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Sample records for age sedimentary rocks

  1. Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of sedimentary rocks in a crater located just north of the Sinus Meridiani region. Perhaps the crater was once the site of a martian lake.

    Location near: 2.9oN, 359.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  2. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veizer, J.; MacKenzie, F. T.

    2003-12-01

    For almost a century, it has been recognized that the present-day thickness and areal extent of Phanerozoic sedimentary strata increase progressively with decreasing geologic age. This pattern has been interpreted either as reflecting an increase in the rate of sedimentation toward the present (Barrell, 1917; Schuchert, 1931; Ronov, 1976) or as resulting from better preservation of the younger part of the geologic record ( Gilluly, 1949; Gregor, 1968; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971a; Veizer and Jansen, 1979, 1985).Study of the rocks themselves led to similarly opposing conclusions. The observed secular (=age) variations in relative proportions of lithological types and in chemistry of sedimentary rocks (Daly, 1909; Vinogradov et al., 1952; Nanz, 1953; Engel, 1963; Strakhov, 1964, 1969; Ronov, 1964, 1982) were mostly given an evolutionary interpretation. An opposing, uniformitarian, approach was proposed by Garrels and Mackenzie (1971a). For most isotopes, the consensus favors deviations from the present-day steady state as the likely cause of secular trends.This chapter attempts to show that recycling and evolution are not opposing, but complementary, concepts. It will concentrate on the lithological and chemical attributes of sediments, but not deal with the evolution of sedimentary mineral deposits (Veizer et al., 1989) and of life ( Sepkoski, 1989), both well amenable to the outlined conceptual treatment. The chapter relies heavily on Veizer (1988a) for the sections dealing with general recycling concepts, on Veizer (2003) for the discussion of isotopic evolution of seawater, and on Morse and Mackenzie (1990) and Mackenzie and Morse (1992) for discussion of carbonate rock recycling and environmental attributes.

  3. Gale Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-439, 1 August 2003

    Gale Crater, located in the Aeolis region near 5.5oS, 222oW, contains a mound of layered sedimentary rock that stands higher than the rim of the crater. This giant mound suggests that the entire crater was not only once filled with sediment, it was also buried beneath sediment. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the eroded remains of the sedimentary rock that once filled Gale Crater. The layers form terraces; wind has eroded the material to form the tapered, pointed yardang ridges seen here. The small circular feature in the lower right quarter of the picture is a mesa that was once a small meteor impact crater that was filled, buried, then exhumed from within the sedimentary rock layers exposed here. This image is illuminated from the left.

  4. Sedimentary Rocks and Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    25 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows buttes composed of light-toned, sedimentary rock exposed by erosion within a crater occurring immediately west of Schiaparelli Basin near 4.0oS, 347.9oW. Surrounding these buttes is a field of dark sand dunes and lighter-toned, very large windblown ripples. The sedimentary rocks might indicate that the crater interior was once the site of a lake. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  5. Sedimentary Rock Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    29 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows knobs of remnant, wind-eroded, layered sedimentary rock that once completely covered the floor of a crater located west of the Sinus Meridiani region of Mars. Sedimentary rock outcrops are common throughout the Sinus Meridiani region and its surrounding cratered terrain.

    Location near: 2.2oN, 7.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  6. Ancient Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-469, 31 August 2003

    The terraced area in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an outcropping of ancient, sedimentary rock. It occurs in a crater in western Arabia Terra near 10.8oN, 4.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past environments on Mars. Field work will likely be required to begin to get a good understanding of the nature of the record these rocks contain. Their generally uniform thickness and repeated character suggests that deposition of fine sediment in this crater was episodic, if not cyclic. These rocks might be indicators of an ancient lake, or they might have been deposited from grains settling out of an earlier, thicker, martian atmosphere. This image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the lower left.

  7. Tithonium Chasma's Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-565, 5 December 2003

    Exposures of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rocks are common in the deep troughs of the Valles Marineris system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from western Tithonium Chasma. The banding seen here is an eroded expression of layered rock. Sedimentary rocks can be composed of (1) the detritus of older, eroded and weathered rocks, (2) grains produced by explosive volcanism (tephra, also known as volcanic ash), or (3) minerals that were chemically precipitated out of a body of liquid such as water. These outcrops are located near 4.8oS, 89.7oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated from the lower left.

  8. Broken Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    18 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows broken-up blocks of sedimentary rock in western Candor Chasma. There are several locations in western Candor that exhibit this pattern of broken rock. The manner in which these landforms were created is unknown; it is possible that there was a landslide or a meteoritic impact that broke up the materials. One attribute that is known: in some of these cases, it seems that the rock was broken and then buried by later sedimentary rocks, before later being exhumed so that they can be seen from orbit today.

    Location near: 6.9oS, 75.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  9. Sedimentary Rock Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-348, 2 May 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image acquired in March 2003 shows dozens of repeated layers of sedimentary rock in a western Arabia Terra crater at 8oN, 7oW. Wind has sculpted the layered forms into hills somewhat elongated toward the lower left (southwest). The dark patches at the bottom (south) end of the image are drifts of windblown sand. These sedimentary rocks might indicate that the crater was once the site of a lake--or they may result from deposition by wind in a completely dry, desert environment. Either way, these rocks have something important to say about the geologic history of Mars. The area shown is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  10. Schiaparelli's Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 October 2004 Schiaparelli Basin is a large, 470 kilometer (292 miles) impact crater located east of Sinus Meridiani. The basin might once have been the site of a large lake--that is, if the sedimentary rocks exposed on its northwestern floor were deposited in water. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 1.5 meter per pixel (5 ft per pixel) view of some of the light-toned, finely-bedded sedimentary rocks in northwestern Schiaparelli. The image is located near 1.0oS, 346.0oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  11. Gale Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    15 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcroppings of layered, sedimentary rock in eastern Gale Crater. North-central Gale Crater is the site of a mound that is more than several kilometers thick and largely composed of sedimentary rocks that record a complex history of deposition and erosion. At one time, Gale Crater might have been completely filled and buried beneath the martian surface.

    Location near: 4.9oS, 221.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  12. Terby Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 December 2003 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rock outcrops in Terby Crater, located near 27.7oS, 285.4oW. The layered sediments in Terby are several kilometers thick, attesting to a long history of deposition in this ancient basin. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  13. Eroded Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-372, 26 May 2003

    This high resolution Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, layered sedimentary rock exposures in an unnamed western Arabia Terra crater at 8oN, 7oW. The dark material is windblown sand; much of the erosion of these layers may have also been caused by wind. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  14. Iani Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned sedimentary rocks exposed by erosion in the Iani Chaos region of Mars.

    Location near: 4.2oS, 18.7oW Image width: 1 km (0.6 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  15. Melas Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    17 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in southwestern Melas Chasma, one of the troughs of the vast Valles Marineris system. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left; it is located near 9.8oS, 76.0oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  16. Sedimentary Rock Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers of sedimentary rock in a crater in western Arabia Terra. Layered rock records the history of a place, but an orbiter image alone cannot tell the entire story. These materials record some past episodes of deposition of fine-grained material in an impact crater that is much larger than the image shown here. The picture is located near 3.4oN, 358.7oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi.) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  17. Faulted Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the layered, sedimentary rock outcrops that occur in a crater located at 8oN, 7oW, in western Arabia Terra. Dark layers and dark sand have enhanced the contrast of this scene. In the upper half of the image, one can see numerous lines that off-set the layers. These lines are faults along which the rocks have broken and moved. The regularity of layer thickness and erosional expression are taken as evidence that the crater in which these rocks occur might once have been a lake. The image covers an area about 1.9 km (1.2 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  18. Ladon Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rocks exposed by the fluids that carved the Ladon Valles system in the Erythraeum region of Mars. These rocks are so ancient that their sediments were deposited, cemented to form rock, and then eroded by the water (or other liquid) that carved Ladon Valles, so far back in Martian history that such liquids could still flow on the planet's surface.

    Location near: 20.8oS, 30.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  19. Sedimentary Rocks in Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows portions of two massifs composed of light-toned, sedimentary rock in Ganges Chasma, part of the Valles Marineris trough system. On the steeper slopes in this vista, dry talus shed from the outcrop has formed a series of dark fans. Surrounded by dark, windblown sand, these landforms are located near 8.6oS, 46.8oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  20. Sedimentary Rocks in Melas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a butte and several other landforms eroded into light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock in southern Melas Chasma. Melas is part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 11.8oS, 74.6oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  1. Sedimentary Rock in Candor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dozens of light- and a few dark-toned sedimentary rock layers exposed by faulting and erosion in western Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 6.5oS, 77.0oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  2. Melas Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    28 August 2004 Light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops are common within the vast martian Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a recent example from southern Melas Chasma at 1.5 m/pixel (5 ft/pixel) resolution. The image is located near 11.3oS, 73.9oW, and covers an area about 1.8 km (1.1 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  3. Ganges Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 May 2004 Mariner 9 images acquired in 1972 first revealed a large, light-toned, layered mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a higher-resolution view of these rocks than was achieved by Mariner 9 or Viking, and higher than can be obtained by Mars Odyssey or Mars Express. The image, with a resolution of about 3.7 meters (12 feet) per pixel, shows eroded layered rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma. These rocks record a history of events that occurred either in Ganges Chasma, or in the rocks brought to the surface by the opening of Ganges Chasma. Either way, the story they might tell could be as fascinating and unprecedented as the story told by sedimentary rocks investigated this year in Meridiani Planum by the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover ... no one knows. The image is located near 7.3oS, 48.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  4. Sedimentary Rock Outcrops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    16 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded layered rock outcrops in a crater north of Meridiani Planum near 2.7oN, 359.1oW. The dozens and dozens of sedimentary rock layers of repeated thickness and similar physical properties at this location suggest that they may have been deposited in a lacustrine (lake) setting. The crater in which these layers occur may once have been completely filled and buried, as is the case for many craters in the Sinus Meridiani region. This image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  5. Sedimentary Rock Near Coprates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-420, 13 July 2003

    This mosaic of two Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow angle camera images, one from 2001, the other from 2003, shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops exposed on the floor of a trough that parallels Coprates Chasma in the Valles Marineris system. Layered rocks form the pages from which the history of a place can be read. It may be many years before the story is read, but or now at least we know where one of the books of martian history is found. This picture is located near 15.2oS, 60.1oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  6. Schiaparelli Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-403, 26 June 2003

    Some of the most important high resolution imaging results of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) experiment center on discoveries about the presence and nature of the sedimentary rock record on Mars. This old meteor impact crater in northwestern Schiaparelli Basin exhibits a spectacular view of layered, sedimentary rock. The 2.3 kilometer (1.4 miles) wide crater may have once been completely filled with sediment; the material was later eroded to its present form. Dozens of layers of similar thickness and physical properties are now expressed in a wedding cake-like stack in the middle of the crater. Sunlight illuminating the scene from the left shows that the circle, or mesa top, at the middle of the crater stands higher than the other stair-stepped layers. The uniform physical properties and bedding of these layers might indicate that they were originally deposited in a lake (it is possible that the crater was at the bottom of a much larger lake, filling Schiaparelli Basin); alternatively, the layers were deposited by settling out of the atmosphere in a dry environment. This picture was acquired on June 3, 2003, and is located near 0.9oS, 346.2oW.

  7. Meridiani Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-545, 15 November 2003

    Northern Sinus Meridiani is a region of vast exposures of layered, sedimentary rock. Buried within these layers are many filled impact craters. Erosion has re-exposed several formerly-buried craters in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. Arrows 1 and 2 indicate craters that are still emerging from beneath layered material; arrow 3 indicates a crater that has been fully re-exposed. This image is located near 5.1oN, 2.7oW. The area shown is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated from the left/upper left.

  8. Martian sediments and sedimentary rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markun, C. D.

    1988-01-01

    Martian sediments and sedimentary rocks, clastic and nonclastic, should represent a high priority target in any future return-sample mission. The discovery of such materials and their subsequent analysis in terrestrial laboratories, would greatly increase the understanding of the Martian paleoclimate. The formation of Martian clastic sedimentary rocks, under either present, low-pressure, xeric conditions or a postulated, high-pressure, hydric environment, depends upon the existence of a supply of particles, various cementing agents and depositional basins. A very high resolution (mm-cm range) photographic reconnaissance of these areas would produce a quantum jump in the understanding of Martian geological history. Sampling would be confined to more horizontal (recent) surfaces. Exploration techniques are suggested for various hypothetical Martian sedimentary rocks.

  9. Age and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of partially remagnetized lacustrine sedimentary rocks (Oligocene Aktoprak basin, central Anatolia, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijers, Maud J. M.; Strauss, Becky E.; Özkaptan, Murat; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Mulch, Andreas; Whitney, Donna L.; Kaymakçı, Nuretdin

    2016-03-01

    The age and paleoenvironmental record of lacustrine deposits in the Aktoprak basin of south-central Turkey provides information about the evolution of topography, including the timing of development of an orographic rain shadow caused by uplift of the mountain ranges fringing the Central Anatolian Plateau. New magnetostratigraphy-based age estimates, in combination with existing biostratigraphic ages, suggest that the partially remagnetized Kurtulmuş Tepe section of the basin is Chattian (Upper Oligocene). The mean carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios (δ18O= 24.6 ± 2.0 ‰, δ13C= -4.9 ± 1.1‰) are largely constant through the section and indicative of a subtropical, open freshwater lake. These isotopic values are also similar to those of the Chattian Mut basin to the south, on the Mediterranean side of the modern orographic barrier (Tauride Mountains), and indicate absence of an orographic barrier during Late Oligocene basin deposition. Post-depositional partial remagnetization occurred after tilting of the basin sequence and was mineralogically controlled, affecting grey, carbonate-rich rocks (average %CaCO3= 82), whereas interlayered pink carbonate-poor rocks (average %CaCO3= 38) carry a primary, pretilt magnetization. The pink rocks are rich in clay minerals that may have reduced the permeability of these rocks that carry a primary magnetization, concentrating basinal fluid flow in the carbonate-rich grey layers and leading to the removal and reprecipitation of magnetic minerals. The normal and reverse polarities recorded by the remagnetized rocks suggest that remagnetization occurred over a protracted period of time.

  10. Sedimentary Rocks of Aram Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 February 2004 Aram Chaos is a large meteor impact crater that was nearly filled with sediment. Over time, this sediment was hardened to form sedimentary rock. Today, much of the eastern half of the crater has exposures of light-toned sedimentary rock, such as the outcrops shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The picture is located near 2.0oN, 20.3oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  11. Polygon/Cracked Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 December 2004 Exposures of sedimentary rock are quite common on the surface of Mars. Less common, but found in many craters in the regions north and northwest of the giant basin, Hellas, are sedimentary rocks with distinct polygonal cracks in them. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from the floor of an unnamed crater near 21.0oS, 311.9oW. Such cracks might have formed by desiccation as an ancient lake dried up, or they might be related to ground ice freeze/thaw cycles or some other stresses placed on the original sediment or the rock after it became lithified. The 300 meter scale bar is about 328 yards long. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  12. Sedimentary Rocks of Aram Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcroppings of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock within Aram Chaos, an ancient, partly-filled impact crater located near 3.2oN, 19.9oW. This 1.5 meters (5 feet) per pixel picture is illuminated by sunlight from the left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  13. Sedimentary Rocks in Ladon Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    25 January 2004 This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture of an outcrop of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in Ladon Vallis. These rocks preserve clues to the martian past. However, like books in a library, one needs to go there and check them out if one wishes to read what the layers have to say. This November 2003 picture is located near 21.1oS, 29.8oW, and covers an area 3km (1.9 mi.) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  14. Multisensor classification of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane

    1988-01-01

    A comparison is made between linear discriminant analysis and supervised classification results based on signatures from the Landsat TM, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and airborne SAR, alone and combined into extended spectral signatures for seven sedimentary rock units exposed on the margin of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. Results from a linear discriminant analysis showed that training-area classification accuracies based on the multisensor data were improved an average of 15 percent over TM alone, 24 percent over TIMS alone, and 46 percent over SAR alone, with similar improvement resulting when supervised multisensor classification maps were compared to supervised, individual sensor classification maps. When training area signatures were used to map spectrally similar materials in an adjacent area, the average classification accuracy improved 19 percent using the multisensor data over TM alone, 2 percent over TIMS alone, and 11 percent over SAR alone. It is concluded that certain sedimentary lithologies may be accurately mapped using a single sensor, but classification of a variety of rock types can be improved using multisensor data sets that are sensitive to different characteristics such as mineralogy and surface roughness.

  15. Borehole magnetostratigraphy, absolute age dating, and correlation of sedimentary rocks, with examples from the Paris Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bouisset, P.M. ); Augustin, A.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Total and CEA have conceived and developed two new logging tools which allow continuous, precise, and accurate in-situ magnetic measurements within weakly magnetized sedimentary rocks encountered in uncased industry drilled wells. The combination of these magnetic measurements permits for the first time continuous determination of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) polarities occurring in the logged section. The resulting well magnetostratigraphic sequence (WMS) which may be recognized from well to well (magnetostratigraphic correlations), may also be correlative to a geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) of reference magnetostratigraphic scale (RMS), given adequate dating tie points and lack of noticeable remagnetizations. Application of this method to the Upper Jurrasic formation in four wells of the Paris basin has yielded promising results for both stratigraphic and near absolute age correlations as well as determination of facies diachronisms. The comparison of results obtained from magnetic measurements and from sequence stratigraphy analysis shows that third-order sequence boundaries may be correlative to geomagnetic reversals, but may also be diachronous in wells 80 km or less apart. The potential of borehole magnetic measurements as presented in this paper is still under investigation. However, these encouraging initial results show that this new investigating and dating method could be of great help in the analysis of subsurface stratigraphy by extending the concepts of magnetostratigraphy from the outcrops and laboratory directly into borehole logging. 81 refs., 18 figs.

  16. Elastic Properties of Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez Martinez, Jaime

    Sedimentary rocks are an important research topic since such rocks are associated to sources of ground water as well as oil, gas, and mineral reservoirs. In this work, elastic and physical properties of a variety of sedimentary samples that include glacial sediments, carbonates, shales, one evaporite, and one argillite from a variety of locations are investigated. Assuming vertical transverse isotropy, ultrasonic compressional- and shear-waves (at 1 MHz central frequency) were measured as a function of confining pressure on all samples with the exception of glacial samples which were tested assuming isotropy. Tensile strength tests (Brazilian test) were also carried out on selected glacial samples and, in addition, static-train measurements were conducted on shales and argillite samples. Lithological and textural features of samples were obtained through thin section techniques, scanning electron microscopy images and micro-tomography images. X-ray diffraction and X-Ray fluorescence provided the mineralogical oxides content information. Porosity, density, and pore structure were studied by using a mercury intrusion porosimeter and a helium pycnometer. The wide range of porosities of the studied samples (ranging from a minimum of 1% for shales to a maximum 45% for some glacial sediments) influence the measured velocities since high porosity sample shows an noticeable velocity increment as confining pressure increases as a consequence of closure of microcracks and pores, unlike low porosity samples where increment is quasi-lineal. Implementation of Gassmann's relation to ultrasonic velocities obtained from glacial samples has negligible impact on them when assuming water saturated samples, which suggests that state of saturation it is no so important in defining such velocities and instead they are mainly frame-controlled. On the other hand, velocities measured on carbonate and evaporite samples show that samples are at best weak anisotropic, thus the intrinsic

  17. Excess europium content in Precambrian sedimentary rocks and continental evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakes, P.; Taylor, S. R.

    1974-01-01

    It is proposed that the europium excess in Precambrian sedimentary rocks, relative to those of younger age, is derived from volcanic rocks of ancient island arcs, which were the source materials for the sediments. Precambrian sedimentary rocks and present-day volcanic rocks of island arcs have similar REE patterns, total REE abundances, and excess Eu, relative to the North American shale composite. The present upper crustal REE pattern, as exemplified by that of sediments, is depleted in Eu, relative to chondrites. This depletion is considered to be a consequence of development of a granodioritic upper crust by partial melting in the lower crust, which selectively retains europium.

  18. Release of biodegradable dissolved organic matter from ancient sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillawski, Sarah; Petsch, Steven

    2008-09-01

    Sedimentary rocks contain the largest mass of organic carbon on Earth, yet these reservoirs are not well integrated into modern carbon budgets. Here we describe the release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from OM-rich sedimentary rocks under simulated weathering conditions. Results from column experiments demonstrate slow, sustained release of DOM from ancient sedimentary rocks under simulated weathering conditions. 1H-NMR analysis of shale-derived DOM reveals a highly aliphatic, carbohydrate-poor material distinct from other natural DOM pools. Shale-derived DOM is rapidly assimilated and biodegraded by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Consequently, no compositional signature of shale-derived DOM other than 14C-depletion is likely to persist in rivers or other surface reservoirs. Combined, these efforts show that dissolution provides a mechanism for the conversion of refractory kerogen into labile biomass, linking rock weathering with sedimentary OM oxidation and the delivery of aged OM to rivers and ocean margins.

  19. U-Pb ages of zircons from meta-igneous and meta-sedimentary rocks of the Sierra de Guadarrama: implications for the Central Iberian crustal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildberg, H. G. H.; Bischoff, L.; Baumann, A.

    1989-10-01

    U-Pb data of zircons from various gneisses of the eastern Sierra de Guadarrama, Central Spain, make it possible to reconstruct the pre-Hercynian and Hercynian history of this area: (1) upper intercept ages (2400 Ma for meta-igneous and 2000 Ma for meta-sedimentary rocks) of discordias defined by data of anhedral zircon fractions document the existence of Early Proterozoic crust; (2) lower intercept minimum ages of anhedral zircon fractions show radiogenic lead loss at about 540 Ma due to a thermal event leading to volcanism and emplacement of granitoid rocks into Precambrian crust: growth of euhedral zircons is possibly related to this event; (3) lower intercept minimum ages of about 380 Ma defined by anhedral zircon fractions in meta-sedimentary rocks prove an Early Hercynian event. According to present knowledge on the metamorphism in the Sierra de Guadarrama this event could be explained in terms of a Barrow-type medium-pressure metamorphism. The inferred Cadomian igneous event relates the geological history of Central Spain with that of western Africa to the south and Brittany to the north. Furthermore, similarities of the crustal evolution in the area studied and other internal zones of the Hercynian belt (Moldanubian zone, French Central Massiv) are confirmed. The Early Hercynian event for the first time affected all the rocks of the area together. The pre-Hercynian evolution of the two complexes is different and the present association of the basement rocks may be explained by thrusting or in terms of Early-Hercynian nappe transport.

  20. Clastic sedimentary rocks of the Michipicoten Volcanic-sedimentary belt, Wawa, Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojakangas, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Wawa area, part of the Michipicoten greenstone belt, contains rock assemblages representative of volcanic sedimentary accumulations elsewhere on the shield. Three mafic to felsic metavolcanic sequences and cogenetic granitic rocks range in age from 2749 + or - 2Ma to 2696 + or - 2Ma. Metasedimentary rocks occur between the metavolcanic sequences. The total thickness of the supracrustal rocks may be 10,000 m. Most rocks have been metamorphosed under greenschist conditions. The belt has been studied earlier and is currently being remapped by Sage. The sedimentrologic work has been briefly summarized; two mainfacies associations of clastic sedimentary rocks are present - a Resedimented (Turbidite) Facies Association and a Nonmarine (Alluvial Fan Fluvial) Facies Association.

  1. Sedimentary Rocks and Methane - Southwest Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose to land the Mars Science Laboratory in southwest Arabia Terra to study two key aspects of martian history the extensive record of sedimentary rocks and the continuing release of methane. The results of this exploration will directly address the MSL Scientific Objectives regarding biological potential, geology and geochemistry, and past habitability.

  2. U-Pb detrital zircon age patterns of Cenozoic clastic sedimentary rocks in Trinidad and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiangyang; Mann, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The Cenozoic evolution of northern South America can be simplified as a diachronous, west-to-east change from north-facing passive margin, to active convergence and transcurrent plate margin. As the current eastern end of the Caribbean-South America plate boundary, the Trinidad area records the most recent tectonic regime transition. Documenting the provenance of Cenozoic clastic rocks in Trinidad provides insights into the spatial and temporal relationships between mountain range uplifting, sediment dispersal, and drainage system development along the eastern end of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Four Eocene to Pliocene age outcropping sandstone samples were collected from Trinidad and 545 detrital zircon grains were analyzed using the U-Pb LA-ICP-MS method. A total of 404 analyses with less than 10% discordance were used for the final interpretation. Results show that the age distribution of the Eocene to the Early Oligocene samples is very restricted and dominated by Precambrian age grains with age peaks at ~ 1400 Ma, ~ 1800 Ma, and ~ 2000 Ma, typically derived from the Guyana Shield. In contrast, the Late Oligocene and younger samples show much broader and mixed age distribution that includes Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian peaks. This age shift was interpreted as arriving of the Great Caribbean Arc and oblique collision between the South America and Caribbean plates. Continuing collision uplifted the Andes belts to the west. The Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, the Merida Andes, and the northern Venezuela coastal ranges then became the second primary sources. Offshore sedimentation switched from the passive margin with multiple small drainage systems to the active convergent and transcurrent plate margin with a single large river-dominated delivery system.

  3. Permanganate diffusion and reaction in sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Towne, Rachael M; Fischer, Timothy B; Schaefer, Charles E

    2014-04-01

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate has frequently been used to treat chlorinated solvents in fractured bedrock aquifers. However, in systems where matrix back-diffusion is an important process, the ability of the oxidant to migrate and treat target contaminants within the rock matrix will likely determine the overall effectiveness of this remedial approach. In this study, a series of diffusion experiments were performed to measure the permanganate diffusion and reaction in four different types of sedimentary rocks (dark gray mudstone, light gray mudstone, red sandstone, and tan sandstone). Results showed that, within the experimental time frame (~2 months), oxidant migration into the rock was limited to distances less than 500 μm. The observed diffusivities for permanganate into the rock matrices ranged from 5.3 × 10(-13) to 1.3 × 10(-11) cm(2)/s. These values were reasonably predicted by accounting for both the rock oxidant demand and the effective diffusivity of the rock. Various Mn minerals formed as surface coatings from reduction of permanganate coupled with oxidation of total organic carbon (TOC), and the nature of the formed Mn minerals was dependent upon the rock type. Post-treatment tracer testing showed that these Mn mineral coatings had a negligible impact on diffusion through the rock. Overall, our results showed that the extent of permanganate diffusion and reaction depended on rock properties, including porosity, mineralogy, and organic carbon. These results have important implications for our understanding of long-term organic contaminant remediation in sedimentary rocks using permanganate. PMID:24566296

  4. Tunnel boring machine performance in sedimentary rock

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.

    1983-01-01

    Full-face tunnel boring machine (TBM) performance during the excavation of six tunnels is considered in terms of utilization, penetration rate, and cutter wear. Construction records for over 75,000 ft (22,860m) of tunnel in sedimentary rock are analyzed, and the results are used to investigate factors affecting TBM performance. Machine utilization is strongly affected by site specific conditions, including geology, construction planning, and contractor practice. The relative importance of each of 21 downtime causes is discussed, and recommendations are made for modifications in excavation system design which could help to reduce delays. Effects of machine operation rate were investigated. The interrelationship among penetration, thrust, and rolling force is analyzed with a three-dimensional model which provides a rational basis for explaining variations in cutter forces and penetration rate as a function of rock type. The most useful rock index for estimating TBM performance in sedimentary rock is shown to be a combination of Schmidt Hammer rebound and abrasion hardness. Variation in cutter wear is considered as a function of position on the cutterhead and the rock type being excavated. Rolling distances for center cutters are less sensitive to rock type than for other positions. A fracture mechanics approach, of use in modeling the process chip formation, is proposed. The use of fracture material properties for empirical prediction of TBM performance is reported. Recommendations are made for future work, and observations and records required for future performance evaluations are summarized.

  5. Paleomagnetic studies of volcanic rocks in Siberia and sedimentary rocks in Southern Alberta: From long-term geomagnetic field variations to age determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Acuna, Dunia

    Paleomagnetism is a fundamental tool to understand the ancient variations of Earth's magnetic field through time. Important applications to geochronology and paleography come from interpreting the variations of the planetary magnetic vector. This dissertation explores the different applications of paleomagnetism to uncover important characteristics of the paleointensity magnetic field during the Permo-Triassic boundary and the nature of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) of Siberia, and to create geochronological frameworks for kimberlites in the Siberian platform and for sediments at the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Detailed absolute paleointensity measurements from Permo-Triassic sills at the Siberian platform are studied to determine the existence of a low dipole field, which has been previously reported in the area. We found a mean virtual dipolar moment value of 6.01 +/- 1.45 x 1022 Am 2 which is over 50% higher than the results previously obtained by other authors. Diamondiferous kimberlite pipes are exposed across the north-central part of the Siberian platform. The age of the magmatic activity cannot be clearly determined from isotopic age data---this is the reason why new paleomagnetic poles from four kimberlite pipes are obtained to study their paleomagnetic age. On the basis of a comparison with the Siberian APWP, we estimate the age of the kimberlite magmatism. The acquired paleomagnetic ages span from the Early Silurian to the Middle Late Jurassic. Magnetostratigraphic analysis is used as a dating tool on three deep drilling cores that penetrate Santonian-Campanian strata in southern Alberta, Canada. Chrons 34n and 33r are clearly identified from the studied sections---providing a high-resolution age boundary that creates new age boundaries between adjacent stratigraphic units. In addition, normal polarity zones are observed within C33r, previously described as reverse polarity over its entire length. Siberian APWP contains long unresolved

  6. Remote sensing of some sedimentary rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, P. A.; Lintz, J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks including varying sized clastics and carbonates were overflown by aircraft between 1966 and 1971 producing data in the ultraviolet to microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper reports that multispectral analysis increases the ease and rapidity of discrimination of rock types having subtle differences in physical characteristics, but fails to enhance and may degrade distinctions where physical characteristics are significantly different. Brief resumes of color and color IR photographic data are presented. Thermal infrared is found to be useful in the mapping of rock units, but limitations such as moisture variation, soil cover, and vegetation may exceed in one formation the distinction between differing lithologies. A brief review of previously published SLAR data is included for completeness. Remote sensing techniques should reduce field geological effort by as much as 50%.

  7. Copper Deposits in Sedimentary and Volcanogenic Rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tourtelot, Elizabeth B.; Vine, James David

    1976-01-01

    Copper deposits occur in sedimentary and volcanogenic rocks within a wide variety of geologic environments where there may be little or no evidence of hydrothermal alteration. Some deposits may be hypogene and have a deep-seated source for the ore fluids, but because of rapid cooling and dilution during syngenetic deposition on the ocean floor, the resulting deposits are not associated with hydrothermal alteration. Many of these deposits are formed at or near major tectonic features on the Earth's crust, including plate boundaries, rift valleys, and island arcs. The resulting ore bodies may be stratabound and either massive or disseminated. Other deposits form in rocks deposited in shallow-marine, deltaic, and nonmarine environments by the movement and reaction of interstratal brines whose metal content is derived from buried sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Some of the world's largest copper deposits were probably formed in this manner. This process we regard as diagenetic, but some would regard it as syngenetic, if the ore metals are derived from disseminated metal in the host-rock sequence, and others would regard the process as epigenetic, if there is demonstrable evidence of ore cutting across bedding. Because the oxidation associated with diagenetic red beds releases copper to ground-water solutions, red rocks and copper deposits are commonly associated. However, the ultimate size, shape, and mineral zoning of a deposit result from local conditions at the site of deposition - a logjam in fluvial channel sandstone may result in an irregular tabular body of limited size; a petroleum-water interface in an oil pool may result in a copper deposit limited by the size and shape of the petroleum reservoir; a persistent thin bed of black shale may result in a copper deposit the size and shape of that single bed. The process of supergene enrichment has been largely overlooked in descriptions of copper deposits in sedimentary rocks. However, supergene processes may be

  8. The U-Pb age and Hf isotope record of detrital zircons from Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the proto-Andean accretionary orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlburg, Heinrich

    2010-05-01

    -Pb detrital zircon ages (n= c. 5900) from Paleozoic sedimentary rocks representing the proto-Andes from Ecuador to Patagonia shows that age peaks coincide very well with the timing of assembly and dispersal of supercontinents. The coincidence with the respective record including collisional orogenic belts indicates that the preservational bias is not necessarily as pronounced a factor in shaping this record as previously thought. A similar compilation of Hf isotope data from proto-Andean detrital zircons (n= c. 620) shows a major divergence from the global patterns presented by Hawkesworth et al. (2009). The global data indicate peaks of juvenile crust production at the Archean-Paleoproterozoic transition and between 1.9 and 1.6 Ga. Subsequent orogenic cycles are not strongly reflected by juvenile data. This dichotomy is interpreted as due to the preferential preservation of evolved late stage orogenic crust in the rock record. In contrast, the detrital zircon Hf data from Paleozoic proto-Andean sedimentary rocks located in the the Andes from northern Peru to Patagonia reveal two important patterns, (i) production of juvenile crust occurred in the SW Amazonia Orogenic System and the proto-Andes throughout the Late Archean and Proterozoic; and (ii) a maximum seems to have been attained in the Rondonia-San Ignacio and Sunsas orogenic cycles between 1.55 and 0.9 Ga. The production of juvenile crust appears to have become a minor factor in this region at the Precambrian-Phanerozoic boundary. References Campbell, I.H. & Allen, C.M., 2008, Nature Geoscience 1, 554-558. Evans, D.A.D., 2009, Geological Society, London, Special Publication 327, 371-404. Hawkesworth, C. et al., 2009. Science 323, 49-50.

  9. U-Pb zircon age data for selected sedimentary, metasedimentary, and igneous rocks from northern and central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Data from two studies are included in this report. The first study, by Dumoulin and others (2013), reported the detrital zircon U-Pb age analysis of a single sample from the Upper Mississippian Ikalukrok unit of the Kuna Formation (table 1). The second study is that of Moore and others (in press), which focuses on the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous part of the Brookian sequence in the western Brooks Range (17 samples; table 2). For the latter study, samples were analyzed from the following units (1) the Upper Jurassic unit, Jw, of Curtis and others (1984), (2) the Lower Cretaceous Igrarok Hills unit of Moore and others (2002), (3) the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Okpikruak Formation, (4) the Lower Cretaceous lower Brookian shale of Mull (1995), (5) the Lower Cretaceous Mount Kelly Graywacke Tongue of the Fortress Mountain Formation, (6) and the upper Lower Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation as redefined by Mull and others (2003). The results for each study are reported in separate Excel files, with individual samples in each study being shown as separate sheets within the files. The analyses of individual zircons are listed separately on the sheet according to the filtering schemes of the study and by the type of mass spectrometer used.

  10. Mid-Latitude Sedimentary Rock: Spallanzani Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Although most of the best examples of layered sedimentary rock seen on Mars are found at equatorial and sub-tropical latitudes, a few locations seen at mid- and high-latitudes suggest that layered rocks are probably more common than we can actually see from orbit. One extremely good example of these 'atypical' layered rock exposures is found in the 72 km-diameter (45 miles) crater, Spallanzani (58.4oS, 273.5oW). Located southeast of Hellas Planitia, the crater is named for the 18th Century Italian biologist, Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799). Picture A presents a composite of the best Viking orbiter image (VO2-504B55) of the region with 4 pictures obtained June 1999 through January 2001 by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). Each MOC narrow angle image is 3 km across. Taken in the MOC's 'survey mode,' all four images were acquired at roughly 12 meters (39 ft) per pixel. Picture B zooms-in on the portion of the composite image that includes the 4 MOC images (the 100%-size view is 20 m (66 ft) per pixel). Other craters in the region near Spallanzani show features--at Viking Orbiter scale--that are reminiscent of the layering seen in Spallanzani. Exactly what these layers are made of and how they came to be where we see them today are mysteries, but it is possible that they are similar to the materials seen in the many craters and chasms of the equatorial latitudes on Mars.

  11. Seismic attenuation anisotropy in reservoir sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Best, A.I.

    1994-12-31

    Seismic attenuation is a fundamental property of reservoir sedimentary rocks; it is strongly related to reservoir permeability. Knowledge of its variation with lithology, with burial depth, and with wave propagation direction is vital for understanding the attenuation mechanism. Given this information, realistic theoretical models may be constructed for predicting attenuation, and hence permeability, over a wide frequency range. Accurate ultrasonic attenuation measurements were made in the laboratory over a range of effective pressures on sandstone samples with different amounts of humic organic matter. The organic matter formed fine laminations along the bedding planes of the sandstones. The results show that the sandstones are highly attenuating at 5 MPa mainly because of the presence of grain contact microcracks giving rise to squirt flow; at 40 MPa, when most of the microcracks are closed, the clean sandstones are poorly attenuating, but the organic-rich sandstones remain highly attenuating. It is postulated that the compliant organic matter is responsible for causing squirt flow at high and at low pressures. The results also show that the maximum attenuation occurs when the particle motion of the propagating wave is perpendicular to the planes of the organic matter laminations. These results are consistent with the squirt flow theory of Akbar et al (1993) for compressional waves.

  12. Fission-track dating of volcanically derived sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kowallis, B.J.; Heaton, J.S.; Bringhurst, K.

    1986-01-01

    Depositional ages of sedimentary rocks can be determined using fission-track single grain ages on zircons from layers of volcanic ash or bentonite, even when the layers have been contaminated by older grains. This is done by compiling an age probability distribution or age spectrum for a sample from individual grain ages. An age spectrum is a simple and unambiguous way of testing for contamination and extracting useful age information. The youngest peak in the age spectrum approximates the time of deposition. In most contaminated samples, 30 or more grains should be counted to produce a reliable spectrum. However, useful, reproducible ages can be obtained by counting less than 10 grains in samples where most of the older, contaminating grains can be removed. The few older grains that remain after removing the obviously abraded ones may then be eliminated by examining the age spectrum. Although ages determined in this way are probably not precise enough for use in defining stratigraphic boundaries, they still provide a means of obtaining an isotopic age in sediments that cannot be dated by other radiometric methods. 18 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Influence of sedimentary environments on mechanical properties of clastic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaoping; Zhang, Jincai; Peng, Suping

    2006-10-01

    The sedimentary environments are the intrinsic factor controlling the mechanical properties of clastic rocks. Examining the relationship between rock sedimentary environments and rock mechanical properties gives a better understanding of rock deformation and failure mechanisms. In this study, more than 55 samples in coal measures were taken from seven different lithologic formations in eastern China. Using the optical microscope the sedimentary characteristics, such as components of clastic rocks and sizes of clastic grains were quantitatively tested and analyzed. The corresponding mechanical parameters were tested using the servo-controlled testing system. Different lithologic attributes in the sedimentary rocks sampled different stress-strain behaviors and failure characteristics under different confining pressures, mainly due to different compositions and textures. Results demonstrate that clastic rocks have the linear best-fit for Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The elastic moduli in clastic rocks are highly dependent upon confining pressures, unlike hard rocks. The envelope lines of the mechanical properties versus the contents of quartz, detritus of the grain diameter of more than 0.03 mm, and grain size in clastic rocks are given. The compressive strength or elastic modulus and the grain diameter have a non-monotonic relation and demonstrate the “grain-diameter softening” effect.

  14. Fractal geometry of sedimentary rocks: simulation in 3-D using a Relaxed Bidisperse Ballistic Deposition Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Abhra; Tarafdar, Sujata; Gouze, Philippe; Dutta, Tapati

    2013-03-01

    Several studies, both theoretical and experimental, show that sedimentary rocks have a fractal pore-grain interface. In this paper a computer simulated 3-D sedimentary rock structure generated by the Relaxed Ballistic Bidisperse Deposition Model (RBBDM), is investigated to characterize the micro structure of its pores. The pore volume and the rock-pore interface show the same fractal dimension indicating that the pore volume is a fractal. The two point density correlation is computed for the pore space and the results compare favourably with the range reported from experiments. An array of 2-D X-ray tomography micrograph sections of a real sedimentary rock, an oolitic limestone (pure calcite) from the Mondeville formation of Middle Jurassic age (Paris Basin, France), was used to generate a 3-D bitmap. The 3-D real rock sample generated in this manner, was analysed for similar studies as the simulated structure. The results were compared with those obtained from simulation. The simulation results agree qualitatively with the real rock sample. Diffusion through the connected pore space of the simulated structure was studied using a random walk algorithm and the results compared with the similar simulation study done on the 3-D oolitic limestone specimen. In both cases diffusion was found to be anomalous indicating that the sedimentary rock has a fractal geometry. The favourable comparability of results between the simulated and real rock supports the usefulness of the model of sedimentary rock generation which can be applicable to transport phenomena.

  15. A Sedimentary Rock Classification Scheme for Introductory Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Larry Eugene; Eves, Robert Leo

    1986-01-01

    Presents a classification scheme for identifying sedimentary rocks in introductory geology laboratories. The key consists of an ordered sequence of tests to perform and observations to make which then suggests a rock name or directs the student to additional tests and/or observations. (ML)

  16. Folding and faulting of strain-hardening sedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The question of whether single- or multi-layers of sedimentary rocks will fault or fold when subjected to layer-parallel shortening is investigated by means of the theory of elastic-plastic, strain-hardening materials, which should closely describe the properties of sedimentary rocks at high levels in the Earth's crust. The most attractive feature of the theory is that folding and faulting, intimately related in nature, are different responses of the same idealized material to different conditions. When single-layers of sedimentary rock behave much as strain-hardening materials they are unlikely to fold, rather they tend to fault, because contrasts in elasticity and strength properties of sedimentary rocks are low. Amplifications of folds in such materials are negligible whether contacts between layer and media are bonded or free to slip for single layers of dolomite, limestone, sandstone, or siltstone in media of shale. Multilayers of these same rocks fault rather than fold if contacts are bonded, but they fold readily if contacts between layers are frictionless, or have low yield strengths, for example due to high pore-water pressure. Faults may accompany the folds, occurring where compression is increased in cores of folds. Where there is predominant reverse faulting in sedimentary sequences, there probably were few structural units. ?? 1980.

  17. Sedimentary Rocks of the Buckeye Range, Horlick Mountains, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Long, W E

    1962-04-27

    In the Buckeye Range of the Horlick Mountains, 4000 feet of sedimentary rocks nonconformably overlie a granitic basement and underlie a thick diabasic sill. The sedimentary section consists of Devonian sandstone and shale (Horlick formation), Carboniferous (?) tillite (Buckeye formation), Permian (?) platy and carbonaceous shale (Discovery Ridge formation), and Permian arkose, shale, and numerous coal beds (Mount Glossopteris formation). This apparently is the first report of a Paleozoic tillite in Antarctica. PMID:17745908

  18. SHRIMP U-Pb ages of detrital zircons in metasedimentary rocks of the central Ogcheon fold-thrust belt, Korea: Evidence for tectonic assembly of Paleozoic sedimentary protoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Moonsup; Cheong, Wonseok; Ernst, W. G.; Yi, Keewook; Kim, Jeongmin

    2013-02-01

    We analyzed detrital zircons in four metasandstones and two metadiamictites of the central Ogcheon Metamorphic Belt (OMB) in order to provide geochronologic constraints on the time of deposition and protolith age distributions. SHRIMP U-Pb ages of the newly analyzed zircons range from Archean to Early Paleozoic, and their age patterns permit the definition of four lithotectonic slices: upper and lower Pibanryeong units consisting primarily of quartzite and metasandstone; an upper Poeun unit of black slate containing Early Permian plant fossils; and a lower Poeun unit made up of metasandstone and metadiamictite. A quartzite of the upper Pibanryeong unit yielded two major zircon age populations at 965 ± 11 Ma and 447 ± 5 Ma, whereas two lower Pibanryeong metasandstones show major age concentrations at ˜2.5 Ga, 1.0-0.9 Ga, and 545-535 Ma. The youngest components of these units suggest maximum ages of sedimentation as Late Ordovician and Early Cambrian, respectively. These upper and lower Pibanryeong zircon age distribution patterns are consistent with those of Ordovician and Devonian sedimentary strata, respectively from the South China Craton (SCC). On the other hand, three samples of the lower Poeun unit yielded two distinct age populations at ˜1.87 Ga and 755 ± 7 Ma. In addition, a metadiamictite contains abundant Mesoproterozoic zircons with two broad peaks centered at ˜1.3 and 1.6 Ga. Protolith ages and distribution patterns are profoundly different between the Pibanryeong and Poeun lithotectonic packages, suggesting the presence of a major thrust fault juxtaposing allochthons that are also characterized by large P-T contrasts. Our detrital zircon results for the Pibanryeong unit are compatible with derivation from the SCC, in apparent contrast with the Poeun occurrence of Early Permian plant fossils most likely correlative with the North China Craton (NCC). Taken together, the suturing of Paleozoic metasedimentary terranes in the OMB is a product of Permo

  19. Quantitative compositional analysis of sedimentary materials using thermal emission spectroscopy: 1. Application to sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Michael T.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Bristow, Thomas F.; Pan, Cong

    2015-11-01

    Thermal emission spectroscopy is used to determine the mineralogy of sandstone and mudstone rocks as part of an investigation of linear spectral mixing between sedimentary constituent phases. With widespread occurrences of sedimentary rocks on the surface of Mars, critical examination of the accuracy associated with quantitative models of mineral abundances derived from thermal emission spectra of sedimentary materials is necessary. Although thermal emission spectroscopy has been previously proven to be a viable technique to obtain quantitative mineralogy from igneous and metamorphic materials, sedimentary rocks, with natural variation of composition, compaction, and grain size, have yet to be examined. In this work, we present an analysis of the thermal emission spectral (~270-1650 cm-1) characteristics of a suite of 13 sandstones and 14 mudstones. X-ray diffraction and traditional point counting procedures were all evaluated in comparison with thermal emission spectroscopy. Results from this work are consistent with previous thermal emission spectroscopy studies and indicate that bulk rock mineral abundances can be estimated within 11.2% for detrital grains (i.e., quartz and feldspars) and 14.8% for all other mineral phases present in both sandstones and mudstones, in comparison to common in situ techniques used for determining bulk rock composition. Clay-sized to fine silt-sized grained phase identification is less accurate, with differences from the known ranging from ~5 to 24% on average. Nevertheless, linear least squares modeling of thermal emission spectra is an advantageous technique for determining abundances of detrital grains and sedimentary matrix and for providing a rapid classification of clastic rocks.

  20. Using Aluminum Foil to Record Structures in Sedimentary Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Aluminum foil can be used to make impressions of structures preserved in sedimentary rock. The impressions can be projected onto a screen, photographed, or a Plaster of Paris model can be made from them. Impressions of ripple marks, mudcracks, and raindrop impressions are provided in photographs illustrating the technique. (Author/JN)

  1. Chemical composition of sedimentary rocks in California and Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Thelma P., (compiler)

    1981-01-01

    A compilation of published chemical analyses of sedimentary rocks of the United States was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1952 to make available scattered data that are needed for a wide range of economic and scientific uses. About 20,000-25,000 chemical analyses of sedimentary rocks in the United States have been published. This report brings together 2,312 of these analyses from California and Hawaii. The samples are arranged by general lithologic characteristics and locality. Indexes of stratigraphy, rock name, commercial uses, and minor elements are provided. The sedimentary rocks are classified into groups and into categories according to the chemical analyses. The groups (A through F2) are defined by a system similar to that proposed by Brian Mason in 1952, in which the main parameters are the three major components of sedimentary rocks: (1) uncombined silica, (2) clay (R203 ? 3Si02 ? nH20), and (3) calcium-magnesium carbonate. The categories are based on the degree of admixture of these three major components with other components, such as sulfate, phos- phate, and iron oxide. Common-rock, mixed-rock, and special-rock categories apply to rocks consisting of 85 percent or more, 50-84 percent, and less than 49 percent, respectively, of the three major components combined. Maps show distribution of sample localities by States; triangular diagrams show the lithologic characteristics and classification groups. Cumulative-frequency curves of each constituent in each classification group of the common-rock and mixed-rock categories are also included. The numerous analyses may not adequately represent the geochemical nature of the rock types and formations of the region because of sampling bias. Maps showing distribution of sample localities indicate that many of the localities are in areas where, for economic or other reasons, special problems attracted interest. Most of the analyzed rocks tended to be fairly simple in composition - mainly mixtures of

  2. Heavy-mineral analysis of sedimentary rocks of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Robert Hamilton

    1952-01-01

    The Navy Oil Unit of the United States Geological Survey has been investigating the geology of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4, northern Alaska. As part of this program, heavy-mineral samples were prepared from cores of the test wells and core holes and studied to determine stratigraphic correlations. Using the following criteria: (1) presence of diagnostic minerals or mineral suites; (2) relative abundance of specific minerals; (3) degree of rounding of mineral grains; (4) distinction as to grain form; eight heavy-mineral zones have been recognized in Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Quaternary sedimentary rocks. Correlations based on these zones are shown. Source areas and rocks are discussed in relation to geologic history and genesis of the Mesozoic and Quaternary sedimentary rocks.

  3. An evaluation of multiband photography for rock discrimination. [sedimentary rocks of Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Raines, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. With the advent of ERTS and Skylab satellites, multiband imagery and photography have become readily available to geologists. The ability of multiband photography to discriminate sedimentary rocks was examined. More than 8600 in situ measurements of band reflectance of the sedimentary rocks of the Front Range, Colorado, were acquired. Statistical analysis of these measurements showed that: (1) measurements from one site can be used at another site 100 miles away; (2) there is basically only one spectral reflectance curve for these rocks, with constant amplitude differences between the curves; and (3) the natural variation is so large that at least 150 measurements per formation are required to select best filters. These conclusions are supported by subjective tests with aerial multiband photography. The designed multiband photography concept for rock discrimination is not a practical method of improving sedimentary rock discrimination capabilities.

  4. Diffusive flux and pore anisotropy in sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C E; Towne, R M; Lazouskaya, V; Bishop, M E; Dong, H

    2012-04-01

    Diffusion of dissolved contaminants into or from bedrock matrices can have a substantial impact on both the extent and longevity of dissolved contaminant plumes. For layered rocks, bedding orientation can have a significant impact on diffusion. A series of laboratory experiments was performed on minimally disturbed bedrock cores to measure the diffusive flux both parallel and normal to mineral bedding of four different anisotropic sedimentary rocks. Measured effective diffusion coefficients ranged from 4.9×10(-8) to 6.5×10(-7)cm(2)/s. Effective diffusion coefficients differed by as great as 10-folds when comparing diffusion normal versus parallel to bedding. Differences in the effective diffusion coefficients corresponded to differences in the "apparent" porosity in the orientation of diffusion (determined by determining the fraction of pore cross-sectional area measured using scanning electron microscopy), with the difference in apparent porosity between normal and parallel bedding orientations differing by greater than 2-folds for two of the rocks studied. Existing empirical models failed to provide accurate predictions of the effective diffusion coefficient in either bedding orientation for all four rock types studied, indicating that substantial uncertainty exists when attempting to predict diffusive flux through sedimentary rocks containing mineral bedding. A modified model based on the apparent porosity of the rocks provided a reasonable prediction of the experimental diffusion data. PMID:22326688

  5. Permeability-porosity relationships in sedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.

    1994-01-01

    In many consolidated sandstone and carbonate formations, plots of core data show that the logarithm of permeability (k) is often linearly proportional to porosity (??). The slope, intercept, and degree of scatter of these log(k)-?? trends vary from formation to formation, and these variations are attributed to differences in initial grain size and sorting, diagenetic history, and compaction history. In unconsolidated sands, better sorting systematically increases both permeability and porosity. In sands and sandstones, an increase in gravel and coarse grain size content causes k to increase even while decreasing ??. Diagenetic minerals in the pore space of sandstones, such as cement and some clay types, tend to decrease log(k) proportionately as ?? decreases. Models to predict permeability from porosity and other measurable rock parameters fall into three classes based on either grain, surface area, or pore dimension considerations. (Models that directly incorporate well log measurements but have no particular theoretical underpinnings from a fourth class.) Grain-based models show permeability proportional to the square of grain size times porosity raised to (roughly) the fifth power, with grain sorting as an additional parameter. Surface-area models show permeability proportional to the inverse square of pore surface area times porosity raised to (roughly) the fourth power; measures of surface area include irreducible water saturation and nuclear magnetic resonance. Pore-dimension models show permeability proportional to the square of a pore dimension times porosity raised to a power of (roughly) two and produce curves of constant pore size that transgress the linear data trends on a log(k)-?? plot. The pore dimension is obtained from mercury injection measurements and is interpreted as the pore opening size of some interconnected fraction of the pore system. The linear log(k)-?? data trends cut the curves of constant pore size from the pore-dimension models

  6. Underground Research Laboratories for Crystalline Rock and Sedimentary Rock in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Shigeta, N.; Takeda, S.; Matsui, H.; Yamasaki, S.

    2003-02-27

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started two off-site (generic) underground research laboratory (URL) projects, one for crystalline rock as a fractured media and the other for sedimentary rock as a porous media. This paper introduces an overview and current status of these projects.

  7. Pore water colloid properties in argillaceous sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Degueldre, Claude; Cloet, Veerle

    2016-11-01

    The focus of this work is to evaluate the colloid nature, concentration and size distribution in the pore water of Opalinus Clay and other sedimentary host rocks identified for a potential radioactive waste repository in Switzerland. Because colloids could not be measured in representative undisturbed porewater of these host rocks, predictive modelling based on data from field and laboratory studies is applied. This approach allowed estimating the nature, concentration and size distributions of the colloids in the pore water of these host rocks. As a result of field campaigns, groundwater colloid concentrations are investigated on the basis of their size distribution quantified experimentally using single particle counting techniques. The colloid properties are estimated considering data gained from analogue hydrogeochemical systems ranging from mylonite features in crystalline fissures to sedimentary formations. The colloid concentrations were analysed as a function of the alkaline and alkaline earth element concentrations. Laboratory batch results on clay colloid generation from compacted pellets in quasi-stagnant water are also reported. Experiments with colloids in batch containers indicate that the size distribution of a colloidal suspension evolves toward a common particle size distribution independently of initial conditions. The final suspension size distribution was found to be a function of the attachment factor of the colloids. Finally, calculations were performed using a novel colloid distribution model based on colloid generation, aggregation and sedimentation rates to predict under in-situ conditions what makes colloid concentrations and size distributions batch- or fracture-size dependent. The data presented so far are compared with the field and laboratory data. The colloid occurrence, stability and mobility have been evaluated for the water of the considered potential host rocks. In the pore water of the considered sedimentary host rocks, the clay

  8. Liquefaction of sedimentary rocks during impact crater development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippertt, J. P.; Lana, C.; Weinberg, R. F.; Tohver, E.; Schmieder, M.; Scholz, R.; Gonçalves, L.; Hippertt, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Impact crater development on every planetary body requires catastrophic movement of large volumes of crustal rocks. The process produces well-known features such as brecciation and frictional melting, but a mechanism that explains how rocks accommodate the strain during the cratering flow remains unclear. Here, we investigate target rocks from the Araguainha impact crater (central Brazil) that typify what happens to a consolidated, fluid-saturated sedimentary rock at ˜ 2 km below the surface prior to the impact event. Sandstone units record a pattern of chaotic large-scale folds and pervasive microscopic (grain-to-grain) brecciation that result from rock strength degradation triggered by the impact. Field mapping and extensive textural observations indicate that these sandstones experienced initial microstructural damage from the shock wave and that this process may have weakened grain-to-grain bonds and started the process of pervasive microbrecciation. Accompanying heating and decompression lead to vaporization and expansion of fluids in the sandstone pores, magnifying the process of brecciation by effectively liquefying the rock mass and allowing for chaotic folding (at a range of scales up to blocks 100 m in length) in the central uplift. This is a vaporization-assisted microbrecciation, and it may have inhibited the formation of pseudotachylites, because energy was dissipated by pervasive microcracking, vaporization of pore fluids, and large scale chaotic folding, rather than localized displacement on brittle faults and frictional heating. We suggest that impact liquefaction of sedimentary rocks depends on whether the presence of pore-fluids and related micro-brecciation are sufficient to dissipate most of the impact energy.

  9. Chlorine isotope behavior during prograde metamorphism of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selverstone, Jane; Sharp, Zachary D.

    2015-05-01

    Chlorine stable isotope compositions of two sedimentary sequences and their metamorphic equivalents were measured in order to study fractionation effects during prograde metamorphism and devolatilization. Protoliths (n = 25) were collected from a 50 m section of Triassic fluvial and playa-lake strata and Jurassic (Liassic) marine black shales in a well-characterized quarry. Low greenschist to middle amphibolite facies equivalents (n > 80) were collected from the Glarus Alps, Urseren Zone, and Lucomagno region. Bulk δ37Cl values are constant within individual sedimentary layers, but vary from -2.0 to + 2.4 ‰ in Triassic rocks and from -3.0 to 0‰ in the black shales. Dolomitic and gypsiferous samples have positive δ37Cl values, but marls and shales are isotopically negative. Bulk Cl contents show only small declines during the earliest stages of metamorphism. Metamorphic equivalents of the Triassic and Liassic protoliths record the same overall ranges in δ37Cl as their protoliths. Samples with highly correlated bulk compositions but different metamorphic grade show no statistically significant difference in δ37Cl. These data lead to the following conclusions: (1) Terrestrial and marine sedimentary rocks display large primary heterogeneities in chlorine isotope composition. As a result, an unambiguous "sedimentary signature" does not exist in the chlorine stable isotope system. (2) No isotopic fractionation is discernable during metamorphic devolatilization, even at low temperatures. Alpine-style metamorphism thus has little to no effect on bulk chlorine isotopic compositions, despite significant devolatilization. (3) Cl is largely retained in the rocks during devolatilization, contrary to the normally assumed hydrophilic behavior of chlorine. Continuous release of mixed-volatile C-O-H fluids likely affected Cl partitioning between fluid and minerals and allowed chlorine to remain in the rocks. (4) There is no evidence for fluid communication across (meta)sedimentary

  10. Predicting the transport properties of sedimentary rocks from microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Understanding transport properties of sedimentary rocks, including permeability, relative permeability, and electrical conductivity, is of great importance for petroleum engineering, waste isolation, environmental restoration, and other applications. These transport properties axe controlled to a great extent by the pore structure. How pore geometry, topology, and the physics and chemistry of mineral-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions affect the flow of fluids through consolidated/partially consolidated porous media are investigated analytically and experimentally. Hydraulic and electrical conductivity of sedimentary rocks are predicted from the microscopic geometry of the pore space. Cross-sectional areas and perimeters of individual pores are estimated from two-dimensional scanning electron microscope (SEM) photomicrographs of rock sections. Results, using Berea, Boise, Massilon, and Saint-Gilles sandstones show close agreement between the predicted and measured permeabilities. Good to fair agreement is found in the case of electrical conductivity. In particular, good agreement is found for a poorly cemented rock such as Saint-Gilles sandstone, whereas the agreement is not very good for well-cemented rocks. The possible reasons for this are investigated. The surface conductance contribution of clay minerals to the overall electrical conductivity is assessed. The effect of partial hydrocarbon saturation on overall rock conductivity, and on the Archie saturation exponent, is discussed. The region of validity of the well-known Kozeny-Carman permeability formulae for consolidated porous media and their relationship to the microscopic spatial variations of channel dimensions are established. It is found that the permeabilities predicted by the Kozeny-Carman equations are valid within a factor of three of the observed values methods.

  11. A study of uranium favorability of Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, Basin and Range Province, Arizona: Part I, General geology and chronology of pre-late Miocene Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scarborough, Robert Bryan; Wilt, Jan Carol

    1979-01-01

    This study focuses attention on Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Basin and Range Province of Arizona. The known occurrences of uranium and anomalous radioactivity in these rocks are associated with sediments that accumulated in a low energy environment characterized by fine-grained clastics, including important tuffaceous materials, and carbonate rocks. Most uranium occurrences, in these rocks appear to be stratabound. Emphasis was placed on those sedimentary materials that pre-date the late Cenozoic Basin and Range disturbance. They are deformed and crop out on pedimented range blocks and along the province interface with the Transition Zone. Three tentative age groups are recognized: Group I - Oligocene, pre-22 m.y., Group II - early Miocene - 22 m.y. - 16 m.y., and Group III - middle Miocene - 16 m.y. to 13--10 m.y. Regionally, these three groups contain both coarse to fine-grained red clastics and low energy lighter colored 'lacustrine' phases. Each of the three groups has been the object of uranium exploration. Group II, the early Miocene strata, embraces the Anderson Mine - Artillery region host rocks and also the New River - Cave Creek early Miocene beds-along the boundary with the Transition Zone. These three groups of rocks have been tectonically deformed to the extent that original basins of deposition cannot yet be reconstructed. However, they were considerably more extensive in size than the late Cenozoic basins the origin of which deformed the former. Group II rocks are judged to be of prime interest because of: (1) the development and preservation of organic matter in varying lithologies, (2) apparent contemporaneity with silicic volcanic centers, (3) influence of Precambrian crystalline rocks, and (4) relative outcrop continuity near the stable Transition Zone. The Transition Zone, especially along its boundary with the Basin and Range Province, needs additional geologic investigation, especially as regards the depositional continuity of Group II

  12. Subcritical water extraction of organic matter from sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Luong, Duy; Sephton, Mark A; Watson, Jonathan S

    2015-06-16

    Subcritical water extraction of organic matter containing sedimentary rocks at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts comparable to conventional solvent extraction. Subcritical water extraction of previously solvent extracted samples confirms that high molecular weight organic matter (kerogen) degradation is not occurring and that only low molecular weight organic matter (free compounds) are being accessed in analogy to solvent extraction procedures. The sedimentary rocks chosen for extraction span the classic geochemical organic matter types. A type I organic matter-containing sedimentary rock produces n-alkanes and isoprenoidal hydrocarbons at 300°C and 1500 psi that indicate an algal source for the organic matter. Extraction of a rock containing type II organic matter at the same temperature and pressure produces aliphatic hydrocarbons but also aromatic compounds reflecting the increased contributions from terrestrial organic matter in this sample. A type III organic matter-containing sample produces a range of non-polar and polar compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygenated aromatic compounds at 300°C and 1500 psi reflecting a dominantly terrestrial origin for the organic materials. Although extraction at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts that are comparable to solvent extraction, lower temperature steps display differences related to organic solubility. The type I organic matter produces no products below 300°C and 1500 psi, reflecting its dominantly aliphatic character, while type II and type III organic matter contribute some polar components to the lower temperature steps, reflecting the chemical heterogeneity of their organic inventory. The separation of polar and non-polar organic compounds by using different temperatures provides the potential for selective extraction that may obviate the need for subsequent preparative chromatography steps. Our results indicate that subcritical water extraction can act as a suitable

  13. Hydrogeologic framework of fractured sedimentary rock, Newark Basin, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Burton, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of fractured sedimentary bedrock at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Trenton, New Jersey, a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated site in the Newark Basin, is developed using an understanding of the geologic history of the strata, gamma-ray logs, and rock cores. NAWC is the newest field research site established as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, and DoD Environmental Security Technology Certification Program to investigate contaminant remediation in fractured rock. Sedimentary bedrock at the NAWC research site comprises the Skunk Hollow, Byram, and Ewing Creek Members of the Lockatong Formation and Raven Rock Member of the Stockton Formation. Muds of the Lockatong Formation that were deposited in Van Houten cycles during the Triassic have lithified to form the bedrock that is typical of much of the Newark Basin. Four lithotypes formed from the sediments include black, carbon-rich laminated mudstone, dark-gray laminated mudstone, light-gray massive mudstone, and red massive mudstone. Diagenesis, tectonic compression, off-loading, and weathering have altered the rocks to give some strata greater hydraulic conductivity than other strata. Each stratum in the Lockatong Formation is 0.3 to 8 m thick, strikes N65 degrees E, and dips 25 degrees to 70 degrees NW. The black, carbon-rich laminated mudstone tends to fracture easily, has a relatively high hydraulic conductivity and is associated with high natural gamma-ray count rates. The dark-gray laminated mudstone is less fractured and has a lower hydraulic conductivity than the black carbon-rich laminated mudstone. The light-gray and the red massive mudstones are highly indurated and tend to have the least fractures and a low hydraulic conductivity. The differences in gamma-ray count rates for different mudstones allow gamma-ray logs to be used to correlate and

  14. In situ NMR analysis of fluids contained in sedimentary rock

    PubMed

    de Swiet TM; Tomaselli; Hurlimann; Pines

    1998-08-01

    Limitations of resolution and absorption in standard chemical spectroscopic techniques have made it difficult to study fluids in sedimentary rocks. In this paper, we show that a chemical characterization of pore fluids may be obtained in situ by magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which is normally used for solid samples. 1H MAS-NMR spectra of water and crude oil in Berea sandstone show sufficient chemical shift resolution for a straightforward determination of the oil/water ratio. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9716484

  15. Reconstruction of Sedimentary Rock Based on MechanicalProperties

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Guodong; Patzek, Tad W.; Silin, Dmitry B.

    2004-05-04

    We describe a general, physics-based approach to numericalreconstruction of the geometrical structure and mechanical properties ofnatural sedimentary rock in 3D. Our procedure consists of three mainsteps: sedimentation, compaction, and diagenesis, followed by theverification of rock mechanical properties. The dynamic geologicprocesses of grain sedimentation and compaction are simulated by solvinga dimensionless form of Newton's equations of motion for an ensemble ofgrains. The diagenetic rock transformation is modeled using a cementationalgorithm, which accounts for the effect of rock grain size on therelative rate of cement overgrowth. Our emphasis is on unconsolidatedsand and sandstone. The main input parameters are the grain sizedistribution, the final rock porosity, the type and amount of cement andclay minerals, and grain mechanical properties: the inter-grain frictioncoefficient, the cement strength, and the grain stiffness moduli. We usea simulated 2D Fontainebleau sandstone to obtain the grain mechanicalproperties. This Fontainebleau sandstone is also used to study theinitiation, growth, and coalescence of micro-cracks under increasingvertical stress. The box fractal dimension of the micro-crackdistribution, and its variation with the applied stress areestimated.

  16. Occurrence and origin of rhythmic sedimentary rocks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Kevin W.; Aharonson, Oded

    2014-06-01

    Sedimentary rocks preserved on the surface of Mars represent a natural archive of past climate conditions. Although the details of their formation often remain poorly constrained, the recent detection of rhythmic bedding patterns in the Arabia Terra region suggests the influence of orbital variations on sedimentary deposition. Here we detail a number of new sites which exhibit quasiperiodic stratigraphic variations, demonstrating their occurrence throughout the equatorial region of the planet. We characterize these recorded signals as well as the local geomorphic context and structural attributes. Two cyclic units are identified within Gale crater, the landing site of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, enabling estimation of possible formation timescales for the geologic units that may be studied in situ by the rover. We find a general lack of fluvial features in connection with rhythmic geologic units, contrasting these sites with the aperiodic deltaic stratigraphy found at Eberswalde crater. Possible formation scenarios and their climatic implications are discussed for the diverse set of quasiperiodic sedimentary units. We propose multiple depositional pathways for recording cyclic climate changes, including repeated evaporitic precipitation from groundwater discharge in topographic lows as well as largely anhydrous accumulation of atmospheric dust for deposits outside of confined basins. The preservation of orbital signals in sediments distributed across a wide range of geographic settings suggests a pervasive influence on Martian climate conditions through time.

  17. Manganese mineralogy and diagenesis in the sedimentary rock record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jena E.; Webb, Samuel M.; Ma, Chi; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of manganese (II) to manganese (III,IV) demands oxidants with very high redox potentials; consequently, manganese oxides are both excellent proxies for molecular oxygen and highly favorable electron acceptors when oxygen is absent. The first of these features results in manganese-enriched sedimentary rocks (manganese deposits, commonly Mn ore deposits), which generally correspond to the availability of molecular oxygen in Earth surface environments. And yet because manganese reduction is promoted by a variety of chemical species, these ancient manganese deposits are often significantly more reduced than modern environmental manganese-rich sediments. We document the impacts of manganese reduction and the mineral phases that form stable manganese deposits from seven sedimentary examples spanning from modern surface environments to rocks over 2 billion years old. Integrating redox and coordination information from synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray microprobe imaging with scanning electron microscopy and energy and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy, we find that unlike the Mn(IV)-dominated modern manganese deposits, three manganese minerals dominate these representative ancient deposits: kutnohorite (CaMn(CO3)2), rhodochrosite (MnCO3), and braunite (Mn(III)6Mn(II)O8SiO4). Pairing these mineral and textural observations with previous studies of manganese geochemistry, we develop a paragenetic model of post-depositional manganese mineralization with kutnohorite and calcian rhodochrosite as the earliest diagenetic mineral phases, rhodochrosite and braunite forming secondarily, and later alteration forming Mn-silicates.

  18. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks from the eastern Hexi Corridor Belt (NW China): Provenance and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaochen; Liu, Chiyang; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Qihang

    2016-06-01

    The Paleozoic tectonic framework of the eastern Hexi Corridor Belt is ambiguous. However, thick Paleozoic sediments from the eastern Hexi Corridor Belt can provide clues to this problem. In this paper, we deal with the detrital zircon provenance of Middle Ordovician to Late Devonian strata using LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating, documenting the temporal and spatial changes of provenance. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the primary provenance was the Qilian Orogenic Belt and the Alxa Block. However, two samples from Late Devonian strata show different provenance characteristics, from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, and the Alxa Block and the North China Block, respectively. Different age distributions through time reflect provenance changes due to continuous convergence of the Central Qilian Block and the Alxa Block from the Middle Ordovician to Late Devonian. A significant age cluster ranging from 2000 to 1800 Ma, which is a detrital zircon signature of the North China Block, appeared in the Late Devonian Zhongning Formation. Our preferred interpretation is that the amalgamation of the Alxa Block and the North China Block likely occurred at that time. Moreover, similar Paleozoic fossils, paleolatitudes and detrital zircon distribution indicate that the Hexi Corridor Belt has an affinity to eastern Gondwana.

  19. Interpretation of K-Ar dates of illitic clays from sedimentary rocks aided by modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Srodon, J.; Clauer, Norbert; Eberl, D.D.D.

    2002-01-01

    K-Ar dates of illitic clays from sedimentary rocks may contain "mixed ages," i.e., may have ages that are intermediate between the ages of end-member events. Two phenomena that may cause mixed ages are: (1) long-lasting reaction during the burial illitization of smectite: and (2) physical mixing of detrital and diagenetic components. The first phenomenon was investigated by simulation of illitization reactions using a nucleation and growth mechanism. These calculations indicate that values for mixed ages are related to burial history: for an equivalent length of reaction time, fast burial followed by slow burial produces much older mixed ages than slow burial followed by fast. The type of reaction that occured in a rock can be determined from the distribution of ages with respect to the thickness of illite crystals. Dating of artificial mixtures confirms a non-linear relation between mixed ages and the proportions of the components. Vertical variation of K-Ar age dates from Gulf Coast shales can be modeled by assuming diagenetic illitization that overprints a subtle vertical trend (presumably of sedimentary origin) in detrital mineral content.

  20. Modeling of the nonlinear resonant response in sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Cate, James A; Shankland, Thomas J; Vakhnenko, Vyacheslav O; Vakhnenko, Oleksiy

    2009-04-03

    We suggest a model for describing a wide class of nonlinear and hysteretic effects in sedimentary rocks at longitudinal bar resonance. In particular, we explain: hysteretic behaviour of a resonance curve on both its upward and downward slopes; linear softening of resonant frequency with increase of driving level; gradual (almost logarithmic) recovery of resonant frequency after large dynamical strains; and temporal relaxation of response amplitude at fixed frequency. Starting with a suggested model, we predict the dynamical realization of end-point memory in resonating bar experiments with a cyclic frequency protocol. These theoretical findings were confirmed experimentally at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Sedimentary rocks, particularly sandstones, are distinguished by their grain structure in which each grain is much harder than the intergrain cementation material. The peculiarities of grain and pore structures give rise to a variety of remarkable nonlinear mechanical properties demonstrated by rocks, both at quasistatic and alternating dynamic loading. Thus, the hysteresis earlier established for the stress-strain relation in samples subjected to quasistatic loading-unloading cycles has also been discovered for the relation between acceleration amplitude and driving frequency in bar-shaped samples subjected to an alternating external drive that is frequency-swept through resonance. At strong drive levels there is an unusual, almost linear decrease of resonant frequency with strain amplitude, and there are long-term relaxation phenomena such as nearly logarithmic recovery (increase) of resonant frequency after the large conditioning drive has been removed. In this report we present a short sketch of a model for explaining numerous experimental observations seen in forced longitudinal oscillations of sandstone bars. According to our theory a broad set of experimental data can be understood as various aspects of the same internally consistent pattern. Furthermore

  1. Rock property measurements and analysis of selected igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks from worldwide localities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gordon R.

    1983-01-01

    Dry bulk density and grain density measurements were made on 182 samples of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks from various world-wide localities. Total porosity values and both water-accessible and helium-accessible porosities were calculated from the density data. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were made on the solid samples and permeability and streaming potentials were concurrently measured on most samples. Dry bulk densities obtained using two methods of volume determination, namely direct measurement and Archlmedes principle, were nearly equivalent for most samples. Grain densities obtained on powdered samples were typically greater than grain densities obtained on solid samples, but differences were usually small. Sedimentary rocks had the highest percentage of occluded porosity per rock volume whereas metamorphic rocks had the highest percentage of occluded porosity per total porosity. There was no apparent direct relationship between permeability and streaming potential for most samples, although there were indications of such a relationship in the rock group consisting of granites, aplites, and syenites. Most rock types or groups of similar rock types of low permeability had, when averaged, comparable levels of streaming potential per unit of permeability. Three calcite samples had negative streaming potentials.

  2. Predicting permeability and electrical conductivity of sedimentary rocks from microgeometry

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, E.M.; Cook, N.G.W. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering); Zimmerman, R.W.; Witherspoon, P.A. )

    1991-02-01

    The determination of hydrologic parameters that characterize fluid flow through rock masses on a large scale (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, capillary pressure, and relative permeability) is crucial to activities such as the planning and control of enhanced oil recovery operations, and the design of nuclear waste repositories. Hydraulic permeability and electrical conductivity of sedimentary rocks are predicted from the microscopic geometry of the pore space. The cross-sectional areas and perimeters of the individual pores are estimated from two-dimensional scanning electron micrographs of rock sections. The hydraulic and electrical conductivities of the individual pores are determined from these geometrical parameters, using Darcy's law and Ohm's law. Account is taken of the fact that the cross-sections are randomly oriented with respect to the channel axes, and for possible variation of cross-sectional area along the length of the pores. The effective medium theory from solid-state physics is then used to determine an effective average conductance of each pore. Finally, the pores are assumed to be arranged on a cubic lattice, which allows the calculation of overall macroscopic values for the permeability and the electrical conductivity. Preliminary results using Berea, Boise, Massilon and Saint-Gilles sandstones show reasonably close agreement between the predicted and measured transport properties. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Geochemistry of Fine-grained Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sageman, B. B.; Lyons, T. W.

    2003-12-01

    The nature of detrital sedimentary (siliciclastic) rocks is determined by geological processes that occur in the four main Earth surface environments encountered over the sediment's history from source to final sink: (i) the site of sediment production (provenance), where interactions among bedrock geology, tectonic uplift, and climate control weathering and erosion processes; (ii) the transport path, where the medium of transport, gradient, and distance to the depositional basin may modify the texture and composition of weathered material; (iii) the site of deposition, where a suite of physical, chemical, and biological processes control the nature of sediment accumulation and early burial modification; and (iv) the conditions of later burial, where diagenetic processes may further alter the texture and composition of buried sediments. Many of these geological processes leave characteristic geochemical signatures, making detrital sedimentary rocks one of the most important archives of geochemical data available for reconstructions of ancient Earth surface environments. Although documentation of geochemical data has long been a part of the study of sedimentation (e.g., Twenhofel, 1926, 1950; Pettijohn, 1949; Trask, 1955), the development and application of geochemical methods specific to sedimentary geological problems blossomed in the period following the Second World War ( Degens, 1965; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971) and culminated in recent years, as reflected by the publication of various texts on marine geochemistry (e.g., Chester, 1990, 2000), biogeochemistry (e.g., Schlesinger, 1991; Libes, 1992), and organic geochemistry (e.g., Tissot and Welte, 1984; Engel and Macko, 1993).Coincident with the growth of these subdisciplines a new focus has emerged in the geological sciences broadly represented under the title of "Earth System Science" (e.g., Kump et al., 1999). Geochemistry has played the central role in this revolution (e.g., Berner, 1980; Garrels and Lerman

  4. Geochemistry of Fine-grained Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sageman, B. B.; Lyons, T. W.

    2003-12-01

    The nature of detrital sedimentary (siliciclastic) rocks is determined by geological processes that occur in the four main Earth surface environments encountered over the sediment's history from source to final sink: (i) the site of sediment production (provenance), where interactions among bedrock geology, tectonic uplift, and climate control weathering and erosion processes; (ii) the transport path, where the medium of transport, gradient, and distance to the depositional basin may modify the texture and composition of weathered material; (iii) the site of deposition, where a suite of physical, chemical, and biological processes control the nature of sediment accumulation and early burial modification; and (iv) the conditions of later burial, where diagenetic processes may further alter the texture and composition of buried sediments. Many of these geological processes leave characteristic geochemical signatures, making detrital sedimentary rocks one of the most important archives of geochemical data available for reconstructions of ancient Earth surface environments. Although documentation of geochemical data has long been a part of the study of sedimentation (e.g., Twenhofel, 1926, 1950; Pettijohn, 1949; Trask, 1955), the development and application of geochemical methods specific to sedimentary geological problems blossomed in the period following the Second World War ( Degens, 1965; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971) and culminated in recent years, as reflected by the publication of various texts on marine geochemistry (e.g., Chester, 1990, 2000), biogeochemistry (e.g., Schlesinger, 1991; Libes, 1992), and organic geochemistry (e.g., Tissot and Welte, 1984; Engel and Macko, 1993).Coincident with the growth of these subdisciplines a new focus has emerged in the geological sciences broadly represented under the title of "Earth System Science" (e.g., Kump et al., 1999). Geochemistry has played the central role in this revolution (e.g., Berner, 1980; Garrels and Lerman

  5. Physicomechanical parameters of sedimentary rocks in eastern Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jian; Sun, Yan; Shu, Liangshu; Zhu, Wenbin; Liu, Deliang; Wang, Feng; Li, Benliang

    2009-12-01

    Rock samples were collected and selected from the sedimentary covering strata from Cambrian to Jurassic in eastern Sichuan, China, which belongs to the Upper Yangtze plate. Physicomechanical parameters were measured systematically. Based on parametric texture characteristics and observation data of geology, five regional layer-slip systems are derived. The five layer-slip systems correspond to five reservoir-cover systems, as the incompetent beds correspond to cover beds and the competent beds to reservoir beds. In comparison with the Middle and Lower Yangtze plates, the physicomechanical parameters, lithologic composition and structural characteristics are basically similar to the Upper Yangtze plate. This comparison offers some insight into the oil and gas reservoir-cover systems in the region.

  6. Magnetic anomalies along the contact between sedimentary and igneous rocks:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Speer, A. J.; Wasilewski, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    Intrusion of the Liberty Hill granite (South Carolina) into the surrounding shale causes a distinct aureole along the metamorphic contact. The aureole is divided by five isograds, which are the result of a sequence of continuous reactions. One consequence of the continuous reactions is production of contrasting proportion of magnetite and exsolved titanohematite. The continuous change in the relative amounts of these two minerals, controls the magnetic properties of the hornfelses. This causes magnetic anomaly changes associated with the aureole with inflexions occurring at the isograds. The maximum intensity of the magnetic anomaly coincides with the maximum abundance of titanohematite. The anomaly sharply drops when stable remanence of titanohematite is replaced by unstable remanence of magnetite. Magnetic properties of the aureole, which is the contact between igneous and sedimentary rocks, demonstrate an example of magnetic remanence acquisition in petrological environment that is likely to occur on planet Mars.

  7. Glacially induced stresses in sedimentary rocks of northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    During the Pleistocene large continental ice sheets developed in Scandinavia and North America. Ice-loading caused bending of the lithosphere and outward flow in the mantle. Glacial loading is one of the most prominent tectono-mechanical event in the geological history of northern Poland. The Pomeranian region was subjected several times to a load equivalent of more than 1 km of rocks, which led to severe increase in both vertical and horizontal stresses in the upper crustal rocks. During deglaciation a rapid decrease in vertical stress is observed, which leads to destabilization of the crust - most recent postglacial faults scarps in northern Sweden indicate glacially induced earthquakes of magnitude ~Mw8. The presence of the ice-sheet altered as well the near-surface thermal structure - thermal gradient inversion is still observable in NW Poland. The glacially related processes might have left an important mark in the sedimentary cover of northern Poland, especially with regard to fracture reopening, changes in stress state, and damage development. In the present study, we model lithospheric bending caused by glacial load, but our point of interest lies in the overlying sediments. Typical glacial isostatic studies model the response of (visco-) elastic lithosphere over viscoelastic or viscous asthenosphere subjected to external loads. In our model, we introduce viscoelastic sedimentary layers at the top of this stack and examine the stress relaxation patterns therein. As a case study for our modelling, we used geological profiles from northern Poland, near locality of Wejherowo, which are considered to have unconventional gas potential. The Paleozoic profile of this area is dominated by almost 1 km thick Silurian-Ordovician shale deposits, which are interbedded with thin and strong limestone layers. This sequence is underlain by Cambrian shales and sandstones, and finally at ~3 km depth - Precambrian crystalline rocks. Above the Silurian there are approximately

  8. Chemostratigraphy of early Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of Yenisei ridge (Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnevskaya, Irina; Pisareva, Natalia; Kanygina, Nadejda; Proshenkin, Artem

    2014-05-01

    One of the biggest Proterozoic sedimentary basins in Russia is around the Siberian platform. This study about little part of them - Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of Yenisei ridge (Southwestern margin of Siberian Platform). Thise geological structure is ancient and very difficult for reaserch. It is a collage of different blocks: volcanic arcks, ophiolite complexes and sedimentary rocks of various ages and degrees of metamorphism. Sedimentary complexes of Siberian platform are outcropping along Angara River and its tributary. Neoproterozoic ones are presented by terrigenous-carbonate rocks of Tungusik and Oslyan groups. Despite the long study history of the area is still controversial question of time of formation of these rocks. As determination of the age of Precambrian sedimentary rocks is very difficult, Sr isotopic chemostratigraphy appears to be the only approach to establish the age of carbonate sequences. All Rb-Sr author's data was investigated by the method of selective dissolution with the preliminary removal of epigenetic carbonate phases. The isotope dilution method with mixed 87Rb + 84Sr spike was used to determine Rb and Sr concentrations in both fractions on the MI 1201AT mass spectrometer. Sr isotope ratios were measured on the Finnigan MAT-262 (BAC CU, Irkutsk, Russia) and Triton Plus (IGG UB RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia). The C-O isotopic composition in carbon samples was measured on the Finnigan MAT-253 equipment. The main criteria for integrity were correlations of impurity-elements (Mn, Fe, Sr) and stable isotopes (C, O) with each other. The less altered rocks of the Tungusik Group are characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7055-0.7058, and wide variations in the δ13CPDB values from 0 to +5o [1]. The primary 87Sr/86Sr of Dashka Formation (Oslyan Group) is 0.7057 - 0.7060 and δ13CPDB value varies in interval 3.7-4.3o like in upper part of Tungusik Group. High positive values of δ13CPDB indicate that carbonates had accumulated in warm sea

  9. Experiments in a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) Hosted in Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbey, T. J.; Kimballton, M. O.; Science Team

    2004-12-01

    Sedimentary-rock environments, particularly those dominated by carbonate rock, provide unique opportunities for geoscientists, geobiologists, and geophysicists, to perform revolutionary experiments aimed at answering fundamental science questions and satisfying our societal demands for resources and environmental stewardship. As part of the National Science Foundation's DUSEL initiative, the selected site should offer structurally and biologically diverse environments. At the same time, the site should offer host rock capable of providing safely engineered hallways and laboratories at depths as great as 2,200 m for numerous deep underground physics, engineering, and earth science experiments. An ideal sedimentary-rock environment offers the prospect of highly folded, thrusted, and fractured rocks that allow opportunities to study the 3-D behavior of thrusts that propagate parallel to bedding as well as those that ramp across bedding. Flow dynamics along and across deeply buried faults is poorly understood. Experiments will be developed at various scales to assess flow and transport processes to better quantify hydrogeological mechanisms influencing flow and possible aquifer compartmentalization. Seismic reflection images, vertical seismic profiles, and tomograms will provide details of the fault properties and geometry, which can be verified in-situ. Repeated overthrusted sequences provide opportunities for geobiologists to investigate how microbes in rocks of similar age are affected by differences in pressure, temperature, and depth. Carbonate rocks provide opportunities to study energy sources and adaptations for nutrient acquisition, reproduction, stability, survival, and repair under extreme conditions. Results from these investigations will permit comparisons with other foreland fold-thrust belts worldwide. Fossil fuels remain the world's main energy resource and the large majority of these are hosted in sedimentary rocks. Improved methods for reservoir

  10. Modeling the growth of stylolites in sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Alexandra; Toussaint, Renaud; Baud, Patrick; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Conil, Nathalie; Koehn, Daniel; Renard, FrançOis; Gratier, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Stylolites are ubiquitous pressure solution seams found in sedimentary rocks. Their morphology is shown to follow two self-affine regimes. Analyzing the scaling properties of their height over their average direction shows that (1) at small scale, they are self-affine surfaces with a Hurst exponent around 1, and (2) at large scale, they follow another self-affine scaling with Hurst exponent around 0.5. In the present paper, we show theoretically the influence of the main principal stress and the local geometry of the stylolitic interface on the dissolution reaction rate. We compute how it is affected by the deviation between the principal stress axis and the local interface between the rock and the soft material in the stylolite. The free energy entering in the dissolution reaction kinetics is expressed from the surface energy term and via integration from the stress perturbations due to these local misalignments. The resulting model shows the interface evolution at different stress conditions. In the stylolitic case, i.e., when the main principal stress is normal to the interface, two different stabilizing terms dominate at small and large scales which are linked respectively to the surface energy and to the elastic interactions. Integrating the presence of small-scale heterogeneities related to the rock properties of the grains in the model leads to the formulation of a Langevin equation predicting the dynamic evolution of the surface. This equation leads to saturated surfaces obeying the two observed scaling laws. Analytical and numerical analysis of this surface evolution model shows that the crossover length separating both scaling regimes depends directly on the applied far-field stress magnitude. This method gives the basis for the development of a paleostress magnitude marker. We apply the computation of this marker, i.e., the morphological analysis, on a stylolite found in the Dogger limestone layer located in the neighborhood of the ANDRA Underground

  11. Geochemistry of approximately 1.9 Ga sedimentary rocks from northeastern Labrador, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, K. I.; Fujisawa, H.; Holland, H. D.; Ohmoto, H.

    1997-01-01

    source for most sedimentary rocks of the Ramah Group, except for black shales of the Nullataktok Formation. The black shales were apparently derived from Provenance II that was comprised mostly of felsic rocks with SiO2 contents approximately 65 wt%. Comparing the compositions of the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks and their source rocks, we have recognized that several major elements, especially Ca and Mg, were lost almost entirely from the source rocks during weathering and sedimentation. Sodium and potassium were also leached almost entirely during the weathering of the source rocks. However, significant amounts of Na were added to the black shales and K to all the rock types during diagenesis and/or regional metamorphism. The intensity of weathering of source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments was much higher than that of typical Phanerozoic sediments, possibly because of a higher PCO2 in the Proterozoic atmosphere. Compared to the source rock values, the Fe3+/Ti ratios of many of the graywackes and gray shales of the Ramah Group are higher, the Fe2+/Ti ratios are lower, and the sigma Fe/Ti ratios are the same. Such characteristics of the Fe geochemistry indicate that these sedimentary rocks are comprised of soils formed by weathering of source rocks under an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The atmosphere about 1.9 Ga was, therefore, oxygen rich. Typical black shales of Phanerozoic age exhibit positive correlations between the organic C contents and the concentrations of S, U, and Mo, because these elements are enriched in oxygenated seawater and are removed from seawater by organic matter in sediments. However, such correlations are not found in the Ramah Group sediments. Black shales of the Ramah Group contain 1.7-2.8 wt% organic C, but are extremely depleted in sigma Fe (<1 wt% as FeO), S (<0.3 wt%), U (approximately l ppm), Mo (<5 ppm), Ni (<2 ppm), and Co (approximately 0 ppm). This lack of correlation, however, does not imply that the approximately 1.9 Ga atmosphere

  12. Geochemistry of ˜1.9 Ga sedimentary rocks from northeastern Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Holland, Heinrich D.; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    1997-10-01

    Group, except for black shales of the Nullataktok Formation. The black shales were apparently derived from Provenance 11 that was comprised mostly of felsic rocks with SiO 2 contents ˜65 wt%. Comparing the compositions of the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks and their source rocks, we have recognized that several major elements, especially Ca and Mg, were lost almost entirely from the source rocks during weathering and sedimentation. Sodium and potassium were also leached almost entirely during the weathering of the source rocks. However, significant amounts of Na were added to the black shales and K to all the rock types during diagenesis and/or regional metamorphism. The intensity of weathering of source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments was much higher than that of typical Phanerozoic sediments, possibly because of a higher Pco 2 in the Proterozoic atmosphere. Compared to the source rock values, the Fe2+/Ti ratios of many of the graywackes and gray shales of the Ramah Group are higher, the Fe 2+/Ti ratios are lower, and the ΣFe/ Ti ratios are the same. Such characteristics of the Fe geochemistry indicate that these sedimentary rocks are comprised of soils formed by weathering of source rocks under an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The atmosphere about 1.9 Ga was, therefore, oxygen rich. Typical black shales of Phanerozoic age exhibit positive correlations between the organic C contents and the concentrations of S, U, and Mo, because these elements are enriched in oxygenated seawater and are removed from seawater by organic matter in sediments. However, such correlations are not found in the Ramah Group sediments. Black shales of the Ramah Group contain 1.7-2.8 wt%o organic C, but are extremely depleted in ΣFe (< 1 wt% as FeO), S (<0.3 wt%), U (˜1 ppm), Mo (<5 ppm), Ni (<2 ppm), and Co (˜0 ppm). This lack of correlation, however, does not imply that the ˜1.9 Ga atmosphere-ocean system was anoxic. Depletion of these elements from the Ramah Group sediments may have

  13. Geochemistry of approximately 1.9 Ga sedimentary rocks from northeastern Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K I; Fujisawa, H; Holland, H D; Ohmoto, H

    1997-01-01

    source for most sedimentary rocks of the Ramah Group, except for black shales of the Nullataktok Formation. The black shales were apparently derived from Provenance II that was comprised mostly of felsic rocks with SiO2 contents approximately 65 wt%. Comparing the compositions of the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks and their source rocks, we have recognized that several major elements, especially Ca and Mg, were lost almost entirely from the source rocks during weathering and sedimentation. Sodium and potassium were also leached almost entirely during the weathering of the source rocks. However, significant amounts of Na were added to the black shales and K to all the rock types during diagenesis and/or regional metamorphism. The intensity of weathering of source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments was much higher than that of typical Phanerozoic sediments, possibly because of a higher PCO2 in the Proterozoic atmosphere. Compared to the source rock values, the Fe3+/Ti ratios of many of the graywackes and gray shales of the Ramah Group are higher, the Fe2+/Ti ratios are lower, and the sigma Fe/Ti ratios are the same. Such characteristics of the Fe geochemistry indicate that these sedimentary rocks are comprised of soils formed by weathering of source rocks under an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The atmosphere about 1.9 Ga was, therefore, oxygen rich. Typical black shales of Phanerozoic age exhibit positive correlations between the organic C contents and the concentrations of S, U, and Mo, because these elements are enriched in oxygenated seawater and are removed from seawater by organic matter in sediments. However, such correlations are not found in the Ramah Group sediments. Black shales of the Ramah Group contain 1.7-2.8 wt% organic C, but are extremely depleted in sigma Fe (<1 wt% as FeO), S (<0.3 wt%), U (approximately l ppm), Mo (<5 ppm), Ni (<2 ppm), and Co (approximately 0 ppm). This lack of correlation, however, does not imply that the approximately 1.9 Ga atmosphere

  14. Divisions of potential fracture permeability, based on distribution of structures and linear features in sedimentary rocks, northern Great Plains-Rocky Mountains region of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, and northern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1986-01-01

    Division of fracture traces in sedimentary rocks of Cenozoic to Precambrian Age - Eastern and central North and South Dakota and northern Nebraska include only Cenozoic to Pennsylvanian rocks at the surface and at relatively shallow depths; the area of shallow thrust faulting in north-central Montana includes many Cretaceous rocks. Fractures in the deeper rocks in these areas vary, depending on the local structure. Large areas of western Montana are underlain by Precambrian sedimentary rocks

  15. Late Cretaceous multicolored shales and phosphatic sedimentary rocks in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, C.R.; Garrison, R.E.; Arthur, M.A.

    1983-03-01

    Upper Cretaceous transitional fluvial to marine variegated shale (upper Nubia Formation) and the fully marine Duwi (phosphate) Formation occur as thin, widespread, shallow-marine deposits in an east-west-trending belt spanning the lower-middle latitudes of Egypt. On a larger scale, the phosphoritic rocks in Egypt represent but a small portion of a laterally extensive Middle Eastern-North African phosphogenic province of Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary age that accounts for accumulation of minable marine phosphate in excess of 70 billion tons. Phosphorites, porcelanites/cherts, organic carbon-rich shales, glauconitic sandstones, and bioclastic and fine-grained carbonate rocks variously reflect major hemipelagic and shallow-water carbonate sedimentation. Biosiliceous hemipelagic deposits, now diagenetically altered to procelanite and chert, reflect low energy depositional conditions that were periodically interrupted by high energy, possibly storm-induced currents and/or down-slope redeposition. Both dark shales and porcelanites locally contain abundant organic matter and are commonly finely laminated. Porcelanites and black shales are phosphatic, containing phosphatic grains identical, morphologically and chemically, to those found in associated phosphorites, and are probably the source from which the phosphorites were derived. The organic carbon-rich shales of the Duwi Formation appear to be quite laterally extensive and may, depending on thermal maturity, represent potential hydrocarbon source rocks in other portions of the region (e.g., Western Desert, Gulf of Suez), where they are more deeply buried.

  16. Weathering of expansive sedimentary rock due to cycles of wetting and drying

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.W. )

    1994-09-01

    There are several different mechanisms by which sedimentary rock can weather, such as: (1) Rebound: for cut areas, where the overburden has been removed by erosion or during mass-grading operations, the sedimentary rock will rebound due to the release in overburden pressure, the rebound can cause the opening or widening of cracks and joints; (2) Physical Weathering: sedimentary rock can be broken apart by the physical growth of plant roots or by the freezing of water in rock cracks or joints. Studies have also shown that precipitation of gypsum in rock pores, cracks, and joints can cause rock expansion and disintegration. Such conditions occur in arid climates where subsurface moisture evaporates at ground surface, precipitating the minerals in the rock pores. Acicular gypsum crystals have been observed to grow perpendicular to structures and are believed to exert the most force at their growing end (Hawkins and Pinces, 1987). Acicular gypsum growth has even been observed in massive sandstone, which resulted in significant heave (Hollingsworth and Grover, 1992); (3) Chemical Weathering: weathering of sedimentary rock can be due to oxidation, hydration of clay minerals, and the chemical alteration of the silt-size particles to clay. Factors affecting oxidation include the presence of moisture and oxygen (aerobic conditions), biological activity, acidic environment, and temperature (Hollingsworth and Grover, 1992). The purpose of this study was to investigate the weathering of expansive sedimentary rock due to cycles of wetting and drying at temperatures representative of field conditions.

  17. Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cheng, Chu-Lin; Perfect, Edmund; Donnelly, B.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Tremsin, Anton S.; McKay, L. D.; Distefano, Victoria H.; Cai, J. C.; Santodonato, Louis J.

    2015-01-27

    The spontaneous imbibition of water and other liquids into gas-filled fractures in variably-saturated porous media is important in a variety of engineering and geological contexts. However, surprisingly few studies have investigated this phenomenon. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for predicting the 1-dimensional movement of water into air-filled fractures within a porous medium based on early-time capillary dynamics and spreading over the rough surfaces of fracture faces. The theory permits estimation of sorptivity values for the matrix and fracture zone, as well as a dispersion parameter which quantifies the extent of spreading of the wetting front. Quantitative datamore » on spontaneous imbibition of water in unsaturated Berea sandstone cores were acquired to evaluate the proposed model. The cores with different permeability classes ranging from 50 to 500 mD and were fractured using the Brazilian method. Spontaneous imbibition in the fractured cores was measured by dynamic neutron radiography at the Neutron Imaging Prototype Facility (beam line CG-1D, HFIR), Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water uptake into both the matrix and the fracture zone exhibited square-root-of-time behavior. The matrix sorptivities ranged from 2.9 to 4.6 mm s-0.5, and increased linearly as the permeability class increased. The sorptivities of the fracture zones ranged from 17.9 to 27.1 mm s-0.5, and increased linearly with increasing fracture aperture width. The dispersion coefficients ranged from 23.7 to 66.7 mm2 s-1 and increased linearly with increasing fracture aperture width and damage zone width. Both theory and observations indicate that fractures can significantly increase spontaneous imbibition in unsaturated sedimentary rock by capillary action and surface spreading on rough fracture faces. Fractures also increase the dispersion of the wetting front. In conclusion, further research is needed to investigate this phenomenon in other natural and engineered

  18. Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C.-L.; Perfect, E.; Donnelly, B.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Tremsin, A. S.; McKay, L. D.; DiStefano, V. H.; Cai, J. C.; Santodonato, L. J.

    2015-03-01

    The spontaneous imbibition of water and other liquids into gas-filled fractures in variably-saturated porous media is important in a variety of engineering and geological contexts. However, surprisingly few studies have investigated this phenomenon. We present a theoretical framework for predicting the 1-dimensional movement of water into air-filled fractures within a porous medium based on early-time capillary dynamics and spreading over the rough surfaces of fracture faces. The theory permits estimation of sorptivity values for the matrix and fracture zone, as well as a dispersion parameter which quantifies the extent of spreading of the wetting front. Quantitative data on spontaneous imbibition of water in unsaturated Berea sandstone cores were acquired to evaluate the proposed model. The cores with different permeability classes ranging from 50 to 500 mD and were fractured using the Brazilian method. Spontaneous imbibition in the fractured cores was measured by dynamic neutron radiography at the Neutron Imaging Prototype Facility (beam line CG-1D, HFIR), Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water uptake into both the matrix and the fracture zone exhibited square-root-of-time behavior. The matrix sorptivities ranged from 2.9 to 4.6 mm s-0.5, and increased linearly as the permeability class increased. The sorptivities of the fracture zones ranged from 17.9 to 27.1 mm s-0.5, and increased linearly with increasing fracture aperture width. The dispersion coefficients ranged from 23.7 to 66.7 mm2 s-1 and increased linearly with increasing fracture aperture width and damage zone width. Both theory and observations indicate that fractures can significantly increase spontaneous imbibition in unsaturated sedimentary rock by capillary action and surface spreading on rough fracture faces. Fractures also increase the dispersion of the wetting front. Further research is needed to investigate this phenomenon in other natural and engineered porous media.

  19. Displacement propagators of brine flowing within different types of sedimentary rock.

    PubMed

    Verganelakis, Dimitris A; Crawshaw, John; Johns, Michael L; Mantle, Michael D; Scheven, Ulrich; Sederman, Andrew J; Gladden, Lynn F

    2005-02-01

    This paper explores the correlation between different microstructural characteristics of porous sedimentary rocks and the flow properties of a Newtonian infiltrating fluid. Preliminary results of displacement propagator measurements of brine solution flowing through two types of sedimentary rock cores are reported. The two types of rocks, Bentheimer and Portland, are characterized by different porosities, pore-size distributions and permeabilities. Propagators have been measured for brine flow rates of 1 and 5 ml/min. Significant differences are seen between the propagators recorded for the two rocks, and these are related to the spatial distribution of porosity within these porous media. PMID:15833644

  20. Organic solvent alteration of hydraulic properties of sedimentary rocks of low permeability: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Sklarew, D.S.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the current literature on hydrophysical interactions of organic solutes with sedimentary rocks of low permeability is presented. The motivation was the premise that low permeability rocks may act as secondary (aquifer) barriers for the containment of hazardous organic wastes, thus preventing these wastes from contaminating the groundwater. However, this premise may be incorrect if organic wastes can affect the hydraulic conductivity of these rocks. The results indicate that very little work has been done concerning interactions of organics with consolidated subsurface materials. Available information on three related topics was summarized: the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of clays, case studies concerning the interactions of organic compounds with clays and sedimentary rocks, and the effect of shales on inorganic transport. These studies give an indication of some research areas that need to be explored with regard to the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of sedimentary rocks; these research needs are briefly summarized. 42 refs.

  1. Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chu-Lin; Perfect, Edmund; Donnelly, B.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Tremsin, Anton S.; McKay, L. D.; Distefano, Victoria H.; Cai, J. C.; Santodonato, Louis J.

    2015-01-27

    The spontaneous imbibition of water and other liquids into gas-filled fractures in variably-saturated porous media is important in a variety of engineering and geological contexts. However, surprisingly few studies have investigated this phenomenon. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for predicting the 1-dimensional movement of water into air-filled fractures within a porous medium based on early-time capillary dynamics and spreading over the rough surfaces of fracture faces. The theory permits estimation of sorptivity values for the matrix and fracture zone, as well as a dispersion parameter which quantifies the extent of spreading of the wetting front. Quantitative data on spontaneous imbibition of water in unsaturated Berea sandstone cores were acquired to evaluate the proposed model. The cores with different permeability classes ranging from 50 to 500 mD and were fractured using the Brazilian method. Spontaneous imbibition in the fractured cores was measured by dynamic neutron radiography at the Neutron Imaging Prototype Facility (beam line CG-1D, HFIR), Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water uptake into both the matrix and the fracture zone exhibited square-root-of-time behavior. The matrix sorptivities ranged from 2.9 to 4.6 mm s-0.5, and increased linearly as the permeability class increased. The sorptivities of the fracture zones ranged from 17.9 to 27.1 mm s-0.5, and increased linearly with increasing fracture aperture width. The dispersion coefficients ranged from 23.7 to 66.7 mm2 s-1 and increased linearly with increasing fracture aperture width and damage zone width. Both theory and observations indicate that fractures can significantly increase spontaneous imbibition in unsaturated sedimentary rock by capillary action and surface spreading on rough fracture faces. Fractures also increase the dispersion of the wetting front. In conclusion, further research is needed to investigate this phenomenon

  2. Elemental Geochemistry of Sedimentary Rocks at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLennan, S. M.; Anderson, R. B.; Bell, J. F.; Bridges, J. C.; Calef, F.; Campbell, J. L.; Clark, B. C.; Clegg, S.; Conrad, P.; Cousin, A.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M. D.; Edgar, L. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Fabre, C.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Gellert, R.; Gordon, S.; Grant, J. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J. A.; King, P. L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Leshin, L. A.; Léveillé, R.; Lewis, K. W.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Nachon, M.; Newsom, H. E.; Ollila, A. M.; Perrett, G. M.; Rice, M. S.; Schmidt, M. E.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Stack, K.; Stolper, E. M.; Sumner, D. Y.; Treiman, A. H.; VanBommel, S.; Vaniman, D. T.; Vasavada, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Yingst, R. A.; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Siebach, Kirsten; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Brinza, David; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Wolff, Michael; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Pradler, Irina; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks examined by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay, Mars, were derived from sources that evolved from an approximately average martian crustal composition to one influenced by alkaline basalts. No evidence of chemical weathering is preserved, indicating arid, possibly cold, paleoclimates and rapid erosion and deposition. The absence of predicted geochemical variations indicates that magnetite and phyllosilicates formed by diagenesis under low-temperature, circumneutral pH, rock-dominated aqueous conditions. Analyses of diagenetic features (including concretions, raised ridges, and fractures) at high spatial resolution indicate that they are composed of iron- and halogen-rich components, magnesium-iron-chlorine-rich components, and hydrated calcium sulfates, respectively. Composition of a cross-cutting dike-like feature is consistent with sedimentary intrusion. The geochemistry of these sedimentary rocks provides further evidence for diverse depositional and diagenetic sedimentary environments during the early history of Mars.

  3. Elemental geochemistry of sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars.

    PubMed

    McLennan, S M; Anderson, R B; Bell, J F; Bridges, J C; Calef, F; Campbell, J L; Clark, B C; Clegg, S; Conrad, P; Cousin, A; Des Marais, D J; Dromart, G; Dyar, M D; Edgar, L A; Ehlmann, B L; Fabre, C; Forni, O; Gasnault, O; Gellert, R; Gordon, S; Grant, J A; Grotzinger, J P; Gupta, S; Herkenhoff, K E; Hurowitz, J A; King, P L; Le Mouélic, S; Leshin, L A; Léveillé, R; Lewis, K W; Mangold, N; Maurice, S; Ming, D W; Morris, R V; Nachon, M; Newsom, H E; Ollila, A M; Perrett, G M; Rice, M S; Schmidt, M E; Schwenzer, S P; Stack, K; Stolper, E M; Sumner, D Y; Treiman, A H; VanBommel, S; Vaniman, D T; Vasavada, A; Wiens, R C; Yingst, R A

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary rocks examined by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay, Mars, were derived from sources that evolved from an approximately average martian crustal composition to one influenced by alkaline basalts. No evidence of chemical weathering is preserved, indicating arid, possibly cold, paleoclimates and rapid erosion and deposition. The absence of predicted geochemical variations indicates that magnetite and phyllosilicates formed by diagenesis under low-temperature, circumneutral pH, rock-dominated aqueous conditions. Analyses of diagenetic features (including concretions, raised ridges, and fractures) at high spatial resolution indicate that they are composed of iron- and halogen-rich components, magnesium-iron-chlorine-rich components, and hydrated calcium sulfates, respectively. Composition of a cross-cutting dike-like feature is consistent with sedimentary intrusion. The geochemistry of these sedimentary rocks provides further evidence for diverse depositional and diagenetic sedimentary environments during the early history of Mars. PMID:24324274

  4. Chemical Composition of Martian Soil and Rocks: Complex Mixing and Sedimentary Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLennan, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical compositions of Martian soil and rocks indicate complex mixing relationships. Mixing of rock and soil clearly takes place and explains some of the chemical variation because sulfur, chlorine, magnesium, and perhaps iron are positively correlated due to their control from a secondary 'sedimentary' mineralogy (e.g., Mg- and possibly Fe-sulfate; Fe-oxides) that is present within the soils. Certain deviations from simple soil-rock mixing are consistent with mineralogical fractionation of detrital iron and titanium oxides during sedimentary transport.

  5. Provenance and palaeogeographic implications of Eocene-Oligocene sedimentary rocks in the northwestern Basin and Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Egger, A.E.; Colgan, J.P.; York, C.

    2009-01-01

    A thick sequence of uppermost Eocene to lower Oligocene volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks is exposed at the base of the Warner Range in northeastern California. This isolated exposure provides insight into the palaeogeographic setting of the northwestern Basin and Range during this time period. Significant thinning of the unit over 35km of lateral exposure and predominantly volcanic clast compositions suggest that the sequence was deposited in an alluvial plain adjacent to a volcanic arc. Palaeocurrent indicators in the conglomerates define a NNE transport direction. Detrital zircon analysis on coarse sandstones and dating of individual granite cobbles show a range of ages consistent with a local, volcanic source area primarily from the SSW with some far-travelled input from northern Nevada; the far-travelled component increases in influence as the unit thins to the north. Comparison with other sedimentary sequences of Eocene age and integration with palaeofloral and geophysical data help to define drainage divides, and suggest that this sequence accumulated in a relatively isolated, intra-arc basin. This localized accumulation differs markedly from contemporaneous drainages to the south that transported material westwards from central Nevada to the palaeoshoreline, and suggests that ongoing volcanism had a strong influence on palaeogeography in this region during the Eocene and Oligocene.

  6. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  7. Linking the Fe-, Mo-, and Cr isotope records with the multiple S isotope record of Archean sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmoto, H.; Watanabe, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Researchers have interpreted the isotopic data of redox sensitive elements (e.g., Fe, Mo and Cr) in Archean- and Proterozoic-aged sedimentary rocks within a framework of an atmospheric O2 evolution model that relied on an interpretation of the multiple sulfur isotopic record of sedimentary rocks. The current paradigm is that the anomalous isotopic fractionations of sulfur (AIF-S, or MIF-S) in sedimentary rocks were created by the UV photolysis of volcanic SO2 in an O2-poor (i.e., pO2 < 1 ppm) atmosphere, and that the rise of atmospheric pO2 to > 1 ppm occurred at ~2.45 Ga. However, this paradigm has recently encountered the following serious problems: (1) UV photolysis of SO2 by a broad-band UV lamp, which simulates the UV spectra of the sun light, produced the δ34S-Δ33S values for the S0 and SO4 that are significantly different from >90% of data on natural samples. (2) Many Archean-age sedimentary rocks do not exhibit AIF-S signatures. (3) Strong AIF-S signatures are typically found in organic C- and pyrite rich Archean-age black shales that were altered by submarine hydrothermal fluids during the early diagenetic stage of the rocks. (4) H2S, rather than SO2, was probably the dominant S-bearing volcanic gas on an anoxic Earth. Yet, UV photolysis of H2S does not generate AIF-S. (5) Some post-2.0 Ga natural samples were found to possess strong AIF-S signatures, such as sulfates in air pollutants that were produced by coal burning in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Lasaga et al. (2008) demonstrated theoretically that chemisorption reactions between some solid surfaces and S-bearing aqueous (or gaseous) species, such as between organic matter and aqueous sulfate, may generate AIF-S. Watanabe et al. (2009; in prep.) demonstrated experimentally that reactions between simple amino acid crystals and sulfate under hydrothermal conditions produced AIF-S signatures that matched with more than 90% of data on natural samples. These studies, as well as the observed correlations

  8. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary?) beneath the midcontinent region of the US. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan?) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  9. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary ) beneath the midcontinent region of the US

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan ) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  10. Preliminary Paleomagnetic Results From Tertiary Rocks of Sedimentary Basins in Northern Vietnam and Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Liu, Z.; Le, K.; Zhao, Y.; Hoang, V.; Phan, D.

    2013-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is a classical representative of western Pacific marginal seas and contains records of Cenozoic tectonic events of SE Asia. The SCS has been at the center stage of many first-order tectonic and paleoclimatic events since the Mesozoic. One clear way to evaluate the relationship between tectonic uplift and climate is to study the resulting changes in marginal sea strata. To this end, we will conduct an integrated paleomagnetic and stratigraphic investigation on Tertiary strata from Phu Tho and Yen Bai provinces, northern Vietnam to help understand the causal linkages among geological and tectonic events and their consequences related to the SCS evolution. We will collect paleomagnetic samples at sections where the most continuous, complete, and best preserved Eocene-Miocene successions. Standard paleomagnetic field tests, such as the fold, reversal, and conglomerate tests will be used to determine the relative age of the magnetization. In addition to detailed thermal and alternating field demagnetization and analysis, selected samples will also be subjected to several rock magnetic analyses to identify magnetic carriers in the rocks. In particular, the hysteresis parameters Jrs/Js and Hcr /Hc ratios will enable us to apply techniques for detecting low-temperature remagnetization of sedimentary rocks. Preliminary finding of this ongoing project will be presented.

  11. Geoengineering Research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldon, M.

    2004-12-01

    A process to identify world-class research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the USA has been initiated by NSF. While allowing physicists to study, inter alia, dark matter and dark energy, this laboratory will create unprecedented opportunities for biologists to study deep life, geoscientists to study crustal processes and geoengineers to study the behavior of rock, fluids and underground cavities at depth, on time scales of decades. A substantial portion of the nation's future infrastructure is likely to be sited underground because of energy costs, urban crowding and vulnerability of critical surface facilities. Economic and safe development of subsurface space will require an improved ability to engineer the geologic environment. Because of the prevalence of sedimentary rock in the upper continental crust, much of this subterranean infrastructure will be hosted in sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are fundamentally anisotropic due to lithology and bedding, and to discontinuities ranging from microcracks to faults. Fractures, faults and bedding planes create structural defects and hydraulic pathways over a wide range of scales. Through experimentation, observation and monitoring in a sedimentary rock DUSEL, in conjunction with high performance computational models and visualization tools, we will explore the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of layered rock. DUSEL will permit long-term experiments on 100 m blocks of rock in situ, accessed via peripheral tunnels. Rock volumes will be loaded to failure and monitored for post-peak behavior. The response of large rock bodies to stress relief-driven, time-dependent strain will be monitored over decades. Large block experiments will be aimed at measurement of fluid flow and particle/colloid transport, in situ mining (incl. mining with microbes), remediation technologies, fracture enhancement for resource extraction and large scale long-term rock mass response to induced

  12. Measuring the vertical permeability of horizontally- stratified sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Novakowski, K.S.; Lapcevic, P.A. ); Reichart, T.M. )

    1993-03-01

    The vertical permeability of horizontally stratified rocks is usually assumed to be significantly less than the permeability of horizontal structural features such as bedding plane partings and sheeting structure. Consequently it is also assumed that this type of media provides suitable vertical barriers to the migration of both aqueous and non-aqueous phase groundwater contaminants. To investigate this assumption, a site adjacent to an inactive dolostone quarry was instrumented using nine boreholes drilled to a depth of approximately 25 m in a 30 x 30 m area. The area is immediately underlain by flat-lying thick-bedded dolostones of Middle-Silurian age. Six of the boreholes were drilled at angle of 45[degree] to intersect two vertical fracture sets oriented at 020[degree] and 110[degree] which were identified by mapping the fractures in the quarry. Detailed hydraulic tests (constant-head method) were conducted in each of the boreholes using a packer spacing of 0.5 m to determine the hydraulic properties of the individual horizontal and vertical fractures and fracture zones. In addition, four pumping tests were conducted in which a fracture zone in one of the vertical boreholes was shut-in and pumped and the hydraulic response was monitored in the observation boreholes using pressure transducer installed in 15 intervals isolated with multiple-packer strings. The results of the constant-head tests show that although the groundwater flow system in the dolostone is dominated by 3--4 horizontal fracture zones, the average permeability of the vertical fractures is only one order of magnitude less than the average permeability of the horizontal fractures. However, this aspect of the flow system is not detected using pumping tests, the results of which suggest that the average permeability is 3--4 orders of magnitude less in the vertical direction.

  13. The Potassic Sedimentary Rocks in Gale Crater, Mars, as Seen by ChemCam Onboard Curiosity.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Le Deit, Laetitia; Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Cousin, Agnes; Lasue, Jeremie; Schröder, Susanne; Wiens, Roger C.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Fabre, Cecile; Stack, Katherine M.; Anderson, Ryan; Blaney, Diana L.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Dromart, Gilles; Fisk, Martin; Gasnault, Olivier; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Lanza, Nina; Le Mouélic, Stephane; Maurice, Sylvestre; McLennan, Scott M.; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Nachon, Marion; Newsom, Horton E.; Payre, Valerie; Rapin, William; Rice, Melissa; Sautter, Violaine; Treiman, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity encountered potassium-rich clastic sedimentary rocks at two sites in Gale Crater, the waypoints Cooperstown and Kimberley. These rocks include several distinct meters-thick sedimentary outcrops ranging from fine sandstone to conglomerate, interpreted to record an ancient fluvial or fluvio-deltaic depositional system (Grotzinger et al., 2015). From ChemCam LIBS chemical analyses, this suite of sedimentary rocks has an overall mean K2O abundance that is more than five times higher than that of the average Martian crust. The combined analysis of ChemCam data with stratigraphic and geographic locations reveals that the mean K2O abundance increases upward through the stratigraphic section. Chemical analyses across each unit can be represented as mixtures of several distinct chemical components, i.e. mineral phases, including K-bearing minerals, mafic silicates, Fe-oxides, and Fe-hydroxide/oxyhydroxides. Possible K-bearing minerals include alkali feldspar (including anorthoclase and sanidine) and K-bearing phyllosilicate such as illite. Mixtures of different source rocks, including a potassium-rich rock located on the rim and walls of Gale Crater are the likely origin of observed chemical variations within each unit. Physical sorting may have also played a role in the enrichment in K in the Kimberley formation. The occurrence of these potassic sedimentary rocks provides additional evidence for the chemical diversity of the crust exposed at Gale Crater.

  14. Sedimentary Rocks of 8oN, 7oW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    11 September 2004 An impact crater in western Arabia Terra at 8oN, 7oW, exhibits some of the most fantastic sedimentary rock outcrops on Mars. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example. The crater interior has hundreds of sedimentary rock layers, each of a similar thickness and similar physical properties. The similarities between beds and their repeated nature have been used to suggest that the crater was once the site of a lake. Today, the sedimentary rocks are eroded and dark, windblown sand covers some of them. Faults cut and offset beds in some places. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/lower left.

  15. Geology, Geochemistry and Geophysics of Sedimentary Rock-Hosted Au Deposits in P.R. China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2002-01-01

    This is the second report concerning results of a joint project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Tianjin Geological Academy to study sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits in P.R. China. Since the 1980s, Chinese geologists have devoted a large-scale exploration and research effort to the deposits. As a result, there are more than 20 million oz of proven Au reserves in sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits in P.R. China. Additional estimated and inferred resources are present in over 160 deposits and occurrences, which are undergoing exploration. This makes China second to Nevada in contained ounces of Au in Carlin-type deposits. It is likely that many of the Carlin-type Au ore districts in China, when fully developed, could have resource potential comparable to the multi-1,000-tonne Au resource in northern Nevada. The six chapters of this report describe sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits that were visited during the project. Chapters 1 and 2 provide an overview of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits and Carlin-type Au deposits and also provide a working classification for the sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 provide descriptions that were compiled from the literature in China in three main areas: the Dian-Qian-Gui, the Qinling fold belt, and Middle-Lower Yangtze River areas. Chapter 6 contains a weights-of-evidence (WofE), GIS-based mineral assessment of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits in the Qinling fold belt and Dian-Qian-Gui areas. Appendices contain scanned aeromagnetic (Appendix I) and gravity (Appendix II) geophysical maps of south and central China. Data tables of the deposits (Appendix III) also are available in the first report as an interactive database at http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of98-466/. Geochemical analysis of ore samples from the deposits visited are contained in Appendix IV.

  16. Dechlorinating microorganisms in a sedimentary rock matrix contaminated with a mixture of VOCs.

    PubMed

    Lima, Gláucia; Parker, Beth; Meyer, Jessica

    2012-06-01

    Microbiological characterizations of contaminant biodegradation in fractured sedimentary rock have primarily focused on the biomass suspended in groundwater samples and disregarded the biomass attached to fractures and in matrix pores. In fractured sedimentary rock, diffusion causes nearly all contaminant mass to reside in porous, low-permeability matrix. Microorganisms capable of contaminant degradation can grow in the matrix pores if the pores and pore throats are sufficiently large. In this study, the presence of dechlorinating microorganisms in rock matrices was investigated at a site where a fractured, flat-lying, sandstone-dolostone sequence has been contaminated with a mixture of chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons for over 40 years. The profile of organic contaminants as well as the distribution and characterization of the microbial community spatial variability was obtained through depth-discrete, high-frequency sampling along a 98-m continuous rock core. Dechlorinating microorganisms, such as Dehalococcoides and Dehalobacter, were detected in the rock matrices away from fracture surfaces, indicating that biodegradation within the rock matrix blocks should be considered as an important component of the system when evaluating the potential for natural attenuation or remediation at similar sedimentary rock sites. PMID:22612587

  17. The fate of diamondoids in coals and sedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Z.; Moldowan, J.M.; Jarvie, D.M.; Hill, R.

    2006-01-01

    Diamondoids were detected in the extracts of a series of coals and rocks varying in maturity, lithology, source input, and depositional environment. At the same maturity level, diamondoids are generally about a magnitude more abundant in source rocks than in coals. The concentrations of diamondoids are maturity dependent. However, while diamondoids become more abundant with the increasing thermal maturity, a diminution in diamondoid concentrations is observed at the maturity value of about Ro = 4.0% in both coals and rocks. The occurrence of diamantane destruction at 550 ??C during pyrolysis suggests that diamondoids may be eventually destroyed at high temperatures in the Earth. Here we propose three main phases of diamondoid life in nature: diamondoid generation (phase I, Ro 4.0%). ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  18. The fate of diamondoids in coals and sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Z.; Moldowan, J.M.; Jarvie, D.M.; Hill, R.

    2006-12-15

    Diamondoids were detected in the extracts of a series of coals and rocks varying in maturity, lithology, source input, and depositional environment. At the same maturity level, diamondoids are generally about a magnitude more abundant in source rocks than in coals. The concentrations of diamondoids are maturity dependent. However, while diamondoids become more abundant with the increasing thermal maturity, a diminution in diamondoid concentrations is observed at the maturity value of about R{sub o} = 4.0% in both coals and rocks. The occurrence of diamantane destruction at 550{sup o}C during pyrolysis suggests that diamondoids may be eventually destroyed at high temperatures in the Earth. Here we propose three main phases of diamondoid life in nature: diamondoid generation (phase I, R{sub o} < 1.1%), diamondoid generation and enrichment (phase II, 1.1% {le} R{sub o} {le}4.0%), and diamondoid destruction (phase III, R{sub o} > 4.0%).

  19. Experimental measurements of seismic attenuation in microfracture sedimentary rock

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, S.; McCann, C.; Sothcott, J.; Astin, T.R. . Research Inst. for Sedimentology)

    1994-09-01

    In a previous paper (Peacock et al., 1994), the authors related ultrasonic velocities in water-saturated Carrara Marble to crack densities in polished sections to verify Hudson's (1980, 1981, 1986) theory for velocities in cracked rock. They describe the empirical relationships between attenuation and crack density that they established during these experiments in the hope of clarifying the mechanism of attenuation in rocks with fluid-filled cracks. Relating seismic velocity and attenuation to crack density is important in predicting the productivity of fractured petroleum reservoirs such as the North Sea Brent Field. It also allows cracks to be used as stress indicators throughout the shallow crust (Crampin and Lovell, 1991).

  20. Geology and geochemistry of three sedimentary-rock-hosted disseminated gold deposits in Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashley, R.P.; Cunningham, C.G.; Bostick, N.H.; Dean, W.E.; Chou, I.-Ming

    1991-01-01

    Five sedimentary-rock-hosted disseminated gold deposits have been discovered since 1980 in southwestern Guizhou Province (PRC). Submicron-sized gold is disseminated in silty carbonate and carbonaceous shale host rocks of Permian and Triassic age. Arsenic, antimony, mercury, and thallium accompany the gold. Associated hydrothermal alteration resulted in decarbonatization of limestone, silicification, and argillization, and depletion of base metals, barium, and many other elements. Organic material occurs in most host rocks and ores. It was apparently devolatilized during a regional heating event that preceded hydrothermal activity, and thus was not mobilized during mineralization, and did not affect gold deposition. The geologic setting of the Guizhou deposits includes many features that are similar to those of sedimentary-rock-hosted deposits of the Great Basin, western United States. The heavy-element suite that accompanies gold is the same, but base metals are even scarcer in the Guizhou deposits than they are in U.S. deposits. The Guizhou deposits discovered to date are smaller than most U.S. deposits and have no known spatially associated igneous rocks. ?? 1991.

  1. Enrichment processes of arsenic in oxidic sedimentary rocks - from geochemical and genetic characterization to potential mobility.

    PubMed

    Banning, Andre; Rüde, Thomas R

    2010-11-01

    Sedimentary marine iron ores of Jurassic age and Tertiary marine sandy sediments containing iron hydroxides concretions have been sampled from boreholes and outcrops in two study areas in Germany to examine iron and arsenic accumulation processes. Samples were analyzed for bulk rock geochemistry (INAA/ICP-OES), quantitative mineralogy (XRD with Rietveld analysis), element distribution (electron microprobe) and arsenic fractionation (sequential extraction). Bulk Jurassic ores contain an average arsenic content of 123 μg g(-1) hosted in mainly goethite ooids which slowly formed in times of condensed sedimentation. Enrichment occurred syndepositionally and is therefore characterized as primary. Iron concretions in Tertiary sediments mainly consist of goethite and yield arsenic up to 1860 μg g(-1). The accumulation process is secondary as it took place in the course of oxidation of the originally reduced marine sediments under terrestrial conditions, leading to element redistribution and local enrichment in the near-surface part. The scale of enrichment was assessed calculating Enrichment Factors, indicating that arsenic accumulation was favoured over other potential contaminants. In spite of higher bulk arsenic contents in the oxidic rocks, the mainly pyrite-hosted As pool within the reduced deeper part of the Tertiary sediments is shown to have a higher potential for remobilization and creation of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater. PMID:20561664

  2. Occurrence of selenium in sulfides from some sedimentary rocks of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, Robert G.; Delevaux, Maryse

    1956-01-01

    Investigations of the minor- and trace-element content of sulfides associated with uranium ore deposits from sandstone-type deposits have shown that selenium commonly substitutes for sulfur. The Morrison formation and Entrada sandstone of Jurassic age and the Wind River formation of Eocene age seem to be seleniferous stratigraphic zones; sulfides deposited within these formations generally contain abnormal amounts of selenium. The selenium content of the pyrite, marcasite, and chalcocite is much greater than that reported in previously published data. Under the prevailing temperatures and pressures of formation of the Colorado Plateau uranium deposits the maximum amount of Se substituting for S in the pyrite structure was found to be 3 percent by weight. Ferroselite, the iron selenide (FeSe2), was found in two deposits on the Colorado Plateau and it was also established that galena (PbS) forms an isomorphous series with clausthalite (PbSe) in nature. During oxidation of the selenium-bearing sulfides and selenides in the Colorado Plateau and Wyoming, the selenium forms pinkish crusts of either monoclinic or hexagonal native selenium intergrown with soluble sulfates, suggesting that under "normal" oxidizing conditions native selenium is more stable than selenites or selenates. The above-normal selenium content of these sulfides from sedimentary rocks of Mesozoic and Tertiary age is significant. The high selenium in these sulfides is related to periods of volcanic and intrusive activity penecontemporaneous with the formation of the containing sediments.

  3. Potential Cement Phases in Sedimentary Rocks Drilled by Curiosity at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Ming, D. W.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bristow, T. F.; Cavanagh, P.; Farmer, J. D.; Morrison, S. M.; Siebach, K.; Treiman, A. H.; Achilles, C. N.; Blaney, D.; Crisp, J. A.; Des Marais, D. J.; Downs, R. T.; Fendrich, K.; Martin-Torres, J.; Morookian, J. M.; Zorzano, M.-P.; Sarrazin, P.; Spanovich, N.; Yen, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has encountered a variety of sedimentary rocks in Gale crater with different grain sizes, diagenetic features, sedimentary structures, and varying degrees of resistance to erosion. Curiosity has drilled three rocks to date and has analyzed the mineralogy, chemical composition, and textures of the samples with the science payload. The drilled rocks are the Sheepbed mudstone at Yellowknife Bay on the plains of Gale crater (John Klein and Cumberland targets), the Dillinger sandstone at the Kimberley on the plains of Gale crater (Windjana target), and a sedimentary unit in the Pahrump Hills in the lowermost rocks at the base of Mt. Sharp (Confidence Hills target). CheMin is the Xray diffractometer on Curiosity, and its data are used to identify and determine the abundance of mineral phases. Secondary phases can tell us about aqueous alteration processes and, thus, can help to elucidate past aqueous environments. Here, we present the secondary mineralogy of the rocks drilled to date as seen by CheMin and discuss past aqueous environments in Gale crater, the potential cementing agents in each rock, and how amorphous materials may play a role in cementing the sediments.

  4. Alteration of immature sedimentary rocks on Earth and Mars: Recording aqueous and surface-atmosphere processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Kevin M.; Mustard, John F.; Salvatore, Mark R.

    2015-05-01

    Rock alteration and rind formation in analog environments like Antarctica may provide clues to rock alteration and therefore paleoclimates on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks derived from basaltic sources have been studied in situ by martian rovers and are likely abundant on the surface of Mars. However, how such rock types undergo alteration when exposed to different environmental conditions is poorly understood compared with alteration of intact basaltic flows. Here we characterize alteration in the chemically immature Carapace Sandstone from Antarctica, a terrestrial analog for martian sedimentary rocks. We employ a variety of measurements similar to those used on previous and current Mars missions. Laboratory techniques included bulk chemistry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyperspectral imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through these methods we find that primary basaltic material in the Carapace Sandstone is pervasively altered to hydrated clay minerals and palagonite as a result of water-rock interaction. A thick orange rind is forming in current Antarctic conditions, superimposing this previous aqueous alteration signature. The rind exhibits a higher reflectance at visible-near infrared wavelengths than the rock interior, with an enhanced ferric absorption edge likely due to an increase in Fe3+ of existing phases or the formation of minor iron (oxy)hydroxides. This alteration sequence in the Carapace Sandstone results from decreased water-rock interaction over time, and weathering in a cold, dry environment, mimicking a similar transition early in martian history. This transition may be recorded in sedimentary rocks on Mars through a similar superimposition mechanism, capturing past climate changes at the hand sample scale. Our results also suggest that basalt-derived sediments could have sourced significant volumes of hydrated minerals on early Mars due to their greater permeability compared with intact igneous rocks.

  5. Alteration of immature sedimentary rocks on Earth and Mars. Recording Aqueous and Surface-atmosphere Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Kenneth M.; Mustard, John F.; Salvatore, Mark R.

    2015-03-05

    The rock alteration and rind formation in analog environments like Antarctica may provide clues to rock alteration and therefore paleoclimates on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks derived from basaltic sources have been studied in situ by martian rovers and are likely abundant on the surface of Mars. Moreover, how such rock types undergo alteration when exposed to different environmental conditions is poorly understood compared with alteration of intact basaltic flows. Here we characterize alteration in the chemically immature Carapace Sandstone from Antarctica, a terrestrial analog for martian sedimentary rocks. We employ a variety of measurements similar to those used on previous and current Mars missions. Laboratory techniques included bulk chemistry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyperspectral imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through these methods we find that primary basaltic material in the Carapace Sandstone is pervasively altered to hydrated clay minerals and palagonite as a result of water–rock interaction. A thick orange rind is forming in current Antarctic conditions, superimposing this previous aqueous alteration signature. The rind exhibits a higher reflectance at visible-near infrared wavelengths than the rock interior, with an enhanced ferric absorption edge likely due to an increase in Fe3+ of existing phases or the formation of minor iron (oxy)hydroxides. This alteration sequence in the Carapace Sandstone results from decreased water–rock interaction over time, and weathering in a cold, dry environment, mimicking a similar transition early in martian history. This transition may be recorded in sedimentary rocks on Mars through a similar superimposition mechanism, capturing past climate changes at the hand sample scale. These results also suggest that basalt-derived sediments could have sourced significant volumes of hydrated minerals on early Mars due to their greater permeability compared with intact igneous rocks.

  6. Highly Shocked Low Density Sedimentary Rocks from the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Spray, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of a detailed investigation of the shock effects in highly shocked, low density sedimentary rocks from the Haughton impact structure. We suggest that some textural features can be explained by carbonate-silicate immiscibility. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Classification Scheme for Diverse Sedimentary and Igneous Rocks Encountered by MSL in Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Mangold, N.; Fisk, M.; Forni, O.; McLennan, S.; Ming, D. W.; Sumner, D.; Sautter, V.; Williams, A. J.; Gellert, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Curiosity Rover landed in a lithologically and geochemically diverse region of Mars. We present a recommended rock classification framework based on terrestrial schemes, and adapted for the imaging and analytical capabilities of MSL as well as for rock types distinctive to Mars (e.g., high Fe sediments). After interpreting rock origin from textures, i.e., sedimentary (clastic, bedded), igneous (porphyritic, glassy), or unknown, the overall classification procedure (Fig 1) involves: (1) the characterization of rock type according to grain size and texture; (2) the assignment of geochemical modifiers according to Figs 3 and 4; and if applicable, in depth study of (3) mineralogy and (4) geologic/stratigraphic context. Sedimentary rock types are assigned by measuring grains in the best available resolution image (Table 1) and classifying according to the coarsest resolvable grains as conglomerate/breccia, (coarse, medium, or fine) sandstone, silt-stone, or mudstone. If grains are not resolvable in MAHLI images, grains in the rock are assumed to be silt sized or smaller than surface dust particles. Rocks with low color contrast contrast between grains (e.g., Dismal Lakes, sol 304) are classified according to minimum size of apparent grains from surface roughness or shadows outlining apparent grains. Igneous rocks are described as intrusive or extrusive depending on crystal size and fabric. Igneous textures may be described as granular, porphyritic, phaneritic, aphyric, or glassy depending on crystal size. Further descriptors may include terms such as vesicular or cumulate textures.

  8. Regional implications of Triassic or Jurassic age for basalt and sedimentary red beds in the South Carolina coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, G.S.; Gottfried, D.; Lanphere, M.A.; Higgins, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    Whole rock potassium-argon ages for samples of subsurface basalt recovered near Charleston, South Carolina, are interpreted to indicate a Triassic or Jurassic age for the basalt and underlying sedimentary red beds. This age is consistent with existing evidence indicating that an early Mesozoic basin is present in the subsurface of a large part of the coastal plain of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama.

  9. Geodynamically unusual settings of sedimentary rock and ore formation due to tectonic-decompression effects

    SciTech Connect

    Goryainov, P.M.

    1984-05-01

    The traditional views of terrigenous rocks as products of classical sedimentary cycle, ''mobilization-transport-deposition,'' are not universal. Detrital rocks are sometimes formed due to flaking and fracturation of rocks of rising blocks. The process is produced by tectonic-decompression mechanisms - the origination of a gradient of excessive stress and its discharge. It is incorrect to classify rocks created by this phenomenon with weathering crusts. The origins of certain terrigenous rocks, as well as products of low-temperature chemical processing, are connected with deep-volume decompression (brecciation, stockwork formation, formation of pipes and columns of igneous rocks, and chamber pegmatite and karst formation). The ore concentrations associated with such entities and appearing as stratiform deposits are most likely not exogenous, but they complete the endogenous history of the block concerned. The means and methods tested on typical endogenous deposits may therefore prove valuable in predicting certain varieties of stratiform deposits.

  10. Predicting the permeability of sedimentary rocks from microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Permeability is linked to other properties of porous media such as capillary pressure and relative permeability. In order to understand the relationships, one has to understand how all those properties are conditioned by the connectivity and geometrical properties of the pore space. In this study, we look at a natural porous material which is defined as a two-phase material in which the interconnected pore space constitutes one phase and the solid matrix the other. Laboratory samples are tested using fluid flow experiments to determine the relationship of macroscopic properties such as permeability to rock microstructure. Kozeny-Carman and other equations are developed to further quantify these relationships.

  11. Distribution and environmental impacts of some radionuclides in sedimentary rocks at Wadi Naseib area, southwest Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Galy, M M; El Mezayn, A M; Said, A F; El Mowafy, A A; Mohamed, M S

    2008-07-01

    The present study examines the natural radioactivity in some sedimentary rocks and their associated environmental impacts at Wadi Naseib area. Exposure rate (ER), dose rate (DR), radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)), internal hazard index (H(in)) and radioactivity level index (I(gamma)) were calculated. Wadi Naseib area is covered with sedimentary rocks of early to late Paleozoic age. These rocks are classified into two types: mineralized and non-mineralized sediments. The radiometric investigations revealed that uranium and thorium contents reached up to 710 and 520 ppm, respectively, in the mineralized rocks. This was attributed to the presence of some secondary uranium minerals. All sediments had low values of eTh and K content. The exposure and dose rates exceeded public permissible values in the mineralized sediments. Exposure and dose rates were within the safety range for workers and the public in the non-mineralized sediments. The expected environmental impacts may be low due to the limited occurrence of U-mineralization and corresponding areas for radiation exposure. Some precautions and recommendations were suggested to avoid any possible environmental impacts from areas and/or raw materials of high intensity of natural radiation sources. PMID:18243438

  12. La-Ce and Sm-Nd systematics of siliceous sedimentary rocks: A clue to marine environment in their deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshi Shimizu; Masayo Amano; Akimasa Masuda )

    1991-04-01

    La-Ce isotopic data, together with Sm-Nd isotopic data, were determined on siliceous sedimentary rocks (cherts) in order to elucidate the rare earth element (REE) character of their sources and the nature of their depositional environments. The cherts studied are a late Archean chert from the Gorge Creek Group in the Pilbara block of Western Australia, Triassic cherts from central Japan, and Cretaceous and Paleogene deep-sea cherts from the central Pacific and the Caribbean Sea. The Archean chert from the Gorge Creek Group shows chondritic Ce and Nd isotope ratios at its sedimentation age which indicate that its sources had a time-integrated chondritic REE pattern. Triassic cherts from Japan have initial Ce and Nd isotope ratios that show a direct derivation from their continental source. On the other hand, for Cretaceous and Paleogene deep-sea cherts having negative Ce anomalies in their REE patterns, two different sources for Ce and Nd are revealed from their initial Ce and Nd isotope data: Ce from long-term light-REE-depleted oceanic volcanic rocks and Nd from light-REE-enriched continental rocks. The reverse nature observed for deep-sea cherts is considered to be a reflection of their depositional environment far from a continent. These results confirm that the La-Ce isotope system is highly useful in determining the nature and cause of Ce anomalies observed in marine sedimentary rocks such as chert.

  13. Coupled micro-scale magnetic and spectroscopic techniques to understand the petrogenesis of iron sulfides in sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotznick, S. P.; Webb, S. M.; Johnson, J. E.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Fischer, W. W.

    2013-12-01

    Paleomagnetism in sedimentary rocks containing iron sulfide mineral phases is challenging due to questions about the timing of formation, the potential for multiple-stages of iron sulfide growth, and their metastabilty in nature and in the laboratory. Bulk rock magnetic techniques have been developed and applied to identify and characterize ferromagnetic iron sulfides in a wide array of rock types from the geologic record (including some containing stable ChRM), but petrographic textural observations are required to inform the timing of their mineralization in any given sample. The solid-solution of pyrite/pyrrhotite/troilite and intimate intergrowth patterns of iron sulfides is difficult to untangle with standard light and electron microscopy. Here we report the development and application of a complementary set of techniques designed to inform and untangle the history and processes involved in the mineralization of sulfur-bearing minerals in sedimentary rocks. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the S K-edge provides insight into the chemistry (such as valence state, electronic structure, type of neighbors) of sulfur-bearing solids. We used a new synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe developed at SSRL to measure, distinguish, and then image sulfur phases via multiple energy maps at micron scales. From these maps we can quantitatively differentiate a wide range of sulfur-bearing phases in polished thin sections, such as pyrrhotite, pyrite, and greigite, and ordinate them into a petrogenic scheme. At a similar scale, using SQUID microscopy allows us to identify and map the presence and field strength of ferromagnetic minerals within a sample. Combined with bulk rock magnetic techniques, these two micro-scale methods pair well to confirm textural observations, beyond those already noted using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Here we will present work from a study of middle Proterozoic age sedimentary rocks from the Belt Supergroup, MT. By collecting a wide array

  14. Sedimentary basin geochemistry and fluid/rock interactions workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    Fundamental research related to organic geochemistry, fluid-rock interactions, and the processes by which fluids migrate through basins has long been a part of the U.S. Department of Energy Geosciences program. Objectives of this program were to emphasize those principles and processes which would be applicable to a wide range of problems associated with petroleum discovery, occurrence and extraction, waste disposal of all kinds, and environmental management. To gain a better understanding of the progress being made in understanding basinal fluids, their geochemistry and movement, and related research, and to enhance communication and interaction between principal investigators and DOE and other Federal program managers interested in this topic, this workshop was organized by the School of Geology and Geophysics and held in Norman, Oklahoma in November, 1991.

  15. Predicting the transport properties of sedimentary rocks from microgeometry

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate through analysis and experiment how pore geometry, topology, and the physics and chemistry of mineral-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions affect the flow of fluids through consolidated/partially consolidated porous media. Our approach is to measure fluid permeability and electrical conductivity of rock samples using single and multiple fluid phases that can be frozen in place (wetting and nonwetting) over a range of pore pressures. These experiments are analyzed in terms of the microphysics and microchemistry of the processes involved to provide a theoretical basis for the macroscopic constitutive relationships between fluid-flow and geophysical properties that we develop. The purpose of these experiments and their analyses is to advance the understanding of the mechanisms and factors that control fluid transport in porous media. This understanding is important in characterizing porous media properties and heterogeneities before simulating and monitoring the progress of complex flow processes at the field scale in permeable media.

  16. Predicting the transport properties of sedimentary rocks from microgeometry

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, E.M.

    1995-02-01

    The author investigates through analysis and experiment how pore geometry, topology, and the physics and chemistry of mineral-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions affect the flow of fluids through consolidated/partially consolidated porous media. The approach is to measure fluid permeability and electrical conductivity of rock samples using single and multiple fluid phases that can be frozen in place (wetting and nonwetting) over a range of pore pressures. These experiments are analyzed in terms of the microphysics and microchemistry of the processes involved to provide a theoretical basis for the macroscopic constitutive relationships between fluid-flow and geophysical properties that the authors develop. The purpose of these experiments and their analyses is to advance the understanding of the mechanisms and factors that control fluid transport in porous media. This understanding is important in characterizing porous media properties and heterogeneities before simulating and monitoring the progress of complex flow processes at the field scale in permeable media.

  17. Siliceous sedimentary rock-hosted ores and petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Geological, biological, oceanographic, and geochemical principles involved in forming mineral deposits associated with siliceous rocks are integrated in this collection. The book emerged from a decade of research by 142 scientists from 33 countries who worked with the International Geological Correlations Project under editor James R. Hein. It reveals how several economic ores and petroleum were formed in siliceous sediments in coastal ocean basins. This collection places each ore-deposit type into a genetic model emphasizing coastal upwelling; displays all chert occurrences on paleographic maps for each period of the Phanerozoic; covers phosphate, uranium, diatomite, manganese, iron, barite, and petroleum deposits; and gives the first evidence of a bacterially mediated, diagenetic origin for manganese deposits.

  18. Factors controlling enrichment of vanadium and nickel in the bitumen of organic sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewan, M. D.; Maynard, J. B.

    1982-12-01

    Enriched concentrations of vanadium and nickel have been noted in a variety of naturally occurring organic substances including crude oils, asphalts, and organic matter in some sedimentary rocks. Vanadium and nickel concentrations in bitumens extracted from a variety of organic sedimentary rock types of different geological ages and geographical areas range from less than 0.2 to 4760 ppm and less than 7 to 1240 ppm, respectively. Vanadium concentrations showed a polymodal frequency distribution, while nickel concentrations showed a near-normal frequency distribution. The concentrations of these two metals showed no significant correlations with bitumen content, organic carbon content, or proportionality between bitumen and organic contents. Enriched vanadium and nickel concentrations greater than 100 ppm are only observed in bitumens that are associated with Type II and Type I kerogens. Conversely, bitumens associated with Type III kerogens contained vanadium and nickel concentrations less than 100 ppm. The high stability of vanadium and nickel in crude oils, asphalts, and bitumens suggest that they occur in tetrapyrrole complexes. These complexes may occur as free molecules or assimulated subunits in macromolecules because of their availability in anaerobic systems, small atomic radii, and favorable electron configurations. The potential for an organic sediment to be enriched in these two metals depends upon the amount of tetrapyrroles preserved in its organic matter. Tetrapyrrole preservation preferentially decreases in organic matter as exposure time to aerobic conditions increases. The potential for vanadium and nickel enrichment is therefore the highest in organic matter derived from algae that encountered anaerobic conditions early in their depositional history. Metallation of tetrapyrrole complexes appears to occur within sediments prior to their lithification, and interstitial waters are the most likely source for enriched concentrations of vanadium and

  19. Paleogeographic implications of Tertiary sedimentary rocks within the northern Rawhide and Artillery Mountains, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Yarnold, J.C.; Dickinson, W.R. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-04-01

    Geologic mapping and analysis of Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary rocks in the upper plate of the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment fault system (west-central Arizona) reveals a complex paleogeographic history during fault displacement. Within the study area, four upper-plate fault blocks are capped by homoclinal sedimentary sections that display fanning dip relationships indicating concurrent tilting and sedimentation. Four sedimentary assemblages recognized within the study area can be correlated between fault blocks. The basal assemblage consists of lacustrine rocks and interfingering fluvial strata composed of detritus derived from the granitic terrane surrounding the northern part of the study area; these sediments were deposited during the earliest stages of tilting of upper-plate fault blocks. The overlying lower assemblage consists of fine-grained lacustrine deposits, sandy conglomerate and breccia. During lower-assemblage deposition, mass-flow-dominated alluvial fans were shed from source areas consisting mainly of Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks exposed to the south of the study area. Tilting of fault blocks continued during deposition of the lower assemblage and strongly affected dispersal patterns and lithofacies distributions. The middle assemblage consists of conglomerate and sandstone deposited by an extensive south-directed stream system that probably flowed off undistended parts of the hanging wall, across extended parts, and locally onto the footwall. The upper assemblage consists of sandy conglomerate deposited by a northeast-directed system of broad, shallow steams; these deposits display a variety of clast types, including Tertiary mylonitic, sedimentary, and volcanic rocks that were eroded from the upwarped footwall of the core complex and overlying klippen.

  20. Quasi-periodic bedding in the sedimentary rock record of mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, K.W.; Aharonson, O.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Kirk, R.L.; McEwen, A.S.; Suer, T.-A.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread sedimentary rocks on Mars preserve evidence of surface conditions different from the modern cold and dry environment, although it is unknown how long conditions favorable to deposition persisted. We used 1-meter stereo topographic maps to demonstrate the presence of rhythmic bedding at several outcrops in the Arabia Terra region. Repeating beds are ???10 meters thick, and one site contains hundreds of meters of strata bundled into larger units at a ???10:1 thickness ratio. This repetition likely points to cyclicity in environmental conditions, possibly as a result of astronomical forcing. If deposition were forced by orbital variation, the rocks may have been deposited over tens of millions of years.

  1. SEDMIN - Microsoft Excel™ spreadsheet for calculating fine-grained sedimentary rock mineralogy from bulk geochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kackstaetter, Uwe

    2014-06-01

    Normative mineralogical calculations from bulk geochemistry of sedimentary rocks are problematic because of variable depositional environments, particle hydraulics and sedimentary source systems. The development of SEDMIN, a Microsoft Excel™ spreadsheet solution, is a practical attempt for a computational routine focusing specifically on smectite, chlorite, kaolinite, illite and the ambiguous sericite within various pelitic sedimentary lithologies. While in essence a mathematical approach, the use of statistical evaluation of empirical lithogeochemical data combined with modal analytical procedures yields reasonable geochemical associations, more precise chemical phases and revised procedural allotment paradigms. Thus, an algorithm using TiO2 as a key to the normative calculation of kaolinite is proposed. Incorporating additional parameters, such as LOI (Loss-on-ignition) in conjunction with carbon, sulfur, carbonate and sulfate, provides that clay phases can be more accurately determined than from bulk oxides alone. Even when presented with atypical sample data, the spreadsheet solution is able to accurately predict predominant clay minerals. Besides some drawbacks, the likely benefit from SEDMIN is the incorporation of results in classification norms and diagrams indicative of sedimentary lithologies. The "SEDMIN Sedimentary Mineral Calculator.xlsx" spreadsheet can be freely downloaded from http://earthscienceeducation.net/SEDMINSedimentaryMineralCalculator.xlsx.

  2. Simulation of sedimentary rock deformation: Lab-scale model calibration and parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutt, David F.; McPherson, Brian J. O. L.

    2002-02-01

    Understanding the mechanical behavior of rock is critical for researchers and decision-makers in fields from petroleum recovery to hazardous waste disposal. Traditional continuum-based numerical models are hampered by inadequate constitutive relationships governing fracture initiation and growth. To overcome limits associated with continuum models we employed a discrete model based on the fundamental laws of contact physics to calibrate triaxial tests. Results from simulations of triaxial compression tests on a suite of sedimentary rocks indicate that the basic physics of rock behavior are clearly captured. Evidence for this conclusion lie in the fact that one set of model parameters describes rock behavior at many confining pressures. The use of both inelastic and elastic parameters for comparison yields insight concerning the uniqueness of these models. These tests will facilitate development and calibration of larger scale discrete element models, which may be applied to a wide range of geological problems.

  3. Final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean along the Solonker Suture Zone: Constraints from geochronological and geochemical data of Permian volcanic and sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Zhao, Guochun; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Min

    2014-04-01

    There is a broad consensus that the Solonker Suture Zone marks the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, which led to the formation of the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. However, when and how the final closure occurred still remains controversial. To address this issue, provenance analysis of Permian sedimentary rocks of arc basins along the Xar Moron River was carried out. Geochemical analysis revealed a close relationship between the sedimentary and volcanic rock suite in the study region suggesting short transport distances and a complex convergent arc setting. Detrital zircon U-Pb analysis identified two major age provenances: (1) the Precambrian basement of the North China Craton (~2497 Ma and ~1844 Ma) and (2) the Paleozoic Southern Accretionary Orogen along the northern margin of North China (~436 Ma and ~269 Ma). The present locations of identified age provenances indicate southward subduction beneath the northern margin of North China. A comparison of the youngest age population in the sedimentary rocks with U-Pb ages obtained for subduction-related volcanic rocks implies that the Solonker Suture Zone formed from the Late Permian to Early Triassic. The results of our study advocate a complex Permian arc system which was probably similar to present-day Southeast Asia.

  4. Detecting and correcting for paleomagnetic inclination shallowing of sedimentary rocks: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Xiang; Kodama, Kenneth

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic anisotropy and the elongation/inclination (E-I) approaches have been increasingly employed as two important means for detecting and correcting the paleomagnetic inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks that was first recognized sixty years ago. Both approaches are based on certain assumptions, and thus have advantages and intrinsic limitations in investigating shallow inclinations in sedimentary rocks. The E-I approach is relatively easy to use, but it needs a large dataset to adequately sample paleomagnetic directions due to paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field. Also, slow sediment accumulation rates and local tectonics could lead to under- or over-corrections using the E-I approach. For the magnetic anisotropy technique, labor-intensive, sophisticated laboratory rock magnetic experiments are required in order to accurately determine both bulk magnetic anisotropy of remanence-carrying grains and magnetic anisotropy of an individual particle, i.e., "a" factor, of samples. Our review shows that, despite the intensive laboratory work necessary for applying anisotropy-based inclination corrections, it is worth investing the effort. In addition, the joint use of magnetic susceptibility and remanence anisotropy measurements as well as detailed rock magnetic measurements for determining the particle anisotropy "a" factor have the advantage of retrieving direct evidence of inclination shallowing and correcting for it with high confidence. We caution against use of either of the two approaches without full appreciation of the underlying assumptions and intrinsic limitations of each technique. The use and comparison of both techniques could provide the most robust inclination shallowing correction for sedimentary rocks.

  5. Using the U-Pb system of calcretes to date the time of sedimentation of clastic sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.S.; Rasbury, E.T.; Hanson, G.N.; Meyers, W.J.

    1998-08-01

    The time of sedimentation of rapidly deposited clastic sedimentary rocks in fluvial environments may be directly dated with an uncertainty of less than three million years using U-Pb dating of pure micritic calcite from calcretes developed in overbank deposits. This conclusion is based on results obtained for calcretes (soil calcite, caliche) formed in the late Triassic New Haven Arkose, Hartford Basin, Connecticut, USA. The paragenesis of calcrete samples from the New Haven Arkose was determined using plane-polarized light and cathodoluminescence petrography, uranium fission track analysis, as well as trace element and stable isotope geochemistry. These calcretes contain an abundance of paleosol microfabrics and diagenetic calcite. The first-generation micritic calcite and second-generation blocky calcite have characteristics consistent with soil calcite. The third generation blocky calcite is a later diagenetic calcite (post-soil calcite). The U-Pb data for pure micritic calcite (first generation) in a horizontal sheet calcrete in sedimentary rocks of Norian age gives a {sup 238}U/{sup 207}Pb-{sup 206}Pb/{sub 207}Pb isochron age of 211.9 {+-} 2.1 Ma (2-sigma, and used hereafter for all ages). The U-Pb data for two samples of first generation micrite in rhizoliths with about 15% insoluble residues give ages of 7 {+-} 66 Ma and 20 {+-} 36 Ma. These results suggest that relatively recent events disturbed the U-Pb system of these detrital rich samples, perhaps due to redistribution of U during weathering or during chemical dissolution for analysis. The U-Pb data for a sample of pure third generation blocky calcite cement in a rhizolith yields a {sup 206}Pb/{sup 238}U-{sup 207}Pb/{sup 235}U isochron age of 81 {+-} 11 Ma. This age suggests that this sample of third generation blocky calcite precipitated during the late Cretaceous perhaps over an extended period.

  6. Direct stable isotope porewater equilibration and identification of groundwater processes in heterogeneous sedimentary rock.

    PubMed

    David, Katarina; Timms, Wendy; Baker, Andy

    2015-12-15

    The off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometry (ICOS) method to analyse porewater isotopic composition has been successfully applied over the last decade in groundwater studies. This paper applies the off-axis ICOS method to analyse the porewater isotopic composition, attempts to use the isotopic shift in groundwater values along with simple geochemical mixing model to define the groundwater processes in the Sydney Basin, Australia. Complementary data included geophysical, hydrogeological, geochemical, and mineralogical investigations. Porewater from core samples were analysed for δ(18)O and δ(2)H from various sedimentary units in the Basin and compared to endpoint water members. Stable δ(18)O and δ(2)H values of porewaters in the Basin (-9.5 to 2.8‰ for δ(18)O and -41.9 to 7.9‰ for δ(2)H) covered a relatively narrow range in values. The variability in water isotopes reflects the variability of the input signal, which is the synoptic variability in isotopic composition of rainfall, and to a minor extent the subsequent evaporation. The porosity, bulk density and mineralogy data demonstrate the heterogeneity that adds the complexity to variations in the isotope profile with depth. The source of chloride in the sedimentary sequence was related to rock-water and cement/matrix-water interaction rather than to evaporation. The heterogeneous character of the sedimentary rock strata was supported by a change in pore pressures between units, density and variability in rock geochemical analyses obtained by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray power diffraction analyses. This research identified distinct hydrogeological zones in the Basin that were not previously defined by classic hydrogeological investigations. Isotopic signature of porewaters along the detailed vertical profile in combination with mineralogical, geochemical, geophysical and hydrogeological methods can provide useful information on groundwater movement in deep sedimentary environments. The

  7. A tool for obtaining oriented samples of weakly to moderately indurated sedimentary rocks for paleomagnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerbekmo, J. F.

    1990-03-01

    The tool is designed to take 1 inch (2.5 cm) diameter cores up to 2 inches (5 cm) in length in sedimentary rocks of moderate induration that cannot normally be sampled by traditional methods. A stainless steel core-barrel with internal scriber is hammered vertically into the rock and twisted out. The core-barrel is attached to an extruder which also holds a plastic bottle. The core is screwed out of the core-barrel directly into the bottle of the same internal diameter. The vial is later cut to an acceptable length for the magnetometer and sealed with a plastic cap. Inasmuch as the sample is never removed from the plastic bottle, fractured and bentonitic rocks which cannot be sampled by means of hand-blocks or by diamond-drilling, can be magnetically measured.

  8. Developing high-resolution carbon-13 and silicon-29 MRI of solids in sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Robert; Barrett, Sean; Viswanathan, Ravinath; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2014-03-01

    Mapping pore structure and flow properties of sedimentary rock is directly relevant to current challenges in geophysics like carbon sequestration and oil/gas exploration. Such applications require detailed information about both structure and composition of porous rocks. However, existing scanning methods tend to be limited to gathering one or the other type of information. MRI could be used to measure both composition and structure simultaneously, but conventional MRI in such systems, which targets the proton signal of interstitial fluid, is severely limited by signal losses due to magnetic susceptibility inhomogeneity. Our lab has recently made advances in obtaining high spatial resolution (sub-400 μm)3 three-dimensional 31P MRI of bone through use of the quadratic echo line-narrowing sequence (1). In this talk, we describe our current work applying these methods to sedimentary rock, targeting the isotopes 13C and 29Si. We describe the results of characterization of limestone and shale samples, and we discuss our progress with producing MRI of these systems. (1) M. Frey, et al. PNAS 109: 5190 (2012)

  9. Three cycles of sedimentation in ancient sedimentary basins of southern Ireland: insights from detrital zircon U-Pb ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairey, Brenton; Kerrison, Aidan; Meere, Patrick; Mulchrone, Kieran; Linnemann, Ulf; Hofmann, Mandy; Gaertner, Andreas; Sonntag, Benita-Lisette; Byrne, Keith

    2016-04-01

    Previous work has shown that sedimentary rocks from the Lower Devonian Dingle Basin were uplifted and recycled by Acadian orogenic activity into the Upper Devonian Munster Basin. This is particularly applicable for sediments deposited in the western part of the Munster Basin. In the present study, a new dataset of U-Pb ages for detrital zircons has been established that spans a large geographic area which includes the Dingle and Munster basins as well as the offshore Mesozoic North Celtic Sea, South Celtic Sea, 'Goban Spur' and Fastnet basins. The study is the first of its kind in any of these sedimentary basins. The aim is to investigate whether sediments deposited in the offshore basins during the Mesozoic reflect three erosion-deposition cycles. Detritus that has undergone three sedimentary cycles would yield super-mature sediments suitable for hydrocarbon storage. Detrital zircon age spectra for Lower Devonian Dingle Basin samples indicate strong sediment input from Avalonian (~600 Ma) and Laurentian (~1.7 Ga and ~1.1 Ga) sources with some input from Caledonian orogenic sources (400-480 Ma). Detrital zircon age spectra in the western Munster Basin largely reflect input from Caledonian-aged igneous crustal input (400-480 Ma) and Laurentian sources. An Avalonian component is not detected in any of the samples from the western Munster Basin. In the central and eastern parts of the Munster Basin, detrital zircon age spectra indicate that the dominant sources of detritus are derived from Laurentia and from Caledonian igneous rocks. In contrast to the western part of the basin, age components around 600 Ma are present in some samples and represent an Avalonian source. These signals are echoed, at varying degrees, in detrital age spectra from Jurassic and Cretaceous samples of the central North Celtic Sea Basin. These age spectra also indicate a significant contribution of detritus from Avalonian terrane. The Avalonian signature is completely absent from Jurassic

  10. Perimeter-area power-law relationship of pores in sedimentary rocks and implications for permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, E.M.; Zimmerman, R.W.; Cook, N.G.W.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    Perimeter-area power-law relationships of pores in five sedimentary rocks are determined from scanning electron photomicrographs of thin sections. These relationships for the pores of four sandstones were found to lie between 1.43 and 1.49, while that of an Indiana limestone was found to be 1.67. The authors discuss how the perimeter-area power-law relationship of pores, along with a pore-size distribution, can be used to estimate the hydraulic permeability.

  11. An Aquatic Journey toward Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp): Sedimentary Rock Evidence observed by Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Edgar, Lauren; Williams, Rebecca; Rubin, David; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Kocurek, Gary; Anderson, Ryan; Dromart, Gilles; Edgett, Ken; Hardgrove, Craig; Kah, Linda; Mangold, Nicolas; Milliken, Ralph; Minitti, Michelle; Palucis, Marisa; Rice, Melissa; Stack, Katie; Sumner, Dawn; Williford, Ken

    2014-05-01

    Since leaving Yellowknife Bay (summer 2013), Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity has investigated a number of key outcrops as it traverses along the Rapid Transit Route toward the entry point to begin its investigations of the extensive rock outcrops at the base of Mount Sharp. Rover observations are characterizing the variability of lithologies and sedimentary facies along the traverse and establishing stratigraphic relationships with the aim of reconstructing depositional processes and palaeoenvironments. Here, we report on sedimentological and stratigraphic observations based on images from the Mastcam and MAHLI instruments at Shaler and the Darwin waypoint. The informally named Shaler outcrop, which forms part of the Glenelg member of the Yellowknife Bay formation [1] is remarkable for the preservation of a rich suite of sedimentary structures and architecture, and was investigated on sols 120-121 and 309-324. The outcrop forms a pebbly sandstone body that is ~0.7 m thick and extends for up to 20 m. Shaler is largely characterized by pebbly sandstone facies showing well-developed decimeter-scale trough cross-stratification. Bedding geometries indicate sub-critical angles of climb, resulting in preservation of only the lee slope deposits. The grain size, and the presence and scale of cross-stratification imply sediment transport and deposition by unidirectional currents in a fluvial sedimentary environment. Curiosity investigated the informally named Darwin waypoint between sols 390 and 401, making detailed Mastcam and MAHLI observations at two separate locations. The Darwin outcrop comprises light-toned sandstone beds separated by darker pebbly sandstones. MAHLI observations permit differentiation of distinct sedimentary facies. The Altar Mountain facies is a poorly sorted pebbly sandstone that is rich in fine pebbles. Pebbles are sub-angular to sub-rounded in shape and show no preferred orientation or fabric. Pebbles and sand grains show clast-to-clast contacts

  12. AMS of Sedimentary Rocks from ITARARÉ Group in the PARANÁ State; South of Brazil: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramulha Pires, B. H.; Raposo, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic studies were performed on sites of sedimentary rocks (sandstones, siltites, and mudstones) from Itararé Group which crop out in Paraná State (S of Brazil). Magnetic fabrics were determined on oriented cylindrical specimens (2.54 cm x 2.2 cm) using anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Regarding the eingenvector orientations, the sites usually gave good results. The analysis at the individual-site scale defines two AMS fabric types. The first type shows Kmin perpendicular to the bedding plane, while Kmax and Kint are scattered within the bedding plane itself. This fabric is usually interpreted as primary (sedimentary-compactional), typical of undeformed sediments and is dominant among the sites. The second type shows good clustering of the AMS principal axes with Kmin still either perpendicular or sub-perpendicular to the bedding plane. This fabric type could be interpreted as a combination of sedimentary-compactional and tectonic contributions if some strain markers or evidence for tectonic deformation had been found in the studied area. On the other hand, the tight Kmax grouping in this fabric type could be explained by the action of currents since they cause Kmax to be aligned sub-parallel to the paleocurrent direction.

  13. Heterogeneous arsenic enrichment in meta-sedimentary rocks in central Maine, United States

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Beth; Stransky, Megan; Leitheiser, Sara; Brock, Patrick; Marvinney, Robert G.; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is enriched up to 28 times the average crustal abundance of 4.8 mg kg−1 for meta-sedimentary rocks of two adjacent formations in central Maine, USA where groundwater in the bedrock aquifer frequently contains elevated As levels. The Waterville Formation contains higher arsenic concentrations (mean As 32.9 mg kg−1, median 12.1 mg kg−1, n=36) than the neighboring Vassalboro Group (mean As 19.1 mg kg−1, median 6.0 mg kg−1, n=36). The Waterville Formation is a pelitic meta-sedimentary unit with abundant pyrite either visible or observed by scanning electron microprobe. Concentrations of As and S are strongly correlated (r=0.88, p<0.05) in the low grade phyllite rocks, and arsenic is detected up to 1,944 mg kg−1 in pyrite measured by electron microprobe. In contrast, statistically significant (p<0.05) correlations between concentrations of As and S are absent in the calcareous meta-sediments of the Vassalboro Group, consistent with the absence of arsenic-rich pyrite in the protolith. Metamorphism converts the arsenic-rich pyrite to arsenic-poor pyrrhotite (mean As 1 mg kg−1, n=15) during de-sulfidation reactions: the resulting metamorphic rocks contain arsenic but little or no sulfur indicating that the arsenic is now in new mineral hosts. Secondary weathering products such as iron oxides may host As, yet the geochemical methods employed (oxidative and reductive leaching) do not conclusively indicate that arsenic is associated only with these. Instead, silicate minerals such as biotite and garnet are present in metamorphic zones where arsenic is enriched (up to 130.8 mg kg−1 As) where S is 0%. Redistribution of already variable As in the protolith during metamorphism and contemporary water-rock interaction in the aquifers, all combine to contribute to a spatially heterogeneous groundwater arsenic distribution in bedrock aquifers. PMID:24861530

  14. Diagenesis of the Cambro-Ordovician sedimentary rocks of west-central Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, T.L.; Hooper, R.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    Shales and siltstones of the Cambro-Ordovician sedimentary rocks of west-central Wisconsin record a complex history of diagenesis. This study examined clays and other minerals within clay-rich layers from fresh surface outcrops of the Cambro-Ordovician sedimentary rocks using XRD and SEM/EDX. Feldspar authigenesis in the base of the Mt. Simon Fm. represents the earliest recorded period of authigenesis. These early formed feldspars ([approximately] 60[mu]M in size) have been completely pseudomorphed by kaolinite. These feldspathization and kaolinization events are limited to the lower 80 feet of the Mt. Simon Fm. Later periods of authigenesis resulted in corrosion of the kaolinite, feldspar authigenesis and illitization with production of I/S ([approximately] 90%I) and minor neoformed filamentous illite throughout the section from the base of the Mt Simon Fm. to at least the Glenwood Fm. In rare instances the filamentous illites have been replaced by kaolinite during a second period of kaolinization. Some of the shales contain abundant authigenic pyrite and at least two generations of authigenic gypsum. Complete dissolution of K-feldspars within some of the samples is evidenced by the presence of small euhedral pits in phosphatic brachiopod shells and suggests that organic acids may have played a role in the diagenesis. The complexity of the authigenic relationships identified in these rocks indicates that they have been subjected to multiple periods of diagenesis with fluids of divergent compositions. This is most readily explained if the rocks behaved as an open system with periodic flushing of K-rich and K-poor fluids.

  15. Heterogeneous arsenic enrichment in meta-sedimentary rocks in central Maine, United States.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Beth; Stransky, Megan; Leitheiser, Sara; Brock, Patrick; Marvinney, Robert G; Zheng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic is enriched up to 28 times the average crustal abundance of 4.8 mg kg(-1) for meta-sedimentary rocks of two adjacent formations in central Maine, USA where groundwater in the bedrock aquifer frequently contains elevated As levels. The Waterville Formation contains higher arsenic concentrations (mean As 32.9 mg kg(-1), median 12.1 mg kg(-1), n=38) than the neighboring Vassalboro Group (mean As 19.1 mg kg(-1), median 6.0 mg kg(-1), n=38). The Waterville Formation is a pelitic meta-sedimentary unit with abundant pyrite either visible or observed by scanning electron microprobe. Concentrations of As and S are strongly correlated (r=0.88, p<0.05) in the low grade phyllite rocks, and arsenic is detected up to 1944 mg kg(-1) in pyrite measured by electron microprobe. In contrast, statistically significant (p<0.05) correlations between concentrations of As and S are absent in the calcareous meta-sediments of the Vassalboro Group, consistent with the absence of arsenic-rich pyrite in the protolith. Metamorphism converts the arsenic-rich pyrite to arsenic-poor pyrrhotite (mean As 1 mg kg(-1), n=15) during de-sulfidation reactions: the resulting metamorphic rocks contain arsenic but little or no sulfur indicating that the arsenic is now in new mineral hosts. Secondary weathering products such as iron oxides may host As, yet the geochemical methods employed (oxidative and reductive leaching) do not conclusively indicate that arsenic is associated only with these. Instead, silicate minerals such as biotite and garnet are present in metamorphic zones where arsenic is enriched (up to 130.8 mg kg(-1) As) where S is 0%. Redistribution of already variable As in the protolith during metamorphism and contemporary water-rock interaction in the aquifers, all combine to contribute to a spatially heterogeneous groundwater arsenic distribution in bedrock aquifers. PMID:24861530

  16. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of the Proterozoic metaclastic-sedimentary rocks in Hainan Province of South China: New constraints on the depositional time, source area, and tectonic setting of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhilin; Xu, Deru; Hu, Guocheng; Yu, Liangliang; Wu, Chuanjun; Zhang, Zhaochong; Cai, Jianxin; Shan, Qiang; Hou, Maozhou; Chen, Huayong

    2015-12-01

    The Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district, located at Hainan Province of South China, is well known for high-grade hematite-rich Fe ores and also two Precambrian host successions, i.e. the Shilu Group and the overlying Shihuiding Formation. This district has been interpreted as a banded iron formation (BIF) deposit-type, but its depositional time, source area and depositional setting have been in debate due to poor geochronological work. Detrital zircon U-Pb dating aided by cathodoluminescence imaging has been carried out on both the Shilu Group and Shihuiding Formation. Most of the zircon grains from both the successions are subrounded to rounded in morphology and have age spectra between 2000 Ma and 900 Ma with two predominant peaks at ca. 1460-1340 Ma and 1070 Ma, and three subordinate peaks at ca. 1740-1660 Ma, 1220 Ma and 970 Ma. The similar age distribution suggests the same depositional system for both successions. Linked to the geological and paleontological signatures, the Shihuiding Formation is better re-interpreted as the top, i.e. Seventh member of the Shilu Group, rather than a distinct Formation. The youngest statistical zircon age peaks for both successions, i.e. ca. 1070-970 Ma may define the maximum depositional time of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs. At least two erosional sources are required for deposition of the studied detrital zircons, with one proximal to provide the least abraded zircons and the other distal or recycled to offer the largely abraded zircons. The predominance of rounded or subrounded zircons over angular zircons probably implies a relatively stable tectonic setting during deposition. Given the Precambrian tectonics of Hainan Island, a retro-arc foreland basin is proposed for the deposition of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs. In comparison with those from the South China and other typical Grenvillian orogens, the detrital zircon age populations reveal that Hainan Island had crystalline basement similar to neither the Yangtze

  17. Determination of total sulfur content of sedimentary rocks by a combustion method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coller, M.E.; Leininger, R.K.

    1955-01-01

    Total sulfur has been determined in common sedimentary rocks by a combustion method. Sulfur contents range from 0.001 to 5.0%. Experiments show that the combustion method can be used in analyzing sedimentary rocks in which sulfur is present as sulfide, sulfate, or both. Pulverized samples from 0.100 to 0.500 gram in weight are used in this method. Each sample is placed in a No. 6 Leco combustion boat and covered with two fluxes: 0.50 gram of standard ingot iron and approximately 1.0 gram of 30-mesh granular tin. The boat with sample then is placed in the combustion tube of a Burrell Unit Package Model T29A tube furnace which is controlled at a temperature of 1310?? to 1320?? C. After the sample has been heated for 1 minute, oxygen is admitted at a rate of about 1 liter per minute. The sulfur dioxide formed is absorbed in a starch solution and is titrated with standard potassium iodate in a Leco sulfur determinator. Thirteen values obtained for National Bureau of Standards standard sample 1a, argillaceous limestone, range from 0.273 to 0.276% sulfur (certificate value 0.27% by calculation).

  18. Evaluating Re-Os systematics in organic-rich sedimentary rocks in response to petroleum generation using hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rooney, A.D.; Selby, D.; Lewan, M.D.; Lillis, P.G.; Houzay, J.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Successful application of the 187Re–187Os geochronometer has enabled the determination of accurate and precise depositional ages for organic-rich sedimentary rocks (ORS) as well as establishing timing constraints of petroleum generation. However, we do not fully understand the systematics and transfer behaviour of Re and Os between ORS and petroleum products (e.g., bitumen and oil). To more fully understand the behaviour of Re–Os systematics in both source rocks and petroleum products we apply hydrous pyrolysis to two immature hydrocarbon source rocks: the Permian Phosphoria Formation (TOC = 17.4%; Type II-S kerogen) and the Jurassic Staffin Formation (TOC = 2.5%; Type III kerogen). The laboratory-based hydrous pyrolysis experiments were carried out for 72 h at 250, 300, 325 and 350 °C. These experiments provided us with whole rock, extracted rock and bitumen and in some cases expelled oil and asphaltene for evaluation of Re–Os isotopic and elemental abundance. The data from these experiments demonstrate that the majority (>95%) of Re and Os are housed within extracted rock and that thermal maturation does not result in significant transfer of Re or Os from the extracted rock into organic phases. Based on existing thermodynamic data our findings suggest that organic chelating sites have a greater affinity for the quadravalent states of Re and Os than sulphides. Across the temperature range of the hydrous pyrolysis experiments both whole rock and extracted rock 187Re/188Os ratios show small variations (3.3% and 4.7%, for Staffin, respectively and 6.3% and 4.9% for Phosphoria, respectively). Similarly, the 187Os/188Os ratios show only minor variations for the Staffin and Phosphoria whole rock and extracted rock samples (0.6% and 1.4% and 1.3% and 2.2%). These isotopic data strongly suggest that crude oil generation through hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not disturb the Re–Os systematics in ORS as supported by various studies on natural systems. The

  19. Evaluating Re-Os systematics in organic-rich sedimentary rocks in response to petroleum generation using hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Alan D.; Selby, David; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Houzay, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Successful application of the 187Re-187Os geochronometer has enabled the determination of accurate and precise depositional ages for organic-rich sedimentary rocks (ORS) as well as establishing timing constraints of petroleum generation. However, we do not fully understand the systematics and transfer behaviour of Re and Os between ORS and petroleum products (e.g., bitumen and oil). To more fully understand the behaviour of Re-Os systematics in both source rocks and petroleum products we apply hydrous pyrolysis to two immature hydrocarbon source rocks: the Permian Phosphoria Formation (TOC = 17.4%; Type II-S kerogen) and the Jurassic Staffin Formation (TOC = 2.5%; Type III kerogen). The laboratory-based hydrous pyrolysis experiments were carried out for 72 h at 250, 300, 325 and 350 °C. These experiments provided us with whole rock, extracted rock and bitumen and in some cases expelled oil and asphaltene for evaluation of Re-Os isotopic and elemental abundance. The data from these experiments demonstrate that the majority (>95%) of Re and Os are housed within extracted rock and that thermal maturation does not result in significant transfer of Re or Os from the extracted rock into organic phases. Based on existing thermodynamic data our findings suggest that organic chelating sites have a greater affinity for the quadravalent states of Re and Os than sulphides. Across the temperature range of the hydrous pyrolysis experiments both whole rock and extracted rock 187Re/188Os ratios show small variations (3.3% and 4.7%, for Staffin, respectively and 6.3% and 4.9% for Phosphoria, respectively). Similarly, the 187Os/188Os ratios show only minor variations for the Staffin and Phosphoria whole rock and extracted rock samples (0.6% and 1.4% and 1.3% and 2.2%). These isotopic data strongly suggest that crude oil generation through hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not disturb the Re-Os systematics in ORS as supported by various studies on natural systems. The elemental

  20. Flexure and faulting of sedimentary host rocks during growth of igneous domes, Henry Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, M.D.; Pollard, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    A sequence of sedimentary rocks about 4 km thick was bent, stretched and uplifted during the growth of three igneous domes in the southern Henry Mountains. Mount Holmes, Mount Ellsworth and Mount Hillers are all about 12 km in diameter, but the amplitudes of their domes are about 1.2, 1.85 and 3.0 km, respectively. These mountains record successive stages in the inflation of near-surface diorite intrusions that are probably laccolithic in origin. The host rocks deformed along networks of outcrop-scale faults, or deformation bands, marked by crushed grains, consolidation of the porous sandstone and small displacements of sedimentary beds. Zones of deformation bands oriented parallel to the beds and formation contacts subdivided the overburden into thin mechanical layers that slipped over one another during doming. Measurements of outcrop-scale fault populations at the three mountains reveal a network of faults that strikes at high angles to sedimentary beds which themselves strike tangentially about the domes. These faults have normal and reverse components of slip that accommodated bending and stretching strains within the strata. An early stage of this deformation is displayed at Mount Holmes, where states of stress computed from three fault samples correlate with the theoretical distribution of stresses resulting from bending of thin, circular, elastic plates. Field observations and analysis of frictional driving stresses acting on horizontal planes above an opening-mode dislocation, as well as the paleostress analysis of faulting, indicate that bedding-plane slip and layer flexure were important components of the early deformation. As the amplitude of doming increased, radial and circumferential stretching of the strata and rotation of the older faults in the steepening limbs of the domes increased the complexity of the fault patterns. Steeply-dipping, map-scale faults with dip-slip displacements indicate a late-stage jostling of major blocks over the central

  1. Late Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper deposits in South China: their possible link to the supercontinent cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin-Fu; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Li, Jian-Wei; Qi, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Giant sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper (SSC) deposits commonly occur in rift environments, temporally coincident with the breakup of the Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. However, whether or not such deposits have also formed during the breakup of the Paleoproterozoic Columbia supercontinent is not well known. A group of dolostone-hosted Cu deposits in late Paleoproterozoic rift-related sedimentary sequences of the Dongchuan Group, South China, form one of the largest SSC districts in the world. Being one of the largest SSC deposits in the region, the Yinmin deposit has stratiform Cu orebodies intruded by dolerite dykes. One dyke has a SIMS zircon U-Pb age of 1,701 ± 28 Ma, slightly younger than the ore-hosting strata with a zircon U-Pb age of 1,742 ± 13 Ma for a tuff unit. Six chalcopyrite and bornite separates from stratiform orebodies contain highly radiogenic Os and extremely low common Os and yield a weighted mean Re-Os model age of 1,666 ± 82 Ma and a 187Os-187Re errorchron age of 1,585 ± 100 Ma. The present zircon U-Pb and sulfide Re-Os ages thus constrain the timing of the mineralization at ~1,700 Ma. The Yinmin deposit and, by inference, other SSC deposits in the region, arguably represent a large-scale SSC mineralization event during the late Paleoproterozoic. The formation of these deposits was coeval with the initial breakup/fragmentation of the Columbia supercontinent. This study highlights the temporal and likely genetic links between large-sized SSC deposits and the supercontinent cycle.

  2. Using the U-Pb system of calcretes to date the time of sedimentation of clastic sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. S.; Rasbury, E. T.; Hanson, G. N.; Meyers, W. J.

    1998-08-01

    The time of sedimentation of rapidly deposited clastic sedimentary rocks in fluvial environments may be directly dated with an uncertainty of less than three million years using U-Pb dating of pure micritic calcite from calcretes developed in overbank deposits. This conclusion is based on results obtained for calcretes (soil calcite, caliche) formed in the late Triassic New Haven Arkose, Hartford Basin, Connecticut, USA. The paragenesis of calcrete samples from the New Haven Arkose was determined using plane-polarized light and cathodoluminesence petrography, uranium fission track analysis, as well as trace element and stable isotope geochemistry. These calcretes contain an abundance of paleosol microfabrics and diagenetic calcite. The first-generation micritic calcite and second-generation blocky calcite have characteristics consistent with soil calcite. The third generation blocky calcite is a later diagenetic calcite (post-soil calcite). The U-Pb data for pure micritic calcite (first generation) in a horizontal sheet calcrete in sedimentary rocks of Norian age gives a 238U/ 207Pb- 206Pb/ 207Pb isochron age of 211.9 ± 2.1 Ma (2-sigma, and used hereafter for all ages). This age and the stratigraphic position for this sample are in excellent agreement with the ages proposed by Gradstein et al. (1994) for the Norian/Rhaetian boundary of 209.6 ± 4.1 Ma and the Carnian/Norian boundary of 220.7 ± 4.4 Ma. The U-Pb data for two samples of first generation micrite in rhizoliths with about 15% insoluble residues give "ages" of 7 ± 66 Ma and 20 ± 36 Ma. These results suggest that relatively recent events disturbed the U-Pb system of these detrital rich samples, perhaps due to redistribution of U during weathering or during chemical dissolution for analysis. The U-Pb data for a sample of pure third generation blocky calcite cement in a rhizolith yields a 206Pb/ 238U- 207Pb/ 235U isochron age of 81 ± 11 Ma. This age suggests that this sample of third generation blocky

  3. Variety and complexity in the mound of sedimentary rock in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Malin, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, will be used to explore a portion of the lower stratigraphic record of the northwest side of a mound of layered rock ˜5 km thick in the 155 km-diameter Gale Crater. The rock materials are of a sedimentary origin, though the proportions of clastic sediment, tephra, and chemical precipitates are presently unknown. The mound is usually described as having lower and upper units separated by an erosional unconformity. However, some investigators recognize that it is considerably more complex. The stratigraphy displays vertical and lateral complexity; multiple erosional unconformities; filled, buried, interbedded, and exhumed or partly exhumed impact craters; evidence for deposition along the base of the mound followed by retreat of less-resistant rocks and abandonment of erosion-resistant materials shed from the mound; lithified sediments deposited at the mouths of streams that cut mound rock; inversion of intra-canyon stream channel sediment; and widening of canyons. On the northeast side of the mound there are landslide deposits, shed from the mound, that contain large blocks (10s to 100s of m) of layered rock in various orientations. The mound's highest feature does not exhibit layering and has been interpreted by some as being Gale's impact-generated central peak. However, its highest elevation exceeds that of most of the crater rim, an observation inconsistent with central peaks (where they occur at all) in martian craters of diameters similar to Gale. The layered materials that occur highest in the mound are also at elevations that exceed most of the crater rim; these exhibit repeated stratal packages that drape previously-eroded mound topography; they produce boulders as they erode, attesting to their lithified nature and requiring that a lithification process occurred in materials located ≥ 5 km above the deepest part of Gale. The lower mound strata, including the Curiosity field site, are diverse materials

  4. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of porous sedimentary rocks explained by mercury porosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementina Caputo, Maria; Turturro, Celeste; Gerke, Horst H.

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of hydraulic properties is essential in the modeling of flow and solute transport including contaminants through the vadose zone, which consists of the soil as well as of the underlying porous sediments or rocks. The aim of this work is to study the relationships between unsaturated hydraulic properties of porous rocks and their pore size distribution. For this purpose, two different lithotypes belonging to Calcarenite di Gravina Formation, a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rock of marine origin, were investigated. The two lithotypes differ mainly in texture and came from two distinct quarry districts, Canosa di Puglia (C) and Massafra (M) in southern Italy, respectively. This relatively porous rock formation (porosities range between 43% for C and 41% for M) often constitutes a thick layer of vadose zone in several places of Mediterranean basin. The water retention curves (WRCs) and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions were determined using four different experimental methods that cover the full range from low to high water contents: the WP4 psychrometer test, the Wind's evaporation method, the Stackman's method and the Quasi-steady centrifuge method. Pore size estimation by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was performed. WRCs were compared with the pore size distributions to understand the influence of fabric, in terms of texture and porosity, features of pores and pore size distribution on the hydraulic behavior of rocks. The preliminary results show that the pore size distributions obtained by MIP do not cover the entire pore size range of the investigated Calcarenite. In fact, some pores in the rock samples of both lithotypes were larger than the maximum size that could be investigated by MIP. This implies that for explaining the unsaturated hydraulic properties over the full moisture range MIP results need to be combined with results obtained by other methods such as image analysis and SEM.

  5. The potassic sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater, Mars, as seen by ChemCam on board Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Deit, L.; Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; Cousin, A.; Lasue, J.; Schröder, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Sumner, D.; Fabre, C.; Stack, K. M.; Anderson, R. B.; Blaney, D.; Clegg, S.; Dromart, G.; Fisk, M.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Lanza, N.; Le Mouélic, S.; Maurice, S.; McLennan, S. M.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Nachon, M.; Newsom, H.; Payré, V.; Rapin, W.; Rice, M.; Sautter, V.; Treiman, A. H.

    2016-05-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity encountered potassium-rich clastic sedimentary rocks at two sites in Gale Crater, the waypoints Cooperstown and Kimberley. These rocks include several distinct meters thick sedimentary outcrops ranging from fine sandstone to conglomerate, interpreted to record an ancient fluvial or fluvio-deltaic depositional system. From ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) chemical analyses, this suite of sedimentary rocks has an overall mean K2O abundance that is more than 5 times higher than that of the average Martian crust. The combined analysis of ChemCam data with stratigraphic and geographic locations reveals that the mean K2O abundance increases upward through the stratigraphic section. Chemical analyses across each unit can be represented as mixtures of several distinct chemical components, i.e., mineral phases, including K-bearing minerals, mafic silicates, Fe-oxides, and Fe-hydroxide/oxyhydroxides. Possible K-bearing minerals include alkali feldspar (including anorthoclase and sanidine) and K-bearing phyllosilicate such as illite. Mixtures of different source rocks, including a potassium-rich rock located on the rim and walls of Gale Crater, are the likely origin of observed chemical variations within each unit. Physical sorting may have also played a role in the enrichment in K in the Kimberley formation. The occurrence of these potassic sedimentary rocks provides additional evidence for the chemical diversity of the crust exposed at Gale Crater.

  6. Evaluating CO2 mineralization capacity of sedimentary rock Using BCR sequential extraction procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang-Ting; Yu, Chi-Wen; Yang, Hsiao-Ming; Chiao, Chung-Hui; Yang, Ming-Wei

    2015-04-01

    To relief the high concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is gradually becoming an important concept to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In IPCC Special Report on CCS, the storage mechanisms for geological formations are categorized into structural/stratigraphic, hydrodynamic and geochemical trappings. Geochemical trapping is considered as a storage mechanism, which can further increase storage capacity, effectiveness and security in terms of permanent CO2 sequestration. The injected CO2 can have geochemical interactions with pore fluid and reservoir rocks and transform into minerals. It is important to evaluate the capacity of reservoir rock for sequestrating CO2. In this study, sedimentary rock samples were collected from a 2-km-deep well in Midwestern Taiwan; and, the BCR sequential extraction experiments developed by European Union Measurement and Testing Programme were conducted. BCR was designed for extracting three major phases from soil, including exchangeable phase and carbonates (the first stage), reducible phase (the second stage) and oxidizable phase (the third stage). The chemistry of extracted solutions and rock residues were measured with ICP-MS and XRF, respectively. According to the results of XRF, considerable amounts of calcium and iron can be extracted by BCR procedures but other cations are negligible. In general, shale has a higher capacity of CO2 sequestration than sandstone. The first stage of extraction can release about 6 (sandstone) to 18.5 (shale) g of calcium from 1 kg rock, which are equivalent to 6.6 and 20.4 g CO2/kg rock, respectively. In the second stage extraction, 0.71 (sandstone) to 1.38 (shale) g/kg rock of iron can be released and can mineralized 0.56 to 1.08 g CO2/kg rock. However, there are no considerable cations extracted in the third stage of BCR as shown by the XRF analysis. In addition, the results of ICP-MS show that Mg can be released in the order of 10-3 g from 1 kg rock

  7. Linking the MIF-S Record of Sedimentary Rocks to the Thermal and Biological Evolutions of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmoto, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Lasaga, A. C.

    2006-05-01

    Many recent geoscientists have accepted that the record of mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (MIF-S) is a smoking gun for the dramatic change from an anoxic (pO2 < 10-5 PAL) to oxic (pO2 > 10-5 PAL) atmosphere ~2.4 Ga ago, based on the acceptance of two dogmas: (I) atmospheric photochemical reactions are the only mechanisms to create MIF-S, and (II) only rocks older than 2.4 Ga in age bear MIF-S signatures. We question the validity of these dogmas because of the following recent discoveries: (1) the presence of MIF-S in some rocks younger than 1.7 Ga; (2) the absence of MIF-S in many rocks older than 2.7 Ga; (3) a systematic geochemical signature coincident with strong MIF-S in shales; (4) large MIFs in the isotopes of many elements (e.g., U, Cr, Mg) accompanying redox reactions, which are attributed to nuclear field shift effect (i.e., nuclear size and shape effects); (5) MIF-S in the H2S generated from the reduction of sulfate by simple amino acids in our experiments at 150-200°C, while a lack of sulfate reduction by more complex amino acids occurred (Watanabe et al., preceeding paper); and (6) agreements in the Δ33 S(sulfide)- Δ33 S(sulfate) relationships predicted from the nuclear field shift theory with those observed in (a) geologic samples, (b) photochemical experimental products, and (c) reaction products in our amino acids - sulfate experiments. The above discoveries suggest the following three possible reasons for a MIF-S signature in a sedimentary rock: (i) an anoxic atmosphere, (ii) a regional explosive volcanic event, or (iii) unique diagenetic reactions (e.g., sulfate reduction by amino acids) in organic-rich sediments. If (i) was the case, it would imply a yo-yo atmosphere, where the atmospheric pO2 fluctuated from anoxic to oxic, during the Archean. However, we suggest the combinations of (ii) and (iii) were the main reasons for MIF-S signatures in sedimentary rocks for the following reasons: (a) reactive amino acids were probably

  8. Relationship between susceptibility induced field inhomogeneities, restricted diffusion, and relaxation in sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert C; Hürlimann, Martin D

    2006-11-01

    Low field relaxation and diffusion measurements have become essential tools to study the pore space of sedimentary rocks with important practical applications in the field of well logging and hydrocarbon extractions. Even at Larmor frequencies below 2 MHz, diffusion measurements are often affected noticeably by internal field inhomogeneities. These field inhomogeneities are induced by susceptibility contrast between the rock and the fluid and are evident in most sandstones. Using sets of two-dimensional diffusion-relaxation measurements in applied and internal gradients, we study in detail the correlation between the field inhomogeneities, restricted diffusion, and relaxation time in three rocks of different susceptibility. We find that in the sandstone cores, the field inhomogeneities in large pores can be described by a local gradient that scales inversely with relaxation time above 250 ms. At shorter relaxation times, the extracted internal gradients deviate from this scaling relationship and we observe a dependence on diffusion time. This demonstrates that in this case, the internal field has structure on a length scale of a few microns. PMID:16890000

  9. Sedimentary rock porosity studied by electromagnetic techniques: nuclear magnetic resonance and dielectric permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramia, M. E.; Martín, C. A.

    2015-02-01

    The present work involves a comprehensive experimental study of porosity and pore size distribution of sedimentary rocks, from oil fields formations, by means of two electromagnetic techniques, namely proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and dielectric complex constant (DCC) as function of the frequency, both providing complementary results. The NMR yields an accurate determination of the relative pore size distribution and both movable and irreducible fluids. The DCC measurement provides the direct current electrical resistivity of the samples with different degrees of hydration. Thus, combining the results of both techniques allows the determination of the tortuosity index, by means of Archie's relation, and from it the average pore channel length. These measurements are performed on fully hydrated (saturated), centrifuged, dried, and cleaned rocks and also on samples with the irreducible fluids. Finally, the results are complemented with capillary pressure measurements to obtain the total volume associated with the pore channels related to the rock permeability. Additionally, the work presents a particular method to use a network analyzer to measure the DCC.

  10. Paleomagnetism of the Upper Carboniferous and Upper Permian sedimentary rocks from Novaya Zemlya Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abashev, Victor V.; Mikhaltsov, Nikolay E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.; Doubrovine, Pavel V.

    2016-04-01

    Here we present the first paleomagnetic directions and paleomagnetic poles for Upper Permian and Upper Carboniferous sedimentary rocks (sandstones and limestones) of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in the Russian High Arctic region. The paleomagnetic directions were obtained through detailed thermal and alternating field demagnetization experiments, using the principal component analysis of demagnetization data. A positive fold test and a positive reversal test indicate that the isolated paleomagnetic directions correspond to the primary magnetization components. Magnetic remanence carriers were characterized through rock-magnetic analyses, including measurements of temperature dependence of low-field magnetic susceptibility, magnetic hysteresis curves, and first-order reversal curves (FORC). We will describe the rock-magnetic properties of different lithological units and discuss their implications for the stability of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and the veracity of paleomagnetic record. The tectonics implications of the new paleomagnetic data for the evolution of the Barents-Kara continental margin and the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago will be also discussed. The paleomagnetic poles differ slightly from the corresponding section of the APWP for Baltica, which is probably due to inclination shallowing effect or the tectonic features of the region. The study was supported by Russian Science Foundation grant 14-37-00030, the SIU project HNPla-2013/10049 (HEAT) and by Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation grant 5.515.2014/K.

  11. Excavatability Assessment of Weathered Sedimentary Rock Mass Using Seismic Velocity Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bin Mohamad, Edy Tonnizam; Noor, Muhazian Md; Isa, Mohamed Fauzi Bin Md.; Mazlan, Ain Naadia; Saad, Rosli

    2010-12-23

    Seismic refraction method is one of the most popular methods in assessing surface excavation. The main objective of the seismic data acquisition is to delineate the subsurface into velocity profiles as different velocity can be correlated to identify different materials. The physical principal used for the determination of excavatability is that seismic waves travel faster through denser material as compared to less consolidated material. In general, a lower velocity indicates material that is soft and a higher velocity indicates more difficult to be excavated. However, a few researchers have noted that seismic velocity method alone does not correlate well with the excavatability of the material. In this study, a seismic velocity method was used in Nusajaya, Johor to assess the accuracy of this seismic velocity method with excavatability of the weathered sedimentary rock mass. A direct ripping run by monitoring the actual production of ripping has been employed at later stage and compared to the ripper manufacturer's recommendation. This paper presents the findings of the seismic velocity tests in weathered sedimentary area. The reliability of using this method with the actual rippability trials is also presented.

  12. E/I corrected paleolatitudes for the sedimentary rocks of the Baja British Columbia hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijgsman, Wout; Tauxe, Lisa

    2006-02-01

    Paleomagnetic inclinations from sediments of the western terranes of Canada are consistently too shallow for their reconstructed paleogeographic positions. Two contradicting explanations for these discrepancies are: (1) terranes have been displaced northward with respect to the stable American craton by several thousands of kilometres between the Late Cretaceous (˜ 75 Ma) and the Eocene (˜50 Ma) and (2) sedimentary inclination error has caused a shallow bias in the paleomagnetic directions. Here, we apply the elongation/inclination (E/I) method to paleomagnetic data sets from sedimentary rocks of supposedly allochtonous terranes of western North America to correct for inclination flattening. Our results indicate that the paleomagnetic directions from the continental Silverquick sediments (95-92 Ma) of southern British Colombia are not seriously affected by inclination error, because the magnetic signal most likely concerns a chemical remanent magnetisation (CRM). In contrast, the marine sediments of the Nanaimo Group (84-72 Ma) of Vancouver Island region appear seriously affected by inclination flattening ( f = 0.7) and the E/I corrected mean inclinations are about 9° steeper than the original data. We arrive at corrected inclinations/paleolatitudes of I** = 57°/ λ = 38°N for the Silverquick and I** = 55°/ λ = 36°N for the Nanaimo sediments. Our corrected paleolatitudes indicate that the Canadian terranes were indeed located adjacent to the Baja Californian margin during the Late Cretaceous, thus supporting the Baja BC hypothesis.

  13. Rupture cascades in a discrete element model of a porous sedimentary rock.

    PubMed

    Kun, Ferenc; Varga, Imre; Lennartz-Sassinek, Sabine; Main, Ian G

    2014-02-14

    We investigate the scaling properties of the sources of crackling noise in a fully dynamic numerical model of sedimentary rocks subject to uniaxial compression. The model is initiated by filling a cylindrical container with randomly sized spherical particles that are then connected by breakable beams. Loading at a constant strain rate the cohesive elements fail, and the resulting stress transfer produces sudden bursts of correlated failures, directly analogous to the sources of acoustic emissions in real experiments. The source size, energy, and duration can all be quantified for an individual event, and the population can be analyzed for its scaling properties, including the distribution of waiting times between consecutive events. Despite the nonstationary loading, the results are all characterized by power-law distributions over a broad range of scales in agreement with experiments. As failure is approached, temporal correlation of events emerges accompanied by spatial clustering. PMID:24580692

  14. Deep crustal sediment study: Widespread Precambrian layered rocks (Sedimentary ) beneath the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.C.

    1992-01-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence, its ultimate lateral extent, and resource potential are unknown. The objective of this project is to seek and reprocess seismic reflection data provided by industry from the US midcontinent and together with the COCORP deep reflection data and information from the scattered basement-penetrating drill holes, to begin to constrain the distribution, origin and evolution of this enigmatic layered sequence, particularly to evaluate if sedimentary material may be an important constituent (i.e., deep gas potential).

  15. Deep crustal sediment study: Widespread Precambrian layered rocks (Sedimentary ?) beneath the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.C.

    1992-06-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence, its ultimate lateral extent, and resource potential are unknown. The objective of this project is to seek and reprocess seismic reflection data provided by industry from the US midcontinent and together with the COCORP deep reflection data and information from the scattered basement-penetrating drill holes, to begin to constrain the distribution, origin and evolution of this enigmatic layered sequence, particularly to evaluate if sedimentary material may be an important constituent (i.e., deep gas potential).

  16. Microbiological Profiles of Deep Terrestrial Sedimentary Rocks Revealed by an Aseptic Drilling Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Suko, T.; Fukuda, A.; Kouduka, M.; Nanba, K.; Sakata, S.; Ito, K.

    2009-12-01

    Unlike the near-surface environments, it is difficult to determine the community structure and biogeochemical functions of microorganisms in the deep subsurface mainly due to accessibility without contamination and disturbance. In an inland fore-arc basin in central Japan, we applied a new drilling procedure using deoxygenated and/or filter-sterilized drilling fluid(s). Although DNA-stained and cultivable cell numbers and the contents of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) all indicated the presence of metabolically active microbial populations in sedimentary rocks at a depth range from 200 to 350 m, it was not successful to extract DNA from the drilled core samples. During drilling, drilling fluid used for drilling and coring in the borehole was collected from the borehole bottom and subjected to DNA extraction. Quantitative fluorogenic PCR revealed that bacterial DNA were detected in drilling fluid samples when drilling was performed for siltstone and silty sandstone layers with the limited flow of drilling fluid. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the drilling fluid samples below a depth of 324 m were mostly related to Pseudomonas putida or Flavobacterium succinicans, while those related to other Pseudomonas spp. were predominant at depths of 298 and 299m. PLFA profiles of core samples from a depth range between 250 and 351 m showed the abundance of 16:0, 16:1ω7 and 18:1ω9 fatty acids, which are known as major cellular lipid components of Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium spp. From these results, it was suggested that the members of the genera Pseudomonas and F. succinicans might represent dominant microbial populations that inhabit the deep terrestrial sedimentary rocks in Central Japan. This study was supported by grants from the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Cryobacterium arcticum Strain PAMC 27867, Isolated from a Sedimentary Rock Sample in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Ahnna; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Cryobacterium arcticum PAMC 27867, a psychrotolerant, Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from a sedimentary rock sample collected at Eureka Spurs in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. arcticum PAMC 27867. PMID:27587812

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Cryobacterium arcticum Strain PAMC 27867, Isolated from a Sedimentary Rock Sample in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Ahnna; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Cryobacterium arcticum PAMC 27867, a psychrotolerant, Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from a sedimentary rock sample collected at Eureka Spurs in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. arcticum PAMC 27867. PMID:27587812

  19. Discrimination between Sedimentary Rocks from Close-Range Visible and Very-Near-Infrared Images

    PubMed Central

    Del Pozo, Susana; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Pablo; Kees Blom, Jan; González-Aguilera, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the mineral composition of rocks results in a change of their spectral response capable of being studied by imaging spectroscopy. This paper proposes the use of a low-cost handy sensor, a calibrated visible-very near infrared (VIS-VNIR) multispectral camera for the recognition of different geological formations. The spectral data was recorded by a Tetracam Mini-MCA-6 camera mounted on a field-based platform covering six bands in the spectral range of 0.530–0.801 µm. Twelve sedimentary formations were selected in the Rhône-Alpes region (France) to analyse the discrimination potential of this camera for rock types and close-range mapping applications. After proper corrections and data processing, a supervised classification of the multispectral data was performed trying to distinguish four classes: limestones, marlstones, vegetation and shadows. After a maximum-likelihood classification, results confirmed that this camera can be efficiently exploited to map limestone-marlstone alternations in geological formations with this mineral composition. PMID:26147309

  20. Discrimination between Sedimentary Rocks from Close-Range Visible and Very-Near-Infrared Images.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo, Susana; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Pablo; Kees Blom, Jan; González-Aguilera, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the mineral composition of rocks results in a change of their spectral response capable of being studied by imaging spectroscopy. This paper proposes the use of a low-cost handy sensor, a calibrated visible-very near infrared (VIS-VNIR) multispectral camera for the recognition of different geological formations. The spectral data was recorded by a Tetracam Mini-MCA-6 camera mounted on a field-based platform covering six bands in the spectral range of 0.530-0.801 µm. Twelve sedimentary formations were selected in the Rhône-Alpes region (France) to analyse the discrimination potential of this camera for rock types and close-range mapping applications. After proper corrections and data processing, a supervised classification of the multispectral data was performed trying to distinguish four classes: limestones, marlstones, vegetation and shadows. After a maximum-likelihood classification, results confirmed that this camera can be efficiently exploited to map limestone-marlstone alternations in geological formations with this mineral composition. PMID:26147309

  1. Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: Relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knoll, A.H.; Jolliff, B.L.; Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J.F., III; Clark, B. C.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johson, J.R.; McLennam, S.M.; Morris, R.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.; Tosca, N.J.; Yen, A.; Learner, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Veneers and thicker rinds that coat outcrop surfaces and partially cemented fracture fills formed perpendicular to bedding document relatively late stage alteration of ancient sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The chemistry of submillimeter thick, buff-colored veneers reflects multiple processes at work since the establishment of the current plains surface. Veneer composition is dominated by the mixing of silicate-rich dust and sulfate-rich outcrop surface, but it has also been influenced by mineral precipitation, including NaCl, and possibly by limited physical or chemical weathering of sulfate minerals. Competing processes of chemical alteration (perhaps mediated by thin films of water or water vapor beneath blanketing soils) and sandblasting of exposed outcrop surfaces determine the current distribution of veneers. Dark-toned rinds several millimeters thick reflect more extensive surface alteration but also indicate combined dust admixture, halite precipitation, and possible minor sulfate removal. Cemented fracture fills that are differentially resistant to erosion occur along the margins of linear fracture systems possibly related to impact. These appear to reflect limited groundwater activity along the margins of fractures, cementing mechanically introduced fill derived principally from outcrop rocks. The limited thickness and spatial distribution of these three features suggest that aqueous activity has been rare and transient or has operated at exceedingly low rates during the protracted interval since outcropping Meridiani strata were exposed on the plains surface. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Magnetic Fabrics and Paleomagnetism of Sedimentary Rocks: Examining Effects of Compaction and Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentary rocks provide many important records of the geometry and history of the geomagnetic field, but such records are at times compromised by the effects of depositional processes, soft-sediment deformation, compaction, and tectonic strain. One productive line of research into these effects has been to utilize the well known ability of magnetic anisotropy methods to quantitatively analyze sediment fabrics that result from these processes, and to use these data to evaluate the possibility that the remanence directions in sediments and sedimentary rocks have been altered. Two approaches to this problem will be presented. The first deals with relationships between magnetic fabric shape parameters and paleomagnetic inclination error. The second approach will be to examine the shape distributions of paleomagnetic data, and compare these to the shape distributions of AMS kmin axes from the same rocks. For the first approach, analyses of magnetic fabrics and estimates of paleomagnetic inclination error in the Shikoku Basin (ODP Site 1173) sediments indicate that both initial deposition and post-depositional compaction play important roles in shallowing of inclination. The sediments down to 344 meters depth have relatively uniform flattening values and fabric-based estimates of mean inclination errors of 3.2° for a = 5, and 5.9°° for a = 2.4. The uniform flattening factors, minor inclination errors, and uniform porosity all suggest that only the initial deposition/consolidation process, rather than burial-related compaction, has influenced the paleomagnetic inclinations of the sediments within this interval. In contrast, sediments below 344 meters depth have flattening factors and calculated inclination errors that monotonically increase with depth, with mean inclination errors of 12.1° for a = 5, and 23.3° for a = 2.4. Decrease of porosity within this same depth interval suggests that burial-related compaction within these hemipelagic sediments is the dominant

  3. A re-examination of paleomagnetic results from NA Jurassic sedimentary rocks: Additional evidence for proposed Jurassic MUTO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Kent and Irving, 2010; and Kent et al, 2015 propose a monster shift in the position of Jurassic (160 to 145 Ma) paleopoles for North America- defined by results from igneous rocks. This monster shift is likely an unrecognized true polar wander occurrence. Although subject to inclination error, results from sedimentary rocks from North America, if corrected for these effects, can be used to supplement the available data for this time period. Steiner (2003) reported results from 48 stratigraphic horizons sampled from the Callovian Summerville Fm, from NE New Mexico. A recalculated mean of these results yields a mean direction of D = 332, I = 39, n=48, k = 15, α95 = 5.4°. These data were analyzed for possible inclination error-although the dataset is small, the E-I results yielded a corrected I = 53. This yields a corrected paleopole for NA at ~165 Ma located at 67° N and 168° E.Paleomagnetic results from the Black Hills- Kilanowski (2002) for the Callovian Hulett Mbr of the Sundance Fm, and Gregiore (2001) the Oxfordian-Tithonian Morrison Fm (Gregiore, 2001) have previously been interpreted to represent Eocene-aged remagnetizations- due to the nearly exact coincidence between the in-situ pole positions of these Jurassic units with the Eocene pole for NA. Both of the tilt-corrected results for these units have high latitude poles (Sundance Fm: 79° N, 146° E; Morrison Fm: 89° N, 165° E). An E-I analysis of these data will be presented- using a provisional inclination error of 10°, corrected paleopoles are: (Sundance Fm: 76° N, 220° E; Morrison Fm: 77° N, 266° E). The Black Hills 165 Ma (Sundance Fm) and 145 Ma (Morrison Fm) poles, provisionally corrected for 10° inclination error- occur fairly close to the NA APWP proposed by Kent et al, 2015- using an updated set of results from kimberlites- the agreement between the Sundance Fm and the Triple-B (158 Ma) pole would be nearly exact with a slightly lesser inclination error. The Summerville Fm- which is

  4. Paleomagnetism of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks from the Karatau Range, Southern Kazakhstan: Multiple remagnetization events correlate with phases of deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirscher, U.; Zwing, A.; Alexeiev, D. V.; Echtler, H. P.; Bachtadse, V.

    2013-08-01

    The paleogeography of the Altaids and its kinematic and tectonic evolution during the final collision and amalgamation of Eurasia is still poorly known. Addressing this problem, a paleomagnetic study has been undertaken on Paleozoic sedimentary rocks from the Karatau, Southern Kazakhstan. Stepwise thermal demagnetization reveals the presence of a high-temperature component of magnetization in most samples. Fold tests indicate a syn-folding age of magnetic remanence acquisition at three of the five areas studied. Directional data of Devonian and Permian rocks yield a positive fold test, implying a primary magnetization. Resulting prefolding paleolatitudes for Permian and Devonian rocks show the proximity of the Karatau to Baltica during those times. Syn- and post-folding magnetizations result in paleolatitudes for Karatau, which intersect the paleolatitude curve based on the Baltica apparent polar wander path (APWP), at times, which can be correlated to major deformational events at ~280 Ma, ~260 Ma, and ~230 Ma, respectively. We interpret this with complicated pattern of remagnetization events accompanying deformation, which can include syn-folding remagnetization events and areas of primary magnetic signals. Additionally, the differences between reference declinations based on the APWP for Baltica and observed declinations suggest successive counterclockwise rotational reorganization of the Karatau during the late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic, with maximal rotation values of ~65° with respect to Baltica. The remagnetization events are correlated with latest intracontinental stages of orogenic evolution in the Ural mountains and thus the Paleozoic amalgamation of the Eurasian continent and suggest synchronous and coherent tectonic evolution in the Urals and Karatau mountains.

  5. Experimental Evidence of melt-brake at seismic rates in sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, L.; Suppe, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.; Yeh, E.; Dong, J.; Wang, C.; Yang, C.

    2011-12-01

    Frictional melts generated along seismic faults theoretically may act either as a lubricant or as a viscous brake. Present geological and geophysical evidence supports melt-lubrication, which is also in good agreement with extreme strength weakening in laboratory frictional experiments. On the contrary, the strengthening behavior of viscous melts at seismic rates is not well reported, especially in sedimentary rocks. Here we provide laboratory evidence of progressive increase in frictional resistance on sandstone at a slip rate of 1.3 m/s with melt generation. The produced melt/pseudotachylyte is observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and is in-situ analyzed with X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) in synchrotron radiation. These analytical results show that the formation of pseudotachylyte is composed of pulverized quartz grains suspending in amorphous melts from thermally decomposed clay minerals. The observation of TXM also indicates that the shapes of quartz grains in the slip zone vary from rounded in the central area to angular on the rim. In-situ microstructures and high frictional resistance of sandstones in experiments indicate that the dominant strengthening mechanism is possibly controlled by viscous melts with suspending quartz grains. The melt rheology at high slip rates is not well understood, but the frictional behavior of melt with nano-sized quartz grains appears to be rheopetic instead of melt lubrication and/or powder lubrication. Thus, it suggests that the first-time rupture of sedimentary faults is not lubricated by melts during earthquake; in contrast melts from thermally decomposed clay minerals with suspending quartz grains produced by faulting may be an important process for the dynamic strengthening of faults.

  6. Reconstructing Past Depositional and Diagenetic Processes through Quantitative Stratigraphic Analysis of the Martian Sedimentary Rock Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, Kathryn M.

    High-resolution orbital and in situ observations acquired of the Martian surface during the past two decades provide the opportunity to study the rock record of Mars at an unprecedented level of detail. This dissertation consists of four studies whose common goal is to establish new standards for the quantitative analysis of visible and near-infrared data from the surface of Mars. Through the compilation of global image inventories, application of stratigraphic and sedimentologic statistical methods, and use of laboratory analogs, this dissertation provides insight into the history of past depositional and diagenetic processes on Mars. The first study presents a global inventory of stratified deposits observed in images from the High Resolution Image Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. This work uses the widespread coverage of high-resolution orbital images to make global-scale observations about the processes controlling sediment transport and deposition on Mars. The next chapter presents a study of bed thickness distributions in Martian sedimentary deposits, showing how statistical methods can be used to establish quantitative criteria for evaluating the depositional history of stratified deposits observed in orbital images. The third study tests the ability of spectral mixing models to obtain quantitative mineral abundances from near-infrared reflectance spectra of clay and sulfate mixtures in the laboratory for application to the analysis of orbital spectra of sedimentary deposits on Mars. The final study employs a statistical analysis of the size, shape, and distribution of nodules observed by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover team in the Sheepbed mudstone at Yellowknife Bay in Gale crater. This analysis is used to evaluate hypotheses for nodule formation and to gain insight into the diagenetic history of an ancient habitable environment on Mars.

  7. Discordance of the U Pb system in detrital zircons: Implication for provenance studies of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemchin, Alexander A.; Cawood, Peter A.

    2005-12-01

    Provenance studies involving U / Pb analysis of detrital zircons have become increasingly popular through the application of microanalytical techniques. Adopted one-dimensional methods for the presentation of detrital zircon data, such as probability density distribution plots, generally require various degrees of filtering of discordant analyses. However, a uniform approach for filtering does not exist, making comparison of data from different samples and sedimentary units, as well as different studies of detrital populations, extremely difficult. The problem is further complicated by the need to switch from 207Pb / 206Pb based ages to 206Pb / 238U ages when zircon populations within a sample show a range of ages from Archean to Proterozoic or even Phanerozoic. Ion probe analysis of multiple spots within a single zircon crystal and calculation of an internal isochron can potentially eliminate problems associated with discordance, but this is a time consuming approach. Comparison of internal isochron ages for zircons generated by multiple ion probe intra-grain zircon analyses from a sample of psammite within the Dalradian Supergroup of Scotland with a data set from the same sample based on single grain ion probe analysis using various filtering methods suggests good agreement between the two approaches particularly when filtering is based on the probability of concordance. However, when precise information is required, such as the age of the youngest zircon grains so as to accurately constrain the maximum depositional age of the strata, then multiple analyses of individual zircon grains may be required.

  8. Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blaney, Diana L.; Wiens, R.C.; Maurice, S.; Clegg, S.M.; Anderson, Ryan; Kah, L.C.; Le Mouélic, S.; Ollila, A.; Bridges, N.; Tokar, R.; Berger, G.; Bridges, J.C.; Cousin, A.; Clark, B.; Dyar, M.D.; King, P.L.; Lanza, N.; Mangold, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.; Schroder, S.; Rowland, S.; Johnson, J.; Edgar, L.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schmidt, M.; Goetz, W.; Stack, K.; Sumner, D.; Fisk, M.; Madsen, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    A suite of eight rocks analyzed by the Curiosity Rover while it was stopped at the Rocknest sand ripple shows the greatest chemical divergence of any potentially sedimentary rocks analyzed in the early part of the mission. Relative to average Martian soil and to the stratigraphically lower units encountered as part of the Yellowknife Bay formation, these rocks are significantly depleted in MgO, with a mean of 1.3 wt %, and high in Fe, averaging over 20 wt % FeOT, with values between 15 and 26 wt % FeOT. The variable iron and low magnesium and rock texture make it unlikely that these are igneous rocks. Rock surface textures range from rough to smooth, can be pitted or grooved, and show various degrees of wind erosion. Some rocks display poorly defined layering while others seem to show possible fractures. Narrow vertical voids are present in Rocknest 3, one of the rocks showing the strongest layering. Rocks in the vicinity of Rocknest may have undergone some diagenesis similar to other rocks in the Yellowknife Bay Formation as indicated by the presence of soluble calcium phases. The most reasonable scenario is that fine-grained sediments, potentially a mixture of feldspar-rich rocks from Bradbury Rise and normal Martian soil, were lithified together by an iron-rich cement.

  9. Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Clegg, S. M.; Anderson, R. B.; Kah, L. C.; Le Mouélic, S.; Ollila, A.; Bridges, N.; Tokar, R.; Berger, G.; Bridges, J. C.; Cousin, A.; Clark, B.; Dyar, M. D.; King, P. L.; Lanza, N.; Mangold, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.; Schröder, S.; Rowland, S.; Johnson, J.; Edgar, L.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schmidt, M.; Goetz, W.; Stack, K.; Sumner, D.; Fisk, M.; Madsen, M. B.

    2014-09-01

    A suite of eight rocks analyzed by the Curiosity Rover while it was stopped at the Rocknest sand ripple shows the greatest chemical divergence of any potentially sedimentary rocks analyzed in the early part of the mission. Relative to average Martian soil and to the stratigraphically lower units encountered as part of the Yellowknife Bay formation, these rocks are significantly depleted in MgO, with a mean of 1.3 wt %, and high in Fe, averaging over 20 wt % FeOT, with values between 15 and 26 wt % FeOT. The variable iron and low magnesium and rock texture make it unlikely that these are igneous rocks. Rock surface textures range from rough to smooth, can be pitted or grooved, and show various degrees of wind erosion. Some rocks display poorly defined layering while others seem to show possible fractures. Narrow vertical voids are present in Rocknest 3, one of the rocks showing the strongest layering. Rocks in the vicinity of Rocknest may have undergone some diagenesis similar to other rocks in the Yellowknife Bay Formation as indicated by the presence of soluble calcium phases. The most reasonable scenario is that fine-grained sediments, potentially a mixture of feldspar-rich rocks from Bradbury Rise and normal Martian soil, were lithified together by an iron-rich cement.

  10. Fluvial geomorphic elements in modern sedimentary basins and their potential preservation in the rock record: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.; Scuderi, L. A.; Nichols, G. J.; Owen, A.; Wright, S.; Felicia, A. L.; Holland, F.; Anaya, F. M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Since tectonic subsidence in sedimentary basins provides the potential for long-term facies preservation into the sedimentary record, analysis of geomorphic elements in modern continental sedimentary basins is required to understand facies relationships in sedimentary rocks. We use a database of over 700 modern sedimentary basins to characterize the fluvial geomorphology of sedimentary basins. Geomorphic elements were delineated in 10 representative sedimentary basins, focusing primarily on fluvial environments. Elements identified include distributive fluvial systems (DFS), tributive fluvial systems that occur between large DFS or in an axial position in the basin, lacustrine/playa, and eolian environments. The DFS elements include large DFS (> 30 km in length), small DFS (< 30 km in length), coalesced DFS in bajada or piedmont plains, and incised DFS. Our results indicate that over 88% of fluvial deposits in the evaluated sedimentary basins are present as DFS, with tributary systems covering a small portion (1-12%) of the basin. These geomorphic elements are commonly arranged hierarchically, with the largest transverse rivers forming large DFS and smaller transverse streams depositing smaller DFS in the areas between the larger DFS. These smaller streams commonly converge between the large DFS, forming a tributary system. Ultimately, most transverse rivers become tributary to the axial system in the sedimentary basin, with the axial system being confined between transverse DFS entering the basin from opposite sides of the basin, or a transverse DFS and the edge of the sedimentary basin. If axial systems are not confined by transverse DFS, they will form a DFS. Many of the world's largest rivers are located in the axial position of some sedimentary basins. Assuming uniformitarianism, sedimentary basins from the past most likely had a similar configuration of geomorphic elements. Facies distributions in tributary positions and those on DFS appear to display

  11. Development of magnetic fabric in sedimentary rocks: insights from early compactional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lasanta, Cristina; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Casas, Antonio M.; Pérez-Lorente, Félix

    2013-07-01

    The timing of development of the magnetic fabric is a major issue in the application of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a strain marker. Analysis of AMS in unconcealed synsedimentary structures can be a sound approximation to this task. In this work, three types of early compactional structures (ECS) were studied by means of AMS, since they can help to understand the timing of development of the magnetic fabric. All three types of ECS are found in fine-grained detrital rocks (to avoid other influences such as palaeocurrents), claystones and marls of the Enciso Group within the Cameros Basin (NE Spain): dinosaur footprints, load structures due to differential compaction and dish-and-flame structures associated with fluid migration related to seismites. In addition, to determine possible influences of lithology on the magnetic fabric, different rock types (siltstones and limestones) were also sampled. In general, the influence of ECS results in scattering of the three magnetic axes, higher at the margins of the structure than at its centre. This fact suggests that ECS occurs during the development of the magnetic fabric, disturbing the incipient magnetic fabric stages, and strongly conditions its later evolution during diagenesis. The later homogeneous compaction process due to sedimentary load and physicochemical processes reorient the susceptibility carriers to some extent (i.e. the magnetic fabric is still under development), but not totally, since AMS still records the previous scattering due to ECS imprint. For the Enciso Group deposits, the magnetic fabric begins to develop at the earliest stages after deposition and it stops when diagenetic processes have finished.

  12. Fracture Network Characteristics Informed by Detailed Studies of Chlorinated Solvent Plumes in Sedimentary Rock Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, B. L.; Chapman, S.

    2015-12-01

    Various numerical approaches have been used to simulate contaminant plumes in fractured porous rock, but the one that allows field and laboratory measurements to be most directly used as inputs to these models is the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Approach. To effectively account for fracture-matrix interactions, emphasis must be placed on identifying and parameterizing all of the fractures that participate substantially in groundwater flow and contaminated transport. High resolution plume studies at four primary research sites, where chlorinated solvent plumes serve as long-term (several decades) tracer tests, provide insight concerning the density of the fracture network unattainable by conventional methods. Datasets include contaminant profiles from detailed VOC subsampling informed by continuous core logs, hydraulic head and transmissivity profiles, packer testing and sensitive temperature logging methods in FLUTe™ lined holes. These show presence of many more transmissive fractures, contrasting observations of only a few flow zones per borehole obtained from conventional hydraulic tests including flow metering in open boreholes. Incorporating many more fractures with a wider range of transmissivities is key to predicting contaminant migration. This new understanding of dense fracture networks combined with matrix property measurements have informed 2-D DFN flow and transport modelling using Fractran and HydroGeosphere to simulate plume characteristics ground-truthed by detailed field site plume characterization. These process-based simulations corroborate field findings that plumes in sedimentary rock after decades of transport show limited plume front distances and strong internal plume attenuation by diffusion, transverse dispersion and slow degradation. This successful application of DFN modeling informed by field-derived parameters demonstrates how the DFN Approach can be applied to other sites to inform plume migration rates and remedial efficacy.

  13. Diffusive separation of noble gases and noble gas abundance patterns in sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Torgersen, T.; Kennedy, B.M.; van Soest, M.C.

    2004-06-14

    The mechanisms responsible for noble gas concentrations, abundance patterns, and strong retentivity in sedimentary lithologies remain poorly explained. Diffusion-controlled fractionation of noble gases is modeled and examined as an explanation for the absolute and relative abundances of noble gases observed in sediments. Since the physical properties of the noble gases are strong functions of atomic mass, the individual diffusion coefficients, adsorption coefficients and atomic radii combine to impede heavy noble gas (Xe) diffusion relative to light noble gas (Ne) diffusion. Filling of lithic grains/half-spaces by diffusive processes thus produces Ne enrichments in the early and middle stages of the filling process with F(Ne) values similar to that observed in volcanic glasses. Emptying lithic grains/half-spaces produces a Xe-enriched residual in the late (but not final) stages of the process producing F(Xe) values similar to that observed in shales. 'Exotic but unexceptional' shales that exhibit both F(Ne) and F(Xe) enrichments can be produced by incomplete emptying followed by incomplete filling. This mechanism is consistent with literature reported noble gas abundance patterns but may still require a separate mechanism for strong retention. A system of labyrinths-with-constrictions and/or C-, Si-nanotubes when combined with simple adsorption can result in stronger diffusive separation and non-steady-state enrichments that persist for longer times. Enhanced adsorption to multiple C atoms inside C-nanotubes as well as dangling functional groups closing the ends of nanotubes can provide potential mechanisms for 'strong retention'. We need new methods of examining noble gases in rocks to determine the role and function of angstrom-scale structures in both the diffusive enrichment process and the 'strong retention' process for noble gas abundances in terrestrial rocks.

  14. First Palaeogene sedimentary rock palaeomagnetic pole from stable western Eurasia and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Ward, David J.; King, Chris; Abrajevitch, Alexandra

    2003-08-01

    A palaeomagnetic investigation of lower Eocene (ca. 52 Ma) London Clay Formation cemented mudstones from Sheppey (SE England) has yielded a mean direction of Dec. = 1.1°, Inc. = 43.2°, where N= 9, α95 = 6.8° and K= 58.5. This apparently high-quality direction (Q-factor = 5) has an associated palaeopole of 178.6°E, 63.7°N, where A95= 6.8°. The data represent the first pole from post Jurassic stable Eurasia rocks outside of the European North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP), of which most results have been obtained from NW Britain and the Faroe Islands. The data can in part be used to constrain the position of Palaeogene Eurasia, in particular the zero-offset declination implying negligible rotation of western Eurasia since the early Cenozoic. This is in contrast with data derived from the European NAIP, which imply small to moderate clockwise rotations for this part of the plate. The inclination angle may provide less useful information as it appears to be anomalously shallow when compared with that associated with the NAIP derived poles. In an attempt to understand the shallowing, we re-examined data from Palaeocene-Eocene sediments recovered in several boreholes (bathyal sediments in DSDP Hole 550, four cores through fluvio-delatic to middle shelf sequences in the London area, and one borehole sequence from East Anglia). In all cases, the sediments show systematic inclination shallowing similar in magnitude to that reported from Sheppey. Tectonic and geomagnetic explanations can be discounted; sediment compaction appears to be the likely cause. In light of the current controversy surrounding the `stable Asia shallow inclination problem', the result reinforces the suggestion that tectonic modelling needs to be done carefully when the supporting data are based exclusively on palaeomagnetic studies of sedimentary rocks.

  15. Thick sequences of silicate and carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin in North America an interim report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, John David

    1956-01-01

    Thick sequences of silicate and carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin have been investigated in 64 areas in North America. The areas containing the thickest and most homogeneous stratigraphic sections more than 1,000 feet thick, buried at depths greater than 10,000 feet are: 1. Uinta Basin, Utah, where the Mancos shale is 1,300 to 5,000 feet thick, the Weber sandstone is 1,000 to 1,600 feet thick, and Mississippian limestones are 1,000 to 1,500 feet thick. 2. Washakie Basin, Wyoming, and Sand Wash Ba.sin, Colorado, where the Lewis shale is 1,000 to 2,000 feet thick and the Cody-Mancos shale is 4,500 to 5,500 feet thick. 3. Green River Basin, Wyoming, where the Cody-Hilliard-Baxter-Mancos shale sequence averages more than 3,000 feet, the siltstone and shale of the Chugwater formation totals 1,000 feet, and the Madison limestone ranges from 1,000 to 1,400 feet thick. 4. Red Desert (Great Divide) Basin, Wyoming, where the Cody shale is 4,000 feet thick. 5. Hanna Basin, Wyoming, where the Steele shale is 4,500 feet thick. 6. Wind River Basin, Wyoming, where the Cody shale is 3,600 to 5,000 feet thick. Geochemical characteristics of these rocks in these areas are poorly known but are being investigated. A summary of the most pertinent recent ana1yses is presented.

  16. Organic geochemical characterization of the Lower-Middle Triassic sedimentary rocks from south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, R.

    2015-12-01

    The most devastated environments and depleted biodiversity on Earth occurred during the Early Triassic epoch following the latest Permian mass extinction. Complete biotic recovery, characterized by a return to pre-extinction diversity levels, took an extraordinarily long time (ca. 5 x 106 yr), probably because harsh conditions developed repeatedly during the Early Triassic. Newly obtained organic geochemistry data from south China area, indicated a variety of biotic (eukaryotic algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, and archaea) and environmental fluctuations (redox) during the Early Triassic. Remarkably, some sedimentary rocks from Lower Triassic strata contain rare biomarkers such as biphytanes and okenane, whch are biomarkers for archaea and purple sulfur bacteria, respectively. This is the first study to describe in detail primary producers, microbes, and redox conditions in the Early-Early Middle Triassic, on the basis of biomarkers such as steranes, 2-methyl hopanes, hopanes, biphytanes, regular isoprenoids, n-alkanes, okenane, chlorobactane, β-carotane, and γ-carotane. The results greatly not only increase our understanding of the recovery processes that occurred following the Permian mass extinction, but also emphasize an effectiveness of organic geochemistry against the Early Triassic.

  17. Flow enhancement of water-based nanoparticle dispersion through microscale sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiyang; He, Youwei; Li, Peng; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Tiantian; Rodriguez-Pin, Elena; Du, Song; Wang, Chenglong; Cheng, Shiqing; Bielawski, Christopher W; Bryant, Steven L; Huh, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and controlling fluids flow at the microscale is a matter of growing scientific and technological interest. Flow enhancements of water-based nanoparticle dispersions through microscale porous media are investigated through twelve hydrophilic sedimentary rocks with pore-throat radius between 1.2 and 10 μm, which are quantitatively explained with a simple model with slip length correction for Darcy flow. Both as wetting phase, water exhibited no-slip Darcy flow in all cores; however, flow enhancement of nanoparticle dispersions can be up to 5.7 times larger than that of water, and it increases with the decreasing of pore-throat radius. The experimental data reveals characteristic slip lengths are of order 500 and 1000 nm for 3M® and HNPs-1 nanoparticles, respectively, independent of the lithology or nanoparticle concentration or shear rate. Meanwhile, the phenomenon of flow degradation is observed for HNPs-2 nanoparticles. These results explore the feasible application of using nanoparticle dispersions to control flow at the microscale. PMID:25731805

  18. Flow enhancement of water-based nanoparticle dispersion through microscale sedimentary rocks

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiyang; He, Youwei; Li, Peng; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Tiantian; Rodriguez-Pin, Elena; Du, Song; Wang, Chenglong; Cheng, Shiqing; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Bryant, Steven L.; Huh, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and controlling fluids flow at the microscale is a matter of growing scientific and technological interest. Flow enhancements of water-based nanoparticle dispersions through microscale porous media are investigated through twelve hydrophilic sedimentary rocks with pore-throat radius between 1.2 and 10 μm, which are quantitatively explained with a simple model with slip length correction for Darcy flow. Both as wetting phase, water exhibited no-slip Darcy flow in all cores; however, flow enhancement of nanoparticle dispersions can be up to 5.7 times larger than that of water, and it increases with the decreasing of pore-throat radius. The experimental data reveals characteristic slip lengths are of order 500 and 1000 nm for 3M® and HNPs-1 nanoparticles, respectively, independent of the lithology or nanoparticle concentration or shear rate. Meanwhile, the phenomenon of flow degradation is observed for HNPs-2 nanoparticles. These results explore the feasible application of using nanoparticle dispersions to control flow at the microscale. PMID:25731805

  19. Uniaxial and controlled-lateral strain tests on selected sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigert, J. A.

    1980-08-01

    Cylindrical specimens of several sandstones, carbonates, and quartz-rich siltstones, exhibiting a wide range of porosites, were deformed in a computer-controlled hydraulic loading apparatus and were loaded with axial stresses up to 400 MPa under conditions of uniaxial strain or limited lateral expansion. The resulting differential stresses lead to partially inelastic behavior arising from cataclastic processes and intragranular flow. Deviations from elasticity depend strongly on composition, cementation, and porosity. Rocks with a strong structural framework show the least deviation. Published measurements of in-situ stress in stable sedimentary basins indicate much lower differential stresses than those found in uniaxial-strain tests. The effects of pore pressure may lessen this gap. Tests here are dry short-term tests and neglect time-dependent relaxation processes as well as possible slip along faults found in a region the size of a basin. The large differential stresses reached in uniaxial-strain tests would cause slip along favorably oriented faults in sandstones, but not in porous limestones or clay-rich siltstones.

  20. Geomicrobiological properties of Tertiary sedimentary rocks from the deep terrestrial subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suko, Takeshi; Kouduka, Mariko; Fukuda, Akari; Nanba, Kenji; Takahashi, Manabu; Ito, Kazumasa; Suzuki, Yohey

    Microbial metabolic activity within the deep subsurface can potentially impact radionuclide migration during geological disposal of nuclear waste. To evaluate the geomicrobiological properties of Tertiary sedimentary rocks, which are widely distributed in the repository environment in Japan, aseptic and deoxygenated drilling was conducted with the installation of a multi-packer system to collect cores and groundwater. Integrated results from measurements on potential rates of denitrification and pore-size distributions in drill core samples indicated that in situ microbial activity is constrained by the availability of pore spaces larger than 0.1 μm in radius. Comparison of geochemical profiles of porewater extracted from the core samples and groundwater collected within multi-packer intervals revealed that terminal electron acceptors such as nitrite and sulfate were depleted in groundwater. Microbial community structures based on 16S rRNA gene sequences were represented by phylotypes related to Fe-, Mn-, elemental sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in groundwater. In addition, a phylotype closely related to denitrifying Acidovorax sp. of the β-proteobacteria was dominant in the lower borehole interval. From our results, it is likely that groundwater microorganisms mediate redox reactions that influence the mobility of radionuclides in the deep subsurface.

  1. Neutron Imaging of Rapid Water Imbibition in Fractured Sedimentary Rock Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chu-Lin; Perfect, Edmund; Donnelly, Brendan; Bilheux, Hassina; Tremsin, Anton; McKay, Larry; Distefano, Victoria; Cai, Jianchao; Santodonato, Lou

    2015-03-01

    Advances in nondestructive testing methods, such as neutron, nuclear magnetic resonance, and x-ray imaging, have significantly improved experimental capabilities to visualize fracture flow in various important fossil energy contexts, e.g. enhanced oil recovery and shale gas. We present a theoretical framework for predicting the rapid movement of water into air-filled fractures within a porous medium based on early-time capillary dynamics and spreading over rough fracture surfaces. The theory permits estimation of sorptivity values for the matrix and fracture zone, as well as a dispersion parameter which quantifies the extent of spreading of the wetting front. Dynamic neutron imaging of water imbibition in unsaturated fractured Berea sandstone cores was employed to evaluate the proposed model. The experiments were conducted at the Neutron Imaging Prototype Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water uptake into both the matrix and fracture zone exhibited square-root-of-time behavior. Both theory and neutron imaging data indicated that fractures significantly increase imbibition in unsaturated sedimentary rock by capillary action and surface spreading on rough fracture faces. Fractures also increased the dispersion of the wetting front.

  2. Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous(?) synorogenic sedimentary rocks in the southern Spring Mountains, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Michael D.

    1980-08-01

    A newly recognized sequence of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous(?) terrigenous rocks in the Good-springs district, Nevada, was deposited during the emplacement of the Contact thrust plate. Two facies are recognized: (1) interbedded conglomerate and sandstone derived from Mesozoic igneous and terrigenous platform rocks and (2) interbedded carbonate and sandstone-clast conglomerate, quartz sandstone, and red shale. No igneous detritus occurs in the facies with carbonate-clast conglomerate. Carbonate clasts could only have been derived from the Paleozoic carbonate sequence, which was exposed in the area by latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous thrusting. The age of rocks from a volcanic unit within the synorogenic sequence was determined radiometrically to be 150 ± 10 m.y. (K-Ar on biotite). The sequence was deposited disconformably on deeply eroded rocks of the early Mesozoic platform and ultimately overridden from the west by the Contact thrust plate. Information from the sequence corroborates previously reported regional data regarding the timing and nature of the Contact-Red Springs thrust event. *Present address: U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, California 94025

  3. Geochemistry and diagenesis of Miocene lacustrine siliceous sedimentary and pyroclastic rocks, Mytilinii basin, Samos Island, Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hein, J.R.; Magganas, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    A Late Miocene non-marine stratigraphic sequence composed of limestone, opal-CT-bearing limestone, porcelanite, marlstone, diatomaceous marlstone, dolomite, and tuffite crops out on eastern Samos Island. This lacustrine sequence is subdivided into the Hora Beds and the underlying Pythagorion Formation. The Hora Beds is overlain by the clastic Mytilinii series which contains Turolian (Late Miocene) mammalian fossils. The lacustrine sequence contains volcanic glass and the silica polymorphs opal-A, opal-CT, and quartz. Volcanic glass predominantly occurs in tuffaceous rocks from the lower and upper parts of the lacustrine sequence. Opal-A (diatom frustules) is confined to layers in the upper part of the Hora Beds. Beds rich in opal-CT underlie those containing opal-A. The occurrence of opal-CT is extensive, encompassing the lower Hora Beds and the sedimentary rocks and tuffs of the Pythagorion Formation. A transition zone between the opal-A and opal-CT zones is identified by X-ray diffraction patterns that are intermediate between those of opal-CT and opal-A, perhaps due to a mixture of the two polymorphs. Diagenesis was not advanced enough for opal-CT to transform to quartz or for volcanic glass to transform to opal-C. Based on geochemical and mineralogical data, we suggest that the rate of diagenetic transformation of opal-A to opal-CT was mainly controlled by the chemistry of pore fluids. Pore fluids were characterized by high salinity, moderately high alkalinity, and high magnesium ion activity. These pore fluid characteristics are indicated by the presence of evaporitic salts (halite, sylvite, niter), high boron content in biogenic silica, and by dolomite in both the opal-A and opal-CT-bearing beds. The absence of authigenic K-feldspar, borosilicates, and zeolites also support these pore fluid characteristics. Additional factors that influenced the rate of silica diagenesis were host rock lithology and the relatively high heat flow in the Aegean region from

  4. Micro-scale Complexity in Iron-Sulfide Phases in Precambrian Sedimentary Rocks Determined by Synchrotron Microprobe Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.; Johnson, J. E.; Slotznick, S. P.; Roach, C.; Fischer, W. W.

    2014-12-01

    The record of sedimentary pyrite forms the foundation for most isotope records working to define the coupled evolution and behavior of the ancient iron and sulfur cycles. In order to assess the strengths and limitations of records derived from pyrite-rich rocks (e.g. iron speciation, sulfur isotope ratios), we need to understand more about the processes that form and alter sedimentary pyrite. From samples of the Archean/early Proterozoic Transvaal and middle Proterozoic Belt Supergroups, petrography reveals that what might operationally be called sedimentary pyrite has complex textures that hint at a rich process history of sulfur mineralization. A common limitation of virtually all proxy measurements employed to date is that they operate on 'bulk' samples, typically gram-sized or larger pieces. As such, they lose the ability to relate geochemistry to petrography at the scale of mineral grains. Many of the sedimentary pyrites in the Transvaal Supergroup exhibit complex redox and electronic structures of S and Fe, with crystals of pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sulfate-bearing minerals throughout. Parallel application of multiple techniques on the same samples across micron bases spatial scales, provide an opportunity to diagnose issues resulting from post-depositional alteration of sedimentary rocks. We have integrated light and electron microscopy for petrography, electron microprobe and synchrotron XRF for elemental composition, synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy for redox and chemical state, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for isotopic composition. The coupling of these tools allows in essence "images" of the proxy data at the micrometer scale, giving a wide array of textural and mineralogical information designed to inform and untangle the complicated histories of these early Precambrian rocks.

  5. Using high-resolution aeromagnetic data to recognise and map intra-sedimentary volcanic rocks and geological structures across the Cretaceous middle Benue Trough, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anudu, Goodluck K.; Stephenson, Randell A.; Macdonald, David I. M.

    2014-11-01

    Recently acquired high-resolution aeromagnetic data over the Cretaceous middle Benue Trough of Nigeria have been analysed employing various edge-enhancement (magnetic derivative) methods: vertical derivatives, total horizontal derivative, analytic signal, and total horizontal derivative of tilt derivative. The study was aimed at mapping intra-sedimentary volcanic rocks and their areal extents/distribution as well as delineating geological structures, their structural trends and tectonic implications. The magnetic derivative anomaly maps produced in this project greatly enhanced the high amplitude, short-wavelength (high wavenumber) anomalies associated with the surface/near-surface intra-sedimentary volcanic rocks and associated geological structures. The maps show that volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous to Palaeocene age are much more widespread than implied by surface geological mapping, with an areal extent of greater than 12,000 km2 in the relatively shallow subsurface. The results also highlight some known and several previously unknown geological lineaments. Rose (azimuth-frequency) plots of orientations of geological structures show trends being predominantly NE-SW, NW-SE and ESE-WNW with minor ENE-WSW and N-S trends. These main groups of structural trends are associated with the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny (600 ± 200 Ma) and likely predate rifting of the Gondwana supercontinent. They may have been enhanced during continental break-up in Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous.

  6. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in some eugeosynclinal sedimentary rocks and their bearing on the origin of granitic magma in orogenic belts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Z.E.; Hedge, C.E.; Coleman, R.G.; Snavely, P.D., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Rb and Sr contents and 87Sr/86Sr values were determined for samples of eugeosynclinal sedimentary rocks, mostly graywackes, from Oregon and California. These data are compatible with the theory of anataxis of eugeosynclinal sedimentary rocks in orogenic belts to produce granitic magmas provided that the melting occurs within several hundreds of m.y. after sedimentation. The low (87Sr/86Sr)0 values of the eugeosynclinal sedimentary rocks are related to the significant amounts of volcanogenic detritus present which probably were originally derived from the mantle. ?? 1967.

  7. Fine-grained rutile in the Gulf of Maine - diagenetic origin, source rocks, and sedimentary environment of deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, P.C.; Commeau, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Gulf of Maine, an embayment of the New England margin, is floored by shallow, glacially scoured basins that are partly filled with late Pleistocene and Holocene silt and clay containing 0.7 to 1.0 wt percent TiO2 chiefly in the form of silt-size rutile. Much of the rutile in the Gulf of Maine mud probably formed diagenetically in poorly cemented Carboniferous and Triassic coarse-grained sedimentary rocks of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick after the dissolution of titanium-rich detrital minerals (ilmenite, ilmenomagnetite). The diagenesis of rutile in coarse sedimentary rocks (especially arkose and graywacke) followed by erosion, segregation, and deposition (and including recycling of fine-grained rutile from shales) can serve as a model for predicting and prospecting for unconsolidated deposits of fine-grained TiO2. -from Authors

  8. The effect of non-passive clast behaviour in the estimation of finite strain in sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meere, Patrick A.; Mulchrone, Kieran F.; Sears, James W.; Bradway, Michael D.

    2008-10-01

    Existing methodologies that use ellipsoidal objects for the analysis of geological strain typically assume that these objects acted passively during deformation. This assumption, when not valid, can lead to significant underestimates of strain in rocks deformed under low-grade conditions in orogenic forelands. This is especially true when clastic sedimentary rocks are utilized to measure strain; the competency contrast between clasts and matrix possibly leading to marked 'non-passive' behaviour. The systematic nature of this finite strain underestimation may allow for a correction of strain estimates when this type of behaviour is evident.

  9. Age range of formation of sedimentary-volcanogenic complex of the Vetreny Belt (the southeast of the Baltic Shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhelovskaya, S. V.; Korsakov, A. K.; Mezhelovskii, A. D.; Bibikova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    As a result of studying the Vetreny Belt greenstone structure (the southeast of the Baltic Shield), zircons from terrigenous deposits of the Toksha Formation, underlying the section of the sedimentary-volcanogenic complex, and zircons of the Vetreny Belt Formation, deposits of which crown the section, were dated. The results of analysis of age data of detrital zircons from quartzites of the Toksha Formation indicate that Mesoarchean greenstone complexes and paleo-Archean granitogneisses of the Vodlozero Block (Karelia) were the provenance area from which these zircons were derived. The occurrence of the youngest zircons with age of 2654.3 ± 38.5 Ma is evidence that the formation of the Vetreny Belt, including the Toksha Formation, began no earlier than this time. Zircons from volcanic rocks of the Vetreny Belt yielded the age of 2405 ± 5 Ma. Thus, the age interval of the formation of the sedimentary-volcanogenic complex of the Vetreny Belt ranges from 2654.3 ± 38.5 to 2405 ± 5 Ma.

  10. A study of the record of ancient sedimentary rocks on Mars using MER, HiRISE and CRISM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Joannah M.

    2010-11-01

    Many processes that operate on a planetary surface have the potential to create sedimentary deposits which when preserved as rocks can provide clues that allow past environmental conditions to be reconstructed. This work combines several studies using data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft to examine the structure and sedimentology of the sedimentary rock record of Mars. The first study supports the dune-interdune model proposed for the formation of the deposits at the Opportunity landing site in Meridiani Planum and provides evidence that liquid water was involved to a greater extent in the formation of outcrops in Erebus crater. The next study identifies two depositional fan complexes on the floor of southwestern Melas Chasma and suggests that they may be sublacustrine in origin, which suggests the former presence of a significant body of water stable for at least 100 to 10,000 years. Furthermore, the basin containing the fans may be a complete source-to-sink system. The third study examines the geomorphic channel patterns present on analogue terrestrial submarine fans and deltas. The last study characterizes the extent and styles of deformation of sedimentary rocks in Valles Marineris and finds that subaerial or subaqueous gravitational slumping or sliding and soft-sediment deformation are potential mechanisms that may have caused the deformation.

  11. Geophysical modeling of the structural relationships between the Precambrian Reading Prong rocks and the Paleozoic sedimentary sequence, Easton quadrangle, PA

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.; Malinconico, L.L. Jr. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    This project involves the geophysical modeling of the structural relationships between the Precambrian Reading Prong rocks and the Paleozoic sedimentary cover rocks near Easton, Pennsylvania. The Precambrian rocks have generally been assumed to have been emplaced on the Paleozoic sequence along a shallow thrust fault. However, at present time the attitude of the faults bordering the Precambrian terranes are all very steeply dipping. This was explained by the subsequent folding of the whole sequence during later orogenic activity. The objective of this work is to determine the attitude and depth of the fault contact between the Precambrian crystalline rocks and the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. A series of traverses (each separated by approximately one mile) were established perpendicular to the strike of the Precambrian rocks. Along each traverse both gravity and magnetic readings were taken at 0.2 kilometer intervals. The data were reduced and presented as profiles and contour maps. Both the magnetic and gravity data show positive anomalies that correlate spatially with the location of the Precambrian rocks. The gravity data have a long wavelength regional trend increasing to the north with a shorter wavelength anomaly of 2 milligals which coincides with the Precambrian rocks. The magnetic data have a single positive anomaly of almost 1,000 gammas which also coincides with the Precambrian terrane. These data will now be used to develop two dimensional density and susceptibility models of the area. From these models, the thickness of each formation and the structural relationships between them, as well as the attitude and depth of the fault contact will be determined.

  12. New approaches in the indirect quantification of thermal rock properties in sedimentary basins: the well-log perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels; Förster, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Numerical temperature models generated for geodynamic studies as well as for geothermal energy solutions heavily depend on rock thermal properties. Best practice for the determination of those parameters is the measurement of rock samples in the laboratory. Given the necessity to enlarge databases of subsurface rock parameters beyond drill core measurements an approach for the indirect determination of these parameters is developed, for rocks as well a for geological formations. We present new and universally applicable prediction equations for thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity in sedimentary rocks derived from data provided by standard geophysical well logs. The approach is based on a data set of synthetic sedimentary rocks (clastic rocks, carbonates and evaporates) composed of mineral assemblages with variable contents of 15 major rock-forming minerals and porosities varying between 0 and 30%. Petrophysical properties are assigned to both the rock-forming minerals and the pore-filling fluids. Using multivariate statistics, relationships then were explored between each thermal property and well-logged petrophysical parameters (density, sonic interval transit time, hydrogen index, volume fraction of shale and photoelectric absorption index) on a regression sub set of data (70% of data) (Fuchs et al., 2015). Prediction quality was quantified on the remaining test sub set (30% of data). The combination of three to five well-log parameters results in predictions on the order of <15% for thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, and of <10% for specific heat capacity. Comparison of predicted and benchmark laboratory thermal conductivity from deep boreholes of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, the North German Basin, and the Molasse Basin results in 3 to 5% larger uncertainties with regard to the test data set. With regard to temperature models, the use of calculated TC borehole profiles approximate measured temperature logs with an

  13. Identification and characterization of yeasts isolated from sedimentary rocks of Union Glacier at the Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Barahona, Salvador; Yuivar, Yassef; Socias, Gabriel; Alcaíno, Jennifer; Cifuentes, Víctor; Baeza, Marcelo

    2016-07-01

    The study of the yeasts that inhabit cold environments, such as Antarctica, is an active field of investigation oriented toward understanding their ecological roles in these ecosystems. In a great part, the interest in cold-adapted yeasts is due to several industrial and biotechnological applications that have been described for them. The aim of this work was to isolate and identify yeasts from sedimentary rock samples collected at the Union Glacier, Antarctica. Furthermore, the yeasts were physiologically characterized, including the production of metabolites of biotechnological interest. The yeasts isolated that were identified at the molecular level belonged to genera Collophora (1 isolate), Cryptococcus (2 isolates), Sporidiobolus (4 isolates), Sporobolomyces (1 isolate) and Torrubiella (2 isolates). The majority of yeasts were basidiomycetous and psychrotolerant. By cross-test assays for anti-yeast activity, it was determined that Collophora sp., Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, and Sporobolomyces roseus secreted a protein factor that kills Sporidiobolus metaroseus. The colored yeasts Sp. salmonicolor, Sp. metaroseus and Collophora sp. produced several carotenoid pigments that were identified as 2,3 dihydroxy-γ-carotene, -carotene, 4-ketotorulene, torulene β-cryptoxanthin and spirilloxanthin. Concerning analysis of mycosporines, these metabolites were only found in the yeasts Torrubiella sp. and Cryptococcus sp. T11-10-1. Furthermore, the yeasts were evaluated for the production of extracellular hydrolytic activities. Of the twelve activities analyzed, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, gelatinase, cellulase, amylase, and protease enzyme activities were detected. The yeasts Cryptococcus sp. T11-10-1 and Sporidiobolus metaroseus showed the highest number of different enzyme activities. PMID:27215207

  14. Contact line extraction and length measurements in model sediments and sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Elena; Prodanović, Maša; Bryant, Steven L

    2012-02-15

    The mechanisms that govern the transport of colloids in the unsaturated zone of soils are still poorly understood, because of the complexity of processes that occur at pore scale. These mechanisms are of specific interest in quantifying water quality with respect to pathogen transport (e.g. Escherichia coli, Cryptosporidium) between the source (e.g. farms) and human users. Besides straining in pore throats and constrictions of smaller or equivalent size, the colloids can be retained at the interfaces between air, water, and grains. Theories competing to explain this mechanism claim that retention can be caused by adhesion at the air-water-interface (AWI) between sediment grains or by straining at the air-water-solid (AWS) contact line. Currently, there are no established methods for the estimation of pathogen retention in unsaturated media because of the intricate influence of AWI and AWS on transport and retention. What is known is that the geometric configuration and connectivity of the aqueous phase is an important factor in unsaturated transport. In this work we develop a computational method based on level set functions to identify and quantify the AWS contact line (in general the non-wetting-wetting-solid contact line) in any porous material. This is the first comprehensive report on contact line measurement for fluid configurations from both level-set method based fluid displacement simulation and imaged experiments. The method is applicable to any type of porous system, as long as the detailed pore scale geometry is available. We calculated the contact line length in model sediments (packs of spheres) as well as in real porous media, whose geometry is taken from high-resolution images of glass bead packs and sedimentary rocks. We observed a strong dependence of contact line length on the geometry of the sediment grains and the arrangement of the air and water phases. These measurements can help determine the relative contribution of the AWS line to pathogen

  15. Paleo-hydrological history in pore water extracted from sedimentary rocks in the coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, R.; Machida, I.; Koshigai, M.; Nishizaki, S.; Marui, A.; Yoshizawa, T.; Ito, N.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past decade, new utilization methods of underground space development such as geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) have been important issues under discussion in Japan. Coastal areas have been identified as suitable candidate sites for such projects. A good understanding of the structure of seawater/freshwater interface and fault is important due to the fact that it serves as a preferential pathway through which radionuclide can be transported by means of groundwater. There is, however, little available information worldwide on deep groundwater studies in coastal areas. There is also virtually no study has been conducted on the behavior of groundwater and pore water in coastal impermeable sedimentary rocks. In this study, large scale core drilling (1000m depth) has been carried out in coastal area at Hamasato in the Horonobe area of Hokkaido, Japan in order to investigate the geological structure and deep groundwater flow system with the residence time. Pore water with various adsorptivity from drilling core samples was gradually collected by centrifugation and squeezing methods and analyzed for water chemistry. This is aimed at estimating the paleo-hydrological history of the coastal environment by geochemical information from the pore water. Lithoface in the study area consists of sandy r and alternate (sandy and silty) layers intercalations up to 250m deep. Below 250m, shows sand and silt layers. Pore water volume collected in the sand layers by centrifugation method was almost same, contrary to that in the silt layers which decreased with depth. On the other hand, the ratio of pore water with high adsorpivity in silt layers increased with depth. Except the surface layer (<50m), electric conductivity (EC) and Cl values in pore water samples increased with depth below 300m. In this study, we report on the characteristics of seawater/freshwater interface and deep groundwater flow system based on

  16. Paleomagnetism of Cretaceous and Paleocene sedimentary rocks across the Castle Mountain Fault, south central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatakos, John A.; Kodama, K. P.; Vittorio, L. F.; Pavlis, T. L.

    latitudinal displacement. Thus, unless these faults had significantly different orientations in Paleocene time, or the structural analyses have underestimated the amount of slip on these strike-slip faults, the actual latitudinal displacement predicted for the Arkose Ridge and Chickaloon rocks, based on the 95% confidence limits, may be closer to the lower limit of 400 km. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from 174 samples from 10 sites in the Matanuska Formation indicate that the magnetic signal is also carried by single domain magnetite. The 4 Matanuska sites north of Castle Mountain Fault yielded a paleomagnetic pole at 50°N, 131° E, K = 9.8, suggesting that these rocks were deposited 2880±2000 km south of their present latitudinal position with respect to North America. Based on tectonic arguments similar to the one outlined above, these results suggest that either there was rapid motion of the Peninsular terrane in the Late Cretaceous or that like the Chickaloon and Arkose Ridge rocks, the actual amount of latitudinal displacement of the Matanuska Formation is closer to its lower 95% confidence limit of 800 km. South of Castle Mountain Fault, some Matanuska rocks carry only a viscous present-day field direction and others an Eocene PTRM caused by Eocene-age sills intruding into the the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the western part of the Matanuska Valley.

  17. Mineral inclusions in zircons of S-type granite: implications for high pressure metamorphism history of meta-sedimentary rocks in the Huai'an terrain, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haozheng; Zhang, Huafeng; Zhai, Mingguo; Cui, Xiahong

    2016-04-01

    The Paleoproterozoic evolution of North China Craton (NCC) arises many argument as geologists have different viewpoints on the distribution and metamorphic history of mafic granulites and granulite facies meta-sedimentary rocks. To provide more evidence of constraining the metamorphic history of granulite facies meta-sedimentary rocks, we select granulite facies meta-sedimentary rocks and co-existing S-type granite in the Huai'an terrain to make a deep research. Magmatic zircons derived from the S-type granite reveal the magmatic age of ˜1.95 Ga and metamorphic age of ˜1.85 Ga with ɛHf(t) value of -4.5 - -0.5. The ɛHf(t) value of S-type granite and relict of garnet-sillimanite gneiss suggest that the S-type granite is generated by melting of meta-sedimentary rocks. Zircons with ages of ˜1.95 Ga and ˜1.85 Ga have the mineral inclusions of Ky + Qz + Ru + Pl and these mineral inclusions are determined by method of Laser-Raman. The ˜1.95 Ga magmatic zircons with inclusions of Ky + Qz + Ru + Pl suggest that meta-sedimentary rocks have mineral assemblages Ky + Qz + Ru + Pl. However, previous studies in the Huai'an terrain showed that almost granulite facies metamorphic condition of meta-sedimentary rocks were regarded as medium pressure by considering the Sill + Grt + Bt + Pl + Qz + Ru + Kf. Presence of kyanite instructs that meta-sedimentary rocks may experience high pressure granulite facies metamorphism. According to pseudosection calculation by using effective bulk composition of garnet-sillimanite gneiss, mineral assemblage of Grt + Ky + Pl + Bt + Qz + Ru + Kf is regarded as the peak stage of high pressure metamorphism. This mineral assemblage is occurred at field of 1033 - 1123 K and 9 - 15 Kbar and the peak pressure is around 11 - 13 Kbar, determined by the XMg and XCa isopleths of garnet. This P-T result is consistent with peak condition of high pressure mafic granulite. Considering the ˜1.95 Ga magmatic age of S-type granite generated by decompression

  18. Sealing shales versus brittle shales: A threshold in the properties and uses of fine-grained sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    Fine-grained sedimentary rocks (shale, mudstone) play important roles in global CO2 abatement efforts through their importance in carbon capture and storage (CCS), radioactive waste storage, and shale gas extraction. These different technologies rely on seemingly conflicting premises regarding the sealing properties of shale and mudstone, suggesting that fine-grained rocks that lend themselves to hydrocarbon extraction may not be optimal seals for CCS or radioactive waste storage, and vice versa. In this paper, a compilation of experimental data on the properties of well-characterized shale and mudstone formations is used to demonstrate that clay mineral mass fraction, Xclay, is a master variable that controls key material properties of these formations and that a remarkably sharp threshold at Xclay ~ 1/3 separates fine-grained rocks with very different properties. This threshold coincides with the predictions of a simple conceptual model of the microstructure of sedimentary rocks and is reflected in the applications of shale and mudstone formations for CCS, radioactive waste storage, and shale gas extraction.

  19. Paleoproterozoic mojaveprovince in northwestern Mexico? Isotopic and U-Pb zircon geochronologic studies of precambrian and Cambrian crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Caborca, Sonora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, Farmer G.; Bowring, S.A.; Matzel, J.; Maldonado, G.E.; Fedo, C.; Wooden, J.

    2005-01-01

    Whole-rock Nd isotopic data and U-Pb zircon geochronology from Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Caborca area, northern Sonora, reveal that these rocks are most likely a segment of the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. Supporting this conclusion are the observations that paragneiss from the ??? 1.75 Ga Bamori Complex has a 2.4 Ga Nd model age and contains detrital zircons ranging in age from Paleo- proterozoic (1.75 Ga) to Archean (3.2 Ga). Paragneisses with similar age and isotopic characteristics occur in the Mojave province in southern California. In addition, "A-type" granite exposed at the southern end of Cerro Rajon has ca 2.0 Ga Nd model age and a U-Pb zircon age of 1.71 Ga, which are similar to those of Paleoproterozoic granites in the Mojave province. Unlike the U.S. Mojave province, the Caborcan crust contains ca. 1.1 Ga granite (Aibo Granite), which our new Nd isotopic data suggest is largely the product of anatexis of the local Precambrian basement. Detrital zircons from Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian miogeoclinal arenites at Caborca show dominant populations ca. 1.7 Ga, ca. 1.4 Ga, and ca. 1.1 Ga, with subordinate Early Cambrian and Archean zircons. These zircons were likely derived predominately from North American crust to the east and northeast, and not from the underlying Caborcan basement. The general age and isotopic similarities between Mojave province basement and overlying miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks in Sonora and southern California is necessary, but not sufficient, proof of the hypothesis that Sonoran crust is allochthonous and was transported to its current position during the Mesozoic along the proposed Mojave-Sonora megashear. One viable alternative model is that the Caborcan Precambrian crust is an isolated, autochthonous segment of Mojave province crust that shares a similar, but not identical, Proterozoic geological history with Mojave province crust found in the southwest United States ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  20. Mössbauer study of two different aged rock types in the Vredefort structure, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Brink, M. C.; Bisschoff, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    The Vredefort Structure in South Africa was recently inscribed into the list of World Heritage sites as the oldest and largest recognised impact structure on earth. Due to upliftment of more than 30 km of the Archaean basement core and subsequent exposure of the deeply eroded central portion of the crater a unique opportunity exists to study rocks of the crust, especially those that have undergone recrystallization due to various thermal metamorphic events over time. Two rock types occurring in the central uplifted part of the impact structure were studied. One was a typical Archaean iron formation of sedimentary origin. The other rock studied, adjacent to this much older rock, is a homogeneous, medium grained recrystallized norite of immediately pre- or post-impact age, indicating a possible mafic igneous activity related to impact. Microscopy, XRD and Mössbauer analyses were performed on both samples.

  1. Extensional deformation of the Guadalquivir Basin: rate of WSW-ward tectonic displacement from Upper Tortonian sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Francisco J.; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jose; María Mateos, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    The Guadalquivir Basin (Upper Tortonian-Quaternary sedimentary infilling) has been considered the foreland basin of the Betic Orogen built up during its collision with the Sudiberian margin. The basin is currently restricted to its westernmost sector, in the Cadiz Gulf, because the Neogene-Quaternary uplift of the Betic Cordillera has produced the emersion of their central and eastern parts. The upper Tortonian chronostratigraphic unit is the oldest one and it was indistinctly deposited on the South Iberian paleomargin and the External units from the Betic Cordillera. However, these rocks are undeformed on the Sudiberian paleomargin while they are deeply affected by brittle deformation on the External Betic Zone. Outcrops of Upper Tortonian sedimentary rocks on External Betic Zone are severely fragmented showing allocthonous characters with regard to those located on the Sudiberian paleomargin. This post- Upper Tortonian deformation is not well known in the External Zones of the Cordillera where the most prominent feature is the ubiquity of a highly deformed tecto-sedimentary unit outcropping at the basement of the Guadalquivir sedimentary infilling. This tecto-sedimentary unit belongs to the Mass Wasting Extensional Complex (Rodríguez-Fernández, 2014) formed during the collision and westward migration of the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera (15-8,5 Ma). In the present work, we show an ensemble of tectonic, geophysical and cartographic data in order to characterize the post-Upper Tortonian deformation. For this, seismic reflection profiles have been interpreted with the help of hidrocarbon boreholes to define the thickness of the Upper Tortonian sedimentary sequence. All these data provide an estimation of the geometrical and kinematic characteristics of the extensional faults, direction of movement and rate of displacement of these rocks during Messinian/Pliocene times. References Rodríguez-Fernández, J., Roldan, F. J., J.M. Azañón y Garcia-Cortes, A

  2. Some geochemical features of Caledonian volcanism recorded in sedimentary rocks of the East Baltic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soesoo, Alvar; Kiipli, Tarmo; Kallaste, Toivo

    2013-04-01

    The Caledonian rocks have formed as a result of a multitude of magmatic and tectonic processes. All these major processes have generated a set of volcanic and magmatic products. While products of intrusive magmatism can still be well recognised in Caledonian mountains, some of the volcanic products can be found in a wide area of the Baltica paleocontinent. The best record of the ancient explosive volcanism can be traced in sedimentary sections adjacent to tectonically active areas. The aim of this study is to describe geochemical evolution of the volcanism near the Baltica plate using bulk geochemistry and phenocryst compositions of the Caledonian volcanic ashes stored in the Lower Palaeozoic sections of the Eastern Baltica. The bentonite samples were collected from several drill cores from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Thickness of the ash beds varies mostly between 0.1 and 10 cm, rarely reaching 20-70 cm. Constructed isopach schemes indicate increase of thickness of ash beds towards the northwest and west. Original sanidine composition in ca 400 samples and biotite from 13 ash beds were analysed from grain fraction of bentonites using X-ray diffractometry. Stratigraphical distribution of volcanic ash beds in the East Baltic area can be subdivided into four major intervals separated by intervals with less frequent signs of volcanism. The above intervals show characteristic geochemical signatures. Over 175 thin altered volcanic ash beds have been recognised by authors in the East Baltic sedimentary sections from the Upper Ordovician (ca. 458 Ma) to the Upper Silurian (ca. 421 Ma). There separate ash units may correspond to distinct volcanic eruptions in Caledonides. Volcanic ashes which reached the East Baltic area fall into four time periods (time intervals distinguished by micro-paleontological methods): (1) Sandbian with main sources at the margins of the Avalonian microcontinent; (2) Katian with sources at the margin of the Baltica in Iapetus Palaeo

  3. Groundwater ages in fractured rock aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, P. G.; Love, A. J.; Robinson, N. I.; Simmons, C. T.

    2005-07-01

    In fractured porous media, matrix diffusion processes mean that groundwater ages obtained with environmental tracers usually do not reflect the hydraulic age of the water. The distribution of groundwater ages within these heterogeneous systems will be related to the groundwater velocity within the fractures, but also to the size of the fractures and the geometry of the fracture network, and to the hydraulic properties of the aquifer matrix. In this paper, we present analytical and numerical simulations of environmental tracer concentrations in fractured rock aquifers to examine the effect of changes in aquifer parameters on the tracer distributions. In particular, we show that where horizontal fractures are strongly vertically connected, then it may be reasonable to use one-dimensional models of flow and transport through vertical fractures to represent flow through aquifers containing both horizontal and vertical fractures. The presence of large numbers of horizontal fractures will not cause flow to depart significantly from the one-dimensional approximation. Where a smaller number of horizontal fractures are present, then abrupt decreases in the vertical water velocity can occur, as water is intercepted and diverted laterally. Measurements of 14C, 3H, 36Cl, and chlorofluorocarbons within nested piezometers from the Clare Valley, South Australia, display a number of the features apparent in the generic simulations. The use of a number of different tracers appears to allow some fracture and matrix parameters to be constrained more tightly than might previously have been thought possible.

  4. Diagenesis of the Purington Shale in the Illinois Basin and implications for the diagenetic state of sedimentary rocks of shallow Paleozoic basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The clay minerals, micas, and feldspars of the Pennsylvanian-age Purington Shale have been more diagenetically active than generally recognized. They have undergone diagenetic changes comparable to those of Cenozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks buried three to four times as deeply and heated to approximately twice the temperature. The Purington Shale on the Western Shelf of the Illinois Basin has experienced maximum burial of ???1.0 km and was never heated to more than 60??C, except for a very brief time at about 80??C. The illite/smectite (I/S) of the Purington Shale has ???90% illite. The chemical compositions of the feldspar assemblage in the 0.09-0.063-mm fraction differ from most modern detrital suites of feldspars but are similar to diagenetic sequences described by others from much greater burial depths and are extensively, but not completely, albitized. The simplest interpretation of the apparently advanced stage of diagenesis is that the diagenetic processes have been operating at less pressure and lower temperature but for a longer time; an example of low-temperature, time-dependent diagenesis. By similar reasoning, the apparently anomalously advanced maturity of all of the sedimentary rocks in the relatively shallow Illinois Basin is explained. This generalization should be considered for all shallow Paleozoic basins and should influence (1) exploration for petroleum, (2) use of modal and chemical analyses for determining provenance, and (3) use of chemical composition of shales as proxy for crustal evolution.

  5. Annual and Longer Sedimentary Rhythms of the Organic Rock Record of Titan's Circumpolar Seas and Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Tan, S. P.; Marion, G. M.; Jennings, D. E.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Adidharma, H.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonality and phase equilibrium in Titan's lakes and seas will result in predictable sedimentary processes, deposits, and landforms. Calculated using CRYOCHEM, liquids on Titan should exhibit a counter-intuitive behavior where density increases with temperature but decreases with pressure, unless the temperature falls below 89.6 K. For warmer temperatures, the surface liquid of seas should flow toward the hottest spot; return flow may occur beneath the surface. Methane-rich liquid flowing southward from one interconnected northern sea to another will evaporate methane and concentrate ethane and other heavy hydrocarbons. In the north polar and circumpolar regions, a south-flowing river entering a sea from cold northerly uplands will inject a buoyant plume of low-density methane-rich liquid into the sea, unless the liquid at the inlet is heavily charged with dense solid phases or unless the lake is colder than 89.6 K. Generally north of (colder than) the seasonally shifting 89.6K transition (possible during the winter precisely when river discharges are high), a different behavior exists, whereby cold and methane-rich liquid forms denser liquids and flows across the bottom of the sea—possibly forming sub-sea channels as observed at Ligeia Mare. If the river carries clastic sediment denser than the methane liquid, the solids will undergo Stokes settling of the coarser fractions during periods of high river discharge, leaving the finest clastic fraction to undergo slow pelagic sedimentation throughout the year. From late spring to late summer, methane undergoes net evaporation from the sea, and solid organics that were saturated during the winter are likely to precipitate once warm weather starts. Hence, varves in Titan's seas are apt to consist of annual cycles of (1) winter: coarse clastics, (2) all dry season: fine-grained clastics, and (3) summer: evaporites. As Titan undergoes 'Milankovic' type variations in rotational obliquity and Saturn's orbital

  6. Chromium isotopes in siliciclastic sediments and sedimentary rocks as a proxy for Earth surface redox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, C. T.; Planavsky, N. J.; Wang, X.; Owens, J. D.; Johnson, T. M.; Fischer, W. W.; Lyons, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) isotopes are an emerging and potentially promising proxy for tracking redox processes at Earth's surface. However, recent efforts to reconstruct the Cr isotope record through time have primarily focused on sporadically deposited iron-rich chemical sediments, with large temporal gaps and limited capacity to explore the Cr isotope record relative to modern and recent marine processes. However, the basic inorganic chemistry of Cr suggests that anoxic marine basins factor prominently in the global Cr cycle, and that likewise sediments deposited within anoxic basins may offer an unexplored Cr isotope archive throughout Earth's history. We present authigenic δ53Cr data from sediments of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela--a ';type' environment on the modern Earth for large, perennially anoxic basins with relatively strong hydrological connections to the global ocean. Combined with currently available constraints on the δ53Cr composition of modern Atlantic seawater, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that anoxic marine basins can serve as a chemical archive of the first-order features of seawater δ53Cr variation. We employ a simple quantitative model to explore the implications of this hypothesis for global Cr isotope mass balance and the possible utility of authigenic δ53Cr in anoxically deposited siliciclastic sediments and sedimentary rocks as a global paleoredox proxy. Our focus is a basic analysis of the primary controls on seawater δ53Cr as related to both the marine redox landscape and the processes involved in the weathering and aqueous-particulate transport of Cr at Earth's surface. As a case study, we provide analysis of new bulk δ53Cr data through a Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE-2), which shows a well-defined ~1.0‰ negative excursion during the event coupled with evidence for a drawdown of the marine Cr reservoir. We present a conceptual model to explain these observations, and interpret this shift to suggest a shutdown of

  7. Classes of organic molecules targeted by a methanogenic microbial consortium grown on sedimentary rocks of various maturities

    PubMed Central

    Meslé, Margaux; Dromart, Gilles; Haeseler, Frank; Oger, Philippe M.

    2015-01-01

    Organic-rich shales are populated by methanogenic consortia that are able to degrade the fossilized organic matter into methane gas. To identify the organic fraction effectively degraded, we have sequentially depleted two types of organic-rich sedimentary rocks, shale, and coal, at two different maturities, by successive solvent extractions to remove the most soluble fractions (maltenes and asphaltenes) and isolate kerogen. We show the ability of the consortia to produce methane from all rock samples, including those containing the most refractory organic matter, i.e., the kerogen. Shales yielded higher methane production than lignite and coal. Mature rocks yielded more methane than immature rocks. Surprisingly, the efficiency of the consortia was not influenced by the removal of the easily biodegradable fractions contained in the maltenes and asphaltenes. This suggests that one of the limitations of organic matter degradation in situ may be the accessibility to the carbon and energy source. Indeed, bitumen has a colloidal structure that may prevent the microbial consortia from reaching the asphaltenes in the bulk rock. Solvent extractions might favor the access to asphaltenes and kerogen by modifying the spatial organization of the molecules in the rock matrix. PMID:26136731

  8. Classes of organic molecules targeted by a methanogenic microbial consortium grown on sedimentary rocks of various maturities.

    PubMed

    Meslé, Margaux; Dromart, Gilles; Haeseler, Frank; Oger, Philippe M

    2015-01-01

    Organic-rich shales are populated by methanogenic consortia that are able to degrade the fossilized organic matter into methane gas. To identify the organic fraction effectively degraded, we have sequentially depleted two types of organic-rich sedimentary rocks, shale, and coal, at two different maturities, by successive solvent extractions to remove the most soluble fractions (maltenes and asphaltenes) and isolate kerogen. We show the ability of the consortia to produce methane from all rock samples, including those containing the most refractory organic matter, i.e., the kerogen. Shales yielded higher methane production than lignite and coal. Mature rocks yielded more methane than immature rocks. Surprisingly, the efficiency of the consortia was not influenced by the removal of the easily biodegradable fractions contained in the maltenes and asphaltenes. This suggests that one of the limitations of organic matter degradation in situ may be the accessibility to the carbon and energy source. Indeed, bitumen has a colloidal structure that may prevent the microbial consortia from reaching the asphaltenes in the bulk rock. Solvent extractions might favor the access to asphaltenes and kerogen by modifying the spatial organization of the molecules in the rock matrix. PMID:26136731

  9. Changes in Mineralogy, Microstructure, Compressive Strength and Intrinsic Permeability of Two Sedimentary Rocks Subjected to High-Temperature Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianfeng; Yuan, Shengyang; Sieffert, Yannick; Fityus, Stephen; Buzzi, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    This study falls in the context of underground coal fires where burning coal can elevate the temperature of a rock mass in excess of 1000°. The objective of the research is to experimentally characterize the change in mechanical behaviour, mineralogy and microstructural texture of two sedimentary rocks when subjected to temperatures up to 1200 °C for 24 h. Specimens of local sandstone and mudstone were comprehensively characterized by X-ray diffraction and thermal-gravimetric analysis. These analyses were complemented by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on polished thin sections. In addition, pore size distributions of these heated rocks were inferred by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry. These results were extended to an estimation of the intrinsic permeability using the Katz-Thompson model. Investigations at micro scale were followed by mechanical testing (both unconfined and confined compression tests) on cylindrical specimens of heated rocks. Results show that the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of both rock types tends to increase when the temperatures increases up to 900 °C, beyond which the UCS tends to slightly decrease. As for the permeability, a clear increase in intrinsic permeability was observed for both rocks. The macroscopic behaviour was found to be fully consistent with the changes observed at micro scale.

  10. The first deep heat flow determination in crystalline basement rocks beneath the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, Jacek; Chan, Judith; Crowell, James; Gosnold, Will; Heaman, Larry M.; Kück, Jochem; Nieuwenhuis, Greg; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Unsworth, Martyn; Walsh, Nathaniel; Weides, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Heat flow (Q) determined from bottom-hole temperatures measured in oil and gas wells in Alberta show a large scatter with values ranging from 40 to 90 mW m-2. Only two precise measurements of heat flow were previously reported in Alberta, and were made more than half a century ago. These were made in wells located near Edmonton, Alberta, and penetrated the upper kilometre of clastic sedimentary rocks yielding heat flows values of 61 and 67 mW m-2 (Garland & Lennox). Here, we report a new precise heat flow determination from a 2363-m deep well drilled into basement granite rocks just west of Fort McMurray, Alberta (the Hunt Well). Temperature logs acquired in 2010-2011 show a significant increase in the thermal gradient in the granite due to palaeoclimatic effects. In the case of the Hunt Well, heat flow at depths >2200 m is beyond the influence of the glacial-interglacial surface temperatures. Thermal conductivity and temperature measurements in the Hunt Well have shown that the heat flow below 2.2 km is 51 mW m-2 (±3 mW m-2), thermal conductivity measured by the divided bar method under bottom of the well in situ like condition is 2.5 W m-1 K-1, and 2.7 W m-1 K-1 in ambient conditions), and the geothermal gradient was measured as 20.4 mK m-1. The palaeoclimatic effect causes an underestimate of heat flow derived from measurements collected at depths shallower than 2200 m, meaning other heat flow estimates calculated from basin measurements have likely been underestimated. Heat production (A) was calculated from spectral gamma recorded in the Hunt Well granites to a depth of 1880 m and give an average A of 3.4 and 2.9 μW m-3 for the whole depth range of granites down to 2263 m, based on both gamma and spectral logs. This high A explains the relatively high heat flow measured within the Precambrian basement intersected by the Hunt Well; the Taltson Magmatic Zone. Heat flow and related heat generation from the Hunt Well fits the heat flow-heat generation

  11. Geophysical borehole logging for control of driller's records: hydrogeological case study from Voltaian sedimentary rocks in northern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agyekum, William; Klitten, Kurt; Armah, Thomas; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Amartey, Edmund Okoe

    2013-06-01

    The low borehole yielding potential and the high drilling failure rate of the Voltaian sedimentary rocks of Northern Ghana have been of concern to many local hydrogeologists and international donors. Consequently, several donor-supported projects have been instituted within the last few years with the view to study the hydrogeological characteristics of this `difficult' rock system. One such project is the geophysical borehole logging of 13 boreholes drilled into the Voltaian sedimentary rocks of Northern Ghana to enhance detailed hydrogeological assessment. Natural gamma detectors embedded in the five exploratory logging tools employed for the study ensured depth control by comparing their individual gamma log signatures. The combined gamma and formation resistivity/conductivity response logs provided more detailed lithological information than were shown in the driller's/geologist's logs. Significant discrepancies between the logging results and the reported drilled depths, construction depths, and screen settings were observed in seven of the thirteen investigated boreholes. Thus, the reliability of driller's borehole records seems questionable, which will hamper hydrogeological studies and the mapping of groundwater resources. Further, it may be supposed that the productivity of most wells in Ghana is compromised by poor depth control of screen placement.

  12. Geochemistry of Neogene sedimentary rocks from Borneo Basin, Malaysia: implications on paleo-weathering, provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasmay, N.; Roy, P.; MP, J.; Rufino, L.; Franz, L. K.; Viswanathan, P. M.

    2013-05-01

    Multi-element geochemistry and mineralogy are used to characterize the chemical composition, degree of paleo-weathering, provenance and tectonic settingsof the Neogene sedimentary rocks of Borneo Basin from east Malaysia. The sedimentary rocks are classified as extremely weathered sandstones (i.e. wacke, arkose, litharenite, Fe-sandstone and quartz arenite). Higher values of both weathering indices of alteration (i.e. CIA>83 and PIA>89) suggest that the sandstones have undergone extreme chemical weathering. Absence of any feldspar in the mineralogical analysis indicates its degradation during the weathering. Except for the quartz arenite, all other sandstones are characterized by post-depositional K-metasomatism and zircon enrichment through sediment recycling. The geochemical characteristics suggest a mixed-nature provenance for the sandstones with contribution coming from both felsic and mafic igneous rocks. Enriched Cr in quartz arenite and Fe-sandstone are related to contribution from ophiolite or fractionation of Cr-bearing minerals. The inferred tectonic settings are variable and suggest a complex nature of tectonic environment in the basin.

  13. Multiple sulphur and iron isotope composition of detrital pyrite in Archaean sedimentary rocks: A new tool for provenance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Axel; Bekker, Andrey; Rouxel, Olivier; Rumble, Doug; Master, Sharad

    2009-09-01

    Multiple S ( δ34S and δ33S) and Fe ( δ56Fe) isotope analyses of rounded pyrite grains from 3.1 to 2.6 Ga conglomerates of southern Africa indicate their detrital origin, which supports anoxic surface conditions in the Archaean. Rounded pyrites from Meso- to Neoarchaean gold and uranium-bearing strata of South Africa are derived from both crustal and sedimentary sources, the latter being characterised by non-mass dependent fractionation of S isotopes ( Δ33S as negative as - 1.35‰) and large range of Fe isotope values ( δ56Fe between - 1.1 and 1.2‰). Most sediment-sourced pyrite grains are likely derived from sulphide nodules in marine organic matter-rich shales, sedimentary exhalites and volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits. Some sedimentary pyrite grains may have been derived from in situ sulphidised Fe-oxides, prior to their incorporation into the conglomerates, as indicated by unusually high positive δ56Fe values. Sedimentary sulphides without significant non-mass dependent fractionation of S isotopes were also present in the source of some conglomerates. The abundance in these rocks of detrital pyrite unstable in the oxygenated atmosphere may suggest factors other than high pO 2 as the cause for the absence of significant non-mass dependent fractionation processes in the 3.2-2.7 Ga atmosphere. Rounded pyrites from the c. 2.6 Ga conglomerates of the Belingwe greenstone belt in Zimbabwe have strongly fractionated δ34S, Δ33S and δ56Fe values, the source of which can be traced back to black shale-hosted massive sulphides in the underlying strata. The study demonstrates the utility of combined multiple S and Fe isotope analyses for provenance reconstruction of Archaean sedimentary successions.

  14. Protocol for Identifying Fossil Biofilm Microfabrics in Archean and Martian Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, T. R. R.; McKenzie, J. A.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities commonly live and grow in aggregates called biofilm. This slimy material is composed of exopolymeric substances (EPS) secreted from the microbial cell to the surrounding environment. Certain biofilms show internal microscopic fabrics, as for example, regularly shaped alveolar structures. These microfabrics are often considered as artifacts due to the dehydration steps required for scanning electron microscopy. However, recent studies have demonstrated that some microfabrics are not artifacts but actual structures, whose architecture is controlled by the microorganisms. These findings, mainly achieved for medical purposes, may have yet unconsidered implications for the search of early life on Earth and on Mars. Indeed, evidence exists that the microfabrics can be mineralized during early diagenesis, preserving fossil imprints of the original biofilm throughout the geological record. Here, we present the results of microscopic investigations of ancient sediments of various age, composition and metamorphic degree that contain microfabrics that we interpret as fossil biofilms. We compile a list of criteria that need to be evaluated before excluding that the putative fossil biofilms may be artifacts due to sample preparation or late stage contamination of the studied rocks. Additionally, we compare these microfabrics to those produced by pure cultures of microorganism grown in the laboratory, as well as microfabrics present in microbial mats that develop in modern evaporitic environments. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis - and the evidence that already exists in its support - that the micrometric size and the morphology of the EPS fabrics is specific to the organism and the genome concerned. By establishing a linkage between specific microbes and the architecture of the mineralized microfabrics, it may be possible to gain precise taxonomic information on early life, as well as to establish a new type of morphological biosignature to be searched

  15. Chemical variations in Yellowknife Bay formation sedimentary rocks analyzed by ChemCam on board the Curiosity rover on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Dromart, G.; Stack, K.M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Gasnault, Olivier; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Nachon, Marion; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Anderson, Ryan B.; Barraclough, Bruce; Bell, J.F., III; Berger, G.; Blaney, D.L.; Bridges, J.C.; Calef, F.; Clark, Brian R.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Cousin, Agnes; Edgar, L.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Fabre, Cecile; Fisk, M.; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, S.C.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Johnson, J. R.; Kah, Linda C.; Lanza, Nina L.; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Mouélic, S.; Lewin, Eric; Malin, Michael; McLennan, Scott M.; Maurice, S.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Milliken, Ralph E.; Newsome, H.L.; Ollila, A.; Rowland, Scott K.; Sautter, Violaine; Schmidt, M.E.; Schroder, S.; D'Uston, C.; Vaniman, Dave; Williams, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Yellowknife Bay formation represents a ~5 m thick stratigraphic section of lithified fluvial and lacustrine sediments analyzed by the Curiosity rover in Gale crater, Mars. Previous works have mainly focused on the mudstones that were drilled by the rover at two locations. The present study focuses on the sedimentary rocks stratigraphically above the mudstones by studying their chemical variations in parallel with rock textures. Results show that differences in composition correlate with textures and both manifest subtle but significant variations through the stratigraphic column. Though the chemistry of the sediments does not vary much in the lower part of the stratigraphy, the variations in alkali elements indicate variations in the source material and/or physical sorting, as shown by the identification of alkali feldspars. The sandstones contain similar relative proportions of hydrogen to the mudstones below, suggesting the presence of hydrous minerals that may have contributed to their cementation. Slight variations in magnesium correlate with changes in textures suggesting that diagenesis through cementation and dissolution modified the initial rock composition and texture simultaneously. The upper part of the stratigraphy (~1 m thick) displays rocks with different compositions suggesting a strong change in the depositional system. The presence of float rocks with similar compositions found along the rover traverse suggests that some of these outcrops extend further away in the nearby hummocky plains.

  16. Modeling of laboratory experiments determining the chemico-osmotic, hydraulic and diffusion properties of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.

    2008-12-01

    -osmotic properties of clay-rich materials have been demonstrated in laboratory experiments. However, it remains inconclusive whether chemical osmosis can retain the pressure disequilibrium and so influence groundwater flow in a geologic time scale. Therefore, systematic research involving field-scale investigations of pressure and salinity distributions and experimental estimations of the chemico-osmotic, hydraulic and diffusive properties of formation media is required. This study focuses on the development of a laboratory experimental system and the analytical solutions to estimate the chemico-osmotic, hydraulic and diffusive properties of formation media. The experimental system consists of a flexible-wall permeameter cell that loads confining pressures, along with a closed fluid circuit to perform osmotic, hydraulic and diffusion experiments under background fluid pressures. This experimental design enables simulating underground conditions at the depths required for safety assessments of geological waste disposal. The effectiveness of the experimental system and the analytical solutions are demonstrated with a set of osmotic, hydraulic and diffusion experiments performed using sedimentary rocks.

  17. The Rio Tinto Basin, Spain: Mineralogy, Sedimentary Geobiology, and Implications for Interpretation of Outcrop Rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Remolar, David C.; Morris, Richard V.; Gruener, John E.; Amils, Ricardo; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2005-01-01

    Exploration by the NASA rover Opportunity has revealed sulfate- and hematite-rich sedimentary rocks exposed in craters and other surface features of Meridiani Planum, Mars. Modern, Holocene, and Plio-Pleistocene deposits of the Rio Tinto, southwestern Spain, provide at least a partial environmental analog to Meridiani Planum rocks, facilitating our understanding of Meridiani mineral precipitation and diagenesis, while informing considerations of martian astrobiology. Oxidation, thought to be biologically mediated, of pyritic ore bodies by groundwaters in the source area of the Rio Tinto generates headwaters enriched in sulfuric acid and ferric iron. Seasonal evaporation of river water drives precipitation of hydronium jarosite and schwertmannite, while (Mg,Al,Fe(sup 3+))-copiapite, coquimbite, gypsum, and other sulfate minerals precipitate nearby as efflorescences where locally variable source waters are brought to the surface by capillary action. During the wet season, hydrolysis of sulfate salts results in the precipitation of nanophase goethite. Holocene and Plio-Pleistocene terraces show increasing goethite crystallinity and then replacement of goethite with hematite through time. Hematite in Meridiani spherules also formed during diagenesis, although whether these replaced precursor goethite or precipitated directly from groundwaters is not known. The retention of jarosite and other soluble sulfate salts suggests that water limited the diagenesis of Meridiani rocks. Diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms inhabit acidic and seasonally dry Rio Tinto environments. Organic matter does not persist in Rio Tinto sediments, but biosignatures imparted to sedimentary rocks as macroscopic textures of coated microbial streamers, surface blisters formed by biogenic gas, and microfossils preserved as casts and molds in iron oxides help to shape strategies for astrobiological investigation of Meridiani outcrops.

  18. Identifying and Interpreting Stratification in Sedimentary Rocks on Mars: Insight from Rover and Orbital Observations and Terrestrial Field Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, Lauren A.

    Sedimentary rocks on Mars provide insight into past aqueous and atmospheric processes, climate regimes, and potential habitability. The stratigraphic architecture of sedimentary rocks on Mars is similar to that of Earth, indicating that the processes that govern deposition and erosion on Mars can be reasonably inferred through reference to analogous terrestrial systems. This dissertation aims to understand Martian surface processes through the use of (1) ground-based observations from the Mars Exploration Rovers, (2) orbital data from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and (3) the use of terrestrial field analogs to understand bedforms and sediment transport on Mars. Chapters 1 and 2 trace the history of aqueous activity at Meridiani Planum, through the reconstruction of eolian bedforms at Victoria crater, and the identification of a potential mudstone facies at Santa Maria crater. Chapter 3 uses Terrestrial Laser Scanning to study cross-bedding in pyroclastic surge deposits on Earth in order to understand sediment transport in these events and to establish criteria for their identification on Mars. The final chapter analyzes stratal geometries in the Martian North Polar Layered Deposits using tools for sequence stratigraphic analysis, to better constrain past surface processes and past climate conditions on Mars.

  19. Geochemical and detrital mode evidence for two sources of Early Proterozoic sedimentary rocks from the Tonto Basin Supergroup, central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condie, K.C.; Noll, P.D., Jr.; Conway, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Tonto Basin Supergroup includes up to 6.5 km of Early Proterozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited in a relatively short period of time at about 1.7 Ga in central Arizona. Moderate correlations of rare earth elements (REE) and Ti with Al2O3 and REE distributions in detrital sediments of this supergroup suggest that these elements are contained chiefly in clay-mica and/or zircon fractions. REE distributions, including negative Eu anomalies in most Tonto Basin sediments, are similar to those in Phanerozoic shales. Weak to moderate correlations of Fe, Sc, Ni, and Co to Al2O3 also suggest a clay-mica control of these elements. Detrital modes and geochemical characteristics of sediments indicate two dominant sources for sedimentary rocks of the Tonto Basin Supergroup: a granitoid source and a volcanic source. The granitoid source was important during deposition of the upper part of the succession (the Mazatzal Group) as shown by increases in K2O, Al2O3, and Th in pelites with stratigraphic height, and increases in Zr and Hf and decreases in Eu/Eu*, Cr, and Ni in in pelites of the Maverick Shale. Sediment provenance characteristics and paleocurrent indicators are consistent with deposition of the supergroup in a continental-margin back-arc basin. The granitoid sediment source appears to have been the North American craton on the north, and the volcanic source a more local source from an arc on the south. ?? 1992.

  20. SEM analysis of rock varnish chemistry: A geomorphic age discriminator

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, C.D.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1989-07-01

    Rock varnish, a manganese- and iron-rich coating commonly found on rock surfaces in arid and semiarid regions, has long been of interest as a potential age indicator. Rock varnish has been shown to be an effective medium for dating of geomorphic surfaces over a time range of several thousand to over a million years, utilizing a ratio among minor cations ((K + Ca)/Ti) for the total volume of rock varnish. We have recently, developed a technique using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray analyzer (EDAX) to analyze the chemistry of rock varnish. This technique has several advantages over the earlier cation ratio technique.

  1. Divisions of potential fracture permeability, based on distribution of structures and lineaments, in sedimentary rocks of the Rocky Mountains-High Plains region, Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1986-01-01

    Fractures--joints and faults--affect the movement of fluids in rocks. Fracture permeability is important in sedimentary rocks that otherwise transmit water slowly, particularly limestone, dolomite, and fine-grained sandstone. A map of fracture traces may be used in assessing the spatial distribution of groundwater. The principal map in this report (scale 1:2,500 ,000) shows geologic structures and lineaments that affect the distribution of fracture traces in the sedimentary rocks of the High Plains and some adjacent areas. Potential fracture permeability is indicated on the map by 5 divisions, ranging from division 1 (smallest) to division 5 (largest potential fracture permeability). Geologic structure was the basis for delineating division boundaries. Generally, rocks in structurally uplifted areas and near conspicuous lineaments are more extensively fractured and have greater secondary permeability than rocks of structural basins. (USGS)

  2. Leaching of boron, arsenic and selenium from sedimentary rocks: II. pH dependence, speciation and mechanisms of release.

    PubMed

    Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Hashimoto, Ayaka; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Yoneda, Tetsuro

    2014-03-01

    Sedimentary rocks excavated in Japan from road- and railway-tunnel projects contain relatively low concentrations of hazardous trace elements like boron (B), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se). However, these seemingly harmless waste rocks often produced leachates with concentrations of hazardous trace elements that exceeded the environmental standards. In this study, the leaching behaviors and release mechanisms of B, As and Se were evaluated using batch leaching experiments, sequential extraction and geochemical modeling calculations. The results showed that B was mostly partitioned with the residual/crystalline phase that is relatively stable under normal environmental conditions. In contrast, the majority of As and Se were associated with the exchangeable and organics/sulfides phases that are unstable under oxidizing conditions. Dissolution of water-soluble phases controlled the leaching of B, As and Se from these rocks in the short term, but pyrite oxidation, calcite dissolution and adsorption/desorption reactions became more important in the long term. The mobilities of these trace elements were also strongly influenced by the pH of the rock-water system. Although the leaching of Se only increased in the acidic region, those of B and As were enhanced under both acidic and alkaline conditions. Under strongly acidic conditions, the primarily release mechanism of B, As and Se was the dissolution of mineral phases that incorporated and/or adsorbed these elements. Lower concentrations of these trace elements in the circumneutral pH range could be attributed to their strong adsorption onto minerals like Al-/Fe-oxyhydroxides and clays, which are inherently present and/or precipitated in the rock-water system. The leaching of As and B increased under strongly alkaline conditions because of enhanced desorption and pyrite oxidation while that of Se remained minimal due to its adsorption onto Fe-oxyhydroxides and co-precipitation with calcite. PMID:24370699

  3. Calculation of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity of sedimentary rocks using petrophysical well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels; Förster, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    In this study, equations are developed that predict for synthetic sedimentary rocks (clastics, carbonates and evapourates) thermal properties comprising thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity. The rock groups are composed of mineral assemblages with variable contents of 15 major rock-forming minerals and porosities of 0-30 per cent. Petrophysical properties and their well-logging-tool-characteristic readings were assigned to these rock-forming minerals and to pore-filling fluids. Relationships are explored between each thermal property and other petrophysical properties (density, sonic interval transit time, hydrogen index, volume fraction of shale and photoelectric absorption index) using multivariate statistics. The application of these relations allows computing continuous borehole profiles for each rock thermal property. The uncertainties in the prediction of each property vary depending on the selected well-log combination. Best prediction is in the range of 2-8 per cent for the specific heat capacity, of 5-10 per cent for the thermal conductivity, and of 8-15 for the thermal diffusivity, respectively. Well-log derived thermal conductivity is validated by laboratory data measured on cores from deep boreholes of the Danish Basin, the North German Basin, and the Molasse Basin. Additional validation of thermal conductivity was performed by comparing predicted and measured temperature logs. The maximum deviation between these logs is <3 °C. The thermal-conductivity calculation allowed an evaluation of the depth range in which the palaeoclimatic effect on the subsurface temperature field can be observed in the North German Basin. This effect reduces the surface heat-flow density by 25 mW m-2.

  4. Lead-alpha age determinations of granitic rocks from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Jaffe, H.W.; Waring, C.L.

    1957-01-01

    Lead-alpha activity age determinations were made on zircon from seven granitic rocks of central and southeastern Alaska. The results of the age determinations indicate two periods of igneous intrusion, one about 95 million years ago, during the Cretaceous period, and another about 53 million years ago, during the early part of the Tertiary. The individual ages determined on zircon from 2 rocks from southeastern Alaska and 1 from east-central Alaska gave results of 90, 100, and 96 million years; those determined on 4 rocks from central Alaska gave results of 47, 56, 58, and 51 million years.

  5. Geochronological and geochemical constraints on the origin of clastic meta-sedimentary rocks associated with the Yuanjiacun BIF from the Lüliang Complex, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changle; Zhang, Lianchang; Dai, Yanpei; Lan, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    The Lüliang Complex is situated in the central part of the western margin of the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO) in the North China Craton (NCC), and consists of metamorphic volcanic and sedimentary rocks and granitoid intrusions. The Yuanjiacun Formation metasediments occupy roughly the lowest part of the Lüliang Group and are mainly represented by well-bedded meta-pelites (chlorite schists and sericite-chlorite phyllites), banded iron formations (BIFs) and meta-arenites (sericite schists), which have undergone greenschist-facies metamorphism. The youngest group of detrital zircons from the meta-arenite samples constrains their maximum depositional age at ~ 2350 Ma. In combination with previous geochronological studies on meta-volcanic rocks in the overlying Jinzhouyu Formation, the depositional age of the Yuanjiacun Formation can be constrained between 2350 and 2215 Ma. The metasediments have suffered varying degrees of source weathering, measured using widely employed weathering indices (e.g., CIA, CIW, PIA and Th/U ratios). Source rocks of the low-Al meta-pelites have undergone severe chemical weathering, whereas those of the meta-arenites and high-Al meta-pelites have suffered relatively moderate chemical weathering. Significant secondary K addition is recognized in the A-CN-K diagram for most of the studied samples. Diagnostic geochemical features like the Al2O3/TiO2 values, trace element ratios (e.g., Th/Sc) and REE patterns, suggest that the meta-arenites and high-Al meta-pelites are predominantly derived from felsic igneous sources, whereas the low-Al meta-pelites are sourced mainly from mafic rocks. Coupled with Nd isotopic data, it is proposed that the meta-arenites and high-Al meta-pelites were sedimentary erosion products of the less differential felsic terrain (likely the old upper continental crust). The low-Al meta-pelites, however, have geochemical affinities with both pelite- and BIF-like components, suggesting that they were mixtures of these

  6. Experimental Studies on Permeability of Intact and Singly Jointed Meta-Sedimentary Rocks Under Confining Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen; Li, Diyuan; Liu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Three different types of permeability tests were conducted on 23 intact and singly jointed rock specimens, which were cored from rock blocks collected from a rock cavern under construction in Singapore. The studied rock types belong to inter-bedded meta-sandstone and meta-siltstone with very low porosity and high uniaxial compressive strength. The transient pulse water flow method was employed to measure the permeability of intact meta-sandstone under a confining pressure up to 30 MPa. It showed that the magnitude order of meta-sandstone's intrinsic permeability is about 10-18 m2. The steady-state gas flow method was used to measure the permeability of both intact meta-siltstone and meta-sandstone in a triaxial cell under different confining pressures spanning from 2.5 to 10 MPa. The measured permeability of both rock types ranged from 10-21 to 10-20 m2. The influence of a single natural joint on the permeability of both rock types was studied by using the steady-state water flow method under different confining pressures spanning from 1.25 to 5.0 MPa, including loading and unloading phases. The measured permeability of both jointed rocks ranged from 10-13 to 10-11 m2, where the permeability of jointed meta-siltstone was usually slightly lower than that of jointed meta-sandstone. The permeability of jointed rocks decreases with increasing confining pressure, which can be well fitted by an empirical power law relationship between the permeability and confining pressure or effective pressure. The permeability of partly open cracked specimens is lower than that of open cracked specimens, but it is higher than that of the specimen with a dominant vein for the meta-sandstone under the same confining pressure. The permeability of open cracked rock specimens will partially recover during the unloading confining pressure process. The equivalent crack (joint) aperture is as narrow as a magnitude order of 10-6 m (1 μm) in the rock specimens under confining pressures

  7. Detrital zircon record of the early Paleozoic meta-sedimentary rocks in Russian Altai: Implications on their provenance and the tectonic nature of the Altai-Mongolian terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Cai, Keda; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhao, Guochun; Rubanova, Elena S.; Voytishek, Elena E.

    2015-09-01

    An integrated U-Pb and Hf-isotope study on detrital zircons from the early Paleozoic meta-sedimentary rocks along the Charysh-Terekta-Ulagan-Sayan suture zone in Russian Altai was conducted in order to trace their provenance and tectonic setting. Most of the zircons possess oscillatory zoning and high Th/U ratios (> 0.1), indicating their magmatic origin. The investigated samples yield similar zircon populations, i.e., dominant groups with late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic ages, followed by those from Mesoproterozoic to late Neoproterozoic and minor ones from Archean to middle Mesoproterozoic, indicating multiple tectono-thermal events in the source area. Comparison with surrounding tectonic units shows that the Tuva-Mongolian terrane and its adjacent island arcs possibly provided substantial materials to the sedimentary basin. These rocks show detrital zircon age patterns and Hf-isotope compositions similar to their counterparts in the Chinese Altai and Tseel terrane in western Mongolia, but different from those in the Gorny Altai terrane. Therefore, the investigated meta-sedimentary units possibly represented the northernmost segment of the Altai-Mongolian terrane. With combination of previous studies in the Chinese Altai and Tseel terrane, our data suggest that the Altai-Mongolian terrane possibly represents a coherent continental arc-accretionary prism system built upon the active margin of the western Mongolia during the Cambrian to Ordovician and thus does not support the micro-continent model with a passive margin. A compilation of U-Pb and Hf-isotope data of detrital zircons from the whole Altai-Mongolian terrane shows that the source area (i.e., the western Mongolia) underwent two most extensive magmatic activities at ca. 1.02-0.67 Ga and 0.67-0.43 Ga. These zircons possess both positive and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting significant crustal growth and reworking during the magmatic activities. Our study underlines a crucial role of Precambrian

  8. New Magnetostratigraphic Results From Sedimentary Rocks of IODP's Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) Expedition 322

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Oda, H.; Wu, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Underwood, M.; Saito, S.; Kubo, Y.; Iodp Expedition 322 Shipboard Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    We report new magnetostratigraphic and rock magnetic results from our post-expedition studies on the Nankai sedimentary rocks recovered by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 322. Shore-based studies confirm that stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) components are observed throughout the majority of the recovered cores of the two subduction input sites (Sites C0011and C0012), following removal of a low stability drilling-induced remanence. Inclination values of ChRM are moderate downward or upward, consistent with the expected inclination for the site. Rock magnetic study demonstrates that the ChRM components of both polarities are mostly carried by fine grains of magnetite. Positive results from mean-inclination reversal test indicate that the ChRM is a record of the paleomagnetic field close to the time of formation of these sediments, and most of the observed magnetostratigraphy from the characteristic directions is in excellent agreement with that to be expected from the stratigraphic position of the sequence deduced from the biostratigraphic data. The new magnetic results support the shipboard discovery that an abrupt decrease in the rate of sedimentation occurs at about 11 Ma, suggesting that some fundamental paleoenvironmental change in the Shikoku Basin and/or the significant tectonic event may have occurred in Late Miocene.

  9. Geological and geochemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks in Kremna, basin (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perunović, Tamara; Jovančićević, Branimir; Brčeski, Ilija; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Stojanović, Ksenija; Simić, Vlada; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica

    2014-05-01

    Studying lacustrine sediments is important because of their potential economic value since they often bear coal, oil shales and non-metallic mineral raw materials. Besides this, lacustrine sediments offer valuable information on the climate conditions which existed during the sedimentation. In Serbia there are 14 lacustrine basins spanning in age from Oligocene to Lower Pliocene. The aim of this study was to examine Lower Miocene Kremna basin, located in southwest Serbia. Kremna basin is a small basin, covering 15km2, but sedimentologically very interesting. For the purpose of this study, 43 sediment samples were taken from a borehole at different depths, from surface to 343 m depth of the basin. The borehole ended in weathered serpentinite. Mineralogical composition of sediments was determined using thin-sections and X-ray diffraction analysis, contents of macro-and microelements and rare-earth elements were determined by ICP-ES and ICP-MS techniques. Also, elemental analysis was applied to determine the contents of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen and n-alkanes, isoprenoide aliphatic alkanes and bitumen were also determined using GC-MS technique. Mineralogical analyses proved presents of several lithological types in Kremna basin: clastic sediments, tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, marlstones, dolomites, magnezites, and coal of non-economic value. Occurrence of sirlezite and sepiolite was also determined. Furthermore, according to all obtained results two faciae were determined: alluvial-marginal lacustrine and intrabasinal. Alluvial-marginal facies originated from predominantly ultramafic rocks which underlie the basin. Magnezites and Mg-marls and Mg-dolomites are dominant sediments in this facies. These sediments formed under arid, slightly saline conditions. Intrabasinal facies is represented mostly with marls, Mg-marls and dolomitic limestones. These sediments were deposited under a more humid climate with increase in paleoproductivity. The uppermost sediments of

  10. Ejected Sedimentary Rocks of Mud Volcanoes as Indicators of Depositional Environments and of Hydrocarbon Generation within the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J.; Köthe, A.; Movsumova, U.

    2009-04-01

    Mud volcanoes are prominent geological features of the South Caspian Basin of Azerbaijan, one of the oldest oil producing regions worldwide. The basin is characterized by extreme sedimentation rates, which lead to the accumulation of large volumes of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. These mostly unconsolidated strata reach thicknesses of up to 20 km and overlay a continental basement in the onshore part. Tectonic forces control the occurrences of mud volcanoes in regions with over-pressured subsurface sediments as mud volcanoes are closely linked to fault systems. The mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan are a surface expression of vertical hydrocarbon migration and offer the chance to investigate the subsurface by means of ejected rocks transported to the surface. These rocks of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary sequences are potential indicators of the regional hydrocarbon generation. The mud of nineteen volcano cones contained numerous ejected rock fragments, which we use to identify environmental and depositional parameters of the sediments of the Caspian Basin. We also intended to estimate the depth range from which the mud was transported to the surface using organic geochemical parameters. Mircopalaeontological investigations (calcareous nannoplankton) have been performed on selected samples. These analyses suggest that the investigated sediments are of Late Cretaceous to Palaeogene ages and relate to the stratigraphic interval during which the main hydrocarbon source rocks of Azerbaijan have been deposited. Organic geochemical, organic petrographical and mircopalaeontological investigations have been performed on selected samples of nineteen mud volcanoes. Analyses total organic carbon and total sulphur were performed on an elemental analyzer. These analyses suggest that the sediments can be classified as anoxic marine deposits whereas only few are sediments of a lacustrine environment. Bulk source rock information were obtained from RockEval pyrolysis. Resulting

  11. Provenance and sedimentary environments of the Proterozoic São Roque Group, SE-Brazil: Contributions from petrography, geochemistry and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of metasedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique-Pinto, R.; Janasi, V. A.; Tassinari, C. C. G.; Carvalho, B. B.; Cioffi, C. R.; Stríkis, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    The Proterozoic metasedimentary sequences exposed in the São Roque Domain (Apiaí Terrane, Ribeira Belt, southeast Brazil) consist of metasandstones and meta-felspathic wackes with some volcanic layers of within-plate geochemical signature (Boturuna Formation), a passive margin turbidite sequence of metawackes and metamudstones (Piragibu Formation), and volcano-sedimentary sequences with MORB-like basalts (Serra do Itaberaba Group; Pirapora do Bom Jesus Formation). A combination of zircon provenance studies in metasandstones, whole-rock geochemistry and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics in metamudstones was used to understand the provenance and tectonic significance of these sequences, and their implications to the evolution of the Precambrian crust in the region. Whole-rock geochemistry of metamudstones, dominantly from the Piragibu Formation, points to largely granitic sources (as indicated for instance by LREE-rich moderately fractionated REE patterns and subtle negative Eu anomalies) with some mafic contribution (responding for higher contents of Fe2O3, MgO, V, and Cr) and were subject to moderate weathering (CIA - 51 to 85). Sm-Nd isotope data show three main peaks of Nd TDM ages at ca. 1.9, 2.1 and 2.4 Ga; the younger ages define an upper limit for the deposition of the unit, and reflect greater contributions from sources younger than the >2.1 Ga basement. The coincident age peaks of Nd TDM and U-Pb detrital zircons at 2.1-2.2 Ga and 2.4-2.5 Ga, combined with the possible presence of a small amount of zircons derived from mafic (gabbroid) sources with the same ages, as indicated by a parallel LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating study in metapsammites, are suggestive that these were major periods of crustal growth in the sources involving not only crust recycling but also some juvenile addition. A derivation from similar older Proterozoic sources deposited in a passive margin basin is consistent with the main sedimentary sequences in the São Roque Domain being broadly coeval and

  12. Geochemical and detrital zircon studies of meta-sedimentary rocks from the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks, Russian Altai: Implications on their tectonic affinity and geodynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min

    2015-04-01

    A combined whole-rock geochemical and detrital zircon geochronological and Hf-isotope study was conducted on meta-sedimentary sequences of the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks in order to trace their provenance, depositional setting and tectonic affinity. Samples from the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks underwent epidote-amphibole- and greenschist-facies metamorphism, respectively, but all of them show comparable geochemical characteristics. They are characterized by high Al2O3/SiO2 ratios and ICV (Index of Chemical Variability) values, while (Gd/Yb)N ratios and REEs compositions are comparable to those of the upper continental crust, indicating that their protoliths were immature and probably deposited proximal to the source areas without significant sedimentary sorting. The low CIA (Chemical Index of Alteration) values for these samples (47.3-74.5 and 52.5-74.5, respectively) further suggest that the source rocks underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering. All the samples show major elements (e.g., Al2O3/TiO2, TiO2/Fe2O3T, Fe2O3T/Al2O3), REEs concentrations, HFSEs and transition elements compositions between the typical andesites and granites, but deviate from those of basaltic rocks, implying that intermediate-felsic rocks served dominant sources during the sedimentation. These geochemical characteristics are consistent with the continental island arc setting, which is discriminated by the TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3T + MgO concentrations higher than those of passive marginal depositions, but La/Sc, Ti/Zr, La/Th, La/Sc and Zr/Th ratios comparable to those of depositions in continental island arc settings. Two samples from the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks yield similar detrital zircon age spectra, with the most prominent population of ca. 620-470 Ma old and a subordinate one of ca. 943-743 Ma old. Comparison with surrounding tectonic units shows that the Tuva-Mongolian terrane and surrounding island arcs in western Mongolia probably provided substantial sources to the protoliths

  13. Long-term migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks based on iodine speciation and 129I/127I ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Amano, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Muramatsu, Y.; Iwatsuki, T.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] 129I is one of the available indexes of long-term migration of groundwater solutes, because of its long half-life (15.7 million years) and low sorption characteristics. The Horonobe underground research center (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), at which are conducted research and development of fundamental techniques on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, is an appropriate site for natural analogue studies, because iodine concentration in groundwater is high in this area. To predict iodine behavior in natural systems, speciation of iodine is essential because of different mobility among each species. In this study, we determined iodine speciation and129I/127I isotope ratios of rock and groundwater samples to investigate long term migration of iodine. [Methods] All rock and groundwater samples were collected at Horonobe underground research center. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, the Wakkanai Formation (Wk Fm, siliceous mudstones), and the overlying Koetoi Formation (Kt Fm, diatomaceous mudstones). Iodine species in rock samples were determined by iodine K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (SPring-8 BL01B1). Thin sections of rock samples were prepared, and iodine mapping were obtained by micro-XRF analysis (SPring-8 BL37XU). Iodine species (IO3-, I-, and organic I) in groundwater were separately detected by high performance liquid chromatography connected to ICP-MS. The 129I/127I ratios in groundwater and rock samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (MALT, Univ. of Tokyo). Iodine in rock samples were separated by pyrohydrolysis and water extraction. [Results and discussion] Concentration of iodine in groundwater varied widely and was much higher than that of seawater showing a high correlation with that of chlorine (R2 = 0.90). Species of iodine in groundwater was mainly I-. Iodine in rock samples decreased near the boundary between Wk and Kt Fms. Iodine K-edge XANES

  14. Ground-water system, estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties, and effects of pumping on ground-water flow in Triassic sedimentary rocks in and near Lansdale, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground water in Triassic-age sedimentary fractured-rock aquifers in the area of Lansdale, Pa., is used as drinking water and for industrial supply. In 1979, ground water in the Lansdale area was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and other man-made organic compounds, and in 1989, the area was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) National Priority List as the North Penn Area 6 site. To assist the USEPA in the hydrogeological assessment of the site, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1995 to describe the ground-water system and to determine the effects of changes in the well pumping patterns on the direction of ground-water flow in the Lansdale area. This determination is based on hydrologic and geophysical data collected from 1995-98 and on results of the simulation of the regional ground-water-flow system by use of a numerical model.Correlation of natural-gamma logs indicate that the sedimentary rock beds strike generally northeast and dip at angles less than 30 degrees to the northwest. The ground-water system is confined or semi-confined, even at shallow depths; depth to bedrock commonly is less than 20 feet (6 meters); and depth to water commonly is about 15 to 60 feet (5 to 18 meters) below land surface. Single-well, aquifer-interval-isolation (packer) tests indicate that vertical permeability of the sedimentary rocks is low. Multiple-well aquifer tests indicate that the system is heterogeneous and that flow appears primarily in discrete zones parallel to bedding. Preferred horizontal flow along strike was not observed in the aquifer tests for wells open to the pumped interval. Water levels in wells that are open to the pumped interval, as projected along the dipping stratigraphy, are drawn down more than water levels in wells that do not intersect the pumped interval. A regional potentiometric map based on measured water levels indicates that ground water flows from Lansdale towards discharge

  15. Depositional features and source and reservoir rocks of Tertiary age in northern part of South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.

    1986-07-01

    The northern part of the South China Sea covers an area of about 400,000 km/sup 2/. Tertiary deposits more than 10,000 m in thickness are widely distributed there. The area has sedimentary rocks more than 1000 m thick covers more than 300,000 km/sup 2/. Five sedimentary basins have been established in this area: Beibu Bay, Yinggehai, Southeastern Qiong, Pearl River Mouth, and Southwestern Taiwann basins. The primary source and reservoir rocks for oil and gas prospects are of Tertiary age. Tertiary rocks underwent three stages of development, each forming a specific sedimentation system: (1) a system of fluviolacustrine deposits in rift depressions from the Paleocene to early Oligocene; (2) a system of semiclosed-sea deposits from the late Oligocene to early Miocene; and (3) a system of deltaic open-sea deposits from the middle Miocene to Pliocene. These three sedimentation systems resulted in three suites of source rocks, three suites of reservoir rocks, and three groups of independent oil pools, complete with source, reservoir, and cap rocks. The three suites of source rocks are as follows: (1) the Eocene Liushagang Formation in the Beibu Bay basin, which is believed to be the best source rock discovered in the area; (2) the Oligocene Zhuhai Formation in the Pearl River Mouth basin; and (3) the lower Miocene series in the Pearl River Mouth basin. The Eocene formation is probably the principal source rock of regional scale in the northern part of the South China Sea. The three suites of reservoir rocks are as follows: (1) the fluviolacustrine sandstone bodies in the Liushagang Formation; (2) the fluviolacustrine sand bodies and shallow-sea sandstone bodies in the Zhuhai Formation and Lingshu Formation; (3) the deltaic, littoral, and shallow-sea sand bodies and bioherms of Neogene age, with the middle Miocene sandstone reservoirs having the best physical properties.

  16. Combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography to visualize and quantify fluid flow in sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernø, M. A.; Gauteplass, J.; Hauge, L. P.; Abell, G. E.; Adamsen, T. C. H.; Graue, A.

    2015-09-01

    Here we show for the first time the combined positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging of flow processes within porous rocks to quantify the development in local fluid saturations. The coupling between local rock structure and displacement fronts is demonstrated in exploratory experiments using this novel approach. We also compare quantification of 3-D temporal and spatial water saturations in two similar CO2 storage tests in sandstone imaged separately with PET and CT. The applicability of each visualization technique is evaluated for a range of displacement processes, and the favorable implementation of combining PET/CT for laboratory core analysis is discussed. We learn that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is over an order of magnitude higher for PET compared with CT for the studied processes.

  17. Potassium metasomatism of volcanic and sedimentary rocks in rift basins, calderas and detachment terranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, C. E.; drographic basins.

    1985-01-01

    The chemical, mineralogical, and oxygen-isotopic changes accompanying K-metasomatism are described. The similarities with diagenetic reactions in both deep marine and alkaline, saline-lake environments are noted. The common occurrence of K-metasomatism in upper-plate rocks of detachment terranes indicates that the early stage of severe regional extension causes crustal downwarping and, in arid to semi-arid regions, development of closed hydrographic basins.

  18. Raman spectroscopy of carbon and solid bitumens in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

    PubMed

    Jehlicka, Jan; Urban, Ondrej; Pokorný, Jan

    2003-08-01

    Different types of carbonaceous matter from rocks display Raman spectral features which knowledge permits to obtain structural information of these materials. Application of Raman microspectroscopy to investigate kerogen, bitumen, fossils, highly carbonified amorphous carbon as well as graphite from different environments is reviewed. Differences in Raman spectra and structural differences between carbonaceous samples differing in their metamorphic history are discussed on the basis of new data. PMID:12909147

  19. 40Ar 39Ar age constraints on neogene sedimentary beds, Upper Ramparts, half-way Pillar and Canyon village sites, Porcupine river, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunk, M.J.; Rieck, H.; Fouch, T.D.; Carter, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    40Ar 39Ar ages of volcanic rocks are used to provide numerical constraints on the age of middle and upper Miocene sedimentary strata collected along the Porcupine River. Intercalated sedimentary rocks north of latitude 67??10???N in the Porcupine terrane of east-central Alaska contain a rich record of plant fossils. The fossils are valuable indicators of this interior region's paleoclimate during the time of their deposition. Integration of the 40Ar 39Ar results with paleomagnetic and sedimentological data allows for refinements in estimating the timing of deposition and duration of selected sedimentary intervals. 40Ar 39Ar plateau age spectra, from whole rock basalt samples, collected along the Upper Ramparts and near Half-way Pillar on the Porcupine River, range from 15.7 ?? 0.1 Ma at site 90-6 to 14.4 ?? 0.1 Ma at site 90-2. With exception of the youngest basalt flow at site 90-2, all of the samples are of reversed magnetic polarity, and all 40Ar 39Ar age spectrum results are consistent with the deposition of the entire stratigraphic section during a single interval of reversed magnetic polarity. The youngest flow at site 90-2 was emplaced during an interval of normal polarity. With age, paleomagnetic and sedimentological data, the ages of the Middle Miocene sedimentary rocks between the basalt flows at sites 90-1 and 90-2 can be assigned to an interval within the limits of analytical precision of 15.2 ?? 0.1 Ma; thus, the sediments were deposited during the peak of the Middle Miocene thermal maximum. Sediments in the upper parts of sites 90-1 and 90-2 were probably deposited during cooling from the Middle Miocene thermal maximum. 40Ar 39Ar results of plagioclase and biotite from a single tephra, collected at sites 90-7 and 90-8 along the Canyon Village section of the Porcupine River, indicate an age of 6.57 ?? 0.02 Ma for its time of eruption and deposition. These results, together with sedimentological and paleomagnetic data, suggest that all of the Upper

  20. Seawater-like trace element signatures (REE + Y) of Eoarchaean chemical sedimentary rocks from southern West Greenland, and their corruption during high-grade metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, C. R. L.; Nutman, A. P.; Bennett, V. C.; Norman, M. D.

    2008-02-01

    Modern chemical sediments display a distinctive rare earth element + yttrium (REE + Y) pattern involving depleted LREE, positive La/La*SN, Eu/Eu*SN, and YSN anomalies (SN = shale normalised) that is related to precipitation from circumneutral to high pH waters with solution complexation of the REEs dominated by carbonate ions. This is often interpreted as reflecting precipitation from surface waters (usually marine). The oldest broadly accepted chemical sediments are c. 3,700 Ma amphibolite facies banded iron-formation (BIF) units in the Isua supracrustal belt, Greenland. Isua BIFs, including the BIF international reference material IF-G are generally considered to be seawater precipitates, and display these REE + Y patterns (Bolhar et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 222:43 60, 2004). Greenland Eoarchaean BIF metamorphosed up to granulite facies from several localities in the vicinity of Akilia (island), display REE + Y patterns identical to Isua BIF, consistent with an origin by chemical sedimentation from seawater and a paucity of clastic input. Furthermore, the much-debated magnetite-bearing siliceous unit of “earliest life” rocks (sample G91/26) from Akilia has the same REE + Y pattern. This suggests that sample G91/26 is also a chemical sediment, contrary to previous assertions (Bolhar et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 222:43 60, 2004), and including suggestions that the Akilia unit containing G91/26 consists entirely of silica-penetrated, metasomatised, mafic rock (Fedo and Whitehouse 2002a). Integration of our trace element data with those of Bolhar et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 222:43 60, 2004) demonstrates that Eoarchaean siliceous rocks in Greenland, with ages from 3.6 to 3.85 Ga, have diverse trace element signatures. There are now geographically-dispersed, widespread examples with Isua BIF-like REE + Y signatures, that are interpreted as chemically unaltered, albeit metamorphosed, chemical sediments. Other samples retain remnants of LREE depletion but

  1. Biogenicity and Syngeneity of Organic Matter in Ancient Sedimentary Rocks: Recent Advances in the Search for Evidence of Past Life

    SciTech Connect

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-12-01

    he past decade has seen an explosion of new technologies for assessment of biogenicity and syngeneity of carbonaceous material within sedimentary rocks. Advances have been made in techniques for analysis of in situ organic matter as well as for extracted bulk samples of soluble and insoluble (kerogen) organic fractions. The in situ techniques allow analysis of micrometer-to-sub-micrometer-scale organic residues within their host rocks and include Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy/imagery, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and forms of secondary ion/laser-based mass spectrometry, analytical transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption microscopy/spectroscopy. Analyses can be made for chemical, molecular, and isotopic composition coupled with assessment of spatial relationships to surrounding minerals, veins, and fractures. The bulk analyses include improved methods for minimizing contamination and recognizing syngenetic constituents of soluble organic fractions as well as enhanced spectroscopic and pyrolytic techniques for unlocking syngenetic molecular signatures in kerogen. Together, these technologies provide vital tools for the study of some of the oldest and problematic carbonaceous residues and for advancing our understanding of the earliest stages of biological evolution on Earth and the search for evidence of life beyond Earth. We discuss each of these new technologies, emphasizing their advantages and disadvantages, applications, and likely future directions.

  2. Evaluation of heat generation by radioactive decay of sedimentary rocks in Eastern Desert and Nile Valley, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abbady, Adel G E

    2010-10-01

    Radioactive heat-production (RHP) data of sedimentary outcrops in Gebel Anz (Eastern Desert) and Gebel Sarai (Nile Valley) are presented. A total of 103 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the areas. RHP were derived from uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations measured from gamma-radiation originating from the decay of (214)Bi ((238)U series), (208)Tl ((232)Th series) and the primary decay of (40)K, obtained with a NaI (Tl) detector. The heat-production rate of Gebel Anz ranges from 0.94 (Nubai Sandstone ) to 5.22 microW m(-3) (Duwi Formation). In Gebel Sarai it varies from 0.82 (Esna Shale) to 7 microW m(-3) (Duwi Formation). The contribution due to U is about 62%, from Th is 34% and 4% from K in Gebel Anz. The corresponding values in Gebel Sarai are 69.6%, 26.9% and 3.5%, respectively. These data can be used to discuss the effects of the lateral variation of the RHP rate on the heat flux and the temperature fields in the upper crust. PMID:20472452

  3. Mass Independent Fractionation of Sulphur Isotopes in Precambrian Sedimentary Rocks: Indicator for Changes in Atmospheric Composition and the Operation of the Global Sulphur Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, M.; Farquhar, J.; Strauss, H.

    2005-12-01

    Large mass independent fractionation (MIF) of sulphur isotopes in sedimentary rocks older than 2.3 Ga and the absence of this isotopic anomaly in younger rocks seem to be the consequence of a change in Earth's atmospheric composition from essentially oxygen-free or to oxygen-rich conditions. MIF is produced by photochemical reactions of volcanogenic sulphur dioxide with UV radiation in the absence of an ozone shield. The products of such processes are elemental sulphur with positive and sulphate with negative Δ33S values. Here we present isotope data (32S, 33S, 34S) for sedimentary pyrites from Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic rocks of the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa), the Pilbara Craton (Australia) and the Greenland Shield (Isua Supercrustal Belt). Their ages range from 3.85 to 2.47 Ga. Large positive Δ33S values up to +9.13 ‰ in several Archaean units from the Kapvaal and Pilbara Cratons are attributed to low atmospheric oxygen at that time. Interestingly, very low Δ33S values between -0.28 and +0.57 ‰ appear to characterize the Witwatersrand succession of South Africa (3.0 Ga). This rather small MIF signature was previously detected in rocks of the same age in Western Australia (OHMOTO et al., 2005). The signature is interpreted as a global signal, which could be the consequence of a shielding effect induced by one or more atmospheric components. The most probable chemical compounds for this process are methane and carbon dioxide. Rocks of the Kameeldoorns Fm. (2.71 Ga), Kaapvaal Craton, display also low values between -0.46 and +0.33 ‰, which are consistent with the small (absent) MIF signal in rocks of the Hardey Fm. (2.76 Ga) of Western Australia (OHMOTO et al., 2005). Very low carbon isotope values between -51 and -40 ‰ in late Archaean kerogens (2.6 - 2.8 Ga) indicate a high concentration of methane in the atmosphere (PAVLOV et al., 2001). This high methane level could produce an organic haze, which absorbed most of the UV radiation and prevented

  4. Integrated Nd isotopic and U-Pb detrital zircon systematics of clastic sedimentary rocks from the Slave Province, Canada: evidence for extensive crustal reworking in the early- to mid-Archean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Katsuyuki; Creaser, Robert A.; Villeneuve, Mike E.

    2000-01-01

    A combined U-Pb geochronology and Nd isotopic analysis of clastic metasedimentary rocks from the Archean Slave Province, Northwest Territories, Canada is presented. A series of clastic sedimentary rocks with deposition age of ˜3.13 Ga to ˜2.58 Ga was collected from the west-central Slave Province. These samples include conglomerates as well as finer sedimentary rocks such as greywacke, arkose and quartzite. Although it is generally agreed that the Nd model age ( TDM) of clastic sedimentary rocks represents the average sedimentary provenance age, TDM of samples studied here is generally older than the average U-Pb age of detrital zircons extracted from the same sample. Rather, there seems to be a better ˜1:1 relationship between the TDM and U-Pb age of the oldest zircon from each sample. A simple model relationship between U-Pb geochronology and TDM suggests that such correlation is a result of Archean crustal evolution of the Slave Province being dominated by crustal reworking (i.e. intracrustal processes) rather than addition of juvenile materials from the mantle. One exception is the period between ˜3.1 and ˜3.2 Ga, during which period a significant portion of detrital zircons have U-Pb ages exceeding the TDM, indicating a large input of juvenile material and/or decreasing level of crustal reworking. An alternative explanation for the U-Pb vs. TDM trend may be a mixing of older mafic juvenile crust (containing no zircon) and younger felsic juvenile crust. However, the general lack of extensive pre-2.8 Ga mafic crust in the Slave Province makes this scenario unlikely. The results of this study cannot constrain the change in the volume of continental crust at any given period of time, since the addition of juvenile crust may always be counterbalanced by recycling of crustal material back into the mantle. However, a dominance of crustal reworking during the early- to mid-Archean strongly implies that a large part of ancient crust was lost during the younger

  5. Age and sedimentary record of inland eolian sediments in Lithuania, NE European Sand Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Māris; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.

    2015-07-01

    We present a study based on four inland eolian locations in Eastern, Central and Southeastern Lithuania belonging to the northeastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). Although there have been several previous studies of the ESB, this north-eastern extension has not been investigated before in any detail. The sedimentary structural-textural features are investigated and a chronology was derived using optically stimulated luminescence on both quartz and feldspar. The sedimentary structures and the rounding and surface characteristics of the quartz grains argue for a predominance of eolian transport. Additionally, some structural alternations and a significant contribution of non-eolian grains are interpreted as inherited local glacial/glaciofluvial-bearing lithologies. Three main (glaciolacustrine-) eolian phases are distinguished based on the position in the landscape and the luminescence ages: (1) An older eolian series around 15 to 16 ka, possibly correlated with the cold GS-2a event according to the GRIP stratigraphy, and (2) a younger eolian series around 14.0 ka, possibly representing the GI-1d and 1c events. The older eolian series is underlain by (3) a glaciolacustrine-eolian series for which the period of deposition remains uncertain due to the significant discrepancy between the ages based on quartz and feldspar.

  6. Influence of the spatial distribution of cementation on the permeability and mechanical attributes of sedimentary and fault rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozley, P.; Yoon, H.; Williams, R. T.; Goodwin, L. B.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial distribution of pore-filling authigenic minerals (cements) is highly variable and controlled in large part by the mineralogy of the cements and host sediment grains. Two end-member distributions of cements that commonly occur in sedimentary material are: (1) concretionary, in which precipitation occurred in specific zones throughout the sediment, with intervening areas largely uncemented; and (2) grain-rimming, in which precipitation occurred on grain-surfaces relatively uniformly throughout the rock. Concretions form in rocks in which sediment grains have a different composition from the cement, whereas rim cements form in those that have the same composition. Both the mechanical attributes and permeability of a given volume of rock are affected to a much greater extent by grain rimming cements, which have a significant impact on properties at even low abundances. Concretionary cements have little impact on bulk properties until relatively large volumes have precipitated (~80% cemented) and concretions begin to link up. Precipitation of cement in fault zones also impacts both mechanical and hydrologic properties. Cementation will stiffen and strengthen unlithified sediment, thereby controlling the locus of fracturing in protolith or damage zones. Where fracture networks form in fault damage zones, they are initially high permeability elements. However, progressive cementation greatly diminishes fracture permeability, resulting in cyclical permeability variation linked to fault slip. To quantitatively describe the interactions of groundwater flow, permeability, and patterns and abundance of cements, we use pore-scale modeling of coupled fluid flow, reactive transport, and heterogeneous mineral-surface reactions. By exploring the effects of varying distributions of porosity and mineralogy, which impact patterns of cementation, we provide mechanistic explanations of the interactions of coupled processes under various flow and chemistry conditions.

  7. Modeling folding related multi-scale deformation of sedimentary rock using ALSM and fracture characterization at Raplee Ridge, UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynatt, I.; Hilley, G. E.; Pollard, D. D.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding and predicting the characteristics of folding induced fracturing is an important and intriguing structural problem. Folded sequences of sedimentary rock at depth are common traps for hydrocarbons and water and fractures can strongly effect (both positively and negatively) this trapping capability. For these reasons fold-fracture relationships are well studied, but due to the complex interactions between the remote tectonic stress, rheologic properties, underlying fault geometry and slip, and pre-existing fractures, fracture characteristics can vary greatly from fold to fold. Additionally, examination of the relationships between fundamental characteristics such as fold geometry and fracture density are difficult even in thoroughly studied producing fields as measurements of fold shape are hampered by the low resolution of seismic surveying and measurements of fractures are limited to sparse well-bore locations. Due to the complexity of the system, the limitations of available data and small number of detailed case studies, prediction of fracture characteristics, e.g. the distribution of fracture density, are often difficult to make for a particular fold. We suggest a combination of mechanical and numerical modeling and analysis combined with detailed field mapping can lead to important insights into fold-fracture relationships. We develop methods to quantify both fold geometry and fracture characteristics, and summarize their relationships for an exhumed analogue reservoir case study. The field area is Raplee Monocline, a Laramide aged, N-S oriented, ~14-km long fold exposed in the Monument Upwarp of south-eastern Utah and part of the larger Colorado Plateau geologic province. The investigation involves three distinct parts: 1) Field based characterization and mapping of the fractures on and near the fold; 2) Development of accurate models of the fold geometry using high resolution data including ~3.5x107 x, y, z topographic points collected using

  8. Geochemistry, geochronology, and Sr-Nd isotopes of the Late Neoproterozoic Wadi Kid volcano-sedimentary rocks, Southern Sinai, Egypt: Implications for tectonic setting and crustal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghazi, Abdel-Kader M.; Ali, Kamal A.; Wilde, Simon A.; Zhou, Qin; Andersen, Tom; Andresen, Arild; Abu El-Enen, Mahrous M.; Stern, Robert J.

    2012-12-01

    The Kid Group is one of the few exposures of Neoproterozoic metavolcano-sedimentary rocks in the basement of southern Sinai in the northernmost Arabian-Nubian Shield. It is divided into the mostly metamorphosed volcaniclastic Melhaq and siliciclastic Um Zariq formations in the north and the mostly volcanic Heib and Tarr formations in the south. The Heib, Tarr, and Melhaq formations reflect an intense episode of igneous activity and immature clastic deposition associated with core-complex formation during Ediacaran time, but Um Zariq metasediments are relicts of an older (Cryogenian) sedimentary sequence. The latter yielded detrital zircons with concordant ages as young as 647 ± 12 Ma, which may indicate that the protolith of Um Zariq schist was deposited after ~ 647 Ma but 19 concordant zircons gave a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 813 ± 6 Ma, which may represent the maximum depositional age of this unit. In contrast, a cluster of 11 concordant detrital zircons from the Melhaq Formation yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 615 ± 6 Ma. Zircons from Heib Formation rhyolite clast define a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 609 ± 5 Ma, which is taken to approximate the age of Heib and Tarr formation volcanism. Intrusive syenogranite sample from Wadi Kid yields a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 604 ± 5 Ma. These constraints indicate that shallow-dipping mylonites formed between 615 ± 6 Ma and 604 ± 5 Ma. Geochemical data for volcanic samples from the Melhaq and Heib formations and the granites show continuous major and trace element variations corresponding to those expected from fractional crystallization. The rocks are enriched in large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements, with negative Nb anomalies. These reflect magmas generated by melting of subduction-modified lithospheric mantle, an inference that is further supported by ɛNd(t) = + 2.1 to + 5.5. This mantle source obtained its trace element characteristics by interaction with fluids and melts

  9. Production, migration, redistribution and loss of helium isotopes in sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikhin, Igor; Tarakanov, Sergey; Gannibal, Maria; Waber, Niklaus

    2010-05-01

    The importance of shales layers being a principal source of helium isotopes in adjacent sandstone layers has been shown for the aquifer-aquitard system of the Permo-Carboniferous Trough (PCT) in the Molasse Basin, Northern Switzerland (e.g., Tolstikhin et al., 1996; Lehmann et al., 2003). In this contribution we define processes responsible for He atoms behaviour in PCT and model these processes in order to quantify helium migration parameters. Using U, Th, K and Li concentrations as well as He and Ar isotope abundances obtained for the shale-sandstone-water system of the PCT, we show that: (i) the inventory of the parent elements and He isotopes indicates an intra-basin production and loss of radiogenic helium, (ii) sandstones contribute only little to the inventory of both radiogenic helium isotopes, but serve also as a sink (!) for shale-produced helium and (iii) the simplest estimate of the residence time of He-atoms (as a ratio of He abundance over its production) is long, approaching 100 Ma. Processes controlling the He isotope abundance in PCT include: (i) the production of radiogenic He isotopes in the rocks, mainly in shales, which are enriched in the parent elements, (ii) the loss of radiogenic He atoms from the rock minerals into porewaters, (iii) the migration of He along concentration gradients from the porewater of the shale layers into the porewater of the sandstone layers and there into lattice defects of sandstone-forming minerals such as quartz and feldspars; (iv) the migration of He atoms in the porewater through the connected interstitial pore space towards the aquifer groundwaters with low He concentrations from where it is removed from the system. We model these processes using simple diffusion model envisaging the following conditions: (i) last hydrothermal overprint of the Crystalline basement (infinite thick layer, 315 Ma ago) and subsequent formation of the Permian (285 Ma) to Muschelkalk (240 Ma) sediment layers, each of them including

  10. Improving ground-penetrating radar data in sedimentary rocks using deterministic deconvolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Franseen, E.K.; Miller, R.D.; Weis, T.V.; Byrnes, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Resolution is key to confidently identifying unique geologic features using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. Source wavelet "ringing" (related to bandwidth) in a GPR section limits resolution because of wavelet interference, and can smear reflections in time and/or space. The resultant potential for misinterpretation limits the usefulness of GPR. Deconvolution offers the ability to compress the source wavelet and improve temporal resolution. Unlike statistical deconvolution, deterministic deconvolution is mathematically simple and stable while providing the highest possible resolution because it uses the source wavelet unique to the specific radar equipment. Source wavelets generated in, transmitted through and acquired from air allow successful application of deterministic approaches to wavelet suppression. We demonstrate the validity of using a source wavelet acquired in air as the operator for deterministic deconvolution in a field application using "400-MHz" antennas at a quarry site characterized by interbedded carbonates with shale partings. We collected GPR data on a bench adjacent to cleanly exposed quarry faces in which we placed conductive rods to provide conclusive groundtruth for this approach to deconvolution. The best deconvolution results, which are confirmed by the conductive rods for the 400-MHz antenna tests, were observed for wavelets acquired when the transmitter and receiver were separated by 0.3 m. Applying deterministic deconvolution to GPR data collected in sedimentary strata at our study site resulted in an improvement in resolution (50%) and improved spatial location (0.10-0.15 m) of geologic features compared to the same data processed without deterministic deconvolution. The effectiveness of deterministic deconvolution for increased resolution and spatial accuracy of specific geologic features is further demonstrated by comparing results of deconvolved data with nondeconvolved data acquired along a 30-m transect immediately adjacent

  11. A new method for characterization of porewater chemistry in low-permeability sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celejewski, M.; Al, T. A.; Clark, I. D.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of spatial variability of naturally-occurring tracers in porewater from low-permeability rocks can provide insight into porewater residence time and the nature of solute transport. These system characteristics, in turn, are required to assess the long-term integrity of geologic systems for waste management. However, the measurement of porewater chemistry in low-permeability rocks is challenging because of the small fluid volume and the difficulty of extracting representative samples. Several techniques for porewater characterization are available, but the results they provide can be affected by ion exchange and mineral dissolution, and they may require independent porosity measurements. The objectives of this work are to develop and test a method of extracting representative samples of in-situ porewater from low-permeability rocks, and to accurately quantify solute concentrations in the extracted porewater. The method involves extraction of porewaterby absorption into hydrophilic cellulosic membranes. The masses of solutes extracted with the porewater are measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the mass of extracted water is measured by near infrared (NIR) spectrometry. In-situ porewater solute concentrations are obtained by normalizing solute mass to water mass. Laboratory experiments using controlled additions of brine to cellulosic membranes confirm that the method is capable of providing porewater solute concentrations with precision and accuracy that are within the limits suggested by USEPA Method 6020A for analysis of saline water samples by ICP-MS. This presentation will provide a detailed description of the absorption method and show the results of a field trial in which concentrations of major porewater ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Cl-, Br-) in a low-permeability shale (K <10-12 m/s, porosity < 10 %) were quantified and compared to results from the crush-and-leach method obtained from paired samples. The results of

  12. Two-fluid flow in sedimentary rock: simulation, transport and complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, John F.; Rothman, Daniel H.

    1997-06-01

    The macroscopic properties and structure of the flow of two immiscible fluids through Fontainebleau sandstone are studied by numerical simulation. The pore space geometry was obtained by X-ray microtomography (Kinney et al. 1993) and the numerical simulations were performed by a new lattice-gas cellular automaton method (Olson & Rothman 1995). We first validate the numerical method by showing that the drag on a cubic array of spherical drops matches theoretical predictions. As a further test, we present a comparison between computed relative permeability and experimental measurements on the same rock. We then present a study of fluid fluid coupling; we find that it is significant, and that it appears to be reciprocal: the flux of one fluid due to forcing on the other is the same, regardless of which fluid is forced. Lastly, we characterize the complexity and organization of the flow by means of a statistical parameter, the skewness of the distribution of local velocities.

  13. Detrital zircon provenance of Silurian-Devonian and Triassic sedimentary rocks of the western Yangtze Block: Constraint for the location of South China in Gondwana supercontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiong; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun

    2016-04-01

    During Paleozoic even to early Mesozoic, South China, along with a series of Asia continental blocks, dispersed from the northern margin of Gondwana, drifting across the Tethys Ocean and accreting to the final assembly of Asia in Triassic, which also accepted sediments sourced from the adjoining segments of east Gondwana and itself successively. However, the exact location of South China within the east Gondwana and other Asia blocks is arguing and confusing. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope data from Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and massive Triassic flysch sequences kept in the western margin of South China (Danba-Longmenshan regions) provide a record of the source from which they were derived, and thus being applied to constraining the distribution of basement block in paleogeographic reconstructions and the tectonic setting of the basin. Two Longmenshan Devonian sediments exhibit dominant Grenvillian ages (0.9-1.1 Ga), with mid-Neoproterozoic (730-850 Ma), Pan-African (500-680 Ma) and Neoarchean (2.4-2.5 Ga) age populations, indicative of a typical Gondwana-derived affinity, which is also recorded by the Danba Silurian sample and other Paleozoic sediments (Devonian-Cambrian) in the resting South China block, including the east Yangtze block and the Cathaysia. However, the similar age patterns are not observed in the Devonian sample of Danba region, which exhibits a different age pattern with only two significant age groups of Pan-African (440-600 Ma) and Neoproterozoic (660-994 Ma) with an apparent lack of older zircon grains (>1.0 Ga). The Triassic sandstone from Songpan-Ganze covering sequences shows a distinguished zircon age distribution with prominant mid-Neoproterozoic (649-843 Ma), mid-Paleoproterozoic (1724-1951 Ma) and subordinated Permian-Triassic (236-298 Ma), Paleozoic (375-530 Ma) ages, mainly derived by melting of old crust with few input of juvenile material. Considering provenance changes along with the temporal and variation in

  14. Diffusive anisotropy in low-permeability Ordovician sedimentary rocks from the Michigan Basin in southwest Ontario.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Y; Al, T; Scott, L; Loomer, D

    2013-12-01

    Diffusive anisotropy was investigated using samples from Upper Ordovician shale and argillaceous limestone from the Michigan Basin of southwest Ontario, Canada. Effective diffusion coefficients (De) were determined for iodide (I(-)) and tritiated water (HTO) tracers on paired cm-scale subsamples oriented normal (NB) and parallel to bedding (PB) prepared from preserved drill cores within one year from the date of drilling. For samples with porosity >3%, an X-ray radiography method was used with I(-) tracer for determination of De and porosity accessible to I(-) ions. A through-diffusion method with I(-) and HTO tracers was used for most siltstone and limestone samples with low-porosity (<3%). The De values range from 7.0×10(-13) to 7.7×10(-12) m(2)·s(-1) for shale, 2.1×10(-13) to 1.3×10(-12) m(2)·s(-1) for limestone, and 5.3×10(-14) to 5.6×10(-13) m(2)·s(-1) for siltstone and limestone interbeds within the Georgian Bay Formation shale. The sample-scale anisotropy ratios (De-PB:De-NB) for De values obtained using the I(-) tracer are 0.9 to 4.9, and the anisotropy ratios for the HTO tracer are in the range of 1.1 to 7.0. The influence of porosity distribution on diffusive anisotropy has been investigated using one-dimensional spatially-resolved profiles of I(-)-accessible porosity (shale only) and the use of AgNO3 for fixation of I(-) tracer in the pores, allowing for SEM visualization of I(-)-accessible pore networks. The porosity profiles at the sample scale display greatest variability in the direction normal to bedding which likely reflects sedimentary depositional processes. The SEM imaging suggests that diffusion pathways are preferentially oriented parallel to bedding in the shale and that diffusion occurs dominantly within the argillaceous component of the limestone. However, the fine clay-filled intergranular voids in the dolomitic domains of the limestone are also accessible for diffusive transport. PMID:24121139

  15. A Hydraulic Tomography Experiment in Fractured Sedimentary Rocks, Newark Basin, New Jersey, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiedeman, C. R.; Barrash, W.; Thrash, C. J.; Johnson, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic tomography was performed in July 2015 in contaminated fractured mudstone beds at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in the Newark Basin near Trenton, NJ using seven existing wells. The spatial arrangement of wells (in a circle of 9 m radius with one central well), the use of packers to divide the wells into multiple monitoring intervals, and the deployment of fiber optic pressure transducers enabled collection of a hydraulic tomography dataset comprising high-resolution drawdown observations at an unprecedented level of spatial detail for fractured rocks. The experiment involved 45-minute cross-hole aquifer tests, conducted by pumping from a given packer-isolated well interval and continuously monitoring drawdowns in all other well intervals. The collective set of drawdown data from all tests and intervals displays a wide range of behavior suggestive of highly heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity (K) within the tested volume, such as: drawdown curves for different well intervals crossing one another on drawdown-time plots; variable drawdown curve shapes, including linear segments on log-log plots; variable order and magnitude of time-lag and/or drawdown for intervals of a given well in response to pumping from similar fractures or stratigraphic units in different wells; and variable groupings of wells and intervals showing similar responses for different pumping tests. The observed behavior is consistent with previous testing at the NAWC indicating that K within and across individual mudstone beds can vary by orders of magnitude over scales of meters. Preliminary assessment of the drawdown data together with a rich set of geophysical logs suggests an initial conceptual model that includes densely distributed fractures of moderate K at the shallowest depths of the tested volume, connected high-K bedding-plane-parting fractures at intermediate depths, and sparse low-K fractures in the deeper rocks. Future work will involve tomographic inversion of

  16. Deformation of Sedimentary Rock Across the San Andreas Fault Zone: Mesoscale and Microscale Structures Displayed in Core From SAFOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, J. S.; Chester, F. M.; Kirschner, D. L.; Almeida, R.; Evans, J. P.; Guillemette, R. N.; Hickman, S.; Zoback, M.; Ellsworth, W.

    2007-12-01

    Sedimentary rocks captured in cores taken at the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) provide an unparalleled sampling of deformation in the transition zone between creeping and locked segments of a major transform fault at 2.5-3.1 km vertical depth. These samples provide the unique opportunity to study deformation processes and the development of brittle structures within porous and granular rocks that have been subjected to variable loading rates and chemically reactive fluids while residing at the top of the seismogenic zone. The samples provide a transect from relatively undeformed host rock through highly fractured and sheared rock, and capture the two prominent zones of active, aseismic slip. Core recovery was almost complete. Wrap-around 1:1 map tracings of the outer surfaces of all cores characterize the lithology and mesoscale deformation. Cores from 3056-3067 m and 3141-3153 m measured depth (MD) sample moderately deformed rock at the western boundary of the fault zone. The cores display massive to finely laminated, pebbly arkosic sandstones with lesser amounts of fine-grained sandstone and siltstone. Numerous shear fractures and cm-thick cataclastic shear zones form a conjugate geometry indicating contraction at high angles to the San Andreas fault. Both intervals display minor faults that juxtapose different lithologies consistent with meters or greater of slip. Fracture density is variable but tends to increase with proximity to the minor faults. Cross-cutting relationships between shear fractures and cataclastic zones indicate a general progression from early faulting along thicker shear zones to later, more localized slip within shear zones and along fractures. Microstructures provide ample evidence for densification of the sandstones through grain-scale fracture and crushing, as well as fluid assisted processes of crack-sealing, dissolution-precipitation, and alteration-neocrystallization. Grain-scale features are consistent with these

  17. Late Paleozoic final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in the eastern part of the Xing-Meng Orogenic Belt: Constrains from Carboniferous-Permian (meta-) sedimentary strata and (meta-) igneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dapeng; Jin, Ye; Hou, Kejun; Chen, Yuelong; Lu, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Zircon U-Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical data for Carboniferous-Permian (meta-) sedimentary sequences, igneous rocks, and Precambrian amphibolite in the eastern Xing-Meng Orogenic Belt (XMOB) were used to constrain the final stage evolution and the position of closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO). Detrital zircons from Late Paleozoic strata range in age from Archean to Late Paleozoic, with major age groups at ~ 1.0-0.7 Ga and ~ 0.5-0.25 Ga in the northern part and at ~ 2.7-2.5 Ga, ~ 2.1-1.8 Ga, and ~ 0.5-0.25 Ga in the southern part of the XMOB. Striking changes in zircon age distribution patterns indicate inputs to these strata were separated by the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO) in the Late Paleozoic. The PAO closed along the Solonker-Linxi suture. The Late Paleozoic formation ages (~ 346 Ma, ~ 303 Ma, and ~ 269 Ma) of the igneous rocks with arc-like geochemical features south to the PAO, together with previously published data on the regional igneous rocks and ophiolites, indicate double-side subduction of the PAO in the Late Paleozoic.

  18. Analysis of hydromechanical well tests in fractured sedimentary rock at the NAWC site, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdoch, L.C.; Hisz, D.B.; Ebenhack, J.F.; Fowler, D.E.; Tiedeman, C.R.; Germanovich, L.N.

    2009-01-01

    Hydromechanical well tests involve measuring and interpreting displacements along with hydraulic heads that result when a hydraulic stress is applied to a well. The motivation behind this type of test is that the displacement measurements provide information about the constitutive properties and structure of the aquifer that go beyond what can be derived from pressure signals alone. We used a borehole extensometer to measure transient displacements with a resolution of +/- 25 nm during well tests in fractured mudstone and sandstone at the former Naval Air Warfare Center in West Trenton, New Jersey. One well showed opening displacements on the order of 300nm during slug tests with maximum head changes of 7 m. Inversion of the transient signals suggest that a conductive fracture (aperture = 380 ??m, normal stiffness = 8??10 8 Pa/m) was largely responsible for the pressure signal, but the displacement signal appears to have resulted from both the fracture and deformation of the enveloping sandstone (E = 5 GPa, permeability = 0.6 md). At another well, an anomalous but repeatable signal was characterized by closing displacements during increasing pressure. This displacement signal can be explained by a hydraulically active fracture below the extensometer that became pressurized and compressed the overly sediments. Poroelastic theoretical analyses were inverted to estimate parameters and verify interpretations. Copyright 2009 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association.

  19. The effect of pressure on ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in near-surface sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Best, A.I.

    1997-03-01

    Accurate laboratory ultrasonic measurements of velocity and attenuation were made on water-saturated samples of limestone, sandstone and siltstone as a function of effective pressure (5--60 MPa) using the pulse-echo method. Core samples were taken from Carboniferous sediments at the Whitchester shallow borehole test site; they were cut perpendicular to the horizontal bedding planes. The compressional- and shear-wave velocities and quality factors of the limestones generally showed negligible increases with pressure, while those of the siltstones and sandstones showed intermediate and significant increases with pressure, respectively. At 60 MPa, the sandstone samples generally showed a range of quality factors attributed to their differing porosities and differing proportions of rigid skeletal minerals (quartz grains) and compliant matrix materials (clay, kerogenic organic matter); at 5 MPa, they generally showed similar quality factors attributed to the presence of microcracks, which occur predominantly at grain contacts. The results show that kerogenic organic matter behaves in a similar way to other compliant matrix minerals in causing high attenuation at ultrasonic frequencies, and that caution must be exercised when applying high pressure geostatistical relationships to reservoir rocks at low effective pressures. The results indicate the presence of two types of squirt flow loss mechanisms: clay squirt flow dominates at high pressures, while microcrack squirt flow dominates at low pressures. Clean sandstones and limestones can be distinguished from those with significant amounts of compliant minerals, and sandstones with cracks can be distinguished from those without cracks.

  20. Novel DNA Extraction Method Unveiled the Ancient Hot Deep Biosphere Concealed in Terrestrial Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouduka, M.; Suko, T.; Okuzawa, K.; Fukuda, A.; Nanba, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Sakata, S.; Ito, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2009-12-01

    It has been proposed that the hot deep biosphere is distributed deeply in the crust of the Earth. Below the upper limit of life, prokaryotic habitats extend at a depth of 4 km within a typical range of thermal gradients (2.5-3°C/100m). In contrary, large geothermal gradients allow the hot deep biosphere approaching to the Earth’s surface. We conducted aseptic and deoxygenated drilling targeting Miocene marine siliceous rocks in a tectonically stable inland fore-arc basin in central Japan. Although the in-situ groundwater temperature was 30.2°C at a maximum drilling depth of 352 mbgl, opal-CT and clinoptilolite, which commonly form as a result of progressive burial at 30-60°C and over 70°C, respectively, were detected by XRD analysis. However, burial-driven degradation and transformation of sterols (sterene to sterane) was not evident in the core samples. As presented by Y. Suzuki et al. in this meeting, extant microbial populations were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. and Flavobacterium spp. with cell numbers ranging ~107-108 cells/cm3 rock. Despite the abundance of microbial cells, DNA were not extracted from the core samples by conventional methods. We developed a DNA extraction method to avoid binding of DNA onto the siliceous mineral matrix by heating under alkaline conditions, which resulted in the successful retrieval of PCR-amplifiable DNA. Unexpectedly, 16S rRNA gene sequences closely related thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Thermus thermophilus were dominant in the clone libraries from 300- and 350-m deep core samples, while those almost identical to the Pseudomonas spp. were minor. Based on the correlation between the GC contents of 16S rRNA gene sequences and growth temperatures of prokaryotes, the estimated growth temperatures were 90.0°C (G+C=66.3%) and 67.5°C (G+C=61.3%) for G. stearothermophilus and T. thermophilus, respectively. From these results, it is implied that temperature rise in the past led to the colonization of

  1. Geochemistry and Re-Os geochronology of the organic-rich sedimentary rocks in the Jingtieshan Fe-Cu deposit, North Qilian Mountains, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Zuoheng; Li, Chao; Duan, Shigang; Jiang, Zongsheng

    2016-04-01

    The Jingtieshan Group in the North Qilian Mountains, NW China, is dominantly composed of banded iron formations (BIFs), copper deposits and organic-rich sedimentary rocks (ORS, carbonaceous phyllite). X-ray diffraction analysis of the ORS shows the mineral assemblage to be quartz + clay minerals. The total organic carbon contents show a range of 0.44-1.72%. Here we present the results of the geochemistry and Re-Os geochronology of the ORS from the Jingtieshan Group. The high values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW), Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA), and Th/U ratio, indicate intense weathering. The Al2O3/TiO2, Zr/Sc, Th/Sc, La/Th ratios, high rare earth elements abundances, light rare earth elements enrichment (normalized to chondrite), and distinctly negative Eu anomalies, suggest that the Jingtieshan Group ORS were derived mainly from felsic volcanic units. The new Re-Os isochron age of 1308 ± 100 Ma (2σ, n = 6, MSWD = 23) broadly overlap with the previous published ages determined using Sm-Nd and U-Pb isotope systems. The new age represents the depositional age of the Jingtieshan Group, as well that of BIF in the Jingtieshan area. Furthermore, the initial 187Os/188Os ratios (0.44 ± 0.07) indicate that the Os in the seawater was dominantly derived from hydrothermal fluids (∼75%). The Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce∗ = 0.95-1.00) and V/(V + Ni) ratios (0.71-0.86), as well as the lack of enrichment in redox-sensitive trace elements such as U, V, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co and Mn, together with the presence of overlying BIF, suggest that the Jingtieshan area represents a ferruginous deep-water succession. This, and intense submarine hydrothermal activities contributed to the deposition of the Jingtieshan BIF.

  2. Volcanic rocks and pyroclastica as time markers in sedimentary sequences - but how to date them? Examples from the Quaternary Eifel volcanism, German

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoeller, Ludwig; Richter, Daniel; Klinger, Philip; van den Bogaard, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic rocks, in particular tephra, can serve as most valuable time markers in sedimentary sequences such as loess-paleosol sequences, lake sediments, fluvial sediments, etc. Young (Quaternary) volcanic products are often difficult to date with K/Ar or Ar/Ar methods, due to the long half-life of 40K and/or the lack of K-rich minerals in mafic volcanic products. 14C dating is problematic in volcanic environments and limited to < ca 50 ka. Direct dating of volcanic minerals by TL is strongly hampered by so-called "anomalous fading" of volcanic feldspars or pyroxenes. We tested the orange-red (620 nm) R-TL emission of quartz extracted from crustal xenoliths of some Quaternary Eifel volcanoes which were heated during the eruption. The R-TL emission of quartz appears to be suitable because of its high saturation dose which should allow for dating >1 Ma, and because of the lack of anomalous fading as reported in literature. Comparing our first apparent TL ages with new laser Ar/Ar ages from small autogenic phlogopit crystals we found, however, unexpected age underestimations for some samples. Further test relate this observation to the so-called anomalous fading of the quartz separates. Apparently, the temperature experienced by the xenolithic quartz grains during eruption is relevant for their TL stability characteristics. By improving and adjusting R-TL measurement protocols we were so far able to reproduce some 14C and Ar/Ar ages in the range of ca 40 ka to ca 600 ka. Our continuing work will focus on establishing R-TL dating of heated xenolithic quartz as a reliable method for Upper and Middle Pleistocene volcanic events.

  3. Sulfide Oxidation in Marine Sedimentary Rocks as a Source of Trace Metals and Sulfate to Urban California Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, A.; Hammond, D. E.; von Bitner, T.

    2013-12-01

    Watersheds in southern Orange County, CA have received regulatory scrutiny for elevated levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) along with cadmium, nickel, and sulfate as threats to in-stream and marine ecology. Multiple source investigations have failed to attribute these chronic contaminants to anthropogenic sources. Patterns of high TDS in the study region's surface waters correlate poorly with landuse and instead appear to follow geologic substrate. Measurements of springs and seeps reveal groundwater pH as low as 4.8, TDS as high as 8700 mg/L, dissolved concentrations of sulfate up to 50 mM, cadmium up to 1.8 uM, selenium up to 2.4 uM, and nickel up to 14.8 uM flowing directly into creeks. We suggest that subsurface oxidation of sulfide in prevalent Neogene marine sedimentary rock formations is the key weathering mechanism behind this phenomenon. Bulk analysis of the Capistrano and other local formations indicates that they are enriched in select trace metals up to two orders of magnitude relative to average crustal abundance, making them a plausible source of contamination to groundwater, and ultimately, surface water. Though carbonate dissolution in these same formations may offset the acidity at some sites, many groundwater samples were substantially undersaturated in calcite and capable of maintaining low pH and high dissolved metals concentration. While sulfide mineral weathering has been invoked as the cause of significant contamination at former mining sites and undeveloped mineralized regions, our findings indicate this same weathering mechanism may have implications for urbanized catchments that contain marine sedimentary units. Sulfide mineral oxidation can result in substantial sulfate loading, acid production and subsequent mobilization of trace metals and other ions from the surrounding rock matrix, leading to high dissolved contaminant levels. To evaluate water and sulfate sources to these high TDS springs, we measured stable isotopes of water and

  4. Holocene-aged sedimentary records of environmental changes and early agriculture in the lower Yangtze, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atahan, P.; Itzstein-Davey, F.; Taylor, D.; Dodson, J.; Qin, J.; Zheng, H.; Brooks, A.

    2008-03-01

    Sedimentary evidence from a total of 21 AMS 14C dates and 192 pollen and charcoal and 181 phytolith samples from three study sites in the archaeologically rich lower Yangtze in China provides an indication of interactions between early agriculturalists and generally highly dynamic environmental conditions. Results suggest that environmental changes influenced agricultural development, and attest the localised environmental impacts of incipient agriculture. Evidence of human activity, in the form of indicators of deforestation and possibly food production, is apparent by ca 7000 BP (early Neolithic or Majiabang). Clearer evidence of human activity dates to ca 4700 BP (late Neolithic or Liangzhu). Extensive, profound and apparently widespread human impacts do not appear until the Eastern Zhou (Iron Age, ca 2800-2200 BP), however, which in the lower Yangtze was a period associated with technological advances in agriculture, increased urbanisation and relatively stable hydro-geomorphological conditions.

  5. A Novel Layered Sedimentary Rocks Structure of the Oxygen-Enriched Carbon for Ultrahigh-Rate-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin-Lin; Li, Huan-Huan; Shi, Yan-Hong; Fan, Chao-Ying; Wu, Xing-Long; Wang, Hai-Feng; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2016-02-17

    In this paper, gelatin as a natural biomass was selected to successfully prepare an oxygen-enriched carbon with layered sedimentary rocks structure, which exhibited ultrahigh-rate performance and excellent cycling stability as supercapacitors. The specific capacitance reached 272.6 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and still retained 197.0 F g(-1) even at 100 A g(-1) (with high capacitance retention of 72.3%). The outstanding electrochemical performance resulted from the special layered structure with large surface area (827.8 m(2) g(-1)) and high content of oxygen (16.215 wt %), which effectively realized the synergistic effects of the electrical double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance. Moreover, it delivered an energy density of 25.3 Wh kg(-1) even with a high power density of 34.7 kW kg(-1) and ultralong cycling stability (with no capacitance decay even over 10,000 cycles at 2 A g(-1)) in a symmetric supercapacitor, which are highly desirable for their practical application in energy storage devices and conversion. PMID:26815316

  6. Lithologic discrimination of volcanic and sedimentary rocks by spectral examination of Landsat TM data from the Puma, Central Andes Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Central Andes are widely used as a modern example of noncollisional mountain-building processes. The Puna is a high plateau in the Chilean and Argentine Central Andes extending southward from the altiplano of Bolivia and Peru. Young tectonic and volcanic features are well exposed on the surface of the arid Puna, making them prime targets for the application of high-resolution space imagery such as Shuttle Imaging Radar B and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). Two TM scene quadrants from this area are analyzed using interactive color image processing, examination, and automated classification algorithms. The large volumes of these high-resolution datasets require significantly different techniques than have been used previously for the interpretation of Landsat MSS data. Preliminary results include the determination of the radiance spectra of several volcanic and sedimentary rock units and the use of the spectra for automated classification. Structural interpretations have revealed several previously unknown folds in late Tertiary strata, and key zones have been targeted to be investigated in the field. The synoptic view of space imagery is already filling a critical gap between low-resolution geophysical data and traditional geologic field mapping in the reconnaissance study of poorly mapped mountain frontiers such as the Puna.

  7. Effect of mineral constituents in the bioleaching of uranium from uraniferous sedimentary rock samples, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amin, Maisa M; Elaassy, Ibrahim E; El-Feky, Mohamed G; Sallam, Abdel Sattar M; Talaat, Mona S; Kawady, Nilly A

    2014-08-01

    Bioleaching, like Biotechnology uses microorganisms to extract metals from their ore materials, whereas microbial activity has an appreciable effect on the dissolution of toxic metals and radionuclides. Bioleaching of uranium was carried out with isolated fungi from uraniferous sedimentary rocks from Southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Eight fungal species were isolated from different grades of uraniferous samples. The bio-dissolution experiments showed that Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus exhibited the highest leaching efficiencies of uranium from the studied samples. Through monitoring the bio-dissolution process, the uranium grade and mineralogic constituents of the ore material proved to play an important role in the bioleaching process. The tested samples asserted that the optimum conditions of uranium leaching are: 7 days incubation time, 3% pulp density, 30 °C incubation temperature and pH 3. Both fungi produced the organic acids, namely; oxalic, acetic, citric, formic, malonic, galic and ascorbic in the culture filtrate, indicating an important role in the bioleaching processes. PMID:24682031

  8. New paleomagnetic results from Ordovician sedimentary rocks from NW Anatolia: Tectonic implications for the paleolatitudinal position of the Istanbul Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksum, Erdinc; Hisarlı, Z. Mümtaz; Çinku, Mualla Cengiz; Ustaömer, Timur; Orbay, Naci

    2015-11-01

    The Istanbul terrane, classically known as the "Paleozoic of Istanbul", is geologically one of the important continental components of NW Turkey. The terrane comprises an Early Ordovician to Early Carboniferous transgressive sedimentary sequence and appears as an exotic unit with respect to its present surroundings. The paleogeographical position of the Ordovician rocks is unknown. We have therefore conducted a paleomagnetic study from a total of 56 sites in red fluvial clastics of the Kurtkoy formation and shallow marine quartzites of the Aydos formation to determine the paleolatitude of the Istanbul terrane during the Ordovician. The Lower Ordovician group mean direction calculated from 17 reliable sites provides a mean inclination of I = 19.4°, (α95 = 2.3°, k = 146.0) accepting only inclination data. A paleolatitude of 16.4° is obtained after considering an inclination correction factor of f = 0.6 due to the E/I results. The Early Ordovician paleolatitude of the Istanbul terrane shows a lower paleolatitudinal position closer to the equatorial zone than previously inferred.

  9. Lonestones as indicators of tsunami deposits in deep-sea sedimentary rocks of the Miocene Morozaki Group, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Toru

    2013-05-01

    Lonestones are isolated larger clasts enclosed in muddy fine-grained deposits, and are usually interpreted as iceberg-rafted dropstones. This interpretation implies the existence of glaciers (continental ice sheets) and, consequently, a cool climate. However, alternative interpretations are possible, as lonestones may also be deposited by non-glacial processes. Therefore, clarification of the depositional processes associated with lonestones is fundamental for studies based on lonestone-bearing deposits. A field survey of lonestone-bearing deposits from Early Miocene deep-sea sedimentary rocks found around the Chita Peninsula of central Japan suggests that tsunami-induced flows on the sea bottom may also form lonestones. These lonestones are associated with sandy to gravelly deposits, and were deposited by high-energy episodic currents. The main features of these deposits are the multiple stacking of normally graded units, and the laterally discontinuous distribution of coarse-grained clastic material (sands and gravels). Such features are consistent with deposition by tsunamis and suggest that lonestone-bearing depositional successions must be carefully interpreted, especially where lonestones are used as glacial indicators, as some lonestones were probably put in place by ancient tsunami events.

  10. Nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of sedimentary rocks. Part 2: Hysteresis effects and influence of type of fluid on elastic moduli

    SciTech Connect

    Tutuncu, A.N.; Podio, A.L.; Sharma, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Uniaxial stress cycling experiments were conducted on dry, brine saturated and hexadecane saturated Berea sandstone samples to observe in detail the hysteresis in stress-strain diagrams and to understand the influence of different fluids on the strain amplitude dependence of elastic moduli and attenuation. Cycling experiments were also conducted with sandstone samples saturated with CTAB, a cationic surfactant that renders the mineral surfaces hydrophobic. Hexadecane and CTAB were selected so as to investigate the relative contributions of adhesion hysteresis and stick-slip sliding on attenuation in sedimentary granular rocks. Young`s moduli and Poisson`s ratios obtained from the cycling tests show a significant dependence on strain amplitude on dry as well as water and hexadecane saturated samples. Bow-tie-shaped diagrams are obtained when loading and unloading tangent moduli are plotted against strain. The type of fluid in the pore space and at the grain contacts has a large influence on the hysteresis observed in the stress-strain diagrams.

  11. Comparative geology and geochemistry of sedimentary-rock-hosted (Carlin Type) gold deposits in the People's Republic of China and in Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Zhiping; Peters, Stephen G.

    1998-01-01

    Sedimentary-rock-hosted (Carlin-type) gold deposits have been considered economically significant and geologically distinct since the early 1960's. This report consists of a nine-part text and an interactive database. This small database is to help Western companies get more information about these gold deposits in China, and to help geologists who are interested in world Carlin-type deposits conduct research on them. Because of their economic significance and geological distinctiveness, these deposits have caught the interest of economic geologists all over the world since the early 1960's. Similar deposits have been discovered in China, Australia, Dominican Republic, Spain, and Russia besides Nevada. Perhaps most significant are the 165 Carlin-type gold deposits that were found in southwest China during the past 15 years. Of these, at least 19 deposits have proven to be of substantial tonnage, making China the second leading country to exploit such deposits. With the increasing interest in Chinese Carlin-type gold deposits, some western companies and geologists desire to get more information about these Chinese deposits. This seems to have been very difficult because the literature was in Chinese. It is estimated that several hundred scientific publications (including papers, books, and technical reports) have been published. This database of Chinese Carlin-type Gold deposits is built on the documentation published during the most recent 10 years and includes six subjects, which consist of 165 records and 30 fields. A new Proterozoic-age sedimentary-rock-hosted gold deposit in northeastern P.R. China also is described. Note that for the old version 1.1 on the CD-ROM, the latitude and longitude locations of the mineral occurrences have been estimated from sketch maps and journal articles and are not intended for digital analysis. One of the improvements in this version 1.2 is the accuracy of geographic data. Version 1.3 updates to the database and includes maps

  12. Geochemical Considerations Regarding the Processes Involved in Mineral Deposition in Sedimentary Rock-Hosted Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, J. W.; Gledhill, D. K.

    2005-12-01

    In order for mineral deposition to take place in a vein, first the opposite reaction-dissolution of the mineral must occur from some source rock to place the requisite dissolved components into solution. Then the dissolved components must be transported to the vein either by advective or diffusive means before deposition can ensue. Finally conditions must be such in the vein that a supersaturated solution is produced and conditions are favorable for the nucleation and precipitation of the vein filling mineral. Although these general principles are widely accepted, there are many fundamental questions remaining regarding the chemistry that controls these processes. The controlling parameters are far more complex than simple temperature and pressure variations that are readily dealt with by equilibrium thermodynamic models. Answers for many questions reside, at least in a substantial part, in a better understanding of mineral solubility behavior, and precipitation and dissolution kinetics in high ionic strength solutions (brines) typically found in the subsurface. (Fluid inclusions commonly indicate that vein-filling minerals have precipitated from high ionic strength solutions.) We give as an example of the chemical complexities involving mineral reactions in brines the dissolution of calcite. The good news is that the calcite dissolution reaction is close to first order at high ionic strengths. In addition, common inhibitors, such as magnesium, are not very effective in influencing the rate constant, probably as a result of surface site competition. However, the bad news is that the sensitivity of the rate constant to composition increases with increasing carbon dioxide partial pressure and becomes most strongly influenced by total ionic strength. It is hypothesized that this is the result of a depressed water activity in brines that decreases the rate of cation hydration. We also observed that the inhibitory influence of anionic brine components, such as sulfate

  13. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Ashima; Gogoi, Bibhuti; Ahmad, Mansoor; Ahmad, Talat

    2014-06-01

    The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, cross-cutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.

  14. Radiocarbon ages of sedimentary lipids as tracers of organic carbon input to marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Eglinton, T.I.; Nelson, B.; McNichol, A.P.

    1996-10-01

    A novel analytical approach, Preparative Capillary Gas Chromatography (PCGC), has been used to isolate sufficient quantities of individual hydrocarbon lipids from two marine surface sediments (Black Sea, Arabian Sea) for radiocarbon dating by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). {Delta}{sup 14}C values for bulk sedimentary organic carbon (OC) from the Black and Arabian Sea samples are -105 and -112{per_thousand} respectively. In the Black Sea, extended [higher plant] n-alkanes (n-C{sub 29}, n-C{sub 31}) are significantly enriched relative to bulk OC (ave -80{per_thousand}), indicating input of {open_quotes}fresh{close_quotes} terrestrial organic matter, while shorter chain homologues (n-C{sub 23}, n-C{sub 25}) exhibit depleted (ca. -160{per_thousand}) values, in keeping with the total hydrocarbon fraction (-150{per_thousand}). Arabian Sea hydrocarbons exhibit a much wider range of {Delta}{sup 14}C values (from -38 to -780{per_thousand}). Markers for diatoms (highly branched isoprenoid alkenes) show the youngest radiocarbon ages while saturated hydrocarbons display the oldest ages. We interpret these variations in terms of uptake of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and contributions from relic carbon sources. These and related data will be discussed in the context of organic carbon input and preservation in these marine systems.

  15. Transition in magnetic fabric types in progressively deformed, fine-grained sedimentary rocks of Central Armorica (Brittany, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerinck, Tom; Hirt, Ann M.; Debacker, Timothy N.; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of progressively deformed, fine-grained sedimentary rocks is determined for different tectonometamorphic settings in Central Armorica (Brittany, France). Low-temperature AMS and high-field torque magnetometry on a representative selection of samples indicate that the magnetic fabric is dominantly paramagnetic and the ferromagnetic (s.l.) contribution can be neglected. The AMS documents a progressive transition of intermediate fabrics to tectonic fabrics and increasingly stronger developed tectonic fabrics. An integrated magnetic-mineralogical approach is performed in order to assess whether we can use this evolution as a quantitative indicator for the intensity of cleavage development in Central Armorica. During the magnetic fabric transition, the maximum susceptibility axis (K1) remains stationary oriented parallel to the bedding - cleavage intersection, whereas the minimum susceptibility axis (K3) orientation distribution changes from a moderate girdle distribution in the intermediate fabric types, to a strongly clustered distribution parallel to the cleavage pole for the tectonic fabric types. A Woodcock two-axis ratio plot is used to evaluate this change in K3 distribution. This shows a regional pattern with intermediate fabrics in the southern part of Central Armorica and tectonic fabrics in the northern part of Central Armorica. Quantitative analysis of the observed magnetic fabrics shows that the fabric transition described above is accompanied by an evolution from prolate susceptibility ellipsoids with a relatively low degree of anisotropy to oblate ellipsoid with an increasingly higher degree of anisotropy. In a graph of the shape parameter T against the corrected degree of anisotropy PJ, this evolution has a hockey-stick shaped pattern with the vertical branch reflecting the actual transition from intermediate to tectonic fabric type and the horizontal branch reflecting progressively stronger developed

  16. Rotation of Plio-Pleistocene Sedimentary Rocks in the Fish Creek Vallecito Basin, Western Salton Trough, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.; Dorsey, R. J.; Janecke, S. U.; Axen, G. J.

    2005-12-01

    Application of paleomagnetism to the study of vertical axis rotations in deformed regions can be used to test estimates of block rotation derived from other methods, such as GPS, with many implications for our understanding of crustal deformation and seismic hazard. We present results of a study that compares magnetization directions obtained by a combination of low-temperature and thermal demagnetization experiments that is inspired by the work of David Dunlop and his colleagues. The magnetostratigraphy of Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin (FCVB), southern California, is well documented (Opdyke et al., 1977; Johnson et al., 1983), who found these rocks to contain a complete record of geomagnetic field reversals spanning Plio-Pleistocene time. Johnson et al. (1983) also concluded that the FCVB had undergone 35° of CW rotation during the past 0.9 Ma. We resampled and reanalyzed their section in order to better document the amount of vertical axis rotation recorded by these rocks. Initial results from 29 sites have well-defined magnetizations with two components. Low temperature (77 K) demagnetization produced 5 to 15% drops in NRM intensity. The first removed component in all samples is unblocked between 90 and 220 °C, and the second-removed components are unblocked between 300 and 590 °C. These two components have sharp and well-defined LT-HT junctions in most samples, indicating SD-like magnetizations. We thus interpret the first-removed component to represent a thermo-viscous magnetization acquired during the past 500-700 ka. The mean of this component is D = 358.4, I = 56.8, k =111, α95 = 2.6°, N = 29. The second-removed components have either normal or reverse polarity. Due to gentle and mostly homoclinal bedding dips, paleomagnetic fold tests are statistically inconclusive, but do show stratigraphic variation in degree of maximum clustering as a function of tilting. Sites from the upper portion of the section have

  17. Spatio-temporal autocorrelation of Neogene-Quaternary volcanic and clastic sedimentary rocks in SW Montana and SE Idaho: Relationship to Cenozoic tectonic and thermally induced extensional events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H. A.; Dai, D.

    2013-12-01

    Two systems of full and half grabens have been forming since the mid-Tertiary through tectonic and thermally induced extensional events in SW Montana and neighboring SE Idaho. The earlier mid-Tertiary Basin and Range (BR) tectonic event formed the NW- and NE-striking mountains around the Snake River Plain (SRP) in Idaho and SW Montana, respectively. Since the mid-Tertiary, partially synchronous with the BR event, diachronous bulging and subsidence due to the thermally induced stress field of the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) has produced the second system of variably-oriented grabens through faulting across the older BR fault blocks. The track of the migration of the YHS is defined by the presence of six prominent volcanic calderas along the SRP which become younger toward the present location of the YHS. Graben basins bounded by both the BR faults and thermally induced cross-faults (CF) systems are now filled with Tertiary-Quaternary clastic sedimentary and volcanic-volcaniclastic rocks. Neogene mafic and felsic lava which erupted along the SRP and clastic sedimentary units (Sixmile Creek Fm., Ts) deposited in both types of graben basins were classified based on their lithology and age, and mapped in ArcGIS 10 as polygon using a combination of MBMG and USGS databases and geological maps at scales of 1:250.000, 1:100,000, and 1:48,000. The spatio-temporal distributions of the lava polygons were then analyzed applying the Global and Local Moran`s I methods to detect any possible spatial or temporal autocorrelation relative to the track of the YHS. The results reveal the spatial autocorrelation of the lithology and age of the Neogene lavas, and suggest a spatio-temporal sequence of eruption of extrusive rocks between Miocene and late Pleistocene along the SRP. The sequence of eruptions, which progressively becomes younger toward the Yellowstone National Park, may track the migration of the YSH. The sub-parallelism of the trend of the SRP with the long axis of the

  18. Combining high resolution vertical gradients and sequence stratigraphy to delineate hydrogeologic units for a contaminated sedimentary rock aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jessica R.; Parker, Beth L.; Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Runkel, Anthony C.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogeologic units (HGUs), representing subsurface contrasts in hydraulic conductivity, form the basis for all conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow. However, conventionally, delineation of these units relies heavily on data sets indirect with respect to hydraulic properties. Here, we use the spatial and temporal characteristics of the vertical component of hydraulic gradient (i.e., vertical gradient) as the primary line of evidence for delineating HGUs for Cambrian-Ordovician sedimentary rocks at a site in Dane County, Wisconsin. The site includes a 16 km2 area encompassing a 3 km long mixed organic contaminants plume. The vertical gradients are derived from hydraulic head profiles obtained using high resolution Westbay multilevel systems installed at 7 locations along two, orthogonal 4 km long cross-sections and monitoring to depths between 90 and 146 m with an average of 3-4 monitoring zones per 10 m. These vertical gradient cross-sections reveal 11 laterally extensive HGUs with contrasting vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv). The position and thickness of the Kv contrasts are consistently associated with sequence stratigraphic features (maximum flooding intervals and sequence boundaries) distinguished at the site using cores and borehole geophysical logs. The same sequence stratigraphic features are also traceable across much of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system of the Midwest US. The vertical gradients and sequence stratigraphy were arrived at independently and when combined provide a hydraulically calibrated sequence stratigraphic framework for the site. This framework provides increased confidence in the precise delineation and description of the nature of HGU contacts in each borehole, reduced uncertainty in interpolation of the HGUs between boreholes, and some capability to predict HGU boundaries and thickness in offsite areas where high resolution hydraulic data sets are not available. Consequently, this HGU conceptual model will

  19. Age constraints on late Mesozoic lithospheric extension and origin of bimodal volcanic rocks from the Hailar basin, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang-Qing; Hegner, Ernst; Yang, Yi-Zeng; Wu, Jia-De; Chen, Fukun

    2014-03-01

    Following the amalgamation of the late Mesoproterozoic-Carboniferous Central Asian Orogenic Belt with the Siberian and North China cratons, NE China underwent late Mesozoic lithospheric extension and widespread formation of volcano-sedimentary basins. We report U-Pb zircon ages and geochemical data for mafic and felsic volcanic rocks from the Hailar basin, located about 1000 km north of Beijing. Zircon populations of six felsic rock samples analyzed by laser ablation ICP-MS yielded similar U-Pb age spectra ranging from 158 to 125 Ma. The youngest zircon ages are interpreted as time of magma eruption and the xenocrystic zircon-age spectra as evidence for a protracted melting of lower crust due to the underplating of mantle-derived magmas during lithospheric extension. The volcanic assemblage has a bimodal composition comprising geochemically evolved trachybasalts and felsic volcanic rocks of I- and subordinate A-type compositions. The mafic volcanic rocks have negative Nb-anomalies, high Th/Nb and Ce/Pb ratios, low initial ɛNd values of + 0.4 to + 3.4, and radiogenic Pb and Sr isotopes all interpreted as evidence for the melting of passively upwelling asthenosphere and lithospheric mantle previously modified by plate subduction. The xenocrystic zircon ages and chemical/isotopic data of the felsic rocks support an origin from juvenile crustal protoliths: the data of I-type felsic rocks are consistent with the melting of underplated mafic protoliths and those of the A-type rhyolites support the melting of a crustal source with a composition similar to the I-type felsites with apatite controlling their Nb anomaly. The evidence for the persistent melting of a subduction-modified mantle in NE China is in agreement with a model of an extending coupled upper mantle-crust system due to a retreating Paleo-Pacific trench.

  20. Talking Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Dale; Corley, Brenda

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the ways that rocks can be used to enhance children's creativity and their interest in science. Suggests the creation of a dramatic production involving rocks. Includes basic information on sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. (TW)

  1. Petroleum potential of volcanogenic and volcano-sedimentary rocks in ancient and recent island arcs: Caucasus, Komandorskie, and Kuril islands, eastern Kamchatka

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, L.E. )

    1993-09-01

    In the Late Cretaceous-Eocene, subduction of the Tethys oceanic plate under the island arc of the lesser Caucasus contributed to the appearance of the special conditions favorable for petroleum occurrence: (1) tectono-magmatic destruction of the crust of the Transcaucasus median massif and formation of hydrocarbon traps of different types and origins, and (2) high heat flow lasting until the recent epoch. These led flow-intensive generation of hydrocarbons in the shallow-water sediments of the paleoshelf of the Transcaucasus massif and accumulation of hydrocarbons not only in the sedimentary but also in the volcanogenic and volcano-sedimentary reservoirs (Samgori-Patardzeuli, Muradhanly fields, etc.). At the end of the Oligocene, the geodynamic setting in the northwestern margins of the Pacific Ocean was mainly similar to that within the Transcaucasus median massif. At the end of Oligocene-Miocene, such conditions determined the tectono-magmatic destruction of the continental crust and formation of the series of interarc rifts. The main fields of Japan, with accumulations in the volcanogenic and volcano-sedimentary rocks, are concentrated here. Its analog is the rift located in the southern part of a single east Kuril basin, where petroleum occurrence is only inferred. In the separate troughs, the thickness of the volcano-sedimentary cover is 4-6 km. The stratigraphic section of the cover contains the volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sediments of the Neogene-Pleistocene. The studies of the sections of the Komandorskie islands, eastern Kamchatka, Kuril Islands, and western Sakhalin indicate that distribution of reservoirs depends on the stage of evolution of the rifts and adjacent island arcs.

  2. Leaching of boron, arsenic and selenium from sedimentary rocks: I. Effects of contact time, mixing speed and liquid-to-solid ratio.

    PubMed

    Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Hashimoto, Ayaka; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Yoneda, Tetsuro

    2014-02-15

    Sedimentary rocks of marine origin excavated in tunnel projects were recently identified as potentially hazardous because they could release significant amounts of toxic trace elements when exposed to the environment. This study investigated the leaching characteristics of B, As, Se and the major coexisting ions under various conditions to identify the factors and processes controlling their evolution in the leachate. In addition, we evaluated whether the parameters of the currently used leachability test for excavated rocks were adequate. Although the leachabilities of B, As and Se similarly increased at longer contact times, only those of B and As were influenced by the mixing speed and/or liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S). The majority of trace elements dissolved in the leachate originated from the dissolution of soluble salts formed from seawater of the Cretaceous trapped during the formation of the sedimentary rocks. Moreover, the alkaline pH of the leachates could be attributed to the simultaneous dissolutions at varying degrees of the mineral components of the rocks as well as the precipitation of clay minerals. In the leaching test of excavated rocks for regulatory purposes, the best values of contact time and mixing speed should represent conditions of the highest trace element extractabilities, which in this study were found at longer contact times (>48 h) and the fastest mixing speed (200 rpm). The most appropriate L/S for the leaching test is 10 because it was around this L/S that the extractabilities and leaching concentrations of the trace elements were simultaneously observed at their highest values. PMID:24317116

  3. Palaeomagnetism of Archaean age rocks - what, how, and why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggin, Andy; Roberts-Artal, Laura; Langereis, Cor

    2013-04-01

    The extraordinary stability of remanent magnetisation held in some naturally-occurring ferromagnetic particles implies that even rocks that are billions of years old may record the ambient magnetic field conditions from the time that they formed. Certain rocks from the Barberton Greenstone Belt have demonstrated such a capacity and therefore represent an invaluable resource for palaeomagnetic studies of the early Earth. Here we review the challenges, successes, motivations, and future potential of palaeomagnetic studies applied to Archaean-age rocks in the context of the drill cores recently collected from the Barberton Greenstone Belt. The aims of such studies are two-fold: to study the geomagnetic field itself, and to use the direction of the field as preserved in the rocks to delineate polar wander. The Earth's magnetic field is generated in the core of the planet but also shields the atmosphere from erosion by the solar wind (which was much stronger in the Archaean). Consequently, the geomagnetic application of palaeomagnetism can inform us about conditions both at the surface and in the deep interior of the planet. Notable recent successes in this area include relatively robust observations that convection within the Earth's core was sustaining a stable field that appeared similar in character to today's 3.5 billion years ago and indeed that it was more stable on average 2.5 billion years ago than in the last few hundreds of millions of years. Observations of polar wander are more ambiguous. In the first instance, it is extremely difficult in such old rocks to distinguish apparent polar wander resulting from tectonic drift from that due to "true polar wander" - the motion of the entire crust and mantle relative to the Earth's rotation axis. Nevertheless, both of these are ultimately a consequence of mantle convection and therefore firm constraints on rates of simply "polar wander", would still be a useful constraint on geodynamic processes. Published

  4. Petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the Paleogene sedimentary rocks from the North Jiangsu Basin, Eastern China: implications for provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ni; Lin, Chun-Ming; Zhang, Xia

    2014-08-01

    The petrography and geochemistry (major, trace, and rare earth elements) of clastic sedimentary rocks from the Paleogene Dainan Formation (E2 d) in the North Jiangsu Basin, eastern China, are investigated to trace their provenance and to constrain their tectonic setting. The studied samples are characterized by LREE enrichment, flat HREE, and negative Eu anomaly similar to the upper continental crust composed chiefly of felsic components in the source area. Petrographic observation indicates that the sandstones contain predominant metamorphic and sedimentary clasts that were derived from peripheral recycled orogen and intrabasinal materials. The trace element ratios (Co/Th, La/Sc, La/Th, and Th/U) and the La-Th-Sc ternary plot further confirm that the sandstones are derived from granitic gneiss sources from recycled orogen and the intrabasinal mixed sedimentary provenance. The granitic gneiss source rocks may have derived from the Proterozoic granitic gneiss denuded in the eastern Dabie-Sulu orogen; and the intrabasinal provenance may come from the underlying strata during the Late Paleocene Wubao movement. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) and A-CN-K plot show that these source rocks may have experienced weak to medium chemical weathering. Analysis on tectonic setting of the source area suggests an active continental margin, which is intimate with tectonic feature of the Dabie-sulu orogen and the Yangtze block. In summary, we suggest that the North Jiangsu Basin is an ideal site for the study of the coupling between the uplift of the orogen and the subsidence of the foreland basin.

  5. On the age of KREEP. [in lunar highland rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palme, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is noted that the variable Rb-Sr model ages of lunar highland rocks containing a significant amount of KREEP basalt may be best explained by some fractionation of Rb from Sr during metamorphism 3.9 billion years ago, but the uniformity of the KREEP-type trace-element pattern in different highland samples indicates that elements such as the rare earth were hardly fractionated at all during the metamorphic event. Data are presented which show that the Rb/Sr fractionation 3.9 billion years ago was due to Rb mobilization alone in most cases and that this fractionation can be accounted for by coupling of Rb to other, less volatile incompatible elements. Variations of Rb in lunar highland rocks are analyzed, a correction method is applied for the Rb/Sr fractionation, and results are evaluated separately for Apollo 16 VHA and KREEP basalts, Apollo 17 noritic breccias, Apollo 14 KREEP breccias, Apollo 15 KREEP basalts, and Apollo 15-KREEP-enriched breccias. Evidence for volatilization of alkalis from glasses of impact origin is summarized, and an apparent correlation is discussed between meteoritic component (as given by the Ir/Au ratio) and rock type (as given by the U or Rb content) for many lunar highland samples.

  6. Age and Correlation of Late Paleoproterozoic Sedimentary Successions in Northwestern Canada and Their Bearing on the Paleogeography of Laurentia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainbird, R. H.; Davis, W. J.; Hahn, K.; Furlanetto, F.; Thorkelson, D.

    2009-05-01

    Nearly 40 years ago, Fraser et al. (1970) proposed that thick basinal deposits of late Paleoproterozoic age along the western paleo-continental margin of Laurentia might represent the marine, deep-water complement of thinner but broadly correlative terrestrial sandstone deposits preserved today in intracontinental basins of the Canadian shield such as the Hornby Bay, Athabasca and Thelon. These basins exhibit comparable geometry, lithology, stratigraphy and overall paleocurrent patterns, which suggested they were initially co- extensive. Regional paleocurrents derived from crossbedded sandstone units interpreted as braided river deposits are dominantly west-directed in the mid-upper parts of all basins but are variable in the lower parts, supporting distinct initial basins that were later joined by broad fluvial braidplains originating from sources along active orogenic uplands located to the east (e.g. Trans-Hudson orogen). The sediment from these rivers was shunted westward across the craton and ultimately deposited along Laurentia's western margin. Geophysical data suggest that the distal parts of these river systems are preserved in the subsurface of northwestern Canada and are contiguous with fine-grained siliclastic and carbonate rocks of the Wernecke Supergroup and Muskwa Assemblage. One way to test this paleogeographic model is to compare the provenance of different parts of this sedimentary system using detrital zircon geochronology. Previous studies of the Muskwa assemblage (Ross et al. 2001) were compared with data for the Athabasca Group of the Athabasca Basin (Rainbird et al. 2007). A prominent peak of ages between 1.9-1.8 Ga is present in both successions and suggests common provenance from the Trans-Hudson orogen and delivery of detritus to the western margin of Laurentia by a >1000 km long drainage system. Based on correlation of seismic sections, MacLean and Cook (2004) proposed that the Wernecke Supergroup is equivalent to the lower part of the

  7. Aquifer tests and simulation of ground-water flow in Triassic sedimentary rocks near Colmar, Bucks and Montgomery Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.; Bird, Philip H.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate ground-water flow in Triassic sedimentary rocks near Colmar, in Bucks and Montgomery Counties, Pa. The study was conducted to help the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluate remediation alternatives at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, where ground water has been contaminated by volatile organic solvents (primarily trichloroethene). The investigation focused on determining the (1) drawdown caused by separately pumping North PennWater Authority wells NP?21 and NP?87, (2) probable paths of groundwater movement under present-day (2000) conditions (with NP?21 discontinued), and (3) areas contributing recharge to wells if pumping from wells NP-21 or NP?87 were restarted and new recovery wells were installed. Drawdown was calculated from water levels measured in observation wells during aquifer tests of NP?21 and NP?87. The direction of ground-water flow was estimated by use of a three-dimensional ground-water-flow model. Aquifer tests were conducted by pumping NP?21 for about 7 days at 257 gallons per minute in June 2000 and NP?87 for 3 days at 402 gallons per minute in May 2002. Drawdown was measured in 45 observation wells during the NP?21 test and 35 observation wells during the NP?87 test. Drawdown in observation wells ranged from 0 to 6.8 feet at the end of the NP?21 test and 0.5 to 12 feet at the end of the NP?87 test. The aquifer tests showed that ground-water levels declined mostly in observation wells that were completed in the geologic units penetrated by the pumped wells. Because the geologic units dip about 27 degrees to the northwest, shallow wells up dip to the southeast of the pumped well showed a good hydraulic connection to the geologic units stressed by pumping. Most observation wells down dip from the pumping well penetrated units higher in the stratigraphic section that were not well

  8. Heterogeneous carbonaceous matter in sedimentary rock lithocomponents causes significant trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption in a low organic carbon content aquifer/aquitard system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choung, Sungwook; Zimmerman, Lisa R.; Allen-King, Richelle M.; Ligouis, Bertrand; Feenstra, Stanley

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of heterogeneous thermally altered carbonaceous matter (CM) on trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption for a low fraction organic carbon content (foc) alluvial sedimentary aquifer and aquitard system (foc = 0.046-0.105%). The equilibrium TCE sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear with Freundlich exponents of 0.46-0.58. Kerogen + black carbon was the dominant CM fraction extracted from the sediments and accounted for > 60% and 99% of the total in the sands and silt, respectively. Organic petrological examination determined that the kerogen included abundant amorphous organic matter (bituminite), likely of marine origin. The dark calcareous siltstone exhibited the greatest TCE sorption among aquifer lithocomponents and accounted for most sorption in the aquifer. The results suggest that the source of the thermally altered CM, which causes nonlinear sorption, was derived from parent Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks that outcrop throughout much of New York State. A synthetic aquifer-aquitard unit system (10% aquitard) was used to illustrate the effect of the observed nonlinear sorption on mass storage potential at equilibrium. The calculation showed that > 80% of TCE mass contained in the aquifer was sorbed on the aquifer sediment at aqueous concentration < 1000 μg L- 1. These results show that sorption is likely a significant contributor to the persistence of a TCE groundwater plume in the aquifer studied. It is implied that sorption may similarly contribute to TCE persistence in other glacial alluvial aquifers with similar geologic characteristics, i.e., comprised of sedimentary rock lithocomponents that contain thermally altered CM.

  9. Comparison of alternative representations of hydraulic-conductivity anisotropy in folded fractured-sedimentary rock: Modeling groundwater flow in the Shenandoah Valley (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.; Voss, C.I.; Southworth, S.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical representation that explicitly represents the generalized three-dimensional anisotropy of folded fractured-sedimentary rocks in a groundwater model best reproduces the salient features of the flow system in the Shenandoah Valley, USA. This conclusion results from a comparison of four alternative representations of anisotropy in which the hydraulic-conductivity tensor represents the bedrock structure as (model A) anisotropic with variable strikes and dips, (model B) horizontally anisotropic with a uniform strike, (model C) horizontally anisotropic with variable strikes, and (model D) isotropic. Simulations using the US Geological Survey groundwater flow and transport model SUTRA are based on a representation of hydraulic conductivity that conforms to bedding planes in a three-dimensional structural model of the valley that duplicates the pattern of folded sedimentary rocks. In the most general representation, (model A), the directions of maximum and medium hydraulic conductivity conform to the strike and dip of bedding, respectively, while the minimum hydraulic-conductivity direction is perpendicular to bedding. Model A produced a physically realistic flow system that reflects the underlying bedrock structure, with a flow field that is significantly different from those produced by the other three models. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  10. Examination of Martian sedimentary rocks to understand possible paleo-ocean and its age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, T.

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that the terrestrial marine sediments have large cerium anomaly on their chondrite-normalized REE pattern. Siliceous shale and calcaleous sediments have negative Ce-anomaly. Ferromanganese nodule have positive or negative Ce-anomaly. The Ce-anomaly is considered to be a result of tetravalent state of cerium rather than common trivalent. Ferromanganese nodule which formed under reducing condition has negative Ce-anomaly. Then, combined study of Ce-anomaly with Ce isotopes is expected to play an important role in geochemistry. La-138 decays to Ce-138 and Ba-138 with a total half life of about 1 x 10 to the 11th years. Cerium anomalies (positive or negative) are expected in Martian paleo-ocean and in sediments as observed in the terrestrial environment. A list of things to be examined is given.

  11. Review and reconnaissance of the hydrogeology of Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the vicinity of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Prothro, L.B.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    Work is currently underway within the Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Program to develop corrective action plans in support of the overall corrective action strategy for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as established in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). A closure plan is currently being developed for Frenchman Flat, which has been identified in the FFACO as a Corrective Action Unit (CAU). Part of this effort requires that hydrogeologic data be compiled for inclusion in a CAU-specific hydrologic flow and transport model that will be used to predict contaminant boundaries. Hydrogeologic maps and cross sections are currently being prepared for use in the model to define the nature and extent of aquifers and confining units that might influence the flow of contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear tests conducted in Frenchman Flat. During this effort, it has been found that older Tertiary-age sediments might be hydrogeologically important in the Frenchman Flat model area. Although the character and extent of these units are poorly known, there is reason to believe that in some parts of Frenchman Flat they may lie between the regional Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the younger Tertiary saturated alluvium and volcanic units in which several underground nuclear tests were conducted. It was not possible to quickly determine their extent, or ascertain whether or not these units might act as confining units or aquifers. The work described in this report was done to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeology of these rocks.

  12. The relationship between waste rock geochemistry, age and reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.; Helgen, S.; Byrns, C.

    1998-12-31

    Understanding the relationship between variables controlling the propensity for acid rock drainage in the 4000 acre historic Robinson District near Ely, NV, required a detailed understanding of dump conditions. Profiles of O{sub 2}, pH, temperature and specific conductivity were collected from various waste rock dumps that represent a continuum of oxide/sulfide, leached/unleached dumps of different ages from across the site. Young sulfide dumps were characterized by background ambient temperature and rapid oxygen consumption, resulting in the development of a steep oxygen gradient from atmospheric levels at the surface of the dump to near zero levels a few feet into the dump. The temperature of young dumps has yet to increase while recognizable decreases in pH and increases in specific conductivity are just starting. Eventually, the oxidation rate slows, resulting in oxygen levels closer to atmospheric in the dump. During this stage, the pH and SC profiles develop, indicating zones of advanced oxidation and neutralization, and the dump may also develop an elevated temperature gradient. In the mature stage a sulfide dump exhibits close to atmospheric oxygen levels throughout, similar to an oxide dump profile, but remains exothermic. In conjunction with pH, chemical and SC profiles, these data identified dumps that require remedial measures compared to those that require only minimal action prior to closure.

  13. Age of the basement rocks of southwest Montana.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, H.L.; Hedge, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Rb-Sr analyses of a suite of quartzofeldspathic gneisses that are interlayered with beds of marble, quartzite, and amphibolite in the Ruby and Tobacca Root Ranges and the Gallatin River canyon of southwest Montana show that the age of metamorphism of these strata occurred about 2750 m.y. ago. The 13 samples analyzed are from rock units that have in the past been assigned stratigraphically to the Pony Group, Cherry Creek Group, and Dillion Granite Gneiss. Except for two samples of anomalous composition, the data define a linear array on an isochron diagram that has a best-fit value of 2762+- 113 m.y. Inclusion of other published data for the Tobacco Root Range yields a best-fit value of 2730+- 85 m.y. This age corresponds closely to that of the principal metamorphic-plutonic epoch of the Beartooth Mountains, to which the term 'Beartooth orogeny' has been applied. It also demonstrates that the major Precambrian metasedimentary sequences of the region are of Archean age. - Authors

  14. Petroleum potential of the Libyan sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Hammuda, O.S.; Sbeta, A.M.

    1988-08-01

    Contrary to prevailing opinion, all Libyan sedimentary basins and the Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar platform contain prolific petroleum accumulations with very high prospectivity. A systematic review of the types of traps and pays in this central part of the southern Mediterranean province reveals great variability in reservoir and source rock characteristics. The reservoir rocks are of almost all geologic ages. The thick source rock sequences also vary in nature and organic content. The organic-rich facies have accumulated in intracratonic and passive margin basins or in marginal seas. Most of the oil discovered thus far in these basins is found in large structural traps. Future discoveries of stratigraphic traps or small structural traps will require intensified efforts and detailed studies using up-to-date multidisciplinary techniques in sedimentary tectonics, biostratigraphic facies analysis, and geochemical prospecting in order to develop a better understanding of these basins, thus improving their prospectivity.

  15. Structural geology of Amazonian-aged layered sedimentary deposits in southwest Candor Chasma, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okubo, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The structural geology of an outcropping of layered sedimentary deposits in southwest Candor Chasma is mapped using two adjacent high-resolution (1 m/pixel) HiRISE digital elevation models and orthoimagery. Analysis of these structural data yields new insight into the depositional and deformational history of these deposits. Bedding in non-deformed areas generally dips toward the center of west Candor Chasma, suggesting that these deposits are basin-filling sediments. Numerous kilometer-scale faults and folds characterize the deformation here. Normal faults of the requisite orientation and length for chasma-related faulting are not observed, indicating that the local sediments accumulated after chasma formation had largely ceased in this area. The cause of the observed deformation is attributed to landsliding within these sedimentary deposits. Observed crosscutting relationships indicate that a population of sub-vertical joints are the youngest deformational structures in the area. The distribution of strain amongst these joints, and an apparently youthful infill of sediment, suggests that these fractures have been active in the recent past. The source of the driving stress acting on these joints has yet to be fully constrained, but the joint orientations are consistent with minor subsidence within west Candor Chasma.

  16. Average sedimentary rock rare Earth element patterns and crustal evolution: Some observations and implications from the 3800 Ma ISUA supracrustal belt, West Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dymek, R. F.; Boak, J. L.; Gromet, L. P.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) data is given on a set of clastic metasediments from the 3800 Ma Isua Supracrustal belt, West Greenland. Each of two units from the same sedimentary sequence has a distinctive REE pattern, but the average of these rocks bears a very strong resemblance to the REE pattern for the North American Shale Composite (NASC), and departs considerably from previous estimates of REE patterns in Archaean sediments. The possibility that the source area for the Isua sediments resembled that of the NASC is regarded as highly unlikely. However, REE patterns like that in the NASC may be produced by sedimentary recycling of material yielding patterns such as are found at Isua. The results lead to the following tentative conclusions: (1) The REE patterns for Isua Seq. B MBG indicate the existence of crustal materials with fractionated REE and negative Eu anomalies at 3800 Ma, (2) The average Seq. B REE pattern resembles that of the North American Shale Composite (NASC), (3) If the Seq. B average is truly representative of its crustal sources, then this early crust could have been extensively differentiated. In this regard, a proper understanding of the NASC pattern, and its relationship to post-Archaean crustal REE reservoirs, is essential, (4) The Isua results may represent a local effect.

  17. Petrology, geochemistry, and metamorphic evolution of meta-sedimentary rocks in the Diancang Shan-Ailao Shan metamorphic complex, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Liu, Fulai; Liu, Pinghua; Shi, Jianrong; Cai, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Meta-sedimentary rocks are widely distributed within the Diancang Shan-Ailao Shan metamorphic complex in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Detailed geochemical analyses show that all of them have similar geochemical features. They are enriched in light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs), with moderately negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.55-0.75). Major and trace element compositions for the meta-sedimentary rocks suggest that the protoliths were probably claystone, siltstone, and greywacke and deposited in an active continental margin. Garnet porphyroblasts in meta-sedimentary rocks have distinct compositional zonation from core to rim. The zonation of garnet in St-Ky-Grt-Bt-Ms schist indicates an increasing P-T trend during garnet growth. In contrast, garnets from (Sil)-Grt-Bt paragneiss show diffusion zoning, implying a decreasing P-T trend. Based on mineral transformations and P-T estimates using conventional geothermobarometers and pseudosection calculations, four metamorphic stages have been determined, including an early prograde metamorphic stage (M1), a peak amphibolite-granulite facies metamorphic stage (M2), a near-isothermal decompression stage (M3), and a late amphibolites-facies retrograde stage (M4). The relic assemblage of Ms + St ± Ky ± Bt ± Kfs + Qz preserved as inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts of the meta-sedimentary rocks belongs to prograde (M1) stage and records P-T conditions of 560-590 °C and 5.5-6.3 kb. Matrix mineral assemblages of Grt + Bt + Ky/Sil + Pl + Qz and Grt + Bt ± Sil + Pl ± Kfs + Qz formed at peak (M2) stage yield P-T conditions of 720-760 °C and 8.0-9.3 kb. M3 is characterized by decompression reactions, dehydration melting of assemblages that include hydrous minerals (e.g., biotite), and partial melting of felsic minerals. The retrograde assemblages is Grt + Bt + Sil + Pl + Qz formed at 650-760 °C and 5.0-7.3 kb. At the amphibolites-facies retrograde (M4) stage, fine

  18. Characterization of depositional age and structure of sedimentary successions by U-Pb TIMS and LA-ICP-MS dating of volcanic horizons and detrital zircons: an example from the western Trondheim Nappe Complex, Scandinavian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, Deta; Grenne, Tor; Corfu, Fernando; Eivind Augland, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Revealing the absolute depositional age of non-fossiliferous sedimentary successions represents a long-lasting challenge in Earth Sciences. Lacking age control hampers the correct interpretation of the temporal evolution of depositional systems, and, if deformed, of the architecture of fold-and-thrust belts. Dating of detrital zircons within clastic sedimentary successions has over the past decades become a popular method to approximate the absolute depositional age and to characterize the source areas of such rocks. If combined with other geochronological information, such as dating of contemporaneous volcanic horizons, a much better resolution of the stratigraphy and structure of non-fossiliferous sedimentary successions can be achieved. The western Trondheim nappe complex in the central Scandinavian Caledonides is a classical area in this respect. On top of Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician ophiolitic fragments, various volcanic, volcano-clastic and clastic successions tell a complex story of island-arc formation, ocean closure and continent collision. Several famous fossil horizons indicate deposition during the Middle to Upper Ordovician (ca. 470-445 Ma), but large areas lack an absolute age control and several contrasting stratigraphic schemes and structural interpretations have been presented in the past. In this contribution we present the results of LA-ICP-MS detrital U-Pb zircon dating of clastic horizons as well as U-Pb TIMS zircon dating of volcanic horizons and magmatic clasts in conglomerates in order to characterize the depositional age and structure of the western Trondheim nappe complex in more detail. Together with field observations, including way up criteria, the zircon data enable significant revisions of existing stratigraphic and structural models. At least four (volcano-)sedimentary successions can be distinguished above the ca. 480-485 Ma greenstones: (1) ca. 470-463 Ma shales, limestones and andesitic porphyrites (Hølonda and Fanabekken

  19. Zinc Enrichments in the Rocks of Gale Crater, Mars Measured by MSL-APXS Reflect Both High Zn in Jake_M Rocks and the Concentration of Zn in Sedimentary Cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, J. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Gellert, R.; Fisk, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Zinc enrichments have been discovered by Curiosity's alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) in Gale Crater, Mars. Mugearitic Jake_M class rocks have 80-925 ppm Zn (Zn error in APXS accuracy ~16%), which is higher than shergottites (49-90 ppm) [Meyer, 2012] and abraded Adirondack rocks in Gusev Crater (75-117 ppm) [Gellert et al., 2006], but similar to Irvine and Barnhill class rocks in Gusev (230-422 ppm) [Ming et al., 2008]. The source of Jake_M was enriched in Zn, possibly by partial melting of metasomatized mantle [Stolper et al., 2013; Schmidt et al., 2014]. Relative to Jake_M, most clastic rocks encountered in Gale (sols 0-687) are moderately enriched in Zn (500-1900 ppm). Surface alteration is unlikely to cause elevated Zn because soils have lower Zn (310 to 380 ppm). Excluding soils, veins, very dusty rocks, and high-Ni John Klein rocks, Zn correlates with Fe, Mn, Cr, and Ni (r = 0.83, 0.68, 0.72, and 0.67, respectively). The positive relationships suggest that Zn is mobilized with these metals, possibly precipitating in oxide sedimentary cements with Fe-oxides and/or in the Fe-rich amorphous component. In this subset of rocks, Zn does not correlate with Cl, Br, or S; widespread Zn-halogen salts and Zn-sulfides are unlikely. Notable exceptions are the float rocks Et_Then and Secure, which have high FeO (25-27 wt%) but low Zn (~230-490 ppm) and are interpreted to reflect a distinct cementation or rock coating episode. Two Gale targets <1 m apart at the Kimberly outcrop are highly enriched in Zn, demonstrating the localized nature of Zn enrichments: Windjana drill fines (3430-4680 ppm Zn) have high K2O (3.6 wt%), FeO (~26 wt%), MnO (~0.56 wt%), and Ni (~380 ppm); Stephen (~8150 ppm Zn), interpreted to have a MnO-rich (~4.5 wt%) coating, also has high Ni (~1285 ppm), Cl (~3.2 wt%), and Br (~1850 ppm). An igneous origin of the Zn enrichments in Jake M class rocks is likely, and hydrothermal and/or diagenetic processes probably concentrated Zn in the clastic

  20. Extensional strain and displacement distribution due to mesoscale normal faults in Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary rocks along the northwestern side of the Red Sea, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaky, Kh. S.

    2015-09-01

    Field observations are presented on the NW-SE mesoscale, dip-slip, normal faults in the Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary rocks, along the northwestern part of the SW side of the Red Sea, Egypt. These faults were initiated parallel to the Red Sea, and were originated by the NE-SW extension associated with the Red Sea opening in the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time. About 100 mesoscale normal faults were measured in the Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary rocks along seven scan-lines. The extensional strain determined in five scan-lines ranges from 2.6393 to 5.12% with an average of 3.53145%. The other two scan-lines have anomalous values of 6.2988 and 15.53%. The represented data demonstrate that the extensional strain varies significantly from profile to profile and even along the fault because of several surficial factors. The first factor is a difference in lithology. The second and third factors are the local stress and the difference between perpendicular to the direction of maximum lateral extension of area and strike of faults. The L-D (Length-Displacement) diagrams along twelve selected faults reveal three patterns. These patterns include a cone-shaped (C-type), meso-shaped (M-type), and a zigzag-shaped (Z-type). The remarkable variation of displacement (D) along the fault plane (L) is a result of the difference in lithology, and/or the overlapping fault segments, as well as the local stress along the faults.

  1. Heterogeneous carbonaceous matter in sedimentary rock lithocomponents causes significant trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption in a low organic carbon content aquifer/aquitard system.

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Zimmerman, Lisa R; Allen-King, Richelle M; Ligouis, Bertrand; Feenstra, Stanley

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the effects of heterogeneous thermally altered carbonaceous matter (CM) on trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption for a low fraction organic carbon content (foc) alluvial sedimentary aquifer and aquitard system (foc=0.046-0.105%). The equilibrium TCE sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear with Freundlich exponents of 0.46-0.58. Kerogen+black carbon was the dominant CM fraction extracted from the sediments and accounted for >60% and 99% of the total in the sands and silt, respectively. Organic petrological examination determined that the kerogen included abundant amorphous organic matter (bituminite), likely of marine origin. The dark calcareous siltstone exhibited the greatest TCE sorption among aquifer lithocomponents and accounted for most sorption in the aquifer. The results suggest that the source of the thermally altered CM, which causes nonlinear sorption, was derived from parent Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks that outcrop throughout much of New York State. A synthetic aquifer-aquitard unit system (10% aquitard) was used to illustrate the effect of the observed nonlinear sorption on mass storage potential at equilibrium. The calculation showed that >80% of TCE mass contained in the aquifer was sorbed on the aquifer sediment at aqueous concentration <1000 μgL(-1). These results show that sorption is likely a significant contributor to the persistence of a TCE groundwater plume in the aquifer studied. It is implied that sorption may similarly contribute to TCE persistence in other glacial alluvial aquifers with similar geologic characteristics, i.e., comprised of sedimentary rock lithocomponents that contain thermally altered CM. PMID:25168960

  2. Short and long term release mechanisms of arsenic, selenium and boron from a tunnel-excavated sedimentary rock under in situ conditions.

    PubMed

    Tamoto, Shuichi; Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Ito, Mayumi; Hiroyoshi, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks of marine origin excavated from tunnel construction projects usually contain background levels of hazardous trace elements, but when exposed to the environment, they generate leachates with concentrations of arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and boron (B) exceeding the WHO guideline for drinking water. In this study, the leaching of As, Se and B was evaluated under in situ conditions at various flow patterns, particle size distributions and column thicknesses. The results showed that these trace elements were leached out of the rock via short and long term mechanisms. In the short term, all three elements were rapidly and simultaneously released due to the dissolution of soluble evaporite salts formed from entrapped sea water of the Cretaceous. After their rapid release, however, these trace elements behaved differently as a result of their contrasting adsorption affinities onto minerals like clays and Fe-oxyhydroxides, which were further influenced by the pH, presence of coexisting ions and speciation of the trace elements. Selenium was quickly and easily transported out of the columns because it was mostly present as the very mobile selenate ion (Se[VI]). In comparison, the migration of As and B was hindered by adsorption reactions onto mineral phases of the rock. Boron was initially the least mobile among the three because of its preferential adsorption onto clay minerals that was further enhanced by the slightly alkaline pH and high concentrations of Ca(2+) and Na(+). However, it was gradually re-mobilized in the latter part of the experiments because it was only weakly adsorbed via outer sphere complexation reactions. In the long term, the rock continued to release substantial amounts of As, Se and B via pyrite oxidation and adsorption/desorption reactions, which were regulated by the temperature and rainfall intensity/frequency on site. PMID:25747140

  3. Argon broad ion beam tomography in a cryogenic scanning electron microscope: a novel tool for the investigation of representative microstructures in sedimentary rocks containing pore fluid.

    PubMed

    Desbois, G; Urai, J L; Pérez-Willard, F; Radi, Z; Offern, S; Burkart, I; Kukla, P A; Wollenberg, U

    2013-03-01

    The contribution describes the implementation of a broad ion beam (BIB) polisher into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) functioning at cryogenic temperature (cryo). The whole system (BIB-cryo-SEM) provides a first generation of a novel multibeam electron microscope that combines broad ion beam with cryogenic facilities in a conventional SEM to produce large, high-quality cross-sections (up to 2 mm(2)) at cryogenic temperature to be imaged at the state-of-the-art SEM resolution. Cryogenic method allows detecting fluids in their natural environment and preserves samples against desiccation and dehydration, which may damage natural microstructures. The investigation of microstructures in the third dimension is enabled by serial cross-sectioning, providing broad ion beam tomography with slices down to 350 nm thick. The functionalities of the BIB-cryo-SEM are demonstrated by the investigation of rock salts (synthetic coarse-grained sodium chloride synthesized from halite-brine mush cold pressed at 150 MPa and 4.5 GPa, and natural rock salt mylonite from a salt glacier at Qom Kuh, central Iran). In addition, results from BIB-cryo-SEM on a gas shale and Boom Clay are also presented to show that the instrument is suitable for a large range of sedimentary rocks. For the first time, pore and grain fabrics of preserved host and reservoir rocks can be investigated at nm-scale range over a representative elementary area. In comparison with the complementary and overlapping performances of the BIB-SEM method with focused ion beam-SEM and X-ray tomography methods, the BIB cross-sectioning enables detailed insights about morphologies of pores at greater resolution than X-ray tomography and allows the production of large representative surfaces suitable for FIB-SEM investigations of a specific representative site within the BIB cross-section. PMID:23323728

  4. Short and long term release mechanisms of arsenic, selenium and boron from a tunnel-excavated sedimentary rock under in situ conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamoto, Shuichi; Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Ito, Mayumi; Hiroyoshi, Naoki

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary rocks of marine origin excavated from tunnel construction projects usually contain background levels of hazardous trace elements, but when exposed to the environment, they generate leachates with concentrations of arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and boron (B) exceeding the WHO guideline for drinking water. In this study, the leaching of As, Se and B was evaluated under in situ conditions at various flow patterns, particle size distributions and column thicknesses. The results showed that these trace elements were leached out of the rock via short and long term mechanisms. In the short term, all three elements were rapidly and simultaneously released due to the dissolution of soluble evaporite salts formed from entrapped sea water of the Cretaceous. After their rapid release, however, these trace elements behaved differently as a result of their contrasting adsorption affinities onto minerals like clays and Fe-oxyhydroxides, which were further influenced by the pH, presence of coexisting ions and speciation of the trace elements. Selenium was quickly and easily transported out of the columns because it was mostly present as the very mobile selenate ion (Se[VI]). In comparison, the migration of As and B was hindered by adsorption reactions onto mineral phases of the rock. Boron was initially the least mobile among the three because of its preferential adsorption onto clay minerals that was further enhanced by the slightly alkaline pH and high concentrations of Ca2 + and Na+. However, it was gradually re-mobilized in the latter part of the experiments because it was only weakly adsorbed via outer sphere complexation reactions. In the long term, the rock continued to release substantial amounts of As, Se and B via pyrite oxidation and adsorption/desorption reactions, which were regulated by the temperature and rainfall intensity/frequency on site.

  5. Location, age, and rock type of volcanic rocks younger than 5 million years in Arizona and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, M.J. Jr.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1981-04-01

    As part of the assessment of the Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy potential of Arizona and New Mexico, a compilation of the locations and ages of volcanic rocks less than 5 Myr was made. The locations of those rocks less than 3 Myr are shown on a map of the region. Because the compiled information has many uses in addition to geothermal exploration, the entire compilation is presented as a tabulation. The table is organized first by state and secondly by latitude and longitude within each state. Rock type, age and error, method of dating, and original reference are also given. The K-Ar dates have not been recalculated using the most recent decay constants for /sup 40/K. A few references gave only verbal descriptions of sample location; these locations were converted to approximate latitude and longitude.

  6. Lower Paleozoic Through Archean Detrital Zircon Ages From Metasedimentary Rocks of the Nome Group, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, J. M.; Miller, E. L.; Gehrels, G.

    2003-12-01

    near Eldorado Creek and one further south along the Feather River. Each sample yielded 90-105 analyses and all uncertainties are 1 sigma. Chlorite schist MC-74 has a range of ages from the two youngest grains at 484 +/- 18 Ma and 510 +/- 7 Ma to 2984 +/- 2 Ma. Chlorite schist LMC-30 has a youngest grain at 521 +/- 2 Ma and an oldest grain of 2027 +/- 12. Quartz-mica schist LMC-58 also has a youngest grain at 521 +/- 2 Ma and an oldest grain of 2655 +/- 7 Ma. All three therefore have lower Paleozoic zircons, suggesting Lower Cambrian or younger depositional ages. Combining the data from all three rocks results in peaks on a cumulative probability plot at (in descending order of importance): 600 Ma, 683 Ma, 1593 Ma, 522 Ma, and 2985 Ma, with several smaller peaks between 774-1540 Ma and 1685-1960 Ma. Published ages from Nome Group orthogneisses are 680 Ma, suggesting the samples so far analyzed are likely in part sourced from local basement rocks that were eroded to provide ~680 Ma detrital zircons to sedimentary protoliths of part of the Nome Group.

  7. Sedimentary petrology and geochemistry of siliciclastic rocks from the upper Jurassic Tordillo Formation (Neuquén Basin, western Argentina): Implications for provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalletti, Luis A.; Queralt, Ignasi; Matheos, Sergio D.; Colombo, Ferrán; Maggi, Jorge

    2008-06-01

    The Upper Jurassic Tordillo Formation is exposed along the western edge of the Neuquén Basin (west central Argentina) and consists of fluvial strata deposited under arid/semiarid conditions. The pebble composition of conglomerates, mineralogical composition of sandstones and pelitic rocks, and major- and trace-element geochemistry of sandstones, mudstones, and primary pyroclastic deposits are evaluated to determine the provenance and tectonic setting of the sedimentary basin. Conglomerates and sandstones derived almost exclusively from volcanic sources. The stratigraphic sections to the south show a clast population of conglomerates dominated by silicic volcanic fragments and a predominance of feldspathic litharenites. This framework composition records erosion of Triassic-Jurassic synrift volcaniclastic rocks and basement rocks from the Huincul arch, which was exhumed as a result of Late Jurassic inversion. In the northwestern part of the study area, conglomerates show a large proportion of mafic and acidic volcanic rock fragments, and sandstones are characterised by a high content of mafic volcanic rock fragments and plagioclase. These data suggest that the source of the sandstones and conglomerates was primarily the Andean magmatic arc, located west of the Neuquén Basin. The clay mineral assemblage is interpreted as the result of a complex set of factors, including source rock, climate, transport, and diagenesis. Postdepositional processes produced significant variations in the original compositions, especially the fine-grained deposits. The Tordillo sediments are characterised by moderate SiO 2 contents, variable abundances of K 2O and Na 2O, and a relatively high proportion of ferromagnesian elements. The degree of chemical weathering in the source area, expressed as the chemical index of alteration, is low to moderate. The major element geochemistry and Th/Sc, K/Rb, Co/Th, La/Sc, and Cr/Th values point to a significant input of detrital volcanic material of

  8. Laboratory tests of mafic, ultra-mafic, and sedimentary rock types for in-situ applications for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, G.E.; O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Penner, Larry R.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent tests conducted at the Albany Research Center have addressed the possibility of in-situ storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations, particularly in deep brackish to saline non-potable aquifers, and the formation of secondary carbonate minerals over time within these aquifers. Various rock types including Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) drill core samples, blocks of ultra-mafic rock and sandstone were used. A solution formulated from aquifer data, a bicarbonate salt solution, and distilled water were tested. Pressure and temperature regimens were used to mimic existing in-situ conditions, higher temperatures were used to simulate longer time frames, and higher pressures were used to simulate enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pressure. Results are encouraging, indicating mineral dissolution with an increase of desirable ions (Ca, Fe2+, Mg) in solution that can form the carbonate minerals, calcite (CaCO3), siderite (FeCO3), and magnesite (MgCO3).

  9. Volcano-sedimentary characteristics in the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez District, Egypt: Example of dynamics and fluidization over sedimentary and volcaniclastic beds by emplacement of syn-volcanic basaltic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, E. A.; Abdel Motelib, A.; Hammed, M. S.; El Manawi, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the Neogene lava-sediment mingling from the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez district, Egypt. The lava-sediment interactions as peperites have been identified for the first time at the study area and can be used as paleoenvironmental indicators. The identification of peperite reflects contemporaneous time relationship between volcanism and sedimentation and this finding is of primary importance to address the evolutional reconstruction of the Abu Treifiya Basin. Characterization of the facies architecture and textural framework of peperites was carried out through detailed description and interpretation of their outcrops. The peperites and sedimentary rocks are up to 350 m thick and form a distinct stratigraphic framework of diverse lithology that is widespread over several kilometers at the study area. Lateral and vertical facies of the peperites vary from sediment intercalated with the extrusive/intrusive basaltic rocks forming peperitic breccias to lava-sediment contacts at a large to small scales, respectively. Peperites encompass five main facies types ascribed to: (i) carbonate sediments-hosted fluidal and blocky peperites, (ii) lava flow-hosted blocky peperites, (iii) volcaniclastics-hosted fluidal and blocky peperites, (iv) sandstone/siltstone rocks-hosted blocky peperites, and (iv) debris-flows-hosted blocky peperites. Soft sediment deformation structures, vesiculated sediments, sediments filled-vesicles, and fractures in lava flows indicate that lava flows mingled with unconsolidated wet sediments. All the peperites in this study could be described as blocky or fluidal, but mixtures of different clast shapes occur regardless of the host sediment. The presence of fluidal and blocky juvenile clasts elucidates different eruptive styles, reflecting a ductile and brittle fragmentation. The gradual variation from fluidal to blocky peperite texture, producing the vertical grading is affected by influencing factors, e.g., the viscosity, magma

  10. Germanium Enrichments in Sedimentary Rocks in Gale Crater, Mars: Constraining the Timing of Alteration and Character of the Protolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, J. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Gellert, R.; Campbell, J. L.; Boyd, N. I.; Elliott, B. E.; Fisk, M. R.; King, P. L.; Ming, D. W.; Perrett, G. M.; Thompson, L. M.; VanBommel, S. J.; Yen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Rocks enriched in Ge have been discovered in Gale Crater, Mars, by the Alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) on the Mars Science Lab (MSL) rover, Curiosity. The Ge concentrations in Gale Crater (commonly >50 ppm) are remarkably high in comparison to Earth, where Ge ranges from 0.5-4.0 ppm in igneous rocks and 0.2-3.3 ppm in siliciclastic sediment. Primary meteoritic input is not likely the source of high Ge because Ge/Ni in chondrites (approx.0.003) and irons (<0.04) is lower than in Gale rocks (0.08-0.2). Earth studies show Ge is a useful geochemical tracer because it is coherent with Si during magmatic processes and Ge/Si varies less than 20% in basalts. Ge and Si fractionate during soil/regolith weathering, with Ge preferentially sequestered in clays. Ge is also concentrated in Cu- and Zn-rich hydrothermal sulfide deposits and Fe- and Mnrich oxide deposits. Other fluid-mobile elements (K, Zn, Cl, Br, S) are also enriched at Gale and further constrain aqueous alteration processes. Here, we interpret the sediment alteration history and present a possible model for Ge enrichments at Gale involving fluid alteration of the protolith.

  11. Modification of textural properties of pore space in sedimentary rocks by conservation agents: mercury porosimetry study and indirect interpretation of durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamrazilova, Lenka; Weishauptova, Zuzana; Prikrylova, Jirina; Sykorova, Ivana; Prikryl, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Textural properties of porous sedimentary rocks (various types of sandstone, clayey-calcareous silicites, bioclastic limestones) have been modified by applying some conventional conservation agents (lime water, water glass, esters of silicon acid) used for consolidation and/or hydrophobization treatments of natural stone. Many of these treatments are applied in practice without knowing the real effect on material properties. To partly fill this gap in knowledge, laboratory-scale study performed on disc-like specimens was focused on the detailed investigation of textural properties of pore space of above mentioned types of natural stone by means of mercury porosimetry and on indirect evaluation of durability from pore space textural properties. Depth of penetration of treatments in some of the studied rocks was also controlled by microscopic techniques. Our results show significant variability in the effectiveness of various treatments for different lithologies not only in terms of total porosity change but also in terms of modification of pore size distribution and specific surface area. Data obtained confirm importance of the detailed trials of the effect of specific conservation agents on respective stone types before their final application in real scale.

  12. Geomorphological and sedimentary record from Poseidi, N. Greece and relationship with Late Bronze and Iron age settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psomiadis, David; Parashou, Theodoros; Albanakis, Konstantinos; Dotsika, Elissavet; Zisi, Nikoleta

    2010-05-01

    Coastal geomorphological features from Poseidi, Chalkidiki, N. Greece have been studied in order to classify the Late Pleistocene and Holocene formations that prevail across the coastal zone of Cape Poseidi. Carbonate cementation in the littoral shelf (beachrocks) indicates phases of coastal instability. The adjacent conglomerate formation and the stratigraphical characteristics of the backshore sedimentary sequence define the geomorphological setting of the human occupation in the area that dates back to 3500 BP. Eretrians settled the area (Pallini peninsula) during the Iron age, while Poseidi was already used for ritual ceremonies of god Neptune. Although ancient Mendi was built on an approximately 100m-high hill, its so-called "Suburb" by Thucydides was reaching the shoreline, and its cemetery was excavated in the beach sediments. Palaeo-shorelines have been reconstructed using bathymetry data and submerged fossil coastlines. The submerged beachrock horizons are spotted northwards at 1m, 1.7m, 2.4m and 3.6m depth as well as the formation occupies the swashzone at two subsequent separated beaches southwards near ancient Mendi. Tectonic movements were also evaluated and reconsidered in relation to coastal archaeological sites for the reconstruction of the geomorphological setting. The dynamic wave regime at Cape Poseidi and the sedimentary characteristics seem to have played a prominent role during stages of relatively stable sea level and influenced the human occupation in the area.

  13. Vertical Profiles Of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th And {sup 40}K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Parana Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-07

    Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Parana sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 1.84 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 4.20 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Activity concentrations were determined for {sup 226}Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81{+-}0.22 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 4.21{+-}0.07 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 50

  14. Trace elements and REE fractionation in subsoils developed on sedimentary and volcanic rocks: case study of the Mt. Vulture area, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongelli, Giovanni; Paternoster, Michele; Rizzo, Giovanna; Sinisi, Rosa

    2014-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in the distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) within soils, primarily as these elements can be used to identify pedogenetic processes and because soils may be future sources for REE extraction, despite much attention should be paid to the protection and preservation of present soils. Here, we evaluate the processes that control the distribution of REEs in subsoil horizons developed over differing lithologies in an area of low anthropogenic contamination, allowing estimates of the importance of source rocks and weathering. Specifically, this study presents new data on the distribution of REEs and other trace elements, including transition and high-field-strength elements, in subsoils developed on both Quaternary silica-undersaturated volcanic rocks and Pliocene siliciclastic sedimentary rocks within the Mt. Vulture area of the southern Apennines in Italy. The subsoils in the Mt. Vulture area formed during moderate weathering (as classified using the chemical index of alteration) and contain an assemblage of secondary minerals that is dominated by trioctahedral illite with minor vermiculite. The REEs, high-field-strength elements, and transition metals have higher abundances in subsoils that developed from volcanic rocks, and pedogenesis caused the Mt. Vulture subsoils to have REE concentrations that are an order of magnitude higher than typical values for the upper continental crust. This result indicates that the distribution of REEs in soils is a valuable tool for mineral exploration. A statistical analysis of inter-elemental relationships indicates that REEs are concentrated in clay-rich fractions that also contain significant amounts of low-solubility elements such as Zr and Th, regardless of the parent rock. This suggests that low-solubility refractory minerals, such as zircon, play a significant role in controlling the distribution of REEs in soils. The values of (La/Yb)N and (Gd/Yb)N fractionation indices are dependent on

  15. Gas-water-rock interactions in sedimentary basins: CO2 sequestration in the Frio Formation, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Cole, D.R.; Thordsen, J.J.; Kakouros, E.; Nance, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the potential for the geologic storage of CO2 in saline sedimentary aquifers, 1600??ton of CO2 were injected at ???1500 m depth into a 24-m sandstone section of the Frio Formation - a regional reservoir in the US Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained from the injection and observation wells before, during and after CO2 injection show a Na-Ca-Cl type brine with 93,000??mg/L TDS and near saturation of CH4 at reservoir conditions. As injected CO2 gas reached the observation well, results showed sharp drops in pH (6.5 to 5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100 to 3000??mg/L as HCO3) and Fe (30 to 1100??mg/L), and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O and DIC. Geochemical modeling indicates that brine pH would have dropped lower, but for buffering by dissolution of calcite and Fe oxyhydroxides. Post-injection results show the brine gradually returning to its pre-injection composition. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phosphate Stability in Diagenetic Fluids Constrains the Acidic Alteration Model for Lower Mt. Sharp Sedimentary Rocks in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, J. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Gellert, R.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; VanBommel, S. J.; McAdam, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars rover Curiosity has encountered silica-enriched bedrock (as strata and as veins and associated halos of alteration) in the largely basaltic Murray Fm. of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) investigations of the Murray Fm. revealed decreasing Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Al, and higher S, as silica increased (Fig. 1). A positive correlation between SiO2 and TiO2 (up to 74.4 and 1.7 wt %, respectively) suggests that these two insoluble elements were retained while acidic fluids leached more soluble elements. Other evidence also supports a silica-retaining, acidic alteration model for the Murray Fm., including low trace element abundances consistent with leaching, and the presence of opaline silica and jarosite determined by CheMin. Phosphate stability is a key component of this model because PO4 3- is typically soluble in acidic water and is likely a mobile ion in diagenetic fluids (pH less than 5). However, the Murray rocks are not leached of P; they have variable P2O5 (Fig. 1) ranging from average Mars (0.9 wt%) up to the highest values in Gale Crater (2.5 wt%). Here we evaluate APXS measurements of Murray Fm. bedrock and veins with respect to phosphate stability in acidic fluids as a test of the acidic alteration model for the Lower Mt. Sharp rocks.

  17. The use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detecting molecular evidence of life in rocks, sediments, and sedimentary deposits.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Stephen A; Wilson, Rab; Cooper, Jonathan M; Parnell, John

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a versatile analytical technique capable of characterizing the composition of both inorganic and organic materials. Consequently, it is frequently suggested as a payload on many planetary landers. Only approximately 1 in every 10(6) photons are Raman scattered; therefore, the detection of trace quantities of an analyte dispersed in a sample matrix can be much harder to achieve. To overcome this, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) both provide greatly enhanced signals (enhancements between 10(5) and 10(9)) through the analyte's interaction with the locally generated surface plasmons, which occur at a "roughened" or nanostructured metallic surface (e.g., Cu, Au, and Ag). Both SERS and SERRS may therefore provide a viable technique for trace analysis of samples. In this paper, we describe the development of SERS assays for analyzing trace amounts of compounds present in the solvent extracts of sedimentary deposits. These assays were used to detect biological pigments present in an Arctic microoasis (a small locale of elevated biological productivity) and its detrital regolith, characterize the pigmentation of microbial mats around hydrothermal springs, and detect fossil organic matter in hydrothermal deposits. These field study examples demonstrate that SERS technology is sufficiently mature to be applied to many astrobiological analog studies on Earth. Many current and proposed imaging systems intended for remote deployment already posses the instrumental components needed for SERS. The addition of wet chemistry sample processing facilities to these instruments could yield field-deployable analytical instruments with a broadened analytical window for detecting organic compounds with a biological or geological origin. PMID:20735253

  18. Origins of chromite and magnetite in sedimentary rocks deposited in a shallow water environment in the 3.2 Ga Moodies Group, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Itoh, S.; Yurimoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.

    2012-12-01

    *Otake, T. totake@eng.hokudai.ac.jp Div. of Sustainable Resources Engineering, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Sakamoto, Y. yu.sakamoto12@gmail.com Dep. of Earth Science, Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan Itoh, S. sitoh@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp Dep. of Natural History Sciences, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Yurimoto. H. yuri@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp Dep. of Natural History Sciences, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Kakegawa, T. kakegawa@m.tohoku.ac.jp Dep. of Earth Science, Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan Geochemical data from ferruginous chemical sedimentary rocks (e.g., Banded Iron Formation: BIF) have been used to reconstruct the surface environments of early Earth. However, only a few studies have investigated the geochemical characteristics of BIFs deposited in a shallow water environment during the Archean, which may have differed from those deposited in a deep water environment. Therefore, we investigated geological, petrographic and geochemical characteristics of ferruginous rocks deposited in a shallow water environment in the Moodies group, in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We obtained ferruginous rock samples in the Moodies group from both an outcrop and underground gold mine, and compared the characteristics of these samples. The 70 sedimentary rock samples were divided into groups based on the dominant Fe minerals they contain: Hematite-rich jaspilite (HM group), Magnetite-rich iron formation/shale/sandstone (MT group), and Siderite-rich sandstone (SD group). Samples in the HM group are predominantly composed of fine-grained quartz (< 20 μm) and hematite (< 5 μm), which are interpreted to be chemical precipitates. Samples in the MT group contain quartz, magnetite, siderite, ankerite, chlorite, biotite and chromite. The grain size of magnetite is much larger (20-150 μm) than that of hematite in the HM group. The magnetite is interpreted as a secondary mineral transformed from hematite during early diagenesis. Results of in situ oxygen isotope analysis by

  19. Age and position of the sedimentary basin of the Ocoee Supergroup western Blue Ridge tectonic province, southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Unrug, R.; Unrug, S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Ausich, W.I. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Cuffey, R.J. . Dept. of Geosciences); Mamet, B.L. . Dept. de Geologie); Palmes, S.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The stratigraphic continuity of the Ocoee Supergroup established recently allows one to extrapolate the Paleozoic age of the Walden Creek Group determined on paleontological evidence to the entire Ocoee succession. The Walden Creek Group rocks contain a fossil assemblage of fenestrate bryozoan, algal, trilobite, ostracod, brachiopod and echinozoan fragments and agglutinated foraminifer tests that indicate Silurian or younger Paleozoic age. The fossils occur in carbonate clasts in polymict conglomerates, and debris-flow breccia beds, and in olistoliths of bedded carbonate and shale, and calcarenite turbidite beds. These carbonate lithologies form a minor, but characteristic constituent of the Walden Creek Group. Fossil have been found also in shale and mudstone siliciclastic lithologies of the Walden Creek Group. The fossils are fragmented and poorly preserved because of several cycles of cementation and solution in the carbonate rocks and a pervasive cleavage in the fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Recently reported Mississippian plant fossils from the Talladega belt indicate widespread occurrence of Middle Paleozoic basins in the Western Blue Ridge. These pull-apart basins formed in the stress field generated by northward movement of Laurentia past the western margin of Gondwana after the Taconian-Famatinian collision in the Ordovician.

  20. Mapping DNAPL transport contamination in sedimentary and fractured rock aquifers with high resolution borehole seismic imaging Project No. SF11SS13 FY01 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, J.T.; Majer, E.L.; Peterson, J.E.; Williams, K.H.; Flexser, S.

    2001-12-01

    This report covers the work performed in the first year of a three-year project funded by the USDOE's Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA). The objectives of this project are to develop, demonstrate and evaluate, at appropriate field sites, the utility of high frequency seismic imaging methods to detect and characterize non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in sedimentary and fractured rock aquifers. Field tests consist of crosswell seismic tomography acquired before, during and after any remediation action that would potentially affect fluid distributions. Where feasible, other characterization data is obtained, such as crosswell radar, borehole conductivity and cone penetration testing (CPT). Crosswell data are processed to obtain tomographic images, or two-dimensional distributions, of velocity and attenuation. The interpretation of the tomograms utilizes all available site characterization data to relate the geophysical attributes to lithology and fluid phase heterogeneities. Interpretations are validated by evaluation and testing of field cores. Laboratory tests on core retrieved from surveyed locations are performed to determine the relationships between geophysical parameters and solid and fluid phase composition. In the case of sedimentary aquifers, proof of principle has been demonstrated previously in homogeneous sand-packs at the centimeter and half-meter scale (Geller and Myer, 1995; Geller et al., 2000). The field tests will provide proof-of-principle at the field-scale, by working in an unconsolidated sand aquifer with known presence of NAPL. The ability to upscale from the laboratory to the field is evaluated by conducting field measurements over a range of frequencies that overlap the lowest frequencies used in the laboratory tests. In the fractured rock case, previous field work has shown that fracture zones can be detected by crosswell seismic tomography (Daley et al., 2001; Daley et al., 2000). Laboratory studies have demonstrated

  1. Primary uranium sources for sedimentary-hosted uranium deposits in NE China: insight from basement igneous rocks of the Erlian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnetti, Christophe; Cuney, Michel; Bourlange, Sylvain; Deloule, Etienne; Poujol, Marc; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Yunbiao; Yang, Jianxing

    2016-05-01

    Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Jurassic igneous basement rocks around the Erlian Basin in northeast China have been investigated through detailed mineralogical, whole-rock geochemistry, geochronological data and Sm-Nd isotope studies. Carboniferous-Permian biotite granites and volcanic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (313 ± 1-286 ± 2 Ma). These rocks are characterised by positive ɛNd(t) (3.3-5.3) and fairly young T DM model ages (485-726 Ma), suggesting a dominant derivation from partial melting of earlier emplaced juvenile source rocks. Triassic biotite granites belong to a high-K calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Middle Triassic (243 ± 3-233 ± 2 Ma). Their negative ɛNd(t) (-2 to -0.1) and higher T DM model ages (703-893 Ma) suggest a contribution from Precambrian crust during the magma generation processes, leading to a strong enrichment in K and incompatible elements such as Th and U. Highly fractionated magmas crystallised in U-rich biotite (up to 21 ppm U) and two-mica granites. In biotite granite, the major U-bearing minerals are uranothorite and allanite. They are strongly metamict and the major part of their uranium (90 %) has been released from the mineral structure and was available for leaching. Mass balance calculations show that the Triassic biotite granites may have, at least, liberated ˜14,000 t U/km3 and thus correspond to a major primary uranium source for the U deposits hosted in the Erlian Basin.

  2. Stratigraphic and structural implications of conodont and detrital zircon U-Pb ages from metamorphic rocks of the Coldfoot terrane, Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.E.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Harris, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    New paleontologic and isotopic data from the Emma Creek and Marion Creek schists of the Coldfoot terrane, Arctic Alaska superterrane, central Brooks Range, suggest Devonian and possibly younger ages of deposition for their sedimentary protoliths. Conodonts from marble of the Emma Creek schist, intruded by a roughly 392 Ma orthogneiss, are late Lochkovian (early Early Devonian, between about 408 and 396 Ma) and Silurian to Devonian at two other locations. Spherical to oblong detrital zircons from quartz-mica schist of the overlying Marion Creek schist yield mostly discordant U-Pb data suggestive of provenance ages of 3.0, 2.0-1.8, and 1.5-1.4 Ga; however, several euhedral grains of zircon from Marion Creek quartz-mica schist have concordant U-Pb ages from 370 to 360 Ma. The Marion Creek schist in our study area therefore is at least 26 m.y. younger than the Emma Creek schist. The age data imply that the protolith of the Emma Creek schist is age correlative with Devonian carbonate rocks in the Hammond and North Slope terranes, whereas the Marion Creek schist is age correlative with Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian clastic sedimentary rocks of the Endicott Group in the Endicott Mountains terrane and shale and carbonate units in the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes. Consequently, tectonic models restoring the entire Coldfoot terrane beneath partly or wholly coeval rocks of the Hammond, Endicott Mountains, De Long Mountains, and Sheenjek River terranes of the Arctic Alaska superterrane require revision. Alternative reconstructions, including restoration of the Coldfoot terrane inboard of the Endicott Mountains terrane or outboard of the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes are plausible but require either larger amounts of shortening than previously suggested or indicate problematic facies relations. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Formation and age of sphalerite mineralization in carbonate rocks of Bajocian age in the Swiss Jura Mountains: evidence of Mesozoic hydrothermal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimenko, Natalia; Schneider, Jens; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Chiaradia, Massimo; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2014-06-01

    A combination of petrographic and geochemical techniques was applied to better constrain the origin and evolution of the fluid systems responsible for the formation of disseminated, Cd-rich (up to 0.6 wt%), sphalerite (ZnS) mineralization in the northeastern part of the Jura Mountains, Switzerland. The Rb-Sr ages of sphalerite samples indicate that a main phase of sphalerite formation occurred near the boundary between the late Middle and early Late Jurassic, at around 162 Ma. The negative δ34S values (-22.3 to -5.3 ‰) suggest that biogenic sulfide sulfur was involved in ZnS precipitation. The strontium isotope composition is more radiogenic than that of contemporaneous seawater, reflecting the interaction of mineralizing fluids with silicate rocks. Lead isotope signatures are very uniform (206Pb/204Pb = 18.63-18.67, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.63-15.64, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.51-38.63), indicating an isotopically well-homogenized fluid system. The basement rocks underlying the Jurassic strata are considered to be the main source of metals for the sphalerite mineralization. The migration of deep-sourced hydrothermal saline metal-bearing fluids into the Bajocian host carbonates containing sedimentary reduced sulfur resulted in the precipitation of sulfides. The period of sphalerite formation near the Middle-Late Jurassic boundary is characterized by enhanced tectonic and hydrothermal activity in Europe, related to the opening of the Central Atlantic and tectonic/thermal subsidence during spreading of the Alpine Tethys. Our study provides evidence that the Bajocian carbonate rocks in the Jura Mountains area were affected by the circulation of deep-sourced metal-bearing hydrothermal fluids in response to these continent-wide tectonothermal events. The presence of sphalerite mineralization and associated geochemical anomalies in Zn and Cd contents in carbonate rocks may also be used to trace basement features.

  4. Neoproterozoic diamictite-bearing sedimentary rocks in the northern Yili Block and their constraints on the Precambrian evolution of microcontinents in the Western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jingwen; Zhu, Wenbin; Zheng, Bihai; Wu, Hailin; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Yuanzhi

    2015-12-01

    The origin and tectonic setting of Precambrian sequences in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) have been debated due to a lack of high resolution geochronological data. Answering this question is essential for the understanding of the tectonic framework and Precambrian evolution of the blocks within the CAOB. Here we reported LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon U-Pb ages and in-situ Hf isotopic data for Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block, an important component of the CAOB, in order to provide information on possible provenance and regional tectonic evolution. A total of 271 concordant U-Pb zircon ages from Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block define three major age populations of 1900-1400 Ma, 1300-1150 Ma and 700-580 Ma, which are quite different from cratons and microcontinents involved in the CAOB. Although it is not completely consistent with the local basement ages, an autochthonous provenance interpretation is more suitable. Some zircon grains show significant old Hf model ages (TDMC; 3.9-2.4 Ga) and reveal continental crust as old as Paleoarchean probably existed. Continuous Mesoproterozoic zircon age populations exhibit large variations in the εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the long-time involvement of both reworked ancient crust and juvenile material. Similar Mesoproterozoic evolution pattern is identified in many continental terranes involved in the CAOB that surround the Tarim Craton. Based on our analysis and published research, we postulate that the northern Yili Block, together with Chinese Central Tianshan, Kyrgyz North Tianshan and some other microcontinents surrounding the Tarim Craton, once constituted the continental margin of the Tarim Craton in the Mesoproterozoic, formed by long-lived accretionary processes. Most of the late Neoproterozoic zircons exhibit significant positive εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the addition of juvenile crust. It is consistent with the tectonic event related to the East Africa

  5. SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of volcanic rocks, Belt Supergroup, western Montana: Evidence for rapid deposition of sedimentary strata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, K.V.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Obradovich, J.D.; Fanning, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    New sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon analyses from two tuffs and a felsic flow in the middle and upper Belt Supergroup of northwestern Montana significantly refine the age of sedimentation for this very thick (15-20 km) Middle Proterozoic stratigraphic sequence. In ascending stratigraphic order, the results are (1) 1454 ?? 9 Ma for a tuff in the upper part of the Helena Formation at Logan Pass, Glacier National Park; (2) 1443 ?? 7 Ma for a regionally restricted porphyritic rhyolite to quartz latite flow of the Purcell Lava in the Yaak River region; and (3) 1401 ?? 6 Ma for a tuff in the very thin transition zone between the Bonner Quartzite and Libby Formation, west of the town of Libby. Combining these ages with those previously published by other workers for ca. 1470-Ma sills in the lower Belt in Montana and Canada indicates that all but the uppermost Belt strata (about 1700 m) were deposited over a period of about 70 million years, considerably reducing the time span from longstanding estimates ranging from 250 to 600 million years. Calculated sediment accumulation rates between dated samples indicates rapid, but not unreasonable, values for early Belt strata, with decreasing rates through time. These ages also suggest the inadequacy of previously published paleomagnetic data to resolve Belt Supergroup chronology at an appropriate level of accuracy.

  6. Depositional settings, correlation, and age carboniferous rocks in the western Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.; Blome, C.D.; Young, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Kuna Formation (Lisburne Group) in northwest Alaska hosts the Red Dog and other Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulfide deposits in the Red Dog district. New studies of the sedimentology and paleontology of the Lisburne Group constrain the setting, age, and thermal history of these deposits. In the western and west-central Brooks Range, the Lisburne Group includes both deep- and shallow-water sedimentary facies and local volcanic rocks that are exposed in a series of thrust sheets or allochthons. Deep-water facies in the Red Dog area (i.e., the Kuna Formation and related rocks) are found chiefly in the Endicott Mountains and structurally higher Picnic Creek allochthons. In the Red Dog plate of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, the Kuna consists of at least 122 m of thinly interbedded calcareous shale, calcareous spiculite, and bioclastic supportstone (Kivalina unit) overlain by 30 to 240 m of siliceous shale, mudstone, calcareous radiolarite, and calcareous lithic turbidite (Ikalukrok unit). The Ikalukrok unit in the Red Dog plate hosts all massive sulfide deposits in the area. It is notably carbonaceous, is generally finely laminated, and contains siliceous sponge spicules and radiolarians. The Kuna Formation in the Key Creek plate of the Endicott Mountains allochthon (60-110 m) resembles the Ikalukrok unit but is unmineralized and has thinner carbonate layers that are mainly organic-rich dolostone. Correlative strata in the Picnic Creek allochthon include less shale and mudstone and more carbonate (mostly calcareous spiculite). Conodonts and radiolarians indicate an age range of Osagean to early Chesterian (late Early to Late Mississippian) for the Kuna in the Red Dog area. Sedimentologic, faunal, and geochemical data imply that most of the Kuna formed in slope and basin settings characterized by anoxic or dysoxic bottom water and by local high productivity. Shallow-water facies of th e Lisburne Group in the Red Dog area are present locally in the Endicott Mountains

  7. An analysis of fracture trace patterns in areas of flat-lying sedimentary rocks for the detection of buried geologic structure. [Kansas and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    Two study areas in a cratonic platform underlain by flat-lying sedimentary rocks were analyzed to determine if a quantitative relationship exists between fracture trace patterns and their frequency distributions and subsurface structural closures which might contain petroleum. Fracture trace lengths and frequency (number of fracture traces per unit area) were analyzed by trend surface analysis and length frequency distributions also were compared to a standard Gaussian distribution. Composite rose diagrams of fracture traces were analyzed using a multivariate analysis method which grouped or clustered the rose diagrams and their respective areas on the basis of the behavior of the rays of the rose diagram. Analysis indicates that the lengths of fracture traces are log-normally distributed according to the mapping technique used. Fracture trace frequency appeared higher on the flanks of active structures and lower around passive reef structures. Fracture trace log-mean lengths were shorter over several types of structures, perhaps due to increased fracturing and subsequent erosion. Analysis of rose diagrams using a multivariate technique indicated lithology as the primary control for the lower grouping levels. Groupings at higher levels indicated that areas overlying active structures may be isolated from their neighbors by this technique while passive structures showed no differences which could be isolated.

  8. Bacterial Diversity, Sediment Age and Organic Respiration in the Marine Sedimentary Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, E. A.; Kirkpatrick, J. B.; Pockalny, R. A.; Sauvage, J.; Sogin, M. L.; D'Hondt, S.

    2014-12-01

    Subseafloor sediment hosts to a large1, taxonomically rich2 and metabolically diverse3 microbial ecosystem. However, the factors that control microbial diversity in subseafloor sediment have rarely been explored. Here we show that subseafloor bacterial richness varies directly with sediment age and net rate of organic-fueled respiration. We examined three open-ocean sites (in the Bering Sea and equatorial Pacific) and one continental margin site (Indian Ocean), with sediment depths to 404 meters below seafloor. At all locations, taxonomic richness decreases exponentially with increasing sediment age. Richness declines most rapidly for a few hundred thousand years after sediment deposition. This profile generally matches the canonical relationship between rates of organic oxidation and sediment age 4. To examine the potential link between organic oxidation and taxonomic richness we used pore-water chemical profiles to quantify net rates of organic respiration at the three open-ocean sites (the chemical profiles of the ocean-margin site are not in diffusive steady state). Taxonomic richness and total rate of organic-fueled respiration are highest at the high productivity Bering Sea site and lower at the moderate productivity equatorial Pacific sites. At each of these sites, organic-fueled respiration rate and taxonomic richness are highest at the surface and decline together as sediment depth and age increase. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that taxonomic richness is closely linked to organic-fueled respiration rate and sediment age in subseafloor sediment. References1. Kallmeyer, J., Pockalny, R., Adhikari, R. R., Smith, D. C. & D'Hondt, S. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.1203849109 (2012). 2. Inagaki, F. et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103, 2815-2820 (2006). 3. D'Hondt, S. et al. Science 306, 2216-2221, doi:10.1126/science.1101155 (2004). 4. Middelburg, J. J. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53

  9. Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    This science unit is designed for limited- and non-English speaking students in a Chinese bilingual education program. The unit covers rock material, classification, characteristics of types of rocks, and rock cycles. It is written in Chinese and simple English. At the end of the unit there is a list of main terms in both English and Chinese, and…

  10. Nd isotopic and geochemical constraints on the provenance and tectonic setting of the low-grade meta-sedimentary rocks from the Trans-North China Orogen, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaohui; Zhao, Guochun; Liu, Fulai; Han, Yigui

    2014-11-01

    In the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO) of the North China Craton, low-grade supracrustal successions extensively occur in the Wutai, Lüliang, Zanhuang, Zhongtiao and Dengfeng Complexes from north to south. Meta-sedimentary samples from the Wutai and Zhongtiao Complexes were collected for geochemical and Nd isotopic studies and several samples from the Zanhuang and Dengfeng Complexes were also analyzed for Nd isotopic studies for comparative purpose. Most of the meta-siltstones and meta-sandstones from the Wutai and Zhongtiao Complexes are characterized by depletions in mobile elements like CaO, Sr and Na2O, high Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) values and strong positive correlation between Al2O3 and TiO2, indicating intense weathering conditions. Significant post-depositional K-metasomatism is indicated in the A-CN-K diagrams for most of the analyzed samples and the relatively high pre-metasomatized Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values (43-87) also imply a high degree of source weathering. Depleted transitional trace elements (Ni, Cr, Co and Sc), fractionated light rare earth elements patterns, mild negative Eu anomalies in the majority of these meta-sedimentary samples point toward felsic source rocks, including the ∼2.5 Ga granitics, TTG gneisses and the Paleoproterozoic granitics in the TNCO. Minor contribution from mafic rocks is evidenced from relative high contents of MgO, Fe2O3T, Sc and lower La/YbN ratios in some older sequence-set samples from the Zhongtiao Complex. Our geochemical and Nd isotopic data, combined with previous studies in the lithostratigraphic sequence, provenance and depositional age, suggest that the older and younger sequence-sets of the low-grade supracrustal successions in the TNCO were deposited in the different depositional environments. The older sequence-set was deposited in a back-arc basin between the “Andean-type” continental margin arc and the Eastern Block after ∼2.1 Ga, whereas the younger sequence-set formed

  11. Geochemistry of Devonian and Carboniferous of sedimentary rocks in the Tsetserleg terrane, Hangay-Hentey basin, central Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purevjav, N.; Roser, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Hangay-Hentey basin forms part of the Central Asian Orogen Belt in central Mongolia. Contrasting hypotheses have been proposed explain its origin, and its tectonic evolution and provenance are controversial. Many studies to date have been based on geological evidence and only limited petrographic and geochemical analysis is available. The Hangay-Hentey basin is divided into seven terranes, of which the Tsetserleg terrane is one. The Tsetserleg terrane consists of siliceous- clastic sediments deposited in a turbidite environment. It is divided into the Middle Devonian Erdenetsogt Formation (sandstone, siltstone, shale and jasper), Middle-Upper Devonian Tsetserleg Formation (sandstone and siltstone), and the Lower Carboniferous Jargalant Formation (finer grained sandstone and mudstone) Sandstone petrography and major and trace element geochemistry of mudstones and sandstones has been used in attempt to constrain some aspects of provenance, tectonic setting and weathering of these Devonian and Carboniferous sediments. The Devonian sandstones are moderately sorted, and composed of sub-angular to sub-rounded quartz, plagioclase, microcline and rock fragments, and a few grains of chlorite and mica. Volcanic (dacite and rhyolite) lithics dominant the lithic population (Lv/L >0.90), and QFL values suggest deposition in an undissected to transitional arc environment. Geochemically the sandstones immature and are classed as wackes, while the mudstones are classed as shales. Major and trace element concentrations of 94 sandstones and mudstones indicate both the Devonian and Carboniferous sediments in the Tsetserleg terrane were mainly derived from felsic sources, although more intermediate detritus dominates in some samples. Major element data suggests deposition probably occurred in an Active Continental Margin setting (ACM), but scatter into the ARC field means an evolved continental island arc (CIA) setting or back arc environment is also possible. Chemical Index of

  12. Isotopic ages and characteristics of ancient (pre-Serenitatis) crustal rocks at Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, W. R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) problems with the isotopic systematics in lunar samples; (2) ancient crustal ages at the Apollo 17 site; and (3) isotopic characteristics of ancient Apollo 17 rocks - implications for their petrogenesis.

  13. The volcano-sedimentary evolution of a post-Variscan intramontane basin in the Swiss Alps (Glarus Verrucano) as revealed by zircon U-Pb age dating and Hf isotope geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letsch, Dominik; Winkler, Wilfried; von Quadt, Albrecht; Gallhofer, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The Late Palaeozoic Glarus Verrucano basin (GVB, Glarus Alps, eastern Switzerland) formed as an intramontane graben in the aftermath of the Variscan orogeny. Its fill, the Glarus Verrucano, consists of immature alluvial fan and playa lake deposits with intercalated bimodal volcanics (basalts and rhyolites). Despite its importance for local and regional geology, no modern sedimentologic or stratigraphic studies on the GVB exist. By means of sedimentologic and geochronologic studies, we reconstruct the volcano-sedimentary evolution of the GVB: it developed at the Carboniferous/Permian boundary and experienced a first (bimodal) volcanic phase around 285 Ma. For the same time, indications for temporarily humid climate in the otherwise rather arid Early Permian are demonstrated (e.g. pyrite-bearing sandstones). During the Middle and Early Late Permian, increasing aridity is indicated by playa deposits, fanglomerates and subaerial ignimbrites, which mark a second (silicic) volcanic phase at 268 Ma. The detrital zircon age spectra are dominated by Late Variscan ages and thus demonstrate that older sedimentary and metamorphic rocks once forming the Variscan nappe edifice were already mostly eroded at that time. Finally, some larger-scale speculations are given which could indicate a causal connection between the widespread tectono-magmatic Mid-Permian Episode and the local development of the Glarus Verrucano basin.

  14. Some correlation of rock exposure ages and regolith dynamics. [in lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, F.; Gibbons, R. V.; Gault, D. E.; Hartung, J. B.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Exposure age information on lunar rocks and regolith turnover rates are correlated. If plotted in a cumulative fashion, the distribution of spallogenic noble-gas exposure ages is remarkably parallel to the rate at which various fractions of the regolith surface are cratered and/or excavated. It appears that the rate at which lunar rocks are excavated from within the regolith is strongly controlled by the impact environment. Some suggestions for future refinement of regolith dynamics are presented.

  15. Potassium-argon and lead-alpha ages of plutonic rocks, Bokan Mountain area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; MacKevett, E.M., Jr.; Stern, T.W.

    1964-01-01

    Most of the granitic rocks in the Bokan Mountain area, southeastern Alaska, are early Paleozoic (probably Ordovician) judged by potassium-argon and lead-alpha age measurements. The Bokan Mountain Granite, the youngest intrusive unit in the area, belongs to a Mesozoic plutonic episode. These age measurements are the first direct evidence for the emplacement of early Paleozoic granitic intrusive rocks close to the Pacific margin of North America.

  16. Potassium-Argon and Lead-Alpha Ages of Plutonic Rocks, Bokan Mountain Area, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lanphere, M A; Mackevett, E M; Stern, T W

    1964-08-14

    Most of the granitic rocks in the Bokan Mountain area, southeastern Alaska, are early Paleozoic (probably Ordovician) judged by potassium-argon and lead-alpha age measurements. The Bokan Mountain Granite, the youngest intrusive unit in the area, belongs to a Mesozoic plutonic episode. These age measurements are the first direct evidence for the emplacement of early Paleozoic granitic intrusive rocks close to the Pacific margin of North America. PMID:17754670

  17. Accurate determination of chlorine, bromine, and iodine in sedimentary rock reference samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and a detailed comparison with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry literature data.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Shun; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2013-07-01

    Trace amounts of three halogens (chlorine, bromine, and iodine) were determined using radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) for nine sedimentary rocks and three rhyolite samples. To obtain high-quality analytical data, the radiochemical procedure of RNAA was improved by lowering the background in gamma-ray spectrometry and completing the chemical procedure more rapidly than in conventional procedures. A comparison of the RNAA data of Br and I with corresponding inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) literature data revealed that the values obtained by ICPMS coupled with pyrohydrolysis preconcentration were systematically lower than the RNAA data for some reference samples, suggesting that the quantitative collection of Br and I cannot always be achieved by the pyrohydrolysis for some solid samples. The RNAA data of three halogens can classify sedimentary rock reference samples into two groups (the samples from inland water and those from seawater), implying the geochemical significance of halogen data. PMID:23710630

  18. Spatial Distribution, Sources, and Age of Sedimentary Carbon in Lake Malawi, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, B. R.; Minor, E. C.; Werne, J. P.; Johnson, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, the source of organic matter to surface sediments of Lake Malawi (East Africa) is unclear; studies of offshore north-basin cores (363 m to 403 m water depth) have produced conflicting results regarding the proportion of aquatic versus terrestrial organic carbon (OC) contained in these sediments. To address this question, ten multi-cores were recovered from the north basin of Lake Malawi along a transect that follows a major river delta into the lake's deep basin, from 82 m to 386 m water depth. Bulk surface sediment data indicate that while the C/N ratio of organic matter decreases with distance from shore (ranging from 9.8 to 8.3, R2 = 0.58), and stable carbon isotope values become increasingly 13C-depleted (ranging from -21.65 to -25.25, R2 = 0.80), the concentration of OC (wt %) generally increases (ranging from 1.9% to 4.5%, R2 = 0.77). These combined trends suggest substantial carbon contribution from aquatic sources, particularly in the deeper-water, open-lake sites. This trend is supported by preliminary biomarker results. N-alcohols from surface sediments were isolated and grouped into aquatically sourced (C20, C22, and C24) and terrestrially sourced (C28 and C30) fractions for quantification as well as radiocarbon dating. N-alcohol abundance results indicate consistent contribution of terrestrial n-alcohols to surface sediments as distance from shore increases, while aquatic n-alcohol input appears to increase. Preliminary results from compound class specific radiocarbon dating indicate that aquatically sourced n-alcohols isolated from surface sediments may be significantly aged relative to bulk surface sediment.

  19. Resetting of RbSr ages of volcanic rocks by low-grade burial metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asmeroma, Y.; Damon, P.; Shafiqullah, M.; Dickinson, W.R.; Zartman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    We report a nine-point RbSr whole-rock isochron age of 70??3 Ma (MSWD 3.97) for Mid-Jurassic volcanic rocks. The same rocks have also been dated by the UThPb method on zircon, giving a crystallization age of 166 ?? 11 Ma, over twice as old as the RbSr age. The data demonstrate that whole-rock RbSr ages of volcanic rocks, even lava flows with SiO2 content as low as 57 wt.%, are susceptible to complete resetting. The rocks range in composition from rhyodacite tuffs to andesite lavas. The complete breakdown of all major minerals that contain Rb and Sr resulted in an alteration mineral assemblage consisting of phengite, albite, secondary quartz, and minor amounts of chlorite and epidote. Phengite is the K-bearing product of the breakdown of biotite and K-feldspar. Pressure during low-grade metamorphism of the volcanic rocks, estimated from phengite composition to have been in the range of 4 to 6 kbar, points to thrust-related burial as the main cause of resetting. Consequently, such reset isochrons may date large-scale events such as regional thrusting and metamorphism. The coherent resetting of the RbSr isochron suggests large-scale pervasive fluid movement during thrust-related burial metamorphism. ?? 1991.

  20. Mass Independent Fractionation of Sulfur Isotopes during Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction: Implications in the Origins of Pyrite in Archean Sedimentary Rocks and Sulfur in Petroleum and Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Ohmoto, H.; Naraoka, H.

    2006-12-01

    organisms through geologic time; simpler (reactive) amino acids were probably more abundant in Archean sediments than in Phanerozoic sediments. Submarine hydrothermal activity was also probably more extensive in the Archean oceans. Therefore, the favorable conditions for TSR during diagenesis were probably more extensively existed in the Archean sediments than in younger sediments. This may explain why the MIF-S signatures are observed mostly in organic C-rich Archean shales, but not in organic C-poor Archean sedimentary rocks. Our study also suggests that some (or most) pyrite in organic C-rich Archean shales were formed by TSR, rather than by bacterial sulfate reduction, and that the Archean oceans were sulfate rich.

  1. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  2. Sedimentary processes on the NW Iberian Continental Shelf since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Virgínia; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes; França, Elvis Joacir; Ferreira, Paulo Alves de Lima; Martins, Paula; Santos, José Francisco; Dias, João Alveirinho; Laut, Lazaro L. M.; Monge Soares, António M.; Silva, Eduardo Ferreira da; Rocha, Fernando

    2012-05-01

    The OMEX core CD110 W90, retrieved from the Douro Mud Patch (DMP) off the River Douro in the north of Portugal, records the period since the beginning of Little Ice Age (LIA). The core chronology is based upon the data attributes for 210Pb, 137Cs and a 14C dating from a level near the core base. Geochemical, granulometric, microfaunal (benthic foraminifera) and compositional data suggest the occurrence of precipitation changes which may have been, at least partially, influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), that contributes to the regulation of the ocean-atmosphere dynamics in the North Atlantic. Southwesterly Atlantic storm track is associated with the negative phases of the NAO, when the Azores High is anomalously weak, higher oceanographic hydrodynamism, downwelling events and increased rainfall generally occurs. Prevalence of these characteristics during the LIA left a record that corresponds to phases of major floods. During these phases the DMP received a higher contribution of relatively coarse-grained terrigenous sediments, enriched in quartz particles, which diluted the contribution of other minerals, as indicated by reduced concentrations of several lithogenic chemical elements such as: Al, As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Rb, Sc, Sn, Th, V and Y. The presence of biogenic carbonate particles also underwent dilution, as revealed by the smaller abundance of foraminifera and correlative lower concentrations of Ca and Sr. During this period, the DMP also received an increased contribution of organic matter, indicated by higher values of lignin remains and a benthic foraminifera high productivity index, or BFHP, which gave rise to early diagenetic changes with pyrite formation. Since the beginning of the 20th century this contribution diminished, probably due to several drier periods and the impact of human activities in the river basins, e.g. construction of dams, or, on the littoral areas, construction of hard

  3. A continental shelf sedimentary record of Little Ice Age to modern glacial dynamics: Bering Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, John M.; Kramer, Branden

    2014-09-01

    The Bering Glacier System is the world's largest surging temperate glacier with seven events occurring over the past century under a range of north Pacific climatic conditions. Onshore records reveal changes in glacial termini positions and evidence of late Holocene glacial advances, but the Little Ice Age (LIA) record of potential glacial surging and associated flooding has not been examined. A 13.6 m-long jumbo core collected on the adjacent continental shelf reveals a 600-yr-long record of sedimentation associated with changing glacifluvial discharge. The chronology is based on 210Pb geochronology and five radiocarbon dates, and the core can be separated into three distinct lithologic units based on the examination of X-radiographs and physical properties: (1) an uppermost unit dating from ∼125 cal yr BP to the present characterized by bioturbated mud interbedded with laminated, thick (5-20 cm) low-bulk density clay-rich beds; (2) a middle unit dating from ∼120-400 cal yr BP that includes numerous interlaminated-to-interbedded low- and high-bulk density beds with infrequent evidence of bioturbation; thick laminated clay-rich beds are rare; (3) a lowermost unit that predates ∼400 cal yr BP and is composed of rare laminated beds grading down into mottled to massive mud. In each of these units, the laminated lithofacies from this mid-shelf location indicates both flood deposition and likely sediment transport in the wave-current bottom-boundary layer. The thick low-density, clay-rich beds in the uppermost unit correlate with historic outburst floods associated with known surge events. Based on previous terrestrial studies, the terminus was at its Holocene Neoglacial maximum extent close to the modern coastline at some point in the middle to late stages of the LIA in southern Alaska (100-350 cal yr BP). During the LIA, preservation of bioturbated intervals is rare while laminated intervals are common. This style of interbedding indicates frequent (<10 yr

  4. Age, sources, and provenances of protoliths of metasedimentary rocks of the Dzheltulak group, Dzheltulak suture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikoslavinskii, S. D.; Kotov, A. B.; Kovach, V. P.; Tolmacheva, E. V.; Larin, A. M.; Sorokin, A. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Wang, K. L.; Salnikova, E. B.

    2016-06-01

    The results of Sm-Nb isotopic-geochemical studies of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the Dzheltulak Group of the central part of the Dzheltulak suture, as well as geochronological U-Th-Pb (LA ICP MS) studies of detrital zircons from metasedimentary rocks, which are considered as Paleoproterozoic in current stratigraphic schemes, are presented. The age of the youngest zircons is 170-190 Ma, whereas the age of the last stage of regional metamorphism is 140-150 Ma. Thus, the Dzheltulak Group hosts metasedimentary rocks, the age of the protolith of which ranges from 140-150 to 170-190 Ma. The detrital zircons derived from intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the Selenga-Stanovoi and Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoi superterranes.

  5. Age and stratigraphic context of Pliopithecus and associated fauna from Miocene sedimentary strata at Damiao, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaakinen, Anu; Abdul Aziz, Hayfaa; Passey, Benjamin H.; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Liu, Liping; Salminen, Johanna; Wang, Lihua; Krijgsman, Wout; Fortelius, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Since the discovery of mammalian fossils in Central Inner Mongolia in the beginning of the 20th century, this area has produced a rich and diverse record of Miocene faunas. Nevertheless, the stratigraphy has remained poorly constrained owing to scattered faunal horizons and lack of continuous vertical exposures. Consequently, most age estimates of these Miocene sites are based on paleontological evidence alone, with very few sites having been dated independently. Our field investigations in Damiao, in Siziwang Qi, Inner Mongolia have yielded more than 30 new fossiliferous localities from three horizons, including a pliopithecid fauna. This study presents the litho-, bio- and magnetostratigraphy of the Damiao area and provides age estimates for the three fossil-bearing horizons. The sedimentary sequence is interpreted as the remains of a fluvial system comprising channels, subaerially exposed floodplains and floodbasin environments. The two local stratigraphic sections measured and sampled for paleomagnetic analysis coincide with species-rich vertebrate fossil localities. The paleomagnetic results and faunal evidence suggest a correlation of lowermost fossil horizon (DM16) producing relatively rich small mammal assemblage to the early Miocene chron C6Ar or C6An.1r, roughly in 20-21 Ma age range. The pliopithecid locality level (DM01) represents latest middle Miocene and has an age estimate of about 12.1 Ma while the youngest localities (DM02) with cervoids and abundant and diverse small mammal fauna represents the earliest late Miocene with an age estimate of about 11.6 Ma. Our magnetostratigraphic results confirm that the Damiao strata constitute one of the best sequences in Inner Mongolia with early, middle and late Miocene mammalian faunas in stratigraphic superposition. The results also provide constraints on the paleoenvironmental evolution and bioevents of the area. The occurrence of pliopithecid primates in the middle Miocene of Inner Mongolia suggests humid

  6. Biogeochemical environments of streambed-sediment pore waters with and without arsenic enrichment in a sedimentary rock terrain, New Jersey Piedmont, USA.

    PubMed

    Mumford, A C; Barringer, J L; Reilly, P A; Eberl, D D; Blum, A E; Young, L Y

    2015-02-01

    Release of arsenic (As) from sedimentary rocks has resulted in contamination of groundwater in aquifers of the New Jersey Piedmont Physiographic Province, USA; the contamination also may affect the quality of the region's streamwater to which groundwater discharges. Biogeochemical mechanisms involved in the release process were investigated in the streambeds of Six Mile Run and Pike Run, tributaries to the Millstone River in the Piedmont. At Six Mile Run, streambed pore water and shallow groundwater were low or depleted in oxygen, and contained As at concentrations greater than 20 μg/L. At Pike Run, oxidizing conditions were present in the streambed, and the As concentration in pore water was 2.1 μg/L. The 16S rRNA gene and the As(V) respiratory reductase gene, arrA, were amplified from DNA extracted from streambed pore water at both sites and analyzed, revealing that distinct bacterial communities that corresponded to the redox conditions were present at each site. Anaerobic enrichment cultures were inoculated with pore water from gaining reaches of the streams with acetate and As(V). As(V) was reduced by microbes to As(III) in enrichments with Six Mile Run pore water and groundwater, whereas no reduction occurred in enrichments with Pike Run pore water. Cloning and sequencing of the arrA gene indicated 8 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at Six Mile Run and 11 unique OTUs at Pike Run, which may be representative of the arsenite oxidase gene arxA. Low-oxygen conditions at Six Mile Run have favored microbial As reduction and release, whereas release was inhibited by oxidizing conditions at Pike Run. PMID:25130624

  7. Gas-water-rock interactions in Frio Formation following CO2 injection: Implications for the storage of greenhouse gases in sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Cole, D.R.; Hovorka, S.D.; Gunter, W.D.; Knauss, K.G.; Freifeld, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the potential for the geologic storage of CO2 in saline sedimentary aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick sandstone section of the Frio Formation, a regional brine and oil reservoir in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained from the injection and observation wells before CO2 injection showed a Na-Ca-Cl-type brine with 93,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS) at near saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions. Following CO2 breakthrough, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5-5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100-3000 mg/L as HCO3) and Fe (30-1100 mg/L), and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and CH4. Geochemical modeling indicates that brine pH would have dropped lower but for the buffering by dissolution of carbonate and iron oxyhydroxides. This rapid dissolution of carbonate and other minerals could ultimately create pathways in the rock seals or well cements for CO2 and brine leakage. Dissolution of minerals, especially iron oxyhydroxides, could mobilize toxic trace metals and, where residual oil or suitable organics are present, the injected CO2 could also mobilize toxic organic compounds. Environmental impacts could be major if large brine volumes with mobilized toxic metals and organics migrated into potable groundwater. The ??18O values for brine and CO2 samples indicate that supercritical CO2 comprises ???50% of pore-fluid volume ???6 mo after the end of injection. Postinjection sampling, coupled with geochemical modeling, indicates that the brine gradually will return to its preinjection composition. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  8. Biogeochemical environments of streambed-sediment pore waters withand without arsenic enrichment in a sedimentary rock terrain, New Jersey Piedmont, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mumford, Adam C.; Barringer, Julia L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Blum, Alex E.; Young, Lily Y.

    2015-01-01

    Release of arsenic (As) from sedimentary rocks has resulted in contamination of groundwater in aquifers of the New Jersey Piedmont Physiographic Province, USA; the contamination also may affect the quality of the region's streamwater to which groundwater discharges. Biogeochemical mechanisms involved in the release process were investigated in the streambeds of Six Mile Run and Pike Run, tributaries to the Millstone River in the Piedmont. At Six Mile Run, streambed pore water and shallow groundwater were low or depleted in oxygen, and contained As at concentrations greater than 20μg/L. At Pike Run, oxidizing conditions were present in the streambed, and the As concentration in pore water was 2.1μg/L. The 16S rRNA gene and the As(V) respiratory reductase gene, arrA, were amplified from DNA extracted from streambed pore water at both sites and analyzed, revealing that distinct bacterial communities that corresponded to the redox conditions were present at each site. Anaerobic enrichment cultures were inoculated with pore water from gaining reaches of the streams with acetate and As(V). As(V) was reduced by microbes to As(III) in enrichments with Six Mile Run pore water and groundwater, whereas no reduction occurred in enrichments with Pike Run pore water. Cloning and sequencing of the arrA gene indicated 8 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at Six Mile Run and 11 unique OTUs at Pike Run, which may be representative of the arsenite oxidase gene arxA. Low-oxygen conditions at Six Mile Run have favored microbial As reduction and release, whereas release was inhibited by oxidizing conditions at Pike Run.

  9. 4D understanding of failures in soft sedimentary rocks using repetitive terrestrial stereo-photogrammetry: the case of the Rosselin deep-seated slope instability, Valais, Switzerland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travelletti, Julien; Monnet, Régis

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study is (i) to highlight the potential of low-cost stereo-photogrammetry to monitor the 4D deformation of rock instabilities and (ii) to add to the 4D understanding of failure development in soft sedimentary rocks. The Rosselin instability is located in a landslides prone area in the municipality of Riddes, canton of Valais, Switzerland. This deep-seated slope instability has developed in Triassic dolomitic carbonates overlaid by highly fractured Cretaceous conglomerates and schists. Its estimated volume is of 300'000 m3. A catastrophic scenario can cause the obstruction of a river located 400 m beneath. The sudden failure of the landslide dam would then threaten the municipality of Riddes of major floods and debris flows. On May 14, 2013, precursor signs of activity (minor rockfalls, developments of tension cracks) in a part of the Rosselin instability were observed after a relatively wet period. Therefore, in complement to risk mitigation planning a monitoring strategy was set up. In addition to the installation of extensometers, repetitive terrestrial stereo-photogrammetry surveys were acquired at a distance of 100 m of the instability in order to build a four-dimensional understanding of the failure. Seventeen high-resolution photogrammetric acquisitions were realized between the 15th and the 17th of May the day the main failure occurred. The comparison of the states before and after the event of May 17 allowed to compute a mobilized volume of 30'000 m3 (1/10 of the total volume of the Rosselin instability). 3D displacements are derived from the photogrammetric acquisition and obtained with a cross-correlation technique. The kinematics analysis allowed the highlighting of (i) strong deformations during the pre-failure stage within the mass probably induced by progressive brittle fracture damages and of (ii) a control of pre-existing regional discontinuities in the failure stage leading to a general wedge sliding. It also shows that in the

  10. Age and growth of rock bass in eastern Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, David R.

    1980-01-01

    To test the reliability of current techniques, five biologists appraised the ages of 200 quail from a random sample of wings collected during the 1952-53 hunting season in Alabama. Attempt was made to distinguish adults from juveniles, to ascertain the stage of post-nuptial and post-juvenile molts, and to estimate the age of juveniles according to days or weeks. Three 'problem' wings in this sample had molt characteristics somewhat eauallv divided between adult and juvenile classes; two wings called 'questionable' had all molt characteristics except one of either age group. A 3.5 per cent disparity occurred between investigators in their classification of adult and juvenile age groups. This included not only 'problem' and 'questionable' wings, but also 'obvious errors.' Individual differences were greater than 3.5 per cent but cancelled out. This study emphasizes the need of working with large samples of birds of a known age in order to know more concerning molt variations. Until aging techniques can be refined, it is believed that investigators should be fully familiar with existing methods and their weaknesses. Also, it appears important that reports on aging should indicate clearly the techniques used.

  11. Rb-Sr age of lunar igneous rocks 62295 and 14310

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, R. K.; Lee-Hu, C.-N.; Wetherill, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of Rb-Sr ages of crystallization performed on igneous lunar highland rocks 62295 and 14310 are reported. Lunar sample 62295 is a mesostasis-rich spinel-troctolite very-high-alumina basalt exhibiting a variable igneous structure. Sample 14310 is a feldspathic KREEP-rich basalt. The determined ages probably date the cooling of shock melts.

  12. Correlation of bulk sedimentary and compound-specific δ13C values indicates minimal pre-aging of n-alkanes in a small tropical watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Chad S.; Horn, Sally P.; Taylor, Zachary P.; Kerr, Matthew T.

    2016-08-01

    Inherent to sedimentary compound-specific isotopic proxies of paleoecological and paleoclimate change is the assumption that biomarkers are coeval with the surrounding sedimentary matrix. Compound-specific radiocarbon analyses of lake and nearshore marine sediments have indicated a potential offset between the ages of terrestrial biomarkers and their surrounding sediments that could confound efforts to establish strong chronological control for compound-specific isotopic data. We conducted high-resolution compound-specific δ13C analyses of n-alkanes (δ13Calkane) in a well-studied sediment core from Laguna Castilla, Dominican Republic, and compared the results to bulk sedimentary δ13C (δ13Cbulk), fossil pollen, and sediment geochemistry to assess potential 'pre-aging' of alkanes in the terrestrial environment prior to deposition. We found significant positive correlations between δ13Cbulk values and δ13Calkane values, indicating little or no temporal lag in the response of δ13Calkane values to vegetation change and thus little or no offset in the age of terrestrially-derived compounds and the organic fraction of the sedimentary matrix. While this study highlights the need for further research into the variables affecting age offsets between proxy data, we propose the comparison of δ13Cbulk and δ13Calkane values as a method to assess potential age offsets between compound-specific and other proxy datasets, particularly in small watersheds with sediment records containing a high proportion of allochthonous organic matter. This method is more available to researchers than obtaining numerous compound-specific radiocarbon analyses, which are costly and not a routine service offered by radiocarbon facilities.

  13. Rb-Sr ages of igneous rocks from the Apollo 14 mission and the age of the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Internal Rb-Sr isochrons were determined on four basaltic rocks and on a basaltic clast from a breccia from the Fra Mauro landing site. An internal isochron was determined for rock 12004 and yielded a value in agreement with previous results for basaltic rocks from the Apollo 12 site. The crystallization ages for Apollo 14 basalts are only 0.2 to 0.3 AE older than were found for mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility. Assuming these leucocratic igneous rocks to be representative of the Fra Mauro site, it follows that there were major igneous processes active in these regions, and presumably throughout the highlands, at times only slightly preceding the periods at which the maria were last flooded.

  14. Multiple sulfur isotope characteristics of 3.46-2.7 Ga sedimentary rocks from drill cores of the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Ohmoto, H.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP), we have determined the multiple sulfur isotope ratios and examined the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the sulfur-bearing minerals (e.g., pyrite, sphalerite, barite) and the host rocks (e.g., major and trace element chemistry; Corg, Ccarb and S contents; δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb) of >100 samples of sedimentary rocks from five ABDP drill cores in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The total ranges of Δ33S and δ34S values of the studied samples are -0.9 to +1.2‰ and -4 to +8‰, respectively. We have found that the Δ33S and δ34S relationships show unique values depending on their depositional environment: (1) Pyrites in the 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Chert Member (ABDP #1), which were formed by submarine hydrothermal fluids, show no AIF-S (anomalously fractionated sulfur isotope) signatures: Δ33S = -0.08 to +0.08‰ and δ34S = -3.3 to +0.6‰ (n = 5). This indicates that the H2S presented in the submarine hydrothermal fluid, which was partly generated through seawater sulfate reduction by Fe2+, did not possess AIF-S signatures. (2) Pyrites in organic C-poor lacustrine shales of the 2.76 Ga Hardey Formation (ABDP #3) also show no or very little AIF-S signatures: Δ33S = -0.38 to +0.25‰ and δ34S = -2.7 to +1.9‰ (n = 18). (3) Pyrites in organic C-poor marine shales of the 2.92 Ga Mosquito Creek Formation (ABDP#5) show no or small negative AIF-S signatures: Δ33S = -0.59 to 0.19 ‰ and all positive δ34S = +1.4 to +7.7‰ (n = 24). (4) Pyrites in organic C-rich (> 1 wt%) and hydrothermally altered marine shales in the 3.46 Ga Panorama Formation (ABDP #2) show constant and small positive AIF-S signatures (+0.44 to +0.61‰) and the smallest variation in δ34S (-1.1 to +1.6‰) (n = 35). In contrast, pyrites in organic C-rich shales in the 2.72 Ga Mt. Roe Basalt show negative Δ33S = -0.50 to -0.10‰ and δ34S = -3.7 to 1.8‰ (n = 10). (5) Pyrites in stromatolitic carbonates of the 2.7 Ga

  15. High-Temperature, Perhaps Silicic, Volcanism on Mars Evidenced by Tridymite Detection in High-SiO2 Sedimentary Rock at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Gellert, R.; Chipera, S. J.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Treiman, A. H.; Yen, A. S.; Achilles, C. N.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Des Marais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Fendrich, K. V.; Frydenvang, J.; Graff, T. G.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Morookian, J. M.; Schwenzer, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, has been exploring sedimentary rocks within Gale crater since landing in August, 2012. On the lower slopes of Aeolis Mons (a.k.a. Mount Sharp), drill powder was collected from a high-silica (74 wt% SiO2) outcrop named Buckskin (BK). It was a surprise to find that the Buckskin sample contained significant amounts of the relatively rare silica polymorph tridymite. We describe the setting of the Buckskin sample, the detection of tridymite by the MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffraction instrument, and detection implications. Geologic setting: The Buckskin outcrop is part of the Murray formation exposed in the Marias Pass area. The formation was previously studied by CheMin in the Pahrump Hills member [1] where three samples of drill fines were analyzed (Confidence Hills (CH), Mojave2 (MJ) and Telegraph Peak (TP) [2]). Assuming approximately horizontal bedding, the Buckskin outcrop is approx.15 m stratigraphically above the bottom of the Pahrump Hills member. Mudstone, generally characterized by fine lamination, is the dominant depositional facies [1]. Buckskin Mineralogical and Chemical Composition: The CheMin instrument and XRD pattern analysis procedures have been previously discussed [3-6]. The diffraction pattern used for quantitative XRD analysis (Fig. 1) is the sum of the first 4 of 45 diffraction images. The remaining images are all characterized by both on-ring and off-ring diffraction spots that we attributed to poor grain motion and particle clumping. Coincident with particle clumping was a significant decrease in the intensity of the tridymite diffraction peaks (Fig. 2a). The derived mineralogical composition of the crystalline component (derived from the first 4 diffraction images) is given in Table 1. The tridymite is well-crystalline and its pattern is refined as monoclinic tridymite (Fig 1). Mineral chemical compositions were derived from XRD unit cell parameters or obtained from

  16. Impact of dia- and catagenesis on sulphur and oxygen sequestration of biomarkers as revealed by artificial maturation of an immature sedimentary rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopmans, M.P.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrous pyrolysis of an immature (R(a)??? 0.25%) sulphur-rich marl from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin was carried out at 160C ??? T ???330 C for 72 h, to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the abundance and distribution of sulphur-containing and sulphur- and oxygen-linked carbon skeletons in low-molecular-weight and highmolecular-weight fractions (e.g. kerogen). To this end, compounds in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction, monoaromatic hydrocarbon fraction, polyaromatic hydrocarbon fraction, alkylsulphide fraction and ketone fraction were quantified, as well as compounds released after desulphurisation of the polar fraction and HI/LiAIH4 treatment of the desulphurised polar fraction. Sulphur-bound phytane and (20R)-5??,14??,17??(H) and (20R)-5??,14??,17??(H) C27 C29 steranes in the polar fraction become less abundant with increasing maturation temperature, whereas the amount of their corresponding hydrocarbons increases in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction. Carbon skeletons that are bound in the kerogen by multiple bonds (e.g. C38 n-alkane and isorenieratane) are first released into the polar fraction, and then as free hydrocarbons. These changes occur at relatively low levels of thermal maturity (R(a) <0.6%), as evidenced by the 'immature' values of biomarker maturity parameters such as the ????/(????+ ???? + ????) C35 hopane ratio and the 22S/(22S + 22R)-17??,21??(H) C35 hopane ratio. Sulphur- and oxygen-bound moieties, present in the polar fraction, are not stable with increasing thermal maturation. However, alkylthiophenes, ketones. 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and free n-alkanes seem to be stable thermal degradation products of these sulphur- and oxygen-bound moieties. Thus, apart from free n-alkanes, which are abundantly present in more mature sedimentary rocks and crude oils, alkylthiophenes, 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and ketones can also be expected to occur. The positions of the thiophene

  17. Geochemical study of the Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern Altai-Mongolian terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Implications on the provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Cai, Keda; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhao, Guochun; Rubanova, Elena S.

    2014-12-01

    The Altai-Mongolian terrane (AM) is a key component of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), but its tectonic nature has been poorly constrained. This paper reports geochemical compositions of Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM to trace their source nature and depositional setting, which in turn place constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the AM. The Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM show variable major-element compositions, with negative correlation between SiO2 and TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3T, MgO and K2O. Their high ICV values (1.18-2.53) and relatively low CIA values (37.9-76.3) indicate that the sediments were immature and probably underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering. The low-SiO2 samples are characterized by relatively restricted SiO2/Al2O3 (mostly 2.60-6.07) and low Rb/Sr ratios (0.02-1.89), implying their proximal deposition without obvious sedimentary sorting and recycling. In contrast, the high-SiO2 samples show much higher SiO2/Al2O3 ratios (15.4-19.9) possibly due to sedimentary sorting and/or silicification. All these samples yield relatively high Al2O3/TiO2 ratios (15.6-22.8), strong LREEs/HREEs differentiation ((La/Yb)N = 4.86-10.7) and obvious negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.61-0.83). Combined with their Th/Sc, Zr/Sc, La/Th and Co/Th ratios comparable with intermediate-acidic magmatic rocks, we infer that these kinds of magmatic rocks served as a major source for the investigated meta-sedimentary rocks. The TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3T + MgO concentrations are mostly higher than typical sediments from passive margin, and the Th/U, La/Sc, Th/Sc, Eu/Eu∗, Zr/Hf, Zr/Th and La/Th ratios are quite similar to sediments from continental arcs. These data suggest that the Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM were most likely deposited in an environment related to a continental arc setting rather than a passive regime. These rocks show strong similarities to their

  18. Ages of pre-rift basement and synrift rocks along the conjugate rift and transform margins of the Argintine Precordillera and Laurentia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, William A.; Tucker, Robert D.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Denison, Rodger E.

    2012-01-01

    ages from the Precordillera are consistent with indications that the Iapetan margin in the Ouachita embayment of Laurentia truncated the Grenville front and left older rocks of the Southern Granite-Rhyolite province (1390–1320 Ma) at the rifted margin. Chronostratigraphic correlations of synrift and post-rift sedimentary deposits on the Precordillera and on the Texas promontory of Laurentia document initial rifting in the Early Cambrian. Previously published data from synrift plutonic and volcanic rocks in the Wichita and Arbuckle Mountains along the transform-parallel intracratonic Southern Oklahoma fault system inboard from the Ouachita embayment document crystallization ages of 539–530 Ma. New data from synrift volcanic rocks in the Arbuckle Mountains in the eastern part of the Southern Oklahoma fault system yield ages of 539 ± 5 Ma and 536 ± 5 Ma, confirming the age of synrift volcanism.

  19. New high-precision 40Ar/39Ar ages on Oligocene volcanic rocks of northwestern Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Francis H.; Jicha, Brian R.

    2016-02-01

    New, high-precision 40Ar/39Ar ages from volcanic rocks in northwestern Kenya are provided for some areas of exposure in this remote area. We report seven 40Ar/39Ar ages generated from single crystal total fusion experiments on alkali feldspar separated from volcanic rocks in the Mogila, Songot, and Lokwanamur Ranges and the Gatome valley. A rhyolite from the lower part of the sequence in the Mogila Range yielded ages of 32.31 ± 0.06 Ma and 32.33 ± 0.07 Ma, and a rhyolite near the top of that sequence yielded 31.67 ± 0.04 Ma. A single sample from the Songot Range yielded an age of 32.49 ± 0.07 Ma, slightly older than the rocks collected from Mogila. In both ranges the early Oligocene rhyolites are underlain by basalts, as is also the case in the Labur Range. Ages of 25.95 ± 0.03 Ma, 25.91 ± 0.04 Ma, and 27.15 ± 0.03 Ma were measured on alkali feldspar from rhyolites from the Lokwanamur Range, and the nearby Gatome valley. All of these rocks are part of an episode of widespread volcanism in northwestern Kenya in the mid-to late Oligocene that is not currently known from the Ethiopian Rift Valley.

  20. Critical elements in sediment-hosted deposits (clastic-dominated Zn-Pb-Ag, Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb, sedimentary rock-hosted Stratiform Cu, and carbonate-hosted Polymetallic Deposits): A review: Chapter 12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, Erin; Hitzman, Murray W.; Leach, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Some sediment-hosted base metal deposits, specifically the clastic-dominated (CD) Zn-Pb deposits, carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits, sedimentary-rock hosted stratiform copper deposits, and carbonate-hosted polymetallic (“Kipushi type”) deposits, are or have been important sources of critical elements including Co, Ga, Ge, and Re. The generally poor data concerning trace element concentrations in these types of sediment-hosted ores suggest that there may be economically important concentrations of critical elements yet to be recognized.

  1. Oldest reliable Ar-40/Ar-39 ages for terrestrial rocks Barberton Mountain komatiites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Martinez, M.; York, D.; Hall, C. M.; Hanes, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The first Ar-40/Ar-39 ages for komatiites and komatiitic basalts from the Barberton Mountain Greenstone Belt on the Transvaal-Swaziland border in southern Africa are reported. Both rock types display remarkable argon retentivity. While some variation is found among the samples, the best argon age estimate for the time of metamorphism is in the 3450-3490 Myr range. This age is only slightly less than that found in komatiites from the same area by Sm-Nd dating. The results show that the principal pervasive greenschist metamorphism in the area must have occurred within 100 Myr of the eruption of the komatiite. These results represent by far the oldest reliable ages obtained for terrestrial rocks using the K-Ar system.

  2. Tidal regime of intact planetoid capture model for the Earth-Moon system: Does it relate to the archean sedimentary rock record?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcuit, Robert J.; Winters, Ronald R.

    1993-01-01

    Regardless of one's favorite model for the origin of the Earth-Moon system (fission, coformation, tidal capture, giant-impact) the early history of lunar orbital evolution would produce significant thermal and earth and ocean tidal effects on the primitive earth. Three of the above lunar origin models (fission, coformation, giant-impact) feature a circular orbit which undergoes a progressive increase in orbital radius from the time of origin to the present time. In contrast, a tidal capture model places the moon in an elliptical orbit undergoing progressive circularization from the time of capture (for model purposes about 3.9 billion years ago) for at least a few 10(exp 8) years following the capture event. Once the orbit is circularized, the subsequent tidal history for a tidal capture scenario is similar to that for other models of lunar origin and features a progressive increase in orbital radius to the current state of the lunar orbit. This elliptical orbit phase, if it occurred, should have left a distinctive signature in the terrestrial and lunar rock records. Depositional events would be associated terrestrial shorelines characterized by abnormally high, but progressively decreasing, ocean tidal amplitudes and ranges associated with such an orbital evolution. Several rock units in the age range 3.6-2.5 billion years before present are reported to have a major tidal component. Examples are the Warrawoona, Fortescue, and Hamersley Groups of Western Australia and the Pangola and Witwatersand Supergroups of South Africa. Detailed study of the features of these tidal sequences may be helpful in deciphering the style of lunar orbital evolution during the Archean Eon.

  3. Maximum sedimentation ages and provenance of metasedimentary rocks from Tinos Island, Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsken, Tim; Bröcker, Michael; Berndt, Jasper; Gärtner, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of five metasedimentary rocks from the Lower Unit on Tinos Island (Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece) document supply of detritus from various Proterozoic, Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks as well as post-depositional metamorphic zircon formation. Essential features of the studied zircon populations are Late Cretaceous (70-80 Ma) maximum sedimentation ages for the lithostratigraphic succession above the lowermost dolomite marble, significant contributions from Triassic to Neoproterozoic source rocks, minor influx of detritus recording Paleoproterozoic and older provenance (1.9-2.1, 2.4-2.5 and 2.7-2.8 Ga) and a lack or paucity of zircons with Mesoproterozoic ages (1.1-1.8 Ga). In combination with biostratigraphic evidence, the new dataset indicates that Late Cretaceous or younger rocks occur on top of or very close to the basal Triassic metacarbonates, suggesting a gap in the stratigraphic record near the base of the metamorphic succession. The time frame for sediment deposition is bracketed by the youngest detrital zircon ages (70-80 Ma) and metamorphic overgrowths that are related to high-pressure/low-temperature overprinting in the Eocene. This time interval possibly indicates a significant difference to the sedimentation history of the southern Cyclades, where Late Cretaceous detrital zircons have not yet been detected.

  4. Nd isotopes and the origin of Grenville-age rocks in Texas: Implications for Proterozoic evolution of the United States mid-continent region

    SciTech Connect

    Patchett, P.J.; Ruiz, J. )

    1989-11-01

    Nd isotopic data were obtained for Precambrian Grenville-belt rocks in Texas. The samples represent most components of the crust of the Llano, Van Horn, and Franklin Mountains exposed terranes. Almost all Precambrian igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks from the three regions document addition to North America of mantle-derived crustal materials in the 1.6-1.0 Ga interval. The exception is a quartzite from the westernmost (Franklin Mountains) exposure, which was derived from {approximately}1.8 Ga crust of the southwestern United States. The initial {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of all rocks except the quartzite lie in the +1 to +6 range for igneous/metamorphic ages of 1.37 to 1.06 Ga. These results can be interpreted in two ways: (1) as documenting 0-20% additions of older crustal material to mantle-derived products 1.4-1.0 Ga ago; or (2) as documenting derivation of the Grenville exposures by recycling of older crustal protoliths separated from the mantle 1.6-1.3 Ga ago. The Nd data in isolation do not resolve these two interpretations. The model mantle separation ages (T{sub DM}) of the rocks are very similar to published values of granulites in Mexico and Virginia: all these regions of the United States and Mexico show a strong peak of T{sub DM} around 1.4 Ga ago. If the ages represent older crustal protoliths, then they would have formed coevally with the 1.5-1.3 Ga Granite-Rhyolite Terranes of the continental interior USA. This would imply that the Granite-Rhyolite Terranes were formed during orogenic/accretionary processes in the adjoining Grenville Belt, and are not anorogenic in association, as conventionally assumed.

  5. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in northern Terby Crater. Terby is located along the north edge of Hellas Planitia. The sedimentary rocks might have been deposited in a greater, Hellas-filling sea -- or not. Today, the rocks are partly covered by dark-toned sediment and debris.

    Location near: 27.2oS, 285.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  6. Thermal history of low metamorphic grade Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of the Penokean orogen, Lake Superior region: Evidence for a widespread 1786 Ma overprint based on xenotime geochronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallini, D.A.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.; McNaughton, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Paleoproterozoic strata in northern Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were deposited between 2.3 and 1.75 Ga within the rifted margin and subsequent foreland basin of the Penokean orogen. These strata show evidence for multiple regional metamorphic events previously attributed entirely to the Penokean orogeny (1875-1835 Ma). Metasandstones from the Marquette Range Supergroup and the Animikie, Mille Lacs, and North Range Groups were sampled at multiple localities across Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan for metamorphic xenotime suitable for in situ SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology. All samples are from the northern Penokean foreland basin where the metamorphic grade is greenschist to sub-greenschist and the strata are virtually undeformed. Xenotime U-Pb ages in these samples have a bimodal population with means of 1786 ?? 4 Ma (n = 32) and 1861 ?? 10 Ma (n = 9). Xenotime of both ages are contained in metasandstones from the basal Chocolay Group in Michigan and Wisconsin and the Mille Lacs Group and North Range Groups in Minnesota. The older age records a regional low-temperature thermal event that is slightly older than the overlying Menominee Group in Michigan and the Animikie Group in Minnesota and Ontario. This 1861 Ma event coincides with regional uplift that led to the formation of the unconformity between the Menominee Group and the overlying Baraga Group in Michigan; hence xenotime growth must have occurred at shallow burial depths. Younger units from the Menominee and Baraga Groups in Michigan and the Animikie Group in Minnesota, record only the 1786 Ma event. A dominant 1800-1790 Ma metamorphic monazite population that overprints Penokean-interval monazite has been documented within amphibolite- to granulite-facies rocks immediately north of the Niagara Fault Zone within the vicinity of gneiss domes and granitic plutons. In contrast, the 1786 Ma xenotime ages are from low-grade, virtually undeformed rocks 50-150 km from the high-grade zones and thus do not appear

  7. Abiologic silicon isotope fractionation between aqueous Si and Fe(III)-Si gel in simulated Archean seawater: Implications for Si isotope records in Precambrian sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xin-Yuan; Beard, Brian L.; Reddy, Thiruchelvi R.; Roden, Eric E.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2016-08-01

    Precambrian Si-rich sedimentary rocks, including cherts and banded iron formations (BIFs), record a >7‰ spread in 30Si/28Si ratios (δ30Si values), yet interpretation of this large variability has been hindered by the paucity of data on Si isotope exchange kinetics and equilibrium fractionation factors in systems that are pertinent to Precambrian marine conditions. Using the three-isotope method and an enriched 29Si tracer, a series of experiments were conducted to constrain Si isotope exchange kinetics and fractionation factors between amorphous Fe(III)-Si gel, a likely precursor to Precambrian jaspers and BIFs, and aqueous Si in artificial Archean seawater under anoxic conditions. Experiments were conducted at room temperature, and in the presence and absence of aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq). Results of this study demonstrate that Si solubility is significantly lower for Fe-Si gel than that of amorphous Si, indicating that seawater Si concentrations in the Precambrian may have been lower than previous estimates. The experiments reached ∼70-90% Si isotope exchange after a period of 53-126 days, and the highest extents of exchange were obtained where Fe(II)aq was present, suggesting that Fe(II)-Fe(III) electron-transfer and atom-exchange reactions catalyze Si isotope exchange through breakage of Fe-Si bonds. All experiments except one showed little change in the instantaneous solid-aqueous Si isotope fractionation factor with time, allowing extraction of equilibrium Si isotope fractionation factors through extrapolation to 100% isotope exchange. The equilibrium 30Si/28Si fractionation between Fe(III)-Si gel and aqueous Si (Δ30Sigel-aqueous) is -2.30 ± 0.25‰ (2σ) in the absence of Fe(II)aq. In the case where Fe(II)aq was present, which resulted in addition of ∼10% Fe(II) in the final solid, creating a mixed Fe(II)-Fe(III) Si gel, the equilibrium fractionation between Fe(II)-Fe(III)-Si gel and aqueous Si (Δ30Sigel-aqueous) is -3.23 ± 0.37‰ (2

  8. Age and composition of igneous rocks, Edna Mountain quadrangle, Humboldt County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Ralph L.; Silberman, Miles L.; Marsh, S.P.

    1978-01-01

    Six pulses of igneous activity ranging in age from Jurassic to Pliocene have been identified in the Edna Mountain quadrangle, Humboldt County, Nev. Porphyritic syenite am! quartz monzonite of Jurassic age (146-164 million years) at Buffalo Mountain are highly potassic through a wide range in SiO2 content from olivine-bearing syenite to quartz-rich monzonite, and their composition contrasts sharply with plutons elsewhere in north-central Nevada. Granodiorite and quartz monzonite plutons of Cretaceous age (88- 106 m.y.) are chemically and mineralogically similar to other calc-alkaline plutons in north-central Nevada. Four episodes of Tertiary volcanism include rhyolite ashflow tuffs and slightly younger andesitic basalt flows and tuffs of Oligocene age, rhyolite vitrophyre of late Miocene age, and olivine basalt flows of Pliocene age. Their age and mineralogical and chemical compositions are similar to other Tertiary volcanic rocks in north-central Nevada.

  9. Geology and geochronology of granitoid and metamorphic rocks of late Archean age in northwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Zartman, R.E.; Benedict, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Granitoid rocks of the Puritan Quartz Monzonite and associated biotite gneiss and amphibolite in northwestern Wisconsin compose the southwestern part of the Puritan batholith of Late Archean age. They differ from rocks in the Michigan segment of the batholith in having been deformed by brittle-ductile deformation and partly recrystallized during shearing accompanying development of the midcontinent rift system of Keweenawan (Middle Proterozoic) age. Granitoid rocks ranging in composition from granite to tonalite are dominant in the Wisconsin part of the batholith. To the north of the Mineral Lake fault zone, they are massive to weakly foliated and dominantly of granite composition, whereas south of the fault zone they are more strongly foliated and mainly of tonalite composition. Massive granite, leucogranite, and granite pegmatite cut the dominant granitoid rocks. Intercalated with the granitoid rocks in small to large conformable bodies are biotite gneiss, amphibolite, and local tonalite gneiss. Metagabbro dikes of probable Early Proterozoic age as much as 15 m thick cut the Archean rocks. Rubidium-strontium whole-rock data indicate a Late Archean age for the granitoids and gneisses, but data points are scattered and do not define a single isochron. Zircon from two samples of tonalitic gneiss for uranium-thorium-Iead dating define a single chord on a concordia diagram, establishing an age of 2,735?16 m.y. The lower intercept age of 1,052?70 m.y. is in close agreement with rubidium-strontium and potassium-argon biotite ages from the gneisses. Two episodes of deformation and metamorphism are recorded in the Archean rocks. Deformation during the Late Archean produced a steep west-northwest-oriented foliation and gently plunging fold axes and was accompanied by low amphibolite-facies metamorphism of the bedded rocks. A younger deformation resulting from largely brittle fracture was accompanied by retrogressive metamorphism; this deformation is most evident adjacent

  10. Age and tectonic setting of Mesozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks, northern White Mountains, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, R. Brooks; Saleeby, Jason B.; Fates, D. Gilbert

    1987-11-01

    Mesozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks in the northern White Mountains, eastern California and western Nevada, are separated from lower Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks by Jurassic and Cretaceous plutons. The large stratigraphic hiatus across the plutons is called the Barcroft structural break. Recent mapping and new U/Pb zircon ages of 154 +3/-1 Ma and 137 ±1 Ma. from an ash-flow tuff and a hypabyssal intrusion, respectively, indicate that part of the Mesozoic section and the Barcroft structural break are younger than the 160 165 Ma Barcroft Granodiorite, in contrast to previous interpretations. The Barcroft Granodiorite has been thrust westward over most of the Mesozoic section. It is everywhere in fault contact with overturned metasedimentary rocks on the west side of the range, rocks which were previously thought to be upright and the oldest part of the Mesozoic section. The McAfee Creek Granite, which has a 100 ±1 Ma U/Pb zircon age, postdates thrusting; therefore, the Barcroft structural break is primarily Early Cretaceous in age. *Present addresses: Hanson—Department of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560; Fates—Dames & Moore, 455 S. Figueroa Street, Suite 3504, Los Angeles, California 90074

  11. De Long Islands: sedimentary history and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershova, Victoria; Prokopiev, Andrei; Khudoley, Andrei; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Eugeniy

    2014-05-01

    The De Long Islands are an archipelago located in the East Siberian Sea, represent one of the few exposures of the Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic rocks in this part of the Arctic Ocean, and therefore are a very important area for study. It consists of 5 islands: Jeannette, Henrietta, Bennett, Vil'kitsky and Zhokhov. Vil'kitsky and Zhokhov Islands are covered by Cenozoic basalts, therefore are not considered here, whilst the Paleozoic rocks of interest for this study outcrop on Jeannette, Henrietta and Bennett islands. Jeannette Island is the smallest, containing exposures of a highly deformed and tectonized sedimentary succession. This succession is represented by siltstones and argillites, with beds of gravel to cobble conglomerates. The defining characteristic of these deposits is the abundance of tuffaceous beds, along with volcanic pebbles within the conglomerates. On Henrietta Island, four different units have been identified. The oldest one is very similar to the rocks which outcrop across Jeannette Island. The second unit consists of sandstones with lenses and layers of polymictic conglomerates. The third unit is represented by red-colored sandstones, whilst the youngest unit comprises basalt flows of an assumed Middle Paleozoic age. Accordingly detrital zircons data the age of sedimentary succession of Henrietta and Jeannette islands is the Neoproterozoic. On Bennett Island, Cambrian and Ordovician strata mainly consist of carbonates with minor interbedded clastics. We determined U-Pb ages for detrital zircons from 4 samples, from Jeannette and Henrietta Islands. Three samples have similar age populations, although there are some variations in the abundance of each population. The samples are dominated by Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic grains with distinct peaks at ca. 550, 660, 1000, 1150, 1450, 1665 Ma. The youngest sedimentary unit on Henrietta Island has a very different detrital zircon distribution. The 550 Ma zircon population prevails (60

  12. Economic significance of revised age relations of rocks in the Cornucopia mining district, Elko County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coats, Robert Roy

    1967-01-01

    Recent geologic work in the Cornucopia mining district, a small silver-gold mining district in northwestern Elko County, Nev., has resulted in significant revision of the geological interpretation. Rocks formerly thought to be premineralization in age, but unmineralized, are now known to be postmineral extrusives, resting unconformably on the altered andesite in which the ore bodies are found. Extensions of the known productive veins may be expected at shallow depth beneath the younger volcanic rocks, and are separated from the mined part of the veins by postmineral high-angle faults that have brought the younger volcanic rocks into fault contact with the mineralized andesite. Some veins are apparently terminated against premineral faults.

  13. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous radiolarian age constraints from the sedimentary cover of the Amasia ophiolite (NW Armenia), at the junction between the Izmir-Ankara-Erzinçan and Sevan-Hakari suture zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danelian, T.; Asatryan, G.; Galoyan, Gh.; Sahakyan, L.; Stepanyan, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Amasia ophiolite, situated at the northernmost corner of Armenia, is part of the Sevan-Hakari suture zone which links with the Izmir-Ankara-Erzinçan suture zone in northern Turkey. Three new radiolarian assemblages have been extracted from siliceous sedimentary rocks that accumulated on the Amasia ophiolite in an oceanic setting. Two of these assemblages were extracted from red-brownish bedded cherts overlying basaltic lavas; one of these is likely to be middle Oxfordian to early Kimmeridgian in age, while the second correlates with the Berriasian. Similar time-equivalent lava-chert sequences have been dated recently using radiolarians from the Stepanavan, Vedi and Sevan ophiolite units, where they are considered to relate to submarine volcanic activity in the back-arc marginal basin in which the Armenian ophiolites were formed. The third radiolarian assemblage, of late Barremian age, was extracted from a more than 15-m-thick volcaniclastic-chert sequence. The related volcanic activity is likely to have been subaerial and probably relates to the formation of an oceanic volcanic plateau; no Cretaceous subaerial volcanism has been previously recorded in the Lesser Caucasus area.

  14. Pressure, temperature, and timing of mineralization of the sedimentary rock-hosted orogenic gold deposit at Klipwal, southeastern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnasamy, Sakthi Saravanan; Uken, Ron; Reinhardt, Jürgen; Selby, David; Johnson, Spencer

    2015-08-01

    fluid-forming event with fluid flow focused into a "compressional jog" of the KSZ. Shear-induced pressure fluctuations generated a phase separation of the initial aqueous-gaseous fluid, producing a gaseous and low-salinity aqueous fluid. This, together with fluid-rock interaction, and a decrease in fO2 lead to sulfide and gold precipitation at Klipwal. Re-Os data from six sulfide samples constrain the age of sulfide precipitation and, by inference, gold mineralization, to 2563 ± 84 Ma, with an initial 187Os/188Os = 0.29 ± 0.08 (MSWD = 0.38). This age is distinctly younger than the post-Pongola granites (2863-2721 Ma), ruling out the association of granite emplacement with mineralization. This would suggest that mineralization is linked to the regional D3 folding event which reactivated the KSZ after emplacement of the post-Pongola granites and that final brittle, post-mineralization reactivation is related to Karoo age faulting. Low initial Os values suggest that ore fluid interacted with mafic rocks, leaching non-radiogenic Os, the likely source being the deeper seated Nsuze Group volcanics and/or the greenstone belts that underlie the Pongola Supergroup.

  15. Astronomical Symbolism in Bronze-Age and Iron-Age Rock Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Quintela, Marco V.; Santos-Estévez, Manuel

    The best-known rock art from Late Prehistory is found in Scandinavia, the Alps, and Galicia, North West Spain. In this chapter, we explore its association with astronomical symbolism from three perspectives: the representation of heavenly bodies, the visibility conditions of the carvings, and their position on astronomical alignments. We also consider temporal variables and the impact of aspects of Indo-European ideology on the construction of the representations in their astronomical relationships.

  16. Zircon U-Pb age constraints on the Paleoproterozoic sedimentary basement of the Ediacaran Porongos Group, Sul-Riograndense Shield, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertille, Juliana; Hartmann, Léo Afraneo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo

    2015-11-01

    Thick quartzites record significant information on cratonic environments during long geological periods. The capacity to resist weathering and deformation turn the quartzite covers especially useful in the provenance studies of Precambrian basins. Provenance of 194 detrital zircon grains from two samples of thick quartzite cover on the Paleoproterozoic Encantadas Complex displays mostly Paleoproterozoic (95%) and minor Archean (5%) sources. The results indicate that sediments were derived from the La Plata Craton with the maximum depositional age at 2.03 Ga possibly up to 1.7 Ga. In comparison, the adjacent Porongos Group has provenance data of 61 detrital zircon grains indicating mostly Mesoproterozoic (69%), subordinately Paleoproterozoic (26%) and minor Archean ages (5%). Considering previous published data, the Porongos Group is Ediacaran in age and probably chronocorrelated with sedimentary basins from the Tandilia Belt (Argentina). Therefore, the quartzite cover and the Porongos Group require distinct evolution in time and in tectonic environment.

  17. Age and tectonic significance of volcanic rocks in the northern Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCulloh, Thane H.; Fleck, Robert J.; Denison, Rodger E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic rocks, mostly basalts and some andesites, are interbedded with middle Miocene strata and are overlain by younger rocks throughout the greater part of the Los Angeles Basin, California. Roughly correlative flows, previously dated radiometrically (or paleontologically) at about 16.4 to 10.7 Ma, crop out in five separate regions around the basin perimeter. Los Angeles Basin volcanic rocks have special meaning because they offer clues to tectonomagmatic events associated with onset of clockwise transrotation of the western Transverse Ranges region and to the timing and locus of the initial basin opening. Whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar dating of near-tholeiitic olivine basalts of the Topanga Formation (Hoots, 1931) from three sites in the easternmost Santa Monica Mountains, combined with 87Sr/86Sr dating of fossil carbonates from interstratified marine beds at nine sites, establish a new age of 17.4 Ma for these oldest known Topanga-age volcanics of the Los Angeles Basin. We also record three new 40Ar/39Ar ages (15.3 Ma) from andesitic flows of the lower Glendora Volcanics at the northeast edge of the basin, 70 km east of the Santa Monica Mountains. A whole-rock determination of 17.2±0.5 Ma for nearby altered olivine basalt in the unfossiliferous Glendora volcanic sequence is questionable because of a complex 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum suggestive of 39Ar recoil, but it may indicate an older volcanic unit in this eastern area. We hypothesize that the 17.4-Ma volcanics in the eastern Santa Monica Mountains are an early expression of deep crustal magmatism accompanying the earliest extensional tectonism associated with rifting. The extremely thick younger volcanic pile in the western and central parts of the range may suggest that this early igneous activity in the eastern area was premonitory. Paleomagnetic declination data are needed to determine the pre-transrotational orientation of the eastern Santa Monica Mountains volcanic sequence. The new age determinations do not

  18. Our World: The Rock Cycle

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out how rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo astronauts have helped NASA learn more about the rock cycle. Compare igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks found on Earth to three types of ro...

  19. Constraints on the timing of Co-Cu ± Au mineralization in the Blackbird district, Idaho, using SHRIMP U-Pb ages of monazite and xenotime plus zircon ages of related Mesoproterozoic orthogneisses and metasedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.; Lund, Karen; Evans, Karl V.; Fanning, C. Mark; Mazdab, Frank K.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Pillers, Renee M.

    2012-01-01

    The Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, contains the largest known Co reserves in the United States. The origin of strata-hosted Co-Cu ± Au mineralization at Blackbird has been a matter of controversy for decades. In order to differentiate among possible genetic models for the deposits, including various combinations of volcanic, sedimentary, magmatic, and metamorphic processes, we used U-Pb geochronology of xenotime, monazite, and zircon to establish time constraints for ore formation. New age data reported here were obtained using sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) microanalysis of (1) detrital zircons from a sample of Mesoproterozoic siliciclastic metasedimentary country rock in the Blackbird district, (2) igneous zircons from Mesoproterozoic intrusions, and (3) xenotime and monazite from the Merle and Sunshine prospects at Blackbird. Detrital zircon from metasandstone of the biotite phyllite-schist unit has ages mostly in the range of 1900 to 1600 Ma, plus a few Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic grains. Age data for the six youngest grains form a coherent group at 1409 ± 10 Ma, regarded as the maximum age of deposition of metasedimentary country rocks of the central structural domain. Igneous zircons from nine samples of megacrystic granite, granite augen gneiss, and granodiorite augen gneiss that crop out north and east of the Blackbird district yield ages between 1383 ± 4 and 1359 ± 7 Ma. Emplacement of the Big Deer Creek megacrystic granite (1377 ± 4 Ma), structurally juxtaposed with host rocks in the Late Cretaceous ca. 5 km north of Blackbird, may have been involved in initial deposition of rare earth elements (REE) minerals and, possibly, sulfides. In situ SHRIMP ages of xenotime and monazite in Co-rich samples from the Merle and Sunshine prospects, plus backscattered electron imagery and SHRIMP analyses of trace elements, indicate a complex sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Cretaceous events. On the basis of textural relationships

  20. A new age within MIS 7 for the Homo neanderthalensis of Saccopastore in the glacio-eustatically forced sedimentary successions of the Aniene River Valley, Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Ceruleo, Piero; Jicha, Brian; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Salari, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    Field observations as well as borehole, sedimentological and geochronologic data allow us to reconstruct the geologic setting of the Aniene River Valley in northern Rome, framing it within the recently recognized picture of temporally constrained, glacio-eustatically forced aggradational successions of this region. The sedimentary successions cropping out in this area include those described in the literature of the early 20th century in Saccopastore, where two skulls of Homo neanderthalensis were recovered. Based on the geometry, elevation and sedimentologic features of the investigated sedimentary deposits, the stratigraphic record of Saccopastore is correlated with the aggradational succession deposited in response to sea-level rise during glacial termination III at the onset of MIS 7 (i.e. ˜250 ka), corresponding to the local Vitinia Formation, as opposed to previous correlation with the MIS 5 interglacial and a locally defined "Tyrrhenian" stage (˜130 ka). This previous attribution was based on the interpretation of the sedimentary succession of Saccopastore, occurring between 15 and 21 m a.s.l., as a fluvial terrace formed around 130 ka during the Riss-Würm interglacial, ca. 6 m above the present-day alluvial plain of the Aniene River. In contrast to this interpretation, a 40Ar/39Ar age of 129 ± 2 ka determined for this study on a pyroclastic-flow deposit intercalated in a fluvial-lacustrine sequence forming a terrace ˜37 m a.s.l. near the coast of Rome constrains the aggradational succession in this area to MIS 5, precluding the occurrence of an equivalent fluvial terrace at lower elevation in the inland sector of Saccopastore. We therefore interpret the stratigraphic record of Saccopastore as the basal portion of the aggradational succession deposited in response to sea-level rise during MIS 7, whose equivalent fluvial terrace occurs around 55 m a.s.l. in this region. We also review the published paleontological and paleoethnological records recovered

  1. Age and geomorphic history of Meteor Crater, Arizona, from cosmogenic 36Cl and 14C in rock varnish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, F.M.; Zreda, M.G.; Smith, S.S.; Elmore, D.; Kubik, P.W.; Dorn, R.I.; Roddy, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Using cosmogenic 36Cl buildup and rock varnish radiocarbon, we have measured the exposure age of rock surfaces at Meteor Crater, Arizona. Our 36Cl measurements on four dolomite boulders ejected from the crater by the impact yield a mean age of 49.7 ?? 0.85 ka, which is in excellent agreement with an average age of 49 ?? 3 ka obtained from thermoluminescence studies on shock-metamorphosed dolomite and quartz. These ages are supported by undetectably low 14C in the oldest rock varnish sample. ?? 1991.

  2. First data on the age of rocks from the central part of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge (Brazil Basin, South Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolotnev, S. G.; Bylinskaya, M. E.; Golovina, L. A.; Ipat'eva, I. S.

    2011-03-01

    Micropaleontological and isotope-geochronological investigations of calcareous sedimentary rocks and volcanites dredged out from the central portion of the submarine Vitoria-Trindade Ridge during the 24th cruise of R/V Akademik Vavilov have been conducted. It has been established based on micropaleontological analysis, which included determination of the species composition of foraminifera and nannoplankton, that the sequence of sedimentary rocks having a pelagic nature formed on the slopes of the volcanic seamounts in the central portion of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge from the Early to Mid-Miocene to the Holocene; a good correlation between the degree of lithification of these rocks and their age is observed. It has also been established that the carbonate platforms on the abraded tops of the Davis Seamount and the Dogaressa Bank, which are located in the east-central portion of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge, started forming in the Early Miocene (19-24 Ma). It has been determined using local U-Pb dating of zircon grains with a SHRIMP-II high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer that the volcanites forming the upper portion of the volcanic rock sequence of the Jaseur Seamount (29.8 ± 6.6 Ma) located in the west-central portion of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge date to the Oligocene. The investigations conducted have confirmed the opinion that the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge formed in general because of the activity of the hot spot located under the volcanic Trindade and Martin Vaz Islands. However, separate extended lenticular segments of this ridge existed for a long time as single structures, within which the age of the seamounts was not linearly dependent on the distance from the location of the hot spot. Lenses of hot mantle matter that form at the sublithospheric level as a result of impulses of plume activity and move along with the lithospheric plate play a defining role in the development of individual segments forming the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge.

  3. Age-correlation of blood values in the rock pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Prinzinger, Roland; Misovic, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    Hematological adaptations to age (1-17 years) and about variability per se for free-living rock pigeons Columba livia are presented. Increasing age is correlated with decreasing values of hematocrit and hemoglobin. A marked reduction of lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) activity in the first 2-3 years may be caused by a training-based increase of the relative portion of the aerobically working red breast muscles (responsible for endurance) at the expense of the proportion of anaerobically working white breast muscles. The age-correlated increase in glucose could indicate a decreasing tolerance for carbohydrates. Optimal flight performance is achieved by the doves at an age of about 2-3 years; the high performance is retained until an age range of 7-9 years. PMID:20184962

  4. Protolith age and deformation history of high grade metamorphic rocks from the roots of a continental magmatic arc: the Central Gneiss Complex, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, D.; Pearson, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Central Gneiss Complex, located in western British Columbia, preserves mid and lower crustal igneous and metasedimentary rocks that yield insight into deformational and thermal processes at the roots of a continental magmatic arc. The complex primarily consists of gneiss interpreted as a volcanic sequence with calcareous interlayers and lesser clastic metasedimentary rocks. Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages from granulite-facies equivalent rocks in the core of the complex hint at rapid burial following deposition. However, a Permian or older crinoid fossil found in one locality (Hill, 1985) requires the presence of some late Paleozoic or early Mesozoic material. A new U-Pb zircon age (313±5 Ma; LA-ICPMS) from ~10 km west of this fossil locality is interpreted to record volcanism. We also conducted focused structural and geochronological analysis at higher structural levels in the northeastern Central Gneiss Complex to positively identify sedimentary lithologies with which to document the early structural history of the complex prior to early Cenozoic rapid exhumation. In this area, a subhorizontal shear zone forms the boundary between mainly clastic metasedimentary rocks and the widespread metavolcanic and carbonate rocks where an important stretched pebble conglomerate has been previously documented. In the footwall of the shear zone, flattening fabrics transition structurally upward into E-W trending stretching lineations, lineation-parallel isoclinal fold axes, and boudinage that record E-W stretching and major shear strain near the contact. S-C fabrics and shear bands yield a top to the east sense of shear. Where observed, a shallowly dipping, ~15 m thick zone of cataclasite forms the lithologic contact and overprints the shear zone. Sills and dikes record ongoing but localized magmatism throughout deformation and steep NE striking brittle normal faults crosscut all features. Ongoing work will further constrain the protolith age of these rocks, the timing of

  5. Testing seismic hazard models with Be-10 exposure ages for precariously balanced rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, D. H.; Anooshehpoor, R.; Balco, G.; Biasi, G. P.; Brune, J. N.; Brune, R.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Kendrick, K. J.; Purvance, M.; Saleeby, I.

    2012-12-01

    Currently, the only empirical tool available to test maximum earthquake ground motions spanning timescales of 10 ky-1 My is the use of fragile geologic features, including precariously balanced rocks (PBRs). The ages of PBRs together with their areal distribution and mechanical stability ("fragility") constrain probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) over long timescales; pertinent applications include the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM) and tests for ground motion models (e.g., Cybershake). Until recently, age constraints for PBRs were limited to varnish microlamination (VML) dating techniques and sparse cosmogenic nuclide data; however, VML methods yield minimum limiting ages for individual rock surfaces, and the interpretations of cosmogenic nuclide data were ambiguous because they did not account for the exhumation history of the PBRs or the complex shielding of cosmic rays. We have recently published a robust method for the exposure dating of PBRs combining Be-10 profiles, a numerical model, and a three-dimensional shape model for each PBR constructed using photogrammetry (Balco et al., 2011, Quaternary Geochronology). Here, we use our published method to calculate new exposure ages for PBRs at 6 sites in southern California near the San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Elsinore faults, including: Lovejoy Buttes (9 +/- 1 ka), Round Top (35 +/- 1 ka), Pacifico (19 +/- 1 ka, but with a poor fit to data), Beaumont South (17 +/- 2 ka), Perris (24 +/- 2 ka), and Benton Road (40 +/- 1 ka), in addition to the recently published age of 18.5 +/- 2.0 ka for a PBR at the Grass Valley site. We combine our ages and fragilities for each PBR, and use these data to test the USGS 2008 NSHM PGA with 2% in 50 year probability, USGS 2008 PSHA deaggregations, and basic hazard curves from USGS 2002 NSHM data. Precariously balanced rock in southern California

  6. The mangazeya Ag-Pb-Zn vein deposit hosted in sedimentary rocks, Sakha-Yakutia, Russia: Mineral assemblages, fluid inclusions, stable isotopes (C, O, S), and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikina, E. Yu.; Bortnikov, N. S.; Klubnikin, G. K.; Gamyanin, G. N.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    The succession of mineral assemblages, chemistry of gangue and ore minerals, fluid inclusions, and stable isotopes (C, O, S) in minerals have been studied in the Mangazeya silver-base-metal deposit hosted in terrigenous rocks of the Verkhoyansk Fold-Thrust Belt. The deposit is localized in the junction zone of the Kuranakh Anticlinorium and the Sartanga Synclinorium at the steep eastern limb of the Endybal Anticline. The deposit is situated at the intersection of the regional Nyuektame and North Tirekhtyakh faults. Igneous rocks are represented by the Endybal massif of granodiorite porphyry 97.8 ± 0.9 Ma in age and dikes varying in composition. One preore and three types of ore mineralization separated in space are distinguished: quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite (I), quartz-carbonate-sulfide (II), and silver-base-metal (III). Quartz and carbonate (siderite) are predominant in ore veins. Ore minerals are represented by arsenopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, fahlore, and less frequent sulfosalts. Three types of fluid inclusions in quartz differ in phase compositions: two- or three-phase aqueous-carbon dioxide (FI I), carbon dioxide gas (FI II), and two-phase (FI III) containing liquid and a gas bubble. The homogenization temperature and salinity fall within the ranges of 367-217°C and 13.8-2.6 wt % NaCl equiv in FI I; 336-126°C and 15.4-0.8 wt % NaCl equiv in FI III. Carbon dioxide in FI II was homogenized in gas at +30.2 to +15.3°C and at +27.2 to 29.0°C in liquid. The δ34S values for minerals of type I range from-1.8 to +4.7‰ (V-CDT); of type II, from-7.4 to +6.6‰; and of type III, from-5.6 to +7.1‰. δ13C and δ18O vary from-7.0 to-6.7‰ (V-PDB) and from +16.6 to +17.1 (V-SMOW) in siderite-I; from-9.1 to-6.9‰ (V-PDB) and from +14.6 to +18.9 (V-SMOW) in siderite-II; from-5.4 to-3.1‰ (V-PDB) and from +14.6 to +19.5 (V-SMOW) in ankerite; and from-4.2 to-2.9‰ (V-PDB) and from +13.5 to +16.8 (V-SMOW) in calcite. The data on mineral assemblages, fluid

  7. Metallogeny of Mesoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in Idaho and Montana - Studies by the Mineral Resources Program, U.S. Geological Survey, 2004-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael, (Edited By)

    2007-01-01

    Preface By J.Michael O'Neill The major emphasis of this project was to extend and refine the known Mesoproterozoic geologic and metallogenic framework of the region along and adjacent to the Idaho-Montana boundary north of the Snake River Plain. The Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in this part of east-central Idaho host important Cu-Co-Au stratabound mineral resources as well as younger, epigenetic hydrothermal, sulfide base-metal mineral deposits. Two tasks of this study were to more accurately understand and portray the character and origin of cobalt-copper-gold deposits that compose the Idaho cobalt belt and specifically to analyze ore mineralogy and metallogenesis within the Blackbird mining district in the central part of the belt. Inasmuch as the cobalt belt is confined to the Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Group strata of east-central Idaho, geologic investigations were also undertaken to determine the relationship between strata of the Lemhi Group and the more extensive, noncobalt-bearing, Belt-Purcell Supergroup strata to the north and northwest. Abrupt lateral differences in the character and thickness of stratigraphic units in the Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Basin may indicate differential sedimentation in contemporaneous fault-bounded subbasins. It is suggested that northeast-trending basement faults of the Great Falls tectonic zone controlled development of the subbasins. O'Neill and others (chapter A, this volume) document a second major basement fault in this area, the newly recognized northwest-striking Great Divide megashear, a zone 1-2 km wide of left-lateral strike-slip faults active during Mesoproterozoic sedimentation and bounding the Cu-Co belt on the northwest. The megashear is a crustal-scale tectonic feature that separates Lemhi Group strata from roughly coeval Belt-Purcell strata to the north and northwest in Montana and northern Idaho. The results of numerous geologic investigations of the Cu- and Co-bearing Mesoproterozoic rocks of east

  8. Lu-Hf total-rock age for the Amitsoq gneisses, West Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettingill, H. S.; Patchett, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    Lu-Hf total-rock data for the Amitsoq gneisses of West Greenland yield an age of 3.55 + or - 0.22 billion years, based on the decay constant for Lu-176 of 1.96 x 10 to the -11th/year, and an initial Hf-176/Hf-177 ratio of 0.280482 + or - 33. The result is in good agreement with Rb-Sr total-rock and U-Pb zircon ages. In spite of severe metamorphism of the area at 2.9 billion years, zircons from two of the samples have remained on the total-rock line, and define points close to the initial Hf ratio. The initial Hf-176/Hf-177 lies close to a chondritic Hf isotopic evolution curve from 4.55 billion years to present. This is consistent with the igneous precursors to the Amitsoq gneisses having been derived from the mantle at or shortly before 3.6 billion years. Anomalous relationships between Hf concentration and the Lu-176/Hf-177 ratio may suggest that trace element abundances in the Amitsoq gneisses are partly controlled by processes related to metamorphism.

  9. Lu-Hf total-rock age for the Amîtsoq gneisses, West Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettingill, H.S.; Patchett, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Lu-Hf total-rock data for the Amîtsoq gneisses of West Greenland yield an age of 3.55±0.22Gy(2σ), based on the decay constant λ176Lu=1.96×10−11y−1, and an initial176Hf/177Hf ratio of 0.280482±33. The result is in good agreement with Rb-Sr total-rock and U-Pb zircon ages. In spite of severe metamorphism of the area at 2.9 Gy, zircons from two of the samples have remained on the total-rock line, and define points close to the initial Hf ratio. The initial176Hf/177Hf lies close to a chondritic Hf isotopic evolution curve from 4.55 Gy to present. This is consistent with the igneous precursors to the Amîtsoq gneisses having been derived from the mantle at or shortly before 3.6 Gy. Anomalous relationships between Hf concentration and the176Lu/177Hf ratio may suggest that trace element abundances in the Amîtsoq gneisses are partly controlled by processes related to metamorphism.

  10. Age of Goose Rock Conglomerate, Wheele and Grant Counties, north-central Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, M.R.; Fisk, L.H.

    1987-08-01

    A reconstruction of the geologic history and synthesis of the tectonic history of the Blue Mountains and Columbia Basin require that they know the age of key outcrops. The geological record in this entire area has been largely hidden by a thick blanket of Tertiary volcanic rocks. Only a few erosional inliers are available from which to interpret the pre-volcanic tectonic and sedimentation history. The Goose Rock Inlier, exposed along the John Day River in the Butler basin and Turtle Cove, is one such important outcrop. These exposures, consisting of a few hundred feet of fluvial sandstones and conglomerates, informally called the Goose Rock Conglomerate have received only limited attention from previous workers. Estimates of this unit's age range from Early Cretaceous to early Tertiary, on the basis of lithologic similarities with other named and unnamed formations in the area. The terrestrial nature of these strata and the apparent lack of fossils cause considerable difficulty in correlation with other Cretaceous sequences, which are largely marine. In the absence of scarcity of other fossils, palynology offers a unique alternative for making biochronological and paleoenvironmental interpretations.

  11. Hikurangi Margin: Geology, Flow Rates, Water-Rock Interaction and Relative Fluid Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The subaerial part of the Hikurangi Accretionary Prism (HAP) has nearly 330 sources of saline waters (2000-26000 mg/kg Cl), SO4-rich waters, CH4-rich gases and occasional oil seeps discharging from springs, mud volcanoes and gas vents from -37.5o to -41.3o latitude, 80-100 km from the subduction margin. Discharge areas, occupying <0.01 to 11 ha each, form a band about 500 km in length with widths ranging from 25 km in the south to 75-100 km in the north and centre. All fluid discharges are cold except for two hot springs in the central and N segments and another 6 on the W margin of the HAP. The total flow rate along the HAP is at least 10 x 108L/a, with nearly 50% contributed by cold discharges. Most fluid manifestations emerge along NE-trending faults and minor structures such as anticlines and synclines. However in the N, where fluids are also discharged along NW- and EW-trending structures within the allochton, manifestations are relatively more abundant (>150 sites), discharging nearly 45% of the annual surface fluid volume along the HAP. Fluid discharges in the HAP, based on chemical and isotopic fluid compositions, consist of subducted waters derived from clay water of hydration (<50%) and seawater that had interacted at varying degrees with organic-containing sedimentary rocks at depth at different temperatures. Discharges from the central segment exhibit the lowest degree of water-rock interaction and have the highest inferred subsurface temperatures (median: 110oC compared to S at 80oC and N at 90oC), suggesting (1) more recent influx of subducted waters and (2) more rapid upflow of fluids from depth, relative to the S and N. Fluids in the S segment exhibit the highest degree of water-rock interaction suggesting longer residence time at depth, or slower fluid movement to the surface due to thicker crust or greater fluid channel tortuosity. The high concentration of isotopic He in the central and N fluids can be due to deep and highly permeable faults that

  12. Correcting for inclination shallowing of early Carboniferous sedimentary rocks from Kyrgyzstan—indication of stable subtropical position of the North Tianshan Zone in the mid-late Palaeozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirscher, U.; Bilardello, D.; Mikolaichuk, A.; Bachtadse, V.

    2014-08-01

    High-quality palaeomagnetic data for the early Carboniferous of Central Asia are scarce and the palaeogeographic evolution of this area prior to final amalgamation of the region east of the Ural mountains is still rather obscure. Here, we present palaeomagnetic data for early Carboniferous deposits from two areas in the Kyrgyz North Tianshan (NTS). Detailed rock-magnetic analysis indicates the presence of magnetite and haematite as magnetic carriers in these red sediments. In the Kazakh basin section (KEL), we identify a high-temperature component (HTC) of magnetization during stepwise thermal demagnetization at temperatures of up to ˜680 °C yielding a site mean direction of D = 176.2°, I = -36.4°, k = 57.4 and α95 = 8.9° after tilt correction. Two HTCs of magnetization were identified in samples from the Sonkul Basin (DUN) with maximum blocking temperatures of ˜600 °C (magnetite) and ˜680 °C (haematite). The magnetite component was also identified with alternating field demagnetization. The resulting site mean directions for these two components identified in 16 and 14 sites, respectively, are D = 149.3°, I = -50.3°, k = 73.6 and α95 = 4.3° for the magnetite and D = 139.6°, I = -35.1°, k = 71.6 and α95 = 4.7° for the haematite component. All three mean directions show a significant increase of the precision parameter k after tilt correction indicating acquisition of the high-temperature magnetization prior to the main folding event in the Jurassic. We explain the difference of the two components of DUN by a process of inclination bias due to compaction to which the platy haematite particles are more susceptible. Applying the elongation-inclination (E/I) method to directional data from over 100 individual samples from location DUN results in a negligible correction for the magnetite component (<5°), whereas the inclination of the haematite component corrects from -35.0° to -50.3° (f = 0.6, error interval -41.4° to -57.9°), which is then equal

  13. In Situ Geochemical Analysis and Age Dating of Rocks Using Laser Ablation-Miniature Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Hurowitz, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    A miniaturized instrument for performing chemical and isotopic analysis of rocks has been developed. The rock sample is ablated by a laser and the neutral species produced are analyzed using the JPL-invented miniature mass spectrometer. The direct sampling of neutral ablated material and the simultaneous measurement of all the elemental and isotopic species are the novelties of this method. In this laser ablation-miniature mass spectrometer (LA-MMS) method, the ablated neutral atoms are led into the electron impact ionization source of the MMS, where they are ionized by a 70-eV electron beam. This results in a secondary ion pulse typically 10-100 microsecond wide, compared to the original 5-10-nanosecond laser pulse duration. Ions of different masses are then spatially dispersed along the focal plane of the magnetic sector of the miniature mass spectrometer and measured in parallel by a modified CCD (charge-coupled device) array detector capable of detecting ions directly. Compared to conventional scanning techniques, simultaneous measurement of the ion pulse along the focal plane effectively offers a 100% duty cycle over a wide mass range. LAMMS offers a more quantitative assessment of elemental composition than techniques that detect laser-ionized species produced directly in the ablation process because the latter can be strongly influenced by matrix effects that vary with the structure and geometry of the surface, the laser beam, and the ionization energies of the elements. The measurement of high-precision isotopic ratios and elemental composition of different rock minerals by LAMMS method has been demonstrated. The LA-MMS can be applied for the absolute age determination of rocks. There is no such instrument available presently in a miniaturized version that can be used for NASA space missions. Work is in progress in the laboratory for geochronology of rocks using LA-MMS that is based on K-Ar radiogenic dating technique.

  14. Age and growth of the rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque), in Nebish Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1941-01-01

    studies of the age and growth of the rock bass (Wright, 1929), whitefish (Hile and Deason, 1934), yellow perch (Schneberger, 1935), cisco (Hile, 1936a), muskellunge (Schloemer, 1936, 1938), largemouth black bass (Bennett, 1937), common sucker (Spoor, 1938), and smalimouth black bass (Bennett, 1938). A total of five mimeographed reports on the growth of game fish in Wisconsin has been issued by Juday and Schneberger (1930, 1933), Juday and Bennett (1935), and Juday and Schloemer (1936,. 1938). In addition there have appeared two publications on the morphometry of the cisco (Hile 193Gb, 1937), three dealing with the parasites of fishes in the region (Cross 1934, 1935, 1938) and one on the food of fishes (Couey, 1935). A paper by Hile and Juday on the bathymetric distribution of fish will appear simultaneously with the present study of the rock bass. A contribution on the growth of the bluegill by Schloemer will be published in the near future.

  15. Paleomagnetism of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Volcanic and Sedimentary Rocks From the Western Tarim Basin: Implications for Inclination Shallowing and the ISEA? chron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogne, J.; Gilder, S.; Chen, Y.; Tan, X.; Courtillot, V.; Sun, D.; Li, Y.

    2002-12-01

    Stepwise demagnetization isolates a stable magnetic component in 13 sites of basalt flows and baked sediments dated at 113+-1.6 Ma from the Tuoyun section, western Xinjiang Province, China. Except for one flow from the base of the 300 m-thick section, the rest have exclusively reversed polarity. Five of 11 sites of Early Cretaceous red beds that underlie the basalts possess coherent directions that pass both fold and reversals tests. Six sites of Upper Jurassic red beds have a magnetic component that was likely acquired after folding in the Tertiary. The mean paleolatitude of the Lower Cretaceous red beds is 11° lower than that of the Lower Cretaceous basalts suggesting the red beds underestimate the true field inclination. We further test this result by calculating the paleolatitudes to a common point of the available Early Cretaceous to Present paleomagnetic poles from red beds and volcanic rocks from central Asian localities north of the Tibetan plateau. We find that paleolatitudes of volcanic rocks roughly equal the paleolatitudes calculated from the reference Eurasian apparent polar wander path (APWP) and that paleolatitudes of red beds are generally 10° to 20° lower than the paleolatitudes of volcanic rocks and those predicted from the reference curve. Our study suggests that central Asian red beds poorly record the Earth's field inclination, which leads to lower than expected paleolatitudes. Good agreement in paleolatitudes from volcanic rocks and the Eurasian APWP argues against proposed canted and non-dipole field models.

  16. Long-term observation of permeability in sedimentary rocks under high-temperature and stress conditions and its interpretation mediated by microstructural investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, Hideaki; Kinoshita, Naoki; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Manabu; Ito, Kazumasa; Kishida, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a series of long-term, intermittent permeability experiments utilizing Berea sandstone and Horonobe mudstone samples, with and without a single artificial fracture, is conducted for more than 1000 days to examine the evolution of rock permeability under relatively high-temperature and confining pressure conditions. Effluent element concentrations are also measured throughout the experiments. Before and after flow-through experiments, rock samples are prepared for X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to examine the mineralogical changes between pre and postexperimental samples, and also for microfocus X-ray CT to evaluate the alteration of the microstructure. Although there are exceptions, the observed, qualitative evolution of permeability is found to be generally consistent in both the intact and the fractured rock samples—the permeability in the intact rock samples increases with time after experiencing no significant changes in permeability for the first several hundred days, while that in the fractured rock samples decreases with time. An evaluation of the Damkohler number and of the net dissolution, using the measured element concentrations, reveals that the increase in permeability can most likely be attributed to the relative dominance of the mineral dissolution in the pore spaces, while the decrease can most likely be attributed to the mineral dissolution/crushing at the propping asperities within the fracture. Taking supplemental observations by microfocus X-ray CT and using the intact sandstone samples, a slight increase in relatively large pore spaces is seen. This supports the increase in permeability observed in the flow-through experiments.

  17. Testing seismic hazard models with Be-10 exposure ages for precariously balanced rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, D. H.; Anooshehpoor, R.; Balco, G.; Brune, J.; Brune, R.; Ludwig, L. Grant; Kendrick, K.; Purvance, M.; Saleeby, I.

    2012-04-01

    Currently, the only empirical tool available to test maximum earthquake ground motions spanning timescales of 10 ky-1 My is the use of fragile geologic features, including precariously balanced rocks (PBRs). The ages of PBRs together with their areal distribution and mechanical stability ("fragility") constrain probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) over long timescales; pertinent applications include the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM) and tests for ground motion models (e.g., Cybershake). Until recently, age constraints for PBRs were limited to varnish microlamination (VML) dating techniques and sparse cosmogenic nuclide data; however, VML methods yield minimum limiting ages for individual rock surfaces, and the interpretations of cosmogenic nuclide data were ambiguous because they did not account for the exhumation history of the PBRs or the complex shielding of cosmic rays. We have recently published a robust method for the exposure dating of PBRs combining Be-10 profiles, a numerical model, and a three-dimensional model for each PBR constructed using photogrammetry (Balco et al., 2011, Quaternary Geochronology). Here, we use this method to calculate new exposure ages and fragilities for 6 PBRs in southern California (USA) near the San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Elsinore faults at the Lovejoy Buttes, Round Top, Pacifico, Beaumont South, Perris, and Benton Road sites (in addition to the recently published age of 18.7 +/- 2.8 ka for a PBR at the Grass Valley site). We combine our ages and fragilities for each PBR, and use these data to test the USGS 2008 NSHM PGA with 2% in 50 year probability, USGS 2008 PSHA deaggregations, and basic hazard curves from USGS 2002 NSHM data.

  18. Uranium-Lead Zircon Ages and Sr, Nd, and Pb Isotope Geochemistry of Selected Plutonic Rocks from Western Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unruh, Daniel M.; Lund, Karen; Kuntz, Mel A.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    Across the Salmon River suture in western Idaho, where allochthonous Permian to Cretaceous oceanic rocks are juxtaposed against Proterozoic North American rocks, a wide variety of plutonic rocks are exposed. Available data indicate much variation in composition, source, and structural state of these plutons. The plutonic rocks were long described as the western border zone of the Cretaceous Idaho batholith but limited pre-existing age data indicate more complicated origins. Because the affinity and age of the plutonic rocks cannot be reliably determined from field relations, TIMS U-Pb dating in conjunction with Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic studies of selected plutons across the suture in western Idaho were undertaken. The data indicate three general groups of plutons including (1) those that intruded the island arc terranes during the Triassic and Jurassic, those that intruded near the western edge of oceanic rocks along the suture in the Early Cretaceous, and the plutons of the Idaho batholith that intruded Proterozoic North American rocks in the Late Cretaceous. Plutons that intruded Proterozoic North American rocks commonly include xenocrystic zircons and in several cases, ages could not be determined. The least radiogenic Sr and most radiogenic Nd are found among the Blue Mountains superterrane island arc samples. Suture-zone plutons have isotopic characteristics that span the range between Idaho batholith and island arc samples but mostly follow island arc signatures. Plutons of the Idaho batholith have the most radiogenic initial Pb and Sr ratios and the least radiogenic Nd of the samples analyzed.

  19. Modeling the thermal and physical evolution of Mount Sharp's sedimentary rocks, Gale Crater, Mars: Implications for diagenesis on the MSL Curiosity rover traverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borlina, Cauê S.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Kite, Edwin S.

    2015-08-01

    Gale Crater, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing site, contains a central mound, named Aeolis Mons (informally Mount Sharp) that preserves 5 km of sedimentary stratigraphy. Formation scenarios include (1) complete filling of Gale Crater followed by partial sediment removal or (2) building of a central deposit with morphology controlled by slope winds and only incomplete sedimentary fill. Here we model temperature-time paths for both scenarios, compare results with analyses provided by MSL Curiosity, and provide scenario-dependent predictions of temperatures of diagenesis along Curiosity's future traverse. The effects of variable sediment thermal conductivity and historical heat flows are also discussed. Modeled erosion and deposition rates are 5-37 µm/yr, consistent with previously published estimates from other Mars locations. The occurrence and spatial patterns of diagenesis depend on sedimentation scenario and surface paleotemperature. For (1) temperatures experienced by sediments decrease monotonically along the traverse and up Mount Sharp stratigraphy, whereas for (2) temperatures increase along the traverse reaching maximum temperatures higher up in Mount Sharp's lower units. If early Mars surface temperatures were similar to modern Mars (mean: -50°C), only select locations under select scenarios permit diagenetic fluids. In contrast, if early Mars surface temperatures averaged 0°C or brines had lowered freezing points, diagenesis is predicted in most locations with temperatures < 225°C. Comparing our predictions with future MSL results on diagenetic textures, secondary mineral assemblages, and their spatial variability will constrain past heat flow, Mount Sharp's formation processes, the availability of liquid water on early Mars, and sediment organic preservation potential.

  20. Luminescence- and Infrared-Radiofluorescence dating of the Acheulean- to Middle Stone Age sedimentary sequence at Montagu Cave, Western Cape Provence, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Tobias; Archer, Will; Sumner, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Montagu Cave is an archaeological site located on the edge of the Langeberg mountain range, about 160 km NE of Cape Town, in South Africa. The archaeological and sedimentary units at Montagu Cave comprise two Acheulean sequences which are separated from one another by a substantial archaeological hiatus. There is an additional Middle Stone Age sequence which overlies the Acheulean horizons, and contains layers attributed to the Howiesons Poort, as well as multiple other Middle Stone Age sub-stages. Hence, Montagu Cave provides a unique opportunity to investigate quite complex population level questions concerning the behavioral differences between modern and pre-modern populations in southern Africa. However, thus far, the chronological context of the sediment-layers at the site remains unclear. It is therefore critical to provide a resilient chronological framework for the timing of human activity at the site. This study concerns the potential of luminescence dating for the sedimentary sequence preserved at Montagu cave. The collected samples are tested on their quartz- and feldspar luminescence signal properties. Various optical dating techniques (quartz OSL; pIRIR290) will be applied, and the results of each compared in order to obtain information on the suitability of the material for luminescence dating, and to establish a chronological framework for this important archaeological site. Furthermore, the infrared-radiofluorescence (IR-RF) signal behavior will be tested on potassium feldspars, as IR-RF is a method being able to date back up to > 600 ka. IR-RF therefore has the potential to cover the expected time-frame of the sediments at Montagu-cave.

  1. Plutonic rocks of Jurassic age in the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith: chemical variation and polarity.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, B.I.; Miesch, A.T.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Plutonic rocks of Jurassic age exposed on the Pacific side of this batholith form a compositionally continuous calc-alkaline suite that ranges from hornblende gabbro to quartz monzonite. Tonalite and quartz diorite are the dominant rock types. Trend-surface analysis of 102 samples indicates that the direction of slope of the trend is approximately normal to the Jurassic magmatic arc. K2O and SiO2 increase towards the E-SE and the other oxides towards the W-NW. If the chemical trends reflect the approximate geometry of a palaeo-subduction zone, the polarity of the Jurassic magmatic arc is to the NW, i.e. subduction was directed towards the SE. Thus the palaeo-subduction zone is on the opposite side of the arc from the position that has generally been assumed, indicating that the Jurassic plutonic rocks were not generated in response to classical Andean-type convergent plate margins. The magmatic arc may have been formed in an intra-ocean environment and subsequently has been rafted northwards and accreted to this part of the N Pacific rim during the late Mesozoic. Middle and Upper Jurassic clastics underlying Cook Inlet to the SE and derived from the magmatic arc are classified as back-arc deposits, rather than as an arc-trench gap sequence.-L.C.H.

  2. Continental Growth and the Sedimentary Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuime, B.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Robinson, R. A. J.; Cawood, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital sedimentary rocks provide average samples of the continental crust formed at different times and in different places. Some materials are more susceptible to erosion and/or to preservation bias than others, and one issue is to understand how the compositions of a range of source rocks are then recorded in the sediments. Here we considered two different approaches to model the growth of the continental crust: (i) The variation of Nd isotopes in continental shales with different deposition ages, which requires a correction of the bias induced by preferential erosion of younger rocks through an erosion parameter usually referred to as 'K'. The determination of K, and the extent to which it varies in different erosion systems, thus have fundamental implications for the models of continental growth based on radiogenic isotopes in continental sediments. (ii) The variations in U-Pb, Hf and O isotopes in detrital zircons, from 'modern' sediments sampled worldwide. In this approach, O isotopes are used to screen 'hybrid' Hf model ages (i.e. ages resulting from mixing processes of crustal material from different ages) from Hf model ages that represent actual crust formation ages. These two approaches independently suggest that the continental crust has been generated continuously, but with a marked decrease in the continental growth rate at ~3 Ga. The >4 Ga to ~3 Ga period is characterised by relatively high net rates of continental growth (~3.0 km3.a-1), which are similar to the rates at which new crust is generated, and destroyed, at the present time. Net growth rates are much lower since 3 Ga (~0.8 km3.a-1), which may be attributed to higher rates of destruction of continental crust. The inflexion in the continental growth curve at ~3 Ga indicates a change in the way the crust was generated and preserved. This change may be linked to onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics and discrete subduction zones.

  3. In situ geomechanics of crystalline and sedimentary rocks; Part IV, continued field testing of the modified U.S. Geological Survey 3-D borehole stress probe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, Thomas C.

    1983-01-01

    Two modified and calibrated U.S. Geological Survey 3-D borehole probes were successfully tested in the field at a site on South Table Mountain, near Golden, Colo. The probes were installed in separate core holes at depths of 84 and 99 cm in the latite cap rock and subsequently stress relieved with overcoring techniques. The determined stresses from both probes are very low and contain both tensile and compressive components. Magnitudes range from 1196 KPa in tension to 832 KPa in compression. The principal stress orientations are in fair agreement whereas the horizontal secondary principal stress directions are in good agreement; the maximum horizontal compressive stress is oriented N. 76? W.-S. 76? E. for one probe and N. 63? W.-S. 63? E. for the second probe. The greatest determined Young's modulus of the rock is in the N. 89? E. direction, only 15? from the maximum horizontal compressive stress direction.

  4. Early Precambrian mantle derived rocks in the southern Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica: age and isotopic constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikhalsky, E.V.; Henjes-Kunst, F.; Roland, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    Mafic and ultramafic rocks occurring as lenses, boudins, and tectonic slabs within metamorphic units in the southern Mawson Escarpment display mantle characteristics of either a highly enriched, or highly depleted nature. Fractionation of these mantle rocks from their sources may be as old as Eoarchaean (ca 3850 Ma) while their tectonic emplacement probably occurred prior to 2550 Ma (U-Pb SHRIMP data). These results provide for the first time evidence for Archaean suturing within East Antarctica. Similar upper mantle sources are likely present in the northern Mawson Escarpment. A younger age limit of these rocks is 2200 Ma, as indicated by presumably metamorphic zircon ages while their magmatic age may be constrained by single zircon dates at 2450-2250 Ma. The area of the northern Mawson Escarpment is most likely of ensimatic origin and includes mafic rocks which were derived from distinct mantle source(s) during Palaeoproterozoic time.

  5. Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the late Miocene-Pleistocene Dali Basin in the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau: Evidences from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and rock magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shihu; Deng, Chenglong; Paterson, Greig A.; Yao, Haitao; Huang, Sheng; Liu, Chengying; He, Huaiyu; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2014-08-01

    The Cenozoic Dali Basin, located at the northeast of Diancang Shan and south of the first bend of Yangtze River, is tectonically controlled by the Dali fault system in the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The basin is filled with late Miocene to Pleistocene fluviolacustrine sediments, which provide invaluable information about the tectonic deformation and drainage network reorganization in this area. In this study, we discuss the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of the Dasongping section in the Dali Basin, which spans an interval from 7.6 to 1.8 Ma. Although rock magnetic experiments indicate that magnetite and hematite are the main remanence carriers, hysteresis loops, low values of bulk susceptibility and low temperature susceptibility suggest that paramagnetic minerals are major contributors to low-field AMS. The rock magnetic parameters indicate that the Dali Basin experienced four stages of infilling and the sediment sources may have changed at 4.2 Ma. The clustering of the minimum principle axes (Kmin) nearly perpendicular to the bedding plane and the pronounced N-S magnetic lineation parallel to the bedding plane indicate that the AMS of the Dali Basin is a superimposed fabric consisting of a sedimentary-compaction and a mild initial deformation overprint. The well-defined N-S magnetic lineation is likely due to the NNW and NNE oblique shear caused by the Heqing and Red River faults.

  6. A review of applications of U-Th-Pb isotope systematics to investigations of uranium source rocks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    U, Th and Pb concentrations and the isotopic composition of Pb can be used to evaluate crystalline rocks as a source for U in sedimentary deposits. Under favourable geologic circumstances, the technique can yield information on both the timing and the amount of U released to the sedimentary environment. The technique is best suited to the study of Archean rocks that have high U/Pb, a known common Pb composition, and a simple two-stage history. Less ideal rock units can also be evaluated, but conclusions reached for rocks of Phanerozoic age or younger will generally be qualitative at best.-Author

  7. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  8. K-Ar ages of metamorphic rocks at the base of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphere, M.A.

    1981-04-10

    Hornblendes from amphiobolities in the sheet of metamorphic rocks beneath the peridotite member of the Samail ophiolite and phyllites farther from the peridotite contact have weighted mean /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar total fusion ages of 90.0 +- 3.0 m.y. and 79.5 +- 3.0 m.y., respectively. The amphibolities represent the first tectonic slice welded to the base of the Samail ophiolite after it was detached from the Tethyan oceanic crust. Formation of the amphiobolities occurred no more than 3 to 7 m.y. after crystallization of plagiogranite in the ophiolite. The phyllites represent another tectonic slice of ocean floor sediments welded to the ophiolite as it was transported further from the Tethyan spreading axis. The K-Ar ages suggest, assuming a half-spreading rate of 2 to 5 cm/yr, that detachment of the Samail ophiolite and formation of amphibolite facies rocks occurred no more than 60 to 350 km from spreading center. Using the same spreading rate, one can calculate a minimum half width of 300 to 750 km for the Tethyan Ocean during the Late Cretaceous.

  9. Age, distribution, and stratigraphic relationship of rock units in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 5 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The San Joaquin Basin is a major petroleum province that forms the southern half of California’s Great Valley, a 700-km-long, asymmetrical basin that originated between a subduction zone to the west and the Sierra Nevada to the east. Sedimentary fill and tectonic structures of the San Joaquin Basin record the Mesozoic through Cenozoic geologic history of North America’s western margin. More than 25,000 feet (>7,500 meters) of sedimentary rocks overlie the basement surface and provide a nearly continuous record of sedimentation over the past ~100 m.y. Further, depositional geometries and fault structures document the tectonic evolution of the region from forearc setting to strike-slip basin to transpressional margin. Sedimentary architecture in the San Joaquin Basin is complicated because of these tectonic regimes and because of lateral changes in depositional environment and temporal changes in relative sea level. Few formations are widespread across the basin. Consequently, a careful analysis of sedimentary facies is required to unravel the basin’s depositional history on a regional scale. At least three high-quality organic source rocks formed in the San Joaquin Basin during periods of sea level transgression and anoxia. Generated on the basin’s west side, hydrocarbons migrated into nearly every facies type in the basin, from shelf and submarine fan sands to diatomite and shale to nonmarine coarse-grained rocks to schist. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources and future additions to reserves in the San Joaquin Valley of California (USGS San Joaquin Basin Province Assessment Team, this volume, chapter 1). Several research aims supported this assessment: identifying and mapping the petroleum systems, modeling the generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons, and defining the volumes of rock to be analyzed for additional resources. To better understand the three dimensional

  10. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  11. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district and vicinity, western Brooks Range, Alaska: provenance, deposition, and metallogenic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Schmidt, J.M.; Young, L.E.; Rombach, Cameron

    2004-01-01

    The distribution and composition of Paleozoic strata in the western Brooks Range may have played a fundamental role in Zn-Pb mineralization of the Red Dog district. In our model, deposition and early lithification of biogenic chert and bedded siliceous rocks in the upper part of the Kuna Formation served as a regional hydrologic seal, acting as a cap rock to heat and hydrothermal fluids during Late Mississippian base-metal mineralization. Equally important was the iron-poor composition of black shales of the Kuna Formation (i.e., low Fe/Ti ratios), which limited synsedimentary pyrite formation in precursor sediments, resulting in significant H2S production in pore waters through the interaction of aqueous sulfate with abundant organic matter. This H2S may have been critical to the subsurface deposition of the huge quantities of Zn and Pb in the district. On the basis of this model, we propose that low Fe/Ti and S/C ratios in black shale sequences are potential basin-scale exploration guides for giant sediment-hosted, stratiform Zn-Pb-Ag deposits.

  12. Rock Formation and Cosmic Radiation Exposure Ages in Gale Crater Mudstones from the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Farley, Ken; Malespin, Charles; Gellert, Ralph; Grotzinger, John

    2014-05-01

    The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been utilized to secure abundances of 3He, 21Ne, 36Ar, and 40Ar thermally evolved from the mudstone in the stratified Yellowknife Bay formation in Gale Crater. As reported by Farley et al. [1] these measurements of cosmogenic and radiogenic noble gases together with Cl and K abundances measured by MSL's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer enable a K-Ar rock formation age of 4.21+0.35 Ga to be established as well as a surface exposure age to cosmic radiation of 78+30 Ma. Understanding surface exposures to cosmic radiation is relevant to the MSL search for organic compounds since even the limited set of studies carried out, to date, indicate that even 10's to 100's of millions of years of near surface (1-3 meter) exposure may transform a significant fraction of the organic compounds exposed to this radiation [2,3,4]. Transformation of potential biosignatures and even loss of molecular structural information in compounds that could point to exogenous or endogenous sources suggests a new paradigm in the search for near surface organics that incorporates a search for the most recently exposed outcrops through erosional processes. The K-Ar rock formation age determination shows promise for more precise in situ measurements that may help calibrate the martian cratering record that currently relies on extrapolation from the lunar record with its ground truth chronology with returned samples. We will discuss the protocol for the in situ noble gas measurements secured with SAM and ongoing studies to optimize these measurements using the SAM testbed. References: [1] Farley, K.A.M Science Magazine, 342, (2013). [2] G. Kminek et al., Earth Planet Sc Lett 245, 1 (2006). [3] Dartnell, L.R., Biogeosciences 4, 545 (2007). [4] Pavlov, A. A., et al. Geophys Res Lett 39, 13202 (2012).

  13. Ages and origins of rocks of the Killingworth dome, south-central Connecticut: Implications for the tectonic evolution of southern New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Wintsch, R.P.; Tollo, R.P.; Unruh, D.M.; Fanning, C.M.; Schmitz, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Killingworth dome of south-central Connecticut occurs at the southern end of the Bronson Hill belt. It is composed of tonalitic and trondhjemitic orthogneisses (Killingworth complex) and bimodal metavolcanic rocks (Middletown complex) that display calc-alkaline affinities. Orthogneisses of the Killingworth complex (Boulder Lake gneiss, 456 ?? 6 Ma; Pond Meadow gneiss, ???460 Ma) were emplaced at about the same time as eruption and deposition of volcanic-sedimentary rocks of the Middletown complex (Middletown Formation, 449 ?? 4 Ma; Higganum gneiss, 459 ?? 4 Ma). Hidden Lake gneiss (339 ?? 3 Ma) occurs as a pluton in the core of the Killingworth dome, and, on the basis of geochemical and isotopic data, is included in the Killingworth complex. Pb and Nd isotopic data suggest that the Pond Meadow, Boulder Lake, and Hidden Lake gneisses (Killingworth complex) resulted from mixing of Neoproterozoic Gander terrane sources (high 207Pb/204Pb and intermediate ??Nd) and less radiogenic (low 207Pb/204Pb and low ??Nd) components, whereas Middletown Formation and Higganum gneiss (Middletown complex) were derived from mixtures of Gander basement and primitive (low 207Pb/204Pb and high ??Nd) sources. The less radiogenic component for the Killingworth complex is similar in isotopic composition to material from Laurentian (Grenville) crust. However, because published paleomagnetic and paleontologic data indicate that the Gander terrane is peri-Gondwanan in origin, the isotopic signature of Killingworth complex rocks probably was derived from Gander basement that contained detritus from non-Laurentian sources such as Amazonia, Baltica, or Oaxaquia. We suggest that the Killingworth complex formed above an east-dipping subduction zone on the west margin of the Gander terrane, whereas the Middletown complex formed to the east in a back-arc rift environment. Subsequent shortening, associated with the assembly of Pangea in the Carboniferous, resulted in Gander cover terranes over the

  14. On the age of the Onverwacht Group, Swaziland sequence, South Africa. [radioactive dating of stratified igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, B.-M.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1974-01-01

    Some rocks of the Onverwacht Group, South Africa, have been analyzed for Rb and Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic composition. These rocks include volcanic rocks, layered ultramafic differentiates and cherty sediments. Whole rock data indicate that the Rb-Sr isotopic systems in many samples were open and yield no reasonable isochron relationships. However, the data of mineral separates from a basaltic komatiite define a good isochron of 3.50 (plus or minus .2) b.y. with an initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of 0.70048 plus or minus 5. The orthodox interpretation of this age is the time of the low grade metamorphism. It is reasonable to assume that the age of 3.50 b.y. might also represent the time of initial Onverwacht volcanism and deposition. The initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio obtained above is important to an understanding of the Sr isotopic composition of the Archean upper mantle.

  15. Lead in the Getchell-Turquoise ridge Carlin-type gold deposits from the perspective of potential igneous and sedimentary rock sources in Northern Nevada: Implications for fluid and metal sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tosdal, R.M.; Cline, J.S.; Fanning, C.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Lead isotope compositions of bulk mineral samples (fluorite, orpiment, and realgar) determined using conventional techniques and of ore-stage arsenian pyrite using the Sensitive High Resolution Ion-Microprobe (SHRIMP) in the Getchell and Turquoise Ridge Carlin-type gold deposits (Osgood Mountains) require contribution from two different Pb sources. One Pb source dominates the ore stage. It has a limited Pb isotope range characterized by 208Pb/206Pb values of 2.000 to 2.005 and 207Pb/206Pb values of 0.8031 to 0.8075, as recorded by 10-??m-diameter spot SHRIMP analyses of ore-stage arsenian pyrite. These values approximately correspond to 206Pb/204Pb of 19.3 to 19.6, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.65 to 15.75, and 208Pb/204Pb of 39.2 to 39.5. This Pb source is isotopically similar to that in average Neoproterozoic and Cambrian elastic rocks but not to any potential magmatic sources. Whether those clastic rocks provided Pb to the ore fluid cannot be unequivocally proven because their Pb isotope compositions over the same range as in ore-stage arsenian pyrite are similar to those of Ordovician to Devonian siliciclastic and calcareous rocks. The Pb source in the calcareous rocks most likely is largely detrital minerals, since that detritus was derived from the same sources as the detritus in the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian clastic rocks. The second Pb source is characterized by a large range of 206Pb/204Pb values (18-34) with a limited range of 208Pb/204Pb values (38.1-39.5), indicating low but variable Th/U and high and variable U/Pb values. The second Pb source dominates late and postore-stage minerals but is also found in preore sulfide minerals. These Pb isotope characteristics typify Ordovician to Devonian siliciclastic and calcareous rocks around the Carlin trend in northeast Nevada. Petrologically similar rocks host the Getchell and Turquoise Ridge deposits. Lead from the second source was either contributed from the host sedimentary rock sequences or brought into the

  16. A method for the concentration of fine-grained rutile (TiO2) from sediment and sedimentary rocks by chemical leaching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, Judith A.; Valentine, Page C.

    1991-01-01

    Most of the sample analyzed by the method described were marine muds collected from the Gulf of Maine (Valentine and Commeau, 1990). The silt and clay fraction (up to 99 wt% of the sediment) is composed of clay minerals (chiefly illite-mica and chlorite), silt-size quartz and feldspar, and small crystals (2-12 um) of rutile and hematite. The bulk sediment samples contained an average of 2 to 3 wt percent CaCO3. Tiher samples analyzed include red and gray Carboniferous and Triassic sandstones and siltstones exposed around the Bay of Fundy region and Paleozoic sandstones, siltstones, and shales from northern Maine and New Brunswick. These rocks are probable sources for the fine-grained rutile found in the Gulf of Maine.

  17. Hydrogeologic factors affecting cavern morphology within rocks of Mississippian age in northwestern Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, B.J. . Dept. of Geology); Brahana, J.V. . Geological Survey)

    1993-02-01

    Cavern development within rocks of Mississippian age in northwestern Arkansas is associated with two Pleistocene erosional features, the Boston Mountains Plateau and the Springfield Plateau. Each plateau is characterized by a distinct stratigraphic sequence with unique lithologies. Cavern morphology (both cross-sectional and planimetric) in each plateau is the result of the complex interaction of numerous hydrogeologic factors. Four of the most dominant factors which affect cavern morphology appear to be: (1) composition and continuity of the confining units; (2) percentage of noncarbonate components in rocks of the cavern-forming interval; (3) nature and distribution of ground-water recharge to the cavern-forming interval; and (4) nature and distribution of fractures within the cavern-forming interval. Network maze patterns typically develop in the Pitkin Limestone, the formation in which most caverns form beneath the Boston Mountains Plateau. The Pitkin, a bioclastic limestone, is confined above by siltstones of the Cane Hill member of the Hale Formation and below by shales of the Fayetteville Formation. The maze pattern indicates that these caverns probably were formed by dissolution of the rock matrix by diffuse recharge moving vertically through leaky confining units. Single rooms are the dominant cavern morphology in the chert-dominated Boone Formation of the Springfield Plateau. Where the concentration of chert is greater than 50 percent, the Boone lacks structural integrity and fails to develop well-integrated conduit networks. Point recharge features in outcrop areas of the Boone Formation are not visible in most of the Springfield Plateau because the insoluble residuum masks the upper bedrock surface. Where the Boone Formation is less than 7 meters thick, surface karst features are more prevalent.

  18. The origin of the paragenesis of nonferrous metals and naphtides in carbonate-type sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Gorzhevskiy, D.I.; Donets, A.I.

    1994-09-01

    In this article, we present evidence for a paragenesis of stratiform lead-zinc deposits localized in carbonate rocks and napthide in sedimentary basins of the carbonate type. We suggest that the cause of this paragenesis is the similar behaviors of lead, zinc, and organic matter during sedimentary-diagenetic and catagenetic stages in the transformation of argillaceous and carbonate rocks of sedimentary basins.

  19. Depositional environmental and geologic age of neogene rocks at Cape Aliaksin, Beaver Bay, Alaska Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, J.M.

    1985-04-01

    Neogene sandstone and conglomerate cropping out along the eastern end of Beaver Bay at Cape Aliaksin have been assigned to the Unga Conglomerate Member of the Bear Lake formation. New data suggest that this correlation may be incorrect. The fossil assemblage includes gastropods, pelecypods, barnacles, and echionoids indicative of a shallow marine, cold-water biofacies. Taxa indicate a strong similarity to the fossil assemblage of the Tachilni Formation and the upper Bear Lake Formation, both assigned to the late Miocene Graysian Molluscan stage, approximately 12 Ma to 3 Ma. Teeth of the desmostylian (sea cows) Desmostylus sp. cf. D. hesperus have been collected from the Cape Aliaksin beds. D. Hesperus is known from North Pacific rocks assigned to the late early to early late Miocene, approximately 18 ma to 10 Ma. The Unga Conglomerate is in part typified by the middle Miocene pelecypod Mytilus gratacapi and an associated fauna unlike that of the Cape Aliaksin beds. It is suggested that the Cape Aliaksin beds are younger than the Unga Conglomerate, and are correlative to the upper Bear Lake Formation and Tachilni Formation rocks of early late Miocene age.

  20. PHASS99: A software program for retrieving and decoding the radiometric ages of igneous rocks from the international database IGBADAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mishwat, Ali T.

    2016-05-01

    PHASS99 is a FORTRAN program designed to retrieve and decode radiometric and other physical age information of igneous rocks contained in the international database IGBADAT (Igneous Base Data File). In the database, ages are stored in a proprietary format using mnemonic representations. The program can handle up to 99 ages in an igneous rock specimen and caters to forty radiometric age systems. The radiometric age alphanumeric strings assigned to each specimen description in the database consist of four components: the numeric age and its exponential modifier, a four-character mnemonic method identification, a two-character mnemonic name of analysed material, and the reference number in the rock group bibliography vector. For each specimen, the program searches for radiometric age strings, extracts them, parses them, decodes the different age components, and converts them to high-level English equivalents. IGBADAT and similarly-structured files are used for input. The output includes three files: a flat raw ASCII text file containing retrieved radiometric age information, a generic spreadsheet-compatible file for data import to spreadsheets, and an error file. PHASS99 builds on the old program TSTPHA (Test Physical Age) decoder program and expands greatly its capabilities. PHASS99 is simple, user friendly, fast, efficient, and does not require users to have knowledge of programing.

  1. Microstructural Character and Stable Isotope Signatures of Calcite Veins in the Mis and SMS Sedimentary Rock Cores, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, C.; Wilson, T. J.; Paulsen, T. S.

    2010-12-01

    The two drilling projects in the ANDRILL portfolio, the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project and the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) project, successfully recovered 1285 and 1138 m respectively of Neogene sedimentary core from the Victoria Land rift basin in Antarctica. The MIS core contains 1475 faults, veins, and clastic dikes, with veins making nearly half of this population. Of the 1050 natural fractures logged in the SMS core, just over half of them were characterized as veins. This study combines microscopic study of textures and crosscutting relationships between veins, cements, and microstructures to determine the evolution of fluid sources relative to the deformation history during rifting. Isotopic analysis of carbonate fracture fills has been completed in order to discriminate whether fluids precipitated from the glacial melt-waters or from some other hydrological regime. Opening-mode fibrous veins, pressure shadows on clast margins and small and diffuse, anastomosing vein swarms are common. Most veins are filled by calcite, although zeolite and late-stage pyrite are also common. Many calcite veins are associated with discrete faults and have conjugate geometries, dip-slip slickenfibers, and calcite filled voids along pull-aparts, indicating veins formed during fault displacement. In the MIS core, fibrous opening-mode are commonly wavy to tightly folded, indicating the host sediment was cohesive enough to fracture but was not fully lithified, and accommodated vein buckling during compaction. Veins commonly exhibit multiple generations of calcite fill and many are strongly twinned. Cathodoluminescence microscopy shows minor changes in color and intensity and minimal zoning of calcite vein fill, suggesting relatively rapid crystallization of fluids of similar chemistry. However, stable isotope analyses reveal large variations in values: in the MIS core, oxygen values range from -5.35 to -11.97 (VPDB) and carbon values range from -7.15 to -21.91 (VPDB); the SMS

  2. Cation-ratio dating: A new rock varnish age-determination technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    1983-07-01

    Rock varnish coats many surfaces of geomorphic and archaeologic interest in arid lands. All varnish dating techniques are limited by the time lag between the exposure of a surface to subaerial processes and the onset of varnishing. They are valid only where manganese is not remobilized after deposition, for example, in most arid environments. The premise of a new age-determination method, cation-ratio dating, is that the ratio of the more mobile cations (e.g., K and Ca) to titanium in varnish decreases with time. Although there are many inherent assumptions and potential limitations, cation-ratio dating has been verified on relative age-sequences from a Death Valley debris cone, Negev Desert talus flatirons, and prehistoric lake levels at Searles Lake in California. Varnish cation ratios have been calibrated to independently dated surfaces in the Coso volcanic field and vicinity in California. Tentative absolute dates have been assigned to geomorphic surfaces in the Coso area. Cation ratios have been used to distinguish relative ages of archaeologic artifacts in southwestern North America and to demonstrate that varnish at the South Stoddard locality, Mojave Desert, did not form in 25 yr.

  3. Bronze age cosmology and rock art images. Solar ships, deer and charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriadis, G.

    Bronze Age societies were technologically complex. The impressive production of metal artefacts embodies clearly their astronomical culture and cosmological viewpoint. Same ascertainment is valid also for rock art. In fact, around the European landscape were discovered several cliffs engraved with solar ships, deer and charts. How one could be interpret them? Which is the hidden mentality? From the end of 3rd millennium-early 2nd millennium B. C. deep technological transformations are made by metals. New inventions such metal extraction for weapon production, horse pulling chariot used for war and the bull pulling one used for trade may shorten the culture and material distances between Central Europe and South Mediterranean area. Indeed, taphonomic studies indicate a specific modification of the human body mortuary traditional disposition (orientated to significant astronomical targets) below a substantial transformation of mortuary apparatus with spot evidence of weapons (halberds, swords, knifes) and ornaments (double spiral, lunar shape pectorals). The famous Trundhold Solar chart, the 2nd millennium terracotta chart form Dupljaja, the solar boats petroglyph in Bohusland and the horse rider carved on Philippi's cliffs were conceived by the same mentality: communion with the divinity. Culture expressions as communicate manifestation attested in rock art were produced by the same mentality presented in Bronze Age art-crafts such as, 1. Culture epidemiologic patterns dispersion took place through out iconographic motives, and, 2. Animals can play a double face function inside an analogical-mythological system: a. animal-reflex; b. animal-agent. The question is: Could such petroglyphs help us to "read" archaeoastronomical properly in an archaeological site?

  4. Age of Barrier Canyon-style rock art constrained by cross-cutting relations and luminescence dating techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, Joel L.; Chapot, Melissa S.; Simms, Steven R.; Sohbati, Reza; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Murray, Andrew S.; Cox, Gary

    2014-09-01

    Rock art compels interest from both researchers and a broader public, inspiring many hypotheses about its cultural origin and meaning, but it is notoriously difficult to date numerically. Barrier Canyon-style (BCS) pictographs of the Colorado Plateau are among the most debated examples; hypotheses about its age span the entire Holocene epoch and previous attempts at direct radiocarbon dating have failed. We provide multiple age constraints through the use of cross-cutting relations and new and broadly applicable approaches in optically stimulated luminescence dating at the Great Gallery panel, the type section of BCS art in Canyonlands National Park, southeastern Utah. Alluvial chronostratigraphy constrains the burial and exhumation of the alcove containing the panel, and limits are also set by our related research dating both a rockfall that removed some figures and the rock's exposure duration before that time. Results provide a maximum possible age, a minimum age, and an exposure time window for the creation of the Great Gallery panel, respectively. The only prior hypothesis not disproven is a late Archaic origin for BCS rock art, although our age result of A.D. ∼1-1100 coincides better with the transition to and rise of the subsequent Fremont culture. This chronology is for the type locality only, and variability in the age of other sites is likely. Nevertheless, results suggest that BCS rock art represents an artistic tradition that spanned cultures and the transition from foraging to farming in the region.

  5. Age of Barrier Canyon-style rock art constrained by cross-cutting relations and luminescence dating techniques.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Joel L; Chapot, Melissa S; Simms, Steven R; Sohbati, Reza; Rittenour, Tammy M; Murray, Andrew S; Cox, Gary

    2014-09-01

    Rock art compels interest from both researchers and a broader public, inspiring many hypotheses about its cultural origin and meaning, but it is notoriously difficult to date numerically. Barrier Canyon-style (BCS) pictographs of the Colorado Plateau are among the most debated examples; hypotheses about its age span the entire Holocene epoch and previous attempts at direct radiocarbon dating have failed. We provide multiple age constraints through the use of cross-cutting relations and new and broadly applicable approaches in optically stimulated luminescence dating at the Great Gallery panel, the type section of BCS art in Canyonlands National Park, southeastern Utah. Alluvial chronostratigraphy constrains the burial and exhumation of the alcove containing the panel, and limits are also set by our related research dating both a rockfall that removed some figures and the rock's exposure duration before that time. Results provide a maximum possible age, a minimum age, and an exposure time window for the creation of the Great Gallery panel, respectively. The only prior hypothesis not disproven is a late Archaic origin for BCS rock art, although our age result of A.D. ∼ 1-1100 coincides better with the transition to and rise of the subsequent Fremont culture. This chronology is for the type locality only, and variability in the age of other sites is likely. Nevertheless, results suggest that BCS roc