well as in the low frequencies. The results suggest that a healthy lifestyle can protect against age-related hearing impairment. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s10162-008-0123-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18543032

  12. The Use of a Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System to Determine the Age, Period and Cohort Effects on the Prevalence of Obesity and Diabetes in South Australian Adults - 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anne W.; Shi, Zumin; Montgomerie, Alicia; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Campostrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Background Age, period and cohort (APC) analyses, using representative, population-based descriptive data, provide additional understanding behind increased prevalence rates. Methods Data on obesity and diabetes from the South Australian (SA) monthly chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system from July 2002 to December 2013 (n = 59,025) were used. Age was the self-reported age of the respondent at the time of the interview. Period was the year of the interview and cohort was age subtracted from the survey year. Cohort years were 1905 to 1995. All variables were treated as continuous. The age-sex standardised prevalence for obesity and diabetes was calculated using the Australia 2011 census. The APC models were constructed with ‘‘apcfit’’ in Stata. Results The age-sex standardised prevalence of obesity and diabetes increased in 2002-2013 from 18.6% to 24.1% and from 6.2% to 7.9%. The peak age for obesity was approximately 70 years with a steady increasing rate from 20 to 70 years of age. The peak age for diabetes was approximately 80 years. There were strong cohort effects and no period effects for both obesity and diabetes. The magnitude of the cohort effect is much more pronounced for obesity than for diabetes. Conclusion The APC analyses showed a higher than expected peak age for both obesity and diabetes, strong cohort effects with an acceleration of risk after 1960s for obesity and after 1940s for diabetes, and no period effects. By simultaneously considering the effects of age, period and cohort we have provided additional evidence for effective public health interventions. PMID:25923664

  13. Factors influencing fire behaviour in shrublands of different stand ages and the implications for using prescribed burning to reduce wildfire risk.

    PubMed

    Baeza, M J; De Luís, M; Raventós, J; Escarré, A

    2002-06-01

    Fire behaviour under experimental conditions is described in nine Mediterranean gorse shrublands ranging from 3-12 years of age with different fuel loads. Significant differences in the fire-line intensity, fuel load and rate of fire spread have been found to be related to the stage of development of the communities. Fire spread is correlated with fuel moisture using multiple regression techniques. Differences in fuel moisture between mature and young communities under moderate weather conditions have been found. The lower moisture content identified in the mature shrubland is due both to the decreasing moisture content of senescent shrubland in some species, mainly in live fractions of Ulex parviflorus Pour. fuel, and to a substantial increase in dead fuel fractions with low percentages of moisture content. The result is that the older the shrubland is, the greater will be the decrease in the total moisture content of the vegetation. In these moderate weather conditions, the fire intensity of the mature community was as high as the maximum intensity recommended for prescribed fires. This fact seems to indicate that, even under moderate conditions, prescribed burning as an alternative management tool in the mature shrubland must always take into account fuel control; on the other hand, this technique could be applied more easily when the shrubland is at an intermediate growth stage (4-5 years of age). Therefore, more frequent low-intensity prescribed fires are indicated to abate the risk of catastrophic fire.

  14. [Risk factors of fatal outcome in pancreatonecrosis].

    PubMed

    Romanov, É I; Zubeev, P S; Ryzhov, M K; Bodrov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzed risk factors after operations for pancreatonecrosis in order to predict a course of the disease and carefully plan the treatment. It was revealed that the lethality level depended on different factors: the sex, age, a period of admission to the hospital, prevalence of necrotic suppurative process and severity of operative trauma. The authors made a conclusion of radical change to treatment approach. The open operations should be reduced at the expense of introduction of low-invasive methods of treatment in the case of pancreatonecrosis.

  15. CKD increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Wang, Jie Jin

    2008-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States and often coexists with chronic kidney disease. Both conditions share common genetic and environmental risk factors. A total of 1183 participants aged 54+ were examined in the population-based, prospective cohort Blue Mountains Eye Study (Australia) to determine if chronic kidney disease increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) based on the Cockcroft-Gault equation) was present in 24% of the population (286 of 1183). The 5-yr incidence of early age-related macular degeneration was 3.9% in participants with no/mild chronic kidney disease (35 of 897) and 17.5% in those with moderate chronic kidney disease (50 of 286). After adjusting for age, sex, cigarette smoking, hypertension, complement factor H polymorphism, and other risk factors, persons with moderate chronic kidney disease were 3 times more likely to develop early age-related macular degeneration than persons with no/mild chronic kidney disease (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 5.7, P < 0.0001). Each SD (14.8 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) decrease in Cockcroft-Gault estimated glomerular filtration rate was associated with a doubling of the adjusted risk for early age-related macular degeneration (odds ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 2.8, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, persons with chronic kidney disease have a higher risk of early age-related macular degeneration, suggesting the possibility of shared pathophysiologic mechanisms between the two conditions.

  16. Oral cancer risk factors in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Yakin, Muhammed; Gavidi, Ratu Osea; Cox, Brian; Rich, Alison

    2017-03-03

    Oral cancer constitutes the majority of head and neck cancers, which are the fifth most common malignancy worldwide, accounting for an estimated 984,430 cases in 2012. Between 2000 and 2010, there were 1,916 cases of OSCC in New Zealand with a male to female ratio of 1.85:1, and an age-standardised incidence rate of 42 persons per 1,000,000 population. This article presents an overview of the main risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and their prevalence in New Zealand. Alcohol consumption is the most prevalent risk factor in New Zealand, followed by tobacco. Given the high prevalence of these two risk factors and their synergistic effect, it is important for doctors and dentists to encourage smoking cessation in smokers and to recommend judicious alcohol intake. Research is needed to determine the prevalence of use of oral preparations of tobacco and water-pipe smoking in New Zealand, especially due to changing demography and increases in migrant populations. UV radiation is also an important risk factor. Further investigations are also needed to determine the prevalence of oral and oropharyngeal cancers attributable to oncogenic HPV infection.

  17. Knowledge of risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease (CVD) is poor among individuals with risk factors for CVD

    PubMed Central

    Dunstan, Libby; Busingye, Doreen; Reyneke, Megan; Orgill, Mary; Cadilhac, Dominique A.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on whether having pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) or risk factors for CVD such as diabetes, ensures greater knowledge of risk factors important for motivating preventative behaviours. Our objective was to compare knowledge among the Australian public participating in a health check program and their risk status. Methods Data from the Stroke Foundation ‘Know your numbers’ program were used. Staff in community pharmacies provided opportunistic health checks (measurement of blood pressure and diabetes risk assessment) among their customers. Participants were categorised: 1) CVD ± risk of CVD: history of stroke, heart disease or kidney disease, and may have risk factors; 2) risk of CVD only: reported having high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or atrial fibrillation; and 3) CVD risk free (no CVD or risk of CVD). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed including adjustment for age and sex. Findings Among 4,647 participants, 12% had CVD (55% male, 85% aged 55+ years), 47% were at risk of CVD (40% male, 72% 55+ years) and 41% were CVD risk free (33% male, 27% 55+ years). Participants with CVD (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.80) or risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.73) had poorer knowledge of the risk factors for diabetes/CVD compared to those who were CVD risk free. After adjustment, only participants with risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.93) had poorer knowledge. Older participants (55+ years) and men had poorer knowledge of diabetes/CVD risk factors and complications of diabetes. Conclusions Participants with poorer knowledge of risk factors were older, more often male or were at risk of developing CVD compared with those who were CVD risk free. Health education in these high risk groups should be a priority, as diabetes and CVD are increasing in prevalence throughout the world. PMID:28245267

  18. Nonpharmacological Interventions Targeted at Delirium Risk Factors, Delivered by Trained Volunteers (Medical and Psychology Students), Reduced Need for Antipsychotic Medications and the Length of Hospital Stay in Aged Patients Admitted to an Acute Internal Medicine Ward: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowicz, Karolina; Rewiuk, Krzysztof; Halicka, Monika; Kalwak, Weronika; Rybak, Paulina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological multicomponent prevention delivered by trained volunteers (medical and psychology students), targeted at delirium risk factors in geriatric inpatients, was assessed at an internal medicine ward in Poland. Patients and Methods. Participants were recruited to intervention and control groups at the internal medicine ward (inclusion criteria: age ≥ 75, acute medical condition, basic orientation, and logical contact on admission; exclusion criteria: life expectancy < 24 hours, surgical hospitalization, isolation due to infectious disease, and discharge to other medical wards). Every day trained volunteers delivered a multicomponent standardized intervention targeted at risk factors of in-hospital complications to the intervention group. The control group, selected using a retrospective individual matching strategy (1 : 1 ratio, regarding age, gender, and time of hospitalization), received standard care. Outcome Measures. Hospitalization time, deaths, falls, delirium episodes, and antipsychotic prescriptions were assessed retrospectively from medical documentation. Results. 130 patients (38.4% males) participated in the study, with 65 in the intervention group. Antipsychotic medications were initiated less frequently in the intervention group compared to the control group. There was a trend towards a shorter hospitalization time and a not statistically significant decrease in deaths in the intervention group. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological multicomponent intervention targeted at delirium risk factors effectively reduced length of hospitalization and need for initiating antipsychotic treatment in elderly patients at the internal medicine ward. PMID:28164113

  19. Nonpharmacological Interventions Targeted at Delirium Risk Factors, Delivered by Trained Volunteers (Medical and Psychology Students), Reduced Need for Antipsychotic Medications and the Length of Hospital Stay in Aged Patients Admitted to an Acute Internal Medicine Ward: Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Stanislaw; Piotrowicz, Karolina; Rewiuk, Krzysztof; Halicka, Monika; Kalwak, Weronika; Rybak, Paulina; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological multicomponent prevention delivered by trained volunteers (medical and psychology students), targeted at delirium risk factors in geriatric inpatients, was assessed at an internal medicine ward in Poland. Patients and Methods. Participants were recruited to intervention and control groups at the internal medicine ward (inclusion criteria: age ≥ 75, acute medical condition, basic orientation, and logical contact on admission; exclusion criteria: life expectancy < 24 hours, surgical hospitalization, isolation due to infectious disease, and discharge to other medical wards). Every day trained volunteers delivered a multicomponent standardized intervention targeted at risk factors of in-hospital complications to the intervention group. The control group, selected using a retrospective individual matching strategy (1 : 1 ratio, regarding age, gender, and time of hospitalization), received standard care. Outcome Measures. Hospitalization time, deaths, falls, delirium episodes, and antipsychotic prescriptions were assessed retrospectively from medical documentation. Results. 130 patients (38.4% males) participated in the study, with 65 in the intervention group. Antipsychotic medications were initiated less frequently in the intervention group compared to the control group. There was a trend towards a shorter hospitalization time and a not statistically significant decrease in deaths in the intervention group. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological multicomponent intervention targeted at delirium risk factors effectively reduced length of hospitalization and need for initiating antipsychotic treatment in elderly patients at the internal medicine ward.

  20. Aging Successfully: A Four-Factor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Yen, Tung-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to validate a model for a successful aging process and examine the gender differences in the aging process. Three hundred twelve participants who were 65 or older completed a Taiwan Social Change Survey that measures four factors that define successful aging process: including physical, psychological, social support, and…

  1. Age and Achievement: The Age Factor in Predicting Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sung-Mook

    1982-01-01

    In recent years a dramatic increase in enrollments of mature age students has occurred in courses of arts, social sciences, and humanities. The main objective of this study was to examine the predictive value of the age factor in the academic performance of behavioral science students at a regional college of advanced education in Australia. (SSH)

  2. Accelerated Aging Influences Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Crowson, Cynthia S.; Therneau, Terry M.; Davis, John M.; Roger, Véronique L.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gabriel, Sherine E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether the impact of aging on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the general population (as estimated by the Framingham risk score [FRS]) differs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS A population-based inception cohort of Olmsted County, Minnesota residents aged ≥30 years who fulfilled 1987 ACR criteria for RA in 1988–2008 was assembled and followed until death, migration, or 7-1-2012. Data on CVD events were collected by medical record review. The 10-year FRS for CVD was calculated. Cox models adjusted for FRS were used to examine the influence of age on CVD risk. RESULTS The study included 563 patients with RA without prior CVD (mean age: 55 years, 72% women; 69% seropositive [i.e., rheumatoid factor and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive]). During a mean follow-up of 8.2 years, 98 patients developed CVD (74 seropositive and 24 seronegative), but FRS predicted only 59.7 events (35.4 seropositive and 24.3 seronegative). The gap between observed and predicted CVD risk increased exponentially across age, and the age effect on CVD risk in seropositive RA was nearly double its effect in the general population with additional log(age) coefficients of 2.91 for women (p=0.002) and 2.06 for men (p=0.027). CONCLUSION Age exerts an exponentially increasing effect on CVD risk in seropositive RA, but no increased effect among seronegative patients. The causes of accelerated aging in patients with seropositive RA deserve further investigation. PMID:23818136

  3. Susceptibility and risk factors in periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Kinane, D F

    2000-10-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a high prevalence of advanced destruction but also that relatively few individuals in each age group account for most of the advanced periodontal disease. The available data suggest that three quarters of advanced periodontal disease could be prevented by targeting an effective preventive strategy on the 28% of individuals especially at risk. Questions remain regarding: 1) whether an acceptable cost-effective preventive strategy can be devised; and 2) whether it is possible to establish a simple method of identifying the 'at risk' group. The various risk factors are numerous and include systemic diseases, smoking, drug therapy, hormonal disturbances and genetic factors as well as the more mundane factors such as plaque control and socio-economic and education and attitude factors. Aside from these factors, many patients present with periodontal disease and have no discernible predisposition other than possibly genetic, for which we can not currently test, and for the vast majority of patients there would appear to be no other alternative to periodic thorough examination for all patients, early treatment of all periodontal lesions and appropriate dental health education.

  4. Disparities in Risk Factors Associated with Obesity between Zanzibar and Tanzania Mainland among Women of Reproductive Age Based on the 2010 TDHS

    PubMed Central

    Mtumwa, Abdalla H.; Ntwenya, Julius Edward; Vuai, Said A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of overweight and obesity has serious health implications. The 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data set was reanalysed to compare the prevalences of overweight and obesity between Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar and to determine how demographic factors can predict overweight and obesity across the United Republic of Tanzania. About 7.92% of the Tanzanian women of reproductive age were obese, 15% were overweight, and 11.5% were underweight. Women from Mainland Tanzania (6.56%) were significantly less likely (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.53–0.82) to be affected by obesity as compared to women from Zanzibar (12.19%). The common predictors of obesity in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar were wealth index, marital status, and age. Whereas the place of residence and education level emerged as predictors of obesity in the Mainland Tanzania alone, the number of meals per day did so in Zanzibar. Most importantly, Zanzibar had a greater prevalence of obesity compared to Mainland Tanzania. PMID:27721990

  5. Future directions in Alzheimer's disease from risk factors to prevention.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Bushra; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka

    2014-04-15

    The increase in life expectancy has resulted in a high occurrence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research on AD has undergone a paradigm shift from viewing it as a disease of old age to taking a life course perspective. Several vascular, lifestyle, psychological and genetic risk factors influencing this latent period have been recognized and they may act both independently and by potentiating each other. These risk factors have consequently been used to derive risk scores for predicting the likelihood of dementia. Despite population differences, age, low education and vascular risk factors were identified as key factors in all scoring systems. Risk scores can help to identify high-risk individuals who might benefit from different interventions. The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI), an international collaboration, encourages data sharing between different randomized controlled trials. At the moment, it includes three large ongoing European trials: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA), and Multidomain Alzheimer Prevention study (MAPT). Recently EDPI has developed a "Healthy Aging through Internet Counseling in Elderly" (HATICE) program, which intends to manage modifiable risk factors in an aged population through an easily accessible Internet platform. Thus, the focus of dementia research has shifted from identification of potential risk factors to using this information for developing interventions to prevent or delay the onset of dementia as well as identifying special high-risk populations who could be targeted in intervention trials.

  6. Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kieburtz, Karl; Wunderle, Kathryn B

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions.

  7. Predicting dyslexia at age 11 from a risk index questionnaire at age 5.

    PubMed

    Helland, Turid; Plante, Elena; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-08-01

    This study focused on predicting dyslexia in children ahead of formal literacy training. Because dyslexia is a constitutional impairment, risk factors should be seen in preschool. It was hypothesized that data gathered at age 5 using questions targeting the dyslexia endophenotype should be reliable and valid predictors of dyslexia at age 11. A questionnaire was given to caretakers of 120 5-year-old children, and a risk index score was calculated based on questions regarding health, laterality, motor skills, language, special needs education and heredity. An at-risk group (n = 25) and matched controls (n = 24) were followed until age 11, when a similar questionnaire and literacy tests were administered to the children who participated in the follow-up study (22 at risk and 20 control). Half of the at-risk children and two of the control children at age 5 were identified as having dyslexia at age 11 (8 girls and 5 boys). It is concluded that it is possible to identify children at the age of 5 who will have dyslexia at the age of 11 through a questionnaire approach.

  8. Prenatal risk factors for childhood CKD.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Christine W; Yamamoto, Kalani T; Henry, Rohan K; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Flynn, Joseph T

    2014-09-01

    Development of CKD may be programmed prenatally. We sought to determine the association of childhood CKD with prenatal risk factors, including birth weight, maternal diabetes mellitus (DM), and maternal overweight/obesity. We conducted a population-based, case-control study with 1994 patients with childhood CKD (<21 years of age at diagnosis) and 20,032 controls in Washington state. We linked maternal and infant characteristics in birth records from 1987 to 2008 to hospital discharge data and used logistic regression analysis to assess the association of prenatal risk factors with childhood CKD. The prevalence of CKD was 126.7 cases per 100,000 births. High birth weight and maternal pregestational DM associated nominally with CKD, with respective crude odds ratios (ORs) of 1.17 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.03 to 1.34) and 1.97 (95% CI, 1.15 to 3.37); however, adjustment for maternal confounders attenuated these associations to 0.97 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.21) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.51 to 2.81), respectively. The adjusted ORs for CKD associated with other prenatal factors were 2.88 (95% CI, 2.28 to 3.63) for low birth weight, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.13 to 2.09) for maternal gestational DM, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.48) for maternal overweight, and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.52) for maternal obesity. In subgroup analysis by CKD subtype, low birth weight and maternal pregestational DM associated significantly with increased risk of renal dysplasia/aplasia. Low birth weight, maternal gestational DM, and maternal overweight/obesity associated significantly with obstructive uropathy. These data suggest that prenatal factors may impact the risk of CKD. Future studies should aim to determine if modification of these factors could reduce the risk of childhood CKD.

  9. Multigenerational Breast Cancer Risk Factors in African-American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    psychosocial, reproductive, genetic and lifestyles ) related to disease risk. Cases were matched by ethnicity and age to two cancer-free women participating in a...Breast Cancer; African American, Lifestyles , Psychosocial 24 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY...have shown risk factors such as age; socio-economic class; race/ethnicity; lifestyle ; and reproductive factors increase a woman’s chance of developing

  10. Risk factors for Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in cattle in the United Kingdom: A farm-level case-control study and assessment of the role of movement history, age and sex.

    PubMed

    Marshall, L R; Prakashbabu, B Chengat; Ferreira, J Pinto; Buzdugan, S N; Stärk, K D C; Guitian, J

    2016-12-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by Taenia saginata cysticercus, the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Recent European initiatives have highlighted the poor sensitivity of current surveillance for this parasite in cattle at slaughter; calling for more targeted, risk based and cost effective methods of T. saginata cysticercus detection. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that could inform such improved meat inspection activities in the United Kingdom (UK). The study included three components: (i) a farm-level case control study; (ii) the characterization of the network of movements of T. saginata cysticercus infected and non-infected animals, and an assessment of the strength of association between having passed through a farm that had previously originated an infected animal and the risk of infection; (iii) the assessment of the relationship between bovine age and gender and risk of infection. Abattoir records and cattle movement history data were used to identify farms of likely acquisition of infection (case farms) and a suitable control group. A questionnaire was used to gather farm-level characteristics and logistic regression was carried out to identify farm-level risk factors for the production of cattle found to be infected at slaughter. The case-control study provided evidence that farms situated close to a permanent potential source of human faecal contamination, and farms which used manure from animals other than cattle, were at higher risk of producing cattle later found to be infected with T. saginata cysticercus at slaughter. No other farm characteristics were identified as a risk factor for this. Analysis of the networks of animal movements showed that some individual farms played a key role as a source of T. saginata cysticercus infection; it was estimated that cattle with a history of being on a farm which previously appeared in the movement history of an infected animal were 4.27 times (P<0.001; 95% CI: 3.3-5.52) more

  11. Glaucoma history and risk factors.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease.

  12. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955–2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Stephen J.; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955–2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0–14, 15–29, 30–49, 50–69, 70–85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0–14 and 15–29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I–III or III–IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  13. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p<0.05). After this continuous variables were dichotomized according to our reference values, the percentage of cases with cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p<0.01; 43% vs 27%; p<0.05; 36% vs 23%; p<0.05, respectively. The percentage of cases with PAI-1 values >30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a

  14. Environmental Risk Factors for ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, Farzad; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past several decades, alcohol abuse and cigarette smoke exposure have been identified as risk factors for the development of ARDS. The mechanisms underlying these relationships are complex and remain under investigation but are thought to involve pulmonary immune impairment as well as alveolar epithelial and endothelial dysfunction. This review summarizes the epidemiologic data supporting links between these exposures and ARDS susceptibility and outcomes and highlights key mechanistic investigations that provide insight into the pathways by which each exposure is linked to ARDS. PMID:25453414

  15. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  16. Risk Factors and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes among Term and Preterm Infants Born Small-for-Gestational-Age: Secondary Analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Erika; Ganchimeg, Togoobaatar; Morisaki, Naho; Vogel, Joshua P.; Pileggi, Cynthia; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Souza, João P.; Mori, Rintaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Small for gestational age (SGA) is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010–11. Methods We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA’s association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants categorized by preterm and term delivery. Results A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%), Nepal (17.9%), the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%), and Japan (16.0%), while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%), Uganda (6.6%) and Thailand (9.7%). The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55–3.28) compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (> = 3) (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83–0.92) was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries. Conclusion Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and

  17. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  18. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Stroke Heart disease risk factors you can control Did you know? In women, high triglycerides combined ... information on Heart disease risk factors you can control Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart Disease Fact ...

  19. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  20. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Cancer.gov

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  1. Early-life factors and endometriosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Kristen; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Holt, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study early-life factors in relation to endometriosis risk in adulthood. Design Population-based case-control study. Setting Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study was conducted among female enrollees ages 18-49 years of a large, integrated healthcare system in western Washington State. Patients Cases (n=310) were women diagnosed for the first time with endometriosis between years 1996-2001 and controls (n=727) were women without a diagnosis of endometriosis randomly selected from the healthcare system population. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between intrauterine diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, maternal smoking, mother’s age at delivery, firstborn status, birth weight, fetal number, prematurity, and regular soy formula feeding during infancy and endometriosis were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for frequency matching and confounding variables. Information on early-life factors was ascertained retrospectively by in-person interview, with information on maternal DES use and regular soy formula feeding directly gathered from the participant’s mother or other family member. Results We observed that women who were regularly fed soy formula as infants had over twice the risk of endometriosis compared to unexposed women (aOR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-4.9). Our data also suggested increased endometriosis risk with prematurity (aOR 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) and maternal use of DES (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 0.8-4.9, adjusting only for frequency matching variables), although these confidence intervals included the null. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that disruption of development during fetal and infant periods may increase the risk of endometriosis in adulthood. PMID:26211883

  2. [Cardiovascular risk factors in Tlemcen (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Latifa, Boukli Hacène; Kaouel, Meguenni

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors were studied in a random representative sample of the urban community of Tlemcen, aged 20 years or older. The study included 805 subjects (participation rate: 72%). This study showed a high prevalence of hypertension (32.7%), diabetes (16.1%), cigarette smoking (17.1%, but 36.8% among men), blood cholesterol levels > 6.2 mmol/L (6.3%) and obesity (19.2% and significantly higher in women than in men: 27.9% vs 10.5%). These results show that the prevalence of hypertension is very high among women, reaching levels observed in industrialized countries.

  3. [Subjective perception of maladjustment risk factors].

    PubMed

    Salomone, M; Romano, L; Esposito, A; Nigro, E; Boggia, B; Napolano, E; Carbone, U

    2007-01-01

    Maladjustment at work results from organizational and relational features of the work, the so-called fourth type factors; they include working hours, ways and contents of working activities, and horizontal and vertical business relations. The study reports the percentage of sensed disturbing factors in workers with maladjustment and disaffection at work. Data have been taken from 1382 white collars, 1117 males and 265 females, observed from January 2006 to June 2007 for Health Surveillance. Maladjustment prevalence was higher in females than in males. As individual variables, ageing and family care increased the prevalence of maladjustment among females, whilst a higher prevalence of maladjustment were found in youngest and unmarried males. A very different perception of work harmfulness were found between sexes. As risk factors, female have denounced more wear and tear and authoritarian management; male denounced physical strain.

  4. Radiation effects: Modulating factors and risk assessment -- an overview.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, R

    2012-01-01

    Following low dose or low dose-rate exposures to ionising radiation, the principal resulting radiation-related risk is cancer. Site-specific cancer risk models have been developed that describe how the radiation-induced risk of a particular cancer type varies with the relevant tissue-specific absorbed dose of radiation. The degree of risk will also be determined by the radiation quality and the dose-rate, factors that will vary between types of radiation and cancer. Risk models also include a number of intrinsic factors that modify the radiation-related excess risk - sex, age at exposure, time since exposure, and attained age - although not all these factors enter into each site-specific model. Of some importance is how the radiation-related excess risk is transferred between populations when background incidence rates differ. For most cancer types, expert groups consider that the radiation-related excess risk in a population depends, to some extent, upon the background incidence rate, and therefore that radiation interacts with at least some of the major risk factors that determine the background risk for a person. For example, the radiation-induced risk of lung cancer depends on the degree of individual exposure to tobacco smoke, but the implicit assumption of the currently accepted risk transfer models is that interactions are a general feature of radiation-related cancer risk.

  5. Risk factors for atherosclerosis in young individuals.

    PubMed

    Misra, A

    2000-06-01

    Atherosclerosis starts in childhood, and is accelerated in some individuals. A cluster of clinical and biochemical factors constitute the risk profile for many of them, perhaps most important being metabolic insulin resistance syndrome. Insulin resistance and its components for children and adolescents, especially obesity and dyslipidemia, are generators of hypertension, glucose intolerance and complications of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Some individuals are genetically predisposed, particularly those with the family history of such disorders. For many subjects, there is 'tracking' of metabolic and lifestyle factors from early age to adulthood. Several new risk factors of atherosclerosis (e.g. level of lipoprotein (a), procoagulant state, hyperhomocysteinemia, low birth weight and adverse in-utero environment, and possibly inflammatory markers) are current and potentially future areas of research concerning children and young individuals. Definition of and research on new and hitherto not investigated factors and formulation of strategies to neutralize the known factors are of paramount importance for primary prevention of atherosclerosis. Simple and effective measures for prevention include increasing awareness of the diseases, maintenance of ideal body weight, regular physical exercise, avoidance of smoking and chewing of tobacco, eating a balanced diet, and early periodic monitoring of blood pressure and metabolic status. These measures, starting from childhood, should be applied to all and in particular to the susceptible offspring, predisposed individuals, and populations.

  6. Cardiovascular risk factor knowledge and risk perception among HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Cioe, Patricia A.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Stein, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected adults. Research in non-infected populations has suggested that knowledge of CVD risk factors significantly influences perceptions of risk. This cross-sectional study describes CVD risk factor knowledge and risk perception in HIV-infected adults. We recruited 130 HIV-infected adults (mean age = 48 years, 62% male, 56% current smokers, mean years since HIV diagnosis, 14.7). The mean CVD risk factor knowledge score was fairly high. However, controlling for age, CVD risk factor knowledge was not predictive of perceived risk (F[1,117] = 0.13, p > .05). Estimated risk and perceived risk were weakly, but significantly, correlated, r(126) = .24, p = .01. HIV-infected adults are at increased risk for CVD. Despite having adequate risk factor knowledge, CVD risk perception was inaccurate. Improving risk perception and developing CVD risk reduction interventions for this population are imperative. PMID:24070645

  7. The learning curve of laparoscopic holecystectomy in general surgery resident training: old age of the patient may be a risk factor?

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Valentina; Bindi, Marco; Rivelli, Matteo; Cumbo, Jacopo; Solej, Mario; Enrico, Stefano; Martino, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A well-designed learning curve is essential for the acquisition of laparoscopic skills: but, are there risk factors that can derail the surgical method? From a review of the current literature on the learning curve in laparoscopic surgery, we identified learning curve components in video laparoscopic cholecystectomy; we suggest a learning curve model that can be applied to assess the progress of general surgical residents as they learn and master the stages of video laparoscopic cholecystectomy regardless of type of patient. Electronic databases were interrogated to better define the terms “surgeon”, “specialized surgeon”, and “specialist surgeon”; we surveyed the literature on surgical residency programs outside Italy to identify learning curve components, influential factors, the importance of tutoring, and the role of reference centers in residency education in surgery. From the definition of acceptable error, self-efficacy, and error classification, we devised a learning curve model that may be applied to training surgical residents in video laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Based on the criteria culled from the literature, the three surgeon categories (general, specialized, and specialist) are distinguished by years of experience, case volume, and error rate; the patients were distinguished for years and characteristics. The training model was constructed as a series of key learning steps in video laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Potential errors were identified and the difficulty of each step was graded using operation-specific characteristics. On completion of each procedure, error checklist scores on procedure-specific performance are tallied to track the learning curve and obtain performance indices of measurement that chart the trainee’s progress. Conclusions. The concept of the learning curve in general surgery is disputed. The use of learning steps may enable the resident surgical trainee to acquire video laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  8. [Risk factors for cesarean section: epidemiologic approach].

    PubMed

    Trujillo Hernández, B; Tene Pérez, C E; Ríos Silva, M

    2000-07-01

    The increase in frequency of cesareans that has been noted through 70's, not diminished--like it was expected--perinatal morbidity and mortality. The most important indications to cesarean are distocias, previous cesarean and fetal stress. In 1998 frequency of cesarean deliveries in our hospital was 35% of the pregnancy attended. The claim of this study was to determine risks factors to cesarean in our hospital. A case-control study was performed, selecting 165 cases (cesareans) and 328 controls (via vaginal). It was determined OR of the risks factors and atribuible fraction. Data were analyzed by X2. The most important indications to cesarean delivery were: distocias (39%, n = 64); previous cesarean (23%, n = 41) and fetal stress (11%, n = 21). There was not significative differences in age, height and rupture membrane time in both groups. History of cesarean delivery gave major risk to another surgical intervention (OR = 12.7, p = < 0.0001, atribuible fraction 92%). Nuliparous (OR = 6.6, p < 0.00000, atribuible fraction 85%), second gestation (OR = 1.8, p = 0.002) or history of abortion (OR = 1.8, p = 0.04) were factors mainly associated to cesarean delivery. We concluded that the precise 'medications of this surgical intervention specially in nuliparous or previous cesarean delivery cases must be replanteated to diminish its elevated frequency.

  9. Gangrenous cholecystitis: mortality and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Önder, Akın; Kapan, Murat; Ülger, Burak Veli; Oğuz, Abdullah; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Uslukaya, Ömer

    2015-02-01

    As a serious complication of cholelithiasis, gangrenous cholecystitis presents greater mortality than noncomplicated cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to specify the risk factors on mortality. 107 consecutive patients who underwent surgery due to gangrenous cholecystitis between January 1997 and October 2011 were investigated retrospectively. The study included 60 (56.1%) females and 47 (43.9%) males, with a mean age of 60.7 ± 16.4 (21-88) years. Cardiovascular diseases were the most frequently accompanying medical issues (24.3%). Thirty-six complications (33.6%) developed in 29 patients, and surgical site infection was proven as the most common. Longer delay time prior to hospital admission, low white blood cell count, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, pericholecystic fluid in abdominal ultrasonography, and conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery were identified as risk factors affecting mortality (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.044, P = 0.005, P = 0.049, P = 0.009, P = 0.022, P = 0.011, and P = 0.004, respectively). Longer delay time prior to hospital admission and low white blood cell count were determined as independent risk factors affecting mortality.

  10. [Risk factors for destructive periodontitis. I. Behavioral and acquired factors (literature review)].

    PubMed

    Gera, István

    2004-02-01

    Dental plaque is a necessary but not sufficient etiologic factor of the destructive periodontal disease. The manifestation of periodontal destruction is influenced by a wide variety of risk factors and determinants. In the introduction the terminology of different etiologic and risk factors are discussed in general. Than the risk factors and determinants of destructive periodontitis are overviewed. In the first part the acquired and behavioral factors and determinates are discussed. Among the local factors the role of the individual oral hygiene, the specificity of subgingival dental plaque the plaque retentive factors and occlusal traumatism are discussed. The hormonal, the acquired immunological factors, osteoporosis and the age are discussed as systemic risk factors and determinants. Among the behavioral factors smoking, psychological stress and socio-economic factors are covered. The second part is going to cover the genetic predisposing factors.

  11. The Role of Unknown Risk Factors in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rafighdoust Abbas; Asadollah, Mirzaee; Hossien, Rafigdoust Amir

    2010-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis of coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction (MI), which is initiated from childhood and progresses gradually by aging. Several risk factors influence its progress, and are categorized as classic, traditional and novel factors. The role of unknown risk factors is becoming increasingly more significant recently. The aim of this study is to underscore the novel risk factors despite the importance of classic factors and consider these factors for future studies. Methods This is a prospective study on 180 myocardial infarction cases, conducted in the cardiology ward and CCU of Imam-Reza hospital (Mashad-IRAN). A number of risk factors identified and evaluated in these patients included: hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, activity, stress, hair of external ear canal and ear lobe crease, age, and sex. Then patients without any risk factor or with one or two risk factors were distinguished. Results The majority of our patients were old men in the age range of 60 - 69 years. Amongst all patients 42.2% were smokers, 68.3% were type A personality group, 19% were active, 81% were physically inactive, 37.2% had hairy ear canal, 35% had hypertension, 21.1% were diabetic, 14.4% had hyperlipidemia and 30% had positive family history of myocardial infarction. Of great interest was the fact that of the patients whose case was studied, many did not have any risk factor or in some cases had only one. Conclusions In regard of increasing rate of cardiovascular diseases and myocardial infarction even amongst the young population, and because of considerable need to improve vascular risk detection, much research over the past decade has focused on identification of novel atherosclerotic risk factors, and some of these new risk factors are identified and some may be unknown. Amongst the new risk factors, inflammation has an important role, other risk factors that must be assessed are homocysteine, serum amyloid, and

  12. Vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, and dementia.

    PubMed

    Duron, E; Hanon, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer's disease) and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors have been found to be associated with vascular dementia but also Alzheimer's disease. Some longitudinal studies, have found significant associations between hypertension, diabetus mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, assessed at middle age, and dementia. Studies assessing the link between hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and dementia have given more conflicting results. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the possible protective effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognition and some trials are evaluating the effects of statins and treatments for insulin resistance. Vascular risk factors and their treatments are a promising avenue of research for prevention of dementia, and further long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized studies, need to be performed.

  13. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  15. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 244,610 children (ages 6-8) investigated birth risk factors for learning disabilities. Very low birth weight, low 5- minute Apgar score, and low maternal education were associated with highest individual-level risk. Low maternal education, late or no prenatal care, and tobacco use were associated with highest population-level…

  16. What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... or no known risk factors. Risk factors for eye melanoma Race/ethnicity The risk of intraocular melanoma ...

  17. Risk factors for criminal recidivism in older sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Seena; Sjöstedt, Gabrielle; Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Sexual offenders constitute a substantial proportion of the older male prison population. Recent research findings, with potential consequences for risk management, indicate that recidivism risk might be lower in older sexual offenders. We followed up all adult male sexual offenders released from prison in Sweden during 1993-1997 (N=1,303) for criminal reconviction for an average of 8.9 years. We studied rates of repeat offending (sexual and any violent) by four age bands (<25, 25-39, 40-54, and 55+years), and examined whether risk factors for recidivism remained stable across age groups. Results showed that recidivism rates decreased significantly in older age bands. In addition, the effect of certain risk factors varied by age band. These findings on recidivism rates in older sexual offenders concur with studies from the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada and may suggest some generalizability in Western settings. Further research is needed to address underlying mechanisms.

  18. Factors of skin ageing share common mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Giacomoni, P U; Rein, G

    2001-01-01

    Ageing has been defined as the accumulation of molecular modifications which manifest as macroscopic clinical changes. Human skin, unique among mammalians insofar as it is deprived of fur, is particularly sensitive to environmental stress. Major environmental factors have been recognized to induce modifications of the morphological and biophysical properties of the skin. Metabolites from ingested or inhaled substances do affect skin, which is also sensitive to endogenous hormone levels. Factors as diverse as ultraviolet radiation, atmospheric pollution, wounds, infections, traumatisms, anoxya, cigarette smoke, and hormonal status have a role in increasing the rate of accumulation of molecular modifications and have thus been termed 'factors of ageing'. All these factors share as a common feature, the capability to directly or indirectly induce one of the steps of the micro-inflammatory cycle, which includes the expression of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells. This triggers a process leading to the accumulation of damages in the skin resulting in skin ageing since ICAM-1 expression provokes recruitment and diapedesis of circulating immune cells, which digest the extracellular matrix (ECM) by secreting collagenases, myeloperoxidases and reactive oxygen species. The activation of these lytic processes provokes random damage to resident cells, which in turn secrete prostaglandines and leukotrienes. These signaling molecules induce the degranulation of resident mast cells which release the autacoid histamine and the cytokine TNF-alpha thus activating endothelial cells lining adjacent capillaries which release P-selectin and synthesize ICAM-1. This closes a self-maintained micro-inflammatory cycle, which results in the accumulation of ECM damage, i.e. skin aging. In this paper we review the evidence that two factors able to induce macroscopical and molecular modifications in the skin, protein glycation and stretch, activate the micro-inflammatory cycle. We further present

  19. Telomeres and lifestyle factors: roles in cellular aging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa; Blackburn, Elizabeth

    2012-02-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that telomere maintenance might be a key integrating point for the cumulative effects of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors on aging and aging-related diseases. It is timely to 'take stock' of where this work has led the field. This review summarizes studies that have examined associations between lifestyle factors and telomere length and telomerase activity. In most of the studies described in this chapter, telomere length was measured in leukocytes (LTL) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), taken from blood draws from the study subjects. Much of this chapter focuses on psychological stress, a widespread factor often intimately tied in with lifestyle or behavioral factors that in turn are related to risks of clinical diseases. Together, these findings suggest that cellular aging is linked to a range of influences, with an individual's life events and lifestyle parameters playing significant roles. Lastly, we propose possible biochemical mechanisms that mediate these associations and discuss future directions.

  20. Suicide Risk Factors in Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motto, Jerome A.

    1980-01-01

    A current focus in evaluating suicide risk is the "clinical model" approach, which determines those factors associated with high risk for suicide. The sociological factors identified as estimators of suicide risk included impaired health, job instability, multiple unit residence, no change in living setting, and modest financial resources. (JAC)

  1. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  2. Parkinson's disease: A risk factor for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Malochet-Guinamand, Sandrine; Durif, Franck; Thomas, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. On the long term, it may be complicated by various musculoskeletal problems, such as osteoporotic fractures, that have significant socioeconomic consequences. Indeed, patients suffering from Parkinson's disease have a higher fracture risk, particularly hip fracture risk, than other subjects of the same age because of both a higher risk of falls and lower bone mineral density. Bone loss in Parkinson's disease may be associated with the severity and duration of the disease. We review here the different suspected mechanisms of accelerated bone loss in Parkinson's disease, amongst which weight loss and reduced mobility appear to play key roles. Antiparkinsonian drugs, particularly levodopa, may also be associated with decreased bone mineral density as a result of hyperhomocysteinaemia. We discuss the role of other nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B12, folate or vitamin K. In conclusion, it seems necessary to screen for and treat osteoporosis in this at-risk population, while actions to prevent falls are still disappointing. A better understanding of the factors explaining bone loss in this population would help implementing preventive actions.

  3. Risk factors associated with injuries in thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, H O; Hill, T; Lowe, J

    1991-11-01

    A case-control study was conducted on Thoroughbred horses to identify factors associated with the risk of breakdown on racetracks. A total of 310 cases (breakdowns) were identified from the Horse Identification Department records kept by the chief examining veterinarian of New York Racing Association. For each case, two control horses were selected randomly from the Daily Racing Form Inc. records. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify and quantify the risk of factors associated with breakdown, while simultaneously controlling for the effect of other putative factors. Factors associated with risk of breakdown were: track (horses raced on Saratoga racetrack were at a lesser risk of breakdown), track composition/condition (turf tracks had a lower risk compared to dirt), number of seasons in race, racing in a later race, number of starts per year, the total number of starts, season (summer had a higher risk than winter or spring) and age of the horse.

  4. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  5. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  6. [Risk factors and pathogenesis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Paknys, Gintaras; Kondrotas, Anatolijus Juozas; Kevelaitis, Egidijus

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on Hashimoto's thyroiditis and its pathogenesis and to introduce the readers to the basic concept of autoimmune thyroid disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease are different expressions of a basically similar autoimmune process, and the clinical appearance reflects the spectrum of the immune response in a particular patient. During this response, cytotoxic autoantibodies, stimulatory autoantibodies, blocking autoantibodies, or cell-mediated autoimmunity may be observed. Persons with classic Hashimoto's thyroiditis have serum antibodies reacting with thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase. These antibodies (particularly antibodies against thyroid peroxidase) are complement-fixing immunoglobulins and may be cytotoxic. In addition, many patients have cell-mediated immunity directed against thyroid antigens. Cell mediated-immunity is also a feature of experimental thyroiditis induced in animals by injection of thyroid antigen with adjuvants. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is predominantly the clinical expression of cell-mediated immunity leading to destruction of thyroid cells, which in its severest form causes thyroid failure. The significance of genetic component and nongenetic risk factors (pregnancy, drugs, age, sex, infection, and irradiation) in the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is also reviewed. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that the genetic component is important in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, although the pattern of inheritance is non-Mendelian and is likely to be influenced by subtle variations in the functions of multiple genes. Nongenetic risk factors (environmental factors) are also etiologically important, because the concordance rate in monozygotic twins is below 1.

  7. Behavior Risk Factors Among Russian Students.

    PubMed

    Anischenko, Aleksander; Arhangelskaya, Anna; Klenov, Michael; Burdukova, Ekaterina; Ogarev, Valrii; Ignatov, Nikolay; Osadchenko, Irina; Gurevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the prevalence of risk factors among Russian students. Methods In this study, 834 students were included from five Federal universities which were localized in four Federal regions of Russian Federation. Future doctors, school teachers, and wellness trainers were included in this study. Students were specifically asked about smoking, physical activity International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and food preference. Waist, hip, weight, and height were measured. Results The region of study and ethnic group were not influenced with respect to age and body mass index ( p > .1), while all other factors had a significant influence ( p < .05). High levels of smoking, hypodynamia, and motivation to intake of unhealthy food were found in medical students in comparison with those in future teachers and wellness instructors ( p < .05). The indicators of central obesity (due to levels of body mass index and waist-hip ratio) were found in medical students. Perspective Special programs to prevent the most common behavior risk factors in future medical doctors have to be designed.

  8. Age-based factors in femicide.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Burgess, Allen G; Koehler, Steven A; Dominick, Joseph; Wecht, Cyril H

    2005-01-01

    Homicide is a topic of interest not only because of its severity but because it is a fairly reliable barometer of all violent crime, especially as it affects women. This exploratory study compared a group of murdered women over age 60 with a group of murdered women 30-59 and included age-based factors for both groups. Discussion focuses on forensics as insight to crime scene dynamics and homicidal behavior.

  9. [Risk factors and protective factors of the insanities].

    PubMed

    Clément, Jean-Pierre

    2007-12-01

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) is multifactorial. How to explain this group of very heterogeneous factors? Many of them can be considered as biopsychosocial risk factors. In other words, the risk factors, in link with the physiological functioning and a physiopathology, are difficultly dissociable of contingencies of psychological and/or social nature. The vital lead could be the stress bound to these variables, be it biological or psychosocial. It remains to ask the question of the preventive efficiency of treatments to relieve the impact of the traumatizing events of life that entail a depressive state or a state of posttraumatic stress. The hippocamp has to be the object of a quite particular attention. AD is a disease of the adaptation. This integrative model combines three vulnerabilities: a genetic vulnerability which would be there to dictate the type of lesions, their localization and the age of occurence; a psychobiographic vulnerability corresponding to a personality with inadequate mechanisms of defence, precarious adaptability in front of the adversity, weak impact strength and biography built on events of life during childhood, then during the grown-up life of traumatic nature, with a psychosocial environment insufficiently auxiliary; a neuroendocrinologic vulnerability which would base on a deregulation of the corticotrope axis, acquired during its infantile maturation, hampered by too premature stress. It would lead to a bad biological adaptability in stress later, at the origin of the observable lesions in the insanities.

  10. Changes in the Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse, Its Risk Factors, and Their Associations as a Function of Age Cohort in a Finnish Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laaksonen, Toni; Sariola, Heikki; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Varjonen, Markus; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined (1) the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences as a function of cohort and gender, (2) the prevalence of factors associated with CSA as a function of cohort and whether the association of these factors with CSA remained the same irrespective of cohort, and (3) whether any cohort differences could be…

  11. Non-pharmacological modification of cardiac risk factors: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Eagles, C J; Gulati, R; Martin, U

    1996-10-01

    Many factors influence whether a person will develop coronary heart disease. Genetic predisposition, gender and advanced age are recognized risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease over which we have little control. On the other hand, high serum cholesterol, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, excessive body weight and long-term physical inactivity are key risk factors over which we have considerable control. In many cases cardiac risk factors can be modified without resorting to pharmacological intervention. Current evidence suggests that individuals who follow a diet which is low in saturated fats and cholesterol, lose weight, stop cigarette smoking and take regular aerobic exercise will significantly reduce their risk of developing coronary heart disease. In addition, patients who already have evidence of coronary heart disease may improve their symptoms and prognosis by similar life-style changes. In the first of two parts, we review the role of exercise in modifying cardiac risk factors.

  12. Prescription Errors in Older Individuals with an Intellectual Disability: Prevalence and Risk Factors in the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaal, Rianne J.; van der Kaaij, Annemieke D. M.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Prescribing pharmacotherapy for older individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) is a complex process, possibly leading to an increased risk of prescription errors. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of older individuals with an intellectual disability with at least one prescription error and (2) to identify…

  13. Risk Factors for Relapse of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Hasanjani Roushan, Mohammad Reza; Moulana, Zahra; Afshar, Zeinab Mohseni; Ebrahimpour, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Background & Propose: Brucellosis is serious disease around the world, especially in underdeveloped countries. Relapse is major problem in therapy of brucellosis. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors of relapse after treatment in patients. Methods: It is a descriptive-analytic study from 1990 to 2014, in Ayatolla Rohani hospital in Babol, Iran. We studied 980 patients with brucellosis. The studied community included patients infected with brucellosis and the required information was gathered based on their hospital files. The base for recognizing Malta fever were clinical symptoms and Para-clinical sign congruent with infection like as, titer SAT>1:320 and 2-ME>1:160. Patients with relapse and patients without relapse were placed separately in two groups. The data were statistically compared with Spss 16, by Chi-square and Cox–regression tests. Results: Based on this study, treatment regimen is a preventive factor (P=0.000). Moreover, Based on some statistical methods, regimens no. 3 and 4 were introduce preventive factors (P=0.001) and (P=0.004). It should also be noted that findings the same statistical model, factors like gender, age, residence, professional contacts, complications and delay in treatment were also analyzed but none of them are considered as preventive factors. Conclusion: Based our finding, we suggest aminoglycosides (gentamicin or streptomycin with doxycycline) are associated with lower rate of relapse in brucellosis. PMID:26925907

  14. Age as a risk factor for the disruption of cognitive performance by exposure to the types of radiation encounted on exploratory class missions to other planets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to the types of radiation encountered in space (particles of high energy and charge [HZE particles]) produces changes in neurocognitive performance similar to those observed in the aged organism. As such, it is possible that there would be an interaction between the effects of exposure to ...

  15. Risk factors for sexually transmitted infections among young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra

    2013-06-01

    Significant numbers of adolescents are initiating sexual activity at age 17 and younger. Little is known about this younger population of adolescents. This includes risk or protective factors for sexual activity and sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition. To safeguard all adolescents from the consequences of risky sexual behaviors, and to insure age appropriate and effective interventions, further study is critical to address risky behaviors specific to early adolescents. This study was a retrospective chart review of 155 sexually active adolescent girls. Students were divided into those who never had a documented STI and those who had 1 or more STIs. Data were collected from a sexual history questionnaire. These data were grouped into risk or protective domains. Domains were made up of 5 items of protective factors, 3 items of peer risks, 2 items of family risks, and 7 items of individual risks. STI outcomes were compared to these characteristics. One hundred fifty-five sexually active adolescents were studied. A univariate and multivariate analysis of risk and protective factors for testing positive for an STI demonstrated that high levels of protective factors reduced the risk of STIs. This suggests that STI prevention programs should focus on increasing protective factors among young adolescents in addition to reducing risk factors.

  16. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors for ACL injury. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in parts 1 and 2. Twenty-one focused on hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors. Conclusions: Several risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex, prior reconstruction of the ACL, and familial predisposition. These risk factors most likely act in combination with the anatomic factors reviewed in part 1 of this series to influence the risk of suffering ACL injury. PMID:23016083

  17. IMPORTANCE OF BIRTH WEIGHT AS A RISK FACTOR FOR SEVERE RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY WHEN GESTATIONAL AGE IS 30 OR MORE WEEKS

    PubMed Central

    Holzman, Ian R.; Ginsburg, Robin N.; Brodie, Scott E.; Stroustrup, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether birth weight less than1,500 grams is a relevant guideline indicating the need for examination for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) when gestational age at birth is 30 or more completed weeks. Design A retrospective observational cohort study. Methods 266 infants in a single institutional neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), whose gestational age at birth was 30 or more weeks but whose birth weight was less than 1,500 grams, were examined according to published guidelines. Infants with lethal congenital anomalies or major ocular abnormalities were excluded. Outcomes were vascularization in retinal zone III without a prior need for treatment, or ROP warranting treatment. Results A study outcome was reached by 212 infants. Two hundred and eleven (99.5%) became vascularized through zone III without needing treatment. Only 1 (0.5%) required treatment for ROP. The 95% confidence interval for the occurrence rate of ROP requiring treatment in this cohort was 0.01 to 2.60%. Conclusion Our results suggest that the occurrence rates of ROP requiring treatment in infants with gestational age 30 or more weeks and birth weight less than 1,500 grams is very low, and could indicate the need to revise examination guidelines for this subgroup of infants. PMID:24582994

  18. Risk factors for fracture in adult kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Kyla L; Zou, Guangyong; Leslie, William D; Hodsman, Anthony B; Lam, Ngan N; McArthur, Eric; Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Knoll, Gregory A; Adachi, Jonathan D; Kim, S Joseph; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the general and transplant-specific risk factors for fractures in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of all adults who received a kidney-only transplant (n = 2723) in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2009. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to determine general and transplant-specific risk factors for major fractures (proximal humerus, forearm, hip, and clinical vertebral). The final model was established using the backward elimination strategy, selecting risk factors with a P-value ≤ 0.2 and forcing recipient age and sex into the model. We also assessed risk factors for other fracture locations (excluding major fractures, and fractures involving the skull, hands or feet). RESULTS: There were 132 major fractures in the follow-up (8.1 fractures per 1000 person-years). General risk factors associated with a greater risk of major fracture were older recipient age [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) per 5-year increase 1.11, 95%CI: 1.03-1.19] and female sex (aHR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.28-2.57). Transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of fracture included older donor age (5-year increase) (aHR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02-1.17) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) caused by diabetes (aHR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.09-2.72) or cystic kidney disease (aHR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.08-2.78) (compared to glomerulonephritis as the reference cause). Risk factors across the two fracture locations were not consistent (major fracture locations vs other). Specifically, general risk factors associated with an increased risk of other fractures were diabetes and a fall with hospitalization prior to transplantation, while length of time on dialysis, and renal vascular disease and other causes of ESRD were the transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of other fractures. CONCLUSION: Both general and transplant-specific risk factors were associated with a higher risk of fractures in kidney transplant

  19. Growth factors, aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Priya; Longo, Valter D

    2016-06-01

    Simple organisms including yeast and flies with mutations in the IGF-1 and Tor-S6K pathways are dwarfs, are highly protected from toxins, and survive up to 3 times longer. Similarly, dwarf mice with deficiencies in the growth hormone-IGF-I axis are also long lived and protected from diseases. We recently reported that humans with Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency (GHRD) rarely develop cancer or diabetes. These findings are in agreement with the effect of defects in the Tor-S6K pathways in causing dwarfism and protection of DNA. Because protein restriction reduces both GHR-IGF-1 axis and Tor-S6K activity, we examined links between protein intake, disease, and mortality in over 6000 US subjects in the NHANES CDC database. Respondents aged 50-65 reporting a high protein intake displayed an increase in IGF-I levels, a 75% increased risk of overall mortality and a 3-4 fold increased risk of cancer mortality in agreement with findings in mouse experiments. These studies point to a conserved link between proteins and amino acids, GHR-IGF-1/insulin, Tor-S6k signaling, aging, and diseases.

  20. Gene variants as risk factors for gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Schultz, Kathleen; Tom, Lauren; Lin, Bin; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Lammer, Edward J.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    In a population‐based case‐control study in California of 228 infants, we investigated 75 genetic variants in 20 genes and risk of gastroschisis with regard to maternal age, race/ethnicity, vitamin use, and smoking exposure. We hypothesized that genes related to vascular compromise may interact with environmental factors to affect the risk of gastroschisis. Haplotypes were constructed for 75 gene variants using the HaploView program. Risk for gastroschisis associated with each gene variant was calculated for both the homozygotes and the heterozygotes, with the homozygous wildtypes as the referent. Risks were estimated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by logistic regression. We found 11 gene variants with increased risk and four variants with decreased risk of gastroschisis for heterozygous (ORh) or homozygous variants (ORv) genotypes. These included NOS3 (rs1036145) ORh = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.7); NOS3 (rs10277237) ORv = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.3–6.0); ADD1 (rs12503220) ORh = 2.9 (95% CI: 1.6–5.4), GNB3 (rs5443) ORh = 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1–0.5), ORv = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.9); ICAM1 (rs281428) ORv = 6.9 (95% CI: 2.1–22.9), ICAM1 (rs3093030) ORv = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2–5.6); ICAM4 (rs281438) ORv = 4.9 (95% CI: 1.4–16.6), ICAM5 (rs281417) ORh = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1–4.1), ORv = 4.8 (95% CI: 1.7–13.6); ICAM5 (rs281440) ORh = 23.7 (95% CI: 5.5–102.5), ORv = 20.6 (95% CI: 3.4–124.3); ICAM5 (rs2075741) ORv = 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1–4.4); NAT1 ORv = 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1–0.9). There were additional associations between several gene variants and gastroschisis among women aged 20–24 and among mothers with and without vitamin use. NOS3, ADD1, ICAM1, ICAM4, and ICAM5 warrant further investigation in additional populations and with the interaction of additional environmental exposures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27616475

  1. Birth defects: Risk factors and consequences.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Ive Ferreira; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Birth defects (BDs) or congenital anomalies include all structural and functional alterations in embryonic or fetal development resulting from genetic, environmental or unknown causes, which result in physical and/or mental impairment. BDs occur in about 3% of newborn babies and in most cases of pregnancy loss. BDs are a very complex and heterogeneous group of single or multiple changes that, in most cases, are of unknown etiology. Among the risk factors are advanced maternal and paternal ages, parental consanguinity, teratogenic agents such as infectious agents and drugs, and poor nutrition, in particular folic acid deficiency. One of the consequences of these defects is the high death rate within the first year of life. Information on BDs is becoming increasingly more important throughout the world so that preventive measures can be taken. Knowledge of BDs enables the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies besides adequate genetic counseling.

  2. Short-Term Complexity of Cardiac Autonomic Control during Sleep: REM as a Potential Risk Factor for Cardiovascular System in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chellappa, Sarah L.; Casali, Karina Rabello; Porta, Alberto; Montano, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Sleep is a complex phenomenon characterized by important modifications throughout life and by changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Aging is associated with a reduction of the overall heart rate variability (HRV) and a decrease of complexity of autonomic cardiac regulation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the HRV complexity using two entropy-derived measures, Shannon Entropy (SE) and Corrected Conditional Entropy (CCE), during sleep in young and older subjects. Methods A polysomnographic study was performed in 12 healthy young (21.1±0.8 years) and 12 healthy older subjects (64.9±1.9 years). After the sleep scoring, heart period time series were divided into wake (W), Stage 1–2 (S1-2), Stage 3–4 (S3-4) and REM. Two complexity indexes were assessed: SE(3) measuring the complexity of a distribution of 3-beat patterns (SE(3) is higher when all the patterns are identically distributed and it is lower when some patterns are more likely) and CCEmin measuring the minimum amount of information that cannot be derived from the knowledge of previous values. Results Across the different sleep stages, young subjects had similar RR interval, total variance, SE(3) and CCEmin. In the older group, SE(3) and CCEmin were reduced during REM sleep compared to S1-2, S3-4 and W. Compared to young subjects, during W and sleep the older subjects showed a lower RR interval and reduced total variance as well as a significant reduction of SE(3) and CCEmin. This decrease of entropy measures was more evident during REM sleep. Conclusion Our study indicates that aging is characterized by a reduction of entropy indices of cardiovascular variability during wake/sleep cycle, more evident during REM sleep. We conclude that during aging REM sleep is associated with a simplification of cardiac control mechanisms that could lead to an impaired ability of the cardiovascular system to react to cardiovascular adverse events. PMID:21544202

  3. Environmental Influences and Perinatal Risk Factors in High Risk Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Scott D.; And Others

    Children in a longitudinal high-risk infant follow-up program were evaluated at age 5 to determine whether they demonstrated behavior problems or cognitive deficits exceeding expectations based on conditions in their home environments. Normal expectations were determined through regression analyses on a group of age-matched controls. All high-risk…

  4. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  5. Risk Factor Intervention for Health Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Lester

    1978-01-01

    Risk factors for disease consist of personal habits such as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and bodily characteristics such as hypertension and high serum cholesterol. Progress in identifying, quantifying, and controlling risk factors is opening the way to the prevention of disease. (BB)

  6. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  7. Self-reported symptoms of chronic cough and breathlessness in working-age men in the city of Izhevsk, Russia: associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors and comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Sarah; Quint, Jennifer K; Vasiljev, Maxim; Leon, David A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Very little is known about the prevalence of respiratory symptoms or their associations with other health conditions in Russia. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, a sample of 983 men resident in Izhevsk, Russia, took part in a cross-sectional survey. Presence of respiratory symptoms was determined from self-report of chronic productive cough and breathlessness assessed using the British Medical Research Council (MRC) breathlessness scale. Self-reported physical and mental health were measured using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Hypertension was assessed from mean blood pressure measured at the health check and/or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. Other comorbidities were assessed from self-report. Logistic regression models were fitted assessing the association between respiratory symptoms and comorbidities. Linear regression models were fitted to investigate the association between respiratory symptoms and self-reported health scores. All models were adjusted for age, education and smoking status. Results The age-standardised prevalence of cough and breathlessness was 20.9% (prevalence with breathlessness MRC grade 3 or above 3.7%). The majority of men with respiratory symptoms (87.3%) were current smokers. Cough and breathlessness were associated with substantially worse self-reported physical and mental health (test for trend with severity of breathlessness p<0.001). Those with chronic cough and grade 3 or above breathlessness had higher odds of having hypertension (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.36 to 6.74), diabetes (OR 10.55; 95% CI 2.69 to 41.37), angina pectoris (OR 7.54; 95% CI 3.61 to 15.73), previous myocardial infarction (OR 7.61; 95% CI 2.10 to 27.4) and previous stroke (OR 6.61; 95% CI 1.75 to 23.34) compared with those without respiratory symptoms. Conclusions The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high. Strong associations were found between respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular comorbidities. These are of

  8. What Are the Risk Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... at some workplaces that increase risk include asbestos, arsenic, diesel exhaust, and some forms of silica and ... For more information, visit Lung Cancer Prevention. Also, arsenic in drinking water (primarily from private wells) can ...

  9. Association between Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia and Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah

    2014-01-01

    Vascular dementia is caused by various factors, including increased age, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue. Adiponectin is widely known as a regulating factor related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin plasma levels decrease with age. Decreased adiponectin increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin improves hypertension and atherosclerosis by acting as a vasodilator and antiatherogenic factor. Moreover, adiponectin is involved in cognitive dysfunction via modulation of insulin signal transduction in the brain. Case-control studies demonstrate the association between low adiponectin and increased risk of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. This review summarizes the recent findings on the association between risk factors for vascular dementia and adiponectin. To emphasize this relationship, we will discuss the importance of research regarding the role of adiponectin in vascular dementia. PMID:24860814

  10. Predicting Risk of Type 2 Diabetes by Using Data on Easy-to-Measure Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, David M.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Statistical models for assessing risk of type 2 diabetes are usually additive with linear terms that use non-nationally representative data. The objective of this study was to use nationally representative data on diabetes risk factors and spline regression models to determine the ability of models with nonlinear and interaction terms to assess the risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods We used 4 waves of data (2005–2006 to 2011–2012) on adults aged 20 or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5,471) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) to build risk models in 2015. MARS allowed for interactions among 17 noninvasively measured risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Results A key risk factor for type 2 diabetes was increasing age, especially for those older than 69, followed by a family history of diabetes, with diminished risk among individuals younger than 45. Above age 69, other risk factors superseded age, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The additive MARS model with nonlinear terms had an area under curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristic of 0.847, whereas the 2-way interaction MARS model had an AUC of 0.851, a slight improvement. Both models had an 87% accuracy in classifying diabetes status. Conclusion Statistical models of type 2 diabetes risk should allow for nonlinear associations; incorporation of interaction terms into the MARS model improved its performance slightly. Robust statistical manipulation of risk factors commonly measured noninvasively in clinical settings might provide useful estimates of type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:28278129

  11. Risk factors for road traffic accidents in cats up to age 12 months that were registered between 2010 and 2013 with the UK pet cat cohort ('Bristol Cats').

    PubMed

    Wilson, J L; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Murray, J K

    2017-02-25

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a common cause of death and injury in domestic cats, and a concern to many owners. This study assessed potential risk factors for RTAs in cats up to 12 months of age within a UK cat cohort known as 'The Bristol Cats study'. Data were obtained from three questionnaires, completed by cat owners when their cats were approximately 8-16 weeks old, 6 months old and 12 months old. Information was gathered regarding environmental conditions, cat characteristics and owner management factors. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations between these factors and RTAs. Of 1264 eligible study cats, 49 (3.9 per cent) had been involved in an RTA, of which 71.4 per cent (35/49) were known to result in fatal injuries. Rural locations were associated with a higher odds of RTAs than towns, cities or suburban locations. An increased odds of an RTA was also associated with cats that were reported by their owners to hunt at the roadside, as well as cats whose owners classified the road by their house as being a 'long straight section of road'. No significant associations were found between coat colour, breed, sex or neuter status and the odds of an RTA.

  12. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are immediately debilitating and can cause long-term consequences, including the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 1 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors for injury to the ACL from the current peer-reviewed literature. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic studies that utilized the case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in the review, and 30 of these studies focused on neuromuscular and anatomic risk factors. Conclusions: Several anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex and specific measures of bony geometry of the knee joint, including decreased intercondylar femoral notch size, decreased depth of concavity of the medial tibial plateau, increased slope of the tibial plateaus, and increased anterior-posterior knee laxity. These risk factors most likely act in combination to influence the risk of ACL injury; however, multivariate risk models that consider all the aforementioned risk factors in combination have not been established to explore this interaction. PMID:23016072

  13. Age-related changes in physical fall risk factors: results from a 3 year follow-up of community dwelling older adults in Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bird, Marie-Louise; Pittaway, Jane K; Cuisick, Isobel; Rattray, Megan; Ahuja, Kiran D K

    2013-11-11

    As the population ages, fall rates are expected to increase, leading to a rise in accidental injury and injury-related deaths, and placing an escalating burden on health care systems. Sixty-nine independent community-dwelling adults (60-85 years, 18 males) had their leg strength, physical activity levels and their annual fall rate assessed at two timepoints over three years, (summer 2010 and summer 2013) monitoring balance. Force platform measures of medio-lateral sway range increased significantly under conditions of eyes open (mean difference MD 2.5 cm; 95% CI 2.2 to 2.8 cm) and eyes closed (MD 3.2 cm; 95% CI 2.8 to 3.6 cm), respectively (all p < 0.001) indicating worsening static balance control. Dynamic balance showed similar changes (p < 0.036). Leg strength was not significantly different between visits (p > 0.26). Physical activity reduced significantly (MD -909 Cal/week; 95% CI -347 to -1,470 Cal/week; p = 0.002) during the course of the study. Participants maintained aerobic activities, however resistance and balance exercise levels decreased non-significantly. The likelihood of falling was higher at the end of the study compared to the first timepoint (odds ratio 1.93, 95% CI 0.94 to 3.94; p = 0.07). Results of this study indicate that despite maintenance of leg strength there was an increase in medio-lateral sway over a relatively short time frame, with higher than expected increases in fall rates.

  14. Radical and Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    correlations between solar radiation and breast cancer mortality rates, as well as experimental findings. In vitro studies have demonstrated that 1,25...positively associated with solar radiation levels. Other factors that affect the production of vitamin D include host factors such as age, melatonin...correlated with solar radiation [Garland 1990, Gorham 1989, Gorham 1990, Morabia 1992]. Although the prevalence of breast cancer risk factors varies across

  15. [Risk factors of main cancer sites].

    PubMed

    Uleckiene, Saule; Didziapetriene, Janina; Griciūte, Liudvika Laima; Urbeliene, Janina; Kasiulevicius, Vytautas; Sapoka, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a system of various measures devoted to avoid this disease. Primary cancer prevention means the identification, avoidance, or destruction of known risk factors. The main risk factors are smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, occupational factors, environmental pollution, electromagnetic radiation, infection, medicines, reproductive hormones, and lack of physical activity. Approximately one-third of cancers can be avoided by implementing various preventive measures. The aim of this article was to acquaint medical students, family doctors with risk factors of main cancer sites (lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate).

  16. Mid-adulthood risk factor profiles for CKD.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Gearoid M; Preis, Sarah R; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Fox, Caroline S

    2014-11-01

    Early identification of CKD risk factors may allow risk factor modification and prevention of CKD progression. We investigated the hypothesis that risk factors are present ≥30 years before the diagnosis of CKD in a case-control study using data from the Framingham Offspring Study. Patients with incident CKD (eGFR≤60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at examination cycles 6, 7, and 8 were age- and sex-matched 1:2 to patients without CKD at baseline (examination 5). CKD risk factors were measured at each examination cycle. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, and time period, were constructed to compare risk factor profiles at each time point between cases and controls. During follow-up, 441 new cases of CKD were identified and matched to 882 controls (mean age 69.2 years, 52.4% women). Those who ultimately developed CKD were more likely to have hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.51), obesity (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.59), and higher triglyceride levels (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.83) 30 years before CKD diagnosis, and were more likely to have hypertension (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.79), higher triglyceride levels (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.64), lower HDLc (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.97), and diabetes (OR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.59 to 5.29) 20 years before CKD diagnosis. These findings demonstrate that risk factors for CKD are identifiable ≥30 years before diagnosis and suggest the importance of early risk factor identification in patients at risk for CKD.

  17. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  18. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  19. Risk factors for early recurrence after inguinal hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Family history, male gender and age are significant risk factors for inguinal hernia disease. Family history provides evidence for a genetic trait and could explain early recurrence after inguinal hernia repair despite technical advance at least in a subgroup of patients. This study evaluates if age and family history can be identified as risk factors for early recurrence after primary hernia repair. Methods We performed an observational cohort study for 75 patients having at least two recurrent hernias. The impact of age, gender and family history on the onset of primary hernias, age at first recurrence and recurrence rates was investigated. Results 44% (33/75) of recurrent hernia patients had a family history and primary as well as recurrent hernias occurred significantly earlier in this group (p = 0.04). The older the patients were at onset the earlier they got a recurrent hernia. Smoking could be identified as on additional risk factor for early onset of hernia disease but not for hernia recurrence. Conclusion Our data reveal an increased incidence of family history for recurrent hernia patients when compared with primary hernia patients. Patients with a family history have their primary hernias as well as their recurrence at younger age then patients without a family history. Though recurrent hernia has to be regarded as a disease caused by multiple factors, a family history may be considered as a criterion to identify the risk for recurrence before the primary operation. PMID:20003183

  20. A review of cardiovascular risk factors in US military personnel.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Leigh K; Turner, Barbara S; Stotts, Nancy A; Dracup, Kathleen A

    2008-01-01

    As the civilian population exhibits increasing trends in major cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in younger age groups, the US military is observing similar trends. These worrisome developments are seen even in young adulthood. Despite the need for a fit, combat-ready force, increases in CV risk are increasingly evident in the military population. This review provides an overview of coronary artery disease in the young and the prevalence of risk factors in the military population. With increases in current military operations in an acutely stressful environment, the role of stress and the manifestation of CV disease are also examined.

  1. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Butler, J.P.

    1999-12-01

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations.

  2. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors among Stroke Survivors in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Taritei

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of stroke risk factors is expected to reduce the incidence of stroke—whether first-ever or recurrent. This study examined knowledge of stroke risk factors and its determinants among stroke survivors. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of consenting stroke survivors at two physiotherapy facilities in Nigeria was carried out. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained and knowledge of stroke risk factors (defined as the ability to mention at least one correct risk factor) was assessed using open-ended questionnaire. Data were treated with descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results. Sixty-nine stroke survivors (male = 72.5%; mean ± SD age = 49.7 ± 10.6 years) participated in the study. Thirty-four (49.4%) participants had knowledge of stroke risk factors. Only educational level was significantly associated with knowledge and participants with tertiary educational qualification were about 48 times (odds ratio = 48.5; CI = 7.6–309.8; P < 0.0001) more likely to be knowledgeable than those with no education. Conclusion. Less than half of the participants had knowledge of stroke risk factors. Participants with tertiary education were significantly more knowledgeable than those with lower educational qualifications. Effective means of educating stroke survivors on stroke risk factors should be identified and adopted. PMID:27882262

  3. Epidemiology of endocrine-related risk factors for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian and other hormones are major determinants of breast cancer risk. Particularly important is the accumulative exposure of the breast to circulating levels of the ovarian hormones estradiol and progesterone. A number of breast cancer risk factors can be understood in light of how they affect women's hormone profiles. Age is a marker for the onset and cessation of ovarian activity. Racial differences in hormone profiles correlate with breast cancer incidence patterns. Age at menarche not only serves as the chronological indicator of the onset of ovarian activity, but as a predictor of ovulatory frequency during adolescence and hormone levels in young adults, and has a long-lasting influence on risk. Age at menopause, another established breast cancer risk factor, marks the cessation of ovarian activity. Pregnancy history and lactation experience also are hormonal markers of breast cancer risk. Postmenopausal obesity, which is associated with higher levels of estrogen following cessation of ovarian activity, increases breast cancer risk, whereas physical activity, which can limit menstrual function, reduces risk. A relatively recent area of investigation is prenatal exposures like preeclampsia and low birth weight; both may be associated with lower in utero exposure to estrogen and also may predict lower breast cancer risk as an adult. Improved understanding of these exposures and their potential interactions with breast cancer susceptibility genes may, in the future, improve our prospects for breast cancer prevention.

  4. Tailored, iterative, printed dietary feedback is as effective as group education in improving dietary behaviours: results from a randomised control trial in middle-aged adults with cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tailored nutrition interventions have been shown to be more effective than non-tailored materials in changing dietary behaviours, particularly fat intake and fruit and vegetable intake. But further research examining efficacy of tailored nutrition education in comparison to other nutrition education methods and across a wider range of dietary behaviours is needed. The Stages to Healthy Eating Patterns Study (STEPs) was an intervention study, in middle-aged adults with cardiovascular risk factors, to examine the effectiveness of printed, tailored, iterative dietary feedback delivered by mail in improving short-term dietary behaviour in the areas of saturated fat, fruit, vegetable and grain and cereal intake. Methods STEPs was a 3-month randomised controlled trial with a pre and post-test design. There were three experimental conditions: 1) tailored, iterative, printed dietary feedback (TF) with three instalments mail-delivered over a 3-month period that were re-tailored to most recent assessment of dietary intake, intention to change and assessment of self-adequacy of dietary intake. Tailoring for dietary intake was performed on data from a validated 63-item combination FFQ designed for the purpose 2) small group nutrition education sessions (GE): consisting of two 90-minute dietitian-led small group nutrition education sessions and 3) and a wait-listed control (C) group who completed the dietary measures and socio-demographic questionnaires at baseline and 3-months later. Dietary outcome measures in the areas of saturated fat intake (g), and the intake of fruit (serves), vegetables (serves), grain and cereals as total and wholegrain (serves) were collected using 7-day estimated dietary records. Descriptive statistics, paired t-tests and general linear models adjusted for baseline dietary intake, age and gender were used to examine the effectiveness of different nutrition interventions. Results The TF group reported a significantly greater increase in

  5. Oral parafunctions as risk factors for diagnostic TMD subgroups.

    PubMed

    Michelotti, A; Cioffi, I; Festa, P; Scala, G; Farella, M

    2010-03-01

    The frequency of diurnal clenching and/or grinding and nail-biting habits was assessed in patients affected by temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and in healthy controls in order to investigate the possible association between these oral parafunctions and different diagnostic subgroups of TMDs. The case group included 557 patients (127 men, mean age +/- SD = 34.5 +/- 15.4 years; 430 women, mean age +/- SD = 32.9 +/- 14.1 years) affected by myofascial pain or disc displacement or arthralgia/arthritis/arthrosis. The control group included 111 healthy subjects (55 men, mean age +/- SD = 37 +/- 15.2 years; 56 women, mean age +/- SD = 38.2 +/- 13.8 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between oral parafunctions and TMDs, after adjusting for age and gender. Daytime clenching/grinding was a significant risk factor for myofascial pain (odds ratio (OR) = 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0-7.8) and for disc displacement (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.3), nail biting was not associated to any of the subgroups investigated. Female gender was a significant risk factor for myofascial pain (OR = 3.8; 95% CI: 2.4-6.1), whereas the risk factor for developing disc displacement decreased with ageing. No association was found between gender, age and arthralgia/arthritis/arthrosis.

  6. Concussion risk factors and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Hamish A

    2014-12-01

    Concussion in children is frequently related to participation in sports. It requires a traumatic event to occur that transmits acceleration to the brain. Some children may have intrinsic risk factors that place them at greater risk for this type of injury. Comorbidities such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, migraine headaches, and mood disorders may place athletes at increased risk of more severe injury. A previous concussion is probably the most important influence on risk for future injury. Extrinsic risk factors include coaching techniques, officiating, and choice of sport. Helmet choice does not diminish concussion risk, nor does the use of mouth guards. Education of athletes, coaches, parents, and physicians is very important in improving recognition of potential concussive injury and helping child athletes and their parents understand the risks involved in sport participation.

  7. Cardiovascular disease and modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Christopher P

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and many parts of the world. Potentially modifiable risk factors for CVD include tobacco use, physical inactivity, hypertension, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a cluster of interrelated metabolic risk factors. Over the last several decades, efforts to prevent or treat CVD risk factors have resulted in significantly lower rates of CVD-related mortality. However, many patients never achieve adequate control of CVD risk factors even when these factors have been identified. In addition, the growing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) threatens to undermine the improvements in CVD that have been achieved. In the United States, approximately two thirds of adults are overweight or obese, and even modest excess body weight is associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD-related mortality. Lifestyle interventions to promote weight loss reduce the risk of CVD-related illness but are difficult for patients to sustain over long periods of time. The increased incidence of obesity has also contributed to significant increases in the prevalence of other important CVD risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 DM. Pharmacologic therapies are currently available to address individual CVD risk factors, and others are being evaluated, including endocannabinoid receptor antagonists, inhibitors of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtypes alpha and gamma, and several agents that modulate the activity of glucagon-like peptide-1. The new agents have the potential to significantly improve several CVD risk factors with a single medication and may provide clinicians with several new strategies to reduce the long-term risk of CVD.

  8. Atherosclerosis risk factors in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Surabhi; Elliott, Jennifer R; Manzi, Susan

    2009-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Growing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from initial endothelial dysfunction to rupture of atheromatous plaques. The increased frequency of atherosclerosis in SLE is likely due to a complex interplay among traditional risk factors, disease-related factors such as medications and disease activity, and inflammatory and immunogenic factors. Identification of these novel risk factors will lead to a better understanding of CVD pathogenesis and may also provide targets for potential treatment strategies. When caring for SLE patients, clinicians should be aware of the increased CVD risk and treat the known modifiable risk factors in addition to controlling disease activity and inflammation.

  9. Prenatal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Autism in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Lv, Cong-Chao; Tian, Jiang; Miao, Ru-Juan; Xi, Wei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a case–control study using 190 Han children with and without autism to investigate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism in China. Cases were recruited through public special education schools and controls from regular public schools in the same region (Tianjin), with frequency matching on sex and birth year. Unadjusted analyses identified seven prenatal and seven perinatal risk factors significantly associated with autism. In the adjusted analysis, nine risk factors showed significant association with autism: maternal second-hand smoke exposure, maternal chronic or acute medical conditions unrelated to pregnancy, maternal unhappy emotional state, gestational complications, edema, abnormal gestational age (<35 or >42 weeks), nuchal cord, gravidity >1, and advanced paternal age at delivery (>30 year-old). PMID:20358271

  10. Risk factors and prevention of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Storti, S; Crucitti, P; Cina, G

    1996-01-01

    In the last 20 years within the clinical research on venous thromboembolism a major objective was to identify and develop increasingly effective and safe methods of prevention. This trend is justified by the high incidence of thromboembolism as well as by the relevant mortality for acute pulmonary embolism and postphlebitic sequels of difficult treatment. A significant contribution to the rational application of methods of prevention was given by the knowledge of risk factors. Together with acquired risks, as surgery, age, malignant tumors, in the last 30 years some conditions of thrombophilia were identified. They are caused by deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors (antithrombin III, protein C, protein S) or other alteration of the anticoagulation system as resistance to activated protein C or antiphospholipid antibodies. The primary prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism is aimed at the prevention of thrombosis by pharmacologic methods able to oppose the procoagulant alterations while avoiding hemorrhagic complications. The physical methods tend to reduce the stasis in the veins of the lower extremities. Subcutaneous calcium heparin at the dose of 5000 U twice or three times a day is the most common pharmacologic method used. It was shown to be safe and effective especially in postoperative prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in general surgery. More recently, low molecular weight heparin fractions have been introduced. As compared to standard heparin they have the advantage of a single daily dose and a better efficacy in some groups of patients, as those undergoing hip replacement. Among the substances under clinical experimentation, dermatan sulfate seems promising. Most common physical prevention methods consist in the use of elastic graduated compression stockings and systems of intermittent pneumatic calf compression. The former can be used also in presence of a hemorrhagic risk as in neurosurgery. The latter have shown a good efficacy in increasing flow

  11. Infantile esotropia: risk factors associated with reoperation

    PubMed Central

    Magli, Adriano; Rombetto, Luca; Matarazzo, Francesco; Carelli, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with misalignment after first surgery performed on children affected by infantile esotropia to evaluate the reoperation rate. A retrospective study was carried out, analyzing data from 525 children who underwent bilateral medial recti recession, bilateral lateral recti resection, and inferior oblique recession and anteroposition by the same surgeon (AM). Postoperative evaluation included assessment of motor alignment at approximately 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 5 years. Statistical analysis was performed with a logistical regression model in which the dependent variable was the presence/absence of reoperation. We found that late surgery (after 3 years of age) and a family history of strabismus are associated with a higher risk of reoperation, while some clinical factors, including some classically associated with worst motor outcome as preoperative angle, dissociated vertical deviation, and amblyopia, did not influence the incidence of reoperation in infantile esotropia. Male patients and patients with hyperopia in preoperative examinations have a significantly decreased reoperation rate. PMID:27799735

  12. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  13. Risk factors and classifications of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Munoz, Miguel Angel; Fernandez-Aguilar, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Perez, Belinda; Perez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Albiach, Beatriz; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Marin-Camero, Naiara; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2013-07-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor represents more than 50% of all biliary tract cholangiocarcinomas. A wide range of risk factors have been identified among patients with Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma including advanced age, male gender, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, nonalcoholic cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and metabolic syndrome. Various classifications have been used to describe the pathologic and radiologic appearance of cholangiocarcinoma. The three systems most commonly used to evaluate Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are the Bismuth-Corlette (BC) system, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the TNM classification. The BC classification provides preoperative assessment of local spread. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center proposes a staging system according to three factors related to local tumor extent: the location and extent of bile duct involvement, the presence or absence of portal venous invasion, and the presence or absence of hepatic lobar atrophy. The TNM classification, besides the usual descriptors, tumor, node and metastases, provides additional information concerning the possibility for the residual tumor (R) and the histological grade (G). Recently, in 2011, a new consensus classification for the Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma had been published. The consensus was organised by the European Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association which identified the need for a new staging system for this type of tumors. The classification includes information concerning biliary or vascular (portal or arterial) involvement, lymph node status or metastases, but also other essential aspects related to the surgical risk, such as remnant hepatic volume or the possibility of underlying disease.

  14. Risk factors of uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Feng; Lu, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Uveitis is the most common extra-articular manifestation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The prevalence and characteristics of uveitis in AS have been studied in previous literatures, whereas its associated risk factors have not been clarified. Therefore, this study analyzed the risk factors of uveitis in patients with AS. Methods: A total of 390 patients with AS who fulfilled the modified New York criteria were enrolled from January to December in 2015. The history of uveitis was accepted only if diagnosed by ophthalmologists. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed and associated information was collected, such as disease duration, HLA-B27, and the number of peripheral arthritis. Hip-joint lesion was identified by imaging examination. Meanwhile, biochemical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical function. Results: Of 390 patients with AS (80.5% male, mean age 33.3 years), 38 (9.7%) had experienced 1 or more episodes of uveitis. The incidence rate for hip-joint lesion was obviously higher for patients with uveitis than the nonuveitis group (44.7% vs 22.2%; P < 0.01). The number of peripheral arthritis was also larger for the uveitis group than nonuveitis group (2.18 ± 0.23 vs 0.55 ± 0.04; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, patients with uveitis had a significantly higher level of antistreptolysin O (ASO) and circulating immune complex (CIC) than those without (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in disease duration, HLA-B27, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the 2 groups. Binary logistic regression results showed that ASO (OR = 12.2, 95% CI:3.6–41.3, P < 0.01) and the number of peripheral arthritis (OR = 4.1, 95%CI:2.6–6.3, P < 0.01) are significantly associated with uveitis in AS. Conclustion: This study provides some evidence that hip-joint lesion, the number of

  15. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among University Students: The Gender Factor

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Mohammad Y.; Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F.; Tinawi, Lubna; Hamad, Rawan; Keewan, Esraa F.; Matarneh, Sulaiman K.; Alomari, Mahmoud A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that the pathophysiological process of cardiovascular (CV) disease begins at early age, though the manifestations of the disease do not appear until middle age adulthood. Risk factors for CV disease, particularly lipoprotein profiles, are affected by physiological abnormalities, and lifestyle related issues. To evaluate prevalence of CV diseases risk factors among university students and to investigate relation between number of risk factors and body anthropometric, hematological and biochemical indices parameters. Methods In this cross sectional study, 348 students were randomly recruited. Blood glucose, cholesterol profile (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol), and triglyceride were measured using standard protocols. Physical activity (PA) level was assessed using the short-form Arabic version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaires (IPAQ). Results The most commonly encountered CV disease risk factor was low levels of HDL-C, followed by physical inactivity, high levels TG, and obese BMI. When stratified by gender, females were less likely to have low HDL-C, and high TG, whereas, males were more likely to have overweight or obese BMI (P < 0.001). About 49% of the participants had at least one CV disease risk factor, where as the prevalence of having one, two and three or more CV disease risk factors were 35.7%, 9.3% and 4%, respectively. Additionally, the number of CV disease risk factors showed strong positive correlation with increases in body fat and bone percentages, glucose, total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, BMI, and WHR (range of R2: 0.17 to 0.603). On the other hand, physical activity, percentages of body water and muscle, HDL-C showed inverse strong correlation with cardiovascular risk factors (range of R2: -0.239 to -0.412). Conclusions Results indicate the high prevalence of CV disease risk factors among university students, and stress the need for early intervention programs to counteract these risks.

  16. HIV-Risk Factors for Midlife and Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neundorfer, Marcia M.; Harris, Phyllis Braudy; Britton, Paula J.; Lynch, Delores A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The number of women aged 45 years and older infected with the HIV virus continues to increase. This study sought to identify, from the voices of midlife and older women living with HIV, the factors in their lives that put them at risk for HIV, so as to improve HIV-prevention efforts for women of this age group. Design and Methods: In this…

  17. Problem Gambling in Chinese American Adolescents: Characteristics and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…

  18. Infantile colic: maternal smoking as potential risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Reijneveld, S.; Brugman, E.; Hirasing, R.

    2000-01-01

    The association of maternal smoking and type of feeding with colic was assessed in 3345 children aged 1-6 months (96% response). The prevalence of colic was twofold higher among infants of smoking mothers, but less among breastfed infants. Maternal smoking as a potential risk factor for infantile crying needs further study.

 PMID:10999861

  19. Teenage Pregnancy among Latinas: Examining Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan-Ates, Aysun; Carrion-Basham, Carla Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the role of three groups of risk and protective factors (e.g., individual, family, and extrafamilial) that are associated with teen pregnancy. Two groups of Latina adolescents (aged 15 to 19), nonpregnant/ nonparenting (NP; N = 48) and pregnant/parenting (P; N = 46), completed a demographic survey, an adolescent profile…

  20. Risk factors for mild cognitive impairment among Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    O’Bryant, Sid E.; Johnson, Leigh; Reisch, Joan; Edwards, Melissa; Hall, James; Barber, Robert; Devous, Michael; Royall, Donald; Singh, Meharvan

    2013-01-01

    Background While a great deal of literature has focused on risk factors for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), little published work examines risk for MCI among Mexican Americans. Methods Data from 1628 participants (non-Hispanic n= 1002; Mexican American n=626) were analyzed from two ongoing studies of cognitive aging and Alzheimer’s disease, Project FRONTIER and TARCC. Results When looking at the full cohorts (non-Hispanic and Mexican American), age, education, APOE ε4 status and gender were consistently related to MCI diagnosis across the two cohorts. However, when split by ethnicity advancing age was the only significant risk factor for MCI among Mexican Americans across both cohorts. Conclusions The current data suggests that many of the previously established risk factors for MCI among non-Hispanic cohorts may not be predictive of MCI among Mexican Americans and point to the need for additional work aimed at understanding factors related to cognitive aging among this underserved segment of the population. PMID:23643456

  1. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, D. Rose; Haldeman, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  2. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  3. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  4. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  5. [Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

    1993-01-01

    Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors.

  6. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  7. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  8. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients.

  9. [Protective and family risk factors related to adolescent drug use].

    PubMed

    Cid-Monckton, Patricia; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge

    2011-06-01

    This cross-sectional and quantitative study aimed to verify the family's protective and risk factors related to drugs use in adolescents, considering the interaction patterns developed in the family, their degree of adaptability and vulnerability. Participants in this study were 80 female adolescents, from the 1st to 4th grade of high school, who answered a questionnaire. The most relevant risk and protective factors that would influence the situation were established, such as patterns of interaction, degree of adaptability, way of coping with problems, family resources and values. The major risk factors that emerged were the way people confront problems and, within these, lack of religious support and professional support, besides communication difficulties within families. The lowest risks were values, such as personal effort. The results highlight that nurses should assume psychosocial interventions as part of their role, especially among school-age children as, thus, they would be acting as agents in the prevention of drugs use.

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies.

  11. A Bayesian Approach to Identifying New Risk Factors for Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yen-Hsia; Wu, Shihn-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chang, Yang-Pei; Tseng, Kuan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome health conditions worldwide. In this study, we identified new potential risk factors for dementia from nationwide longitudinal population-based data by using Bayesian statistics. We first tested the consistency of the results obtained using Bayesian statistics with those obtained using classical frequentist probability for 4 recognized risk factors for dementia, namely severe head injury, depression, diabetes mellitus, and vascular diseases. Then, we used Bayesian statistics to verify 2 new potential risk factors for dementia, namely hearing loss and senile cataract, determined from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We included a total of 6546 (6.0%) patients diagnosed with dementia. We observed older age, female sex, and lower income as independent risk factors for dementia. Moreover, we verified the 4 recognized risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population; their odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 3.469 to 1.207. Furthermore, we observed that hearing loss (OR = 1.577) and senile cataract (OR = 1.549) were associated with an increased risk of dementia. We found that the results obtained using Bayesian statistics for assessing risk factors for dementia, such as head injury, depression, DM, and vascular diseases, were consistent with those obtained using classical frequentist probability. Moreover, hearing loss and senile cataract were found to be potential risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population. Bayesian statistics could help clinicians explore other potential risk factors for dementia and for developing appropriate treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:27227925

  12. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  13. Risk Factors for Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Silvis, Suzanne M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Zuurbier, Susanna M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Coutinho, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare thrombotic disorder involving the cerebral veins and dural sinuses. In contrast to more common sites of venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as the legs and lungs, CVT mainly affects young adults and children, and women are affected three times more often than men. Although presenting symptoms are variable, headache is usually the first symptom, often in combination with focal neurologic deficits and epileptic seizures. The primary therapy for CVT consists of heparin followed by oral anticoagulation for at least 3 to 6 months. The mortality in the acute phase is 5 to 10% and a substantial proportion of survivors suffer from long-term disabilities. A large number of risk factors have been linked to CVT, although the scientific evidence for an association varies considerably between risk factors. Some risk factors, such as hereditary thrombophilia, correspond with risk factors for more common sites of VTE, whereas others, such as head trauma, are specific to CVT. In most patients, at least one risk factor can be identified. In this review, we provide an overview of the risk factors for CVT.

  14. Vascular Risk Factors: Imaging and Neuropathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular dementia is diagnosed, place the pathophysiological consequences of cerebrovascular disease on cognition in the context of clinical and pathological Alzheimer’s disease, and then to consider the evidence for the role of major vascular risk factors in late-life cognitive impairment, changes in brain imaging and neuropathological changes. Midlife diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity are established risk factors for clinically defined Alzheimer’s disease as well as vascular dementia. The basis for these relationships could either be that the risk factors lead to microvascular brain disease, promote Alzheimer pathology or both. The associations of late-life onset diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity with cognitive impairment are either attenuated or reversed. The role of vascular risk factors in midlife should be the focus of public health efforts to reduce the burden of late-life cognitive impairment. PMID:20182020

  15. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans.

  16. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D.; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Casas, Juan P.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime; Montori, Víctor M.; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Diette, Gregory B.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera, María; Wise, Robert A.; Checkley, William; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Sacksteder, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. Conclusions The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings. PMID:27102029

  17. Age and Adaptation: Stronger Decision Updating about Real World Risks in Older Age.

    PubMed

    Rolison, Jonathan J; Wood, Stacey; Hanoch, Yaniv

    2017-01-17

    In later life, people are faced with a multitude of risky decisions that concern their health, finance, and personal security. Older adults often exercise caution in situations that involve risk. In this research, we asked whether older adults are also more responsive to warnings about potential risk. An answer to this question could reveal a factor underlying increased cautiousness in older age. In Study 1, participants decided whether they would engage in risky activities (e.g., using an ATM machine in the street) in four realistic scenarios about which participants could be expected to have relevant knowledge or experience. They then made posterior decisions after listening to audio extracts of real reports relevant to each activity. In Study 2, we explored the role that emotions play in decision updating. As in Study 1, participants made prior and posterior decisions, with the exception that for each scenario the reports were presented in their original audio format (high emotive) or in a written transcript format (low emotive). Following each posterior decision, participants indicated their emotional valence and arousal responses to the reports. In both studies, older adults engaged in fewer risky activities than younger adults, indicative of increased cautiousness in older age, and exhibited stronger decision updating in response to the reports. Older adults also showed stronger emotional responses to the reports, even though emotional responses did not differ for audio and written transcript formats. Finally, age differences in emotional responses to the reports accounted for age differences in decision updating.

  18. 20 CFR 220.128 - Age as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Age as a vocational factor. 220.128 Section... DETERMINING DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.128 Age as a vocational factor. (a) General. (1) Age refers to how old the claimaint is (chronological age) and the extent to which his or her age affects...

  19. 20 CFR 220.128 - Age as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Age as a vocational factor. 220.128 Section... DETERMINING DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.128 Age as a vocational factor. (a) General. (1) Age refers to how old the claimaint is (chronological age) and the extent to which his or her age affects...

  20. 20 CFR 220.128 - Age as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Age as a vocational factor. 220.128 Section... DETERMINING DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.128 Age as a vocational factor. (a) General. (1) Age refers to how old the claimaint is (chronological age) and the extent to which his or her age affects...

  1. 20 CFR 220.128 - Age as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Age as a vocational factor. 220.128 Section... DETERMINING DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.128 Age as a vocational factor. (a) General. (1) Age refers to how old the claimaint is (chronological age) and the extent to which his or her age affects...

  2. 20 CFR 220.128 - Age as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Age as a vocational factor. 220.128 Section... DETERMINING DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.128 Age as a vocational factor. (a) General. (1) Age refers to how old the claimaint is (chronological age) and the extent to which his or her age affects...

  3. Diabetic Nephropathy: New Risk Factors and Improvements in Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Athyros, Vasilios G

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Patients with diabetic nephropathy have a high cardiovascular risk, comparable to patients with coronary heart disease. Accordingly, identification and management of risk factors for diabetic nephropathy as well as timely diagnosis and prompt management of the condition are of paramount importance for effective treatment. A variety of risk factors promotes the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy, including elevated glucose levels, long duration of diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Most of these risk factors are modifiable by antidiabetic, antihypertensive, or lipid-lowering treatment and lifestyle changes. Others such as genetic factors or advanced age cannot be modified. Therefore, the rigorous management of the modifiable risk factors is essential for preventing and delaying the decline in renal function. Early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is another essential component in the management of diabetes and its complications such as nephropathy. New markers may allow earlier diagnosis of this common and serious complication, but further studies are needed to clarify their additive predictive value, and to define their cost-benefit ratio. This article reviews the most important risk factors in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy and summarizes recent developments in the diagnosis of this disease.

  4. Metabolic factors and genetic risk mediate familial type 2 diabetes risk in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Sridharan; Porneala, Bianca; McKeown, Nicola; Fox, Caroline S.; Dupuis, Josée; Meigs, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Type 2 diabetes mellitus in parents is a strong determinant of diabetes risk in their offspring. We hypothesise that offspring diabetes risk associated with parental diabetes is mediated by metabolic risk factors. Methods We studied initially non-diabetic participants of the Framingham Offspring Study. Metabolic risk was estimated using beta cell corrected insulin response (CIR), HOMA-IR or a count of metabolic syndrome components (metabolic syndrome score [MSS]). Dietary risk and physical activity were estimated using questionnaire responses. Genetic risk score (GRS) was estimated as the count of 62 type 2 diabetes risk alleles. The outcome of incident diabetes in offspring was examined across levels of parental diabetes exposure, accounting for sibling correlation and adjusting for age, sex and putative mediators. The proportion mediated was estimated by comparing regression coefficients for parental diabetes with (βadj) and without (βunadj) adjustments for CIR, HOMA-IR, MSS and GRS (percentage mediated = 1 – βadj / βunadj). Results Metabolic factors mediated 11% of offspring diabetes risk associated with parental diabetes, corresponding to a reduction in OR per diabetic parent from 2.13 to 1.96. GRS mediated 9% of risk, corresponding to a reduction in OR per diabetic parent from 2.13 to 1.99. Conclusions/interpretation Metabolic risk factors partially mediated offspring type 2 diabetes risk conferred by parental diabetes to a similar magnitude as genetic risk. However, a substantial proportion of offspring diabetes risk associated with parental diabetes remains unexplained by metabolic factors, genetic risk, diet and physical activity, suggesting that important familial influences on diabetes risk remain undiscovered. PMID:25619168

  5. Psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal among older women.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robin Y; Della-Monica, Nola R

    2011-06-01

    Although the incidence of breast cancer increases with age, many older women are uninformed about the increased risk and have lower mammography screening rates than younger women. Understanding older women's perceptions of risk might assist health care providers in offering appropriate resources that result in screening. In this study, we explored psychosocial components influencing older women's breast cancer risk appraisal. To identify key psychosocial components of breast cancer risk appraisal, we conducted focus group interviews. Data saturation occurred with four groups (N = 36) of older Black (58%) and White (42%) women with no prior history of breast cancer. On analysis of the data, we found three themes representing psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal with this cohort. Our findings revealed that worry/fear/anxiety, self-regulating empowerment, and realistic optimism were psychosocial mechanisms older Black and White women in this sample used in appraising breast cancer risk.

  6. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors].

    PubMed

    Miliţă, Nicoleta Manuela; Mihăescu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food

  7. Age-Infusion Approach to Derive Injury Risk Curves for Dummies from Human Cadaver Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Pintar, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Injury criteria and risk curves are needed for anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) to assess injuries for improving human safety. The present state of knowledge is based on using injury outcomes and biomechanical metrics from post-mortem human subject (PMHS) and mechanical records from dummy tests. Data from these models are combined to develop dummy injury assessment risk curves (IARCs)/dummy injury assessment risk values (IARVs). This simple substitution approach involves duplicating dummy metrics for PMHS tested under similar conditions and pairing with PMHS injury outcomes. It does not directly account for the age of each specimen tested in the PMHS group. Current substitution methods for injury risk assessments use age as a covariate and dummy metrics (e.g., accelerations) are not modified so that age can be directly included in the model. The age-infusion methodology presented in this perspective article accommodates for an annual rate factor that modifies the dummy injury risk assessment responses to account for the age of the PMHS that the injury data were based on. The annual rate factor is determined using human injury risk curves. The dummy metrics are modulated based on individual PMHS age and rate factor, thus “infusing” age into the dummy data. Using PMHS injuries and accelerations from side-impact experiments, matched-pair dummy tests, and logistic regression techniques, the methodology demonstrates the process of age-infusion to derive the IARCs and IARVs. PMID:26697422

  8. Age-Infusion Approach to Derive Injury Risk Curves for Dummies from Human Cadaver Tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Pintar, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    Injury criteria and risk curves are needed for anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) to assess injuries for improving human safety. The present state of knowledge is based on using injury outcomes and biomechanical metrics from post-mortem human subject (PMHS) and mechanical records from dummy tests. Data from these models are combined to develop dummy injury assessment risk curves (IARCs)/dummy injury assessment risk values (IARVs). This simple substitution approach involves duplicating dummy metrics for PMHS tested under similar conditions and pairing with PMHS injury outcomes. It does not directly account for the age of each specimen tested in the PMHS group. Current substitution methods for injury risk assessments use age as a covariate and dummy metrics (e.g., accelerations) are not modified so that age can be directly included in the model. The age-infusion methodology presented in this perspective article accommodates for an annual rate factor that modifies the dummy injury risk assessment responses to account for the age of the PMHS that the injury data were based on. The annual rate factor is determined using human injury risk curves. The dummy metrics are modulated based on individual PMHS age and rate factor, thus "infusing" age into the dummy data. Using PMHS injuries and accelerations from side-impact experiments, matched-pair dummy tests, and logistic regression techniques, the methodology demonstrates the process of age-infusion to derive the IARCs and IARVs.

  9. Bone metastasis risk factors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Catarina; Vendrell, Inês; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Casimiro, Sandra; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Bone is the single most frequent site for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Patients with bone-only metastasis have a fairly good prognosis when compared with patients with visceral disease. Nevertheless, cancer-induced bone disease carries an important risk of developing skeletal related events that impact quality of life (QoL). It is therefore particularly important to stratify patients according to their risk of developing bone metastasis. In this context, several risk factors have been studied, including demographic, clinicopathological, genetic, and metabolic factors. Most of them show conflicting or non-definitive associations and are not validated for clinical use. Nonetheless, tumour intrinsic subtype is widely accepted as a major risk factor for bone metastasis development and luminal breast cancer carries an increased risk for bone disease. Other factors such as gene signatures, expression of specific cytokines (such as bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 7) or components of the extracellular matrix (like bone crosslinked C-telopeptide) might also influence the development of bone metastasis. Knowledge of risk factors related with bone disease is of paramount importance as it might be a prediction tool for triggering the use of targeted agents and allow for better patient selection for future clinical trials. PMID:28194227

  10. Postoperative delirium. Part 1: pathophysiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Luzius A

    2011-09-01

    Delirium presents clinically with differing subtypes ranging from hyperactive to hypoactive. The clinical presentation is not clearly linked to specific pathophysiological mechanisms. Nevertheless, there seem to be different mechanisms that lead to delirium; for example the mechanisms leading to alcohol-withdrawal delirium are different from those responsible for postoperative delirium. In many forms of delirium, the brain's reaction to a peripheral inflammatory process is considered to be a pathophysiological key element and the aged brain seems to react more markedly to a peripheral inflammatory stimulus than a younger brain. The effects of inflammatory mediators on the brain include changes in neurotransmission and apoptosis. On a neurotransmitter level, impaired cholinergic transmission and disturbances of the intricate interactions between dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine seem to play an important role in the development of delirium. The risk factors for delirium are categorised as predisposing or precipitating factors. In the presence of many predisposing factors, even trivial precipitating factors may trigger delirium, whereas in patients without or with only a few predisposing factors, a major precipitating insult is necessary to trigger delirium. Well documented predisposing factors are age, medical comorbidities, cognitive, functional, visual and hearing impairment and institutional residence. Important precipitating factors apart from surgery are admission to an ICU, anticholinergic drugs, alcohol or drug withdrawal, infections, iatrogenic complications, metabolic derangements and pain. Scores to predict the risk of delirium based on four or five risk factors have been validated in surgical patients.

  11. Multiple jeopardy: risk and protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring.

    PubMed

    Luthar, S S; Cushing, G; Merikangas, K R; Rounsaville, B J

    1998-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to ascertain risk and protective factors in the adjustment of 78 school-age and teenage offspring of opioid- and cocaine-abusing mothers. Using a multimethod, multiinformant approach, child outcomes were operationalized via lifetime psychiatric diagnoses and everyday social competence (each based on both mother and child reports), and dimensional assessments of symptoms (mother report). Risk/protective factors examined included the child sociodemographic attributes of gender, age, and ethnicity, aspects of maternal psychopathology, and both mother's and children's cognitive functioning. Results revealed that greater child maladjustment was linked with increasing age, Caucasian (as opposed to African American) ethnicity, severity of maternal psychiatric disturbance, higher maternal cognitive abilities (among African Americans) and lower child cognitive abilities (among Caucasians). Limitations of the study are discussed, as are implications of findings for future research.

  12. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory.

  13. Constitutional and occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrís, J.; Garcia, J.; Berbel, O.; Ortega, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bladder carcinoma (BC) is the fourth most common type of cancer in males from Western countries, with primary prevention an important healthcare challenge. We review the associated constitutional and occupational risk factors (RF), with greater or lesser scientific evidence, in the etiology of BC. Material and methods Literature review of the last 25 years of the constitutional and occupational RF associated with BC, conducted on MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Risk factors/Genetic factors/Genetic polymorphisms/Epidemiology/Occupational factors and Bladder cancer. Results The main RF were (a) age and gender (diagnosed at age 65 and over, with a 4:1 ratio of males to females); (b) race, ethnicity and geographic location (predominantly in Caucasians and in Southern European countries); (c) genetic (N-acetyltransferase-2 and glutathione s-transferase M1 gene mutations, which significantly increase the risk for BC); (d) occupational, which represent 5–10% of BC RF; and (f) occupations with high BC risk, such as aluminum production, the manufacture of dyes, paints and colourings, the rubber industry and the extraction and industrial use of fossil fuels. Conclusions BC is the end result of the variable combination of constitutional and environmental RF, the majority of which are unknown. The most significant constitutional RF are related to age, gender, race, ethnicity geographic location and genetic polymorphisms. The main occupational RF are those related to aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:23664103

  14. Apolipoprotein E: Risk factor for Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.S.; Thibodeau, S.N.; Tangalos, E.G.; Petersen, R.C.; Kokmen, E.; Smith, G.E.; Schaid, D.J.; Ivnik, R.J. )

    1994-04-01

    The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has three common alleles (E2, E3, and E4) that determine six genotypes in the general population. In this study, the authors examined 77 patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), along with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls, for an association with the APOE-E4 allele. They show that the frequency of this allele among AD patients was significantly higher than that among the control population (.351 vs. .130, P = .000006). The genotype frequencies also differed between the two groups (P = .0002), with the APOE-E4/E3 genotype being the most common in the AD group and the APOE-E3/E3 being the most common in the control group. In the AD group, homozygosity for E4 was found in nine individuals, whereas none was found in the control group. The odds ratio for AD, when associated with one or two E4 alleles, was 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-12.3), while the odds ratio for AD, when associated with heterozygosity for APOE-E4, was 3.6 (05% CI 1.5-9.8). Finally, the median age at onset among the AD patients decreased from 83 to 78 to 74 years as the number of APOE-E4 alleles increased from 0 to 1 to 2, respectively (test for trend, P = .001). The data, which are in agreement with recent reports, suggest that the APOE-E4 allele is associated with AD and that this allelic variant may be an important risk factor for susceptibility to AD in the general population. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Sunburn risk factors at Galveston beaches.

    PubMed

    Shoss-Glaich, Adrienne B; Uchida, Tatsuo; Wagner, Richard F

    2004-07-01

    Although the beach is a well-recognized environment for sunburn injury, specific risk factors for sunburn and their interactions are poorly understood. In this epidemiologic study, variables related to sunburn injury at the beach were analyzed. Beachgoers exposed to more than 4 hours of sun at the beach were significantly more likely to sunburn compared with those with less exposure. Other significant sunburn risk factors were lack of sunscreen use or use of sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor of 15 or less and Fitzpatrick Skin Types I and II. Reasonable sunburn avoidance strategies should include limiting duration of sun exposure to fewer than 4 hours per day.

  16. Epidemiology, risk factors, intervention, and prevention of adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    Rosewater, K M; Burr, B H

    1998-08-01

    Increasing rates of adolescent suicide are a significant health concern and the third leading cause of death for this age group. Recent research into psychiatric, gender-related, family, cultural and neurobiologic risk factors is reviewed. The effects of suicide exposure and media influences are also examined. Although many risk factors have been identified, the application of this knowledge to clinical practice requires further study. The limited number of studies on prevention and intervention strategies are discussed. High rates of nonadherence to follow-up remain problematic. More research is needed to develop appropriate treatments, prevention programs and outcome measures.

  17. Perimenstrual symptoms: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Logue, C M; Moos, R H

    1986-01-01

    This article provides an overview of information on the prevalence of perimenstrual symptoms. Overall, at least 40% of women experience some cyclical perimenstrual symptoms. Although most women rate their symptoms as mild, approximately 2%-10% report severe symptoms. Prospective studies of perimenstrual symptoms indicate that retrospective reports are reasonably accurate among women who experience moderate to severe symptoms. However, among the majority of women with few or minimal symptoms, retrospective reports may amplify the cyclicity of variation in comparison to concurrent reports. A variety of risk factors are associated with patterns of symptom reporting and may provide clues to the etiology of perimenstrual symptoms and help to identify women most vulnerable to them. A woman's age and cycle characteristics are predictors of the type and severity of perimenstrual symptoms she experiences. In addition, a history of affective illness may be associated with increased reporting of perimenstrual symptoms. Future research should focus on developing new diagnostic criteria for subtypes of perimenstrual syndromes, exploring positive symptoms and experiences associated with the menstrual cycle, and formulating holistic treatment approaches that view perimenstrual syndromes as psychosomatic conditions.

  18. Seasonal variations of selected cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gregory S

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews research on selected biomarkers of cardiovascular risk - cholesterol and other lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, homocysteine - in the attempt to determine the existence of a predictable seasonal chronobiological pattern of variation. Studies dating as far back as the 1930s have reported seasonal variations in cholesterol levels. Statistically significant seasonal changes in lipid levels have been found in individuals irrespective of the country where the research has been conducted, and irrespective of the age, sex, ethnicity, and baseline lipid levels of the study subjects. While not all studies have been in complete agreement on either the amplitude (degree of seasonal change) or month/s of highest lipid levels, a strong winter/summer difference has been found in most studies. Existing evidence for an independent effect of season in variation of CRP is weak. Studies have consistently reported significant seasonal variations in fibrinogen levels. While other biological factors clearly interact to affect fibrinogen variability, seasonality appears to be an independent source of variability. Evidence from several studies points to a lack of seasonal variability in homocysteine levels. Although seasonal variability is just one source of periodicity influencing biological function and assessments in clinical practice, for some biomarkers, including lipids and fibrinogen, it is a source of variability that warrants consideration prior to a decision to treat and in assessing response to interventions.

  19. Risk factors for rhabdomyolysis following doxylamine overdose.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young-Il; Song, Jong-Oh; Park, Jung-Hwan; Koh, Soon-Young; Lee, Seung-Min; Seo, Tae-Ho; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to identify risk factors for developing rhabdomyolysis in patients with doxylamine overdose. Patients who were admitted to a university teaching hospital between July 2000 and September 2005 due to doxylamine overdose were recruited. Demographic information, clinical variables, and laboratory data were investigated. Twenty-seven (M/F 12/15, age 33.2 +/-13.1 years) patients were enrolled. Sixteen (59%) of 27 patients developed rhabdomyolysis and three (19%) of 16 patients with rhabdomyolysis also developed acute renal failure. Patients who developed rhabdomyolysis differed from those who did not in the amount of doxylamine ingested, initial serum creatitnine and arterial pH. In multivariate regression analysis, the only reliable predictor of rhabdomyolysis was the amount of doxylamine ingested (P = 0.039). The amount of doxylamine ingested (>/= 20 mg/kg) predicted the development of rhabdomyolysis with a sensitivity of 81%, a specificity of 82%, a positive predictive value of 87%, and a negative predictive value of 75%.In conclusion, rhabdomyolysis following doxylamine overdose was common, occurring in 87% of patients who ingested more than 20 mg/kg. The amount of doxylamine ingested was the only reliable predictor for developing rhabdomyolysis following doxylamine overdose.

  20. Risk factors for and assessment of constipation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sherree; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Constipation commonly occurs in older people, particularly in hospital or residential care settings, and leads to decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. Despite its frequency, however, nurses often overlook the condition. One possible reason for this may be the lack of appropriate tools or scales for nurses to assess risk factors for developing constipation. This article identifies, from the academic literature, 14 risk factors for developing constipation in older people. These factors are then considered in light of four common constipation assessment charts. The article concludes by arguing the need for more comprehensive assessment tools to, firstly, identify risk factors; and, secondly, support the implementation of appropriate preventative strategies that will enable better health outcomes for older people.

  1. Neuroanatomy accounts for age-related changes in risk preferences

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, Michael A.; Tymula, Agnieszka; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Glimcher, Paul W.; Levy, Ifat

    2016-01-01

    Many decisions involve uncertainty, or ‘risk', regarding potential outcomes, and substantial empirical evidence has demonstrated that human aging is associated with diminished tolerance for risky rewards. Grey matter volume in a region of right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) is predictive of preferences for risky rewards in young adults, with less grey matter volume indicating decreased tolerance for risk. That grey matter loss in parietal regions is a part of healthy aging suggests that diminished rPPC grey matter volume may have a role in modulating risk preferences in older adults. Here we report evidence for this hypothesis and show that age-related declines in rPPC grey matter volume better account for age-related changes in risk preferences than does age per se. These results provide a basis for understanding the neural mechanisms that mediate risky choice and a glimpse into the neurodevelopmental dynamics that impact decision-making in an aging population. PMID:27959326

  2. Risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel; Alzina De Aguilar, Valentín; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, tremendous progress has been made very rapidly in the development of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) systems as a major public health initiative. The percentage of infants screened annually in Spain has increased significantly since the EHDI systems have expanded to all autonomic regions. Historically, high risk indicators have been used for the identification of infants who should receive audiological evaluation but who live in geographic locations where universal hearing screening is not yet available, to help identify infants who pass neonatal screening but are at risk of developing delayed-onset hearing loss and to identify infants who may have passed neonatal screening but have mild forms of permanent hearing loss. In this review, the standard risk factors for hearing loss are analysed and the risk factors known to be associated with late onset or progressive hearing loss are identified. The recommendation for infants with a risk factor that may be considered as low risk is to perform at least one audiology assessment by 24-30 months. In contrast, for an infant with risk factors known to be associated with late onset or progressive hearing loss (such as cytomegalovirus infection or family history), early and more frequent assessment is appropriate. All infants should have an objective standardised screening of global development with a validated assessment tool at 9, 18 and 24-30 months of age or at any time if the health care professional or the family is concerned.

  3. Deciding in the Dark: Age Differences in Intuitive Risk Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of risky behavior in adolescence may signal developmental change in unconscious appraisal of risk. Yet, prior research examining adolescent risk judgment has used tasks that elicit conscious deliberation. The present study, in contrast, attempts to characterize age differences in (less conscious) intuitive impressions of risk.…

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Constipation in Adults with Intellectual Disability in Residential Care Centers in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morad, Mohammed; Nelson, Noele P.; Merrick, Joav; Davidson, Philip W.; Carmeli, Eli

    2007-01-01

    The normal aging process is not in itself a risk factor for constipation, but age-related morbidities, immobility, neurologic impairment or specific drugs are risk factors for constipation. This study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and risk factors for constipation in a large sample of 2400 persons with intellectual disability (ID) aged…

  5. Tuberculosis: distribution, risk factors, mortality.

    PubMed

    Kochi, A

    1994-10-01

    About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort.

  6. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  7. Interpreting Hemoglobin A1C in Combination With Conventional Risk Factors for Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Jarmul, Jamie A.; Pignone, Michael; Pletcher, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, but its use for prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in combination with conventional risk factors has not been well defined. Methods and Results To understand the effect of HbA1C on CVD risk in the context of other CVD risk factors, we analyzed HbA1C and other CVD risk factor measurements in 2000 individuals aged 40-79 years old without pre-existing diabetes or cardiovascular disease from the 2011-2012 NHANES survey. The resulting regression model was used to predict the HbA1C distribution based on individual patient characteristics. We then calculated post-test 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk incorporating the actual versus predicted HbA1C, according to established methods, for a set of example scenarios. Age, gender, race/ethnicity and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were significant predictors of HbA1C in our model, with the expected HbA1C distribution being significantly higher in non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic Asian and Hispanic individuals than non-Hispanic white/other individuals. Incorporating the expected HbA1C distribution into pretest ASCVD risk has a modest effect on post-test ASCVD risk. In the patient examples we assessed, having an HbA1C < 5.7% reduced post-test risk by 0.4%-2.0% points, whereas having an HbA1C ≥ 6.5% increased post-test risk by 1.0%-2.5% points, depending on the scenario. The post-test risk increase from having an HbA1C ≥ 6.5 % tends to approximate the risk increase from being five years older in age. Conclusions HbA1C has modest effects on predicted ASCVD risk when considered in the context of conventional risk factors. PMID:26349840

  8. Is polycystic ovarian syndrome a risk factor for urolithiasis?

    PubMed

    Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Karatas, Omer Faruk; Kafali, Hasan; Cimentepe, Ersin; Unal, Dogan

    2013-08-01

    Urinary stone disease is a complex multifactorial disorder influenced by both intrinsic and environmental factors. It is generally known that age and sex are risk factors for urinary stone disease. Also men have higher mean urinary oxalate concentrations than women. In addition, in animal and human studies, testosterone has been shown to increase the formation of urinary stones. This suggests that sex hormones are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of stone disease. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders of women in the reproductive age, affecting 5-10 % of women in this life span. It is characterized with chronic anovulation\\oligo-ovulation, clinical or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound examination. Hyperandrogenism, the main feature of PCOS, may trigger the urinary stone formation besides hirsutism, alopecia and acne. Therefore, we hypothesize that PCOS accompanied by hyperandrogenism may be a risk factor in the formation of urinary stone disease.

  9. Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

  10. Reproductive factors associated with breast cancer risk in northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Hajian-Tilaki, K O; Kaveh-Ahangar, T

    2011-06-01

    Breast cancer is a common malignancy for women in most parts of the world and the incidence in Iranian women is growing. The patients are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The aim of study was to investigate the roles of reproductive factors for breast cancer in Babol. In a case-control study in Babol, we recruited a total of 100 new patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 200 age-matched controls selected from outpatient clinics. Demographic and reproductive factors were ascertained by in-person interview using a constructed questionnaire. Several potential confounding factors were adjusted using multiple logistic model. The adjusted odds ratio showed that having higher age at first pregnancy and abortion were associated with increased breast cancer risk (the adjusted OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.3-13.2 and 2.93, 95% CI: 1.64-5.24, respectively). By increasing parity, the risk had reduced significantly; among women with parity ≥ 5, the adjusted OR was 0.09 (95% CI 0.01-0.7) compared with nulliparous women, and also for each additional parity, the risk reduced by 50% (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34-0.71). The duration of breast feeding was inversely associated with breast cancer risk, while after additional adjustment for parity, no longer the protective effect of breast feeding was observed. Nulliparity, late age at first birth and abortion were the most important reproductive factors associated with breast cancer risk; therefore, it is recommended to women with these risk factors to perform breast cancer screening tests earlier.

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects a ... Myeloid Leukemia Be Prevented? More In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects a ... Lymphocytic Leukemia Be Prevented? More In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... Cancer? Can Thymus Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of ...

  15. Childhood Risk Factors for Early-Onset Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is relatively little research on the childhood antecedent predictors of early-onset alcohol use. This study examined an array of psychosocial variables assessed at age 10 and reflecting Problem Behavior Theory as potential antecedent risk factors for the initiation of alcohol use at age 14 or younger. Method: A sample of 452 children (238 girls) ages 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random-digit dialing procedures. Children and parents were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the age-10 univariate and multivariate predictors of the initiation of alcohol use by age 14 or younger. Results: Twenty-five percent of the sample reported having more than a sip or a taste of alcohol in their life by age 14. Sex, race, and age cohort did not relate to early drinking status. Children with two parents were less likely to initiate drinking early. Early initiation of drinking related significantly to an array of antecedent risk factors (personality, social environment, and behavioral) assessed at age 10 that reflect psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. In the multivariate model, the variables most predictive of early-onset drinking were having a single parent, sipping or tasting alcohol by age 10, having parents who also started drinking at an early age, and parental drinking frequency. Conclusions: Initiation of alcohol use by age 14 reflects childhood psychosocial proneness to engage in problem behavior as measured by Problem Behavior Theory and having a family environment conducive to alcohol use. PMID:21906502

  16. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.53–2.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413

  17. Projecting Burden of Dementia in Spain, 2010-2050: Impact of Modifying Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Soto-Gordoa, Myriam; Arrospide, Arantzazu; Moreno-Izco, Fermín; Martínez-Lage, Pablo; Castilla, Iván; Mar, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Risk and protective factors such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia, physical activity, and hypertension can play a role in the development of dementia. Our objective was to measure the effect of modification of risk and protective factors on the prevalence and economic burden of dementia in the aging Spanish population during 2010-2050. A discrete event simulation model including risk and protective factors according to CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Incidence of Dementia) Risk Score was built to represent the natural history of dementia. Prevalence of dementia was calculated from 2010 to 2050 according to different scenarios of risk factor prevalence to assess the annual social and health care costs of dementia. The model also supplied hazard ratios for dementia. Aging will increase between 49% and 16% each decade in the number of subjects with dementia. The number of working-age individuals per person with dementia will decrease to a quarter by 2050. An intervention leading to a 20% change in risk and protective factors would reduce dementia by 9% , prevent over 100,000 cases, and save nearly 4,900 million euros in 2050. Switching individuals from a group with a specific risk factor to one without it nearly halved the risk of the development of dementia. Dementia prevalence will grow unmanageable if effective prevention strategies are not developed. Interventions aiming to reduce modifiable risk factor prevalence represent valid and effective alternatives to reduce dementia burden. However, further research is needed to identify causal relationships between dementia and risk factors.

  18. Intensive risk factor control in stroke prevention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stroke prevention is an urgent priority because of the aging of the population and the steep association of age and risk of stroke. Direct costs of stroke are expected to more than double in the US between 2012 and 2030. By getting everything right, patients can reduce the risk of stroke by 80% or more; however, getting everything right is a tall order. Roughly in order of importance, this requires smoking cessation, maintenance of a healthy weight, a Cretan Mediterranean diet, blood pressure control, lipid-lowering drugs, appropriate use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, and appropriate carotid endarterectomy and stenting. A new approach called “treating arteries instead of targeting risk factors” appears promising but requires validation in randomized trials. PMID:24167723

  19. Clustering of metabolic syndrome risk factors associated with lifestyle factors and serum leptin in Korean children.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Park, Jin-Koo; Kang, Hyun-Sik

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigated the relationships among metabolic risk factors, major lifestyle factors, and serum cytokines in a sample of Korean children. In a cross-sectional design, we studied a total of 275 children (130 boys and 145 girls) aged 12-13 years. Measured variables included anthropometrics, blood pressures (BP), VO2max, physical activity (PA), dietary intakes, lipids, glucose, and insulin. We explored the extent to which dietary intakes, VO2max, PA, and serum cytokines explained variance in a clustered risk score, which is a sum of Z scores for waist circumference, BP, TG, HDLC, and HOMA-IR, using a stepwise linear regression by blocks. VO2max, vigorous PA (VPA), and leptin were independent predictors for the clustered risk score while adjusting for age and Tanner stage. Our findings suggest that the clustered risk score is associated not only with low levels of VO2max and VPA, but also with elevated serum leptin in Korean children.

  20. Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.

    PubMed

    Elewa, Usama; Fernandez-Fernandez, Beatriz; Alegre, Raquel; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio; Perez-Gomez, Maria Vanessa; El-Fishawy, Hussein; Belal, Dawlat; Ortiz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV) was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV) - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population). Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.

  1. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Differential Profiles of Risk of Self-Harm among Clinically Referred Primary School Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelkovska, Anne; Houghton, Stephen; Hopkins, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Risk of self-harm among clinic referred children aged 6- to 12-years-old was investigated using the recently developed Self-Harm Risk Assessment for Children (SHRAC) instrument which comprises six factors: Affect traits; verbalizing of self-harm; socialization; dissociation; self-directing; and self-appraisal. The SHRAC was completed by the…

  3. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...

  4. High risk factors of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists.

  5. Aging and factors related to running economy.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Timothy J; Manley, Michelle J; Aziz, Jason; Padham, Jamie L; MacKenzie, Allison M

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship that age has on factors affecting running economy (RE) in competitive distance runners. Fifty-one male and female subelite distance runners (Young [Y]: 18-39 years [n = 18]; Master [M]: 40-59 years [n = 22]; and Older [O]: 60-older [n = 11]) were measured for RE, step rate, lactate threshold (LT), VO2max, muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, power, and body composition. An RE test was conducted at 4 different velocities (161, 188, 215, and 241 m·min(-1)), with subjects running for 5 minutes at each velocity. The steady-state VO2max during the last minute of each stage was recorded and plotted vs. speed, and a regression equation was formulated. A 1 × 3 analysis of variance revealed no differences in the slopes of the RE regression lines among age groups (y = 0.1827x - 0.2974; R2 = 0.9511 [Y]; y = 0.1988x - 1.0416; R2 = 0.9697 [M]; y = 0.1727x + 3.0252; R2 = 0.9618 [O]). The VO2max was significantly lower in the O group compared to in the Y and M groups (Y = 64.1 ± 3.2; M = 56.8 ± 2.7; O = 44.4 ± 1.7 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The maximal heart rate and velocity @ LT were significantly different among all age groups (Y = 197 ± 4; M = 183 ± 2; O = 170 ± 6 b·min(-1) and Y = 289.7 ± 27.0; M = 251.5 ± 32.9; O = 212.3 ± 24.6 m·min(-1), respectively). The VO2max @ LT was significantly lower in the O group compared to in the Y and M groups (Y = 50.3 ± 2.0; M = 48.8 ± 2.9; O = 34.9 ± 3.2 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The O group was significantly lower than in the Y and M groups in flexibility, power, and upper body strength. Multiple regression analyses showed that strength and power were significantly related to running velocity. The results from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that age-related declines in running performance are associated with declines in maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory variables and declines in strength and power, not because of declines in running economy.

  6. Risk factors and the prevalence of depression in Mormon women.

    PubMed

    Spendlove, D C; West, D W; Stanish, W M

    1984-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Utah metropolitan area in which a random sample of white, married women with children 14 years of age or younger were interviewed by telephone. Information was obtained on possible risk factors for depression and depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Prevalence of depression was compared in Mormon women (N = 143) who have a high percentage of career homemakers and non-Mormon (N = 36) who have a high percentage of women working outside the home. No difference in prevalence of depression was noted. Risk factors for depression in Mormon women were also studied. After adjusting for confounding, the risk factors were: Less education, little perceived caring from spouse, perception of having less than good health and having a low income. These findings are compared to other studies.

  7. Risk and Protective Factors and Achievement of Children At Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasner, Diane

    A study was done to identify social, economic, and childhood characteristics of high and low achieving children living in adverse environmental conditions, and to test the association between achievement and specific risk and protective factors. In addition, the study identified the most powerful model for predicting achievement by comparing…

  8. Nurse management of cardiovascular risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Diaz, Silvia; Corominas, Hèctor

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, multi-system inflammatory disease. The incidence and prevalence of RA varies considerably between geographic areas and over time; the prevalence of RA in adults aged > 20 years in Spain is around 0.5% (Carmona et al, 2002). People with RA also have extra-articular manifestations, presenting an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk; therefore, cardiovascular risk screening and management strategies are necessary in individuals with RA. The importance of interventions in the management of people with RA and cardiovascular risk factors is recognised by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations (Peters et al, 2010). Rheumatology specialist nurses are well placed to include routine cardiovascular risk assessment for people with RA attending clinic, and to provide educational interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk, such as smoking cessation, weight loss, eating a balanced, low-fat diet and exercising regularly.

  9. Prevalence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk factors among the general population and osteoarthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Yun, Jae Moon; Chang, Chong Bum; Piao, Heng; Yu, Su Jong; Shin, Dong Wook

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the prevalence of possible risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and their age-group specific trend among the general population and osteoarthritis patients. METHODS We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Service that included claims data and results of the national health check-up program. Comorbid conditions (peptic ulcer, diabetes, liver disease, chronic renal failure, and gastroesophageal reflux disease), concomitant drugs (aspirin, clopidogrel, cilostazol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid, anticoagulants, and SSRI), personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) were considered as possible UGIB risk factors. We randomly imputed the prevalence of infection in the data considering the age-specific prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in Korea. The prevalence of various UGIB risk factors and the age-group specific trend of the prevalence were identified. Prevalence was compared between osteoarthritis patients and others. RESULTS A total of 801926 subjects (93855 osteoarthritis patients) aged 20 and above were included. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors became higher as the age increased. The prevalence of each comorbid condition and concomitant drug were higher in osteoarthritis patients. Thirty-five point zero two percent of the overall population and 68.50% of osteoarthritis patients had at least one or more risk factors of UGIB. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors in younger age groups were also substantial. Furthermore, when personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) and H. pylori infection were included, the prevalence of concurrent multiple risk factors increased greatly even in younger age groups. CONCLUSION Prevalence of UGIB risk factors was high in elderly population, but was also considerable in younger population. Patient with osteoarthritis was at higher UGIB risk than those without osteoarthritis

  10. Epidemiology, prognosis, and risk factors in mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut

    2014-05-01

    This article updates current knowledge about epidemiology, prognosis, and risk factors for major complications in mastocytosis. A prevalence of mastocytosis of 1 in 10000 inhabitants has been reported, but underdiagnosis is assumed. The prognosis for cutaneous and indolent systemic mastocytosis is excellent. For more advanced forms of disease, prognostic parameters have been identified. A high extent of skin involvement, increased basal serum tryptase values, and extensive blistering are risk factors for severe mast cell activation episodes in children, whereas these associations seem to be less strong or nonexistent for anaphylaxis and osteoporosis in adult patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis.

  11. Microbial Translocation and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Manner, Ingjerd W.; Pedersen, Karin K.; Haissman, Judith M.; Kvale, Dag; Nielsen, Susanne D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has increased. The adjusted relative risk for myocardial infarction is reported to be around 2-fold compared to that of the general population, which over time is likely to translate into increased absolute risk in an aging population. Thus, delineating potentially HIV-specific pathogenetic mechanisms is crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers of microbial translocation are closely associated with several cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, coagulation abnormalities, endothelial dysfunction, and carotid atherosclerosis. Future studies should investigate whether associations between microbial translocation and cardiovascular risk factors will translate into increased risk of acute events, and whether strategies to target gut microbiota and microbial translocation might reduce such a risk. PMID:24521167

  12. [Fluorine as a factor in premature aging].

    PubMed

    Machoy-Mokrzyńska, Anna

    2004-01-01

    osteoblasts, stimulate fibroblasts to produce collagenase, and trigger toxic reactions in osteocytes and chondrocytes of trabecular bone. Growing deformations of the skeleton reduce mobility and result in permanent crippling of the patient. Fluoride increases the mass of non-collagen proteins such as proteoglycans and glucosaminoglycans, accelerating skin aging even though protein biosynthesis is generally suppressed. The final outcome includes progressive vascular lesions and disorders of energy metabolism in muscles. In conclusions, the use of fluoride, particularly by dentists and pediatricians, must be controlled and adapted to individual needs. It is worth remembering that fluoride: is the cause of disability due to bone deformations and abnormalities in the musculoskeletal system; reduces the incidence of caries but do not protect against tooth loss; exerts an adverse effect of metabolic processes in the skin; accelerates calcification of vessels and thus reduces their elasticity; inhibits bioenergetic reactions, in particular oxidative phosphorylation, reducing physical activity of muscles. These findings suggest that fluorine may be yet another factor in accelerated aging and revive the dispute started more than two and half thousand years ago whether aging is a physiologic or pathologic process. The understanding of factors modifying the process of aging is the basis for preventive measures aimed at extending life and maintaining full psychosocial activity.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdullatif D; Mehrass, Amat Al-Khaleq O; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Al-Shammakh, Abdulqawi A; Amran, Adel A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) continues to be a significant health disorder triggering harmful complications in pregnant women and fetuses. Our knowledge of GDM epidemiology in Yemen is largely based on very limited data. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence and risk factors of GDM among pregnant women in Dhamar governorate, Yemen. Patients and methods A total of 311 subjects were randomly selected for this cross sectional survey. Health history data and blood samples were collected using a pretested questionnaire. To determine the prevalence of GDM, the fasting and random blood glucose techniques were applied according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, using alternative methods that are more convenient to the targeted population. Poisson’s regression model incorporating robust sandwich variance was utilized to assess the association of potential risk factors in developing GDM. Results The prevalence of GDM was found to be 5.1% among the study population. Multivariate analysis confirmed age ≥30 years, previous GDM, family history of diabetes, and history of polycystic ovary syndrome as independent risk factors for GDM prevalence. However, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 and previous macrosomic baby were found to be dependent risk factors. Conclusion This study reports new epidemiological information about the prevalence and risk factors of GDM in Yemen. Introduction of proper maternal and neonatal medical care and health education are important in order to save the mother and the baby. PMID:26869814

  14. Seroepidemiology and risk factors for sporadic norovirus/Mexico strain.

    PubMed

    Peasey, Anne E; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Quigley, Maria; Newsholme, William; Martinez, Julia; Rosales, Gustavo; Jiang, Xi; Blumenthal, Ursula J

    2004-06-01

    Risk factors associated with transmission of sporadic norovirus (NV; formerly Norwalk-like virus)/Mexico strain were identified in a seroepidemiological study conducted in rural Mexico. Acquisition of Mexico strain IgA antibodies was age-related; 34% of 1-4-year-olds were seropositive, compared with 81% of adults (P<.001). After 12 months, 42% of 1-4-year-olds showed a seroresponse to Mexico strain, compared with 27% of adults (P<.01). Personal and domestic hygiene measures, such as hand washing, general cleanliness of the mother's clothing, and the type of room assigned for cooking were significantly associated with odds of a seroresponse. For infants, having a dog in or near the home was a risk factor for seroresponse (P<.01), whereas, for older children, the mother's involvement in agricultural activities was a risk factor (P<.001). This study provides initial evidence of risk factors associated with sporadic NV infection. Data indicate some similarities to risk factors associated with outbreaks of NV infection.

  15. Risk factors analysis of consecutive exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qianwen; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Xu; Li, Ziyuan; Liu, Longqian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate clinical factors associated with the onset of consecutive exotropia (XT) following esotropia surgery. By a retrospective nested case-control design, we reviewed the medical records of 193 patients who had undergone initial esotropia surgery between 2008 and 2015, and had follow-up longer than 6 months. The probable risk factors were evaluated between groups 1 (consecutive XT) and 2 (non-consecutive exotropia). Pearson chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U test were used for univariate analysis, and conditional logistic regression model was applied for exploring the potential risk factors of consecutive XT. Consecutive exotropia occurred in 23 (11.9%) of 193 patients. Patients who had undergone large bilateral medial rectus recession (BMR) (P = 0.017) had a high risk of developing consecutive XT. Oblique dysfunction (P = 0.001), adduction limitation (P = 0.000) were associated with a high risk of consecutive XT, which was confirmed in the conditional logistic regression analysis. In addition, large amount of BMR (6 mm or more) was associated with higher incidence of adduction limitation (P = 0.045). The surgical methods and preoperative factors did not appear to influence the risk of developing consecutive XT (P > 0.05). The amount of surgery could be optimized to reduce the risk of consecutive XT. The presence of oblique overaction and postoperative adduction limitation may be associated with a high risk of consecutive XT, which may require close supervision, and/or even earlier operation intervention. PMID:27977611

  16. Social and Behavioral Risk Marker Clustering Associated with Biological Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease: NHANES 2001–2004

    PubMed Central

    Everage, Nicholas J.; Linkletter, Crystal D.; Gjelsvik, Annie; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Loucks, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Social and behavioral risk markers (e.g., physical activity, diet, smoking, and socioeconomic position) cluster; however, little is known whether clustering is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Objectives were to determine if sociobehavioral clustering is associated with biological CHD risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and diabetes) and whether associations are independent of individual clustering components. Methods. Participants included 4,305 males and 4,673 females aged ≥20 years from NHANES 2001–2004. Sociobehavioral Risk Marker Index (SRI) included a summary score of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, smoking, and educational attainment. Regression analyses evaluated associations of SRI with aforementioned biological CHD risk factors. Receiver operator curve analyses assessed independent predictive ability of SRI. Results. Healthful clustering (SRI = 0) was associated with improved biological CHD risk factor levels in 5 of 6 risk factors in females and 2 of 6 risk factors in males. Adding SRI to models containing age, race, and individual SRI components did not improve C-statistics. Conclusions. Findings suggest that healthful sociobehavioral risk marker clustering is associated with favorable CHD risk factor levels, particularly in females. These findings should inform social ecological interventions that consider health impacts of addressing social and behavioral risk factors. PMID:24719858

  17. Sudden infant death syndrome: risk factor profiles for distinct subgroups.

    PubMed

    Kohlendorfer, U; Kiechl, S; Sperl, W

    1998-05-15

    The authors investigated risk profiles of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) as a function of age at death. A case-control study carried out in the Tyrol region of Austria enrolled 99 infants who died of SIDS between 1984 and 1994 and 136 randomly selected controls. Early and late SIDS (< 120 days of age vs. > or = 120 days) were defined according to the clear-cut bimodal age-at-death distribution. Inadequate antenatal care, low parental social and educational level, and the prone sleeping position were risk conditions that applied to both early and late SIDS. A marked seasonal variation (winter preponderance) was the most outstanding feature of late SIDS. A gestational age of < 37 weeks (odds ratio (OR) = 8.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-26.0), repeated episodes of apnea (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 1.2-27.0), low birth weight (< 2,500 g) (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-11.0), a family history of sudden infant death (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.5), and maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.5) were associated with early SIDS. This study identified two distinct subgroups of SIDS infants characterized by different risk conditions and ages at death. These results underline a multiple-cause hypothesis for SIDS etiology which involves a genetic predisposition, immaturity in the first months of life, and environmental factors acting at various ages.

  18. Venous and arterial thrombosis during oral contraceptive use: risks and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tanis, Bea C; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2003-02-01

    Since the introduction of oral contraceptives, their use has been associated with an increased risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis. Pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke are serious disorders with a considerable risk of mortality. Because worldwide over 100 million women use oral contraceptives, issues of drug safety are of great importance. The risk of venous thrombosis during low-dose oral contraceptive use is three- to sixfold increased compared with that of nonusers. The association is not only attributed to the estrogen component of the pill: the risk is twice as high for desogestrel and gestodene (third generation) containing oral contraceptives as for levonorgestrel (second generation) containing oral contraceptives. The risk of venous thrombosis is highest in the first year of use and in women with genetic or acquired risk factors for thrombosis. Both venous or arterial thrombosis are unrelated to duration of use or past use of combined oral contraceptives. The risk of myocardial infarction and stroke during low-dose oral contraceptive use is two- to fivefold increased relative to that of nonusers. The risk of arterial thrombosis induced by oral contraceptive use is more pronounced in smokers and women with hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. All types of thrombosis have strongly age-dependent incidences, and therefore in absolute figures the risks and effects of risk factors increase with age. The lowering of the estrogen dose in combined oral contraceptives from 50 microg to 20-30 microg in the last decade did not clearly reduce the risk of venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease. For stroke and peripheral arterial disease no difference in risk was found between second and third generation oral contraceptives. For myocardial infarction study results are conflicting, and a small benefit of third- over second-generation oral contraceptives cannot be ruled out. However, this is

  19. Risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gjonbrataj, Endri; Kim, Ji Na; Gjonbrataj, Juarda; Jung, Hye In; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Won-Il

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods This retrospective cohort study included 237 patients with PE. Patients that had transient risk factors at diagnosis were classified as having provoked PE, with the remaining patients being classified as having unprovoked PE. The baseline clinical characteristics and factors associated with coagulation were compared. We evaluated the risk factors associated with provoked PE. Results Of the 237 PE patients, 73 (30.8%) had provoked PE. The rate of respiratory failure and infection, as well as the disseminated intravascular coagulation score and ratio of right ventricular diameter to left ventricular diameter were significantly higher in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. The protein and activity levels associated with coagulation, including protein C antigen, protein S antigen, protein S activity, anti-thrombin III antigen, and factor VIII, were significantly lower in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. Multivariate analysis showed that infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and protein S activity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.