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Sample records for age self-rated health

  1. Age and Self-Rated Health in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon

    2005-01-01

    I examine age variation in the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on self-rated health in Korea by including three alternative indicators of SES--liquid assets, home ownership, and real estate ownership--as well as two standard measures of education and household income. Furthermore, I consider the SES-health relationship and its variation by…

  2. Age, time, and cohort effects on functional status and self-rated health in elderly men.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeymans, N; Feskens, E J; van den Bos, G A; Kromhout, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated age-related changes in functional status and self-rated health in elderly men, taking into account changes over time and differences between birth cohorts. METHODS: The Zutphen Elderly Study is a longitudinal study of men born in the Netherlands between 1900 and 1920. Functional status and self-rated health were measured in 513 men in 1990, in 381 men in 1993, and in 340 men in 1995. Age, time, and cohort effects were analyzed in a mixed longitudinal model. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses showed that during 5 years of follow-up, the proportion of men without disabilities decreased from 53% to 39%, whereas the percentage who rated themselves as healthy decreased from 50% to 35%. Cross-sectional analyses confirmed changes in functional status, suggesting an age effect. Time-series analyses confirmed changes in self-rated health, suggesting a time effect. No birth-cohort effects were found. CONCLUSIONS: Functional status deteriorates with age, whereas self-rated health is not related to age in men aged 70 years and older. The observed 5-year decline in self-rated health seemed to be due to a secular trend. PMID:9357342

  3. Time Trends in Self-Rated Health and Disability in Older Spanish People: Differences by Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    GIRON, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background: To analyse time trends in self-rated health in older people by gender and age and examine disability in the time trends of self-rated health. Methods: The data used come from the Spanish National Health Surveys conducted in 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2011–12. Samples of adults aged 16 yr and older were selected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between age, gender, socio-economic status, marital status, disability and self-rated health across period study. Results: Women exhibited lower (higher) prevalence of good self-rated health (disability) compared to men. The multivariate analysis for time trends found that good self-rated health increased from 2001 to 2012. Overall, variables associated with a lower likelihood of good self-rated health were: being married or living with a partner, lower educational level, and disability. Conclusion: Trends of good self-rated health differ by gender according to socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of disability. PMID:27141490

  4. Changing predictors of self-rated health: Disentangling age and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Spuling, Svenja M; Wurm, Susanne; Tesch-Römer, Clemens; Huxhold, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that some predictors of self-rated health (SRH) become more important with age, while others become less important. Although based on cross-sectional data, these findings are often interpreted as age-related changes in evaluation criteria. However, results could be due to cohort effects as well. We attempted to disentangle age and cohort effects by combining and comparing cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a large-scale longitudinal survey. The sample consisted of 2,982 community-dwelling participants from 2 measurement occasions of the German Ageing Survey ages 40-81 years at baseline. Multigroup latent regression models were used to examine whether associations between various predictors and SRH differed between age groups and whether they changed over time. Comparisons of cross-sectional age differences in SRH-predictor associations and longitudinal age changes in the same associations allow the identification of cohort effects. Number of chronic conditions showed a constant negative association with SRH independently of age and cohort. In contrast, the association between SRH and all other predictors (physical functioning, exercise, life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and positive affect) changed longitudinally, pointing to an age effect. Prediction of SRH by depressive symptoms and positive affect showed an additional cohort effect: The negative associations between depressive symptoms and SRH and the positive associations between positive affect and SRH were stronger among younger cohorts. The findings provide not only longitudinal support for previous cross-sectional studies, but also show the impact of historical change: Emotional facets of psychological well-being increase in relevance for SRH across cohorts.

  5. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one’s health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7–13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of

  6. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the

  7. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the

  8. Relations between Concurrent Longitudinal Changes in Cognition, Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health and Everyday Function in Normally Aging Octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens. PMID:27551749

  9. Relations between Concurrent Longitudinal Changes in Cognition, Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health and Everyday Function in Normally Aging Octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Classon, Elisabet; Fällman, Katarina; Wressle, Ewa; Marcusson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens. PMID:27551749

  10. Distinct age and self-rated health crossover mortality effects for African Americans: Evidence from a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roth, David L; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Crews, Deidra C; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L

    2016-05-01

    The predictive effects of age and self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality are known to differ across race and ethnic groups. African American adults have higher mortality rates than Whites at younger ages, but this mortality disparity diminishes with advancing age and may "crossover" at about 75-80 years of age, when African Americans may show lower mortality rates. This pattern of findings reflects a lower overall association between age and mortality for African Americans than for Whites, and health-related mechanisms are typically cited as the reason for this age-based crossover mortality effect. However, a lower association between poor SRH and mortality has also been found for African Americans than for Whites, and it is not known if the reduced age and SRH associations with mortality for African Americans reflect independent or overlapping mechanisms. This study examined these two mortality predictors simultaneously in a large epidemiological study of 12,181 African Americans and 17,436 Whites. Participants were 45 or more years of age when they enrolled in the national REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study between 2003 and 2007. Consistent with previous studies, African Americans had poorer SRH than Whites even after adjusting for demographic and health history covariates. Survival analysis models indicated statistically significant and independent race*age, race*SRH, and age*SRH interaction effects on all-cause mortality over an average 9-year follow-up period. Advanced age and poorer SRH were both weaker mortality risk factors for African Americans than for Whites. These two effects were distinct and presumably tapped different causal mechanisms. This calls into question the health-related explanation for the age-based mortality crossover effect and suggests that other mechanisms, including behavioral, social, and cultural factors, should be considered in efforts to better understand the age-based mortality

  11. Genetic and environmental influences on optimism and its relationship to mental and self-rated health: a study of aging twins.

    PubMed

    Mosing, Miriam A; Zietsch, Brendan P; Shekar, Sri N; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G

    2009-11-01

    Optimism has been shown to be important in maintaining wellbeing into old age, but little is known about the sources of variation in optimism and its links to mental and somatic health. Optimism, mental, and self-rated health were measured in 3,053 twin individuals (501 MZF, 153 MZM, 274 DZF, 77 DZM, and 242 DZ opposite-sex twin pairs and 561 single twins) over 50 years using the life orientation test, the General Health Questionnaire and a single-item question for self-rated health. Additive genetic factors explained 36, 34, and 46% of the variation in optimism, mental, and self-rated health, respectively, with the remainder being due to non-shared environmental influences. Genetic influences accounted for most of the covariance between the variables (14-20% of the genetic variance) indicating that in older adults genes predisposing to high optimism also predispose to good mental health and self-rated health.

  12. Correlates of Self-Rated Health and Self-Rated Mental Health in Older Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Huang, Ya-Ching; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Lin, Shumin

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the factors associated with self-rated health (SRH) and self-rated mental health (SRMH) in a sample of 108 older Chinese Americans (MeanAge = 70.6, SD = 7.70). SRH and SRMH were highly associated with each other. In the multiple regression models, chronic conditions and functional disability emerged as significant predictors of poor SRH and SRMH. However, the significance of depressive symptoms was only obtained in the model of SRMH. The findings reflect the body-mind connection among older Chinese Americans and provide implications for integrative health promotion efforts. PMID:27104949

  13. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  14. Assessing the Validity of Self-Rated Health with the Short Physical Performance Battery: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Emmanuelle; Zunzunegui, Maria–Victoria; Phillips, Susan; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the validity of self-rated health across different populations of older adults, when compared to the Short Physical Performance Battery. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study. Setting Five locations: Saint-Hyacinthe and Kingston (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia), and Natal (Brazil). Participants Older adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,995). Methods The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used to measure physical performance. Self-rated health was assessed with one single five-point question. Linear trends between SPPB scores and self-rated health were tested separately for men and women at each of the five international study sites. Poor physical performance (independent variable) (SPPB less than 8) was used in logistic regression models of self-rated health (dependent variable), adjusting for potential covariates. All analyses were stratified by gender and site of origin. Results A significant linear association was found between the mean scores of the Short Physical Performance Battery and ordinal categories of self-rated health across research sites and gender groups. After extensive control for objective physical and mental health indicators and socio-demographic variables, these graded associations became non-significant in some research sites. Conclusion These findings further confirm the validity of SRH as a measure of overall health status in older adults. PMID:27089219

  15. Dimensions of self-rated health in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (≥ 60 years) and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age. PMID:25372161

  16. The associations of household wealth and income with self-rated health--a study on economic advantage in middle-aged Finnish men and women.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2010-09-01

    The economic resources available to an individual or a household have been hypothesised to affect health through the direct material effects of living conditions as well as through social comparison and experiences of deprivation. The focus so far has been mainly on current individual or household income, and there is a lack of studies on wealth, a potentially relevant part of household resources. We studied the associations of household wealth and household income with self-rated health, and addressed some theoretical issues related to economic advantage and health. The data were from questionnaire survey of Finnish men and women aged from 45 to 67 years, who were employed by the City of Helsinki from five to seven years before the collection of the data in 2007. We found household wealth to have a strong and consistent association with self-rated health, poor health decreasing with increasing wealth. The relationship was only partly attributable to the association of wealth with employment status, household income, work conditions and health-related behaviour. In contrast, the association of household income with self-rated health was greatly attenuated by taking into account employment status and wealth, and even further attenuated by work conditions. The results suggested a significant contribution of wealth differentials to differences in health status. The insufficiency of current income as the only measure of material welfare was demonstrated. Conditions associated with long-term accumulation of material welfare may be a significant aspect of the causal processes that lead to socioeconomic inequalities in ill health.

  17. Self-rated health and mortality in people with diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Dasbach, E J; Klein, R; Klein, B E; Moss, S E

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examined whether self-rated health is an independent and significant predictor of mortality in people with diabetes, using data collected in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. METHODS. Participants were asked to rate their health in comparison with others their age. A proportional hazards model was used to regress survival time on self-rated health and a number of covariates measuring physical health. RESULTS. People with younger onset diabetes (n = 891) who rated their health relative to their peers as "worse" or "don't know" were no more likely to die than those rating their health as "the same" or "better" when physical health status was controlled. In contrast, those with older onset diabetes (n = 987) who rated their health as "worse" or "don't know" were almost twice as likely to die as those rating their health as "the same" or "better" when physical health status was controlled. CONCLUSIONS. Self-rated health is a significant predictor of mortality in people with older onset diabetes but not in those with younger onset diabetes when physical health status is controlled. PMID:7977916

  18. Health Educator Believability and College Student Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Reger-Nash, Bill; Valois, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) status among college students who reported receiving the majority of their health-related information from health educators. Participants: Students (n = 49,921) who completed the 2006 National College Health Association survey. Methods: Bivariate associations between SRH and the believability of…

  19. Factors Associated with American Indian Teens' Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tassy

    2004-01-01

    Factors related to American Indian (AI) high school students' self-rated health were examined. Self rated health was measured as a single-item with a four-point response option ranging from poor to excellent health. Of the 574 participants, 19% reported "fair" or "poor" health, a percentage more than twice that for U.S. high school students in…

  20. Hmong adults self-rated oral health: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Okunseri, Christopher; Yang, Marcie; Gonzalez, Cesar; LeMay, Warren; Iacopino, Anthony M

    2008-02-01

    Since 1975, the Hmong refugee population in the U.S. has increased over 200%. However, little is known about their dental needs or self-rated oral health (SROH). The study aims were to: (1) describe the SROH, self-rated general health (SRGH), and use of dental/physician services; and (2) identify the factors associated with SROH among Hmong adults. A cross-sectional study design with locating sampling methodology was used. Oral health questionnaire was administered to assess SROH and SRGH, past dental and physician visits, and language preference. One hundred twenty adults aged 18-50+ were recruited and 118 had useable information. Of these, 49% rated their oral health as poor/fair and 30% rated their general health as poor/fair. Thirty-nine percent reported that they did not have a regular source of dental care, 46% rated their access to dental care as poor/fair, 43% visited a dentist and 66% visited a physician within the past 12 months. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that access to dental care, past dental visits, age and SRGH were significantly associated with SROH (P < 0.05). Multivariate analyses demonstrated a strong association between access to dental care and good/excellent SROH. About half of Hmong adults rated their oral health and access to dental care as poor. Dental insurance, access to dental care, past preventive dental/physician visits and SRGH were associated with SROH.

  1. The increasing predictive validity of self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Schnittker, Jason; Bacak, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1980 to 2002 General Social Survey, a repeated cross-sectional study that has been linked to the National Death Index through 2008, this study examines the changing relationship between self-rated health and mortality. Research has established that self-rated health has exceptional predictive validity with respect to mortality, but this validity may be deteriorating in light of the rapid medicalization of seemingly superficial conditions and increasingly high expectations for good health. Yet the current study shows the validity of self-rated health is increasing over time. Individuals are apparently better at assessing their health in 2002 than they were in 1980 and, for this reason, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is considerably stronger across all levels of self-rated health. Several potential mechanisms for this increase are explored. More schooling and more cognitive ability increase the predictive validity of self-rated health, but neither of these influences explains the growing association between self-rated health and mortality. The association is also invariant to changing causes of death, including a decline in accidental deaths, which are, by definition, unanticipated by the individual. Using data from the final two waves of data, we find suggestive evidence that exposure to more health information is the driving force, but we also show that the source of information is very important. For example, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is smaller among those who use the internet to find health information than among those who do not. PMID:24465452

  2. The Increasing Predictive Validity of Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Schnittker, Jason; Bacak, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1980 to 2002 General Social Survey, a repeated cross-sectional study that has been linked to the National Death Index through 2008, this study examines the changing relationship between self-rated health and mortality. Research has established that self-rated health has exceptional predictive validity with respect to mortality, but this validity may be deteriorating in light of the rapid medicalization of seemingly superficial conditions and increasingly high expectations for good health. Yet the current study shows the validity of self-rated health is increasing over time. Individuals are apparently better at assessing their health in 2002 than they were in 1980 and, for this reason, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is considerably stronger across all levels of self-rated health. Several potential mechanisms for this increase are explored. More schooling and more cognitive ability increase the predictive validity of self-rated health, but neither of these influences explains the growing association between self-rated health and mortality. The association is also invariant to changing causes of death, including a decline in accidental deaths, which are, by definition, unanticipated by the individual. Using data from the final two waves of data, we find suggestive evidence that exposure to more health information is the driving force, but we also show that the source of information is very important. For example, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is smaller among those who use the internet to find health information than among those who do not. PMID:24465452

  3. Self-Rated Health among Adult Women of Mexican Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Hernandez-Valero, Maria A.; Etzel, Carol J.; Barcenas, Carlos H.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Strom, Sara S.

    2006-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH), a consistent predictor of mortality among diverse populations, is sensitive to health indicators and social factors. American-born Hispanics report better SRH than their foreign-born counterparts but simultaneously report poorer health indicators and have shorter life expectancy. Using a matched prospective cross-sectional…

  4. Mental health, pregnancy and self-rated health in antenatal women attending primary health clinics.

    PubMed

    Sonkusare, S; Adinegara; Hebbar, S

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the determinants of self rated health in the low-risk pregnant women of Melaka Tengah in Malaysia. A total of 387 subjects were analysed. The role of mental health, psychosocial stressors, support from husband, coping skills, socio-economic status and pregnancy characteristics in determining self- rated health were studied. Health items were taken from the Duke Health Profile. Bad obstetric history, poor mental health, stress from the family were found to be significantly associated with poor self - rated health whereas good support from the husband was related to good self - rated health. PMID:18705476

  5. Effects of Self-Rated Health and Self-Rated Economic Situation on Depressed Mood Via Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the relationship of self-rated health and self-rated economic situation with depressed mood, and life satisfaction as mediator of this relationship among older adults in Costa Rica. Method: A longitudinal study was conducted with a subsample (N = 1,618) from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES). Self-rated health, self-rated economic situation, depressed mood, and life satisfaction were measured at baseline, and depressed mood was reassessed 18 months later. Putative mechanisms for changes in depressed mood were examined by means of conditional process analysis. Results: Self-rated health was negatively associated to depressed mood. This effect took place via life satisfaction. An interaction showed that better economic situation compensated the effect of a low self-rated health on life satisfaction. Discussion: This study suggests that subjective variables such as self-rated health, economic situation, and life satisfaction should be considered when addressing the onset of depressed mood. PMID:26092651

  6. Socioeconomic inequality in voting participation and self-rated health.

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, T A; Kennedy, B P; Kawachi, I

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that disparities in political participation across socioeconomic status affect health. Specifically, the association of voting inequality at the state level with individual self-rated health was examined. METHODS: A multilevel study of 279,066 respondents to the Current Population Survey (CPS) was conducted. State-level inequality in voting turnout by socioeconomic status (family income and educational attainment) was derived from November CPS data for 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996. RESULTS: Individuals living in the states with the highest voting inequality had an odds ratio of fair/poor self-rated health of 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 1.68) compared with individuals living in the states with the lowest voting inequality. This odds ratio decreased to 1.34 (95% CI = 1.14, 1.56) when state income inequality was added and to 1.27 (95% CI = 1.10, 1.45) when state median income was included. The deleterious effect of low individual household income on self-rated health was most pronounced among states with the greatest voting and income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic inequality in political participation (as measured by voter turnout) is associated with poor self-rated health, independently of both income inequality and state median household income. PMID:11189832

  7. What Factors Predict Student Self-Rated Physical Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance J.; Adlaf, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Data from a randomly selected sample of 840 Ontario students were used to examine factors that affect self-rated physical health. Analyses focused on demographics, family structure, financial situation, child-parent relationship, school achievement, self-esteem, alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use as factors which directly and indirectly influence…

  8. The longitudinal associations between marital happiness, problems, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Christine M; Snyder-Rivas, Linley A

    2013-04-01

    Although research has explored the association between marital quality and physical health in marriage, existing research fails to consider possible bidirectional associations between changes in individuals' marital quality and self-rated health. To address this gap, this study used latent change models to assess whether adults' marital happiness and problems over a 20-year period predicted subsequent changes in self-rated health, as well as whether self-rated health over the same time period was associated with changes in marital happiness and problems. The sample included 707 continuously married adults who participated in all six waves of the Marital Instability Over the Life Course panel study. Participants averaged 35 years in age at the first wave and were continuously married to the same spouse over the 20-year period. Latent differential models in AMOS 19 showed that unidirectional coupling existed for marital happiness and self-rated health only, such that higher levels of marital happiness predicted subsequent elevations in self-rated health over time. No evidence was found for bidirectional coupling between marital problems and self-rated health. Possible explanations for these patterns of results are discussed, including important directions for future researchers.

  9. Differences between Older Men and Women in the Self-Rated Health-Mortality Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to examine differences between older men and women: (a) in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality, (b) in the effect of different follow-up periods on the self-rated health mortality relationship, and (c) in the relative importance of self-rated health and self-rated change in health in…

  10. Conscientiousness mediates the relation between perceived parental socialisation and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Roberts, Brent W; Hoshino, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The pathways between parenting behaviours, personality and physical health have all been separately studied. Prior research has paid little attention to the indirect effects of personality in the path between parenting behaviours and better health. The purpose of this study was to explore the mediational effects of conscientiousness on the relationships between parental socialisation of responsibility and self-rated health, and to examine potential age differences in this mediational pathway. In total, 736 female and 749 male members across Japan participated in this study. They were divided into three groups by age category: younger-, middle-aged and older-aged. Conscientiousness and health were concurrently rated, while parental socialisation of responsibility was retrospectively assessed. Our analyses revealed that parental socialisation of responsibility is positively associated with conscientiousness and self-rated health, that conscientiousness is positively associated with self-rated health, and that conscientiousness fully mediated the effect of parental socialisation of responsibility on self-rated health. The mediational links were consistent across younger, middle-aged and older-aged cohorts. Our findings suggest that greater parental socialisation of responsibility relates to higher conscientiousness, and consequently healthier adults. These findings imply that parental behaviours could be a plausible target for intervention to foster the development of conscientiousness and better health.

  11. What factors can be protective for both self-rated oral health and general health?

    PubMed

    Ekbäck, Gunnar; Persson, Carina; Lindén-Boström, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze if the same protective factors are significant for both self-rated health and oral health. It was hypothesized that these factors should be the same. The material is based on a population sample of 17 113 women and men aged 18-84 years in one county in central Sweden.The response rate was 61%. The data were collected through a postal questionnaire "Life and Health" in 2008. The questionnaire comprised of 149 questions and was divided into a number of areas, e.g. socioeconomic conditions, quality of life, social relations, lifestyle, and health. To analyze the strength of the protective factors whilst taking into account the relationships between the various independent variables, multivariate analyses were conducted using binary multiple logistic regression. The outcome measures with the strongest association to general health is belonging to the age group 18-34 years, positive faith in the future, good sleeping pattern and to be employed/self-employed/retired. The outcomes with the strongest association to oral health are good finances, belonging to the age group 18-34 years, to be born in Sweden and positive faith in the future. Conclusions. This study shows that, in general, the same protective factors are significant for both self-rated health and self-rated oral health, making it possible to use the same approach to strengthen both general health and oral health. One important outcome, not often considered, is having positive faith in the future. It is a task for the health care system to strengthen people's faith in the future, partly through a very high quality care when needed, but also through active health promotion that increases the chances of a healthy life, both from a public health perspective as from an oral health perspective. PMID:26529835

  12. Income inequality and self-rated health in US metropolitan areas: a multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Russ

    2004-12-01

    Income inequality has been found to affect health in a number of international and cross-national studies. Using data from a telephone survey of adults in the United States, this study analyzed the effect of metropolitan level income inequality on self-rated health. It combined individual data from the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System with metropolitan level income data from the 2000 Census. After controlling for smoking, age, education, Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, sex, household income, and metropolitan area per capita income, this study found that for each 1 point rise in the GINI index (on a hundred point scale) the risk of reporting Fair or Poor self-rated health increased by 4.0% (95% confidence interval 1.6-6.5%). Given that self-rated health is a good predictor of morbidity and mortality, this suggests that metropolitan area income inequality is affecting the health of US adults.

  13. Neighbourhood characteristics, social capital and self-rated health - A population-based survey in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In previous public health surveys large differences in health have been shown between citizens living in different neighbourhoods in the Örebro municipality, which has about 125000 inhabitants. The aim of this study was to investigate the determinants of health with an emphasis on the importance of neighbourhood characteristics such as the influence of neighbourhood social cohesion and social capital. The point of departure in this study was a conceptual model inspired by the work of Carpiano, where different factors related to the neighbourhood have been used to find associations to individual self-rated health. Methods We used data from the survey 'Life & Health 2004' sent to inhabitants aged 18-84 years in Örebro municipality, Sweden. The respondents (n = 2346) answered a postal questionnaire about living conditions, housing conditions, health risk factors and individual health. The outcome variable was self-rated health. In the analysis we applied logistic regression modelling in various model steps following a conceptual model. Results The results show that poor self-rated health was associated with social capital, such as lack of personal support and no experience of being made proud even after controlling for strong factors related to health, such as age, disability pension, ethnicity and economic stress. Also the neighbourhood factors, housing area and residential stability were associated with self-rated health. Poor self-rated health was more common among people living in areas with predominately large blocks of flats or areas outside the city centre. Moreover, people who had lived in the same area 1-5 years reported poor health more frequently than those who had lived there longer. Conclusions The importance of the neighbourhood and social capital for individual health is confirmed in this study. The neighbourhoods could be emphasized as settings for health promotion. They can be constructed to promote social interaction which in turn

  14. Loneliness and Self-rated Health Among Church-Attending African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Felicia D.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Nguyen, Nga; Savoy, Elaine J.; Advani, Pragati S.; Cuevas, Adolfo G.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore relations between loneliness and self-rated health among diversely-aged African American adults. Methods Associations between loneliness and self-rated health were investigated using covariate-adjusted linear regression models. Perceived social support was examined as a moderator. The potential indirect effects of stress and/or depressive symptoms were examined using nonparametric bootstrapping procedures. Results Greater loneliness was associated with poorer self-rated health (p = 0.008), and social support did not moderate. Stress and depressive symptoms yielded significant indirect effects in single and multiple mediator models (p values ≤ .05). Conclusions Loneliness may contribute to poorer health among African Americans. Results suggest that greater stress and depressive symptoms might underlie these associations, but longitudinal studies are needed to assess causal relations. PMID:24636110

  15. Marital status, family ties, and self-rated health among elders in South India.

    PubMed

    Sudha, S; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mutran, Elizabeth J; Rajan, S Irudaya; Sarma, P Sankara

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the impact of familial social support ties (indicated by marital status, kin availability, sources of economic support, and frequency and quality of emotional interaction) on subjective health perception among a sample of elderly men and women aged 60 and older in South India. We used 1993 survey data from three states of South India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. We hypothesized that (a) widowhood would be associated with poorer self-rated health, (b) number of kin ties would be positively associated with self-rated health, (c) economic and emotional support from kin would improve outcomes, and (d) these associations would be stronger among women than among men. Results of logistic regression techniques supported the first hypothesis and partially supported the third. With regard to the second hypothesis, the presence of specific kin rather than the number of each type of family member was important. For the fourth hypothesis, results suggest that men and women in this sample have broadly similar associations between widowhood and self-rated health. For women however, controlling for socioeconomic status did not weaken the association between widowhood and self-rated health, suggesting the symbolic/cultural importance of this status. In general, these findings suggest that theories on the importance of marital status and kin ties for older adults' self-rated health, which were developed and tested in Western societies, need to be refined for Asian societies, where the nature of marriage and widowhood are different.

  16. Income inequality, social capital and self-rated health and dental status in older Japanese.

    PubMed

    Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2011-11-01

    The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital

  17. Dynamics of self-rated health and selective mortality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Self-rated health status (SRHS) is one of the most frequently used health measures in empirical health economics. This article analyzes the first seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and finds that (1) all available lags have decreasing but significant predictive power for current SRHS and (2) SRHS and future mortality are strongly related which leads to a specific selection problem known as survivorship bias. A parsimonious joint model with an autocorrelated latent health component in both the SRHS and the mortality equation is suggested. It is better able to capture the empirical facts than commonly used models including random effects and/or state dependence and better able to correct the survivorship bias than commonly used strategies such as inverse probability weighting. PMID:21423875

  18. Impact of Coal Mining on Self-Rated Health among Appalachian Residents

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Shannon M.; Youk, Ada O.; Bear, Todd M.; Balmert, Lauren C.; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Buchanich, Jeanine M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of coal mining, measured as the number of coal mining-related facilities nearby one's residence or employment in an occupation directly related to coal mining, on self-rated health in Appalachia. Methods. Unadjusted and adjusted ordinal logistic regression models calculated odds ratio estimates and associated 95% confidence intervals for the probability of having an excellent self-rated health response versus another response. Covariates considered in the analyses included number of coal mining-related facilities nearby one's residence and employment in an occupation directly related to coal mining, as well as potential confounders age, sex, BMI, smoking status, income, and education. Results. The number of coal mining facilities near the respondent's residence was not a statistically significant predictor of self-rated health. Employment in a coal-related occupation was a statistically significant predictor of self-rated health univariably; however, after adjusting for potential confounders, it was no longer a significant predictor. Conclusions. Self-rated health does not seem to be associated with residential proximity to coal mining facilities or employment in the coal industry. Future research should consider additional measures for the impact of coal mining. PMID:26240577

  19. Self-Rated Health and the "First Move" around Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nan E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…

  20. Is Occupation a Good Predictor of Self-Rated Health in China?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhijun; Jian, Weiyan; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-01-01

    Background China’s rapidly changing economic landscape has led to widening social inequalities. Occupational status in terms of occupational type and prestige may reflect these socio-structural shifts of social position and be more predictive of self-rated health status than income and education, which may only reflect more gradual acquisitions of social status over time. The goals of this study were to understand the role of occupational status in predicting self-rated health, which is well known to be associated with long-term mortality, as well as compare the occupational status to the other major socioeconomic indicators of income and education. Methods Data from the 2010 baseline surveys of the China Family Panel Studies, which utilized multi-stage probability sampling with implicit stratification was used. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of various socioeconomic indicators (i.e. occupational status, income, and education) with self-rated health as the primary outcome of interest. A series of models considered the associations of occupational category or occupational prestige with self-rated health. Results The final sample consisted of 14,367 employed adults aged 18–60, which was nationally representative of working adults in China. We found that occupation was not a major predictor of self-rated health in China when age, ethnicity, location, marital status, physical and mental health status were controlled for, with the exception of women working in lower grade management and professional jobs (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.03–3.22). In comparison, income followed by education exhibited greater association with self-rated health. The highest income group had the least probability to report poor health (In men: OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.21–0.43. In women: OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26–0.73). People educated with junior high school had better self-rated health than those with primary and below education level (In men: OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.50–0

  1. The Association Between Self-Rated Mental Health Status and Total Health Care Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Muoi T.; Chan, Winnie Y.; Keeler, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both clinical diagnoses and self-rated measures of mental illness are associated with a variety of outcomes, including physical well-being, health utilization, and expenditure. However, much of current literature primarily utilizes clinically diagnosed data. This cross-sectional study explores the impact of mental illness and health care expenditure using 2 self-rated measures: self-rated measured of perceived mental health status (SRMH) and Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6). Data from the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized individuals (n = 18,295), were analyzed using bivariate χ2 tests and a 2-part model (logistics regression and generalized linear model regression for the first and second stages, respectively). Although predictive of any health expenditure, SRMH alone was not highly predictive of the dollar value of that health expenditure conditional on any spending. By comparison, the K6 measure was significantly and positively associated with the probability of any health expenditure as well as the dollar value of that spending. Taken together, both the K6 and SRMH measures suggest a positive relationship between poor mental health and the probability of any health expenditure and total expenditure conditional on any spending, even when adjusting for other confounding factors such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, educational attainment, insurance status, and some regional characteristics. Our results suggest that psychological distress and SRMH may represent potential pathways linking poor mental health to increased health care expenditure. Further research exploring the nuances of these relationships may aid researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in addressing issues of inflated health care expenditure in populations at risk for poor mental health. PMID:26334899

  2. Social capital and self-rated health among adolescents in Brazil: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social capital may influence health and the patterns of association differ according its dimension such as cognitive, behavioral, bridging or bonding. There is a few numbers of studies in Latin America which comprise these aspects of social capital and health. The aim of this study was to examine the association between social capital and self-rated health among youth, and distinguish between the different forms of social capital - cognitive versus behavioral, and bonding versus bridging. Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 among working adolescents supported by a Brazilian NGO. The sample comprised 363 individuals and data were collected using a validated structured questionnaire. The outcome, self-rated health, was measured as a dichotomous variable (poor/good health) and fourteen social capital indicators were investigated (cognitive, behavioral and bonding/bridging). Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Cognitive (social support and trust), behavioral (civic participation) and bridging social capital were associated with good self-rated health after adjustment of all the other social capital indicators and confounders (sex, age, skin color and educational background). Conclusions Social capital was associated with self-rated health and the patterns of association differed according its specific dimensions. Cognitive, behavioral and bridging social capitals were protective for adolescents health living in a developing country context.. PMID:21162730

  3. Self-rated economic condition and the health of elderly persons in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y H; Chi, I; Boey, K W; Ko, L S F; Chou, K L

    2002-10-01

    Studies have documented that health and income are important variables affecting the quality of life in old age. However, there is little knowledge about whether perceived financial sufficiency affects the health of elderly persons. Recent research has documented that in addition to material and behavioural determinants, psychosocial pathways also have an influence on health inequalities. This is the first paper to examine the relation between self-rated economic condition (measured with a single item question) and reported health conditions (i.e., somatic complaints, diagnosed physical diseases, functional health (Activities of Daily Living), self-rated health, and mental health status (General Health Questionnaire-30 [GHQ-30]) among elderly persons in Hong Kong. The respondents of the study were persons aged 65 and over residing in public housing estates in the Southern District of Hong Kong Island. Four hundred and fifty respondents were interviewed in 1995 by means of a structured questionnaire. The study found that although it did not record the actual income levels of the respondents, the subjective measure vividly demonstrated the health differentials among the elderly respondents. Multiple regression analyses suggested that self-rated economic condition was a significant predictor of the number of somatic complaints and physical illnesses reported, as well as of functional health, self-rated health, and mental health status (controlling for socio-demographic variables). However, the measure explained a higher proportion of variance in models related to psychological health than those related to physical health. The findings substantiated the role of psychosocial processes in understanding perceived health and illness and health inequalities in particular.

  4. Self-rated health and ethnicity: focus on indigenous populations

    PubMed Central

    Bombak, Andrea E.; Bruce, Sharon G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Self-rated health (SRH) is a commonly used measure in surveys to assess general health status or health-related quality of life. Differences have been detected in how different ethnic groups and nationalities interpret the SRH measure and assess their health. This review summarizes the research conducted on SRH within and between ethnic groups, with a focus on indigenous groups. Study design and methods A search of published academic literature on SRH and ethnicity, including a comprehensive review of all relevant indigenous research, was conducted using PubMed and summarized. Results A wide variety of research on SRH within ethnic groups has been undertaken. SRH typically serves as an outcome measure. Minority respondents generally rated their health worse than the dominant population. Numerous culturally-specific determinants of SRH have been identified. Cross-national and cross-ethnicity comparisons of the associations of SRH have been conducted to assess the validity of SRH. While SRH is a valid measure within a variety of ethnicities, differences in how SRH is assessed by ethnicities have been detected. Research in indigenous groups remains generally under-represented in the SRH literature. Conclusions These results suggest that different ethnic groups and nationalities vary in SRH evaluations, interpretation of the SRH measure, and referents employed in rating health. To effectively assess and redress health disparities and establish culturally-relevant and effective health interventions, a greater understanding of SRH is required, particularly among indigenous groups, in which little research has been conducted. PMID:22663937

  5. Perceived Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in South Korea: A Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. Methods We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. Results For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87–1.29), 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96–1.55), 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19–2.14), and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26–2.51). Conclusion There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight social

  6. Self rated health and mortality: a long term prospective study in eastern Finland

    PubMed Central

    Heistaro, S; Jousilahti, P; Lahelma, E; Vartiainen, E; Puska, P

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the relation between self rated health and mortality over a period of 23 years, taking into account medical history, cardiovascular risk factors, and education at the beginning of the follow up.
DESIGN—A cohort of random population samples. The baseline studies included a self administered questionnaire and a health examination. Mortality data were collected from the national mortality register using personal identification numbers.
SETTING—The provinces of North Karelia and Kuopio in eastern Finland.
PARTICIPANTS—Random samples of working age people (n=21 302) from the population register.
MAIN RESULTS—For self rated health, the age adjusted poor to good relative risk for all cause mortality was 2.36 (95% confidence intervals 2.10, 2.64) for men and 1.90 (1.63, 2.22) for women, and for cardiovascular mortality 2.29 (1.96, 2.68) for men and 2.34 (1.84, 2.96) for women. Adjusted for selected potentially fatal diseases from the subjects' medical histories, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and education, the corresponding relative risks for all cause mortality were 1.66 (1.47, 1.88) for men and 1.50 (1.26, 1.78) for women, and for cardiovascular mortality 1.54 (1.29, 1.82) for men and 1.63 (1.26, 2.10) for women. The association between self rated health and mortality attributable to external causes was fairly strong.
CONCLUSIONS—Poor self rated health is a strong predictor of mortality, and the association is only partly explained by medical history, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and education.


Keywords: self rated health; mortality; Finland PMID:11238576

  7. What is self-rated health and why does it predict mortality? Towards a unified conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Jylhä, Marja

    2009-08-01

    The association of self-rated health with mortality is well established but poorly understood. This paper provides new insights into self-rated health that help integrate information from different disciplines, both social and biological, into one unified conceptual framework. It proposes, first, a model describing the health assessment process to show how self-rated health can reflect the states of the human body and mind. Here, an analytic distinction is made between the different types of information on which people base their health assessments and the contextual frameworks in which this information is evaluated and summarized. The model helps us understand why self-ratings of health may be modified by age or culture, but still be a valid measure of health status. Second, based on the proposed model, the paper examines the association of self-rated health with mortality. The key question is, what do people know and how do they know what they know that makes self-rated health such an inclusive and universal predictor of the most absolute biological event, death. The focus is on the social and biological pathways that mediate information from the human organism to individual consciousness, thus incorporating that information into self-ratings of health. A unique source of information is provided by the bodily sensations that are directly available only to the individual him- or herself. According to recent findings in human biology, these sensations may reflect important physiological dysregulations, such as inflammatory processes. Third, the paper discusses the advantages and limitations of self-rated health as a measure of health in research and clinical practice. Future research should investigate both the logics that govern people's reasoning about their health and the physiological processes that underlie bodily feelings and sensations. Self-rated health lies at the cross-roads of culture and biology, therefore a collaborative effort between different

  8. Types of cultural capital and self-rated health among disadvantaged women in outer Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Aims Our study extends research on the social determinants of health by exploring the association between a new, potentially very significant dimension, cultural capital by type and self-rated health among low-income women living in outer Beirut, Lebanon. Methods Self-rated general health was assessed using household data from a cross-sectional survey of 1869 women, conducted in 2003. Three types of cultural capital were included: watching cultural TV programs, producing art (e.g., drawing, theatre performance) and consuming art or literature (e.g., attending exhibits, reading literary books). Associations between self-rated health status and types of cultural capital were assessed using odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Results With the exception of art production, lack of cultural capital increased the odds of self-perceived poor health status adjusting for socio-demographics and other risk factors. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.07 to 3.22) for watching cultural TV programs and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.12 to 2.06) for consuming art. As expected, health risk factors, age, social support and community of residence were also associated with health status. Conclusions Two types of cultural capital were strong predictors of self perceived health status among women living in poor urban communities, regardless of social capital, income and other relevant risk factors. PMID:17852992

  9. Unemployment insurance and deteriorating self-rated health in 23 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Ferrarini, Tommy; Nelson, Kenneth; Sjöberg, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Background The global financial crisis of 2008 is likely to have repercussions on public health in Europe, not least through escalating mass unemployment, fiscal austerity measures and inadequate social protection systems. The purpose of this study is to analyse the role of unemployment insurance for deteriorating self-rated health in the working age population at the onset of the fiscal crisis in Europe. Methods Multilevel logistic conditional change models linking institutional-level data on coverage and income replacement in unemployment insurance to individual-level panel data on self-rated health in 23 European countries at two repeated occasions, 2006 and 2009. Results Unemployment insurance significantly reduces transitions into self-rated ill-health and, particularly, programme coverage is important in this respect. Unemployment insurance is also of relevance for the socioeconomic gradients of health at individual level, where programme coverage significantly reduces health risks attached to educational attainment. Conclusions Unemployment insurance mitigated adverse health effects both at individual and country-level during the financial crisis. Due to the centrality of programme coverage, reforms to unemployment insurance should focus on extending the number of insured people in the labour force. PMID:24616353

  10. Self-rated health in relation to rape and mental health disorders in a national sample of women.

    PubMed

    Amstadter, Ananda B; McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-04-01

    Overall health status is associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Existing research on the correlates of mental health effects of rape suggests that rape victims are at higher risk for poor overall health status. Little is known, however, about how different rape tactics may relate to health status in rape victims. Our aim was to examine prevalence and correlates of self-rated health in a community sample of women, with particular emphasis on lifetime rape history (distinguishing between rape tactics), psychopathology, and substance use outcomes. A nationally representative sample of 3,001 U.S. women (age range: 18-86 years) residing in households with a telephone participated in a structured telephone interview. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 11.4% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (p<.001), lower educational attainment (p=.01), African American ethnicity (p=.03), lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; p<.001), lifetime major depressive episode (MDE; p=.01), and history of forcible rape (p=.01). Self-rated health was associated with three potentially modifiable variables (forcible rape, PTSD, and MDE). Therefore, trauma-focused interventions for rape victims should include collaboration on treatment or prevention modules that specifically address both mental and physical health.

  11. Perceived Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in Europe: Evidence from the European Social Survey (2010)

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. Methods We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010). This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH) that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. Results The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1) age discrimination; (2) disability discrimination; and (3) sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based). Conclusion The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim to reduce the

  12. Individual and social determinants of self-rated health and well-being in the elderly population of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro Alcântara da

    2014-11-01

    This article aims to identify the main determinants of self-rated health and well-being in the elderly Portuguese population, using a set of dimensions including demographic and socioeconomic indicators, characteristics of interpersonal networks and social activities, health, sexual activity, representations of aging, and feeling of happiness. Taking socioeconomic, behavioral, and attitudinal predictors into account to analyze the explanatory value of the interrelated dimensions and weights for each factor, the author argues that social capital, activities associated with active aging, and greater optimism towards aging can contribute greatly to better self-rated health and wellbeing among the elderly, partially offsetting the effect of socioeconomic factors and illness associated with age.

  13. Healthcare Communication Barriers and Self-Rated Health in Older Chinese American Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tsoh, Janice Y; Sentell, Tetine; Gildengorin, Ginny; Le, Gem M; Chan, Elaine; Fung, Lei-Chun; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan; Wong, Ching; Woo, Kent; Burke, Adam; Wang, Jun; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T

    2016-08-01

    Older Chinese immigrants are a growing population in the United States who experience multiple healthcare communication barriers such as limited English proficiency and low health literacy. Each of these obstacles has been associated with poor health outcomes but less is known about their effects in combination. This study examined the association between healthcare communication barriers and self-rated health among older Chinese immigrants. Cross-sectional survey data were obtained from 705 Chinese American immigrants ages 50-75 living in San Francisco, California. Communication barriers examined included spoken English proficiency, medical interpreter needs, and health literacy in written health information. The study sample (81 % females, mean age = 62) included 67 % who spoke English poorly or not at all, 34 % who reported needing a medical interpreter, and 37 % who reported "often" or "always" needing assistance to read health information. Two-thirds reported poor self-rated health; many reported having access to racial-concordant (74 %) and language-concordant (86 %) healthcare services. Both poor spoken English proficiency and low health literacy were associated with poor self-rated health, independent of other significant correlates (unemployment, chronic health conditions, and having a primary doctor who was ethnic Chinese). Results revealed that spoken English proficiency and print health literacy are independent communication barriers that are directly associated with health status among elderly Chinese American immigrants. Access to racial- or language-concordant health care services did not appear to resolve these barriers. These findings underscore the importance of addressing both spoken and written healthcare communication needs among older Chinese American immigrants.

  14. The association between excess weight and comorbidity and self-rated health in the Italian population

    PubMed Central

    Micciolo, Rocco; Canal, Luisa; Mazzali, Gloria; Fantin, Francesco; Corzato, Francesca; Antonioli, Angela; Harris, Tamara B.; Zamboni, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association of obesity with comorbidity and with subjective health perception in a large sample representative of the Italian population and how the association differs by age and gender. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from nine waves of the “Multipurpose Household Survey”, conducted by the Italian National Institute of Statistics. Self-reported height and weight, six weight-associated diseases and self-rated health (SRH) were evaluated on 352,020 subjects aged 20–89 years. Comorbidity was defined as the presence of 2 or more diseases. Results The prevalence of comorbidity was significantly different between obese and normal weight subject in all age categories. SRH was worse in obese subjects than in those of normal weight; this difference persisted, at least in females, into older ages. Conclusions Obesity is associated with comorbidity and self-rated health; this association varies across ages and genders. The results found for obese subjects of a given age category were similar to (or worse than) those found for older normal weight subjects of the next age class. For comorbidity this was true both in males and in females of all the considered age categories; for SRH, this was true in particular for females and younger males. PMID:23453383

  15. The Importance of Spousal Education for the Self-Rated Health of Married Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dustin C.; Hummer, Robert A.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Education's benefits for individuals’ health are well documented, but it is unclear whether health benefits also accrue from the education of others in important social relationships. We assess the extent to which individuals’ own education combines with their spouse's education to influence self-rated health among married persons ages 25 and older in the United States (N = 337,846) with pooled data from the 1997-2010 National Health Interview Survey. Results from age and gender-specific models revealed that own education and spouse's education each share an inverse association with fair/poor self-rated health among married men and women. Controlling for spousal education substantially attenuated the association between individuals’ own education and fair/poor self-rated health and the reduction in this association was greater for married women than married men. The results also suggest that husbands’ education is more important for wives’ self-rated health than vice versa. Spousal education particularly was important for married women ages 45-64. Overall, the results imply that individuals’ own education and spousal education combine to influence self-rated health within marriage. The results highlight the importance of shared resources in marriage for producing health. PMID:24511172

  16. Walking, body mass index, and self-rated health in a representative sample of Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Romo-Perez, Vicente; Souto, Dilia; Mota, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity (PI) are risk factors for chronic diseases and are associated with lifestyle and environmental factors. The study tested the association between PI, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population (N = 21,486). The sample included 41.5% men, with mean age 52.3 years (± 18.03), and age range 20-82 years. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%/12.7% in women and 52.1%/12.7% in men (p < 0.001 for obesity in both sexes). 53% of women and 57.5% of men met recommended levels of physical activity by walking (≥ 150 minutes/week). According to logistic regression analysis, individuals that walked less had higher risk of overweight or obesity. Data from the population-based surveillance study support suggestions that regular walking by adults is associated with positive self-rated health and better BMI profile. Obesity and low/very low self-rated health have low prevalence rates to meet the recommendations. PMID:26886367

  17. Relationship of Self-Rated Health to Stroke Incidence and Mortality in Older Individuals with and without a History of Stroke: A Longitudinal Study of the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing (CFAS) Population

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nahal; van der Linde, Rianne; Parker, Richard; Savva, George; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Brayne, Carol; Mant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been associated with increased risk of death and poor health outcomes even after adjusting for confounders. However its’ relationship with disease-specific mortality and morbidity has been less studied. SRH may also be particularly predictive of health outcomes in those with pre-existing conditions. We studied whether SRH predicts new stroke in older people who have never had a stroke, or a recurrence in those with a prior history of stroke. Methods MRC CFAS I is a multicentre cohort study of a population representative sample of people in their 65th year and older. A comprehensive interview at baseline included questions about presence of stroke, self-rated health and functional disability. Follow-up at 2 years included self-report of stroke and stroke death obtained from death certificates. Multiple logistical regression determined odds of stroke at 2 years adjusting for confounders including disability and health behaviours. Survival analysis was performed until June 2014 with follow-up for up to 13 years. Results 11,957 participants were included, of whom 11,181 (93.8%) had no history of stroke and 776 (6.2%) one or more previous strokes. Fewer with no history of stroke reported poor SRH than those with stroke (5 versus 21%). In those with no history of stroke, poor self-rated health predicted stroke incidence (OR 1.5 (1.1–1.9)), but not stroke mortality (OR 1.2 (0.8–1.9)) at 2 years nor for up to 13 years (OR 1.2(0.9–1.7)). In those with a history of stroke, self-rated health did not predict stroke incidence (OR 0.9(0.6–1.4)), stroke mortality (OR 1.1(0.5–2.5)), or survival (OR 1.1(0.6–2.1)). Conclusions Poor self-rated health predicts risk of stroke at 2 years but not stroke mortality among the older population without a previous history of stroke. SRH may be helpful in predicting who may be at risk of developing a stroke in the near future. PMID:26928666

  18. Self-Rated Health Among Saudi Adults: Findings from a National Survey, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Daoud, Farah; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-10-01

    Self-rated health reflects a person's integrated perception of health, including its biological, psychological, and social dimensions. It is a predictor of morbidity and mortality. To assess the current status of self-rated health and associated factors in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. We conducted a large national survey of adults aged 15 years or older. A total of 10,735 participants completed a standardized health questionnaire. Respondents rated their health with a five-point scale. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, chronic diseases, health-related habits and behaviors, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Associated factors of self-rated health were analyzed using a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model. More than 77% of respondents rated their health as excellent/very good. Female sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.88], decades of age (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.25-1.46), diagnosed diabetes mellitus (OR 1.54, 95 CI 1.22-1.93), diagnosed hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.79), diagnosed hypertension (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.22-1.96), number of other diagnosed chronic diseases (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.41-2.03), limited vigorous activity (OR 3.59, 95% CI 2.84-4.53), need for special equipment (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.96-3.51), and more than 3 h of daily television/computer screen time (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.11-2.29) were positively associated with poor/fair health. Smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity were not associated with self-reported health. We found that preventable risk factors are not associated with Saudis' self-rated health. This optimistic perception of health poses a challenge for preventive interventions in the Kingdom and calls for campaigns to educate the public about the harm of unhealthy behaviors. PMID:25795222

  19. Race, Ethnicity, and Self-Rated Health Status in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrell, Luisa N.; Crawford, Natalie D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the association between race and self-rated health status among Hispanic and non-Hispanic adults in the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey (N = 241,038). Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of self-rated health as fair/poor for Hispanic Blacks, Hispanic Whites, and non-Hispanic Blacks as…

  20. Relationships between self-rated oral health, subjective symptoms, oral health behavior and clinical conditions in Japanese university students: a cross-sectional survey at Okayama University

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-rated oral health is a valid and useful summary indicator of overall oral health status and quality of life. However, few studies on perception of oral health have been conducted among Japanese young adults. This study investigated whether oral health behavior, subjective oral symptoms, or clinical oral status were associated with self-rated oral health in Japanese young adults. Methods This cross-sectional survey included 2,087 students (1,183 males, 904 females), aged 18 and 19 years, at Okayama University, Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed and an oral examination was performed. Results In a structural equation modeling analysis, the score of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) significantly affected self-rated oral health (p <0.05) and the effect size was highest. Malocclusion, subjective symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and stomatitis, and poor oral health behavior significantly induced self-rated poor oral health with small effect sizes (p <0.05). Clinical periodontal conditions and Oral Hygiene Index-simplified were not related to self-rated oral health. Conclusion Self-rated oral health was influenced by subjective symptoms of TMD and stomatitis, oral health behavior, the score of DMFT, and malocclusion. The evaluation of these parameters may be a useful approach in routine dental examination to improve self-rated oral health in university students. PMID:24195632

  1. Health behaviors, chronic disease prevalence and self-rated health of older Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Diwan, Sadhna

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates of healthy behaviors and self-rated health in middle-aged and older Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S. Asian Indian men (n=162) and women (n=64), 50 years of age or older completed a telephone survey which collected information regarding demographics, behavioral risk factors, acculturation, perceived control, quality of social support, depression, body mass index, chronic disease prevalence, and self-rated health. Participants' average length of residence in the U.S. was 25 years, 52% were normal weight, 41% were vegetarians, 55% incorporated aerobic activity into daily lifestyle, and only 5% smoked. Hypertension and diabetes were most common chronic diseases (31 and 18%, respectively). Younger age, longer length of residence and a bicultural or more American ethnic identity were associated with greater participation in physical activity. Likewise, higher income, a bicultural or more American ethnic identity and depression were associated with higher fat intake. Poor self-rated health was associated with older age, female gender, BMI>25, satisfaction with social support, and greater number of chronic disease conditions. A multitude of factors influence the practice of healthy behaviors and the perceived health of Asian Indian immigrants, which should be addressed when developing culturally appropriate health promotion interventions.

  2. Changes in access to structural social capital and its influence on self-rated health over time for middle-aged men and women: a longitudinal study from northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Malin; Ng, Nawi

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, most studies on social capital and health have been cross-sectional making it difficult to draw causal conclusions. This longitudinal study used data from 33,621 individuals (15,822 men and 17,799 women) from the Västerbotten Intervention Program, to analyse how changes in access to individual social capital influence self-rated health (SRH) over time. Two forms of structural social capital, i.e. informal socializing and social participation, were measured. Age, sex, education, marital status, smoking, snuff, physical activity, alcohol consumption, high blood pressure, and body mass index were analysed as potential confounders. The association between changes in access to structural social capital and SRH in the follow-up was adjusted for SRH at baseline, as well as for changes in the socio-demographic and health-risk variables over time. The results support that changes in access to structural social capital over time impact on SRH. Remaining with no/low level of informal socializing over time increased the odds ratio for poor SRH for both men and women (OR of 1.45; 95%CI = 1.22-1.73 among men and OR of 1.56; 95%CI = 1.33-1.84 among women). Remaining with no/low levels of social participation was also detrimental to SRH in men and women (OR 1.14; 95%CI = 1.03-1.26 among men and OR 1.18; 95%CI = 1.08-1.29 among women). A decrease in informal socializing over time was associated with poor SRH for women and men (OR of 1.35; 95%CI = 1.16-1.58 among men and OR of 1.57; 95%CI = 1.36-1.82 among women). A loss of social participation had a negative effect on SRH among men and women (OR of 1.16; 95%CI = 1.03-1.30 among men and OR of 1.15; 95%CI = 1.04-1.27 among women). Gaining access to social participation was harmful for SRH for women (OR 1.17; 95%CI = 1.05-1.31). Structural social capital has complex and gendered effects on SRH and interventions aiming to use social capital for health promotion purposes require an awareness of its gendered nature.

  3. Gender Differences in the Self-Rated Health-Mortality Association: Is It Poor Self-Rated Health that Predicts Mortality or Excellent Self-Rated Health that Predicts Survival?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyamini, Yael; Blumstein, Tzvia; Lusky, Ayala; Modan, Baruch

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates gender differences in the association between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality. This association has been well-documented, but findings regarding gender differences are inconsistent. The specific objectives were (a) to examine these differences in a short and a long time frame, (b) to examine these differences…

  4. Metropolitan area income inequality and self-rated health--a multi-level study.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Tony A; Lochner, Kimberly; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2002-01-01

    We examined the association of income inequality measured at the metropolitan area (MA) and county levels with individual self-rated health. Individual-level data were drawn from 259,762 respondents to the March Current Population Survey in 1996 and 1998. Income inequality and average income were calculated from 1990 census data, the former using Gini coefficients. Multi-level logistic regression models were used. Controlling for sex, age, race, and individual-level household income, respondents living in high, medium-high, and medium-low income inequality MAs had odds ratios of fair/poor self-rated health of 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.38), 1.07 (0.95-1.21), and 1.02 (0.91-1.15), respectively, compared to people living in the MAs with the lowest income inequality. However, we found only a small association of MA-level income inequality with fair/poor health when controlling further for average MA household income: odds ratios were 1.10 (0.95-1.28), 1.01 (0.89-1.14), and 1.00 (0.89-1.12), respectively. Likewise, we found only a small association of county-level income inequality with self-rated health although only 40.7% of the sample had an identified county on CPS data. Regarding the association of state-level income inequality with fair/poor health, we found the association to be considerably stronger among non-metropolitan (i.e. rural) compared to metropolitan residents.

  5. Family structure and fathers' well-being: trajectories of mental health and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Sarah O

    2009-06-01

    The association between marital status and health among men has been well documented, but few studies track health trajectories following family structure transitions among unmarried fathers. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study this article examines trajectories of paternal mental health and self-rated health, focusing on transitions into and out of residential relationships with the child's biological mother or a new partner during a five-year post-birth period (N = 4,331). Continuously married fathers report higher time-specific self-rated health and fewer mental health problems than continuously single fathers, controlling for underlying health trajectories. The disparity, however does not increase over time, providing little support for the marital resource model during these years. Static group differences suggest that resources fathers carry with them into unions may buffer them from the negative effects of union dissolution. The implications of these findings for cohabitation, as well as selection and causation arguments, are also discussed.

  6. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status.

  7. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status. PMID:25166945

  8. Examining the Impact of Maternal Health, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Daughter's Self-Rated Health Over Three Decades.

    PubMed

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time.

  9. Examining the Impact of Maternal Health, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Daughter's Self-Rated Health Over Three Decades.

    PubMed

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time. PMID:26668178

  10. Impact of self-rated health among elderly on visits tofamily physicians.

    PubMed

    Kurspahić-Mujčić, Amira; Čalkić, Melisa; Sivić, Suad

    2016-08-01

    Aim To evaluate animpact of eight dimensions of self-rated health measured by the SF-36 questionnaire on visits to family physicians among people older than 65. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in family medicine outpatient departments of the Public Institution Primary Health Care Center of Canton Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study included 200 respondents divided into two age groups:18-65 (n=100) and older than 65 (n=100). The SF-36 questionnaire for self-assessment of health status and a questionnaire for the evaluation of socio-demographic characteristics of respondents and health care utilization were used. Results In the group of respondents aged 18-65 the dimension that was related to physical functioning was assessed as best(79.1±25.6), while the dimension concerning the vitality was assessed as the worst (56.1±19.9). In the group of respondents older than 65 the dimension related to social functioning was assessed as best (65.4±24.9), and the dimensions related to general health was assessed as worst (47.7±20.4). Family physicians were visited by significantly more respondents older than 65 than those from the age group 18-65 (94% vs.74%) (p= 0.000). Scores on the scales of general health (p=0.021) and social functioning (p=0.024) in respondents older than 65 had a significant impact on visits to family physicians. Conclusion Poor self-rated general health and better social functioning are important predictors of visiting family physicians by elderly persons. PMID:27452322

  11. The Association between Long Working Hours and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. Methods We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Results Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. Conclusions This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working

  12. Tobacco use, Alcohol Consumption and Self-rated Oral Health among Nigerian Prison Officials

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Omili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The oral health condition and lifestyle in term of tobacco use and alcohol consumption of custodian of prisons have been left unstudied. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol consumption and self-rated oral health among Nigerian prison officials. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among prison officials working in Abuja, Nassarawa and Kano prison yards between March and June 2011 using 28-item self-administered questionnaire as a tool of data collection. The questionnaire elicited information on demography, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors, oral health conditions, tobacco use, pattern and quit attempts, alcohol consumption, type and pattern. Results: The participants were aged between 20 and 51 years, with a mean age of 32.25 ± 6.13 years. The majority of the participants were males (66.4%), Christians (76.7%), junior officials (78.1%) and of Northern origin (50.7%). A total of 50 (34.2%) of the participants indicated that they were tobacco users and 39 (78.0%) indulged in cigarette smoking only. Of the study participants, 67 (45.9%) indicated they consume alcohol, beer majorly and gin rarely with 23 (34.3%) consuming it excessively. The dominant tooth cleaning device utilized by the participants was toothbrush and toothpaste, and 65 (44.5%) had visited the dentists with the majority of the visit done >5 years ago. About one-third 57 (39.0%) reported experiencing one or more forms of oral disease. However, it was only 17 (11.6%) of them that rated their oral health poor/fair, and the determinants of self-rated oral health were age, rank, and oral health condition. Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and

  13. Investigating the Relationship between Ethnic Consciousness, Racial Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the ‘racial climate’. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  14. Social capital and self-rated health in Colombia: the good, the bad and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, David; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sudarsky, John

    2011-02-01

    Although there is increasing evidence supporting the associations between social capital and health, less is known of potential effects in Latin American countries. Our objective was to examine associations of different components of social capital with self-rated health in Colombia. The study had a cross-sectional design, using data of a survey applied to a nationally representative sample of 3025 respondents, conducted in 2004-2005. Stratified random sampling was performed, based on town size, urban/rural origin, age, and sex. Examined indicators of social capital were interpersonal trust, reciprocity, associational membership, non-electoral political participation, civic activities and volunteering. Principal components analysis including different indicators of social capital distinguished three components: structural-formal (associational membership and non-electoral political participation), structural-informal (civic activities and volunteering) and cognitive (interpersonal trust and reciprocity). Multilevel analyses showed no significant variations of self-rated health at the regional level. After adjusting for sociodemographic covariates, interpersonal trust was statistically significantly associated with lower odds of poor/fair health, as well as the cognitive social capital component. Members of farmers/agricultural or gender-related groups had higher odds of poor/fair health, respectively. Excluding these groups, however, associational membership was associated with lower odds of poor/fair health. Likewise, in Colombians with educational attainment higher than high school, reciprocity was associated with lower odds of fair/poor health. Nevertheless, among rural respondents non-electoral political participation was associated with worse health. In conclusion, cognitive social capital and associational membership were related to better health, and could represent important notions for health promotion. Human rights violations related to political violence

  15. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  16. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  17. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001). Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:26703659

  18. Income inequality, perceived happiness, and self-rated health: evidence from nationwide surveys in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we examined how regional inequality is associated with perceived happiness and self-rated health at an individual level by using micro-data from nationwide surveys in Japan. We estimated the bivariate ordered probit models to explore the associations between regional inequality and two subjective outcomes, and evaluated effect modification to their sensitivities to regional inequality using the categories of key individual attributes. We found that individuals who live in areas of high inequality tend to report themselves as both unhappy and unhealthy, even after controlling for various individual and regional characteristics and taking into account the correlation between the two subjective outcomes. Gender, age, educational attainment, income, occupational status, and political views modify the associations of regional inequality with the subjective assessments of happiness and health. Notably, those with an unstable occupational status are most affected by inequality when assessing both perceived happiness and health.

  19. Unemployment transitions and self-rated health in Europe: A longitudinal analysis of EU-SILC from 2008 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tøge, Anne Grete; Blekesaune, Morten

    2015-10-01

    The Great Recession of 2008 has led to elevated unemployment in Europe and thereby revitalised the question of causal health effects of unemployment. This article applies fixed effects regression models to longitudinal panel data drawn from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions for 28 European countries from 2008 to 2011, in order to investigate changes in self-rated health around the event of becoming unemployed. The results show that the correlation between unemployment and health is partly due to a decrease in self-rated health as people enter unemployment. Such health changes vary by country of domicile, and by individual age; older workers have a steeper decline than younger workers. Health changes after the unemployment spell reveal no indication of adverse health effects of unemployment duration. Overall, this study indicates some adverse health effects of unemployment in Europe--predominantly among older workers.

  20. Former athletes' health-related lifestyle behaviours and self-rated health in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bäckmand, H; Kujala, U; Sarna, S; Kaprio, J

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between self-rated health (SRH), physical activity and other lifestyle habits among former athletes and referents in late adulthood. Male athletes (N=514) who represented Finland from 1920 through 1965 and referents (N=368) who were classified healthy at the age of 20 years participated in this population-based cohort study. The present analysis was based on a questionnaire study in 2001. SRH was assessed by a single question. Univariate binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of health-related behaviours with SRH. The majority of former athletes (64%) rated their health better than referents (48%). A higher percentage of the athletes (54%) compared to the referents (44%) belonged to the most physically active groups (MET quintiles IV-V). A high percentage of the athletes (77%) and referents (79%) were occasional or moderate alcohol users. The proportion of never smokers among athletes was 59% and among referents 37%. Among current smokers there were no differences in nicotine dependence between athletes and referents (p=0.07). In the univariate analysis the odds of reporting good SRH was 2 times higher for athletes (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.53-2.64, p<0.001) than for referents. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, former participation in team and power athletic groups had significantly higher SRH than the referents even after adjusting for age, level of physical activity, alcohol and smoking habit, and occupation. People who participated in very active physical exercise in their youth, as indexed by participation in competitive sports by elite athletes, continue a physically active lifestyle, and maintained healthier lifestyle. They had significantly higher SRH than the referents in their senior years, which was not totally explained by their physically active and healthier lifestyles.

  1. The relationship of language acculturation (English proficiency) to current self-rated health among African immigrant adults.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Picot, Sandra J; Zhan, Min

    2013-06-01

    Although over 1.5 million African immigrants live in the US, few studies have examined the relationship of language acculturation to health outcomes among African immigrant adults. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between English proficiency and current self-rated health among African immigrant adults. Using a cross-sectional design, a secondary data analysis was performed on baseline data from the African immigrant adult subsample (n = 763) of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a longitudinal study of lawful permanent residents. Limited English proficiency (LEP), increased duration of US residence, older age at immigration, being male, less than 12 years of education, poor pre-migration health, and chronic disease were associated with good/fair/poor current self-rated health. Findings support consideration of pre-migration health and chronic disease in future acculturation and health studies, and provision of linguistically competent interventions for LEP African immigrants at risk for poor health outcomes.

  2. The influence of physical and mental health on life satisfaction is mediated by self-rated health: A study with Brazilian elderly.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Fontaine, Anne Marie; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases, signals and symptoms of health problems and objective losses in functionality are seen as strongly related to low levels of life satisfaction in old age. Among seniors, self-rated health is associated with both quality of health and life satisfaction, but its relationships with objective health measures are controversial. This study aimed at identifying the influence of self-rated health as a mediator of the relationships between objectives indicators of physical and mental health and the elderly's life satisfaction. Self-reporting and physical performance measures were derived from the data basis of the FIBRA Study, which investigated frailty and associated variables in a cross-sectional sample of 2164 subjects aged 65 and above, randomly selected in seven Brazilian cities. A model considering satisfaction as a dependent variable, the number of diseases, frailty, cognitive status and depressive symptoms as predictors and self-rated health as a mediating variable was tested through path analysis. The model fit the data well and explained 19% of life satisfaction's variance. According to the bootstrapping method, indirect effects were significant for all trajectories, suggesting that self-rated health is a mediator variable between physical and mental health and elderlýs life satisfaction. In conclusion, adverse conditions of physical and mental health can influence the elderlýs life satisfaction, mostly when they determine a decrease in their levels of self-rated health.

  3. Providing emotional support to others, self-esteem, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of helping others on self-rated health in middle and late life. Data are from a nationwide sample of middle-aged and older adults (N=1154). The findings indicate that women and Blacks are more likely than men or Whites to help others. Moreover, the results suggest that people who attend church more often are especially likely to help others. The data further reveal that people who help others are more likely to have a greater sense of self-worth and people with more self-esteem, in turn, tend to rate their health in a more favorable way. The findings help clarify issues in the assessment of helping others in middle and late life. PMID:27061666

  4. Self-rated health and occupational conditions in Russia.

    PubMed

    Nazarova, I

    2000-11-01

    A low level of health promotion and disease prevention awareness in Russia, such as disregard for personal health during periods of well-being or illness, have contributed to a decline in general population health over the past decade. The relationship of working conditions and health awareness was explored among a sample of adults in Russia. This research project was conducted, July-August, 1998, in the city of Kazan. Data was collected by probability sampling of addresses and personal interview. Working conditions influence general public and family health. The occupation of the spouse contributed significantly to family conflicts, and financial problems ranked first as the cause of marital conflict. Due to lack of material resources, one-third of respondents, even though employed, reported being dissatisfied with the quality of their nutritional status and one-fifth with the lack of leisure time. Although more than two-thirds were satisfied with their work, every fifth did not consider their wages sufficient, every fourth wanted to change occupations, and every third was afraid of being fired. The majority of employed respondents reported low salaries, worked a full 8-hour day at their primary occupations and one-fifth had a second job. Younger people were especially prone to disregard their health with intensive work schedules. About half of respondents reported being exposed to toxic health hazards in their past or current jobs. Almost one-fifth agreed to work at hazardous occupations because of higher salaries. Social status, indicated by a higher education, was associated with having the opportunity to chose work in more favourable circumstances, and consequently with less health risks. In summary, the research demonstrated that health was an instrumental value in Russia, exploited as a economic resource not only during periods of well-being but also during illness, by individuals not seeking preventive or timely health care because of the fear of losing

  5. Self-Rated Health among Foreign- and US-Born Asian Americans: A Test of Comparability

    PubMed Central

    Erosheva, Elena; Walton, Emily C.; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We investigated differences between foreign- and US-born Asian Americans in self-rating their physical and mental health. In particular, we tested whether the foreign-born respondents underreport the extreme categories of the scale as compared to US-born respondents. Methods We analyzed data from the National Latino and Asian American Study to examine whether immigrants are less likely to use the extreme ends of the 5-category self-rated health scales than their US-born counterparts. We used propensity score matching to derive groups of US- and foreign-born Asian Americans who share similar demographic and health characteristics. We defined propensity scores as predicted probabilities of being US-born given individual background characteristics. The propensity score framework allowed us to make descriptive comparisons of self-rated health responses controlling for background characteristics. We used log-linear symmetry models to examine cross-tabulations of self-rated health reports in matched pairs by the two (extreme and non-extreme) and five (“excellent”, “very good”, “good”, “fair”, and “poor”) categories. Results Controlling for background characteristics, we found no evidence that foreign-born Asian Americans are less likely to endorse extreme categories in self-rated physical or mental health than US-born, as well as no evidence of imbalances in endorsement of any particular self-rated health category between the two groups. Conclusions Controlling for demographic and health characteristics, we find no systematic differences between foreign- and US-born Asian Americans in reporting self-rated physical and mental health on the 5-category scales from “excellent” to “poor”. PMID:17279024

  6. Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Vingård, Eva; Josephson, Malin

    2007-12-01

    This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi(2)-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age. PMID:18212472

  7. Self-rated health and health care utilization after military deployments.

    PubMed

    Trump, David H

    2006-07-01

    Self-rated general health is one element of the standard health assessment required of U.S. military service members upon completion of major deployments. A cohort study of 22,229 male U.S. Army and Air Force personnel returning from Europe or Southwest Asia in 2000 used survival analysis methods and Cox proportional hazard models to examine postdeployment self-rated health (SRH) status and subsequent hospitalization, separation, and ambulatory care visits. Self-rated health was fair/poor for 1.5% and good for 20.4%; 11% documented at least one health concern. During 30,433 person-years of follow-up (median, 1.5 person-years), there were 22.8 hospitalizations per 1,000 person-years and 4.0 ambulatory care visits per person-years. After adjustment, deployers with fair/poor SRH had an increased risk for hospitalization (hazard ratio [HRI, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0,2.7); the risk was lower for those with good SRH (HR, 1.3; 95% CI,1.1,1.5). Deployers with fair/poor SRH health had an increased risk for illness-related ambulatory care visits (HR, 1.8, 95%; CI, 1.6,2.1) and administrative visits (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1,1.7), but not injury-related visits (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8,1.7). Self-reported low health status and other health concerns identify military members with higher levels of health care needs following return from major deployments.

  8. Self-rated health of population in southern China: association with socio-demographic characteristics measured with multiple-item self-rated health measurement scale

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) status has been increasingly acknowledged as a valid and appropriate indicator of public health and chronic morbidity. However, limited research was conducted in China due to the different culture and socioeconomic situations. The aim of this study is to assess the SRH status of the population in Southern China using multiple-item SRH measurement scale (SRHMS). Socio-demographic characteristics including sex, age, marital status, education, and income are considered variable in this survey. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a total of 8400 community residents of 14 years old and over in Southern China. SRH status was measured using SRHMS with a stratified sampling approach, and compared between different subgroups with t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Totally 8400 subjects were recruited in this study and 80.96% (6801) responded to the survey. The mean score for SRHMS dimensions ranged from 66.16 ± 20.65 (mean ± sd) for positive emotion (M2) to 92.14 ± 14.06 for daily physical activities (B2). Results showed that SRHMS scores for women, elderly men, low education level, low income, divorced, separated or widowed and suburban residents in Southern China were significantly lower than other subgroups (P < 0.05). Conclusions In this study, using SRHMS we assessed the association of SRH with socio-demographic characteristics including sex, age, marital status, education, and income in Southern China. The performance of the questionnaire in the large scale survey is satisfactory and provides a large picture of SRH status in Southern China. Our results indicate that women, elderly men, low education level, low income, divorced, separated or widowed and suburban residents in Southern China suffer from relatively poor SRH status. PMID:20598154

  9. Gender differences in the predictive role of self-rated health on short-term risk of mortality among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the well-established association between self-rated health and mortality, research findings have been inconsistent regarding how men and women differ on this link. Using a national sample in the United States, this study compared American male and female older adults for the predictive role of baseline self-rated health on the short-term risk of mortality. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 1500 older adults (573 men (38.2%) and 927 women (61.8%)) aged 66 years or older for 3 years from 2001 to 2004. The main predictor of interest was self-rated health, which was measured using a single item in 2001. The outcome was the risk of all-cause mortality during the 3-year follow-up period. Demographic factors (race and age), socio-economic factors (education and marital status), and health behaviors (smoking and drinking) were covariates. Gender was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regression models in the pooled sample and also stratified by gender, with self-rated health treated as either nominal variables, poor compared to other levels (i.e. fair, good, or excellent) or excellent compared to other levels (i.e. good, fair, or poor), or an ordinal variable. Results: In the pooled sample, baseline self-rated health predicted mortality risk, regardless of how the variable was treated. We found a significant interaction between gender and poor self-rated health, indicating a stronger effect of poor self-rated health on mortality risk for men compared to women. Gender did not interact with excellent self-rated health on mortality. Conclusion: Perceived poor self-rated health better reflects risk of mortality over a short period of time for older men compared to older women. Clinicians may need to take poor self-rated health of older men very seriously. Future research should test whether the differential predictive validity of self-rated health based on gender is due to a different meaning of poor self-rated health for older men and women

  10. Gender differences in the predictive role of self-rated health on short-term risk of mortality among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the well-established association between self-rated health and mortality, research findings have been inconsistent regarding how men and women differ on this link. Using a national sample in the United States, this study compared American male and female older adults for the predictive role of baseline self-rated health on the short-term risk of mortality. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 1500 older adults (573 men (38.2%) and 927 women (61.8%)) aged 66 years or older for 3 years from 2001 to 2004. The main predictor of interest was self-rated health, which was measured using a single item in 2001. The outcome was the risk of all-cause mortality during the 3-year follow-up period. Demographic factors (race and age), socio-economic factors (education and marital status), and health behaviors (smoking and drinking) were covariates. Gender was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regression models in the pooled sample and also stratified by gender, with self-rated health treated as either nominal variables, poor compared to other levels (i.e. fair, good, or excellent) or excellent compared to other levels (i.e. good, fair, or poor), or an ordinal variable. Results: In the pooled sample, baseline self-rated health predicted mortality risk, regardless of how the variable was treated. We found a significant interaction between gender and poor self-rated health, indicating a stronger effect of poor self-rated health on mortality risk for men compared to women. Gender did not interact with excellent self-rated health on mortality. Conclusion: Perceived poor self-rated health better reflects risk of mortality over a short period of time for older men compared to older women. Clinicians may need to take poor self-rated health of older men very seriously. Future research should test whether the differential predictive validity of self-rated health based on gender is due to a different meaning of poor self-rated health for older men and women

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of Self-Rated Health among Older Adults: Association with Drinking Profiles and Other Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Moriconi, Pascale Audrey; Nadeau, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between drinking profiles and self-rated health with and without adjusting for other determinants of health among a sample of older adults from the general population. Respondents were 1,494 men and 2,176 women aged between 55 and 74 from the GENACIS Canadian survey. The dependent variable was self-rated health, an individual's perception of his or her own general health, a measure used as a proxy for health status. The independent variables were drinking profiles (types of drinkers and nondrinkers) as well as other demographic, psychosocial, and health-related variables (control variables). After adjustment for other determinants of health, regression analyses showed that (1) frequent/moderate drinkers were more likely to have a better self-rated health compared with nondrinkers (lifetime abstainers and former drinkers) and (2) self-rated health did not differ significantly between frequent/moderate drinkers and other types of drinkers (frequent/nonmoderate and infrequent drinkers). Our results suggest that drinking is related to a better self-rated health compared with nondrinking regardless of the drinking profile. Drinking and healthy lifestyle guidelines specific to older adults should be studied, discussed, and integrated into public health practices. PMID:26843861

  12. Religious Involvement, Humility, and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and test a conceptual model that assesses the following theoretical linkages: (1) people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members (i.e., encouragement to adopt religious teachings and principles); (2) individuals who get more frequent spiritual support are more likely to be humble; and (3) people with greater humility tend to rate their health more favorably. The data come from the third wave of a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults. The data provide support for each of the conceptual linkages identified above. PMID:20703366

  13. Falls efficacy and self-rated health in older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Goldberg, Allon; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Fear of falling and mobility restrictions have a significant negative impact on the quality of life of older adults. Because older African American adults are at increased risk for various modifiable health problems, understanding potential constraints on their overall health and mobility is critical in this population. The current study investigated this issue by analyzing a dataset of 449 older African American adults (mean age=72.3 years) living in Detroit. We characterized and investigated the relationships among the following falls- and health-related variables: previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, self-rated health (SRH), and depression and well-being. As a whole, participants reported moderate health and well-being, little depression, few mobility problems (mean=8.4/40), and very high falls efficacy (mean=94.9/100) despite the fact that a quarter of the sample experienced a fall within the past year. Correlation results indicated that previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, SRH and depression and well-being were all inter-related. Regression analyses revealed that higher falls efficacy was more closely associated with better SRH than was having previously fallen. Findings suggest that improving falls efficacy in older African American adults may be beneficial to their mobility and overall health and well-being. Further, by asking a single-item SRH question, clinicians may be able to quickly identify older African American adults who have low falls efficacy and are at high risk for falling. PMID:24063870

  14. Self-rated health in centenarians: a nation-wide cross-sectional Greek study.

    PubMed

    Tigani, Xanthi; Artemiadis, Artemios K; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Chrousos, George P; Darviri, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is an inclusive measure of public health that is correlated with quality of life and subsequent mortality. Extensive literature has identified multiple determinants of SRH in different populations. However, such studies on centenarians are scarce and parsimonious. Our objective is to identify SRH determinants in centenarians. This is a nationwide cross-sectional study on 400 Greek centenarians that was carried out between 2007 and 2010. SRH was evaluated by a simple question with a 5-point scale. Three categories of SRH were formed (very good/good/poor), which served as the dependent variable in multinomial regression models. Various sociodemographic, disease-related, lifestyle and psychosocial variables were assessed as candidate determinants of SRH. According to our results, SRH ratings among centenarians were better than that expected according to previous studies showing worse SRH ratings with increasing age in Greece. The 22.4% of the variance in SRH among centenarians was predicted by gender, habitat region and status, financial problems, disease presence and autonomy. Among lifestyle and psychosocial variables, obesity, good relationships with children, lack of feelings of loneliness, high optimism, adaptability and an internal health locus of control profile were independently associated with good SRH. These results indicate that SRH in individuals of extreme longevity were related to specific personal psychosocial factors that contribute to healthy aging and thus support the biopsychosocial model of health promotion.

  15. Genomic Ancestry, Self-Rated Health and Its Association with Mortality in an Admixed Population: 10 Year Follow-Up of the Bambui-Epigen (Brazil) Cohort Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Macinko, James; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Cesar, Cibele C.; Peixoto, Sérgio V.; Magalhães, Wagner C. S.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Barreto, Mauricio; Castro-Costa, Erico; Firmo, Josélia O. A.; Proietti, Fernando A.; Leal, Thiago Peixoto; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Pereira, Alexandre; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) has strong predictive value for mortality in different contexts and cultures, but there is inconsistent evidence on ethnoracial disparities in SRH in Latin America, possibly due to the complexity surrounding ethnoracial self-classification. Materials/Methods We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual genomic proportions of African, European and Native American ancestry, and ethnoracial self-classification, with baseline and 10-year SRH trajectories in 1,311 community dwelling older Brazilians. We also examined whether genomic ancestry and ethnoracial self-classification affect the predictive value of SRH for subsequent mortality. Results European ancestry predominated among participants, followed by African and Native American (median = 84.0%, 9.6% and 5.3%, respectively); the prevalence of Non-White (Mixed and Black) was 39.8%. Persons at higher levels of African and Native American genomic ancestry, and those self-identified as Non-White, were more likely to report poor health than other groups, even after controlling for socioeconomic conditions and an array of self-reported and objective physical health measures. Increased risks for mortality associated with worse SRH trajectories were strong and remarkably similar (hazard ratio ~3) across all genomic ancestry and ethno-racial groups. Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time that higher levels of African and Native American genomic ancestry—and the inverse for European ancestry—were strongly correlated with worse SRH in a Latin American admixed population. Both genomic ancestry and ethnoracial self-classification did not modify the strong association between baseline SRH or SRH trajectory, and subsequent mortality. PMID:26680774

  16. A multilevel analysis of the effects of neighbourhood income inequality on individual self-rated health in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Irene O L; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lo, Su-Vui; Leung, Gabriel M

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect on self-rated health of neighbourhood-level income inequality in Hong Kong, which has a high and growing Gini coefficient. Data were derived from two population household surveys in 2002 and 2005 of 25,623 and 24,610 non-institutional residents aged 15 or over. We estimated neighbourhood-level Gini coefficients in each of 287 Government Planning Department Tertiary Planning Units. We used multilevel regression analysis to assess the association of neighbourhood income inequality with individual self-perceived health status. After adjustment for both individual- and household-level predictors, there was no association between neighbourhood income inequality, median household income or household-level income and self-rated health. We tested for but did not find any statistical interaction between these three income-related exposures. These findings suggest that neighbourhood income inequality is not an important predictor of individual health status in Hong Kong.

  17. A multilevel analysis of the effects of neighbourhood income inequality on individual self-rated health in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Irene O L; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lo, Su-Vui; Leung, Gabriel M

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect on self-rated health of neighbourhood-level income inequality in Hong Kong, which has a high and growing Gini coefficient. Data were derived from two population household surveys in 2002 and 2005 of 25,623 and 24,610 non-institutional residents aged 15 or over. We estimated neighbourhood-level Gini coefficients in each of 287 Government Planning Department Tertiary Planning Units. We used multilevel regression analysis to assess the association of neighbourhood income inequality with individual self-perceived health status. After adjustment for both individual- and household-level predictors, there was no association between neighbourhood income inequality, median household income or household-level income and self-rated health. We tested for but did not find any statistical interaction between these three income-related exposures. These findings suggest that neighbourhood income inequality is not an important predictor of individual health status in Hong Kong. PMID:18995943

  18. In Sickness but Not in Health: Self-Ratings, Identity, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idler, Ellen; Leventhal, Howard; McLaughlin, Julie; Leventhal, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality has been studied primarily in large, representative populations, with relatively little progress toward understanding the information processing that individuals use to arrive at these ratings. With subsamples of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study…

  19. Social determinants of maternal self-rated health in South Western Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background From 2000 a routine survey of mothers with newborn infants was commenced in South Western Sydney. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship of maternal self-rated health, as a measure of well-being, to various socio-demographic factors including measures of social capital, country of birth, financial status and employment. Results The sample consisted of 23,534 mothers who delivered in South Western Sydney between 2004 and 2006. The data were collected as part of a routine post-partum assessment at 2–4 weeks postpartum. We examined the relationship of self-rated health with socio-demographic variables using binary logistic regression. Worse self-rated health was reported in 4% of women. Variables which were found to be significantly associated with worse self-rated health were: poor financial situation, public housing accommodation, fathers employment, no car access, unplanned pregnancy, maternal smoking, poor emotional and social support, and motherhood being more difficult than expected. Conclusion We confirmed the importance of social disadvantage and social isolation as independent risk factors for poor self-reported health. The findings reported here provide further justification for public health interventions which increase support for socially excluded mothers and strengthen their connection to their community. PMID:24447371

  20. Rising U.S. income inequality, gender and individual self-rated health, 1972-2004.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui

    2009-11-01

    The effect of income inequality on health has been a contested topic among social scientists. Most previous research is based on cross-sectional comparisons rather than temporal comparisons. Using data from the General Social Survey and the U.S. Census Bureau, this study examines how rising income inequality affects individual self-rated health in the U.S. from 1972 to 2004. Data are analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear models. The findings suggest a significant association between income inequality and individual self-rated health. The dramatic increase in income inequality from 1972 to 2004 increases the odds of worse self-rated health by 9.4 percent. These findings hold for three measures of income inequality: the Gini coefficient, the Atkinson Index, and the Theil entropy index. Results also suggest that overall income inequality and gender-specific income inequality harm men's, but not women's, self-rated health. These findings also hold for the three measures of income inequality. These findings suggest that inattention to gender composition may explain apparent discrepancies across previous studies.

  1. Negative self-rated health in the elderly in cities with different levels of economic well-being: data from FIBRA.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Efigênia Passarelli; de Lucca, Sérgio Roberto; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-12-01

    This comparative, cross-sectional study analyzed negative self-rated health in elderly people, according to sociodemographic and health variables, use of public or private health services, functional performance, frailty and depressive symptoms. The participants lived in Belém (n = 571) and Campinas (n = 676), cities with different socioeconomic conditions, and the research formed part of a multicentric study on frailty (Fibra Study, Unicamp). Multivariate regression analysis showed that in both cities, negative self-rated health was associated with low education, three or more chronic diseases and sight deficiencies. In Belem, additional observations included associations with fatigue, three or more signs and symptoms and use of public health services; in Campinas, negative self-rated health was also associated with depressive symptoms. The associations suggest that poor health in old age is the result of an accumulation of deficits for lack of socioeconomic resources throughout life and that deficits are not sufficiently compensated for health services in old age.

  2. Financial Hardship and Self-Rated Health among Low-Income Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Harley, Amy E.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be predictive of morbidity and mortality. Evidence also shows that SRH is socioeconomically patterned, although this association differs depending on the indicator of socioeconomic status used. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SRH and financial hardship among…

  3. Using Anchoring Vignettes to Assess Group Differences in General Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna; Freese, Jeremy; Hauser, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses a potentially serious problem with the widely used self-rated health (SRH) survey item: that different groups have systematically different ways of using the item's response categories. Analyses based on unadjusted SRH may thus yield misleading results. The authors evaluate anchoring vignettes as a possible solution to this…

  4. Educational attainment and self-rated health status among single mothers in rural Alabama.

    PubMed

    Zekeri, Andrew A

    2013-08-01

    Using previous data from a random sample of 300 single mothers from rural Alabama, multiple regression analysis indicated that food insecurity and employment status had a modest effect on self-rated health status, while educational attainment and income had the greatest effect. These variables explained 29% of the variance in health status. Social and economic policies that affect educational attainment and income distribution may have important consequences for health status in these rural areas.

  5. Ethnic and Gender Differentials in Non-Communicable Diseases and Self-Rated Health in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Jane K. L.; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Methods Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses. Results Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD), followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health. Conclusion Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people. PMID

  6. The association of sexual orientation with self-rated health, and cigarette and alcohol use in Mexican adolescents and youths.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Tello, Blanca Lilia Gómez; Valdés, Jesús

    2009-07-01

    Evidence of health inequities associated with sexual orientation has been gathered for industrialized countries. The situation for lesbians, gay males, and bisexuals (LGB) from middle- or low-income countries may be worse than those in industrialized nations. Here, we analyze the relationship of sexual orientation with self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use among a representative sample of Mexican adolescents and youths between the ages of 12 and 29 years, in order to explore whether this association is mediated by discrimination and violence. Three dimensions of sexual orientation (affective attraction, sexual behavior, and identity) were assessed. The outcomes were self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use. Compared to heterosexuals, LGB youths more frequently smoked >or=6 cigarettes per day, reported having experienced family violence, having crimes perpetrated against them, and having experienced violations of their rights. Among males, gays and bisexuals exhibited a higher risk of poor health than heterosexuals. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians and bisexual women were more likely to consume alcohol. Many differences in self-rated health and substance use according to sexual orientation were explained by having experienced discrimination and violence. We concluded that lesbian and bisexual females have a higher prevalence of cigarette and alcohol use. It is necessary to develop policies and programs aimed at the reduction of substance abuse among LGB youths (focusing on females who engage in sexual contact with persons of the same gender) and to work against discrimination and violence experienced by LGB people, particularly against non-heterosexual males.

  7. Democracy and self-rated health across 67 countries: A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Patrick M; Dovel, Kathryn; Denney, Justin T

    2015-10-01

    Existing research has found a positive association between countries' level of democratic governance and the health of their populations, although that research is limited by the use of data from small numbers of high-income countries or aggregate data that do not assess individual-level health outcomes. We extend prior research by using multilevel World Health Survey (2002-2004) data on 313,554 individuals in 67 countries, and find that the positive association between democratic governance and self-rated health persists after adjusting for both individual- and country-level confounders. However, the mechanisms linking democracy and self-rated health remain unclear. Individual-level measures of socioeconomic status, and country-level measures of economic inequality and investments in public health and education, do not significantly mediate the association between democratic governance and self-rated health. The persistent association between democratic governance and health suggests that the political organization of societies may be an important upstream determinant of population health.

  8. Democracy and Self-Rated Health across 67 Countries: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Patrick M.; Dovel, Kathryn; Denney, Justin T.

    2015-01-01

    Existing research has found a positive association between countries’ level of democratic governance and the health of their populations, although that research is limited by the use of data from small numbers of high-income countries or aggregate data that do not assess individual-level health outcomes. We extend prior research by using multilevel World Health Survey (2002-2004) data on 313,554 individuals in 67 countries, and find that the positive association between democratic governance and self-rated health persists after adjusting for both individual- and country-level confounders. However, the mechanisms linking democracy and self-rated health remain unclear. Individual-level measures of socioeconomic status, and country-level measures of economic inequality and investments in public health and education, do not significantly mediate the association between democratic governance and self-rated health. The persistent association between democratic governance and health suggests that the political organization of societies may be an important upstream determinant of population health. PMID:26356825

  9. Cohort and duration patterns among Asian immigrants: Comparing trends in obesity and self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Annie; Geronimus, Arline; Bound, John; Griffith, Derek; Gee, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Many studies, but not all, suggest that immigrant health worsens with duration of residence in the U.S. Cohort effects may explain the inconsistent findings; not only are cohort effects confounded with duration, but the timing of entry into the US may also create qualitatively different migration experiences. The present study tests for duration and cohort patterns among Asian immigrants to the United States across six year-of-entry cohorts (pre-1980, 1981-1985, 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005). Data come from the Asian American sample (n=44,002) from the 1994-2009 waves of the National Health Interview Survey. The data show cohort differences for self-rated health, such that more recent cohorts showed improved baseline health compared to older cohorts. After accounting for cohorts, there was no significant change in self-rated health by duration. Older cohorts actually showed improving self-rated health with longer duration. Obesity showed the opposite pattern; there were no differences across cohorts, but duration in the United States correlated with higher obesity. These results imply that immigrant health is not simply an issue of duration and adaptation, but underscore the utility of considering cohorts as broader contexts of migration. Collectively, the results encourage future research that more carefully examines the etiological mechanisms that drive immigrant health. PMID:25879262

  10. Religiosity and Self-Rated Health: A Longitudinal Examination of Their Reciprocal Effects.

    PubMed

    Doane, Michael J; Elliott, Marta

    2016-06-01

    While religiosity tends to be favorably associated with physical health, further research is needed to assess the causal directions between religiosity and health. This study examined reciprocal pathways between them with a three-wave panel dataset (General Social Survey, 2006-2010). Among Christians (N = 585), religious activities were associated with improved self-rated health, while conservative religious beliefs were associated with worsened health over time. Additionally, worse health was associated with increased engagement in religious activities and greater endorsement of conservative religious beliefs over time. Results highlight the need for additional research and theory to map the complexity of the religion-health connection. PMID:25896028

  11. Income Inequality and Self-Rated Health Status: Evidence from the European Community Household Panel

    PubMed Central

    HILDEBRAND, VINCENT; VAN KERM, PHILIPPE

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effect of income inequality on individuals’ self-rated health status in a pooled sample of 11 countries, using longitudinal data from the European Community Household Panel survey. Taking advantage of the longitudinal and cross-national nature of our data, and carefully modeling the self-reported health information, we avoid several of the pitfalls suffered by earlier studies on this topic. We calculate income inequality indices measured at two standard levels of geography (NUTS-0 and NUTS-1) and find consistent evidence that income inequality is negatively related to self-rated health status in the European Union for both men and women, particularly when measured at national level. However, despite its statistical significance, the magnitude of the impact of inequality on health is very small. PMID:20084830

  12. Income inequality and self-rated health status: evidence from the European Community Household Panel.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Vincent; Van Kerm, Philippe

    2009-11-01

    We examine the effect of income inequality on individuals' self-rated health status in a pooled sample of 11 countries, using longitudinal data from the European Community Household Panel survey. Taking advantage of the longitudinal and cross-national nature of our data, and carefully modeling the self-reported health information, we avoid several of the pitfalls suffered by earlier studies on this topic. We calculate income inequality indices measured at two standard levels of geography (NUTS-0 and NUTS-1) and find consistent evidence that income inequality is negatively related to self-rated health status in the European Union for both men and women, particularly when measured at national level. However, despite its statistical significance, the magnitude of the impact of inequality on health is very small.

  13. Does Multi-morbidity Mediate the Effect of Socioeconomics on Self-rated Health? Cross-country Differences

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study explored cross-country differences in how multi-morbidity explains the effects of socioeconomic characteristics on self-rated health. Methods: The study borrowed data from the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects. Participants were 44,530 individuals (age > 65 years) who were sampled from 15 countries (i.e. United States, China, India, Russia, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Argentina, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Uruguay, Ghana and South Africa). Multi-morbidity was measured as number of chronic medical conditions. In Model I, main effects of socioeconomic factors on self-rated health were calculated using country-specific logistic regressions. In Model II, number of chronic conditions were also added to the models to find changes in coefficients for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Results: In the United States, number of chronic medical conditions explained the effect of income on subjective health. In Puerto Rico, number of chronic medical conditions explained the effect of marital status on subjective health. In Costa Rica, Argentina, Barbados, Cuba, and Uruguay, number of chronic medical conditions explained gender disparities in subjective health. In China, Mexico, Brazil, Russia, Chile, India, Ghana and South Africa, number of chronic medical conditions did not explain the effect of demographic or socioeconomic factors on subjective health. Conclusions: Multi-morbidity explains the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on subjective health in some but not other countries. Further research is needed. PMID:26445632

  14. Social capital, income inequality, and self-rated health in 45 countries.

    PubMed

    Mansyur, Carol; Amick, Benjamin C; Harrist, Ronald B; Franzini, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the relationship between the social environment and health. Among the concepts that have emerged over the past decade to examine this relationship are socio-economic inequality and social capital. Using data from the World Values Survey and the World Bank, we tested the hypothesis that self-rated health is affected by social capital and income inequality cross-nationally. The merit of our approach was that we used multilevel methods in a larger and more diverse sample of countries than used previously. Our results indicated that, for a large number of diverse countries, commonly used measures of social capital and income inequality had strong compositional effects on self-rated health, but inconsistent contextual effects, depending on the countries included. Cross-level interactions suggested that contextual measures can moderate the effect of compositional measures on self-rated health. Sensitivity tests indicated that effects varied in different subsets of countries. Future research should examine country-specific characteristics, such as differences in cultural values or norms, which may influence the relationships between social capital, income inequality, and health.

  15. Favourable changes in economic well-being and self-rated health among the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Adverse economic shocks exert an influence on health perceptions, but little is known about the effect of sudden positive changes in a person’s financial situation on self-rated health, particularly among low income people. This paper explores the association between an increase in the amount of non-contribution pensions, public cash transfers given to Costa Rican elderly of low socio-economic status (SES) and changes in self-rated health over time. The analysis is based on data from CRELES, the “Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging”, which is based on a probabilistic sample of people born in 1945 or earlier, and living in Costa Rica by 2002. The fieldwork for the first and second waves of CRELES was conducted from 2004 to 2006, and from 2006 to 2008, respectively. The Costa Rican Government raised the amount of the non-contribution pension for the poor 100% before July 2007, and an additional 100% after that date. Due to the CRELES fieldwork schedule, the data have a natural quasi-experimental design, given that approximately half of CRELES respondents were interviewed before July 2007, independently of their status in receiving the public cash transfers. Using random effects ordered probit regression models, we find that people who experienced such increase report a greater improvement in self-rated health between waves than those who experienced a smaller increase and than the rest of the interviewees. Results suggest that increases in income may lead to a greater improvement in self-rated health. PMID:21440352

  16. Do psychological characteristics explain socioeconomic stratification of self-rated health?

    PubMed

    Barger, Steven D

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated whether negative emotions explain socioeconomic status (SES) stratification of self-rated health (SRH) and whether this putative relation is independent of established SRH determinants. Mood disorders, trait negative affect and health status indices were assessed in a representative cross-sectional survey of 3032 adults in the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Adjustment for health behaviors and health status appreciably reduced SES influence on SRH, but adjustment for negative emotions did not. However, both psychological resources (e.g. social support, extraversion) and negative emotions independently predicted SRH. Detection of SRH determinants was sensitive to binary versus ordinal SRH definitions.

  17. Self-rated health and residential segregation: how does race/ethnicity matter?

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Joseph; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-08-01

    Despite recent declines, racial segregation remains a detriment to minority neighborhoods. However, existing research is inconclusive as to the effects racial segregation has on health. Some argue that racial segregation is related to poor health outcomes, whereas others suspect that racial segregation may actually lead to improved health for some minority communities. Even less is known about whether minority access to white neighborhoods improves health. We address these gaps with individual data from the 2010 Public Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey and census tract data from the 2010 Decennial Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. We implement logistic multilevel models to determine whether and how a resident's self-rated health is affected by the racial/ethnic segregation of their neighborhoods. Our key finding suggests that the effects of segregation on self-rated health depend on an individual's race/ethnicity, with blacks and Latino residents most likely to experience adverse effects. Particularly, minorities living in predominantly white communities have a significantly higher likelihood to report poor/fair health than they would in segregated minority neighborhoods. These findings make clear that access to white neighborhoods is not sufficient to improve minority health; fuller neighborhood integration is necessary to ensure all have health equity.

  18. Self-Assessed Disability and Self-Rated Health among Rural Villagers in Peru: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, James E.; Merry, Stephen P.; Thacher, Thomas D.; Summers, Matthew R.; Alpern, Jonathan D.; Contino, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Risks for poor self-rated overall health in rural areas of developing nations have not been thoroughly investigated. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess potential risk factors for poor self-rated health among rural villagers in Peru. Methods: A door-to-door survey of villagers residing in the Pampas Grande region in Peru,…

  19. Green space and changes in self-rated health among people with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Mary K; Groenewegen, Peter P; Rijken, Mieke; de Vries, Sjerp

    2014-08-01

    This prospective study analyses change in self-rated health of chronically ill people in relation to green space in their living environment at baseline. Data on 1112 people in the Netherlands with one or more medically diagnosed chronic disease(s) were used. The percentage of green space was calculated for postal code area. Multilevel linear regression analysis was conducted. We found no relationship between green space and change in health; however, an unexpected relationship between social capital at baseline and health change was discovered.

  20. An Investigation on Self-Rated Health of Adolescent Students and Influencing Factors From Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengying; Zhao, Li; Feng, Xianqiong; Hu, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    To investigate adolescent students' self-rated health status and to identify the influencing factors that affect students' health status. A stratified cluster sampling method and the Self-assessed General Health Questionnaires were used to enroll 503 adolescent students from Sichuan Province, Southwest part of China. Most adolescent students perceived their self-rated health as "Fair" (29.4%), "Good" (52.1%), or "Very Good" (16.3%). Regarding the sleep quality, most of them rated them as "Fair" (24.9%), "Good" (43.1%), or "Very Good" (19.7%), but 59.7% students reported to sleep less than 8 hours a day, even a few reported to sleep less than 6 hours (4.4%) or more than 9 hours (9.7%). A considerable number of students (41.1%) reported that they "Never" or just "Occasionally" participated in appropriate sports or exercises. As to the dietary habit, a significant number of students (15.7%) reported that they "Never" or "Occasionally" have breakfast. Students from different administrative levels of schools (municipal level, county level, and township level) rated differently (P < 0.05) in terms of their self-rated health, Health Behaviors, Sleeping, Dietary behaviors, Safety Awareness, and Drinking and Smoking behaviors. In general, Chinese teenage students perceived their own health status as fairly good. However, attention needs to be paid to health problems of some of the students, such as lack of sleep and exercise and inadequate dietary habits, etc. More concerns need to be addressed to students from different administrative levels of schools, and strategies should be put forward accordingly.

  1. Race, life course socioeconomic position, racial discrimination, depressive symptoms and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darrell L; Puterman, Eli; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Matthews, Karen A; Adler, Nancy E

    2013-11-01

    Greater levels of socioeconomic position (SEP) are generally associated with better health. However results from previous studies vary across race/ethnicity and health outcomes. Further, the majority of previous studies do not account for the effects of life course SEP on health nor the effects of racial discrimination, which could moderate the effects of SEP on health. Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we examined the relationship between a life course SEP measure on depressive symptoms and self-rated health. A life course SEP was constructed for each participant, using a framework that included parental education and occupation along with respondents' highest level of education and occupation. Interaction terms were created between life course SEP and racial discrimination to determine whether the association between SEP and health was moderated by experiences of racial discrimination. Analyses revealed that higher levels of life course SEP were inversely related to depressive symptoms. Greater life course SEP was positively associated with favorable self-rated health. Racial discrimination was associated with more depressive symptoms and poorer self-rated health. Analyses indicated a significant interaction between life course SEP and racial discrimination on depressive symptoms in the full sample. This suggested that for respondents with greater levels of SEP, racial discrimination was associated with reports of more depressive symptoms. Future research efforts should be made to examine whether individuals' perceptions and experiences of racial discrimination at the interpersonal and structural levels limits their ability to acquire human capital as well as their advancement in education and occupational status.

  2. An Investigation on Self-Rated Health of Adolescent Students and Influencing Factors From Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengying; Zhao, Li; Feng, Xianqiong; Hu, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    To investigate adolescent students' self-rated health status and to identify the influencing factors that affect students' health status. A stratified cluster sampling method and the Self-assessed General Health Questionnaires were used to enroll 503 adolescent students from Sichuan Province, Southwest part of China. Most adolescent students perceived their self-rated health as “Fair” (29.4%), “Good” (52.1%), or “Very Good” (16.3%). Regarding the sleep quality, most of them rated them as “Fair” (24.9%), “Good” (43.1%), or “Very Good” (19.7%), but 59.7% students reported to sleep less than 8 hours a day, even a few reported to sleep less than 6 hours (4.4%) or more than 9 hours (9.7%). A considerable number of students (41.1%) reported that they “Never” or just “Occasionally” participated in appropriate sports or exercises. As to the dietary habit, a significant number of students (15.7%) reported that they “Never” or “Occasionally” have breakfast. Students from different administrative levels of schools (municipal level, county level, and township level) rated differently (P < 0.05) in terms of their self-rated health, Health Behaviors, Sleeping, Dietary behaviors, Safety Awareness, and Drinking and Smoking behaviors. In general, Chinese teenage students perceived their own health status as fairly good. However, attention needs to be paid to health problems of some of the students, such as lack of sleep and exercise and inadequate dietary habits, etc. More concerns need to be addressed to students from different administrative levels of schools, and strategies should be put forward accordingly. PMID:27058576

  3. Mortality Prediction with a Single General Self-Rated Health Question

    PubMed Central

    DeSalvo, Karen B; Bloser, Nicole; Reynolds, Kristi; He, Jiang; Muntner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    objective Health planners and policy makers are increasingly asking for a feasible method to identify vulnerable persons with the greatest health needs. We conducted a systematic review of the association between a single item assessing general self-rated health (GSRH) and mortality. Data Sources Systematic MEDLINE and EMBASE database searches for studies published from January 1966 to September 2003. Review Methods Two investigators independently searched English language prospective, community-based cohort studies that reported (1) all-cause mortality, (2) a question assessing GSRH; and (3) an adjusted relative risk or equivalent. The investigators searched the citations to determine inclusion eligibility and abstracted data by following a standarized protocol. Of the 163 relevant studies identified, 22 cohorts met the inclusion criteria. Using a random effects model, compared with persons reporting “excellent” health status, the relative risk (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality was 1.23 [1.09, 1.39], 1.44 [1.21, 1.71], and 1.92 [1.64, 2.25] for those reporting “good,”“fair,” and “poor” health status, respectively. This relationship was robust in sensitivity analyses, limited to studies that adjusted for co-morbid illness, functional status, cognitive status, and depression, and across subgroups defined by gender and country of origin. Conclusions Persons with “poor” self-rated health had a 2-fold higher mortality risk compared with persons with “excellent” self-rated health. Subjects' responses to a simple, single-item GSRH question maintained a strong association with mortality even after adjustment for key covariates such as functional status, depression, and co-morbidity. PMID:16336622

  4. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  5. Ethnic discrimination predicts poor self-rated health and cortisol in pregnancy: insights from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2015-03-01

    Despite growing research emphasis on understanding the health effects of ethnic discrimination, little work has focused on how such exposures may influence a woman's biology and health during pregnancy. Understanding such effects is important given evidence that maternal stress experience in pregnancy can have long term effects on offspring health. Here we present data evaluating the relationship between perceived discrimination, self-rated health, and the stress hormone cortisol measured in late pregnancy among a diverse sample of women living in Auckland, New Zealand (N = 55). We also evaluated possible intergenerational impacts of maternal discrimination on stress reactivity in a subset of offspring (N = 19). Pregnant women were recruited from two antenatal care clinics in Auckland. Women were met in their homes between 34 and 36 weeks gestation, during which time a prenatal stress questionnaire was administered and saliva samples (morning and evening from two days) were obtained. Offspring cortisol reactivity was assessed at the standard six week postnatal vaccination visit. We found that 34% of women reported having experienced ethnic discrimination, with minority and immigrant women being more likely to report being angry or upset in response to discrimination experience compared with NZ-born women of European descent. Women reporting discrimination experience had worse self-rated health, higher evening cortisol and gave birth to infants with higher cortisol reactivity, all independent of ethnicity and material deprivation. These findings suggest that discrimination experience can have biological impacts in pregnancy and across generations, potentially contributing to the ethnic gradient in health.

  6. Self-Rated Health in Relation to Rape and Mental Health Disorders in a National Sample of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to employ a multivariate approach to examine the correlates of self-rated health in a college sample of women, with particular emphasis on sexual assault history and related mental health outcomes. Participants: A national sample of 2,000 female college students participated in a structured phone interview…

  7. Does urban sprawl impact on self-rated health and psychological distress? A multilevel study from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, Bin B; Garden, Frances L

    2011-09-01

    Mental health can be influenced by a number of neighbourhood physical and social environmental characteristics. We aimed to determine whether urban sprawl (based on population density) in Sydney, Australia, is associated with self-rated health and psychological distress. We used a cross-sectional multilevel study design. Individual level data on self-rated health and psychological distress were obtained from the 2006 and 2007 NSW Population Health Survey. We did not find significant associations between urban sprawl and self-rated health and psychological distress after controlling for individual and area level covariates. However, positive neighbourhood factors were generally associated with better self-rated health and lower psychological distress but few of these associations were statistically significant.

  8. Does urban sprawl impact on self-rated health and psychological distress? A multilevel study from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, Bin B; Garden, Frances L

    2011-09-01

    Mental health can be influenced by a number of neighbourhood physical and social environmental characteristics. We aimed to determine whether urban sprawl (based on population density) in Sydney, Australia, is associated with self-rated health and psychological distress. We used a cross-sectional multilevel study design. Individual level data on self-rated health and psychological distress were obtained from the 2006 and 2007 NSW Population Health Survey. We did not find significant associations between urban sprawl and self-rated health and psychological distress after controlling for individual and area level covariates. However, positive neighbourhood factors were generally associated with better self-rated health and lower psychological distress but few of these associations were statistically significant. PMID:21879398

  9. Conflicts at work--the relationship with workplace factors, work characteristics and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Widmark, Maria; Finnholm, Kristina; Stenfors, Cecilia; Elofsson, Stig; Theorell, Töres

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have considered the work environment in relation to workplace conflicts and those who have been published have included relatively few psychosocial work environment factors. Little research has been published on the consequences of workplace conflicts in terms of employee health. In this study, the statistical relationships between work and workplace characteristics on one hand and conflicts on the other hand are examined. In addition, the relationship between conflicts at work and self-rated health are described. The study population was derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2006; n=5,141. Among employees at workplaces with more than 20 employees (n=3,341), 1,126 (33.7%) responded that they had been involved in some type of conflict during the two years preceding the survey. Among the work and workplace characteristics studied, the following factors were independently associated with increased likelihood of ongoing conflicts: Conflicting demands, emotional demands, risk of transfer or dismissal, poor promotion prospects, high level of employee influence and good freedom of expression. Factors that decreased the likelihood of ongoing conflicts were: Good resources, good relations with management, good confidence in management, good procedural justice (fairness of decisions) and good social support. After adjustment for socioeconomic conditions the odds ratio for low self-rated health associated with ongoing conflict at work was 2.09 (1.60-2.74). The results provide a good starting point for intervention and prevention work.

  10. Predictors of Self-rated Health and Lifestyle Behaviours in Swedish University Students

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle behaviours are usually formed during youth or young adulthood which makes college students a particularly vulnerable group that easily can adopt unhealthy lifestyle behaviour. Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the influence of socio-demographic factors on Swedish university students’ lifestyle behaviours and self-rated health. Method: Data were collected from a convenience sample of 152 students using questionnaires consisting of a socio-demographic section followed by previously well-validated instruments. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics: t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression tests. Findings: The results of this study show that the lifestyle behaviours under study (physical activity, perceived stress and eating behaviours) as well as self-rated health can be predicted to a certain extent by socio-demographic factors such as gender, mother tongue and parents’ educational level. Male university students were shown to be physically more active than female students; the male students were less stressed and rated their overall health, fitness level and mental health higher. Female students were more prone to adopt unhealthy eating behaviours. Discussion: This study addresses gender differences and their influences on lifestyle behaviours; it provides both theoretical explanations for these differences as well as presents some practical implications of the findings. PMID:22980336

  11. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  12. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  13. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  14. Association of social determinants of health with self-rated health among Australian gay and bisexual men living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Koelmeyer, Rachel; English, Dallas R; Smith, Anthony; Grierson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Despite a vast improvement in the survival of people living with HIV (PLHIV) since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), little change in the self-rated health of PLHIV has been observed since the introduction of cART in Australia. Difficulties with attaining employment or achieving financial security have been noted as some of the key challenges still facing PLHIV in the post-cART era. As a result, we investigated the independent association of a number of key social determinants of health with self-rated health among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia. Data from two recent national, cross-sectional surveys of PLHIV (the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys) were used. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association of ethnicity, region of residence, education level, employment status, after-tax income, experience of HIV-related discrimination, level of social support, relationship status and recent sexual activity with reporting good-excellent self-rated health, after adjusting for clinical factors and other social determinants of health. Multiple imputation was used to estimate missing data for variables with >5% missing data. Of the 1713 HIV-positive gay/bisexual men who responded to the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys, information on self-rated health was available for 99.3%. Close to three-quarters of these respondents (72.1%) reported their self-rated health as good or excellent; the remainder (27.9%) reported their self-rated health as poor or fair. In multivariable analysis involving 89.3% of respondents, being employed, reporting recent sexual activity, a greater number of sources of social support and a higher weekly after-tax income were found to be independently associated with reporting good-excellent self-rated health. Despite the inability of this study to detect causal associations, addressing barriers to employment and sexual activity, and mechanisms to increase social support, is likely to have

  15. Types of social capital resources and self-rated health among the Norwegian adult population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social inequalities in health are large in Norway. In part, these inequalities may stem from differences in access to supportive social networks - since occupying disadvantaged positions in affluent societies has been associated with disposing poor network resources. Research has demonstrated that social networks are fundamental resources in the prevention of mental and physical illness. However, to determine potentials for public health action one needs to explore the health impact of different types of network resources and analyze if the association between socioeconomic position and self-rated health is partially explained by social network factors. That is the aim of this paper. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected in 2007, through a postal survey from a gross sample of 8000 Norwegian adults, of which 3,190 (about 40%) responded. The outcome variable was self-rated health. Our main explanatory variables were indicators of socioeconomic positions and social capital indicators that was measured by different indicators that were grouped under 'bonding', 'bridging' and 'linking' social capital. Demographic data were collected for statistical control. Generalized ordered logistic regression analysis was performed. Result Results indicated that those who had someone to talk to when distressed were more likely to rate their health as good compared to those deprived of such person(s) (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.02). Similarly, those who were active members in two or more social organisations (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.22) and those who count a medical doctor among their friends (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.00) report better health. The association between self-rated health and socio-economic background indicators were marginally attenuated when social network indicators were added into the model. Conclusion Among different types of network resources, close and strong friendship-based ties are of importance for people's health in Norway. Networks linking

  16. The association between network social capital and self-rated health: pouring old wine in new bottles?

    PubMed

    Verhaeghe, Pieter-Paul; Pattyn, Elise; Bracke, Piet; Verhaeghe, Mieke; Van De Putte, Bart

    2012-03-01

    This study examines whether there is an association between network social capital and self-rated health after controlling for social support. Moreover, we distinguish between network social capital that emerges from strong ties and weak ties. We used a cross-sectional representative sample of 815 adults from the Belgian population. Social capital is measured with the position generator and perceived social support with the MOS Social Support-scale. Results suggest that network social capital is associated with self-rated health after adjustment for social support. Because different social classes have access to different sets of resources, resources of friends and family from the intermediate and higher service classes are beneficial for self-rated health, whereas resources of friends and family from the working class appear to be rather detrimental for self-rated health. From a health-promoting perspective, these findings indicate that policy makers should deal with the root causes of socioeconomic disadvantages in society.

  17. Global self-rating of oral health as summary tool for oral health evaluation in low-resource settings

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Folake B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Global Self-Rating of Oral Health (GSROH) has numerous benefits, especially in resource-constrained environments with a paucity of dentists thereby potentially limiting administration of oral health surveys and monitoring of dental treatment. The aim of the study was to identify factors that could influence or predict poor self-ratings of oral health. Materials and Methods: The study was descriptive in design. Data were collected using structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, which had items on socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and their GSROH. Oral examination was conducted to identify untreated dental caries, missing teeth, and mobile teeth. Data were analyzed using SPSS, and the P value was set at 0.05. Results: There were 600 participants; 400 were teachers constituting the non-patient population and 200 were dental patients with age ranging from 18 to 83 years. A total of 169 (28.1%) participants rated their oral health as poor, including 104 patients (52.0%) and 65 (16.2%) non-patients (P < 0.001). Having had toothache in the preceding 6 months (62.4% vs. 16.0%, P < 0.001), mobile teeth (46.7% vs. 24.2%, P < 0.001), decayed teeth (49.0% vs. 21.3%, P < 0.001), missing teeth (35.0% vs. 26.1%, P = 0.042), or DMFT score greater than zero (41.1% vs. 20.7%, P < 0.001) was associated with poor GSROH. Presence of mobile teeth [odds ratio (OR) = 2.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29, 4.23; P < 0.001] and carious teeth (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.09, 4.65; P = 0.029) were independent predictors of GSROH. Conclusion: The GSROH was able to identify individuals with or without oral conditions in the studied population, and thus may be used in oral health surveys to assess the oral health status and in monitoring of treatment outcome. PMID:25984461

  18. Explaining the gender difference in self-rated health among university students in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Stock, Christiane

    2016-10-01

    In this study the authors assessed gender differences in the relationships between self-rated health (SRH) and demographic factors, physical health, health service use, infections, a variety of symptoms and health conditions, and wider well-being features. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to 3,271 students at Assiut University, Egypt during 2009-2010. Multiple logistic regression was used (with excellent/very good SRH as dependent variable) to assess the variables that might explain the gender difference in SRH. Females had more symptoms, infectious diseases/illness periods, substantially lower quality of life, and more burdens, although their health awareness and satisfaction with social support were higher than males. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) suggested that females were less likely than males to rate their SRH as excellent/very good [OR 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.68]. Adjusting only for relevant physical health and health service use variables, the OR for excellent/very good SRH for females increased, but nevertheless still remained significantly lower than that of males. With further adjustment for physical health, health service use, and also for wider well-being variables, the gender difference in SRH became no longer statistically significant. Poorer physical health indicators and a lower level of wider well-being features explained the lower SRH among female Egyptian university students. Health promotion and prevention programs should consider these factors in attempting to address gender health disparities.

  19. Benefits Gained, Benefits Lost: Comparing Baby Boomers to Other Generations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    BADLEY, ELIZABETH M; CANIZARES, MAYILEE; PERRUCCIO, ANTHONY V; HOGG-JOHNSON, SHEILAH; GIGNAC, MONIQUE AM

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Context Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). Methods We analyzed Canada’s longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. Findings SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were

  20. Social support and the self-rated health of older people

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yue; Zhang, Chen-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Quan; Li, Zhanzhan; Jiang, Caixiao; Huang, Hui-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The lack of social support in elderly populations incurs real societal costs and can lead to their poor health. The aim of this study is to investigate the self-rated health (SRH) and social support among older people as well as its associated factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 312 urban community-dwelling elderly aged 65 to 90 years in Tainan Taiwan and Fuzhou Fujian Province from March 2012 to October 2012. A Spearson correlation test, independent t test, a Pearson χ2 test, a linear regression analysis, and a multiple-level model were performed to analyze the results. The participants identified children as the most important source of objective and subjective support, followed by spouse and relatives. Tainan's elderly received more daily life assistance and emotional support, showed stronger awareness of the need to seek help, and maintained a higher frequency of social interactions compared with the elderly in Fuzhou. The mean objective support, subjective support, and support utilization scores as well as the overall social support among Tainan's elderly were significantly high compared with the scores among Fuzhou's elderly. Further, Tainan's elderly rated better SRH than Fuzhou's elderly. Correlation analysis showed that social support was significantly correlated with city, age, living conditions, marital status, and SRH. Multiple linear regression analysis, with social support as a dependent variable, retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model: city (4.792, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.068–6.516, P = 0.000), age (−0.805, 95% CI: −1.394 to −0.135, P = 0.013), marital status (−1.260, 95% CI: −1.891 to −0.629, P = 0.000), living conditions (4.069, 95% CI: 3.022–5.116, P = 0.000), and SRH −1.941, 95% CI: −3.194 to −0.688, P = 0.003). The multiple-level model showed that city would impact older people's social support (χ2 = 5.103, P < 0.001). Marital status (−2.133, 95

  1. Outdoor physical activity and self rated health in older adults living in two regions of the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Older adults spend little time outdoors and many are physically inactive. The relationship between outdoor physical activity and self rated health has not been studied in older adults. This paper aimed to assess the relation of location of physical activity to self rated health and physical activity minutes. This was an observational study of ambulatory adults 66 years and older conducted in 2005–2008. Participants (N = 754) completed survey measures of physical activity location and self rated health, and wore an accelerometer to objectively assess physical activity. A mixed model linear regression procedure adjusted for neighborhood clustering effects. Differences in self rated health and physical activity minutes were compared across three physical activity settings (indoor only, outdoor only, both indoor and outdoor). Results Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity were significantly greater in those who were physically active at least once a week outdoors compared with those who were physically active indoors only. Self rated health was significantly related to being physically active but did not vary by location of activity. Conclusions Older adults who were physically active outdoors accumulated significantly more physical activity, but self-rated health was not significantly greater than those being physically active indoors. PMID:22846594

  2. Self-rated health and trust in low-income Mexican-origin individuals in Texas.

    PubMed

    Franzini, Luisa

    2008-12-01

    The evidence suggests that trust is an important determinant of health. Trust tends to be lower in low-income and minority individuals, who already suffer from worse health. Therefore, it is particularly important to investigate the predictors of trust in disadvantaged individuals. In this article we use multilevel models to investigate the individual and neighborhood predictors of trust in Mexican-Americans living in low-income neighborhoods (defined as census block groups) in Texas. Detailed survey data on 1754 Mexican-origin respondents provided information on self-rated health and individual characteristics including sociodemographic and sociocultural personal characteristics (frequency of association with people of other races/ethnicities, social support, perceived racism, perceived personal opportunity, and religiosity). Neighborhood heterogeneities and socioeconomic status, computed from census data, were supplemented by community social characteristics (collective efficacy and public disorder) obtained from survey data. Trust was a significant predictor of self-rated health in our sample. This study suggests that Mexican-Americans tend to trust more those with whom there is likely to be a personal acquaintance than other Mexican-Americans. Furthermore, while the results of this study support that people tend to trust more those who are like themselves, for Mexican-Americans, the identification of who is more alike is not based exclusively on racial/ethnic identity, but is a complex process based also on linguistic and socioeconomic similarities. In our sample, linguistic fragmentation, but not racial/ethnic diversity nor neighborhood impoverishment, correlated with trust. Ease of communication seemed to be more important than racial/ethnic homogeneity in encouraging interpersonal trust among Mexican-Americans at the neighborhood level. The findings in this study imply it may be possible to develop neighborhood level interventions, focusing on encouraging

  3. Self-rated Health and Internet Addiction in Iranian Medical Sciences Students; Prevalence, Risk Factors and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling method including stratified and simple random sampling. The Young’s questionnaire of internet addiction and SRH question used for data collection. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression used in data analysis. Results: More than 79.9% of students reported their general health good and very good. The student’s mean score of general health was higher than the average. In addition, the prevalence of internet addiction was 28.7%. An inverse significant correlation observed between SRH and internet addiction score (r=-0.198, p=0.002). Using internet for Entertainment, using private Email and chat rooms were the most important predictors of affecting to internet addiction. Moreover, internet addiction is the most predictors of SRH and increased the odds of bad SRH. Conclusion: The good SRH of medical students was higher than general population but in health faculty’ students were lower than others. Due to the effect of internet addiction on SRH and increasing trend of internet use in medical students, as well as low age of participants, attention to psychological aspects and the job expectancy in future, can effective on increasing the good SRH. PMID:27493592

  4. Gender, socioeconomic status, and self-rated health in a transitional middle-income setting: evidence from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew James; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2011-09-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) correlates strongly with mortality. In developed countries, women generally report worse SRH than males. Few studies have reported on SRH in developing countries. The authors report on SRH in Thailand, a middle-income developing country.The data were derived from a large nationwide cohort of 87 134 adult Open University students (54% female, median age 29 years). The authors included questions on socioeconomic and demographic factors that could influence SRH. The Thai cohort in this study mirrors patterns found in developed countries, with females reporting more frequent "poor" or "very poor" SRH (odds ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval = 1.26-1.44). Cohort males had better SRH than females, but levels were more sensitive to socioeconomic status. Income and education had little influence on SRH for females. Among educated Thai adults, females rate their health to be worse than males, and unlike males, this perception is relatively unaffected by socioeconomic status.

  5. Primary care, income inequality, and self-rated health in the United States: a mixed-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Starfield, B

    2000-01-01

    Using the 1996 Community Tracking Study household survey, the authors examined whether income inequality and primary care, measured at the state level, predict individual morbidity as measured by self-rated health status, while adjusting for potentially confounding individual variables. Their results indicate that distributions of income and primary care within states are significantly associated with individuals' self-rated health; that there is a gradient effect of income inequality on self-rated health; and that individuals living in states with a higher ratio of primary care physician to population are more likely to report good health than those living in states with a lower such ratio. From a policy perspective, improvement in individuals' health is likely to require a multi-pronged approach that addresses individual socioeconomic determinants of health, social and economic policies that affect income distribution, and a strengthening of the primary care aspects of health services.

  6. Self-rated mental health and race/ethnicity in the United States: support for the epidemiological paradox

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates racial/ethnic differences in self-rated mental health for adults in the United States, while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as length of stay in the country. Using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement (NHIS-CCS), binomial logistic regression models are fit to estimate the association between race/ethnicity and poor/fair self-reported mental health among US Adults. The size of the analytical sample was 22,844 persons. Overall prevalence of poor/fair self-rated mental health was 7.72%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (6.93%). Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence (10.38%). After controls for socioeconomic characteristics are incorporated in the models, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.55–0.90]). No difference was found for other minority groups when compared to the reference group in the final model. Contrary to global self-rated health, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. No difference was found for non-Hispanic blacks when they were compared to non-Hispanic whites. Self-rated mental health is therefore one case of a self-rating of health in which evidence supporting the epidemiological paradox is found among adults in the United States. PMID:27688982

  7. Self-rated mental health and race/ethnicity in the United States: support for the epidemiological paradox.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozada, Alexis R

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates racial/ethnic differences in self-rated mental health for adults in the United States, while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as length of stay in the country. Using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement (NHIS-CCS), binomial logistic regression models are fit to estimate the association between race/ethnicity and poor/fair self-reported mental health among US Adults. The size of the analytical sample was 22,844 persons. Overall prevalence of poor/fair self-rated mental health was 7.72%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (6.93%). Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence (10.38%). After controls for socioeconomic characteristics are incorporated in the models, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.55-0.90]). No difference was found for other minority groups when compared to the reference group in the final model. Contrary to global self-rated health, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. No difference was found for non-Hispanic blacks when they were compared to non-Hispanic whites. Self-rated mental health is therefore one case of a self-rating of health in which evidence supporting the epidemiological paradox is found among adults in the United States. PMID:27688982

  8. Understanding Recession and Self-Rated Health with the Partial Proportional Odds Model: An Analysis of 26 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Adam; Foster, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Self-rated health is demonstrated to vary substantially by both personal socio-economic status and national economic conditions. However, studies investigating the combined influence of individual and country level economic indicators across several countries in the context of recent global recession are limited. This paper furthers our knowledge of the effect of recession on health at both the individual and national level. Methods Using the Life in Transition II study, which provides data from 19,759 individuals across 26 European nations, we examine the relationship between self-rated health, personal economic experiences, and macro-economic change. Data analyses include, but are not limited to, the partial proportional odds model which permits the effect of predictors to vary across different levels of our dependent variable. Results Household experiences with recession, especially a loss of staple good consumption, are associated with lower self-rated health. Most individual-level experiences with recession, such as a job loss, have relatively small negative effects on perceived health; the effect of individual or household economic hardship is strongest in high income nations. Our findings also suggest that macroeconomic growth improves self-rated health in low-income nations but has no effect in high-income nations. Individuals with the greatest probability of “good” self-rated health reside in wealthy countries ($23,910 to $50, 870 GNI per capita). Conclusion Both individual and national economic variables are predictive of self-rated health. Personal and household experiences are most consequential for self-rated health in high income nations, while macroeconomic growth is most consequential in low-income nations. PMID:26513660

  9. Self-rated mental health and race/ethnicity in the United States: support for the epidemiological paradox.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozada, Alexis R

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates racial/ethnic differences in self-rated mental health for adults in the United States, while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as length of stay in the country. Using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement (NHIS-CCS), binomial logistic regression models are fit to estimate the association between race/ethnicity and poor/fair self-reported mental health among US Adults. The size of the analytical sample was 22,844 persons. Overall prevalence of poor/fair self-rated mental health was 7.72%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (6.93%). Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence (10.38%). After controls for socioeconomic characteristics are incorporated in the models, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.55-0.90]). No difference was found for other minority groups when compared to the reference group in the final model. Contrary to global self-rated health, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. No difference was found for non-Hispanic blacks when they were compared to non-Hispanic whites. Self-rated mental health is therefore one case of a self-rating of health in which evidence supporting the epidemiological paradox is found among adults in the United States.

  10. Self-rated mental health and race/ethnicity in the United States: support for the epidemiological paradox

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates racial/ethnic differences in self-rated mental health for adults in the United States, while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as length of stay in the country. Using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement (NHIS-CCS), binomial logistic regression models are fit to estimate the association between race/ethnicity and poor/fair self-reported mental health among US Adults. The size of the analytical sample was 22,844 persons. Overall prevalence of poor/fair self-rated mental health was 7.72%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (6.93%). Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence (10.38%). After controls for socioeconomic characteristics are incorporated in the models, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.55–0.90]). No difference was found for other minority groups when compared to the reference group in the final model. Contrary to global self-rated health, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. No difference was found for non-Hispanic blacks when they were compared to non-Hispanic whites. Self-rated mental health is therefore one case of a self-rating of health in which evidence supporting the epidemiological paradox is found among adults in the United States.

  11. Understanding the non-stationary associations between distrust of the health care system, health conditions, and self-rated health in the elderly: A geographically weighted regression approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Matthews, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study are to explore whether health condition is an antecedent extraneous factor for the relationship between health care system distrust and self-rated health among the elderly, and to investigate if the associations among these variables are place-specific. We used logistic geographically weighted regression to analyze data on an elderly sample residents in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. We found that the health conditions of the elderly account for the association between high distrust and poor/fair self-rated health and that the distrust/self-rated health relationship varied spatially. This finding suggests that a place-centered perspective can inform distrust/self-rated health research. PMID:22321903

  12. Self rating of health is associated with stressful life events, social support and residency in East and West Berlin shortly after the fall of the wall

    PubMed Central

    Hillen, T.; Schaub, R.; Hiestermann, A.; Kirschner, W.; Robra, B.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To compare the health status and factors influencing the health of populations that had previously lived under different political systems.
DESIGN—Cross sectional health and social survey using postal interviews. The relation between self reported health and psychosocial factors (stressful life events, social support, education, health promoting life style and health endangering behaviour) was investigated. To determine East-West differences a logistic regression model including interaction terms was fitted.
SETTING—East and West Berlin shortly after reunification 1991.
PARTICIPANTS—Representative sample of 4430 Berlin residents aged 18 years and over (response rate 63%).
RESULTS—Of all respondents, 15.4% rated their health as unsatisfactory. Residents of East Berlin rated their health more frequently as unsatisfactory than residents of West Berlin (Orage adjusted= 1.29, 95%CI 1.08, 1.52), these differences occurred predominantly in the over 60 years age group. Logistic regression showed significant independent effects of stressful life events, social support, education, and health promoting life style on self rated health. The effects of education and health promoting life style were observed to be more pronounced in the western part of Berlin. Old age and female sex showed a stronger association with unsatisfactory health status in the eastern part of Berlin.
CONCLUSIONS—For subjects aged over 60 years there was evidence that living in the former East Berlin had an adverse effect on health compared with West Berlin. The impact of education and a health promoting lifestyle on self rated health seemed to be weaker in a former socialist society compared with that of a Western democracy. This study supports an "additive model" rather than a "buffering model" in explaining the effects of psychosocial factors on health.


Keywords: self rated health; health inequalities; stress; social support PMID:10890868

  13. Self-rated health and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-InterAct study: a case-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wennberg, Patrik; Rolandsson, Olov; van der A, Daphne L; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Feller, Silke; Bergmann, Manuela M; Langenberg, Claudia; Sharp, Stephen J; Forouhi, Nita; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between self-rated health and risk of type 2 diabetes and whether the strength of this association is consistent across five European centres. Design Population-based prospective case-cohort study. Setting Enrolment took place between 1992 and 2000 in five European centres (Bilthoven, Cambridge, Heidelberg, Potsdam and Umeå). Participants Self-rated health was assessed by a baseline questionnaire in 3399 incident type 2 diabetic case participants and a centre-stratified subcohort of 4619 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study which was drawn from a total cohort of 340 234 participants in the EPIC. Primary outcome measure Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to estimate centre-specific HRs and 95% CIs for incident type 2 diabetes controlling for age, sex, centre, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, physical activity and hypertension. The centre-specific HRs were pooled across centres by random effects meta-analysis. Results Low self-rated health was associated with a higher hazard of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age and sex (pooled HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.88). After additional adjustment for health-related variables including BMI, the association was attenuated but remained statistically significant (pooled HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.53). I2 index for heterogeneity across centres was 13.3% (p=0.33). Conclusions Low self-rated health was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The association could be only partly explained by other health-related variables, of which obesity was the strongest. We found no indication of heterogeneity in the association between self-rated health and type 2 diabetes mellitus across the European centres. PMID:23471609

  14. Racial disparities in self-rated health: Trends, explanatory factors, and the changing role of socio-demographics

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Audrey N.; Finch, Brian K.; Lin, Shih-Fan; Hummer, Robert A.; Masters, Ryan K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data from the U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (N = 1,513,097) to describe and explain temporal patterns in black-white health disparities with models that simultaneously consider the unique effects of age, period, and cohort. First, we employ cross-classified random effects age–period–cohort (APC) models to document black-white disparities in self-rated health across temporal dimensions. Second, we use decomposition techniques to shed light on the extent to which socio-economic shifts in cohort composition explain the age and period adjusted racial health disparities across successive birth cohorts. Third, we examine the extent to which exogenous conditions at the time of birth help explain the racial disparities across successive cohorts. Results show that black-white disparities are wider among the pre-1935 cohorts for women, falling thereafter; disparities for men exhibit a similar pattern but exhibit narrowing among cohorts born earlier in the century. Differences in socioeconomic composition consistently contribute to racial health disparities across cohorts; notably, marital status differences by race emerge as an increasingly important explanatory factor in more recent cohorts for women whereas employment differences by race emerge as increasingly salient in more recent cohorts for men. Finally, our cohort characteristics models suggest that cohort economic conditions at the time of birth (percent large family, farm or Southern birth) help explain racial disparities in health for both men and women. PMID:24581075

  15. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Callan, Mitchell J.; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4–6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures. PMID:26441786

  16. Does an immigrant health paradox exist among Asian Americans? Associations of nativity and occupational class with self-rated health and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    John, Dolly A; de Castro, A B; Martin, Diane P; Duran, Bonnie; Takeuchi, David T

    2012-12-01

    A robust socioeconomic gradient in health is well-documented, with higher socioeconomic status (SES) associated with better health across the SES spectrum. However, recent studies of U.S. racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants show complex SES-health patterns (e.g., flat gradients), with individuals of low SES having similar or better health than their richer, U.S.-born and more acculturated counterparts, a so-called "epidemiological paradox" or "immigrant health paradox". To examine whether this exists among Asian Americans, we investigate how nativity and occupational class (white-collar, blue-collar, service, unemployed) are associated with subjective health (self-rated physical health, self-rated mental health) and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders (any mental disorder, anxiety, depression). We analyzed data from 1530 Asian respondents to the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study in the labor force using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models controlling for confounders, subjective social status (SSS), material and psychosocial factors theorized to explain health inequalities. Compared to U.S.-born Asians, immigrants had worse socioeconomic profiles, and controlling for age and gender, increased odds for reporting fair/poor mental health and decreased odds for any DSM-IV mental disorder and anxiety. No strong occupational class-health gradients were found. The foreign-born health-protective effect persisted after controlling for SSS but became nonsignificant after controlling for material and psychosocial factors. Speaking fair/poor English was strongly associated with all outcomes. Material and psychosocial factors were associated with some outcomes--perceived financial need with subjective health, uninsurance with self-rated mental health and depression, social support, discrimination and acculturative stress with all or most DSM-IV outcomes. Our findings caution against using terms like "immigrant health paradox" which oversimplify

  17. Income inequality, area-level poverty, perceived aversion to inequality, and self-rated health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki

    2009-08-01

    In this study we conduct a multilevel analysis to investigate the association between regional income inequality and self-rated health in Japan, based on two nationwide surveys. We confirm that there is a significant association between area-level income inequality and individual-level health assessment. We also find that health assessment tends to be more sensitive to income inequality among lower income individuals, and to degree of area-level poverty, than income inequality for the society as a whole. In addition, we examine how individuals are averse to inequality, based on the observed association between inequality and self-rated health.

  18. Using vignettes to rethink Latino-white disparities in self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Bzostek, Sharon; Sastry, Narayan; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne; Duffy, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often rely on respondents' self-rated health (SRH) to measure social disparities in health, but recent studies suggest that systematically different reporting styles across groups can yield misleading conclusions about disparities in SRH. In this study, we test whether this finding extends to ethnic differences in self-assessments of health in particular domains. We document differences between US-born whites and four Latino subgroups in respondents' assessments of health in six health domains using data from the second wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (N = 1468). We use both conventional methods and an approach that uses vignettes to adjust for differential reporting styles. Our results suggest that despite consistent evidence from the literature that Latinos tend to rate their overall health more poorly than whites, and that Latino immigrants report worse SRH than US-born Latinos, this pattern is not true of self-reports in individual health domains. We find that at the bivariate level, US-born whites (and often US-born Mexicans) have significantly more pessimistic reporting styles than Latino immigrants. After adding controls, we find evidence of significantly different reporting styles for only one domain: US-born Mexicans and whites consistently interpret head pain more severely than the other Latino subgroups. Finally, we find that both before and after adjusting for differences in rating styles across groups, non-Mexican Latino immigrants report better social and physical functioning and less pain than other groups. Our findings underscore the advantages of domain-specific ratings when evaluating ethnic differences in self-assessments of health. We encourage researchers studying social disparities in health to consider respondents' self-assessments in a variety of domains, and to also investigate (when possible) potential biases in their findings due to different reporting styles. The anchoring vignettes approach we use is

  19. Using vignettes to rethink Latino-white disparities in self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Bzostek, Sharon; Sastry, Narayan; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne; Duffy, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often rely on respondents' self-rated health (SRH) to measure social disparities in health, but recent studies suggest that systematically different reporting styles across groups can yield misleading conclusions about disparities in SRH. In this study, we test whether this finding extends to ethnic differences in self-assessments of health in particular domains. We document differences between US-born whites and four Latino subgroups in respondents' assessments of health in six health domains using data from the second wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (N = 1468). We use both conventional methods and an approach that uses vignettes to adjust for differential reporting styles. Our results suggest that despite consistent evidence from the literature that Latinos tend to rate their overall health more poorly than whites, and that Latino immigrants report worse SRH than US-born Latinos, this pattern is not true of self-reports in individual health domains. We find that at the bivariate level, US-born whites (and often US-born Mexicans) have significantly more pessimistic reporting styles than Latino immigrants. After adding controls, we find evidence of significantly different reporting styles for only one domain: US-born Mexicans and whites consistently interpret head pain more severely than the other Latino subgroups. Finally, we find that both before and after adjusting for differences in rating styles across groups, non-Mexican Latino immigrants report better social and physical functioning and less pain than other groups. Our findings underscore the advantages of domain-specific ratings when evaluating ethnic differences in self-assessments of health. We encourage researchers studying social disparities in health to consider respondents' self-assessments in a variety of domains, and to also investigate (when possible) potential biases in their findings due to different reporting styles. The anchoring vignettes approach we use is

  20. Long-term effects of wealth on mortality and self-rated health status.

    PubMed

    Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Jay S; Rose, Kathryn M; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Thomas, James C

    2011-01-15

    Epidemiologic studies seldom include wealth as a component of socioeconomic status. The authors investigated the associations between wealth and 2 broad outcome measures: mortality and self-rated general health status. Data from the longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics, collected in a US population between 1984 and 2005, were used to fit marginal structural models and to estimate relative and absolute measures of effect. Wealth was specified as a 6-category variable: those with ≤0 wealth and quintiles of positive wealth. There were a 16%-44% higher risk and 6-18 excess cases of poor/fair health (per 1,000 persons) among the less wealthy relative to the wealthiest quintile. Less wealthy men, women, and whites had higher risk of poor/fair health relative to their wealthy counterparts. The overall wealth-mortality association revealed a 62% increased risk and 4 excess deaths (per 1,000 persons) among the least wealthy. Less wealthy women had between a 24% and a 90% higher risk of death, and the least wealthy men had 6 excess deaths compared with the wealthiest quintile. Overall, there was a strong inverse association between wealth and poor health status and between wealth and mortality.

  1. Associations of a Short Sleep Duration, Insufficient Sleep, and Insomnia with Self-Rated Health among Nurses.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Griep, Rosane Härter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that sleep duration and poor sleep are associated with mortality, as well as with a wide range of negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined the association between sleep and self-rated health, particularly through the combination of sleep complaints. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health is associated with sleep complaints, considering the combination of sleep duration, insomnia, and sleep sufficiency. This cross-sectional study was performed in the 18 largest public hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 2518 female nurses answered a self-filled multidimensional questionnaire. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated the chance of poor self-rated health in the presence of different combinations of sleep duration and quality. Compared with women who reported adequate sleep duration with no sleep quality complaints (reference group), the odds ratios (95% CI) for poor self-rated health were 1.79 (1.27-2.24) for those who reported only insufficient sleep, 1.85 (0.94-3.66) for only a short sleep duration, and 3.12 (1.94-5.01) for only insomnia. Compared with those who expressed all three complaints (short sleep duration, insomnia, and insufficient sleep), the odds ratio for poor self-rated health was 4.49 (3.25-6.22). Differences in the magnitude of the associations were observed, depending on the combination of sleep complaints. Because self-rated health is a consistent predictor of morbidity, these results reinforce the increasing awareness of the role of sleep in health and disease. Our findings contribute to the recognition of sleep as a public health matter that deserves to be better understood and addressed by policymakers. PMID:25961874

  2. Associations of a Short Sleep Duration, Insufficient Sleep, and Insomnia with Self-Rated Health among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Griep, Rosane Härter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that sleep duration and poor sleep are associated with mortality, as well as with a wide range of negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined the association between sleep and self-rated health, particularly through the combination of sleep complaints. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health is associated with sleep complaints, considering the combination of sleep duration, insomnia, and sleep sufficiency. This cross-sectional study was performed in the 18 largest public hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 2518 female nurses answered a self-filled multidimensional questionnaire. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated the chance of poor self-rated health in the presence of different combinations of sleep duration and quality. Compared with women who reported adequate sleep duration with no sleep quality complaints (reference group), the odds ratios (95% CI) for poor self-rated health were 1.79 (1.27–2.24) for those who reported only insufficient sleep, 1.85 (0.94–3.66) for only a short sleep duration, and 3.12 (1.94–5.01) for only insomnia. Compared with those who expressed all three complaints (short sleep duration, insomnia, and insufficient sleep), the odds ratio for poor self-rated health was 4.49 (3.25–6.22). Differences in the magnitude of the associations were observed, depending on the combination of sleep complaints. Because self-rated health is a consistent predictor of morbidity, these results reinforce the increasing awareness of the role of sleep in health and disease. Our findings contribute to the recognition of sleep as a public health matter that deserves to be better understood and addressed by policymakers. PMID:25961874

  3. God-Mediated Control and Change in Self-Rated Health.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if feelings of God-mediated control are associated with change in self-rated health over time. In the process, an effort was made to see if a sense of meaning in life and optimism mediated the relationship between God-mediated control and change in health. The following hypothesized relationships were contained in the conceptual model that was developed to evaluate these issues: (1) people who go to church more often tend to have stronger God-mediated control beliefs than individuals who do not attend worship services as often; (2) people with a strong sense of God-mediated control are more likely to find a sense of meaning in life and be more optimistic than individuals who do not have a strong sense of God-mediated control; (3) people who are optimistic and who have a strong sense of meaning in life will rate their health more favorably over time than individuals who are not optimistic, as well as individuals who have not found a sense of meaning in life. Data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older adults provided support for each of these hypotheses.

  4. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Myung

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH) for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural). The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month) were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea. PMID:26569279

  5. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Myung

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH) for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural). The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month) were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea.

  6. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Myung

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH) for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural). The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month) were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea. PMID:26569279

  7. Income inequality, mortality, and self rated health: meta-analysis of multilevel studies

    PubMed Central

    Sembajwe, Grace; Kawachi, Ichiro; van Dam, Rob M; Subramanian, S V; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide quantitative evaluations on the association between income inequality and health. Design Random effects meta-analyses, calculating the overall relative risk for subsequent mortality among prospective cohort studies and the overall odds ratio for poor self rated health among cross sectional studies. Data sources PubMed, the ISI Web of Science, and the National Bureau for Economic Research database. Review methods Peer reviewed papers with multilevel data. Results The meta-analysis included 59 509 857 subjects in nine cohort studies and 1 280 211 subjects in 19 cross sectional studies. The overall cohort relative risk and cross sectional odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) per 0.05 unit increase in Gini coefficient, a measure of income inequality, was 1.08 (1.06 to 1.10) and 1.04 (1.02 to 1.06), respectively. Meta-regressions showed stronger associations between income inequality and the health outcomes among studies with higher Gini (≥0.3), conducted with data after 1990, with longer duration of follow-up (>7 years), and incorporating time lags between income inequality and outcomes. By contrast, analyses accounting for unmeasured regional characteristics showed a weaker association between income inequality and health. Conclusions The results suggest a modest adverse effect of income inequality on health, although the population impact might be larger if the association is truly causal. The results also support the threshold effect hypothesis, which posits the existence of a threshold of income inequality beyond which adverse impacts on health begin to emerge. The findings need to be interpreted with caution given the heterogeneity between studies, as well as the attenuation of the risk estimates in analyses that attempted to control for the unmeasured characteristics of areas with high levels of income inequality. PMID:19903981

  8. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Eleonore M.; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. Methods: We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50–1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Results: Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. Conclusions: In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations. PMID:26569282

  9. Examining the Pathways between Gratitude and Self-Rated Physical Health across Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Patrick L.; Allemand, Mathias; Roberts, Brent W.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether dispositional gratitude predicts physical health among adults, and if so, whether this relationship occurs because grateful individuals lead healthier lives, either psychologically or physically. Specifically, we examined whether psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns mediated the link between gratitude and self-reported physical health, as well as if these mediational pathways are moderated by age, in a broad sample of Swiss adults (N = 962, Mage = 52 years, age range: 19 to 84). Dispositional gratitude correlated positively with self-reported physical health, and this link was mediated by psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns. However, the indirect effects for psychological health and healthy activities were stronger for older than younger adults. In other words, the mechanisms explaining why gratitude predicts health appear to differ across adulthood. PMID:23139438

  10. Self-rated health and its relationship to functional status and well-being in a group of elderly Guatemalan subjects.

    PubMed

    Herman, D R; Solomons, N W; Mendoza, I; Qureshi, A K

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the association of self-rated health with physical function and emotional well-being, while controlling for differences in sex, age and anthropometry. Subjects were participants in a multicentre study originated by the International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS). A total of 151 elderly Guatemalan subjects were examined using a questionnaire which included information on self-rated health, activities of daily living, well-being, and a common battery of anthropometric variables. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) obtained with polytomous logistic regression showed that subjects with the highest score on the well-being index compared with those with the lowest were 1.67 times more likely (P-value <0.001, confidence interval (C.I.) = 1.31-2.14) to rate themselves in 'good' health versus 'fair' and 'poor' health. Subjects with the highest score versus those with the lowest on the mobility index were 1.15 times more likely (P-value <0.05, (C.I.) = 1.00-1.32) to rate themselves in 'good' health versus the other health ratings. These are the first results to examine the relationship of self-rated health to physical function and emotional well-being of elderly, free-living Guatemalans.

  11. [Associations between socioeconomic status and self-rated health in northeast German rural communities in 1973, 1994, and 2004/2008].

    PubMed

    Röding, D; Beck, D; Elkeles, T

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports on selected results from the study "Health and Lifestyle in Rural Northeast Germany". A special characteristic of this study is the regional focus on peripheral rural communities and the trend study design. It was analyzed whether, and to what extent, associations exist between socioeconomic status and self-rated health in this regional context and over time. Thus, regression analyses were conducted using equivalent income, level of school education, and age as independent variables and self-rated health as the dependent variable. Analyses are based on paper-pencil surveys of the adult residents of 14 rural communities chosen at random in northeast Germany, performed in 1973, 1994, and 2004-2008. In all survey waves, a lower level of school education was associated with poor self-rated health. By contrast, associations between income and health were less consistent and constant over time. The associations between income and health are discussed as being specific to East Germany and as a consequence of social transformation in the context of reunification.

  12. Analysis of Socio-demographics, Self-rated Health, Social Capital, and Happiness in a Medium-Sized Healthy City, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Heui Sug; Moon, Ji Young; Kim, Bong Gi; Nam, Eun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background This study explores the relationships between social capital, self-rated health, and happiness and suggests ways to improve the happiness level of a community. Methods The survey was conducted with 445 people using stratified random sampling in a medium-sized city in Korea. Collected information included socio-demographic characteristics, social capital, self-rated health, and happiness. Results Among the demographic characteristics, age had a statistically significant association with happiness level. People in their 40s (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13–0.88) and 50s (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57) were less happy than people of other ages. Married people (OR = 4.58, CI = 1.99–10.53) were more likely to have a high happiness level compared to unmarried people. Cognitive social capital (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.19–1.51) and self-rated health (OR = 2.22, CI = 1.59–3.09) were positively associated with happiness. Conclusion The results suggest that social capital and level of health are determinants of subjective happiness. Public policies and programs for improving social capital are needed to support happiness among community residents. PMID:26770893

  13. The Relationship between Rural Status, Individual Characteristics, and Self-Rated Health in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Traci N.; Lopez, Russell P.; Cozier, Yvette C.; White, Laura F.; McClean, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine rural status and social factors as predictors of self-rated health in community-dwelling adults in the United States. Methods: This study uses multinomial logistic and cumulative logistic models to evaluate the associations of interest in the 2006 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a cross-sectional survey of…

  14. Impact of Literacy Influences and Perceived Reading Ability on Self-Rated Health of Public Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of literacy influences and perceived reading ability on the self-rated health (SRH) of 244 middle school students. Five literacy influences and reading ability independent variables resulted in moderate to substantial test-retest reliability [Kappas 46.6 to 63.8] over a two-week period. SRH served as the…

  15. Positive self-rated health in the elderly: a population-based study in the South of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Confortin, Susana Cararo; Giehl, Maruí Weber Corseuil; Antes, Danielle Ledur; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to identify factors associated with positive self-rated health in the elderly in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, in the South of Brazil. This population-based cross-sectional study evaluated 1,705 elderly. Self-rated health was classified as positive (very good or good) or negative (fair, poor, and very poor). Crude and adjusted Poisson regression was used to identify associated factors. Prevalence of positive self-rated health was 51.2%, associated with male gender (PR = 1.13), more than 5 years of schooling, moderate (PR = 1.33) or high alcohol intake (PR = 1.37), leisure-time activity (PR = 1.20), Internet use (PR = 1.21), fewer diseases, mild/moderate dependence (PR = 2.20) or no dependence (PR = 2.67), no falls (PR = 1.19), and non-use of polypharmacy (PR = 1.27). Several modifiable factors were identified that can affect positive self-rated health in the elderly and contribute to the development of strategies to improve their quality of life.

  16. The relationship between rural status, individual characteristics, and self-rated health in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Bethea, Traci N.; Lopez, Russell P.; Cozier, Yvette C.; White, Laura F.; McClean, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine rural status and social factors as predictors of self-rated health in community-dwelling adults in the United States. Methods This study uses multinomial logistic and cumulative logistic models to evaluate the associations of interest in the 2006 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a cross-sectional survey of 347,790 non-institutionalized adults. Findings Self-rated health was poorer among rural residents, compared to urban residents (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.54, 1.90). However, underlying risk factors such as obesity, low income, and low educational attainment were found to vary by rural status and account for the observed increased risk (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.12). There was little evidence of effect modification by rural status, though the association between obesity and self-rated health was stronger among urban residents (OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 2.38, 2.64) than among rural residents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 2.03, 2.34). Conclusions Our findings suggest that differences in self-rated health by rural status were attributable to differential distributions of participant characteristics and not due to differential effects of those characteristics. PMID:23083079

  17. Are family, neighbourhood and school social capital associated with higher self-rated health among Croatian high school students? A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Dario; Suzuki, Etsuji; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the associations between self-rated health and social capital among Croatian high school students. Design A cross-sectional survey among high school students was carried out in the 2013–2014 school year. Setting High schools in Croatia. Participants Subjects were 3427 high school students (1688 males and 1739 females), aged 17–18 years. Main outcome measure Self-rated health was assessed by the single item: “How do you perceive your health?”. Possible responses were arranged along a five-item Likert-type scale: 1 very poor, 2 poor, 3 fair, 4 good, 5 excellent. The outcome was binarised as ‘good health’ (excellent, good or fair) versus ‘poor health’ (poor or very poor). Methods We calculated ORs and 95% CIs for good self-rated health associated with family, neighbourhood and school social capital, while adjusting for gender, self-perceived socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity and body mass index. We used generalised estimating equations using an exchangeable correlation matrix with robust SEs. Results Good self-rated health was significantly associated with higher family social capital (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.55 to 3.80), higher neighbourhood trust (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.48 to 2.76) and higher norms of reciprocity at school (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.84). When all of the social capital variables were entered simultaneously, good self-rated health remained significantly associated with higher family social capital (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.19 to 3.30), neighbourhood trust (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.51) and reciprocity at school (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.73). Conclusions Higher levels of social capital were independently associated with higher self-rated health among youth. Intervention and policies that leverage community social capital might serve as an avenue for health promotion in youth. PMID:26056122

  18. Compared to whom? Subjective social status, self-rated health, and referent group sensitivity in a diverse U.S. sample

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, S. V.; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Weber, Deanne; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Emerging research has revealed that subjective social status (SSS), or how people perceive their position in the social hierarchy, is significantly associated with multiple health outcomes. Yet few studies have examined how this association is affected by the person or group to whom respondents are comparing themselves. While previous studies have used distal referent groups when assessing SSS, scholars have suggested that individuals may prefer to make comparisons to those who share similar characteristics to themselves. Overall, there has been little empirical analysis assessing the health impact of comparing oneself to one referent group over another. Using a diverse, national U.S. sample (n=3,644), this study explores whether the relationship between SSS and self-rated health is sensitive to the referent used for social comparison. Data are from respondents who completed the Styles mail surveys and who have assessed their SSS against four referents: others in American society, others of the same race or ethnicity, neighbors, and parents at the same age. Self-rated health was the dependent variable, while we controlled for household income, education, home ownership, race/ethnicity, and other covariates. In logistic regression models, SSS using each of the four referents was significantly associated with self-rated health, but the model using the referent of others in American society had the strongest association with self-rated health and was the most parsimonious. Findings validate previous studies which typically have used a more distal referent such as others in American society in exploring the SSS-health relationship. However, future work should explore whether this referent is salient to diverse population groups when making social comparisons. Researchers may also want to consider using SSS as an additional status measure since it may capture more subtle differences in the status hierarchy than traditional economic measures. PMID:20381225

  19. Two Mechanisms: The Role of Social Capital and Industrial Pollution Exposure in Explaining Racial Disparities in Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Ard, Kerry; Colen, Cynthia; Becerra, Marisol; Velez, Thelma

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%. Our other indicator of cognitive social capital, cognitive linking as represented by engagement in politics, decreases the gap in health between Hispanics and Whites by 32%, but has little impact on African Americans. We also assessed whether the gap in health was explained by respondents’ estimated exposure to toxicity-weighted air pollutants from large industrial facilities over the previous year. Our results show that accounting for exposure to these toxins has no effect on the racial gap in self-rated health in these data. This paper contributes to the neighborhood effects literature by examining the impact that estimated annual industrial air pollution, and multiple measures of social capital, have on explaining the racial gap in health in a sample of individuals nested within communities across the United States. PMID:27775582

  20. Neighborhood racial composition and trajectories of child self-rated health: an application of longitudinal propensity scores.

    PubMed

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Humphrey, Jamie L

    2014-11-01

    Children function within multiple socio-environmental contexts including family, school, and neighborhood. The role each of these contexts play in determining well-being is dynamic and changes throughout early-middle childhood. Recent literature on neighborhood context and health suggests that the life-course processes involved in building trajectories of health are not adequately captured in cross-sectional analysis, which has been the empirical focus of much of the research in this area. In this study we use a nationally representative longitudinal sample of approximately 21,400 United States school children derived from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) survey to examine the impact of longitudinal measures of neighborhood racial composition on child self-rated health between kindergarten and 8th grade. We employ two-level multilevel longitudinal logistic regression models with time-varying propensity scores to examine variation in the initial status and trajectories of child self-rated health between kindergarten and 8th grade. Since the ECLS-K tracked child mobility over time, we are able to model the impact of changes in neighborhood racial composition. We find significant differences in initial poor self-rated health by child race, household socioeconomic status and parental marital status but no evidence of a change in trajectory of health over time. Using time-varying propensity scores, we find no effect of neighborhood racial composition on initial health status or health status trajectories.

  1. Self-rated health in multimorbid older general practice patients: a cross-sectional study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With increasing life expectancy the number of people affected by multimorbidity rises. Knowledge of factors associated with health-related quality of life in multimorbid people is scarce. We aimed to identify the factors that are associated with self-rated health (SRH) in aged multimorbid primary care patients. Methods Cross-sectional study with 3,189 multimorbid primary care patients aged from 65 to 85 years recruited in 158 general practices in 8 study centers in Germany. Information about morbidity, risk factors, resources, functional status and socio-economic data were collected in face-to-face interviews. Factors associated with SRH were identified by multivariable regression analyses. Results Depression, somatization, pain, limitations of instrumental activities (iADL), age, distress and Body Mass Index (BMI) were inversely related with SRH. Higher levels of physical activity, income and self-efficacy expectation had a positive association with SRH. The only chronic diseases remaining in the final model were Parkinson’s disease and neuropathies. The final model accounted for 35% variance of SRH. Separate analyses for men and women detected some similarities; however, gender specific variation existed for several factors. Conclusion In multimorbid patients symptoms and consequences of diseases such as pain and activity limitations, as well as depression, seem to be far stronger associated with SRH than the diseases themselves. High income and self-efficacy expectation are independently associated with better SRH and high BMI and age with low SRH. Trial registration MultiCare Cohort study registration:ISRCTN89818205. PMID:24387712

  2. An exploratory multilevel analysis of income, income inequality and self-rated health of the elderly in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhixin; Wang, Wenfei Winnie; Jones, Kelvyn; Li, Yaqing

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development and growing economic inequality, such that economic disparities between rural and urban areas, as well as coastal and interior areas have deepened. Since the late 1990s China has also experienced an ageing population which has attracted attention to the wellbeing of the rapidly growing number of elderly. This research aims to characterise province differences in health and to explore the effects of individual income and economic disparity in the form of income inequality on health outcomes of the elderly. The study is based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data collected in 2008 for 23 provinces. Multilevel logistic models are employed to investigate the relationship between income, income inequality and self-rated health for the elderly using both individual and province-level variables. Results are presented as relative odds ratios, and for province differentials as Median Odds Ratios. The analysis is deliberately exploratory so as to find evidence of income effects if they exist and particular attention is placed on how province-level inequality (contemporaneous and lagged) may moderate individual relationships. The results show that the health of the elderly is not only affected by individual income (the odds of poor health are 3 times greater for the elderly with the lowest income compared to those at the upper quartile) but also by a small main effect for province-level income inequality (odds ratio of 1.019). There are significant cross-level interactions such that where inequality is high there are greater differences between those with and without formal education, and between men and women with the latter experiencing poorer health. PMID:23063218

  3. An exploratory multilevel analysis of income, income inequality and self-rated health of the elderly in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixin; Wang, Wenfei Winnie; Jones, Kelvyn; Li, Yaqing

    2012-12-01

    In the last three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development and growing economic inequality, such that economic disparities between rural and urban areas, as well as coastal and interior areas have deepened. Since the late 1990s China has also experienced an ageing population which has attracted attention to the wellbeing of the rapidly growing number of elderly. This research aims to characterise province differences in health and to explore the effects of individual income and economic disparity in the form of income inequality on health outcomes of the elderly. The study is based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data collected in 2008 for 23 provinces. Multilevel logistic models are employed to investigate the relationship between income, income inequality and self-rated health for the elderly using both individual and province-level variables. Results are presented as relative odds ratios, and for province differentials as Median Odds Ratios. The analysis is deliberately exploratory so as to find evidence of income effects if they exist and particular attention is placed on how province-level inequality (contemporaneous and lagged) may moderate individual relationships. The results show that the health of the elderly is not only affected by individual income (the odds of poor health are 3 times greater for the elderly with the lowest income compared to those at the upper quartile) but also by a small main effect for province-level income inequality (odds ratio of 1.019). There are significant cross-level interactions such that where inequality is high there are greater differences between those with and without formal education, and between men and women with the latter experiencing poorer health.

  4. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  5. Gender, socioeconomic status, and self-rated health in a transitional middle-income setting: evidence from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew James; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2011-09-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) correlates strongly with mortality. In developed countries, women generally report worse SRH than males. Few studies have reported on SRH in developing countries. The authors report on SRH in Thailand, a middle-income developing country.The data were derived from a large nationwide cohort of 87 134 adult Open University students (54% female, median age 29 years). The authors included questions on socioeconomic and demographic factors that could influence SRH. The Thai cohort in this study mirrors patterns found in developed countries, with females reporting more frequent "poor" or "very poor" SRH (odds ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval = 1.26-1.44). Cohort males had better SRH than females, but levels were more sensitive to socioeconomic status. Income and education had little influence on SRH for females. Among educated Thai adults, females rate their health to be worse than males, and unlike males, this perception is relatively unaffected by socioeconomic status. PMID:20460290

  6. Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Self-Rated Health in a Transitional Middle-Income Setting: Evidence From Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew James; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian C.

    2011-01-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) correlates strongly with mortality. In developed countries, women generally report worse SRH than males. Few studies have reported on SRH in developing countries. The authors report on SRH in Thailand, a middle-income developing country. The data were derived from a large nationwide cohort of 87 134 adult Open University students (54% female, median age 29 years). The authors included questions on socioeconomic and demographic factors that could influence SRH. The Thai cohort in this study mirrors patterns found in developed countries, with females reporting more frequent “poor” or “very poor” SRH (odds ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval = 1.26-1.44). Cohort males had better SRH than females, but levels were more sensitive to socioeconomic status. Income and education had little influence on SRH for females. Among educated Thai adults, females rate their health to be worse than males, and unlike males, this perception is relatively unaffected by socioeconomic status. PMID:20460290

  7. Self-rated health among university students in relation to sense of coherence and other personality traits.

    PubMed

    von Bothmer, Margareta I K; Fridlund, Bengt

    2003-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine students' self-rated health in relation to sense of coherence and other personality traits. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used with questionnaires as the means of data collection. The study population comprised a randomized stratified sample of students from a small university in southern Sweden. Ethical approval was obtained from the vice chancellor, and the issues of informed consent, confidentiality, privacy and self-determination were respected. Two instruments were used for data collection; the 29-item Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, and an instrument created for this study, named Personality and Health Instrument, containing 52 questions. Self-rated health was estimated by inverse number of health complaints. A factor analysis identified seven factors related to personality traits; the three most important were hardiness, positive affect/optimism and Type A personality. The personality trait variables were tested for correlation with each other as well as with self-rated health. The mean score for SOC was similar for female and male students, but a positive association between SOC and self-rated health was found only among women. Optimism was associated with less health complaints among female students. Type A personality was associated with poorer health both among women and men. The personality traits SOC, positive affect/optimism, hardiness and alienation showed high internal correlations. The SOC scale is discussed in relation to gender specificity and in relation to methodological and conceptual confounding. Further research is needed to explore the relation between SOC, optimism, hardiness, hostility and health. The significance of the study is that it raises questions about the validity and specificity of the SOC instrument and provides ideas for future research to develop the sense of coherence concept and instrument.

  8. Inequalities in self-rated health among 45+ year-olds in Almaty, Kazakhstan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) has been widely studied to assess health inequalities in both developed and developing countries. However, no studies have been performed in Central Asia. The aim of the study was to assess gender-, ethnic-, and social inequalities in SRH in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Methods Altogether, 1500 randomly selected adults aged 45 years or older were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study and 1199 agreed (response rate 80%). SRH was classified as poor, satisfactory, good and excellent. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to study associations between SRH and socio-demographic characteristics. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for poor vs. good and for satisfactory vs. good health were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Altogether, poor, satisfactory, good and excellent health was reported by 11.8%, 53.7%, 31.0% and 3.2% of the responders, respectively. Clear gradients in SRH were observed by age, education and self-reported material deprivation in both crude and adjusted analyses. Women were more likely to report poor (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-3.1) or satisfactory (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1) than good health. Ethnic Russians and unmarried participants had greater odds for poor vs. good health (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5-3.7 and OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 2.7-6.1, respectively) and for satisfactory vs. good health (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9 and OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5, respectively) in crude analysis, but the estimates were reduced to non-significant levels after adjustment. Unemployed and pensioners were less likely to report good health than white-collar workers while no difference in SRH was observed between white- and blue-collar workers. Conclusion Considerable levels of inequalities in SRH by age, gender, education and particularly self-reported material deprivation, but not by ethnicity or marital status were found in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Further research is warranted to identify the

  9. Valued Life Activity Disability Played a Significant Role in Self-Rated Health among Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia; Morris, Anne; Gregorich, Steve; Yazdany, Jinoos; Eisner, Mark; Yelin, Edward; Blanc, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objective Because self-rated health (SRH) is strongly associated with health outcomes, it is important to identify factors that individuals take into account when they assess their health. We examined the role of valued life activities (VLAs), the wide range of activities deemed to be important to individuals, in SRH assessments. Study Design and Setting Data were from 3 cohort studies of individuals with different chronic conditions – rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Each cohort’s data were collected through structured telephone interviews. Logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with ratings of fair/poor SRH. All analyses included sociodemographic characteristics, general and disease-specific health-related factors, and general measures of physical functioning. Results Substantial portions of each group rated their health as fair/poor (RA 37%, SLE 47%, COPD 40%). In each group, VLA disability was strongly associated with fair/poor health (RA: OR=4.44 [1.86,10.62]; SLE: OR=3.60 [2.10,6.16]; COPD: OR=2.76 [1.30,5.85], even after accounting for covariates. Conclusion VLA disability appears to play a substantial role in individual perceptions of health, over and above other measures of health status, disease symptoms, and general physical functioning. PMID:18722089

  10. Employment status and the prevalence of poor self-rated health. Findings from UK individual-level repeated cross-sectional data from 1978 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Popham, Frank; Gray, Linsay; Bambra, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess, using individual level data, how the proportion of people in different employment statuses may have played a role in the prevalence of poor self-rated health from 1978 to 2004 as there have been major changes in employment patterns in advanced market democracies and employment is an important correlate of health. Design Individual-level analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys. Setting UK. Participants 125 125 men and 139 535 women of working age (25–59). Outcome measure Self-rated general health. Results Compared to 1978 there was evidence of higher levels of poor health in the subsequent years. For example, in 2004, the prevalence of poor health was 2.8 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.9) and 1.3 (0.1 to 2.5) percentage points higher than 1978 for men and women, respectively, after adjusting for age. After additional adjustment for socio-economic characteristics, annual differences compared to 1978 increased (5.4 (4.2 to 6.5) and 4.4 (3.2 to 5.6) for men and women in 2004). Further adjustment for employment status, however, attenuated the annual differences in poor health (0.7 (−0.3 to 1.7) for men and 1.5 (0.3 to 2.6) for women in 2004). Conclusions These results suggest that the proportion of people in different employment statuses, particularly the proportion in sickness- or disability-related economic inactivity, could play an important role in the prevalence of poor self-rated health in the UK. Whether decreasing economic inactivity would enhance population health is an open question that needs further investigation. Trial registration This observational study was not registered. PMID:23212993

  11. Self-rated health in the last 12 years of life compared to matched surviving controls: the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Stenholm, Sari; Pentti, Jaana; Kawachi, Ichiro; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a valid measure of health status and associated with mortality. Based on individual-level biannual repeat data on SRH we sought to characterize the natural history of poor SRH during the 12 years prior to death in men and women in different age groups. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Health and Retirement Study participants who died between 1998 and 2010 and had at least two SRH measurements in the 12 years prior to death. We used a nested case-control design to compare SRH trajectories of deceased men and women aged 30-64, 65-79 and 80 years versus surviving participants. The cases comprised 3,350 deceased participants who were matched to surviving controls (n = 8,127). SRH was dichotomized into good vs. poor health. Men and women dying at age 65-79 and ≥ 80 years had 1.5 to 3 times higher prevalence of poor SRH already 11-12 years prior to death compared to surviving controls. The risk estimates remained statistically significant even after adjusting for life-style related risk factors and diagnosed diseases. Prevalence of poor SRH before death was lowest among those aged ≥ 80 years and highest in 30-64 year-olds. In conclusion, men and women who subsequently die perceive their health worse already 11-12 years prior to death compared to their surviving controls.

  12. Social capital, income inequality and self-rated health in Chita peninsula, Japan: a multilevel analysis of older people in 25 communities.

    PubMed

    Ichida, Yukinobu; Kondo, Katsunori; Hirai, Hiroshi; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Yoshikawa, Goshu; Murata, Chiyoe

    2009-08-01

    The effect of social capital on one's health has drawn researchers' attention. In East-Asian countries, however, such an effect has been less studied than in Western countries. Mindful of this background, this study aimed to investigate the linkage between social capital and health at the level of a small area in Japan, and also to examine whether social capital mediates the relation between income inequality and health. The main survey targeted 34,374 people aged 65 years and older from 25 communities who were without the need of nursing care. We collected 17,269 questionnaires (response rate 50.2%), from which we used 15,225 (response rate 44.3%) which had complete information on self-rated health, age, and sex. The main outcome measure was self-rated health status (1=fair/poor; 0=very good/good). The individual-level variables of age, sex, equivalised income, marital status, educational attainment, and type of housing were included to control for compositional effects. Average income, social capital and the Gini coefficient were used as community-level variables. The variable of social capital was calculated as the percentage of individuals in the community samples who reported "yes" or "it depends" to the question "Generally speaking, would you say that most people can be trusted?" When the individual-level variables and the average equivalised income at the community level were controlled for, we found that high social capital and a decreased Gini coefficient were significantly associated with good self-rated health using a multilevel model. The association between social capital and self-rated health was insignificant after adjustment for the Gini coefficient. However, in other series of models, we also detected a statistically significant linkage between the increased Gini coefficient and negative responses to the question of individual-level trust using multilevel models. This suggests that people who live in conditions of high-income inequality tend to

  13. Active Aging: Exploration into Self-Ratings of "Being Active," Out-of-Home Physical Activity, and Participation among Older Australian Adults Living in Four Different Settings.

    PubMed

    Aird, Rosemary L; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether self-ratings of "being active" among older people living in four different settings (major city high and lower density suburbs, a regional city, and a rural area) were associated with out-of-home participation and outdoor physical activity. A mixed-methods approach (survey, travel diary, and GPS tracking over a one-week period) was used to gather data from 48 individuals aged over 55 years. Self-ratings of "being active" were found to be positively correlated with the number of days older people spent time away from home but unrelated to time traveled by active means (walking and biking). No significant differences in active travel were found between the four study locations, despite differences in their respective built environments. The findings suggest that additional strategies to the creation of "age-friendly" environments are needed if older people are to increase their levels of outdoor physical activity. "Active aging" promotion campaigns may need to explicitly identify the benefits of walking outdoors to ambulatory older people as a means of maintaining their overall health, functional ability, and participation within society in the long-term and also encourage the development of community-based programs in order to facilitate regular walking for this group. PMID:26346381

  14. The role of personality traits in self-rated oral health and preferences for different types of flawed smiles.

    PubMed

    Montero, J; Gómez Polo, C; Rosel, E; Barrios, R; Albaladejo, A; López-Valverde, A

    2016-01-01

    Symmetric, aligned and luminous smiles are usually classified as 'beautiful' and aesthetic. However, smile perception is not strictly governed by standardised rules. Personal traits may influence the perception of non-ideal smiles. We aimed to determine the influence of personality traits in self-rated oral health and satisfaction and in the aesthetic preference for different strategically flawed smiles shown in photographs. Smiles with dark teeth, with uneven teeth, with lip asymmetry and dental asymmetry were ordered from 1 to 4 as a function of the degree of beauty by 548 participants, of which 50·7% were females with a mean age of 41·5 ± 17·6 years (range: 16-89 years). Self-assessment and oral satisfaction were recorded on a Likert scale. Personality was measured by means of the Big Five Inventory (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness), and the Life Orientation Test was used to measure optimism and pessimism. Of the four photographs with imperfect smiles, dental asymmetry was the most highly assessed in 63% of the sample, and the worst was lip asymmetry, in 43·7% of the sample. Some personality traits (above all conscientiousness and openness) were significantly correlated with the position assigned to the photographs with dental and lip asymmetry or with misaligned teeth. The extraversion, agreeableness and openness traits were correlated with the self-perceptions of oral health and aesthetics of the participants. Dental asymmetry seems to be better tolerated than lip asymmetry. Personality traits are weakly but significantly correlated with the aesthetic preference and oral health values, conscientiousness and openness being the most relevant domains in this sense.

  15. The role of personality traits in self-rated oral health and preferences for different types of flawed smiles.

    PubMed

    Montero, J; Gómez Polo, C; Rosel, E; Barrios, R; Albaladejo, A; López-Valverde, A

    2016-01-01

    Symmetric, aligned and luminous smiles are usually classified as 'beautiful' and aesthetic. However, smile perception is not strictly governed by standardised rules. Personal traits may influence the perception of non-ideal smiles. We aimed to determine the influence of personality traits in self-rated oral health and satisfaction and in the aesthetic preference for different strategically flawed smiles shown in photographs. Smiles with dark teeth, with uneven teeth, with lip asymmetry and dental asymmetry were ordered from 1 to 4 as a function of the degree of beauty by 548 participants, of which 50·7% were females with a mean age of 41·5 ± 17·6 years (range: 16-89 years). Self-assessment and oral satisfaction were recorded on a Likert scale. Personality was measured by means of the Big Five Inventory (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness), and the Life Orientation Test was used to measure optimism and pessimism. Of the four photographs with imperfect smiles, dental asymmetry was the most highly assessed in 63% of the sample, and the worst was lip asymmetry, in 43·7% of the sample. Some personality traits (above all conscientiousness and openness) were significantly correlated with the position assigned to the photographs with dental and lip asymmetry or with misaligned teeth. The extraversion, agreeableness and openness traits were correlated with the self-perceptions of oral health and aesthetics of the participants. Dental asymmetry seems to be better tolerated than lip asymmetry. Personality traits are weakly but significantly correlated with the aesthetic preference and oral health values, conscientiousness and openness being the most relevant domains in this sense. PMID:26333128

  16. Characteristics associated with self-rated health in the CARDIA study: Contextualising health determinants by income group.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Shilpa; Hubbard, Alan; Sidney, Stephen; Syme, S Leonard

    2016-12-01

    An understanding of factors influencing health in socioeconomic groups is required to reduce health inequalities. This study investigated combinations of health determinants associated with self-rated health (SRH), and their relative importance, in income-based groups. Cross-sectional data from year 15 (2000 - 2001) of the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, USA) - 3648 men and women (mean 40 years) - were split into 5 income-based groups. SRH responses were categorized as 'higher'/'lower'. Health determinants (medical, lifestyle, and social factors, living conditions) associated with SRH in each group were analyzed using classification tree analysis (CTA). Income and SRH were positively associated (p < 0.05). Data suggested an income-based gradient for lifestyle/medical/social factors/living conditions. Profiles, and relative importance ranking, of multi-domain health determinants, in relation to SRH, differed by income group. The highest ranking variable for each income group was chronic burden-personal health problem (<$25,000); physical activity ($25-50,000; $50-75,000; $100,000 +); and cigarettes/day ($75-100,000). In lower income groups, more risk factors and chronic burden indicators were associated with SRH. Social support, control over life, optimism, and resources for paying for basics/medical care/health insurance were greater (%) with higher income. SRH is a multidimensional measure; CTA is useful for contextualizing risk factors in relation to health status. Findings suggest that for lower income groups, addressing contributors to chronic burden is important alongside lifestyle/medical factors. In a proportionate universalism context, in addition to differences in intensity of public health action across the socioeconomic gradient, differences in the type of interventions to improve SRH may also be important. PMID:27413683

  17. The pathways from perceived discrimination to self-rated health: An investigation of the roles of distrust, social capital, and health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Danhong; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the adverse impacts of perceived discrimination on health, it remains unclear how perceived discrimination gets under the skin. This paper develops a comprehensive structural equation model (SEM) by incorporating both the direct effects of perceived discrimination on self-rated health (SRH), a powerful predictor for many health outcomes, and the indirect effects of perceived discrimination on SRH through health care system distrust, neighborhood social capital, and health behaviors and health conditions. Applying SEM to 9,880 adults (aged between 18 and 100) in the 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey, we not only confirmed the positive and direct association between discrimination and poor or fair SRH, but also verified two underlying mechanisms: 1) perceived discrimination is associated with lower neighborhood social capital, which further contributes to poor or fair SRH; and 2) perceived discrimination is related to risky behaviors (e.g., reduced physical activity and sleep quality, and intensified smoking) that lead to worse health conditions, and then result in poor or fair SRH. Moreover, we found that perceived discrimination is negatively associated with health care system distrust, but did not find a significant relationship between distrust and poor or fair SRH. PMID:24581063

  18. [Gait speed, grip strength and self-rated health among the elderly: data from the FIBRA Campinas network, São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bez, Joelita Pessoa de Oliveira; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2014-08-01

    The article seeks to investigate patterns of performance and relationships between grip strength, gait speed and self-rated health, and investigate the relationships between them, considering the variables of gender, age and family income. This was conducted in a probabilistic sample of community-dwelling elderly aged 65 and over, members of a population study on frailty. A total of 689 elderly people without cognitive deficit suggestive of dementia underwent tests of gait speed and grip strength. Comparisons between groups were based on low, medium and high speed and strength. Self-related health was assessed using a 5-point scale. The males and the younger elderly individuals scored significantly higher on grip strength and gait speed than the female and oldest did; the richest scored higher than the poorest on grip strength and gait speed; females and men aged over 80 had weaker grip strength and lower gait speed; slow gait speed and low income arose as risk factors for a worse health evaluation. Lower muscular strength affects the self-rated assessment of health because it results in a reduction in functional capacity, especially in the presence of poverty and a lack of compensatory factors.

  19. Using Marginal Structural Modeling to Estimate the Cumulative Impact of an Unconditional Tax Credit on Self-Rated Health.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Blakely, Tony; Glymour, M Maria; Carter, Kristie N; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-02-15

    In previous studies, researchers estimated short-term relationships between financial credits and health outcomes using conventional regression analyses, but they did not account for time-varying confounders affected by prior treatment (CAPTs) or the credits' cumulative impacts over time. In this study, we examined the association between total number of years of receiving New Zealand's Family Tax Credit (FTC) and self-rated health (SRH) in 6,900 working-age parents using 7 waves of New Zealand longitudinal data (2002-2009). We conducted conventional linear regression analyses, both unadjusted and adjusted for time-invariant and time-varying confounders measured at baseline, and fitted marginal structural models (MSMs) that more fully adjusted for confounders, including CAPTs. Of all participants, 5.1%-6.8% received the FTC for 1-3 years and 1.8%-3.6% for 4-7 years. In unadjusted and adjusted conventional regression analyses, each additional year of receiving the FTC was associated with 0.033 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.047, -0.019) and 0.026 (95% CI: -0.041, -0.010) units worse SRH (on a 5-unit scale). In the MSMs, the average causal treatment effect also reflected a small decrease in SRH (unstabilized weights: β = -0.039 unit, 95% CI: -0.058, -0.020; stabilized weights: β = -0.031 unit, 95% CI: -0.050, -0.007). Cumulatively receiving the FTC marginally reduced SRH. Conventional regression analyses and MSMs produced similar estimates, suggesting little bias from CAPTs.

  20. Associations of self-rated health and socioeconomic status with information seeking and avoiding behavior among post- treatment cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how self-rated health and socioeconomic status are associated with behaviour of cancer survivors regarding desire for information. For this association, we compared survivors who did not seek information about cancer with those who did. We examined how sociodemographic, socioeconomic, cancer- related, and health information factors are associated with self-rated health (SRH) by health information seeking/ avoiding behavior in a survey of 502 post-treatment cancer patients. In the information seeking group, all four factors exhibited significant relationships with SRH. SRH values were significantly high for women (p<0.05), non-Hispanic White (p<0.05), and educated (p<0.01) participants, and for those who had high self-efficacy to use health information by themselves (p<0.01). Furthermore, in the information avoiding group, not only were there no significant relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and SRH, but there were negative associations between their attitude/capacity and the SRH. In terms of communication equity, the promotion of information seeking behavior can be an effective way to reduce health disparities that are caused by social inequalities. Information avoiding behavior, however, does not exhibit a negative contribution toward the relationship between SRH and SES. Information seeking behavior was positively associated with SRH, but avoiding behavior was not negatively associated. We thus need to eliminate communication inequalities using health intervention to support information seeking behavior, while simultaneously providing support for avoiders.

  1. Self-rated health and its relationship to health/ life problems and coping strategies in members of the professional Slovenian armed forces.

    PubMed

    Selić, Polona; Petek, Davorina; Serec, Masa; Makovec, Maja Rus

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the association between self-rated health status (i.e. psychological and interpersonal welfare, physical health, coping mechanisms) and absence from work due to illness in the Slovenian armed forces. 390 military personnel were included in the study. Two groups of soldiers, healthy (G1-H) and sick/less healthy (G2-S), were created according to the median value of their annual sick leave. A third group consisted of soldiers on a mission (G3-M). A background questionnaire (demographic data, lifestyle habits, a list of life problems and a list of health problems in the last three years), a Self-Rated Health Scale and the Folkman-Lazarus Ways of Coping Questionnaire were administered. Self-rated physical health was best in group G1-H and worst in G2-S, with differences between the groups being statistically significant. No gender differences were found either between the groups or in the whole sample. The most common coping strategies amongst all the soldiers were found to be problem solving, positive re-evaluation of the situation and self-control. The groups differed only in their use of the distancing strategy. The self-rated health of all the participants was found to be in strong negative correlation with the escape/avoidance coping strategy. In group G2-S, more soldiers assessed their health as poor; the differences between the groups were statistically significant. Strong positive correlations between self-rated health and satisfaction with interpersonal relationships were found. Self-rated health was found to be significantly associated with the quality of interpersonal relationships and the socio-economic and psycho-physical conditions of the soldiers.

  2. Active Traveling and Its Associations with Self-Rated Health, BMI and Physical Activity: A Comparative Study in the Adult Swedish Population.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45-75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity. PMID:27136570

  3. Active Traveling and Its Associations with Self-Rated Health, BMI and Physical Activity: A Comparative Study in the Adult Swedish Population

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45–75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity. PMID:27136570

  4. Social Support, Self-Rated Health, and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Identity Disclosure to Cancer Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Charles S.; Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Heckler, Charles E.; Flannery, Marie; Margolies, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe factors related to diagnosis, identity disclosure, and social support among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients with cancer, and to explore associations between these factors and self-rated health. Design Cross-sectional self-report survey design using descriptive and exploratory multivariate statistical approaches. Setting Online, Internet-based. Sample 291 LGBT patients (89% Caucasian; 50% gay, 36% lesbian, 7% bisexual, 3% transgender) with mixed cancers. Methods Participants completed a researcher-designed online survey assessing experiences of cancer diagnosis among LGBT patients at a single time point. Main Research Variables Demographics, which provider(s) delivered the patients’ cancer diagnoses, to whom patients had disclosed their LGBT identity, how they disclosed, who was on their social support team at the time of diagnosis, and current self-rated health. Findings 79% of participants reported disclosing their identities to more than one cancer care provider. Participants most commonly introduced the topic of LGBT identity themselves, sometimes as a way to correct heterosexual assumptions (34%). Friends were the most common members of LGBT patients’ support teams (79%). Four disclosure and support factors were consistently associated with better self-rated health. Conclusions Disclosure of LGBT identity is a common experience in the context of cancer care, and disclosure and support factors are associated with better self-reported health among LGBT patients. Implications for Nursing Creating safe environments for LGBT patients to disclose could improve cancer care delivery to this underserved population. Nurses and other providers should acknowledge and include diverse support team members in LGBT patients’ care. PMID:25542320

  5. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Association with Physical Capacity, Disability, and Self-Rated Health among Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study Participants

    PubMed Central

    Botoseneanu, Anda; Ambrosius, Walter T.; Beavers, Daniel P.; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Anton, Stephen; Church, Timothy; Folta, Sara C.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; King, Abby C.; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Spring, Bonnie; Wang, Xuewen; Gill, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its association with physical capacity, disability, and self-rated health among older adults at high risk for mobility disability, including those with and without diabetes. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study. Participants 1,535 community-dwelling sedentary adults aged 70–89 years old at high risk for mobility disability [short physical performance battery (SPPB) score ≤ 9; mean (SD) = 7.4 (1.6)]. Measurements MetS was defined according to the 2009 multi-agency harmonized criteria; outcomes were physical capacity (400m walk time, grip strength, and SPPB score), disability (composite 19-item score), and self-rated health (5-point scale ranging from “excellent” to “poor”). Results The prevalence of MetS was 49.8% in the overall sample, and 83.2% and 38.1% among diabetics and non-diabetics, respectively. MetS was associated with greater grip strength [mean difference (kilograms) Δ = 1.2, p = .01] in the overall sample and among participants without diabetes, and with poorer self-rated health (Δ = 0.1, p < .001) in the overall sample only. No significant differences were found in the 400m walk time, SPPB score, and disability score between participants with and without MetS, in either the overall sample or diabetes subgroups. Conclusion Metabolic dysfunction is highly prevalent among older adults at risk for mobility disability, yet consistent associations were not observed between MetS and walking speed, lower extremity function, and self-reported disability after adjusting for known and potential confounders. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate whether MetS accelerates declines in functional status in high-risk older adults and to inform clinical and public health interventions aimed at preventing or delaying disability in this group. PMID:25645664

  6. Comparison of self-rated health among Latina immigrants in a Southern U.S. city and a national sample

    PubMed Central

    White, Kari; Scarinci, Isabel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the United States (U.S.), Latinos often report fair/poor self-rated health, which is an indicator for increased morbidity and mortality. Foreign-born Latinos in new immigrant destinations, such as the South, may rate their health more poorly than their counterparts elsewhere in the U.S., due to factors associated with migration and settlement in these communities. Methods We assessed foreign-born Latinas’ self-rated health in Birmingham, Alabama (n=765), and compared it to that of foreign-born Latinas in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; n=8,746). Birmingham participants were matched to Latinas in the NHIS using propensity scores. We examined factors associated with reporting worse health using ordered logistic regression and inverse probability of treatment weights. Results After propensity score matching, 47.6% of foreign-born Latinas in the Birmingham study reported their health as fair/poor, compared to 17.9% of foreign-born Latinas in the NHIS (p<0.001). The association between being Mexican-born versus from other countries with poorer health was stronger in the Birmingham study (odds ratio: 4.46 [95% CI: 1.91–10.4]) than in the NHIS (odds ratio 1.09 [95%CI: 1.08–1.09]). Shorter durations of U.S. residence were associated with better health for Latinas in the NHIS but not those in Birmingham. Conclusions In this study of Latina immigrants in a new settlement community in the South, women reported worse health than foreign-born Latinas in other U.S. regions, suggesting they may be at increased risk for adverse health outcomes. Future studies are needed to better understand the factors associated with these differences to reduce morbidity and mortality burdens. PMID:26263236

  7. Aging & Health.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    By 2050 an estimated 83.7 million Americans will be ages sixty-five and older, up from 40.3 million in 2010. The shock wave of aging Americans will have profound implications for older people, their families, health care providers, and the economy. Researchers, policy makers, health care leaders, and others are designing responses to the challenges these actuarial shifts will create. For example, delivering health care at home could help keep more older Americans out of costly emergency departments and nursing homes. But such steps require more health care providers, a broader distribution of providers than currently exists, and better use of the resources we have. PMID:27605632

  8. Individual-level social capital and self-rated health in Japan: an application of the Resource Generator.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Kawachi, Ichiro; Iwase, Toshihide; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi

    2013-05-01

    Despite accumulating evidence of associations between social capital and health in public health research, a criticism of the field has been that researchers have exclusively focused on concepts of social cohesion to the exclusion of individual-level approaches. In the present study, we evaluated the association between social capital measured by the Resource Generator (an individual-level assessment of access to social capital) and self-rated health among Japanese population in a cross-sectional study. A postal survey of 4000 randomly selected residents in Okayama City (western Japan) was conducted in February 2009. We divided the overall scores from the Resource Generator Japan scale into quartiles. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self-rated health were calculated separately by sex. Individuals with the highest quartile of scores had significantly lower odds of poor health compared to the lowest group after covariate adjustment among both men and women (men; OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24-0.86, women; OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.25-0.79, respectively) and there were also significant dose-response relationships. In the sub-domains of Resource Generator Japan scale, a differential pattern was observed by sex. Women showed a clear dose-response relationship with health across all four sub-scales (domestic resources, expert advice, personal skills, and problem solving resources). In contrast, only the domain of expert advice exhibited a strong association with men's health. Among both men and women individual-level social capital measured by the Resource Generator was related to reduced odds of poor health even after taking into account individual confounders. Although we cannot exclude reverse causation due to the cross-sectional design, our study adds to the accumulating evidence of the potential utility of the Resource Generator for evaluating the relationship between individual-level access to social capital and health.

  9. Exposure to and fear of terror as predictors of self-rated health among apparently healthy employees.

    PubMed

    Shirom, Arie; Toker, Sharon; Shapira, Itzhak; Berliner, Shlomo; Melamed, Samuel

    2008-05-01

    The effects of exposure to terror on physical health were investigated by relating objective exposure to terror and fear of terror to self-rated health (SRH), a proxy measure of health status. Our respondents were apparently healthy (N=4,877, 38% women) adults who completed self-report questionnaires. Objective exposure was assessed by the number of terrorist attacks and their casualties in a respondent's urban area prior to her/his completion of the questionnaire. Using several alternative assessments, objective exposure to terror did not predict SRH for both the genders. As hypothesized, fear of terror negatively predicted SRH for both females and males (beta=-0.04, -0.05, respectively). The effects of subjective and objective exposure were not found to be more pronounced among women relative to men, thus disconfirming our hypotheses in this regard. Our findings suggest that living under continuous fear of terror may adversely influence physical health irrespective of objective exposure.

  10. A spatially filtered multilevel model to account for spatial dependency: application to self-rated health status in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to suggest an approach that integrates multilevel models and eigenvector spatial filtering methods and apply it to a case study of self-rated health status in South Korea. In many previous health-related studies, multilevel models and single-level spatial regression are used separately. However, the two methods should be used in conjunction because the objectives of both approaches are important in health-related analyses. The multilevel model enables the simultaneous analysis of both individual and neighborhood factors influencing health outcomes. However, the results of conventional multilevel models are potentially misleading when spatial dependency across neighborhoods exists. Spatial dependency in health-related data indicates that health outcomes in nearby neighborhoods are more similar to each other than those in distant neighborhoods. Spatial regression models can address this problem by modeling spatial dependency. This study explores the possibility of integrating a multilevel model and eigenvector spatial filtering, an advanced spatial regression for addressing spatial dependency in datasets. Methods In this spatially filtered multilevel model, eigenvectors function as additional explanatory variables accounting for unexplained spatial dependency within the neighborhood-level error. The specification addresses the inability of conventional multilevel models to account for spatial dependency, and thereby, generates more robust outputs. Results The findings show that sex, employment status, monthly household income, and perceived levels of stress are significantly associated with self-rated health status. Residents living in neighborhoods with low deprivation and a high doctor-to-resident ratio tend to report higher health status. The spatially filtered multilevel model provides unbiased estimations and improves the explanatory power of the model compared to conventional multilevel models although there are no changes in the

  11. Heterogeneity of Characteristics among Housing Adaptation Clients in Sweden—Relationship to Participation and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Thordardottir, Björg; Chiatti, Carlos; Ekstam, Lisa; Malmgren Fänge, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to explore the heterogeneity among housing adaptation clients. Cluster analysis was performed using baseline data from applicants in three Swedish municipalities. The analysis identified six main groups: “adults at risk of disability”, “young old with disabilities”, “well-functioning older adults”, “frail older adults”, “frail older with moderate cognitive impairments” and “resilient oldest old”. The clusters differed significantly in terms of participation frequency and satisfaction in and outside the home as well as in terms of self-rated health. The identification of clusters in a heterogeneous sample served the purpose of finding groups with different characteristics, including participation and self-rated health which could be used to facilitate targeted home-based interventions. The findings indicate that housing adaptions should take person/environment/activity specific characteristics into consideration so that they may fully serve the purpose of facilitating independent living, as well as enhancing participation and health. PMID:26729145

  12. Income inequality and self-rated health in Stockholm, Sweden: a test of the 'income inequality hypothesis' on two levels of aggregation.

    PubMed

    Rostila, Mikael; Kölegård, Maria L; Fritzell, Johan

    2012-04-01

    The number of studies analysing income inequality and health are voluminous. However, when empirically testing the income inequality hypothesis, the level of aggregation could be crucial for whether we find an association or not and for the mechanisms we believe are active. This study hence investigates: (1) the two-year lagged effect by income inequality on health at two levels of aggregation; municipalities and neighbourhoods in Sweden; (2) whether spending on social goods accounts for the association between income inequality and health; (3) the effect by income inequality among the affluent and the disadvantaged in municipalities and neighbourhoods, respectively. The empirical data is based on a Swedish public health survey in 2002 and includes residents of Stockholm aged 18-84 years. The sample consists of 28,092 individuals nested within 22 municipalities and 709 neighbourhoods in the county of Stockholm with a non-response rate of 37 percent. A total population register (HSIA) is further used for the construction of contextual-level indicators. Primary method used is multi-level logistic regression. The findings indicate a moderate effect by high and very high income inequality on self-rated poor health at the municipality-level. The association, however, ceases after adjustment for spending on social goods. No detrimental effect by income inequality on self-rated health at the neighbourhood-level is found. The results further suggest that poor individuals residing in high inequality neighbourhoods do not have poorer health than those residing in low inequality contexts while high inequality is most deleterious for poor individuals at the municipality-level. In sum, the findings suggest that reduced spending on social goods could account for the association between income inequality and health at the municipality-level. The contrasting findings at the neighbourhood- and municipality-level indicate that it is important to consider the level of aggregation

  13. Self-rated health and health problems of undocumented immigrant women in the Netherlands: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Schoevers, M A; van den Muijsenbergh, M E T C; Lagro-Janssen, A L M

    2009-12-01

    In this descriptive study, 100 female undocumented immigrants aged > or =18 years were interviewed about their health condition. The objective was to gain insight into the health situation and specific health problems of undocumented women. Sixty-five per cent of these undocumented women rated their health as 'poor' (moderate or bad) and 91 per cent spontaneously mentioned having current health problems. When provided with a list of 26 common health problems, subjects reported on average 11.1 complaints. Gynaecological and psychological complaints were very prevalent, but seldom mentioned spontaneously. Also obstetric problems were numerous. Undocumented women may not present important symptoms to physicians when they encounter them. We conclude that physicians should actively ask about psychological and gynaecological problems in this patient group. Special training on the health problems of undocumented female immigrants for health providers is recommended. PMID:20029430

  14. Self-Rated Mental Health: Screening for Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Women Exposed to Perinatal Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Kastello, Jennifer C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Kodadek, Marie P; Bullock, Linda C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the validity of a single-item, self-rated mental health (SRMH) measure in the identification of women at risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Baseline data of 239 low-income women participating in an intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention study were analyzed. PTSD was measured with the Davidson Trauma Scale. Risk for depression was determined using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. SRMH was assessed with a single item asking participants to rate their mental health at the time of the baseline interview. Single-item measures can be an efficient way to increase the proportion of patients screened for mental health disorders. Although SRMH is not a strong indicator of PTSD, it may be useful in identifying pregnant women who are at increased risk for depression and need further comprehensive assessment in the clinical setting. Future research examining the use of SRMH among high-risk populations is needed.

  15. Measuring Effort–Reward Imbalance in School Settings: A Novel Approach and Its Association With Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Shang, Li; Wang, Tao; Siegrist, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Background We attempted to apply the model of effort–reward imbalance (ERI) to school settings in order to measure students’ psychosocial stress and analyze its association with self-rated health in adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Kunming, China among 1004 Chinese students (468 boys and 536 girls) in grades 7 through 12, using a 19-item effort–reward imbalance questionnaire. Results Satisfactory internal consistencies for the scales for effort and reward were obtained; the value for the scale for overcommitment was acceptable. Factor analysis replicated the theoretical structure of the ERI construct in this sample of Chinese students. All 3 scales were associated with an elevated odds ratio for diminished self-rated health, and the effect was strongest for the effort–reward ratio, as predicted by the theory. Sex and grade differences were also observed. Conclusions The ERI questionnaire is a valid instrument for identifying sources of stressful experience, in terms of effort–reward imbalance, among adolescents in school settings. PMID:20037260

  16. The effects of Obama's political success on the self-rated health of blacks, Hispanics, and whites.

    PubMed

    Malat, Jennifer; Timberlake, Jeffrey M; Williams, David R

    2011-01-01

    Stress in the social environment can affect individual health. Election of the first Black President of the United States provides an opportunity to assess how a positive change in the macro-political climate impacts the health of Americans. Past research suggests that race-related political events influence the health of non-dominant racial groups. Yet many questions remain, including the types of events that affect health, the timing and durability of health effects, and whether effects are similar for Blacks and Hispanics in the United States. The present study uses data from the Ohio Family Health Survey, which was in the field from August 6, 2008 until January 24, 2009, to assess whether immediate changes in average self-rated health occurred after key events in the election of President Barack Obama. We find better average health ratings among Blacks and Hispanics immediately following Obama's nomination by the Democratic Party. Similar effects did not occur after the election or inauguration, and Whites showed no effect of any of the events. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of the theoretical links between macro-level social conditions, race/ethnicity, and health.

  17. The effects of Obama's political success on the self-rated health of blacks, Hispanics, and whites.

    PubMed

    Malat, Jennifer; Timberlake, Jeffrey M; Williams, David R

    2011-01-01

    Stress in the social environment can affect individual health. Election of the first Black President of the United States provides an opportunity to assess how a positive change in the macro-political climate impacts the health of Americans. Past research suggests that race-related political events influence the health of non-dominant racial groups. Yet many questions remain, including the types of events that affect health, the timing and durability of health effects, and whether effects are similar for Blacks and Hispanics in the United States. The present study uses data from the Ohio Family Health Survey, which was in the field from August 6, 2008 until January 24, 2009, to assess whether immediate changes in average self-rated health occurred after key events in the election of President Barack Obama. We find better average health ratings among Blacks and Hispanics immediately following Obama's nomination by the Democratic Party. Similar effects did not occur after the election or inauguration, and Whites showed no effect of any of the events. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of the theoretical links between macro-level social conditions, race/ethnicity, and health. PMID:21942169

  18. Chewing xylitol gum improves self-rated and objective indicators of oral health status under conditions interrupting regular oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Chewing xylitol gum provides oral health benefits including inhibiting Streptococcus mutans plaque. It is thought to be especially effective in conditions where it is difficult to perform daily oral cleaning. Our study aim was to determine the effects of chewing xylitol gum on self-rated and objective oral health status under a condition interfering with oral hygiene maintenance. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted on 55 healthy ≥ 20-year-old men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force who were undergoing field training. Participants were randomly assigned to a test group (chewing gum; n = 27) or a control group (no gum; n = 28) and the researchers were blinded to the group assignments. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of oral conditions subjectively evaluated oral health, and the stimulated salivary bacteria quantity objectively evaluated oral health 1 day before field training (baseline) and 4 days after the beginning of field training (follow-up). VAS scores of all three oral conditions significantly increased in the control group (malodor: p < 0.001; discomfort: p < 0.001; dryness: p < 0.001), but only two VAS scores increased in the test group (malodor: p = 0.021; discomfort: p = 0.002). The number of salivary total bacteria significantly increased in the control group (p < 0.01), while no significant change was observed in the test group (p = 0.668). Chewing xylitol gum positively affects self-rated and objective oral health status by controlling oral hygiene under conditions that interfere with oral hygiene maintenance. PMID:25744362

  19. Racial and Ethnic Stratification in the Relationship Between Homeownership and Self-Rated Health*

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists have long demonstrated that socioeconomic resources benefit health. More recently, scholars have begun to examine the potential stratification in the health returns different groups receive for a given resource. Motivated by fundamental cause theory, this paper examines homeownership as a salient health resource with potentially stratified benefits. Homeowners have significantly greater housing quality, wealth, neighborhood quality and integration, and physical and mental health than renters. However, there are compelling theoretical reasons to expect the health advantage of homeownership to be unequally distributed across racial and ethnic groups. Analyses of the 2012 March Current Population Survey initially suggest all homeowners experience a significant health advantage. Further examination finds robust evidence for a homeowner health advantage among Whites, on par with the difference between the married and divorced. The advantage among minority households is considerably smaller, and not significant among Latinos or Asians. Conditioning on a broad array of observable characteristics, White homeowners emerge as exceptionally healthy compared to White renters and all minority groups. This leads to the unexpected finding that racial/ethnic differences in health are concentrated among homeowners. The findings demonstrate the interactive nature of racial/ethnic stratification in health through both access to and returns from socioeconomic resources. PMID:24953499

  20. Being on sick leave due to heart failure: self-rated health, encounters with healthcare professionals and social insurance officers and self-estimated ability to return to work.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Lena; Söderlund, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Younger people with heart failure often experience poor self-rated health. Furthermore, poor self-rated health is associated with long-term sick leave and disability pension. Socio-demographic factors affect the ability to return to work. However, little is known about people on sick leave due to heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between self-rated health, mood, socio-demographic factors, sick leave compensation, encounters with healthcare professionals and social insurance officers and self-estimated ability to return to work, for people on sick leave due to heart failure. This population-based investigation had a cross-sectional design. Data were collected in Sweden in 2012 from two official registries and from a postal questionnaire. In total, 590 subjects, aged 23-67, responded (response rate 45.8%). Descriptive statistics, correlation analyses (Spearman bivariate analysis) and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations. Poor self-rated health was strongly associated with full sick leave compensation (OR = 4.1, p < .001). Compared self-rated health was moderately associated with low income (OR =  .6, p =  .003). Good self-rated health was strongly associated with positive encounters with healthcare professionals (OR = 3.0, p =  .022) and to the impact of positive encounters with healthcare professionals on self-estimated ability to return to work (OR = 3.3, p < .001). People with heart failure are sicklisted for long periods of time and to a great extent receive disability pension. Not being able to work imposes reduced quality of life. Positive encounters with healthcare professionals and social insurance officers can be supportive when people with heart failure struggle to remain in working life.

  1. Adult Oral Health Programs in Japanese Municipalities: Factors Associated with Self-Rated Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Fuchida, Shinya; Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Hirata, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Health Japan 21 plan establishes specific targets for aspects of health including oral health for 2010, in an effort to increase health expectancy. Despite this, there has been insufficient improvement in oral health status in adults. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with effective oral health programs for adults in Japanese municipalities. Questionnaires were mailed to all 1,472 municipalities in Japan and responses were obtained from 862 municipalities (response rate: 58.6%). After excluding 71 municipalities with "unknown" answer, no answer, or lack of relevant information, we analyzed the data from the remaining 791 municipalities with or without oral health programs for adults self-reported as effective within three years. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used to examine the associations of effective programs with oral health personnel, contact with related agencies, the establishment of Health Japan 21 goals, financial status, the density of dentists and population density at the municipality level, and having oral health personnel at the prefecture level. Three hundred and fifty-four municipalities reported having effective programs. In the fully adjusted model, having dental hygienists in the municipal office (P < 0.05) and a high number of contacts with related agencies (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with having effective programs. These results suggest that having dental hygienists and contact with related agencies such as residents, local dental associations, companies, community general support centers, or medical, nursing or welfare facilities are promoting factors for effective adult oral health programs in Japanese municipalities. PMID:26567468

  2. Multiple contexts of exposure: Activity spaces, residential neighborhoods, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gregory; Denney, Justin T; Kimbro, Rachel T

    2015-12-01

    Although health researchers have made progress in detecting place effects on health, existing work has largely focused on the local residential neighborhood and has lacked a temporal dimension. Little research has integrated both time and space to understand how exposure to multiple contexts - where adults live, work, shop, worship, and seek healthcare - influence and shape health and well-being. This study uses novel longitudinal data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey to delve deeper into the relationship between context and health by considering residential and activity space neighborhoods weighted by the amount of time spent in these contexts. Results from multilevel cross-classified logistic models indicate that contextual exposure to disadvantage, residential or non-residential, is independently associated with a higher likelihood of reporting poor or fair health. We also find support for a contextual incongruence hypothesis. For example, adults living in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to report poor or fair health when they spend time in more advantaged neighborhoods than in more disadvantaged ones, while residents of more advantaged neighborhoods report worse health when they spend time in more disadvantaged areas. Our results suggest that certain types of place-based cumulative exposures are associated with a sense of relative neighborhood deprivation that potentially manifests in worse health ratings.

  3. Factors associated with good self-rated health of non-disabled elderly living alone in Japan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Watanabe, Misuzu; Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Shibutani, Takahiro; Kono, Rei; Saito, Masahisa; Usuda, Kan; Kono, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) is reported as a reliable predictor of disability and mortality in the aged population and has been studied worldwide to enhance the quality of life of the elderly. Nowadays, the elderly living alone, a particular population at great risk of suffering physical and mental health problems, is increasing rapidly in Japan and could potentially make up the majority of the aged population. However, few data are available pertaining to SRH of this population. Given the fact that sufficient healthcare is provided to the disabled elderly whereas there is little support for non-disabled elderly, we designed this population-based survey to investigate SRH of non-disabled elderly living alone and to identify the factors associated with good SRH with the purpose of aiding health promotion for the elderly. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a metropolitan suburb in Japan. Questionnaires pertaining to SRH and physical conditions, lifestyle factors, psychological status, and social activities, were distributed in October 2005 to individuals aged ≥ 65 years and living alone. Response rate was 75.1%. Among these respondents, a total of 600 male and 2587 female respondents were identified as non-disabled elderly living alone and became our subjects. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with good SRH and sex-specific effect was tested by stepwise logistic regression. Results Good SRH was reported by 69.8% of men and 73.8% of women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that good SRH correlated with, in odds ratio sequence, "can go out alone to distant places", no depression, no weight loss, absence of self-rated chronic disease, good chewing ability, and good visual ability in men; whereas with "can go out alone to distant places", absence of self-rated chronic disease, no weight loss, no depression, no risk of falling, independent IADL, good chewing ability, good visual ability, and

  4. The stratification of social capital and its consequences for self-rated health in Taganrog, Russia.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Yerko; Carlson, Per

    2006-06-01

    Russian public health and its social determinants have been the theme of several recent studies. In one of these, Rose [(2000). How much does social capital add to individual health? A survey study of Russians. Social Science & Medicine, 51(9), 1421-1435] puts forward a composite model as a way of getting away from two traditions: one that postulates that social capital influences health independently of human capital attributes (education, social class, income, etc.) and one that postulates that human capital is the main determinant of health, while social capital is more or less irrelevant. In this study, we investigate the composite model, conceptualising social capital as a type of capital, on the basis of Bourdieu. By doing this, not only do the relations between social capital and other types of capital become relevant, but also whether the effect of social capital on health differs depending on the possession of other types of capital. We used the Taganrog survey of 1998 which used structured interviews with the family members of 1,009 households and the response rate was 81%. We found that social capital is stratified by education, and also that its effect on health varies depending on the volume of educational capital possessed. It also seems to be extremely important to specify different types of social capital, in order to get a better overview of possible mechanisms by means of which different types of capital might affect health.

  5. Psychological morbidity, quality of life, and self-rated health in the military personnel

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Han-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Cheng; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective The mental health of military personnel varies as a result of different cultural, political, and administrative factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychological morbidity and quality of life of military personnel in Taiwan. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study utilized the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, brief version, Taiwan version, the General Health Questionnaire-12, Chinese version, and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) in several military units. Results More than half of the subjects (55.3%) identified themselves as mentally unhealthy on the General Health Questionnaire-12, Chinese version; however, a higher percentage of officers perceived themselves as healthy (57.4%) than did noncommissioned officers (38.5%) or enlisted men (42.2%). Officers also had higher total quality of life (QOL) scores (83.98) than did enlisted men (79.67). Scores on the VAS also varied: officers: 72.5; noncommissioned officers: 67.7; and enlisted men: 66.3. The VAS and QOL were positively correlated with perceived mental health among these military personnel. Conclusion Our subjects had higher rates of perceiving themselves as mentally unhealthy compared to the general population. Those of higher rank perceived themselves as having better mental health and QOL. Improving mental health could result in a better QOL in the military. The VAS may be a useful tool for the rapid screening of self-reported mental health, which may be suitable in cases of stressful missions, such as in disaster rescue; however, more studies are needed to determine the optimal cut-off point of this measurement tool. PMID:24570587

  6. Which part of community social capital is related to life satisfaction and self-rated health? A multilevel analysis based on a nationwide mail survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yoji; Wada, Yuri; Ichida, Yukinobu; Nishikawa, Masashi

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims to clarify the association between various social capital components at the municipal level (community social capital) and two quality-of-life factors at the individual level [individual self-rated life satisfaction and self-rated health (SRH)] based on data from a nationwide social capital survey that the authors carried out in 2013 in Japan (N = 3406 in 99 municipalities). The survey covers residents in Japan between the ages of 20 and 79 years. We focus on both contextual social capital and household income inequality in terms of the Gini coefficient at the municipality level since, to the best of our knowledge, no paper has explicitly dealt with municipalities in Japan as the units of contextual social capital and the Gini. Our analyses show that the subjective life satisfaction of individuals, after controlling for socioeconomic status and health at the individual level, is associate with both an income gap and social capital at the municipal level. Every component of community social capital in this study except for generalized reciprocity, both cognitive (generalized trust, particularized trust, and particularized reciprocity), and structural (three types of group participation and daily contacts with neighbors, friends/acquaintances, and colleagues), and the Gini coefficient on earned income were associated with self-rated life satisfaction at the individual level with statistical significance. However, SRH is associated only with cognitive social capital at the community level. SRH has no significant association with structural components of community social capital or with a community income gap in terms of the Gini coefficient on personal income. Judging from the results of estimates in the study, most of the components of community social capital at the municipal level seem to play an important role in enhancing self-rated life satisfaction. Life satisfaction may be associated with the broad atmosphere of the municipal level where one

  7. Self-Ratings of Spoken Language Dominance: A Multilingual Naming Test (MINT) and Preliminary Norms for Young and Aging Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Runnqvist, Elin; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated correspondence between different measures of bilingual language proficiency contrasting self-report, proficiency interview, and picture naming skills. Fifty-two young (Experiment 1) and 20 aging (Experiment 2) Spanish-English bilinguals provided self-ratings of proficiency level, were interviewed for spoken proficiency, and…

  8. Influence of sociodemographic and neighbourhood factors on self rated health and quality of life in rural communities: findings from the Agriproject in the Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Tay, J.; Kelleher, C.; Hope, A.; Barry, M.; Gabhainn, S. N.; Sixsmith, J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of sociodemographic and neighbourhood factors on self rated health, quality of life, and perceived opportunities for change (as one measure of empowerment) in rural Irish communities. Design: Pooled data from cross sectional surveys two years apart. Setting: Respondents in four randomly selected rural district electoral divisions with a population size of between 750 and 2000. Participants: 1738 rural dwellers aged 15–93, 40.5% men, interviewed at two time points. Main outcome measures: Determinants of self rated health (SRH), quality of life (QOL), and perceived opportunities for change, rated on a closed option Likert scale and assessed in multivariate logistic regression models. Main results: Overall 23.8% of the sample reported poor SRH, 22.2% poor QOL, and 50.1% low perceived opportunities for change. Low financial security and dissatisfaction with work were each significantly associated with poor SRH (OR = 1.96 (1.50 to 2.56) and 1.54 (1.11 to 2.14)), with poor QOL (OR = 2.04 (1.56 to 2.68) and 1.87 (1.34 to 2.61). Concern about access to public services was significantly predictive of SRH (OR = 1.47 (1.11 to 1.94)) rather than access to health care (that is, hospital and GP services). There were distinct sex specific patterns and a generational effect for educational status in men. Variables associated with social networks and social support were less strongly predictive of SRH and QOL when economic measures were accounted for. Conclusion: Inter-relations between indicators of health status, wellbeing, and deprivation are not well studied in rural communities. Material deprivation has a direct influence on both health status and quality of life, although immediate sources of support are relatively well preserved. PMID:15483305

  9. Do bonding and bridging social capital affect self-rated health, depressive mood and cognitive decline in older Japanese? A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Matsuo, Eri; Nofuji, Yu; Shimizu, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    Little is known regarding the longitudinal effects of bonding and bridging social capital on health. This study examined the longitudinal associations of bonding and bridging social capital with self-rated health, depressive mood, and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older Japanese. Data analyzed in this study were from the 2010 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) Hatoyama Cohort Study. Bonding social capital was assessed by individual perception of homogeneity of the neighborhood (the level of homogeneity among neighbors) and of networks (the amount of homogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Bridging social capital was assessed by individual perception of heterogeneity of networks (the amount of heterogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the effects of baseline social capital on poor health outcome at follow-up by logistic regression analysis. In total, 681 people completed baseline and follow-up surveys. The mean age of participants was 71.8 ± 5.1 years, and 57.9% were male. After adjusting for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, comorbidity, functional capacity, baseline score of each outcome, and other bonding/bridging social capital, stronger perceived neighborhood homogeneity was inversely associated with poor self-rated health (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30-1.00) and depressive mood assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.34-0.99). When participants who reported a depressive mood at baseline were excluded, stronger perceived heterogeneous network was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.87). Neither bonding nor bridging social capital was significantly associated with cognitive decline assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, bonding and bridging social capital affect health in different ways, but they both have

  10. Prospective study of predictors of poor self-rated health in a 23-year cohort of earthquake survivors in Armenia.

    PubMed

    Demirchyan, Anahit; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Armenian, Haroutune K; Khachadourian, Vahe

    2015-09-01

    Long-term prospective studies exploring general health outcomes among disaster survivors are rare. Self-rated health (SRH) - a proven correlate of morbidity and mortality prognosis - was used to investigate predictors of perceived health status among a 23-year cohort of survivors of 1988 Spitak earthquake in Armenia. A geographically-stratified subsample of 725 adults from a larger initial cohort was followed during the period of 1990-2012. A logistic regression model identified predictors of SRH. Adjusted relative risks for the long-term predictors of SRH were calculated. The rate of poor SRH among the survivors was 18.8%, fair 56.5%, and good/excellent 24.7%. In the fitted model, long-term risk factors of poor SRH included baseline body mass index, baseline multi-morbidity, number of experienced stressful life events, and perceived poor living standards during the post-earthquake decade, while participation in sports in the early 1990s was a protective factor. Short-term protective factors included socio-economic status score, social support, employment and dignity, while current household size was a risk factor for poor SRH. No association was found between earthquake exposure severity and SRH after 23 years. However, the identified predictors included a number of modifiable lifestyle, material and psychological factors. Thus, interventions targeting these factors could have a long-lasting impact on disaster victims' health status.

  11. Is poor self-rated health associated with low-grade inflammation in 43 110 late adolescent men of the general population? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Warnoff, Carin; Lekander, Mats; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Melin, Bo; Andreasson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health is a powerful predictor of long-term health and mortality, hence the importance of a better understanding of its biological determinants. Previous studies have shown that low-grade inflammation is associated with poor self-rated health in clinical and healthy populations, but the evidence is sparse in men and completely lacking for men in late adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation and self-rated health among conscripts. It was hypothesised that high levels of inflammatory factors would be associated with poor self-rated health. Design Data from 49 321 men (18–21 years) conscripted for military service in 1969 and 1970 were used. Inflammation had been measured through erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Self-rated health had been assessed on a five-point scale, and was dichotomised into Good (‘Very good’/‘Good’/‘Fair’) versus Poor (‘Poor’/‘Very poor’). Data from 43 110 conscripts with normal levels of ESR, and who reported self-rated health remained after exclusion of those with ESR <1 and >11 mm/h. Associations were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Adjustments were made for body mass index, socioeconomic position, inflammatory disease, emotion regulation, smoking, risky use of alcohol and physical activity. Results High levels of ESR were associated with higher odds for poor self-rated health (OR: 1.077 for each unit mm/h increase in ESR, 95% CI 1.049 to 1.105). Conclusions The present study shows for the first time a significant association between a marker of inflammation and self-rated health in late adolescent men, adding to evidence of an association between low-grade inflammation and subjective health perception also in men, as previously demonstrated in women. Further support for inflammation as part of a general psychobiological process that underpins subjective health perception is hereby provided. PMID:27113233

  12. Are Gender Differences in the Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Mortality Enduring? Results from Three Birth Cohorts in Melton Mowbray, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiers, Nicola; Jagger, Carol; Clarke, Michael; Arthur, Antony

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether there is an enduring gender difference in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality and investigate whether self-reported physical health problems account for this difference. Design and Methods: Cox models for 4-year survival were fitted to data from successive cohorts aged…

  13. Acculturation, inner peace, cancer self-efficacy, and self-rated health among Latina breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    García-Jimenez, María; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Ortiz, Carmen; Lahiff, Maureen; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Nápoles, Anna Mar

    2014-11-01

    Cancer self-efficacy (CSE) and spiritual well-being (SWB) have been associated with better self-rated health (SRH) among breast cancer survivors (BCS), but have not been well studied among Latina BCS (LBCS). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of secondary data from a cross-sectional population-based telephone survey of 330 LBCS explored relationships of language acculturation, CSE, and SWB subdomains of inner peace and faith with SRH. English proficiency was associated with SRH, independent of other covariates (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.15, 4.45). Cancer self-efficacy attenuated this effect and was positively associated with SRH (OR=2.24, 95% CI 1.22, 4.10). Adding inner peace (a SWB subscale) attenuated the association of CSE and SRH (OR=1.67, 95% CI 0.88, 3.18). Inner peace remained associated with SRH (OR= 2.44, 95% CI 1.30, 4.56), controlling for covariates. Findings support the importance of a sense of inner peace and control over breast cancer to LBCS’ perceived health. PMID:25418229

  14. Cardiac patient-spouse dissimilarities in illness perception: Associations with patient self-rated health and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Zarogiannos, Aristeides; Karamvakalis, Nikolaos

    2010-04-01

    The study examined the illness perception dissimilarities between chronic cardiac patients and their spouses, as well as the associations of perception dissimilarities with patients' overall self-rated health (SRH) and illness-related coping strategies. Seventy-three patients (65 males, 8 females) with an old myocardial infarction and subsequent cardiovascular problems, and their spouses completed the Revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire. Patients also completed a coping measure (the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems Scale) and a question regarding SRH. Significant differences, with spouses scoring higher than patients, were found in perceptions regarding illness chronicity, personal control and the emotional impact of the illness. The correlations of dissimilarity scores to SRH and coping were sporadic and weak. Additionally, after controlling for patients' own perceptions, the effects of dissimilarity scores almost disappeared. However, when three different groups were constructed reflecting whether both partners scored high, low, or in an opposing way on each IPQ-R subscale, the overall matching in several illness perceptions was associated with certain coping strategies, even after controlling for the effects of the patients' own perceptions. With respect to SRH, no significant effects were found. PMID:20204941

  15. To What Extent Do Financial Strain and Labour Force Status Explain Social Class Inequalities in Self-Rated Health? Analysis of 20 Countries in the European Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Richard J.; Benzeval, Michaela; Popham, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nordic countries do not have the smallest health inequalities despite egalitarian social policies. A possible explanation for this is that drivers of class differences in health such as financial strain and labour force status remain socially patterned in Nordic countries. Methods Our analyses used data for working age (25–59) men (n = 48,249) and women (n = 52,654) for 20 countries from five rounds (2002–2010) of the European Social Survey. The outcome was self-rated health in 5 categories. Stratified by gender we used fixed effects linear regression models and marginal standardisation to instigate how countries varied in the degree to which class inequalities were attenuated by financial strain and labour force status. Results and Discussion Before adjustment, Nordic countries had large inequalities in self-rated health relative to other European countries. For example the regression coefficient for the difference in health between working class and professional men living in Norway was 0.34 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.42), while the comparable figure for Spain was 0.15 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.22). Adjusting for financial strain and labour force status led to attenuation of health inequalities in all countries. However, unlike some countries such as Spain, where after adjustment the regression coefficient for working class men was only 0.02 (95% CI −0.05 to 0.10), health inequalities persisted after adjustment for Nordic countries. For Norway the adjusted coefficient was 0.17 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.25). Results for women and men were similar. However, in comparison to men, class inequalities tended to be stronger for women and more persistent after adjustment. Conclusions Adjusting for financial security and labour force status attenuates a high proportion of health inequalities in some counties, particularly Southern European countries, but attenuation in Nordic countries was modest and did not improve their relative position. PMID:25313462

  16. Latino residential segregation and self-rated health among Latinos: Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Plascak, Jesse J; Molina, Yamile; Wu-Georges, Samantha; Idris, Ayah; Thompson, Beti

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between Latino residential segregation and self-rated health (SRH) is unclear, but might be partially affected by social capital. We investigated the association between Latino residential segregation and SRH while also examining the roles of various social capital measures. Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2012-2014) and U.S. Census data were linked by zip code and zip code tabulation area. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate odds of good or better SRH by Latino residential segregation, measured by the Gini coefficient, and controlling for sociodemographic, acculturation and social capital measures of neighborhood ties, collective socialization of children, and social control. The Latino residential segregation - SRH relationship was convex, or 'U'-shaped, such that increases in segregation among Latinos residing in lower segregation areas was associated with lower SRH while increases in segregation among Latinos residing in higher segregation areas was associated with higher SRH. The social capital measures were independently associated with SRH but had little effect on the relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH. A convex relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH could explain mixed findings of previous studies. Although important for SRH, social capital measures of neighborhood ties, collective socialization of children, and social control might not account for the relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH. PMID:27173739

  17. Self-Rated Health Status and Subjective Health Complaints Associated with Health-Promoting Lifestyles among Urban Chinese Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingru; Wang, Tian; Li, Fei; Xiao, Ya; Bi, Jianlu; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Liuguo; Wu, Shengwei; Liu, Yanyan; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHC) of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II). Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL. Results Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%), eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%), and insomnia (1542, 18.9%). Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000) and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37). Conclusions Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives. PMID:25671578

  18. The relationship between employment status and self-rated health among wage workers in South Korea: the moderating role of household income.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyejin; Kimm, Heejin; Song, In Han

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the relationship between employment status and self-rated health (SRH) and the moderating effect of household income among wage workers in South Korea. This research analyzed the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study, 2005 to 2008. Of the 10,494 respondents participating in the survey during the period, a total of 1,548 people whose employment status had remained either precarious or nonprecarious were selected. A moderated multiple regression model was used to examine the main effect of employment status on SRH and the moderating effect of total household income on the relationship between employment status and SRH. Among 343 precarious workers and 1,205 nonprecarious workers, after controlling for gender, age, education, smoking, and drinking, employment status was associated with SRH of wage workers, and household income was found to have a moderating effect on SRH in that higher income buffers the link between unstable employment status and low SRH. Unstable employment, combined with low income, was significantly related to precarious wage workers' perceived health. To promote public health, efforts may be needed to secure not only people's employment, but also their income. PMID:25665288

  19. Comparing Self-Rated Health, Satisfaction and Quality of Life Scores between Diabetics and Others Living in the Bella Coola Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Angela; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Tildesley, Hugh; Michalos, Alex C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative effect that diabetes has on self-rated health, satisfaction with various specific domains of life, and satisfaction with quality of life operationalized as happiness, satisfaction with life as a whole, and satisfaction with overall quality of life. Design: Mixed methods--mailed survey and chart review. Study…

  20. Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-09-01

    Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P < 0.001). Interestingly, people in any smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition. PMID:26339168

  1. Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-09-01

    Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P < 0.001). Interestingly, people in any smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition.

  2. Acculturation and self-rated health among Arctic indigenous peoples: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acculturation is for indigenous peoples related to the process of colonisation over centuries as well as the on-going social transition experienced in the Arctic today. Changing living conditions and lifestyle affect health in numerous ways in Arctic indigenous populations. Self-rated health (SRH) is a relevant variable in primary health care and in general public health assessments and monitoring. Exploring the relationship between acculturation and SRH in indigenous populations having experienced great societal and cultural change is thus of great importance. Methods The principal method in the Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA) was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, whilst a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. Acculturation was conceptualised as certain traditional subsistence activities being of lesser importance for people’s ethnic identity, and poorer spoken indigenous language ability (SILA). Acculturation was included in six separate gender- and country-specific ordinal logistic regressions to assess qualitative effects on SRH. Results Multivariable analyses showed that acculturation significantly predicted poorer SRH in Greenland. An increased subsistence score gave an OR of 2.32 (P<0.001) for reporting poorer SRH among Greenlandic men, while an increased score for Greenlandic women generated an OR of 1.71 (P=0.01). Poorer SILA generated an OR of 1.59 in men (p=0.03). In Alaska, no evidence of acculturation effects was detected among Iñupiaq men. Among Iñupiaq women, an increased subsistence score represented an increased odds of 73% (p=0.026) for reporting poorer SRH. No significant effects of acculturation on SRH were detected in Norway. Conclusions This study shows that aggregate acculturation is a strong risk factor for poorer SRH among the Kalaallit of Greenland and female Iñupiat of Alaska, but

  3. [Association of sleep problems with self-rated health - a large epidemiologic survey in the working population].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Naoto; Nakatani, Junko; Nakata, Akinori

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between various sleep problems and self-rated health (SRH), a total of 43,092 (34,164 men and 8,928 women) employees were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. The risk of suboptimal (poor, very poor) SRH associated with sleep problems was estimated using multivariable logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs) as measures of associations. Because the prevalence of suboptimal SRH differed by sex (men 29.4% and women 34.1%, P < 0.001), the analyses were done separately for men and women. Employees sleeping less than 6 hrs/day (OR = 1.39 for men, 1.40 for women), with difficulty initiating sleep (OR=4.44 for men, 3.85 for women), with difficulty maintaining sleep (OR=5.72 for men, 4.85 for women), with early morning awakening (OR=3.87 for men, 4.25 for women), with difficulty waking up in the morning (OR=3.30 for men, 3.40 for women), feeling tired when waking up in the morning (OR=4.97 for men, 4.82 for women), and excessive daytime sleepiness at work (OR=2.34 for men, 2.11 for women) had a significantly higher odds of suboptimal SRH compared to those without sleep problems. The association between sleep problems and suboptimal SRH did not differ between men and women. In conclusion, the data point to an independent relationship between sleep problems and suboptimal SRH among Japanese employees. PMID:25501763

  4. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Junfeng; Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Aggarwal, Anju; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES), on self-rated health (SRH) in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS) and in-person interviews (RECORD). All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle) and from real estate sales (Paris). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  5. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Junfeng; Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Aggarwal, Anju; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES), on self-rated health (SRH) in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS) and in-person interviews (RECORD). All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle) and from real estate sales (Paris). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons. PMID:27413663

  6. Body Mass Index and Poor Self-Rated Health in 49 Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries, By Sex, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aolin; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and poor self-rated health differed by sex in low-income countries and middle-income countries. We analyzed data from the World Health Survey (2002-2004) on 160,099 participants from 49 low-income and middle-income countries by using random-intercept multilevel logistic regressions. We found a U-shaped relationship between BMI and poor self-rated health among both sexes in both low-income and middle-income countries, but the relationship differed by sex in strength and direction between low-income countries and middle-income countries. Differential perception of body weight and general health might explain some of the observed sex differences. PMID:26292064

  7. Psychosocial work stress is associated with poor self-rated health in Danish nurses: a test of the effort-reward imbalance model.

    PubMed

    Weyers, Simone; Peter, Richard; Boggild, Henrik; Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe; Siegrist, Johannes

    2006-03-01

    Nursing staff are exposed to stressful work load which in turn is associated with poor physical and psychological health, sickness absence and job exit. The effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model is a validated approach to measure chronic psychosocial work stress by identifying nonreciprocity between occupational efforts spent and rewards received, and has been found to predict poor health. The aim of this cross-sectional study (n = 367 nurses and nurses aides) was first to test the psychometric properties of the Danish questionnaire measuring ERI, and secondly to analyse whether psychosocial work stress is associated with six indicators of poor self-rated health. Results derived from confirmatory factor analysis indicate satisfying psychometric properties. Elevated risks of poor self-rated health (odds ratios varying from 1.92 to 4.76) are observed in nursing staff characterized by high effort in combination with low reward. Effects are enhanced in those respondents who additionally exhibit a high level of work-related overcommitment. In conclusion, despite methodological limitations, this study contributes to the validation of the ERI questionnaire in Danish language. Furthermore, by documenting associations with poor self-rated health, it supports efforts of theory-guided prevention of work stress in health care professions.

  8. Psychosocial work stress is associated with poor self-rated health in Danish nurses: a test of the effort-reward imbalance model.

    PubMed

    Weyers, Simone; Peter, Richard; Boggild, Henrik; Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe; Siegrist, Johannes

    2006-03-01

    Nursing staff are exposed to stressful work load which in turn is associated with poor physical and psychological health, sickness absence and job exit. The effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model is a validated approach to measure chronic psychosocial work stress by identifying nonreciprocity between occupational efforts spent and rewards received, and has been found to predict poor health. The aim of this cross-sectional study (n = 367 nurses and nurses aides) was first to test the psychometric properties of the Danish questionnaire measuring ERI, and secondly to analyse whether psychosocial work stress is associated with six indicators of poor self-rated health. Results derived from confirmatory factor analysis indicate satisfying psychometric properties. Elevated risks of poor self-rated health (odds ratios varying from 1.92 to 4.76) are observed in nursing staff characterized by high effort in combination with low reward. Effects are enhanced in those respondents who additionally exhibit a high level of work-related overcommitment. In conclusion, despite methodological limitations, this study contributes to the validation of the ERI questionnaire in Danish language. Furthermore, by documenting associations with poor self-rated health, it supports efforts of theory-guided prevention of work stress in health care professions. PMID:16489957

  9. Schooling, Skills, and Self-Rated Health: A Test of Conventional Wisdom on the Relationship between Educational Attainment and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Naomi; Macmillan, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Education is a key sociological variable in the explanation of health and health disparities. Conventional wisdom emphasizes a life course--human capital perspective with expectations of causal effects that are quasi-linear, large in magnitude for high levels of educational attainment, and reasonably robust in the face of measured and unmeasured…

  10. The contribution of lifestyle and work factors to social inequalities in self-rated health among the employed population in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hämmig, Oliver; Gutzwiller, Felix; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    We sought to examine the joint and independent contributions of working conditions and health-related behaviours in explaining social gradients in self-rated health (SRH). Nationally representative cross-sectional data from the Swiss Health Survey of 2007 were used for this study. Bi- and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out on a sample of 6950 adult employees of working age. We examined a comprehensive set of five health behaviours and lifestyle factors as well as twelve physical and psychosocial work factors as potential mediators of the relationship between social status and SRH. Analyses were stratified by sex and performed using two measures of social status, educational level and occupational position. Strong social gradients were found for SRH, but mainly in men whereas in women the associations were either not linear (educational level) or not statistically significant (occupational position). Social gradients were also found for most lifestyle and all physical and psychosocial work factors studied. These three groups of factors equally contributed to and largely accounted for the social gradients in SRH although not all of the individual factors turned out to be independent and significant risk factors for poor SRH. Such risk factors included physical inactivity and obesity, poor posture and no or low social support at work (both sexes), heavy smoking (men) and underweight, overweight, uniform arm or hand movements at work, monotonous work and job insecurity (women). In conclusion, social inequalities (or more precisely educational and occupational status differences) in SRH were more pronounced in men and can be attributed for the most part to a sedentary lifestyle and to a physically demanding and socially unsupportive and insecure work environment. Apart from this main finding and overall pattern, sex-specific risk profiles were observed with regard to SRH and need to be taken into consideration.

  11. The contribution of lifestyle and work factors to social inequalities in self-rated health among the employed population in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hämmig, Oliver; Gutzwiller, Felix; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    We sought to examine the joint and independent contributions of working conditions and health-related behaviours in explaining social gradients in self-rated health (SRH). Nationally representative cross-sectional data from the Swiss Health Survey of 2007 were used for this study. Bi- and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out on a sample of 6950 adult employees of working age. We examined a comprehensive set of five health behaviours and lifestyle factors as well as twelve physical and psychosocial work factors as potential mediators of the relationship between social status and SRH. Analyses were stratified by sex and performed using two measures of social status, educational level and occupational position. Strong social gradients were found for SRH, but mainly in men whereas in women the associations were either not linear (educational level) or not statistically significant (occupational position). Social gradients were also found for most lifestyle and all physical and psychosocial work factors studied. These three groups of factors equally contributed to and largely accounted for the social gradients in SRH although not all of the individual factors turned out to be independent and significant risk factors for poor SRH. Such risk factors included physical inactivity and obesity, poor posture and no or low social support at work (both sexes), heavy smoking (men) and underweight, overweight, uniform arm or hand movements at work, monotonous work and job insecurity (women). In conclusion, social inequalities (or more precisely educational and occupational status differences) in SRH were more pronounced in men and can be attributed for the most part to a sedentary lifestyle and to a physically demanding and socially unsupportive and insecure work environment. Apart from this main finding and overall pattern, sex-specific risk profiles were observed with regard to SRH and need to be taken into consideration. PMID:25310888

  12. Quality of life and self-rated health in relation to changes in fruit and vegetable intake and in plasma vitamins C and E in a randomised trial of behavioural and nutritional education counselling.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Perkins-Porras, Linda; Hilton, Sean; Rink, Elizabeth; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2004-07-01

    We have carried out a randomised trial comparing brief behavioural counselling with nutritional education counselling to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and associated biomarkers in adults from a low-income neighbourhood. The objective of the present analysis was to assess the impact of interventions on quality of life and health status, and associations between changes in fruit and vegetable consumption, plasma vitamins C and E, and quality of life. Behavioural counselling and nutritional education counselling were carried out in 271 adults in two 15 min sessions in a primary-care setting. Physical and mental health status (medical outcome study short form 36) and self-rated health were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks and 12 months, and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Both groups reported increased fruit and vegetable consumption; plasma vitamin E and beta-carotene also increased, with significantly greater changes in consumption and plasma beta-carotene in the behavioural counselling condition. Physical and mental health status, and the proportion of participants in good self-rated health, increased in both groups to a similar extent. Individual differences in improvements in physical health status and self-rated health were correlated with increases in fruit and vegetable intake and in plasma vitamins C and E, independently of age, gender, ethnicity, financial status, smoking, BMI and use of vitamin supplements. We conclude that participation in the present study was associated with improved health-related quality of life. Increases in fruit and vegetable intake and plasma vitamin levels may stimulate beneficial changes in physical health status in socio-economically deprived adults.

  13. A Multiple-Group Path Analysis of the Role of Everyday Discrimination on Self-Rated Physical Health among Latina/os in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alegría, Margarita; Mahalingam, Ramaswami

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the psychosocial mechanisms through which self-reported discrimination may influence the health status of Latinos. Purpose This study examined the mediating role of subjective social status in the US and psychological distress on the relation between everyday discrimination and self-rated physical health, and the moderating role of gender and ethnicity. Methods A US population-based sample of Latinos (N= 2,554) was drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed measures of everyday discrimination, subjective social status, psychological distress, and self-rated physical health. Results Path analysis revealed that among the total sample, subjective social status and psychological distress sequentially mediated the effect of everyday discrimination on self-rated physical health. Psychological distress was a more consistent mediator across Latino subgroups. Gender and ethnicity moderated the mediation model. Conclusions This study provides a systematic examination of how psychosocial mechanisms may operate differently or similarly across Latino subgroups. PMID:23054945

  14. The association between a living wage and subjective social status and self-rated health: a quasi-experimental study in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Landefeld, John C; Burmaster, Katharine B; Rehkopf, David H; Syme, S Leonard; Lahiff, Maureen; Adler-Milstein, Sarah; Fernald, Lia C H

    2014-11-01

    Poverty, both absolute and relative, is associated with poorer health. This is of particular concern in middle- and low-income countries facing a significant and growing burden of disease. There has been limited research specifically on whether interventions that increase income may foster better health outcomes. The establishment of a "living wage" apparel factory in the Dominican Republic provided a minimum income standard for factory workers, thus creating a natural experiment through which to study the effects of increased income on health indicators. The primary component of the intervention was a 350% wage increase, but apparel workers in the intervention factory also received education and professional development and were exposed to an enhanced occupational health and safety program. Workers at the intervention factory (n = 99) were compared with workers at a matched apparel factory (n = 105). Data were collected via in-person interviews in July and August of 2011, which was 15-16 months after workers were initially hired at the intervention site. Primary analyses used employment at the intervention factory as the independent variable and examined associations with two dependent variables: subjective social status and self-rated health. Results showed that receiving a 350% higher wage was associated with substantially higher subjective social status scores, as well as higher global and comparative self-rated health scores; effects were strongest in women. Subjective social status and self-rated health are associated with future health outcomes, so these results indicate that income increases for apparel workers may have positive long-term health outcomes, particularly for women. PMID:25442370

  15. The association between a living wage and subjective social status and self-rated health: a quasi-experimental study in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Landefeld, John C; Burmaster, Katharine B; Rehkopf, David H; Syme, S Leonard; Lahiff, Maureen; Adler-Milstein, Sarah; Fernald, Lia C H

    2014-11-01

    Poverty, both absolute and relative, is associated with poorer health. This is of particular concern in middle- and low-income countries facing a significant and growing burden of disease. There has been limited research specifically on whether interventions that increase income may foster better health outcomes. The establishment of a "living wage" apparel factory in the Dominican Republic provided a minimum income standard for factory workers, thus creating a natural experiment through which to study the effects of increased income on health indicators. The primary component of the intervention was a 350% wage increase, but apparel workers in the intervention factory also received education and professional development and were exposed to an enhanced occupational health and safety program. Workers at the intervention factory (n = 99) were compared with workers at a matched apparel factory (n = 105). Data were collected via in-person interviews in July and August of 2011, which was 15-16 months after workers were initially hired at the intervention site. Primary analyses used employment at the intervention factory as the independent variable and examined associations with two dependent variables: subjective social status and self-rated health. Results showed that receiving a 350% higher wage was associated with substantially higher subjective social status scores, as well as higher global and comparative self-rated health scores; effects were strongest in women. Subjective social status and self-rated health are associated with future health outcomes, so these results indicate that income increases for apparel workers may have positive long-term health outcomes, particularly for women.

  16. Pre- and post-displacement stressors and time of migration as related to self-rated health among Iraqi immigrants and refugees in Southeast Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Hikraei; Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia; Lambert, Richard; Wang, Yun; Ager, Joel; Arnetz, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether perceived health status of Iraqi immigrants and refugees residing in the United States was related to pre-migration environmental stress, current unemployment, and if they had emigrated before or after the 1991 Gulf War. A random sample of Iraqis residing in Southeast Michigan, US, was interviewed using an Arab language structured survey. The main outcome measure was self-rated health (SRH). Major predictors included socioeconomics, employment status, pre-migration environmental stress, and health disorders. Path analysis was used to look: at mediating effects between predictors and SRH. We found that SRH was significantly worse among participants that had left Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War. Unemployment and environmental stress exposure were inversely related to SRH. There was a direct path between Gulf War exposure and poor health. In addition, there were indirect paths mediated through psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders to SRH. Another path went from Gulf War exposure, via environmen tal stress and somatic health to poor health. Unemployment had a direct path, as well as an indirect paths mediated through psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders, to poor self-rated health. In conclusion, these results suggest that pre- as well as post-migration factors, and period of migration, affect health. PMID:21291168

  17. [Widening health inequalities? Time trends concerning self-rated health, smoking and obesity between 1984/1985 and 1999/2000 among adults in Augsburg].

    PubMed

    Maron, J; Hunger, M; Kirchberger, I; Peters, A; Mielck, A

    2014-04-01

    The analyses focused on time trends in health inequalities in the 25 to 64-year-old population of Augsburg. The analyses are based on four independent cross-sectional surveys from the MONICA/KORA study covering 15 years: 1984/1985 (n = 4,022), 1989/1990 (n = 3,966), 1994/1995 (n = 3,916) and 1999/2000 (n = 3,492). Socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed by educational level and per capita household income with separate analyses for each of these two variables. Both absolute and relative health inequalities were calculated. The results showed that inequalities in self-rated health did not change very much (with some indications for increasing inequalities). However, concerning smoking the results clearly pointed towards increasing health inequalities (for example concerning relative inequalities among women by educational level: significant increase from survey to survey of about 20 %). The prevalence of obesity was increased in all SES groups but the inequalities did not change very much. These time trends show that the efforts aimed at reducing health inequalities should be intensified.

  18. Language Bias and Self-Rated Health Status among the Latino Population: Evidence of the Influence of Translation in a Wording Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Vargas, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research seeks to understand how language bias in survey research impacts our abilities to make generalizations in the study of racial and ethnic disparities. This research uses a wording experiment to assess self-rated health among a representative study of the Latino population (n=1,200). Our analysis shows that by manipulating only the translation of the category fair health into Spanish we are able to directly test the hypothesis that the translation of fair to regular in Spanish suppresses Latino self-rated health. We find convincing evidence through the use of logistic and multinomial logistic regressions that respondents provided with the term regular report poorer health when compared to those who were given the alternative translation of mas o menos. We also find that this translation effect is driven solely by a movement of respondents to choose fair rather than good health, which can in fact explain lower than expected health status rates in studies looking to explore differences between Latinos and non-Latinos. This research informs the study of racial and ethnic disparities, providing a detailed explanation for mixed findings in the Latino health disparities literature. PMID:26439110

  19. Active Aging: Exploration into Self-Ratings of “Being Active,” Out-of-Home Physical Activity, and Participation among Older Australian Adults Living in Four Different Settings

    PubMed Central

    Aird, Rosemary L.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether self-ratings of “being active” among older people living in four different settings (major city high and lower density suburbs, a regional city, and a rural area) were associated with out-of-home participation and outdoor physical activity. A mixed-methods approach (survey, travel diary, and GPS tracking over a one-week period) was used to gather data from 48 individuals aged over 55 years. Self-ratings of “being active” were found to be positively correlated with the number of days older people spent time away from home but unrelated to time traveled by active means (walking and biking). No significant differences in active travel were found between the four study locations, despite differences in their respective built environments. The findings suggest that additional strategies to the creation of “age-friendly” environments are needed if older people are to increase their levels of outdoor physical activity. “Active aging” promotion campaigns may need to explicitly identify the benefits of walking outdoors to ambulatory older people as a means of maintaining their overall health, functional ability, and participation within society in the long-term and also encourage the development of community-based programs in order to facilitate regular walking for this group. PMID:26346381

  20. Validity analysis on merged and averaged data using within and between analysis: focus on effect of qualitative social capital on self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With an increasing number of studies highlighting regional social capital (SC) as a determinant of health, many studies are using multi-level analysis with merged and averaged scores of community residents’ survey responses calculated from community SC data. Sufficient examination is required to validate if the merged and averaged data can represent the community. Therefore, this study analyzes the validity of the selected indicators and their applicability in multi-level analysis. METHODS: Within and between analysis (WABA) was performed after creating community variables using merged and averaged data of community residents’ responses from the 2013 Community Health Survey in Korea, using subjective self-rated health assessment as a dependent variable. Further analysis was performed following the model suggested by WABA result. RESULTS: Both E-test results (1) and WABA results (2) revealed that single-level analysis needs to be performed using qualitative SC variable with cluster mean centering. Through single-level multivariate regression analysis, qualitative SC with cluster mean centering showed positive effect on self-rated health (0.054, p<0.001), although there was no substantial difference in comparison to analysis using SC variables without cluster mean centering or multi-level analysis. CONCLUSIONS: As modification in qualitative SC was larger within the community than between communities, we validate that relational analysis of individual self-rated health can be performed within the group, using cluster mean centering. Other tests besides the WABA can be performed in the future to confirm the validity of using community variables and their applicability in multi-level analysis. PMID:27292102

  1. Age, gender and health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, T R; Thanh, V T

    1997-01-01

    Public policy and epidemiological studies have not adequately addressed age and gender differences on important health dimensions among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine gender and health among five age groups of African Americans. A sample of 1,174 respondents age 24 to 85 was selected from the 1986 Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study. Regression analysis was performed using a hierarchical model to examine age and gender on five dimensions of health: functional health, chronic conditions, satisfaction with health, self-ratings of health, and activities of daily living (ADL) limitations controlling for age, education, income, and marital status among five age groups of African Americans. Results revealed that in the 24-39 age group, men had fewer chronic conditions and less ADL limitations, yet rated their health poorer than their female counterparts. In the 75 and over age group men had better functional health yet were less satisfied with their health than women. Control variables were significantly related to objective and subjective dimensions of health especially among the younger age groups. Overall, gender differences persist mainly among the youngest and oldest age groups despite variations in the above demographic variables. Implications for social work practice and future research are discussed.

  2. Neighborhood economic conditions, social processes, and self-rated health in low-income neighborhoods in Texas: a multilevel latent variables model.

    PubMed

    Franzini, Luisa; Caughy, Margaret; Spears, William; Fernandez Esquer, Maria Eugenia

    2005-09-01

    This paper develops and tests a comprehensive model to explain the relationships of neighborhood economic indicators to multiple dimensions of neighborhood social and physical organization as well as the pathways through which neighborhood social and physical characteristics influence individual health outcomes. We hypothesized that neighborhood poverty would be associated with lower collective efficacy, lower social capital, higher degrees of social and physical disorder, worse social processes pertaining to children such as trust, and higher degrees of fear of crime and racism. Neighborhood social and physical characteristics were hypothesized to mediate the effect of neighborhood poverty on self-rated health, both directly and indirectly through their influence on neighborhood differences in social support and health behaviors, which in turn affect individual health. The results, based on data from low-income neighborhoods in Texas, USA generally supported the model and indicated that the effect of neighborhood impoverishment on health is mediated by social and physical neighborhood characteristics.

  3. Living arrangement concordance and its association with self-rated health among institutionalized and community-residing older adults in China.

    PubMed

    Sereny, Melanie D; Gu, Danan

    2011-09-01

    Although many studies look at the relationship between living arrangement and health among older adults, very little research takes seniors' preferred living arrangements into account. This paper uses data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) to examine what factors are associated with concordance between actual and preferred living arrangements for both institutionalized and community-residing Chinese seniors, and to investigate associations between living arrangement concordance and self-rated health. Our analyses show that economic independence is negatively associated with living arrangement concordance among institutionalized older adults (net of other factors), while being older, female, minority ethnicity, having higher SES, and being unmarried are positively associated with living arrangement concordance among community-residing seniors. For both institutionalized and community-residing older adults, living arrangement concordance increases the likelihood of rating self-rated health as good, with concordance having a greater impact on health for institutionalized elders (odds-ratios of 1.67-1.93) than for community-residing elders (odds-ratios of 1.12).

  4. Influence of spousal education on partner's self-rated health: cross-sectional study among 1382 married couples in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Fu, Hua; Zhao, Fang; Luo, Jianfeng; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-09-01

    The effect of individual educational attainment on health has been extensively documented in western countries, whereas empirical evidence of education spillover effects in marital dyads is scarce and inconsistent. A total of 2764 individuals (or 1382 marital dyads) were surveyed in the Shanghai Healthy City Project 2008. Logistic regression models were used for analysis, and all analyses were stratified by gender. Significant protective associations were observed in univariate models linking general health status to the individual's own educational attainment and to their partner's educational level. After controlling for presence of chronic conditions, lifestyle factors, and social support, these associations were attenuated. The authors found a gender difference in the association of spouse's educational attainment with self-rated health. The influence of education on health may be partly mediated by lifestyle and other factors.

  5. Gender equality in couples and self-rated health - A survey study evaluating measurements of gender equality and its impact on health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Men and women have different patterns of health. These differences between the sexes present a challenge to the field of public health. The question why women experience more health problems than men despite their longevity has been discussed extensively, with both social and biological theories being offered as plausible explanations. In this article, we focus on how gender equality in a partnership might be associated with the respondents' perceptions of health. Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey with 1400 respondents. We measured gender equality using two different measures: 1) a self-reported gender equality index, and 2) a self-perceived gender equality question. The aim of comparison of the self-reported gender equality index with the self-perceived gender equality question was to reveal possible disagreements between the normative discourse on gender equality and daily practice in couple relationships. We then evaluated the association with health, measured as self-rated health (SRH). With SRH dichotomized into 'good' and 'poor', logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with the outcome. For the comparison between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality, kappa statistics were used. Results Associations between gender equality and health found in this study vary with the type of gender equality measurement. Overall, we found little agreement between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality. Further, the patterns of agreement between self-perceived and self-reported gender equality were quite different for men and women: men perceived greater gender equality than they reported in the index, while women perceived less gender equality than they reported. The associations to health were depending on gender equality measurement used. Conclusions Men and women perceive and report gender equality differently. This means that it is necessary not only to be

  6. Objective and Self-Rated Sedentary Time and Indicators of Metabolic Health in Dutch and Hungarian 10–12 Year Olds: The ENERGY-Project

    PubMed Central

    Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Yıldırım, Mine; Altenburg, Teatske M.; Singh, Amika S.; Kovács, Éva; Molnár, Dénes; Brug, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between objectively assessed sedentary time and metabolic risk factors in childhood have rarely been studied. Therefore, we examined the independent relationship between objectively assessed and self-rated sedentary time and indicators of metabolic health in Dutch and Hungarian 10–12 year olds. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional survey in primary schools. Participants were Dutch and Hungarian girls (n = 73, aged 12.2±0.6 years, 18% overweight/obese) and boys (n = 69, aged 12.2±0.7 years, 38% overweight/obese). Sedentary time and physical activity were assessed by the Actigraph accelerometer. TV and PC time were assessed by self-report. Adiposity indicators included body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC). Fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined in capillary blood and summed into a metabolic risk score. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for physical activity, number of sedentary bouts and WC. Children spent on average 7.6 hours of their daily waking time in sedentary behavior and self-reported 116±64 min/day watching TV and 85±57 min/day using the computer. Comparing the 1st and 4th quartile of objectively assessed sedentary time, C-Peptide levels, WC and BMI were significantly higher in the most sedentary quartile, while the difference in metabolic risk score was borderline significant (p = 0.09). Comparing the 1st and 4th quartile of TV time, BMI was significantly higher in the most sedentary quartile, while the difference in WC score was borderline significant (p = 0.06). In the adjusted linear regression analysis we found no significant association of sedentary time with metabolic risk. Conclusions/Significance Although BMI and WC were higher in the most sedentary versus the least sedentary children; we found no further evidence that more sedentary

  7. Whose health is affected by income inequality? A multilevel interaction analysis of contemporaneous and lagged effects of state income inequality on individual self-rated health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-06-01

    The empirical relationship between income inequality and health has been much debated and discussed. Recent reviews suggest that the current evidence is mixed, with the relationship between state income inequality and health in the United States (US) being perhaps the most robust. In this paper, we examine the multilevel interactions between state income inequality, individual poor self-rated health, and a range of individual demographic and socioeconomic markers in the US. We use the pooled data from the 1995 and 1997 Current Population Surveys, and the data on state income inequality (represented using Gini coefficient) from the 1990, 1980, and 1970 US Censuses. Utilizing a cross-sectional multilevel design of 201,221 adults nested within 50 US states we calibrated two-level binomial hierarchical mixed models (with states specified as a random effect). Our analyses suggest that for a 0.05 change in the state income inequality, the odds ratio (OR) of reporting poor health was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.17-1.45) in a conditional model that included individual age, sex, race, marital status, education, income, and health insurance coverage as well as state median income. With few exceptions, we did not find strong statistical support for differential effects of state income inequality across different population groups. For instance, the relationship between state income inequality and poor health was steeper for whites compared to blacks (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.20-1.48) and for individuals with incomes greater than $75,000 compared to less affluent individuals (OR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.26-2.15). Our findings, however, primarily suggests an overall (as opposed to differential) contextual effect of state income inequality on individual self-rated poor health. To the extent that contemporaneous state income inequality differentially affects population sub-groups, our analyses suggest that the adverse impact of inequality is somewhat stronger for the relatively advantaged socioeconomic

  8. Association between self-rated health and mortality: 10 years follow-up to the Pró-Saúde cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality is well documented in the literature, but studies on the subject among young adults in Latin America are rare, as are those evaluating this association using repeated SRH measures, beyond the baseline measurement. This study aims to evaluate the association between SRH evaluated at three data collection stages and mortality. Methods Cox regression models were used to examine the association between SRH (Very good, Good, Fair/Poor) varying over time and mortality, over a 10 year period, in a cohort of non-faculty civil servants at a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study, n = 4009, men = 44.4%). Results About 40% of the population changed their self-rating over the course of follow-up. After adjustment for self-reported physician-diagnosed chronic diseases and other covariates, men who reported “Fair/Poor” SRH showed relative hazard of death of 2.13 (CI95% 1.03-4.40) and women, 3.43 (CI95% 1.23-9.59), as compared with those who reported “Very good” SRH. Conclusions In a population of young adults, our findings reinforce the role of SRH as a predictor of mortality, even controlling for objective measures of health. PMID:22905737

  9. Social support and the self-rated health of older people: A comparative study in Tainan Taiwan and Fuzhou Fujian province.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yue; Zhang, Chen-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Quan; Li, Zhanzhan; Jiang, Caixiao; Huang, Hui-Ling

    2016-06-01

    The lack of social support in elderly populations incurs real societal costs and can lead to their poor health. The aim of this study is to investigate the self-rated health (SRH) and social support among older people as well as its associated factors.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 312 urban community-dwelling elderly aged 65 to 90 years in Tainan Taiwan and Fuzhou Fujian Province from March 2012 to October 2012. A Spearson correlation test, independent t test, a Pearson χ test, a linear regression analysis, and a multiple-level model were performed to analyze the results.The participants identified children as the most important source of objective and subjective support, followed by spouse and relatives. Tainan's elderly received more daily life assistance and emotional support, showed stronger awareness of the need to seek help, and maintained a higher frequency of social interactions compared with the elderly in Fuzhou. The mean objective support, subjective support, and support utilization scores as well as the overall social support among Tainan's elderly were significantly high compared with the scores among Fuzhou's elderly. Further, Tainan's elderly rated better SRH than Fuzhou's elderly. Correlation analysis showed that social support was significantly correlated with city, age, living conditions, marital status, and SRH. Multiple linear regression analysis, with social support as a dependent variable, retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model: city (4.792, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.068-6.516, P = 0.000), age (-0.805, 95% CI: -1.394 to -0.135, P = 0.013), marital status (-1.260, 95% CI: -1.891 to -0.629, P = 0.000), living conditions (4.069, 95% CI: 3.022-5.116, P = 0.000), and SRH -1.941, 95% CI: -3.194 to -0.688, P = 0.003). The multiple-level model showed that city would impact older people's social support (χ = 5.103, P < 0.001). Marital status (-2.133, 95% CI: -2.768 to -1.499, P = 0

  10. The impact of nativity on chronic diseases, self-rated health and comorbidity status of Asian and Hispanic immigrants.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jimi; Prause, Jo Ann; Dooley, C David

    2008-04-01

    This study examines the physical health status of immigrants with specific considerations of Asian and Hispanic populations and explores possible mechanisms through which health outcomes of interest can be explained. Analyses of the National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) of 2000 and 2001 revealed that foreign-born individuals reported fewer chronic diseases (hypertension, heart disease, asthma, cancer and diabetes) and had lower prevalences of various chronic diseases compared with U.S.-born whites, controlling for possible confounders and mediators. However, U.S-born minority groups did not show the health advantage seen in foreign-born immigrants, reflecting the importance of nativity distinctions in studying immigrant health. Despite having fewer chronic diseases, foreign-born Asians were more likely to rate their health negatively relative to their U.S.-born counterparts and to U.S.-born whites. In addition, our findings provide evidence that failure to consider comorbid status may attenuate the nativity effect on certain chronic diseases.

  11. Social safety, self-rated general health and physical activity: changes in area crime, area safety feelings and the role of social cohesion.

    PubMed

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Groenewegen, Peter P; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether changes over time in reported area crime and perceived area safety were related to self-rated general health and physical activity (PA), in order to provide support for a causal relationship between social safety and health. Additionally, we investigated whether social cohesion protects the residents against the negative impact of unsafe areas on health and PA. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on Dutch survey data, including 47,926 respondents living in 2974 areas. An increase in area level unsafety feelings between 2009 and 2011 was associated with more people reporting poor general health in 2012 in that area, but was not related to PA. Changes in reported area crime were not related to either poor general health or PA. The social cohesion in the area did not modify the effect of changes in social safety on health and PA. The results suggest that tackling feelings of unsafety in an area might contribute to the better general health of the residents. Because changes in area social safety were not associated with PA, we found no leads that such health benefits were achieved through an increase in physical activity.

  12. Bringing You More than the Weekend: Union Membership and Self-Rated Health in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Megan M.; Brady, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that higher incomes, safe workplaces, job security and healthcare access all contribute to favorable health. Reflecting the interest of economic and political sociologists in power relations and institutions, union membership has been linked with many such influences on health. Nevertheless, the potential relationship…

  13. A simple measure with complex determinants: investigation of the correlates of self-rated health in older men and women from three continents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-rated health is commonly employed in research studies that seek to assess the health status of older individuals. Perceptions of health are, however, influenced by individual and societal level factors that may differ within and between countries. This study investigates levels of self-rated health (SRH) and correlates of SRH among older adults in Australia, United States of America (USA), Japan and South Korea. Methods Cross-sectional data were drawn from large surveys of older respondents (≥ 65 years) in Australia (n = 7,355), USA (n = 10,358), Japan (n = 3,541) and South Korea (n = 3,971), collected between 2000 and 2006. Harmonized variables were developed to represent socioeconomic, lifestyle and health indicators. We then assessed whether these variables, and their potentially different impact in different countries, could account for cross-national differences in levels of SRH. Results SRH differed significantly between countries, with older Koreans reporting much poorer health than those in the other three nations. This was not the result of biases in response patterns (for example central versus extreme tendency). Health-related correlates of SRH were similar across countries; those with more medical conditions, functional limitations or poor mental health gave poorer ratings. After accounting for the differential impact of determinants in different national contexts, Australians reported better SRH than other nations. Conclusions We conclude that when examining correlates of SRH, the similarities are greater than the differences between countries. There are however differences in levels of SRH which are not fully accounted for by the health correlates. Broad generalizations about styles of responding are not helpful for understanding these differences, which appear to be country, and possibly cohort specific. When using SRH to characterize the health status of older people, it is important to consider earlier life

  14. Persistent Psychological Well-being Predicts Improved Self-Rated Health Over 9-10 Years: Longitudinal Evidence from MIDUS

    PubMed Central

    Ryff, Carol D.; Radler, Barry T.; Friedman, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological well-being has been linked with better health, but mostly with cross-sectional evidence. Using MIDUS, a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 4,963), longitudinal profiles of well-being were used to predict in cross-time change over a 9-10 years in self-reported health. Well-being was largely stable, although adults differed in whether they had persistently high versus persistently low or moderate levels of well-being. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, those with persistently high well-being reported better health (subjective health, chronic conditions, symptoms, functional impairment) across time compared to those with persistently low well-being. Further, persistently high well-being was protective of improved health especially among the educationally disadvantaged. The findings underscore the importance of intervention and educational programs designed to promote well-being for greater segments of society. PMID:26617988

  15. The Modifying Influence of Country Development on the Effect of Individual Educational Attainment on Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooi, Anne L. F.; Stronks, Karien; Thompson, Caroline A.; DerSarkissian, Maral

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how much the Human Development Index (HDI), a global measure of development, modifies the effect of education on self-reported health. Methods. We analyzed cross-sectional World Health Survey data on 217 642 individuals from 49 countries, collected in 2002 to 2005, with random-intercept multilevel linear regression models. Results. We observed greater positive associations between educational levels and self-reported good health with increasing HDI. The magnitude of this effect modification of the education–health relation tended to increase with educational attainment. For example, before adjustment for effect modification, at comparable HDI, on average, finishing primary school was associated with better general health (b = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.80). With adjustment for effect modification by HDI, the impact became 4.63 (95% CI = 3.63, 5.62) for every 0.1 increase in HDI. Among those who completed high school, these associations were, respectively, 5.59 (95% CI = 5.20, 5.98) and 9.95 (95% CI = 8.89, 11.00). Conclusions. The health benefits of educational attainment are greater in countries with greater human development. Health inequalities attributable to education are, therefore, larger in more developed countries. PMID:24028233

  16. The Relevance of Objective and Subjective Social Position for Self-Rated Health: A Combined Approach for the Swedish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miething, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the health effects of subjective class position stratified by objective social position. Four types of subjective class were analysed separately for individuals with manual or non-manual occupational background. The cross-sectional analysis is based on the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey from 2000 and includes 4,139…

  17. The Role of Stress Management in the Relationship between Purpose in Life and Self-Rated Health in Teachers: A Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Chen, Jieyu; Yu, Lin; Jing, Yuan; Jiang, Pingping; Fu, Xiuqiong; Wu, Shengwei; Sun, Xiaomin; Luo, Ren; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    Background: To examine whether stress management mediates the relationship between purpose in life and self-rated health status (SRH). Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 6840 teachers in 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Purpose in life was assessed through the Purpose in Life Subscale of the Psychological Well-being Scale. Stress management was assessed using the eight-item questionnaire adapted from the Health-promoting Lifestyle Profile II. SRH was assessed by the Suboptimal Health Measurement Scale Version 1.0. The mediation hypothesis was tested by the structural equation model for path analysis. Results: It was found that purpose in life had direct and indirect effects on SRH. The path analysis showed the total effect (β = 0.563) of purpose in life on SRH was comprised of a direct effect (β = 0.319) and an indirect effect (β = 0.244), which was mediated by stress management. Conclusions: By supporting the mediation hypothesis, our results indicate that stress management mediated the effect of purpose in life on SRH. Enhancement of teachers’ purpose in life and improvement of training skills of stress management should be incorporated in the strategy of improving teachers’ health. PMID:27438843

  18. Indoor mildew odour in old housing was associated with adult allergic symptoms, asthma, chronic bronchitis, vision, sleep and self-rated health: USA NHANES, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-09-01

    A recent systematic review and meta-analysis has shown the effect of indoor mildew odour on allergic rhinitis risk, but its relation to other common chronic health outcomes in adults has not been investigated. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationship of indoor mildew odour and common health outcomes in adults in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005-2006, including the available information on demographics, housing characteristics, self-reported health conditions and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals. T test, chi-squared test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling were performed. Of all American adults (n = 4979), 744 (15.1%) reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell in their households. People who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also reported poorer self-rated health, sleep complaints, chronic bronchitis, asthma attack, itchy rash, sneezing and poor vision. In addition, people who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also tended to reside in older housing that were built 20 years earlier. However, there were no significant statistical associations found between indoor mildew odour or musty smell and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals, which was also found to be associated with old housing. People who lived in older housing with indoor mildew odour or musty smell tended to have chronic health problems. To protect occupants in old housing from chronic illnesses associated with indoor mildew odour, elimination of the odour sources should be explored in future research and therefore public health and housing programs. Graphical abstract Pathway from old housing to musty smell, environmental chemicals and then health outcomes. PMID:25971810

  19. The association of neighbourhood and individual social capital with consistent self-rated health: a longitudinal study in Brazilian pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social conditions, social relationships and neighbourhood environment, the components of social capital, are important determinants of health. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of neighbourhood and individual social capital with consistent self-rated health in women between the first trimester of pregnancy and six months postpartum. Methods A multilevel cohort study in 34 neighbourhoods was performed on 685 Brazilian women recruited at antenatal units in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Self-rated health (SRH) was assessed in the 1st trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and six months after childbirth (follow-up). The participants were divided into two groups: 1. Good SRH – good SRH at baseline and follow-up, and, 2. Poor SRH – poor SRH at baseline and follow-up. Exploratory variables collected at baseline included neighbourhood social capital (neighbourhood-level variable), individual social capital (social support and social networks), demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health-related behaviours and self-reported diseases. A hierarchical binomial multilevel analysis was performed to test the association between neighbourhood and individual social capital and SRH, adjusted for covariates. Results The Good SRH group reported higher scores of social support and social networks than the Poor SRH group. Although low neighbourhood social capital was associated with poor SRH in crude analysis, the association was not significant when individual socio-demographic variables were included in the model. In the final model, women reporting poor SRH both at baseline and follow-up had lower levels of social support (positive social interaction) [OR 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73-0.90)] and a lower likelihood of friendship social networks [OR 0.61 (95% CI: 0.37-0.99)] than the Good SRH group. The characteristics that remained associated with poor SRH were low level of schooling, Black and Brown ethnicity, more children

  20. The impact of socio-economic status on self-rated health: study of 29 countries using European social surveys (2002-2008).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Rodero-Cosano, Maria Luisa; Motrico, Emma; Salinas-Perez, Jose A; Garcia-Alonso, Carlos; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-02-25

    Studies show that the association between socio-economic status (SES) and self-rated health (SRH) varies in different countries, however there are not many country-comparisons that examine this relationship over time. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of three SES measures on SRH in 29 countries according to findings in European Social Surveys (2002-2008), in order to study how socio-economic inequalities can vary our subjective state of health. In line with previous studies, income inequalities seem to be greater not only in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries, but especially in Eastern European countries. The impact of education is greater in Southern countries, and this effect is similar in Eastern and Scandinavian countries, although occupational status does not produce significant differences in southern countries. This study shows the general relevance of socio-educational factors on SRH. Individual economic conditions are obviously a basic factor contributing to a good state of health, but education could be even more relevant to preserve it. In this sense, policies should not only aim at reducing income inequalities, but should also further the education of people who are in risk of social exclusion.

  1. The impact of an unconditional tax credit for families on self-rated health in adults: further evidence from the cohort study of 6900 New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Carter, Kristie; Kawachi, Ichiro; Davis, Peter; Blakely, Tony

    2014-05-01

    It is hypothesized that unconditional (given without obligation) publicly funded financial credits more effectively improve health than conditional financial credits in high-income countries. We previously reported no discernible short-term impact of an employment-conditional tax credit for families on self-rated health (SRH) in adults in New Zealand. This study estimates the effect of an unconditional tax credit for families, called Family Tax Credit (FTC), on SRH in the same study population and setting. A balanced panel of 6900 adults in families was extracted from seven waves (2002-2009) of the Survey of Family, Income and Employment. The exposures, eligibility for and amount of FTC, were derived by applying government eligibility and entitlement criteria. The outcome, SRH, was collected annually. Fixed effects regression analyses eliminated all time-invariant confounding and adjusted for measured time-varying confounders. Becoming eligible for FTC was associated with a small and statistically insignificant change in SRH over the past year [effect estimate: 0.013; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.011 to 0.037], as was an increase in the estimated amount of FTC by $1000 (effect estimate: -0.001; 95% CI -0.006 to 0.004). The unconditional tax credit for families had no discernible short-term impact on SRH in adults in New Zealand. It did not more effectively improve health status than an employment-conditional tax credit for families.

  2. Relationships among Age, Exercise, Health, and Cognitive Function in a British Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Charles F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the association of age, self-rated health, and walking activity with 4 measures of cognitive functioning in 6,979 randomly selected people ranging in age from 18 to 94. Assessments included a face-to-face interview regarding health and health beliefs as well as cognitive testing. Analyses indicated that faster reaction time speed was…

  3. A multilevel analysis of key forms of community- and individual-level social capital as predictors of self-rated health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-09-01

    Communities may be rich or poor in a variety of stocks of social capital. Studies that have investigated relations among these forms and their simultaneous and combined health effects are sparse. Using data on a sample of 24,835 adults (more than half of whom resided in core urban areas) nested within 40 U.S. communities from the Social Capital Benchmark Survey, correlational and factor analyses were applied to determine appropriate groupings among eight key social capital indicators (social trust, informal social interactions, formal group involvement, religious group involvement, giving and volunteering, diversity of friendship networks, electoral political participation, and non-electoral political participation) at each of the community and individual levels. Multilevel logistic regression models were estimated to analyze the associations between the grouped social capital forms and individual self-rated health. Adjusting the three identified community-level social capital groupings/scales for one another and community- and individual-level sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, each of the odds ratios of fair/poor health associated with living in a community one standard deviation higher in the respective social capital form was modestly below one. Being high on all three (vs. none of the) scales was significantly associated with 18% lower odds of fair/poor health (odds ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval = 0.69-0.98). Adding individual-level social capital variables to the model attenuated two of the three community-level social capital associations, with a few of the former characteristics appearing to be moderately significantly protective of health. We further observed several significant interactions between community-level social capital and one's proximity to core urban areas, individual-level race/ethnicity, gender, and social capital. Overall, our results suggest primarily beneficial yet modest health effects of key summary forms of

  4. Aging, longevity and health.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-10-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5-7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health.

  5. Health and aging.

    PubMed

    Dhar, H L

    1997-10-01

    Regular meditation is the key to health (mental, physical and social wellbeing). It elevates mind from gross level to finer aspect and makes the body and mind follow the law of nature achieving good health, preventing disease, improving performance and reducing aging process. Balanced diet (less sugar, less salt and less fat as age advances supplemented with vitamins and minerals) and mild to moderate exercise (walking etc.) are complimentary to the effects of meditation.

  6. The effect of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on health behaviors, access to health services, and self-rated health in the United States, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Charters, Thomas J; Harper, Sam; Strumpf, Erin C; Subramanian, S V; Arcaya, Mariana; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-07-01

    The recent housing crisis offers the opportunity to understand the effects of unique indicators of macroeconomic conditions on health. We linked data on the proportion of mortgage borrowers per US metropolitan-area who were at least 90 days delinquent on their payments with individual-level outcomes from a representative sample of 1,021,341 adults surveyed through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) between 2003 and 2010. We estimated the effects of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on individual health behaviors, medical coverage, and health status, as well as whether effects varied by race/ethnicity. Results showed that increases in the metropolitan-area delinquency rate resulted in decreases in heavy alcohol consumption and increases in exercise and health insurance coverage. However, the delinquency rate was also associated with increases in smoking and obesity in some population groups, suggesting the housing crisis may have induced stress-related behavioral change. Overall, the effects of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on population health were relatively modest. PMID:27261531

  7. Relation between overweight/obesity and self-rated health among adolescents in Germany. Do socio-economic status and type of school have an impact on that relation?

    PubMed

    Krause, Laura; Lampert, Thomas

    2015-02-16

    This study investigates the relation between overweight/obesity and self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relation varies by social factors. Data was taken from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, baseline 2003‒2006). For the definition of overweight and obesity, body mass index was calculated based on standardized height and weight measurements. SRH of adolescents (n = 6813, 11‒17 years) was raised with the question: "How would you describe your health in general?" The response categories were "very good", "good", "fair", "poor", and "very poor". We dichotomized these responses into: "very good/good" vs. "fair/poor/very poor". Socio-economic status (SES) in the family of origin and adolescents' school type were analyzed as modifying factors. Prevalence and age-adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by binary logistic regression models. We found that overweight and obese boys and obese girls reported fair to very poor SRH more often than their normal weight peers, and that these differences were more apparent in early than late adolescence. In addition, the relation between obesity and SRH was similarly strong in all sub-groups, but there was seldom a relation between overweight and SRH. In summary, the results show that obesity is linked to poor SRH regardless of SES and school type, while the relation between overweight and SRH varies by social factors among adolescents.

  8. The ability of self-rated health to predict mortality among community-dwelling elderly individuals differs according to the specific cause of death: data from the NEDICES Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Guerra-Vales, Juan M.; Trincado, Rocío; Fernández, Rebeca; Medrano, María José; Villarejo, Alberto; Benito-León, Julián; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2013-01-01

    Background The biomedical and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality in elderly individuals remain unclear. Objective To assess the association between different measurements of subjective health (global, age-comparative, and time-comparative SRH) and cause-specific mortality. Methods Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) is a prospective population-based survey of the prevalence and incidence of major age-associated conditions. Data on demographic and health-related variables were collected from 5,278 subjects (≥65 years) at the baseline questionnaire. Thirteen-year mortality and cause of death were obtained from the National Death Registry. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for SRH and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Results At baseline, 4,958 participants (93.9%) answered the SRH questionnaire. At the end of follow-up 2,468 (49.8%) participants had died (of whom 723 [29.2%] died from cardiovascular diseases, 609 [24.7%] from cancer, and 359 [14.5%] from respiratory diseases). Global SRH predicted independently all-cause mortality (aHR for “poor or very poor” vs. “very good” category: 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–1.69). Analysis of cause-specific mortality revealed that global SRH was an independent predictor for death due to respiratory diseases (aHR for “poor or very poor” vs. “very good” category: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.55–4.39), whereas age-comparative SRH exhibited a gradient effect on the risk of death due to stroke. Time-comparative SRH provided small additional predictive value. Conclusions The predictive ability of SRH for mortality largely differs according to the specific cause of death, with the strongest associations found for respiratory disease and stroke mortality. PMID:23615509

  9. Health-related quality of life in Huntington's disease patients: a comparison of proxy assessment and patient self-rating using the disease-specific Huntington's disease health-related quality of life questionnaire (HDQoL).

    PubMed

    Hocaoglu, Mevhibe B; Gaffan, E A; Ho, Aileen K

    2012-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease for which there is no known cure. Proxy evaluation is relevant for HD as its manifestation might limit the ability of persons to report their health-related quality of life (HrQoL). This study explored patient-proxy ratings of HrQoL of persons at different stages of HD, and examined factors that may affect proxy ratings. A total of 105 patient-proxy pairs completed the Huntington's disease health-related quality of life questionnaire (HDQoL) and other established HrQoL measures (EQ-5D and SF-12v2). Proxy-patient agreement was assessed in terms of absolute level (mean ratings) and intraclass correlation. Proxies' ratings were at a similar level to patients' self-ratings on an overall Summary Score and on most of the six Specific Scales of the HDQoL. On the Specific Hopes and Worries Scale, proxies on average rated HrQoL as better than patients' self-ratings, while on both the Specific Cognitive Scale and Specific Physical and Functional Scale proxies tended to rate HrQoL more poorly than patients themselves. The patient's disease stage and mental wellbeing (SF-12 Mental Component scale) were the two factors that primarily affected proxy assessment. Proxy scores were strongly correlated with patients' self-ratings of HrQoL, on the Summary Scale and all Specific Scales. The patient-proxy correlation was lower for patients at moderate stages of HD compared to patients at early and advanced stages. The proxy report version of the HDQoL is a useful complementary tool to self-assessment, and a promising alternative when individual patients with advanced HD are unable to self-report. PMID:22392579

  10. Active lifestyles related to excellent self-rated health and quality of life: cross sectional findings from 194,545 participants in The 45 and Up Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity and sitting time independently contribute to chronic disease risk, though little work has focused on aspirational health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between physical activity, sitting time, and excellent overall health (ExH) and quality of life (ExQoL) in Australian adults. Methods The 45 and Up Study is a large Australian prospective cohort study (n = 267,153). Present analyses are from 194,545 participants (48% male; mean age = 61.6 ± 10.7 yrs) with complete baseline questionnaire data on exposures, outcomes, and potential confounders (age, income, education, smoking, marital status, weight status, sex, residential remoteness and economic advantage, functional limitation and chronic disease). The Active Australia survey was used to assess walking, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Sitting time was determined by asking participants to indicate number of hours per day usually spent sitting. Participants reported overall health and quality of life, using a five-point scale (excellent—poor). Binary logistic regression models were used to analyze associations, controlling for potential confounders. Results Approximately 16.5% of participants reported ExH, and 25.7% reported ExQoL. In fully adjusted models, physical activity was positively associated with ExH (AOR = adjusted odds ratio for most versus least active = 2.22, 95% CI = 2.20, 2.47; Ptrend < 0.001) and ExQoL (AOR for most versus least active = 2.30, 95% CI = 2.12, 2.49; Ptrend < 0.001). In fully adjusted models, sitting time was inversely associated with ExH (AOR for least versus most sitting group = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.09, 1.18; Ptrend < 0.001) and ExQoL (AOR for least versus most sitting group = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.17; Ptrend < 0.001). In fully adjusted models, interactions between physical activity and sitting time were not significant for ExH (P = 0.118) or Ex

  11. The influence of neighbourhood formality status and socio-economic position on self-rated health among adult men and women: a multilevel, cross sectional, population study from Aleppo, Syria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence from high income countries that neighbourhoods have an influence on health independent of individual characteristics. However, neighbourhood characteristics are rarely taken into account in the analysis of urban health studies from developing countries. Informal urban neighbourhoods are home to about half of the population in Aleppo, the second largest city in Syria (population>2.5 million). This study aimed to examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) and formality status on self-rated health (SRH) of adult men and women residing in formal and informal urban neighbourhoods in Aleppo. Methods The study used data from 2038 survey respondents to the Aleppo Household Survey, 2004 (age 18–65 years, 54.8% women, response rate 86%). Respondents were nested in 45 neighbourhoods. Five individual-level SES measures, namely education, employment, car ownership, item ownership and household density, were aggregated to the level of neighbourhood. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations. Results We did not find evidence of important SRH variation between neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood average of household item ownership was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting excellent SRH in women; odds ratio (OR) for an increase of one item on average was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-4.4 (versus poor SRH)) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 (versus normal SRH)), adjusted for individual characteristics and neighbourhood formality. After controlling for individual and neighbourhood SES measures, women living in informal neighbourhoods were less likely to report poor SRH than women living in formal neighbourhoods (OR= 0.4; 95% CI (0.2- 0.8) (versus poor SRH) and OR=0.5; 95%; CI (0.3-0.9) (versus normal SRH). Conclusions Findings support evidence from high income countries that certain characteristic of neighbourhoods affect men and women in different ways. Further research from similar urban settings in

  12. Aging and Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kay H.

    2014-01-01

    A recent study comparing older adults’ health literacy skills with their satisfaction with health care providers’ communication efforts did not find a correlation between the two measures. However, the results were interesting, including the fact that almost 40 percent of participants experienced moderate to severe difficulties in understanding everyday health information as presented in a food label (Newest Vital Sign assessment). This has implications for senior patient engagement in health care, particularly at a time when so many health transactions such as scheduling and records requests, not to mention general health information, are moving to online only format. Librarians should be aware of the issues surrounding health literacy in older adults and work with providers to address those deficits in health care navigation in this population. PMID:24634614

  13. Psychiatric nurses' self-rated competence.

    PubMed

    Ewalds-Kvist, Beatrice; Algotsson, Martina; Bergström, Annelie; Lützén, Kim

    2012-07-01

    This study explored the self-rated competence of 52 Swedish psychiatric nurses in three clinical environments: forensic psychiatry, general psychiatric inpatient care, and clinical non-residential psychiatric care. A questionnaire wtih 56 statements from nine areas of expertise was completed. Forensic nurses were more skilled in safety and quality and in dealing with violence and conflicts. Non-specialist nurses appreciated their skills more so than specialist nurses in health promotion and illness prevention and conduct, information, and education. Women were inclined to invite patients' relatives for education and information. Men attended to a patients' spiritual needs; they also coped with violence and managed conflicts. PMID:22757599

  14. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... than ever after menopause. But for other women, physical changes, illness, disabilities, and some medicines make sex painful, ... in Later Life - This brochure describes the normal physical changes in men and women that come with age. ...

  15. Health status among young people in Slovakia: comparisons on the basis of age, gender and education.

    PubMed

    Sleskova, Maria; Salonna, Ferdinand; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Groothoff, Johan W

    2005-12-01

    This study examines the health status of young people in Slovakia. Six subjective health indicators (self-rated health, long-standing illness, vitality, mental health, long-term well-being over the last year and occurrence of health complaints during the previous month) were used to assess the health status of three age groups: first grade secondary school students (mean age 15.9 years), third grade students (mean age 17.8 years) and secondary school leavers (mean age 19.6 years). Females rated their health worse than males on all six indicators (most of these differences were statistically significant). For males, younger age was associated with better self-rated health, less long-standing illness and higher levels of long-term well-being during the previous year. For females, the age differences were more complicated: third grade females reported significantly worse health status in terms of vitality, long-standing illness and number of health complaints than the other two age groups. An analysis of health status by educational level (attendance at or completion of grammar, technical or apprentice school), revealed that grammar school third grade females reported worse health than all other respondents on all six indicators. The third grade of grammar school in Slovakia puts particular stresses on students and, since it has been suggested that females may react more negatively than males to stressful events, this may contribute to their more negative self reports.

  16. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  17. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  18. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  19. Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  20. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  1. The Impact of Employment and Self-Rated Economic Condition on the Subjective Well-Being of Older Korean Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jung; Lee, Yura; Sangalang, Cindy; Harris, Lesley M

    2015-09-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated a relationship between socioeconomic factors and health among older adults, yet fewer studies have explored this relationship with older immigrants. This study aims to examine the influence of employment and self-rated economic condition on the subjective well-being of older Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study of 205 older Korean immigrants, aged 65 to 90, in Los Angeles County. Hierarchical regression was employed to explore the independent and interactive effects of employment status and self-rated economic condition. The study found that employment and self-rated economic status were positively associated with subjective well-being. Also, the interaction between employment and self-rated economic status was significantly associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, such that the influence of self-rated economic condition was stronger for unemployed older Korean immigrants compared with those who were employed. This population-based study provides empirical evidence that employment and self-rated economic condition are directly associated with subjective well-being for older Korean immigrants.

  2. Space age health care delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Space age health care delivery is being delivered to both NASA astronauts and employees with primary emphasis on preventive medicine. The program relies heavily on comprehensive health physical exams, health education, screening programs and physical fitness programs. Medical data from the program is stored in a computer bank so epidemiological significance can be established and better procedures can be obtained. Besides health care delivery to the NASA population, NASA is working with HEW on a telemedicine project STARPAHC, applying space technology to provide health care delivery to remotely located populations.

  3. Sex Differences in Biological Markers of Health in the Study of Stress, Aging and Health in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The apparent contradiction that women live longer but have worse health than men, the so called male-female health-survival paradox, is very pronounced in Russia. The present study investigates whether men in Moscow are healthier than women at the level of biomarkers, and whether the associations between biomarkers and subjective health have sex-specific patterns. Materials Previously collected data in the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (SAHR, n = 1800) were used to examine sex differences in biomarkers and their associations with physical functioning and self-rated health. Results The present study found mixed directions and magnitudes for sex differences in biomarkers. Women were significantly disadvantaged with regard to obesity and waist circumference, whereas men had a tendency toward higher prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities. No sex differences were indicated in the prevalence of immunological biomarkers, and mixed patterns were found for lipid profiles. Many biomarkers were associated with physical functioning and general health. Obesity and waist circumference were related to lower physical functioning among females only, while major Q-wave abnormalities with high probabilities of myocardial infarction and atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter were associated with physical functioning and self-rated health among males only. Conclusion No clear patterns of sex differences in prevalence of high-risk levels of biomarkers suggest that the male-female health-survival paradox is weaker at the level of health biomarkers. We found some evidence that certain biomarkers reflecting pathophysiological changes in the organism that do not possess acute health risks, but over many years may lead to physical disability, are associated with physical functioning and self-rated health in women, whereas others reflecting more serious life-threatening pathophysiological changes are associated with physical functioning and self-rated health

  4. THE ROLE OF DEFAMILIALIZATION IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARTNERSHIP AND SELF-RATED HEALTH: A CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISON OF CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; Clouston, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Partnered individuals live longer, healthier lives. It has been hypothesized that both social causation (partnership benefits) and health selection may explain this association. Since much of this literature is focused in the U.S., comparative studies of the potential impact of policy on the causation and selection components of this association have been scant. Using comparable data from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we test the selective and causal relationships evident during entrance into partnership. We use fixed change-point analysis with multilevel models (MLM) to fit trajectories of change in both Canada and the U.S. to understand the role of both health selection and partnership benefits. In Canada, partnership benefits were evident, while health selection was only marginally significant. In the US, health selection was prominent in both men and women, but partnership benefits were not significant. We argue that the differences in the extent of defamilialization of social policy between the two countries may impact the way and extent to which people choose partners and benefit from those partnerships. PMID:22800920

  5. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 to 39; Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ...

  6. Psychological wellbeing, health and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across

  7. Health, Lifestyle, and Gender Influences on Aging Well: An Australian Longitudinal Analysis to Guide Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Kendig, Hal; Browning, Colette J.; Thomas, Shane A.; Wells, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well (“healthy,” “active,” and “successful” aging) has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne longitudinal studies on healthy aging program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12-year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being under-weight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being under-weight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies. PMID:25072042

  8. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:26895999

  9. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum.

  10. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; Goodson, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses, and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  11. Social capital and core network ties: a validation study of individual-level social capital measures and their association with extra- and intra-neighborhood ties, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Moore, Spencer; Bockenholt, Ulf; Daniel, Mark; Frohlich, Katherine; Kestens, Yan; Richard, Lucie

    2011-03-01

    Research on social capital and health has assumed that measures of trust, participation, and perceived cohesion capture aspects of people's neighborhood social connections. This study uses data on the personal networks of 2707 Montreal adults in 300 different neighborhoods to examine the association of socio-demographic and social capital variables with the likelihood of having core ties, core neighborhood ties, and high self-rated health (SRH). Persons with higher household income were more likely to have core ties, but less likely to have core neighborhood ties. Persons with greater diversity in extra-neighborhood network capital were more likely to have core ties, and persons with greater diversity in intra-neighborhood network capital were more likely to have core neighborhood ties. Generalized trust, perceived neighborhood cohesion, and extra-neighborhood network diversity were shown associated with high SRH. Conventional measures of social capital may not capture network mechanisms. Findings suggest a critical appraisal of the mechanisms linking social capital and health, and the further delineation of network and psychosocial mechanisms in understanding these links.

  12. Aging, food, culture and health.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Kouris-Blazos, A; Hsa-Hage, B H

    1997-01-01

    International comparison of food intake and health studies amongst the aged is providing new insight into the importance of food culture in social context for healthy aging. At same time the possible variance in eating behavior compatible with good health requires consideration. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences) FHILL (Food Habits in Later Life) Project, comprises (1) a morbidity study on about 2,000 elderly in 13 communities (now available on CD Rom) and (2) a mortality follow-up study. In the morbidity study, a total health assessment score or Later Life Status Score (LLSS) has been considered in relation to non-nutritional and nutritional factors. The elderly Greek cohorts aged 70+ in Melbourne. Australia (M = 94, F = 95) and Spata, Greece (M = 51, F = 53) have been used as a model for multivariate analyses to determine separately the importance of non-nutritional (well-being, memory, general health, medication-use, activities of daily living, exercise, social activity and social networks scores) and nutritional variables (intake of food groups g/day, food group variety scores, nutrients) in accounting for LLSS. A mortality follow-up study on the elderly cohort in Spata, Greece has also been completed and published. The findings from these preliminary analyses on the Greek cohorts will be reviewed as an example of how food culture may be influencing both quality of life and survival in Greek elderly. The most important non-nutritional determinants of LLSS in Greeks included: mobility and independence (exercise and activities of daily living), well-being and memory (collectively explained 80% of the variation of LLSS). For nutritional variables, a high intake and variety of plant foods (in particular vegetables, legumes and fruit); a high intake and variety of seafood and a low intake of meat emerged with statistical and biological significance. Results from the mortality study also agree with findings from the morbidity study

  13. Aging, food, culture and health.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Kouris-Blazos, A; Hsa-Hage, B H

    1997-01-01

    International comparison of food intake and health studies amongst the aged is providing new insight into the importance of food culture in social context for healthy aging. At same time the possible variance in eating behavior compatible with good health requires consideration. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences) FHILL (Food Habits in Later Life) Project, comprises (1) a morbidity study on about 2,000 elderly in 13 communities (now available on CD Rom) and (2) a mortality follow-up study. In the morbidity study, a total health assessment score or Later Life Status Score (LLSS) has been considered in relation to non-nutritional and nutritional factors. The elderly Greek cohorts aged 70+ in Melbourne. Australia (M = 94, F = 95) and Spata, Greece (M = 51, F = 53) have been used as a model for multivariate analyses to determine separately the importance of non-nutritional (well-being, memory, general health, medication-use, activities of daily living, exercise, social activity and social networks scores) and nutritional variables (intake of food groups g/day, food group variety scores, nutrients) in accounting for LLSS. A mortality follow-up study on the elderly cohort in Spata, Greece has also been completed and published. The findings from these preliminary analyses on the Greek cohorts will be reviewed as an example of how food culture may be influencing both quality of life and survival in Greek elderly. The most important non-nutritional determinants of LLSS in Greeks included: mobility and independence (exercise and activities of daily living), well-being and memory (collectively explained 80% of the variation of LLSS). For nutritional variables, a high intake and variety of plant foods (in particular vegetables, legumes and fruit); a high intake and variety of seafood and a low intake of meat emerged with statistical and biological significance. Results from the mortality study also agree with findings from the morbidity study

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in health trajectories in Switzerland: are trajectories diverging as people age?

    PubMed

    Cullati, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Do socioeconomic differences in health status increase as people age, reflecting cumulative advantage or disadvantage in health trajectories? Life course research hypothesises that cumulative advantage/disadvantage (CAD) is an important underlying social process that shape inequalities as people age. The objective of this study is to examine whether health trajectories are diverging as people age across socioeconomic positions (education, employment status and income). In a random sample of 3,665 respondents living in Switzerland (Swiss Household Panel 2004-2011), trajectories of self-rated health, body mass index, depression and medicated functioning were examined with multilevel regression models. The results showed that employment status and income were associated with diverging health trajectories among men; however, only a few associations supported the CAD hypothesis. Education was rarely associated with diverging health trajectories. In conclusion, little evidence was found to support the CAD model.

  15. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  16. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  17. Impact of traditional Chinese medicine on age trajectories of health: evidence from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Ching; Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Tseng, Shuo-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is widely used, its effect on health outcomes is not well understood. This study employed a cohort sequential design to investigate levels and rates of change in health from midlife to older adulthood in TCM users and nonusers. A sample of 1,302 community-dwelling adults aged 53 to 80 was selected from individuals interviewed in the 1999 Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA) and reinterviewed in 2003 and 2007. TCM users were identified as participants who reported visiting a Chinese medicine clinic in the year before each of the three interviews. Health outcomes included physical function, self-rated health, cognitive function, and depressive symptoms. Approximately one in five adults reported that they used TCM in at least one wave of the 3 interview years, but less than one in twenty across all waves. Controlling for time-varying sociodemographic and health conditions, levels and rates of change in physical and cognitive function did not differ according to TCM use. Although adults who reported using TCM had higher depressive symptoms (βTCM = 0.979, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.200-1.758) and poorer self-rated health (βTCM = -0.267, 95% CI = -0.267 to -0.081) at baseline, their rates of change in these outcomes did not differ from those who did not use TCM. Subgroup analyses revealed that TCM use benefited adults with higher depressive symptoms by attenuating worsening depressive symptoms (βTCM ×Age = -0.221, 95% CI = -0.434 to -0.007). Further research aimed at understanding the specific mechanisms by which TCM affects health outcomes is warranted.

  18. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  19. Trends in the Health of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of data from the National Health Interview Survey shows consistent and substantial improvements in the relative health of the aged from 1961-81. Explanations for this trend include cohort effects, Medicare and Medicaid, and other programs for the aged. Increasing health service needs should be partially offset by this trend.…

  20. Age, mode of conception, health service use and pregnancy health: a prospective cohort study of Australian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence about the ways in which maternal age and mode of conception interact with psychological, sociodemographic, health and health service factors in governing pregnancy health. The aim of this study was to establish in what ways maternal age and mode of conception are associated with, health behaviours, health service use and self-rated physical and mental health during pregnancy. Method A prospective cohort study was conducted in a collaboration between universities, infertility treatment services and public and private obstetric hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia,. Consecutive cohorts of nulliparous English-literate women at least 28 weeks pregnant who had conceived through ART (ARTC) or spontaneously (SC) in three age-groups: 20–30; 31–36 and at least 37 years were recruited. Data were obtained via structured individual telephone interviews and self-report postal questionnaires at recruitment and four months postpartum. Study-specific questions assessed: sociodemographic characteristics; reproductive health; health behaviours and health service use. Standardized instruments assessed physical health: SF 12 Physical Component Score (PCS) and mental health: SF12 Mental Component Score (MCS); State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The main outcome measures were the SF 12 PCS, SF12 MCS scores and pregnancy-related hospital admissions. Results Of 1179 eligible women 791 (67%) participated, 27 had fertility treatment without oocyte retrieval and were excluded and 592/764 (78%) completed all pregnancy assessments. When other factors were controlled speaking a language other than English, having private health insurance and multiple gestation were associated with worse physical health and having private health insurance and better physical health were associated with better mental health. Pregnancy-related hospital admissions were associated with worse physical health and multiple gestation

  1. Socioeconomic status and self-reported health among middle-aged Japanese men: results from a nationwide longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine potential associations between socioeconomic factors and self-rated health among a national sample of Japanese men aged 50–59 years between 2005 and 2010, including the 2008 global financial crisis. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Randomly selected 2515 census areas from a total of 1.8 million census areas in Japan. Participants This study utilised data from a national, longitudinal survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Starting in 2005, 16 738 Japanese men aged 50–59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire each year. We analysed data for the 6-year period (2005–2010) from participants who had worked for over 20 years in the same industry (n=9727). Main outcome measures We focused on worsening self-rated health status by occupation, education and employment contract. Results Working in the manufacturing industry was associated with worsening self-rated health scores when compared to those working in management (HR=1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.37). A relationship between education level and worsening self-rated health was also identified as follows: junior high school (HR=1.49; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.69), high school (HR=1.29; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.42), and vocational college (HR=1.25; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.46), when compared with those holding university-level qualifications. Precarious employment (HR=1.17; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.37) was also associated with worsening self-rated health status in the current study. Conclusions This study suggests that working in manufacturing for more than 20 years and having lower education levels may have a significant impact on the self-rated health of middle-aged Japanese men. This may reflect a progressive decline in Japanese working conditions following the global financial crisis and/or the impact of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:26109119

  2. Age at First Birth, Health, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirowsky, John

    2005-01-01

    The biodevelopmental view sees the readiness and soundness of the organism at the time of first birth as its prime link to health and survival years and decades later. It suggests an optimum age at first birth shortly after puberty. The biosocial view emphasizes social correlates and consequences of age at first birth that may influence health and…

  3. Chicano Aging and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Manuel, Ed.; Ruiz, Rene A., Ed.

    Focusing on the direction future research on the Chicano elderly should take, the 10 papers address theory development, methodological approach, social policy and problems, mental health service delivery, and issues of mental illness. The first seven papers discuss: the theoretical perspectives of research pertaining to mental health and the…

  4. Healthy ageing, but what is health?

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2013-12-01

    Ageing occurs in spite of complex pathways of maintenance and repair. There is no "enemy within", which has the specific evolution-selected function to cause ageing and death. This understanding of ageing should transform our approach towards interventions from therapeutic "anti-ageing" to maintaining health. But what is health? Ideally, health is a state of complete physical and mental independence in activities of daily living. But in pragmatic terms, health is a state of adequate physical and mental independence in activities of daily living. In order to identify a set of measurable, evidence-based and demonstratable parameters of health, robustness and resilience at various levels, the concept of homeodynamic space can be a useful one. Age-related health problems for which there are no clear-cut causative agents, except the complex process of ageing, may be better tackled by focusing on health mechanisms and their maintenance, rather than disease management and treatment. Continuing the disease-oriented research approaches are economically, socially and psychologically unsustainable as compared with health-oriented and preventive strategies, such as hormesis. Supporting health-oriented research is the urgency of our time.

  5. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  6. Use of anchoring vignettes to evaluate health reporting behavior amongst adults aged 50 years and above in Africa and Asia – testing assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier; Oti, Samuel; Debpuur, Cornelius; Juvekar, Sanjay; Tollman, Stephen; Blomstedt, Yulia; Wall, Stig; Ng, Nawi

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparing self-rating health responses across individuals and cultures is misleading due to different reporting behaviors. Anchoring vignettes is a technique that allows identifying and adjusting self-rating responses for reporting heterogeneity (RH). Objective This article aims to test two crucial assumptions of vignette equivalence (VE) and response consistency (RC) that are required to be met before vignettes can be used to adjust self-rating responses for RH. Design We used self-ratings, vignettes, and objective measures covering domains of mobility and cognition from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health, administered to older adults aged 50 years and above from eight low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. For VE, we specified a hierarchical ordered probit (HOPIT) model to test for equality of perceived vignette locations. For RC, we tested for equality of thresholds that are used to rate vignettes with thresholds derived from objective measures and used to rate their own health function. Results There was evidence of RH in self-rating responses for difficulty in mobility and cognition. Assumptions of VE and RC between countries were violated driven by age, sex, and education. However, within a country context, assumption of VE was met in some countries (mainly in Africa, except Tanzania) and violated in others (mainly in Asia, except India). Conclusion We conclude that violation of assumptions of RC and VE precluded the use of anchoring vignettes to adjust self-rated responses for RH across countries in Asia and Africa. PMID:24011254

  7. Ageing, dementia and oral health.

    PubMed

    Foltyn, P

    2015-03-01

    Neurocognitive decline and delirium, frailty, incontinence, falls, hearing and vision impairment, medication compliance and pharmacokinetics, skin breakdown, impaired sleep and rest are regarded as geriatric giants by gerontologists, geriatricians and nursing home staff. As these are all interrelated in the elderly, failure to act on one can impact on the others. However, the implications of poor oral health have for too long been ignored and deserve equal status. Mouth pain can be devastating for the elderly, compound psychosocial problems, frustrate carers and nursing home staff and disrupt family dynamics. As appearance, function and comfort suffer, so may a person's self-esteem and confidence. The contributing factors for poor oral health such as rapid dental decay, acute and chronic periodontal infections and compromised systemic health on a background of a dry mouth, coupled with xerostomia-inducing medications, reduced fine motor function, declining cognition and motivation will not only lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality but also impact on quality of life. PMID:25762045

  8. Self-Rated Competences Questionnaires from a Design Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Edith; Woodley, Alan; Richardson, John T. E.; Leidner, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical review of self-rated competences questionnaires. This topic is influenced by the ongoing world-wide reform of higher education, which has led to a focus on the learner outcomes of higher education. Consequently, questionnaires on self-rated competences have increasingly been employed. However, self-ratings are…

  9. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.

  10. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. PMID:26613696

  11. Health Consequences of Long-Term Injection Heroin Use Among Aging Mexican American Men

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Luis R.; Kaplan, Charles; Valdez, Avelardo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Research on the health consequences of long-term injection drug use (IDU) is limited. This article examines these consequences among aging, male Mexican American injecting heroin users. Concern for this group is crucial, given its health disparities and the association of IDU with disease transmission. Method Aging, male Mexican American IDUs (N = 227) were recruited through intensive outreach. Participants self-reported health status, medical and substance use history, and completed behavioral and psychometric health scales. Results are compared to Hispanic national samples. Results Participants had significantly poorer self-rated health and negative health conditions. Selected medical conditions not associated with the heroin-use lifestyle (i.e., hypertension, diabetes, arthritis) were lower relative to the comparison samples. Discussion This population has a complex profile of health consequences linked to a heroin-using lifestyle. The study concludes that routine screening of infectious diseases and medical and behavioral conditions among aging substance using populations may contribute to reducing Hispanic health disparities. PMID:21451118

  12. [Active aging promotion and education for health].

    PubMed

    Aparicio Alonso, Concepción

    2004-01-01

    Some years ago, the phenomenon of demographic aging started an intense debate about its supposed negatives effects on the economic progress of a population. Health advances and improved living conditions have gradually increased the health level the elderly have, embellishing the initial perspectives; the elderly live more years but, moreover, they have a better quality of life. For the WHO, to favor an active aging process presents a challenge, avoiding incapacities and dependencies, the real causes of the increase in social-health costs. Following the guidelines established by the II World Assembly on Aging, last year our country passed the Action Plan for Elderly People 2003-2007; this plan contemplates as one of its objectives "Promote the autonomy and the full and active participation by the elderly people in the community" and points out that the strategy to achieve this objective consists in "pushing the measures which Promote Health".

  13. [Internet resources on ageing and health].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Lorenzo, José-Manuel; Barderas-Manchado, Ana; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen; González-María, Esther; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The general ageing of the world population at the beginning of the XXI century is an established fact, and in the next few years it will be a topic for debate and of interest to the public and, in particular, among health professionals. The Internet, as an inexhaustible information source of a different kind, could be a useful resource for consulting and updating for these professionals. The main health sciences sources that are available on the Internet are presented and commented upon. These may be useful for those professionals who wish to identify the most relevant information on ageing.

  14. Compensating for losses in perceived personal control over health: a role for collective self-esteem in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Bailis, Daniel S; Chipperfield, Judith G

    2002-11-01

    Collective self-esteem (CSE) refers to an individual's self-evaluation of his or her social identity. We speculate that a positive social identity, or high CSE, facilitates accommodation to negative health-related circumstances in later life, especially when one feels unable to alter these circumstances directly. Accordingly, we hypothesized that CSE would be associated with fewer chronic conditions and greater perceived health for those with low perceived control. Hierarchical regression analyses of data from 1,267 respondents (60% women, aged 69-101) in the 1996 Aging in Manitoba survey confirmed the predicted CSE x Perceived Control interaction on both measures of health status. These findings persisted when respondents' self-rated loneliness was controlled. CSE may compensate to protect the health of older adults whose perceived personal control over health is low. Secondary control and alternative mechanisms for this protective effect are discussed.

  15. Mental health problems of aging and the aged*

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Martin

    1959-01-01

    The rapid increase in admission rates to mental hospitals in many countries in recent decades threatens to create serious problems. These may be to some extent remediable in that social factors are important in deciding the chances of admission to hospital, as well as the frequency of suicide, which reaches a peak among the aged in most countries. All communities possess valuable assets in the form of existing links between the aged and their families which may be lost by indiscriminate community planning. Although some psychological decline is inevitable during senescence, it is becoming clear that much that once passed for the ineluctable effects of mental and physical aging is due to disease that may be ameliorated or cured. The relationship between mental and physical health is particularly close in old age, and the effective treatment of the aged person with a psychiatric disorder demands the full resources of general medicine as well as psychiatry. For successful rehabilitation a full community service for the aged and proper integration of the work of the family doctor with that of preventive and hospital services are essential. The possibilities of prevention can be enhanced by fostering physical well-being and healthy adjustment during earlier stages of life, as well as by ascertaining, and remedying as far as possible, the mental and physical disorders of the aged in the early stages of their development. There is great scope for biological, medical and sociological research to define reasons for the wide variations in mental and physical well-being in old age. PMID:14439413

  16. Creatine supplementation and aging musculoskeletal health.

    PubMed

    Candow, Darren G; Chilibeck, Philip D; Forbes, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Sarcopenia refers to the progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle function and is a contributing factor for cachexia, bone loss, and frailty. Resistance training produces several physiological adaptations which improve aging musculoskeletal health, such as increased muscle and bone mass and strength. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training may further lead to greater physiological benefits. We performed meta-analyses which indicate creatine supplementation combined with resistance training has a positive effect on aging muscle mass and upper body strength compared to resistance training alone. Creatine also shows promise for improving bone mineral density and indices of bone biology. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training could be an effective intervention to improve aging musculoskeletal health. PMID:24190049

  17. Paternal age and mental health of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature also demonstrates a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to the patients, the family and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369

  18. Sexual health and relationships after age 60.

    PubMed

    Minkin, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used phrase describing aging is "60 is the new 40". Although in many aspects of life this may be correct, in discussing sexual health, challenges to maintaining excellent sexual health become more common around age 60. Biological aging challenges physical sexual activity and responsiveness. We commence by briefly surveying the extensive coverage of 'normal' physiological aging. We primarily focus on issues that arise in distinct disease and or pathophysiological states, including gynecological and breast cancer, as well as those associated with partners of men who are either prostate cancer survivors or who have taken therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). Regrettably, there is a very modest literature on sexual health and associated possible interventions in older patients in these cohorts. We discuss a variety of interventions and approaches, including those that we have developed and applied in a clinic at our host university, which have generally produced successful outcomes. The extended focus to sexual relationship dynamics in partners of men with either prostate cancer or ED in particular is virtually unexplored, yet is especially timely given the large numbers of women who encounter this situation. Finally, we briefly discuss cross-cultural distinctions in older couples' expectations, which exhibit remarkable variation. PMID:26547237

  19. Usefulness and Reliability of Tanner Pubertal Self-Rating to Urban Black Adolescents in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Shane A.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    Self-rating of pubertal development is the recommended method to assess puberty in large community-based surveys of adolescent development and behavior. The aim of this study was to validate for the first time pubertal self-assessment using the sexual maturation scale developed by Tanner among Black South African adolescents (n=182) aged between…

  20. Associations between Teacher-Rated versus Self-Rated Student Temperament and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullola, Sari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Jokela, Markus; Lipsanen, Jari; Alatupa, Saija; Ravaja, Niklas; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether teacher-rated versus self-rated student temperaments are different in relation to the school grades in Maths and Mother language (ML) instruction in a nationally representative sample of Finnish Secondary School students (n?=?1,063, mean age 15.1 years). The results indicated that teacher-rated temperament was more…

  1. Differences by age groups in health care spending.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C R

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents differences by age in health care spending by type of expenditure and by source of funds through 1978. Use of health care services generally increases with age. The average health bill reached $2,026 for the aged in 1978, $764 for the intermediate age group, and $286 for the young. Biological, demographic, and policy factors determine each age group's share of health spending. Public funds financed over three-fifths of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 58 percent. Most of the health expenses of the young age groups were paid by private sources. PMID:10309224

  2. Examining Associations between Self-Rated Health and Proficiency in Literacy and Numeracy among Immigrants and U.S.-Born Adults: Evidence from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to analyze the relationship between self-reported health (SRH) and literacy and numeracy proficiency for immigrants compared to U.S.-born respondents and for Hispanic versus Asian immigrants. The research questions were: (1) Are literacy and numeracy scores associated with adults’ SRH? (2) Are associations between SRH and literacy and numeracy proficiency moderated by immigrant status? (3) Among immigrants, are literacy and numeracy scores more strongly associated with SRH for Hispanics versus Asians? Immigrants had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores, yet reported better health than U.S.-born respondents. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that literacy and numeracy were both positively related to SRH for immigrants and U.S.-born adults, and should therefore be viewed as part of the growing evidence that literacy is an independent and significant social determinant of health. Second, U.S.-born and immigrant adults accrued similarly positive health benefits from stronger literacy and numeracy skills. Third, although Hispanic immigrants were more disadvantaged than Asian immigrants on almost all socioeconomic characteristics and had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores and worse SRH than Asian immigrants, both Hispanic and Asian immigrants experienced similar positive health returns from literacy and numeracy proficiency. These findings underscore the potential health benefits of providing adult basic education instruction, particularly for immigrants with the least formal schooling and fewest socioeconomic resources. PMID:26132212

  3. Examining Associations between Self-Rated Health and Proficiency in Literacy and Numeracy among Immigrants and U.S.-Born Adults: Evidence from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC).

    PubMed

    Prins, Esther; Monnat, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to analyze the relationship between self-reported health (SRH) and literacy and numeracy proficiency for immigrants compared to U.S.-born respondents and for Hispanic versus Asian immigrants. The research questions were: (1) Are literacy and numeracy scores associated with adults' SRH? (2) Are associations between SRH and literacy and numeracy proficiency moderated by immigrant status? (3) Among immigrants, are literacy and numeracy scores more strongly associated with SRH for Hispanics versus Asians? Immigrants had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores, yet reported better health than U.S.-born respondents. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that literacy and numeracy were both positively related to SRH for immigrants and U.S.-born adults, and should therefore be viewed as part of the growing evidence that literacy is an independent and significant social determinant of health. Second, U.S.-born and immigrant adults accrued similarly positive health benefits from stronger literacy and numeracy skills. Third, although Hispanic immigrants were more disadvantaged than Asian immigrants on almost all socioeconomic characteristics and had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores and worse SRH than Asian immigrants, both Hispanic and Asian immigrants experienced similar positive health returns from literacy and numeracy proficiency. These findings underscore the potential health benefits of providing adult basic education instruction, particularly for immigrants with the least formal schooling and fewest socioeconomic resources.

  4. Tuberculosis and aging: a global health problem.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, S

    2001-10-01

    Despite the World Health Organization's declaration that the spread of tuberculosis is a global emergency and despite the implementation of strong tuberculosis-control initiatives, this highly infectious disease continues to affect all vulnerable populations, including the elderly population (age > or =65 years). Tuberculosis in aging adults remains a clinical and epidemiological challenge. Atypical clinical manifestations of tuberculosis in older persons can result in delay in diagnosis and initiation of treatment; thus, unfortunately, higher rates of morbidity and mortality from this treatable infection can occur. Underlying illnesses, age-related diminution in immune function, the increased frequency of adverse drug reactions, and institutionalization can complicate the overall clinical approach to tuberculosis in elderly patients; maintenance of a high index of suspicion for tuberculosis in this vulnerable population is, thus, undoubtedly justifiable.

  5. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life - the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33-2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  6. Rejuvenating health systems for aging communities.

    PubMed

    Paccaud, Fred

    2002-08-01

    Nowadays, about the half of Swiss women die after their 84th birthday. This unprecedented proportion of the population reaching an old age, or even a very old age (25% of women die after 89 years, and 5% after 95 years) is a novel aspect of human demographics, and represents the very last stage of the epidemiological transition, a term coined to describe the transformation of the prevailing health burden in the population, shifting from infectious and communicable pathologies to chronic and degenerative diseases. In developed countries, this epidemiological transition has been well documented during the last century; worldwide, a similar transition is taking place, with some countries still at mid or early stages of transition. A striking aspect of the current transition is its speed. In India, the mean duration of life since 1947 has increased from 32 to 62 years. As a result, India, like many other developing countries, is facing a double burden of disease, i.e., an upsurge of degenerative diseases while the burden from the old agenda (i.e., malaria, tuberculosis) still reaches devastating proportions in the population. This double burden is certainly a crucial problem in developing countries, and probably is the most important health challenge for the coming century. A similar accelerated pace of change is observed with the decline of mortality at old age. Worldwide, the current estimate of centenarians is 100000, i.e., ten time more centenarians than the number estimated in 1960. The downward trend in mortality, which is steeper with increasing age, is now the leading factor to Increase the life expectancy in developed countries. In the United Kingdom, life expectancy increased by 2.5 years between 1971 and 1991; this is equivalent to the increase observed between 1851 and 1961. This accelerated increase will influence public health in two different ways. The first will be the absolute increase in the number of older persons, with a corresponding increase in

  7. The Measurement of Self-Rated Depression: A Multidimensional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolon, Kevin; Barling, Julian

    1980-01-01

    Investigates the capacity of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale for providing specific multidimensional descriptors of depressive behavior. Ideational, physiological and behavioral depression factors were evident in data from 96 normal, white university student volunteers. (Author/RH)

  8. Complex interplay between health and successful aging: role of perceived stress, resilience, and social support.

    PubMed

    Moore, Raeanne C; Eyler, Lisa T; Mausbach, Brent T; Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Thompson, Wesley K; Peavy, Guerry; Fazeli, Pariya L; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-06-01

    Psychological and psychosocial resources, including resilience and social support, have traditionally been studied in the context of the stress paradigm and, more recently, in the context of successful aging. This study used moderated mediation analyses to examine the role of perceived stress in the relationships between physical and mental health functioning and self-rated successful aging (SRSA) and whether differences between people in level of resilience and social support changes the role of perceived stress in these relationships. A cross-sectional study of 1,006 older adults (mean age: 77 years) completed scales addressing SRSA, physical and mental health functioning, perceived stress, resilience, and social support. Results indicated that the strength of relationships between both physical and mental health functioning and SRSA were reduced after accounting for variation in level of perceived stress. The role of perceived stress in the association between mental health functioning and SRSA was found to be stronger among participants with the highest levels of resilience, and the influence of perceived stress on the degree of relationship between physical health functioning and SRSA was stronger among those with greatest social support. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce perceived stress may help break the link between disability and poor well-being in older adults. The findings further suggest that the impact of such interventions might differ depending on psychological resources (i.e., resilience) for mental health disabilities and external resources (i.e., social support) for those with physical health problems. The complex interplay of these factors should be taken into account in clinical settings.

  9. Variance Function Regression in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to the Study of Self-Reported Health

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Yang, Yang; Land, Kenneth C.

    2012-01-01

    Two long-standing research problems of interest to sociologists are sources of variations in social inequalities and differential contributions of the temporal dimensions of age, time period, and cohort to variations in social phenomena. Recently, scholars have introduced a model called Variance Function Regression for the study of the former problem, and a model called Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort regression has been developed for the study of the latter. This article presents an integration of these two models as a means to study the evolution of social inequalities along distinct temporal dimensions. We apply the integrated model to survey data on subjective health status. We find substantial age, period, and cohort effects, as well as gender differences, not only for the conditional mean of self-rated health (i.e., between-group disparities), but also for the variance in this mean (i.e., within-group disparities)—and it is detection of age, period, and cohort variations in the latter disparities that application of the integrated model permits. Net of effects of age and individual-level covariates, in recent decades, cohort differences in conditional means of self-rated health have been less important than period differences that cut across all cohorts. By contrast, cohort differences of variances in these conditional means have dominated period differences. In particular, post-baby boom birth cohorts show significant and increasing levels of within-group disparities. These findings illustrate how the integrated model provides a powerful framework through which to identify and study the evolution of variations in social inequalities across age, period, and cohort temporal dimensions. Accordingly, this model should be broadly applicable to the study of social inequality in many different substantive contexts. PMID:22904570

  10. [Accessible health information: a question of age?].

    PubMed

    Loos, E F

    2012-04-01

    Aging and digitalisation are important trends which have their impact on information accessibility. Accessible information about products and services is of crucial importance to ensure that all citizens can participate fully as active members of society. Senior citizens who have difficulties using new media run the risk of exclusion in today's information society. Not all senior citizens, however, encounter problems with new media. Not by a long shot. There is much to be said for 'aged heterogeneity', the concept that individual differences increase as people age. In two explorative qualitative case studies related to accessible health information--an important issue for senior citizens--that were conducted in the Netherlands, variables such as gender, education level and frequency of internet use were therefore included in the research design. In this paper, the most important results of these case studies will be discussed. Attention will be also paid to complementary theories (socialisation, life stages) which could explain differences in information search behaviour when using old or new media. PMID:22642049

  11. Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health.

  12. Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health. PMID:23384080

  13. Structural health management for aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Roy; Haugse, Eric D.

    2001-06-01

    An effective structural health management (SHM) system can be a useful tool for making aircraft fleet management decisions ranging from individual aircraft maintenance scheduling and usage restrictions to fleet rotation strategies. This paper discusses the end-user requirements for the elements and architecture of an effective SHM system for application to both military and commercial aging aircraft fleets. The elements discussed include the sensor systems for monitoring and characterizing the health of the structure, data processing methods for interpreting sensor data and converting it into useable information, and automated methods for erroneous data detection, data archiving and information dissemination. Current and past SHM technology development/maturation efforts in these areas at the Boeing Company will be described. An evolutionary technology development strategy is developed in which the technologies needed will be matured, integrated into a vehicle health management system, and benefits established without requiring extensive changes to the end-user's existing operation and maintenance infrastructure. Issues regarding the end-user customer acceptance of SHM systems are discussed and summarized.

  14. Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie‐Noëlle; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health. PMID:23384080

  15. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants A representative sample of men aged 71–92 years in 2010–2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978–1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Results Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had <21 teeth. For periodontal disease, 233 (19%) had loss of attachment (>5.5 mm) affecting 1–20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1–2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3–5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. Conclusions These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. PMID:26715480

  16. Body Mass Index Trajectories among Middle-Aged and Elderly Canadians and Associated Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Yi, Yanqing; Roebothan, Barbara; Colbourne, Jennifer; Maddalena, Victor; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Whether there is heterogeneity in the development of BMI from middle-age onward is still unknown. The primary aim of this study is to analyze long-term obesity and how BMI trajectories are associated with health outcomes in midlife. Methods. Latent Class Growth Modelling was used to capture the changes in BMI over time. In this study, 3070 individuals from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS), aged 40–55 years at baseline, were included. Results. Four BMI trajectory groups, “Normal-Stable” (N-S), “Overweight-Stable” (OV-S), “Obese I-Stable” (OB I-S), and “Obese II-Stable” (OB II-S), were identified. Men, persons of White ancestry, and individuals who had no postsecondary education had higher odds of being in the latter three groups. Moreover, members of the OV-S, OB I-S, and OB II-S groups experienced more asthma, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, cognitive impairment, and reduced self-rated overall health. Individuals in the OB II-S group were at greater risk for back problems, chronic bronchitis or emphysema, and emotional issues when compared to the N-S group. Conclusion. Understanding different BMI trajectories is important in order to identify people who are at the highest risk of developing comorbidities due to obesity and to establish programs to intervene appropriately. PMID:26925112

  17. Age differences in health care spending, fiscal year 1977.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R M; Fisher, C R

    1979-01-01

    This report of health care spending in fiscal year 1977 reveals that of the $142.6 billion spent by the Nation for personal health care in fiscal year 1977, 29 percent was spent for those aged 65 or older, 59 percent for those aged 19-64, and 13 percent for those below age 19. The average health bill reached $1,745 for the aged, $661 for the intermediate age group, and $253 for the young. Public funds financed 67 percent of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 61 percent. More than two-thirds of the health expenses of the young and 71 percent of the expenses of those aged 19-64 were paid by private sources. Third-party payments met 68 percent of the health expenditures of all those under age 65. PMID:107600

  18. Health habits in relation to aging.

    PubMed

    McGlone, F B; Kick, E

    1978-11-01

    A review of the literature and a study of 52 patients of the 80+ age group confirmed the premise that good health habits have a positive effect on the quantity and quality of life. Not all persons can live beyond 80, but those who do can lead a better life if they live properly. A profile of these 52 subjects aged 80 or older revealed that they were of average size or thin, and of a happy temperament; they ate well and regularly, slept adequately, avoided excessive amounts of alcohol, did not smoke, used drugs sparingly, and led an active life, physically and mentally. Also, it was apparent that the rugged elderly can withstand the impact of a major illness or a surgical operation with associated anesthesia. The following factors are important for longevity: 1) pick the right grandparents, 2) keep active physically and mentally, 3) eat properly, 4) stay thin, 5) drink alcohol moderately if at all, and 6) do not smoke. PMID:701699

  19. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes.

  20. HEAT WAVES, AGING, AND HUMAN CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry; Craighead, Daniel H.; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2014-01-01

    This brief review is based on a President’s Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review is to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth’s average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature, as well as prolonged physical activity in hot environments, creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal due to increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increases the extent of future untoward health outcomes. PMID:24598696

  1. Education and health among U.S. working-age adults: a detailed portrait across the full educational attainment spectrum.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Anna; Hummer, Robert A; Rogers, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    This article presents detailed estimates of relative and absolute health inequalities among U.S. working-age adults by educational attainment, including six postsecondary schooling levels. We also estimate the impact of several sets of mediating variables on the education-health gradient. Data from the 1997-2009 National Health Interview Survey (N = 178,103) show remarkable health differentials. For example, high school graduates have 3.5 times the odds of reporting "worse" health than do adults with professional or doctoral degrees. The probability of fair or poor health in mid-adulthood is less than 5 percent for adults with the highest levels of education but over 20 percent for adults without a high school diploma. The probability of reporting excellent health in the mid-forties is below 25 percent among high school graduates but over 50 percent for those adults who have professional degrees. These health differences characterize all the demographic subgroups examined in this study. Our results show that economic indicators and health behaviors explain about 40 percent of the education-health relationship. In the United States, adults with the highest educational degrees enjoy a wide array of benefits, including much more favorable self-rated health, compared to their less-educated counterparts.

  2. Self-ratings and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI).

    PubMed

    Stones, M J

    1977-07-01

    An attempt was made to assess the relationships between self-ratings and psychometric (EPI) estimates on the dimensions of extraversion and neuroticism. Ninety-five individuals served as Ss. The correlations between self-ratings and EPI estimates achieved high significance on both dimensions. Contrary to earlier suggestions (Bem & Allen, 1974), ratings of behavioral variability on the respective dimensions failed to produce a significant moderating effect. However, a tentative trend was observed for cross-procedural comparability (between self-ratings and the EPI) to be higher near the midpoints of the respective distributions. A factor contributory to this was a central regressive tendency (noted at both poles on both dimensions and for both sources of estimation), whereby an extreme estimate from one source was associated with a less extreme estimate from the other.

  3. HEALTH OF CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESSER, ARTHUR

    A HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE STUDY OF SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMS, THIS REPORT PRESENTS STATISTICS ON (1) THE NATION'S CHILD POPULATION, (2) CHILDREN IN LOW-INCOME FAMILIES, (3) ILLNESSES OF CHILDHOOD, (4) SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES, AND (5) TRENDS IN THE PROVISION OF HEALTH CARE FOR CHILDREN. THE REPORT EMPHASIZES THE GAPS IN CHILD HEALTH SUPERVISION…

  4. Age differences in health care spending, fiscal year 1976.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R M; Mueller, M S; Fisher, C R

    1977-08-01

    Of the $120.4 billion spent by the Nation for personal health care in fiscal year 1976, 29% was spent for those aged 65 or older, 15% for those under age 19, and the remaining 56% for those aged 19-64. The average health bill reached $1,521 for the aged, $547 for the intermediate age group, and $249 for the young. Public funds financed 68% of the health expenses of the aged with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 59%. Private sources paid 74% of the health expenses of the young and 70% of the expenses of those aged 19-64. Third-party payments met 65% of the health expenditures of all those under age 65. PMID:408934

  5. Age-related preferences and age weighting health benefits.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the relevance of age in the paradigm of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The first section outlines two rationales for incorporating age weights into QALYs. One of them is based on efficiency concerns; and the other on equity concerns. Both of these are theoretical constructs. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of published empirical support for such age weighting. The second section is a brief survey of nine empirical studies that elicited age-related preferences from the general public. Six of these quantified the strength of the preferences, and these are discussed in more detail in the third section. The analysis distinguishes three kinds of age-related preference: productivity ageism, utilitarian ageism and egalitarian ageism. The relationship between them and their relevance to the two different rationales for age weighting are then explored. It is concluded that, although there is strong prima facie evidence of public support for both types of age weighting, the empirical evidence to support any particular set of weights is at present weak. PMID:10048783

  6. Relationships Between Health Behaviors, Self-Efficacy, and Health Locus of Control of Students at the Universities of the Third Age.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Więczkowska, Halina

    2016-02-16

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to determine the relationship of health behaviors with the health locus of control and the sense of self-efficacy against the background of socio-economic factors and self-rated health among students of the Universities of the Third Age (U3As). MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 320 U3A students, with mean age of 67.5 years. The following research tools were used: Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and an original survey of the author's own design. RESULTS Mean total HBI and GSES scores were 90.63 and 30.12, respectively. These results are satisfactory. A slight predominance of internal health locus of control was documented. A number of significant correlations were found between the HBI, GSES, and MHLC scores, except for the MHLC subscale expressing the influence of chance. Educational attainment was shown to have a significant impact on the scores for the positive attitude and proper dietary habits subscales of HBI, as well as on the GSES scores. Economic status of the participants influenced the levels of positive attitude, internal health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, internal health locus of control was found to be modulated by subjective health of the respondents. The scores for external health locus of control and the influence of chance increased significantly with age. CONCLUSIONS The currently noticeable emphasis placed on lifelong education should serve as a good prognostic factor for health behaviors and personal health resources for years to come.

  7. Relationships Between Health Behaviors, Self-Efficacy, and Health Locus of Control of Students at the Universities of the Third Age

    PubMed Central

    Zielińska-Więczkowska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the relationship of health behaviors with the health locus of control and the sense of self-efficacy against the background of socio-economic factors and self-rated health among students of the Universities of the Third Age (U3As). Material/Methods The study included 320 U3A students, with mean age of 67.5 years. The following research tools were used: Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and an original survey of the author’s own design. Results Mean total HBI and GSES scores were 90.63 and 30.12, respectively. These results are satisfactory. A slight predominance of internal health locus of control was documented. A number of significant correlations were found between the HBI, GSES, and MHLC scores, except for the MHLC subscale expressing the influence of chance. Educational attainment was shown to have a significant impact on the scores for the positive attitude and proper dietary habits subscales of HBI, as well as on the GSES scores. Economic status of the participants influenced the levels of positive attitude, internal health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, internal health locus of control was found to be modulated by subjective health of the respondents. The scores for external health locus of control and the influence of chance increased significantly with age. Conclusions The currently noticeable emphasis placed on lifelong education should serve as a good prognostic factor for health behaviors and personal health resources for years to come. PMID:26879981

  8. Relationships Between Health Behaviors, Self-Efficacy, and Health Locus of Control of Students at the Universities of the Third Age.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Więczkowska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to determine the relationship of health behaviors with the health locus of control and the sense of self-efficacy against the background of socio-economic factors and self-rated health among students of the Universities of the Third Age (U3As). MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 320 U3A students, with mean age of 67.5 years. The following research tools were used: Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and an original survey of the author's own design. RESULTS Mean total HBI and GSES scores were 90.63 and 30.12, respectively. These results are satisfactory. A slight predominance of internal health locus of control was documented. A number of significant correlations were found between the HBI, GSES, and MHLC scores, except for the MHLC subscale expressing the influence of chance. Educational attainment was shown to have a significant impact on the scores for the positive attitude and proper dietary habits subscales of HBI, as well as on the GSES scores. Economic status of the participants influenced the levels of positive attitude, internal health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, internal health locus of control was found to be modulated by subjective health of the respondents. The scores for external health locus of control and the influence of chance increased significantly with age. CONCLUSIONS The currently noticeable emphasis placed on lifelong education should serve as a good prognostic factor for health behaviors and personal health resources for years to come. PMID:26879981

  9. The black aged: implications for mental health care.

    PubMed

    Carter, J H

    1982-01-01

    Some of the problems associated with providing quality mental health care for aged blacks are discussed. It is postulated that treatment should be used selectively, not in terms of simplistic formulas or part-truths about aged blacks, but on the bases of clinical indications in differential diagnosis. The essence of improved mental health for blacks, regardless of sex or age, entails an unrelenting struggle by mental health professionals toward the removal of all vestiges of racism.

  10. Mixed Rasch Modeling of the Self-Rating Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sehee; Min, Sae-Young

    2007-01-01

    In this study, mixed Rasch modeling was used on the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), a widely used measure of depression, among a non-Western sample of 618 Korean college students. The results revealed three latent classes and confirmed the unidimensionality of the SDS. In addition, there was a significant effect for gender in terms of class…

  11. Health and aging of urban American Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, B J

    1992-01-01

    Although half of the American Indian population resides off the reservation, mostly in the western states, research on the health of urban American Indians remains sparse. American Indians living in urban areas are not eligible for the federally mandated health care provided by the Indian Health Service and receive health care services in a variety of settings. This population is at high risk for many health problems, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Social, cultural, and economic barriers that impede access to health care for this group, particularly for elders living in an urban setting, could be reduced if physicians improved their understanding of and communication with American Indian patients. PMID:1413770

  12. Neighborhood Age Structure and its Implications for Health

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Age structure at the neighborhood level is rarely considered in contextual studies of health. However, age structure can play a critical role in shaping community life, the availability of resources, and the opportunities for social engagement—all factors that, research suggests, have direct and indirect effects on health. Age structure can be theorized as a compositional effect and as a contextual effect. In addition, the dynamic nature of age structure and the utility of a life course perspective as applied to neighborhood effects research merits attention. Four Chicago neighborhoods are summarized to illustrate how age structure varies across small space, suggesting that neighborhood age structure should be considered a key structural covariate in contextual research on health. Considering age structure implies incorporating not only meaningful cut points for important age groups (e.g., proportion 65 years and over) but attention to the shape of the distribution as well. PMID:16865558

  13. Adulthood Predictors of Health Promoting Behavior in Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Suzuki, Rie

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adulthood predictors of health-promoting behavior in later aging. The participants were 162 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted (Terman et al., 1925), who responded in 1999 at an average age of 86 to a mailout questionnaire which included questions concerning their positive health behavior. Adulthood variables were…

  14. Retaining the experts. Aging nurses in mental health.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2010-01-01

    The aging of the nursing workforce has contributed to the critical shortage of nurses. There is a consistent pattern of nurses leaving hospital settings as they age and leaving the workforce entirely after age 50. Few data are available on how this may affect quality of care in mental health services in the future. Research is needed to better understand the relationship between workplace variables and older workers' health, safety, and satisfaction, so that aging nurses in mental health may extend their working life and continue sharing their expertise that has been developed over many years. PMID:20102128

  15. Perceived Income Adequacy Among Older Adults in 12 Countries: Findings From the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Howard; Sapir, Eliyahu V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a survey research measure of subjective income, as measured by perceived income adequacy, in an international context. Design and Methods: The study population comprised persons aged 50 years and older in 12 countries from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 28,939). Perceived difficulty in making ends meet was regressed on sociodemographic variables, economic indicators, health status measures, and expectations regarding one's financial future. Country differences were also controlled. Results: The findings confirm a multidimensional explanation of perceived income adequacy but also point to the primacy of objective economic indicators in predicting household financial distress. Respondents aged 80 years and older report less financial difficulty. Poor health status and pessimistic financial expectations also predict greater household financial distress but to a lesser degree. Implications: Self-rated economic status is a robust indicator of financial capacity in older age and can be used by practitioners to gain meaningful information. However, practitioners should keep in mind that the oldest-old may underestimate financial difficulties. PMID:19386829

  16. Does cohort matter in the association between education, health literacy and health in the USA?

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takashi; Brown, J Scott

    2013-11-01

    Growing empirical evidence supports the generally positive relationship between education, health literacy and health outcomes. However, little is known about cohort in this relationship. This study examined the role of cohort defined by 10-year age period in the association between educational attainment, health literacy and self-rated health. The data were obtained from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy survey restricted file. Focusing on nationally representative community-dwelling adults age 25 years and older, self-rated health was modeled as a function of health literacy, educational attainment, cohorts (defined by 10-year age periods), other demographic characteristics and socio-economic status. While the youngest cohort was positively associated with self-rated health, middle-age cohorts were more likely to have lower self-rated health (compared with the age 65 years and older cohort). Interestingly, age was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for cohort and other covariates. Recognition of possible cohort effects in education, health literacy and health should be reflected in future health literacy research and intervention programs for addressing health disparities in the USA.

  17. Ageing Jewish Holocaust survivors: anxieties in dealing with health professionals.

    PubMed

    Joffe, H I; Joffe, C F; Brodaty, H

    1996-11-01

    Jewish Holocaust survivors who emigrated to Australia after World War II are ageing and having more frequent contact with health services. Health professionals often lack the knowledge, training, skill or personal assurance to deal with the effects of massive trauma. Increased awareness of and sensitivity to older Holocaust survivors can lessen their anxieties and, potentially, improve treatment outcome. Such experience may form a useful lesson for health professionals in dealing with refugees from other atrocities as they age.

  18. Learning Wellness: How Ageing Australians Experience Health Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christine; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Given identified synergies between information use and health status greater understanding is needed about how people use information to learn about their health. This paper presents the findings of preliminary research into health information literacy. Analysis of data from semi-structured interviews revealed six different ways ageing Australians…

  19. Impact of Community-Based Dental Education on Attainment of ADEA Competencies: Students' Self-Ratings.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Kimberly K; Nayar, Preethy; Ojha, Diptee; Chandak, Aastha; Gupta, Niodita; Lange, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Fourth-year dental students at the College of Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical Center participate in a community-based dental education (CBDE) program that includes a four-week rotation in rural dental practices and community health clinics across Nebraska and nearby states. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of participation in the CBDE program on the self-rated competencies of these students. A retrospective survey was administered to students who participated in extramural rotations in two academic years. The survey collected demographic data and asked students to rate themselves on a scale from 1=not competent at all to 5=very competent on attainment of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Competencies for the New General Dentist for before and after the rotations. A total of 92 responses were obtained: 43 students for 2011-12 and 49 students for 2012-13 (95% response rate for each cohort). The results showed that the students' mean pre-program self-ratings ranged from 3.28 for the competency domain of Practice Management and Informatics to 3.93 for Professionalism. Their mean post-program self-ratings ranged from 3.76 for Practice Management and Informatics to 4.31 for Professionalism. The students showed a statistically significant increase in self-ratings for all six competency domains. The increase was greatest in the domain of Critical Thinking and least in Communication and Interpersonal Skills. Overall, these results suggest that the CBDE program was effective in improving the students' self-perceptions of competence in all six domains and support the idea that a competency-based evaluation of CBDE programs can provide valuable information to dental educators about program effectiveness.

  20. Impact of Community-Based Dental Education on Attainment of ADEA Competencies: Students' Self-Ratings.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Kimberly K; Nayar, Preethy; Ojha, Diptee; Chandak, Aastha; Gupta, Niodita; Lange, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Fourth-year dental students at the College of Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical Center participate in a community-based dental education (CBDE) program that includes a four-week rotation in rural dental practices and community health clinics across Nebraska and nearby states. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of participation in the CBDE program on the self-rated competencies of these students. A retrospective survey was administered to students who participated in extramural rotations in two academic years. The survey collected demographic data and asked students to rate themselves on a scale from 1=not competent at all to 5=very competent on attainment of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Competencies for the New General Dentist for before and after the rotations. A total of 92 responses were obtained: 43 students for 2011-12 and 49 students for 2012-13 (95% response rate for each cohort). The results showed that the students' mean pre-program self-ratings ranged from 3.28 for the competency domain of Practice Management and Informatics to 3.93 for Professionalism. Their mean post-program self-ratings ranged from 3.76 for Practice Management and Informatics to 4.31 for Professionalism. The students showed a statistically significant increase in self-ratings for all six competency domains. The increase was greatest in the domain of Critical Thinking and least in Communication and Interpersonal Skills. Overall, these results suggest that the CBDE program was effective in improving the students' self-perceptions of competence in all six domains and support the idea that a competency-based evaluation of CBDE programs can provide valuable information to dental educators about program effectiveness. PMID:27251348

  1. Health of Aging Parents and Childless Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendig, Hal; Dykstra, Pearl A.; van Gaalen, Ruben I.; Melkas, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews and presents research findings on the relationships between parenthood and health over the life span. Existing research shows lacunae. The links between reproductive behavior and longevity generally focus on family size rather than contrasting parents and nonparents. Studies of marital status differentials in survival…

  2. The Healthy Ageing Model: health behaviour change for older adults.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Kathleen M; Butterworth, Susan W; Flaherty-Robb, Marna K; Gaynor, William L

    2010-01-01

    Proposed is a model of primary care for older adults with chronic health conditions that focuses on active engagement in health care. The Healthy Ageing Model is anchored in established theory on motivation and health behaviour change. The model draws on empirical and applied clinical underpinnings in such diverse areas as health promotion and education, treatment of addictions or obesity, management of chronic diseases, goal-setting, and coaching techniques. The conceptual foundation for the Healthy Ageing Model is described first, followed by a brief description of the key characteristics of the model. In conclusion, suggestions are offered for the clinical application and for further developing the model.

  3. How Old Do You Feel? The Role of Age Discrimination and Biological Aging in Subjective Age

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age, or how young or old individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, is a crucial construct in gerontology. Subjective age is a significant predictor of important health outcomes, but little is known about the criteria by which individuals' subjectively evaluate their age. To identify psychosocial and biomedical factors linked to the subjective evaluation of age, this study examined whether perceived age discrimination and markers of biological aging are associated with subjective age. Participants were 4776 adults (Mage = 68) from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who completed measures of subjective age, age discrimination, demographic variables, self-rated health and depression, and had physical health measures, including peak expiratory flow, grip strength, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Telomere length was available for a subset of participants in the 2008 wave (n = 2214). Regression analysis indicated that perceived age discrimination, lower peak expiratory flow, lower grip strength, and higher waist circumference were associated with an older subjective age, controlling for sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, and depression. In contrast, blood pressure and telomere length were not related to subjective age. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that how old a person feels depends in part on psychosocial and biomedical factors, including the experiences of ageism and perceptible indices of fitness and biological age. PMID:25738579

  4. Old age, disability and care in public health.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aging of the population profoundly changes the scope of action of public health, altering the profile of morbidity-mortality and increasing the demand for chronic care. In the aging population, disability serves as an indicator of health and a guideline for actions and policies. This enquiry, with a qualitative approach, based on interpretative anthropology and the emic perspective, aims to understand the way of thinking and acting of old people in the face of 'old age with disability' and their relationships with public health. Individual interviews were held at the subject's homes, using a semi-structured script, with 57 old people living in the city, including participants from the cohort of Bambuí. Collection and analysis of the data was oriented by the methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions, making possible anthropological investigation of the representations and concrete behaviors associated with disability in old age in the local culture. Two categories relating to the relationships between old age, disability and public healthcare emerged from the analysis: (i) experience of care in old age with disability; and (ii) the fear of lack of care. The results reveal that public health needs to review its concepts about disability in old age and incorporate disability into the agenda of the functional dimension of health and care for old age. PMID:26691789

  5. Old age, disability and care in public health.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aging of the population profoundly changes the scope of action of public health, altering the profile of morbidity-mortality and increasing the demand for chronic care. In the aging population, disability serves as an indicator of health and a guideline for actions and policies. This enquiry, with a qualitative approach, based on interpretative anthropology and the emic perspective, aims to understand the way of thinking and acting of old people in the face of 'old age with disability' and their relationships with public health. Individual interviews were held at the subject's homes, using a semi-structured script, with 57 old people living in the city, including participants from the cohort of Bambuí. Collection and analysis of the data was oriented by the methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions, making possible anthropological investigation of the representations and concrete behaviors associated with disability in old age in the local culture. Two categories relating to the relationships between old age, disability and public healthcare emerged from the analysis: (i) experience of care in old age with disability; and (ii) the fear of lack of care. The results reveal that public health needs to review its concepts about disability in old age and incorporate disability into the agenda of the functional dimension of health and care for old age.

  6. Work, Health, and Family at Older Ages in Japan.

    PubMed

    Raymo, James M; Liang, Jersey; Kobayashi, Erika; Sugihara, Yoko; Fukaya, Taro

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ways in which the relationship between health and labor force exit at older ages is moderated by family characteristics. Using two waves of data from a national sample of older Japanese men collected 1999 and 2002, we estimate logistic regression models for labor force exit beyond age 63 as a function of health change, family characteristics, and their interactions. We confirm that poor health is strongly associated with labor force exit and find evidence that moderating influences of family context depend upon the level of health. However, results are only partially consistent with hypotheses that the relationship between health and the likelihood of labor force exit should be stronger for (a) those with good health and family incentives to exit the labor force and (b) those with poor health and family incentives to remain in the labor force.

  7. Minority group status and healthful aging: social structure still matters.

    PubMed

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J

    2006-07-01

    During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.

  8. Dry mouth: aging and oral health.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, Mahvash

    2002-10-01

    Dry mouth is a common complaint among older adults, and the aging process is erroneously considered by many to be the primary cause. The subjective complaint of dry mouth (xerostomia) is not always associated with objective evidence of a reduced saliva flow rate (salivary gland hypofunction). Moreover, there are patients who have reduced saliva flow rates and are asymptomatic. Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are associated with sundry oral and systemic complications and affect the quality of an individual's life. This article includes the common causes of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction and addresses the common complications of and routine therapeutic modalities available for these conditions in the elderly.

  9. Social and Mental Health Needs of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolliver, Lennie-Marie

    1983-01-01

    The United States Commissioner on Aging describes challenges posed by the increasing size of the older adult population, outlines gaps in knowledge regarding aging and the elderly, and calls for greater collaboration between the elderly and existing mental health networks. (AOS)

  10. An Aging Game Simulation Activity for Allied Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Carolinda; Henry, Beverly W.; Kostiwa, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    The Aging Game, a simulation activity, has been used successfully with medical students in the development of empathetic attitudes toward older adults. To date, the Aging Game has not been used extensively with allied health students. It has been viewed as too costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  11. Life Styling for the Promotion of Health While Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gloria R.

    Classes on lifestyling for the promotion of health for the elderly were offered to a senior citizens' group in a community center setting. The objectives of the sessions were: (1) to teach the importance of health maintenance and primary prevention throughout the aging process; (2) to disseminate information relative to diet, exercise, and stress…

  12. Social Integration and Mental Health of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deimling, Gary T.; Harel Zev

    Social support has been found to be positively related to well being in elderly individuals. To examine the effects of social integration (social resources, social interaction, and perceived adequacy of resources), and health, age, marital status, and socioeconomic status (SES) on mental health among urban elderly individuals, 1,727 persons from…

  13. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  14. Estimating selfing rates from reconstructed pedigrees using multilocus genotype data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinliang; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Ritland, Kermit

    2012-01-01

    Several methods have been developed to estimate the selfing rate of a population from a sample of individuals genotyped for several marker loci. These methods can be based on homozygosity excess (or inbreeding), identity disequilibrium, progeny array (PA) segregation or population assignment incorporating partial selfing. Progeny array-based method is generally the best because it is not subject to some assumptions made by other methods (such as lack of misgenotyping, absence of biparental inbreeding and presence of inbreeding equilibrium), and it can reveal other facets of a mixed-mating system such as patterns of shared paternity. However, in practice, it is often difficult to obtain PAs, especially for animal species. In this study, we propose a method to reconstruct the pedigree of a sample of individuals taken from a monoecious diploid population practicing mixed mating, using multilocus genotypic data. Selfing and outcrossing events are then detected when an individual derives from identical parents and from two distinct parents, respectively. Selfing rate is estimated by the proportion of selfed offspring in the reconstructed pedigree of a sample of individuals. The method enjoys many advantages of the PA method, but without the need of a priori family structure, although such information, if available, can be utilized to improve the inference. Furthermore, the new method accommodates genotyping errors, estimates allele frequencies jointly and is robust to the presence of biparental inbreeding and inbreeding disequilibrium. Both simulated and empirical data were analysed by the new and previous methods to compare their statistical properties and accuracies.

  15. Validation of self-rated overall diet quality by Healthy Eating Index-2010 score among New York City adults, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Adjoian, Tamar K.; Firestone, Melanie J.; Eisenhower, Donna; Yi, Stella S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer can result from a number of diet-related environmental and behavioral factors. Screening for poor diet is helpful in developing interventions to prevent chronic disease, but measuring dietary behavior can be costly and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of a self-rated, single-item measure for evaluating diet quality among individuals and populations. Methods: A 24-h dietary recall and single-item self-rated diet quality measure were collected for 485 adults. From dietary recalls, Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) scores were computed and compared with self-rated diet quality. Data were collected in 2013 among adult (18 years and older) New York City residents. Results: The study sample was 57% female, 47% white, 56% college educated, and 45% in the highest income tertile. The mean HEI score was 56.5 out of a possible 100. Women averaged higher HEI scores compared to men (58.1 vs 54.3, p = .01). There was a modest yet significant correlation between HEI scores and self-rated diet quality (ρ = 0.29, p < .01). Overall, mean HEI score increased as self-rated diet quality improved (from 48.2 for “poor” to 63.0 for “excellent”). Conclusions: The single-item measure of self-rated diet quality may provide a simple method of identifying those with the worst diet quality. Further investigation of this measure's validity is needed with alternative measures of dietary intake and with health outcomes. PMID:26844200

  16. Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging.

    PubMed

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored.

  17. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ≥ 35

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, João Paulo; Cardoso, Salvador Massano

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional) with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36); health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD), Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001), with chronic disease (p < 0.0001), who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01), who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence) and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over health attitudes and

  18. Associations of Various Health-Ratings with Geriatric Giants, Mortality and Life Satisfaction in Older People

    PubMed Central

    Lindenberg, Jolanda; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Self-rated health is routinely used in research and practise among general populations. Older people, however, seem to change their health perceptions. To accurately understand these changed perceptions we therefore need to study the correlates of older people’s self-ratings. We examined self-rated, nurse-rated and physician-rated health’s association with common disabilities in older people (the geriatric giants), mortality hazard and life satisfaction. For this, we used an age-representative population of 501 participant aged 85 from a middle-sized city in the Netherlands: the Leiden 85-plus Study. Participants with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded. Participants themselves provided health ratings, as well as a visiting physician and a research nurse. Visual acuity, hearing loss, mobility, stability, urinal and faecal incontinence, cognitive function and mood (depressive symptoms) were included as geriatric giants. Participants provided a score for life satisfaction and were followed up for vital status. Concordance of self-rated health with physician-rated (k = .3 [.0]) and nurse-rated health (k = .2 [.0]) was low. All three ratings were associated with the geriatric giants except for hearing loss (all p < 0.001). Associations were equal in strength, except for depressive symptoms, which showed a stronger association with self-rated health (.8 [.1] versus .4 [.1]). Self-rated health predicted mortality less well than the other ratings. Self-rated health related stronger to life satisfaction than physician’s and nurse’s ratings. We conclude that professionals’ health ratings are more reflective of physical health whereas self-rated health reflects more the older person’s mental health, but all three health ratings are useful in research. PMID:27658060

  19. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tyson H; Richardson, Liana J; Hargrove, Taylor W; Thomas, Courtney S

    2016-06-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses.

  20. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tyson H.; Richardson, Liana J.; Hargrove, Taylor W.; Thomas, Courtney S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. PMID:27284076

  1. Global aging: implications for women and women's health.

    PubMed

    Tabloski, Patricia A

    2004-01-01

    The world's older population has been growing for centuries; however, the pace of this growth is accelerating rapidly. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, by 2030, more than 60 countries will have 2 million or more older people. Population aging represents a "success story," with increasing numbers of people worldwide enjoying additional years of life. However, the sustained increase in numbers of older people (usually defined as persons over the age of 65) poses many challenges to policy makers and health care providers around the world. As the world population ages, we are just beginning to understand the social, economic, and political implications of the "age wave." The majority of older people are women, thus the implications of population changes for women and women's health are astounding. Nurses can take a national and world leadership role to adequately address the health care needs of increasing numbers of older women. PMID:15495709

  2. Correlates of Self-Reported Sleep Duration in Middle-Aged and Elderly Koreans: from the Health Examinees Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Yang, Jae Jeong; Song, Minkyo; Lee, Hwi-Won; Han, Sohee; Lee, Sang-Ah; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Jong-koo; Kang, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    Though various factors related to fluctuations in sleep duration have been identified, information remains limited regarding the correlates of short and long sleep duration among the Korean population. Thus, we investigated characteristics that could be associated with short and/or long sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Koreans. A total of 84,094 subjects (27,717 men and 56,377 women) who participated in the Health Examinees Study were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regression models. To evaluate whether sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, psychological conditions, anthropometry results, and health conditions were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with sleep duration of 6–7 hours as the reference group, accounting for putative covariates. Regardless of sexual differences, we found that adverse behaviors and lifestyle factors including low educational attainment, unemployment, being unmarried, current smoking status, lack of exercise, having irregular meals, poor psychosocial well-being, frequent stress events, and poor self-rated health were significantly associated with abnormal sleep duration. Similarly, diabetes mellitus and depression showed positive associations with abnormal sleep duration in both men and women. Our findings suggest that low sociodemographic characteristics, adverse lifestyle factors, poor psychological conditions, and certain disease morbidities could be associated with abnormal sleep duration in middle-aged and elderly Koreans. PMID:25933418

  3. A sociological approach to ageing, technology and health.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Kelly; Loe, Meika

    2010-02-01

    Abstract This special monograph issue builds on sociology of health and illness scholarship and expands the analytical lens to examine how old people, healthcare professionals, and technology designers create, use, and modify science and technology to negotiate and define health and illness. Far from passive consumers, elders are technogenarians, creatively utilising and adapting technological artefacts such as walking aids and medications to fit their needs. This publication adds theoretical and empirical depth to our understanding of the multiple and overlapping socio-historical contexts surrounding ageing bodies and ageing enterprises, including the biomedicalisation of ageing that includes the rise of anti-ageing or longevity medicine; and the rise of gerontechnology industries and professions -- fields that largely accept the ageing body as a given. This collection sociologically investigates how and where these two trends overlap and diverge in relation to a global context of ageing and ageism, and calls for further scholarship in this area. Combining science and technology studies and sociology of health and illness frameworks together provides an empirical basis from which to analyse technogenarians in action, as well as the stakeholders and institutions involved in the ageing, health, and technology matrix.

  4. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, A C; O'Connell, S M; O'Mullane, E; Hoey, H M C V

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children. PMID:21186752

  5. [Theories on aging and health: what do aging and old age mean and what constitutes a good life in old age?].

    PubMed

    Wurm, S; Wiest, M; Tesch-Römer, C

    2010-05-01

    The present paper starts by introducing different perspectives of the aging process and includes biological, psychological, and sociological theories in its scope. The article addresses the issue of when "old age" begins and why a distinction is made between the third and fourth age. With increasing age, it becomes more and more difficult to differentiate between health-related losses due to illnesses or to aging. However, this can be important with respect to health behavior and health care. Having the best possible health in old age is an important factor for a good life in old age. Over their whole lives, from childhood to old age, people can actively contribute to their health in old age. But health is not the sole criterion for a good life in old age. Having interests and aims are just as important as being integrated in a social network. In old age, people often differ greatly and this is why there is such variety in what people consider to constitute a good life for themselves in old age.

  6. Next generation leadership: a profile of self-rated competencies among administrative resident and fellows.

    PubMed

    Helfand, Brad; Cherlin, Emily; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2005-01-01

    Healthcare executives and program faculty have voiced concerns that early careerists lack needed competencies for future leadership in the increasingly complex healthcare industry. However, empirical studies of early careerists' competency levels are limited. We sought to describe administrative fellows' and residents' (n = 78, response rate 73.6%) self-rated competency in several key areas and assess how these ratings differed by individuals' gender, age, prior work experience, year of graduate training, and type of degree program. Respondents rated their competence particularly high (41.7% of respondents rated themselves "A") in the domain of interpersonal and emotional intelligence, which included being an effective team leader and member, coaching and developing others, self-awareness, and self-regulation. Lower ratings were in the domains of facilities management and in development and fundraising. Compared to males, females rated their competency in the financial skills domain lower (P-value = 0.04). Age, prior work experience, year of graduate training, and type of degree program were not significantly associated with self-rated competency in any area. These results provide early evidence that may help program faculty and preceptors consider pedagogical approaches that reflect students' vocalized needs and may help to design strategies that effectively cultivate next generation leadership. PMID:15887850

  7. Intelligence in youth and health at age 50

    PubMed Central

    Wraw, Christina; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Background The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort. Methods Participants were the 5793 participants in the NLSY-79 who responded to questions about health outcomes at age 50. Sixteen health outcomes were examined: two were summary measures (physical health and functional limitation), 9 were diagnosed illness conditions, 4 were self-reported conditions, and one was a measure of general health status. Linear and logistic regressions were used, as appropriate, to examine the relationship between intelligence in youth and the health outcomes. Age, sex and both childhood and adult SES, and its sub-components – income, education, & occupational prestige – are all adjusted for separately. Results & conclusion Higher pre-morbid intelligence is linked with better physical health at age 50, and a lower risk for a number of chronic health conditions. For example, a 1 SD higher score in IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of having good, very good, or excellent health, with an odds ratio of 1.70 (C.I. 1.55–1.86). Thirteen of the illness outcomes were significantly and negatively associated with IQ in youth; the odds ratios ranged from 0.85 for diabetes/high blood sugar to 0.65 for stroke, per one standard deviation higher score in IQ. Adjustment for childhood SES led to little attenuation but adult SES partially mediated the relationship for a number of conditions. Mediation by adult SES was not consistently explained by any one of its components—income, education, and occupation status. The current findings contribute to our understanding of lower intelligence as a risk factor for poor health and how this may contribute to health inequalities. PMID:26766880

  8. Aging, health, and identity in Ecuador's indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Waters, William F; Gallegos, Carlos A

    2014-12-01

    Middle-income countries like Ecuador are in the process of demographic and epidemiological transitions, and their populations are aging. The challenges associated with providing services to growing numbers of citizens who experience the inevitable deterioration associated with aging are mirrored by the manner in which aging is perceived in a culturally heterogeneous society. This paper presents the results of qualitative research conducted among older men and women in indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian highlands in order to investigate the perceptions regarding the ability of family and community networks to provide adequate and appropriate support for older persons in the context of their perceptions of health, health care, and aging. The principal findings are that: (i) perceptions of aging are shaped by chronic illness, fatigue, deteriorating sensory capacities, and vulnerability to accidents; (ii) barriers to health care are exacerbated among aging members of indigenous communities, although in some cases they can be addressed through traditional alternatives; (iii) the sense of identity shifts as aging people are increasingly unable to work the land and participate in community activities; and (iv) family and community support networks for older adults are not as strong as is generally thought. These findings represent the context within which issues related aging in a culturally heterogeneous society can be best understood and addressed.

  9. mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Yutao; Wang, Xiaoning; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries. PMID:26816664

  10. mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Yutao; Wang, Xiaoning; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries.

  11. mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Yutao; Wang, Xiaoning; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries. PMID:26816664

  12. Towards age-friendly hospitals and health services.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we reviewed rationale for an age-friendly hospital (or health service) and propose our framework in detail. In a rapidly aging society, development of policies and programs to optimize people's wellbeing and function as they age is an urgent issue. Most older persons extensively use health care. Unfortunately, current practices are unfriendly and may even add risks to the older person. Health-promotion interventions delivered in clinical settings and management of admissions have been shown to be associated with better outcomes. We developed Taiwan's Framework of Age-Friendly Hospitals to address the responsibility of health-care organizations and provide systematic guidance on hospital management policy, communication and services, physical environments, and care processes. This framework takes a life-course perspective and population approach and includes evaluation and quality improvement as an integral part of an age-friendly initiative. The diffusion and adaptation of age-friendly practices in hospitals can be monitored and its impact evaluated in the future.

  13. Progression of aging in Mexico: the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) 2012

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra; Palloni, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; González-González, César; López-Ortega, Mariana; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the third wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), completed in 2012, and present preliminary results. Materials and methods Descriptive analyses by gender and age group of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health conditions and health behaviors, as well as social support and life satisfaction measures are presented. In addition, external validations are presented by comparing MHAS 2012 indicators with other national data sources. Results For the panel of older adults in the sample, the rate of health care insurance coverage increased greatly between 2001 and 2012, a significantly higher change in rural compared to urban areas. The results for 2012 are consistent with the previous two waves for the main indicators of health and physical disability prevalence, risk factors, and behaviors. Conclusions The MHAS offers a unique opportunity to study aging in Mexico, as well as to complete cross-national comparisons. The cumulative number of deaths in the cohort should support the study of mortality and its association with health outcomes and behaviors over the life cycle. In addition, the sub-samples of objective markers will enable methodological research on self-reports and associations of biomarkers in old age with similar health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:26172238

  14. The arts, health, and aging in america: 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Gay Powell; Noelker, Linda S; Bienvenu, Beth

    2015-04-01

    In advance of the White House Conference on Aging (WHCoA) in 1981, 1995, and 2005, the arts and aging communities held mini-conferences to ensure that arts, culture, and livability were part of larger public policy discussions. This article takes a historical look at recommendations from the 2005 WHCoA Mini-Conference on Creativity and Aging in America, including arts in health care, lifelong learning, and livability through universal design. Overarching recommendations in 2005 requested investments in research, including cost-benefit analyses; identification of best practices and model programs; program dissemination to broaden the availability of arts programs. The "Arts" is a broad term encompassing all forms of arts including music, theater, dance, visual arts, literature, multimedia and design, folk, and traditional arts to engage the participation of all older Americans; promotion of innovative public and private partnerships to support arts program development, including workforce development (e.g., artists, social workers, and health care providers); and public awareness of the importance of arts participation to healthy aging. Through the leadership of the National Endowment for the Arts and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, thinking about the arts and aging has broadened to include greater emphasis on a whole-person approach to the health and well-being of older adults. This approach engages older adults in arts participation not only as audience members, but as vital members of their community through creative expression focusing on life stories for intergenerational as well as interprofessional collaboration. This article reviews progress made to date and identifies critical gaps in services for future consideration at a 2015 Mini-Conference on Creativity and Aging related to the WCHoA area of emphasis on healthy aging. PMID:26035603

  15. Health and Wellbeing through Work and Retirement Transitions in Mature Age: Understanding Pre-Post and Retrospective Measures of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Yvonne; de Vaus, David; Kendig, Hal; Quine, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to measure change is essential in examining successful adaptation to ageing. Few studies measuring change have compared findings using pre-post approaches (employing difference scores) with those from retrospective approaches (employing self-ratings). Where this has occurred, differences have been attributed either to ceiling and…

  16. Age-Related Health Stereotypes and Illusory Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madey, Scott F.; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment investigated how age-related health stereotypes affect people's judgments of younger and older patients' medical compliance. Previous research has shown that stereotypes of young adults include healthy components, but stereotypes of older adults include both healthy and unhealthy components (Hummert, 1990). We predicted that…

  17. Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

    2012-01-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  18. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

  19. [COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH IN BABIES OF EARLY PRESCHOOL AGE].

    PubMed

    Denisov, A P; Semenova, N V; Kun, O A; Denisova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Health of the children's population is one of the most important components of safety of the country. The incidence level in children of early age reflects an interaction of economic, ecological, social and hygienic and medico-organizational factors in society. The issue of the paper is the comprehensive assessment of health of children of the first three years of life upon indices of the morbidity rate, physical development, interrelation of given indices with the structure of the family and their social status. Indices of the physical development of boys in the all age groups exceeded the corresponding indices in girls (p < 0.05). There was also statistically significant and augmentation of indices of body weights of children along with the age (p < 0.05). The highest morbidity rate in children was established in the first year of life, the minimal one--in the third year. In the all age groups diseases of respiratory organs prevailed, at this their proportion in the total amount of diseases in the third year of life considerably exceeded the same in first and second years of life. The highest incidences of children took place in the families formed by juvenile and lonely women. Diseases of digestive organs in the second and third years of life in children from juvenile and lonely mothers were considerably enlarged on frequency (by 1,4-1,7 times), infectious and parasitic diseases (by 1,1-1,7 times) in comparison with children from full families. In the all studied types offamilies and age groups the state of health of children was worse, than in full families. There was substantiated the development of the multilevel system for the prophylaxis of losses of health in children at early preschool age. PMID:26856178

  20. Income gradients in oral health according to child age.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Murasko, Jason E; Gansky, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether the well-known income disparities in oral health seen over the life course are indeed absent in 9- to 11-yr-old children, and to explore the role of access to dental care in explaining the age-profile of the income gradient in child oral health. We used data from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health. Income gradients in parental reports of children's decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, broken teeth, bleeding gums, and fair/poor condition of teeth were assessed in stratified analyses according to age of child (1-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 yr), using survey logistic regression to control for family-, parental-, and child-level covariates. Health insurance status and use of preventive dental care were the indicators for children's access to dental care. The adjusted ORs for the effect of family income on having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth were not significant in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Different age-patterns were found for broken teeth and bleeding gums. The attenuation of the income gradients in having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth, previously seen in 9- to 11-yr-old children, was also seen in 15- to 17-, 12- to 14-, and 6- to 8-yr-old children, respectively, after controlling for children's access to dental care. This study supports the attenuation of income inequalities in oral health in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Access to dental care could attenuate income gradients in oral health in other age groups. PMID:26031837

  1. Using anchoring vignettes to assess the comparability of self-rated feelings of sadness, lowness or depression in France and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Guindon, G Emmanuel; Boyle, Michael H

    2012-03-01

    General measures of self-rated health are collected routinely in national health surveys and widely used in the analyses of determinants of health and health care utilization. However, these subjective assessments can be influenced by health expectations (contextualized beliefs about health) that may vary systematically across individuals and be associated with their socio-demographic characteristics. Our objective is to contrast the impact of health expectations associated with respondent characteristics (reporting heterogeneity) on self-rated feelings of sadness, lowness or depression obtained from general population samples in France and Vietnam. Based on self ratings and ratings in response to common anchoring vignettes depicting different levels of depression, we used nationally representative data from the World Health Survey conducted in France (2002) and Vietnam (2002-2003) and a modification of the standard probit model to test and adjust for reporting heterogeneity associated with individual characteristics. We find evidence of reporting heterogeneity within France and Vietnam and across the two countries. In particular we find that, when adjusted for reporting heterogeneity, sex is no longer significantly associated with self-rated feelings of sadness, lowness or depression in France. Given the absence of clear biological markers in the definitions of depressive disorders and the substantial impact reporting heterogeneity is shown to have, measures of depressive disorders based on self-reports should be interpreted with caution.

  2. Effects of Prenatal Care on Child Health at Age 5

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Methods Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings. Results and Conclusions Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health. PMID:22374319

  3. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future. PMID:16905991

  4. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  5. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  6. Health Issues in Aging. The Health Education Monograph Series, Volume 18, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Roberta, Ed.; Doyle, Kathy, Ed.

    This monograph presents a collection of papers related to health issues and aging: "Introduction" (Paul Simon); "Memory, Aging, and Cognition" (Rita E. Arras); "Internet Resources for the Elderly and Their Caregivers" (Kathleen Doyle); "Unintentional Injuries in the Homes of the Elderly: A Look at Current Research and a Case Study of Home Care…

  7. Self-Assessments of Health among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Annette

    Self-assessments of health are important because they appear to be good predictors of future physical health. To examine age differences in self-reports of health, the self-ratings of 149 adults (53.8 percent over 65 years of age; 46.2 percent 64 or younger; average age 57.1) were compared. Subjects were elderly participants in a community…

  8. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

  9. Sclera color changes with age and is a cue for perceiving age, health, and beauty.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard; Sweda, Jennifer R; Porcheron, Aurélie; Mauger, Emmanuelle

    2014-09-01

    Redness or yellowness of the sclera (the light part of the eye) are known signs of illness, as is looking older than one's actual age. Here we report that the color of the sclera is related to age in a large sample of adult Caucasian females. Specifically, older faces have sclera that are more dark, red, and yellow than younger faces. A subset of these faces were manipulated to increase or decrease the darkness, redness, or yellowness of the sclera. Faces with decreased sclera darkness, redness, or yellowness were perceived to be younger than faces with increased sclera darkness, redness, or yellowness. Further, these manipulations also caused the faces to be perceived as more or less healthy, and more or less attractive. These findings show that sclera coloration is a cue for the perception of age, health, and attractiveness that is rooted in the physical changes that occur with age. PMID:25244481

  10. Oral health care in residential aged care services: barriers to engaging health-care providers.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Lydia; Slack-Smith, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The oral health of older people living in residential aged care facilities has been widely recognised as inadequate. The aim of this paper is to identify barriers to effective engagement of health-care providers in oral care in residential aged care facilities. A literature review was conducted using MEDline, CINAHL, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete and PsychInfo between 2000 and 2013, with a grey literature search of government and non-government organisation policy papers, conference proceedings and theses. Keywords included: dental/oral care, residential aged care, health-care providers, barriers, constraints, and limitations. A thematic framework was used to synthesise the literature according to a series of oral health-care provision barriers, health-care provider barriers, and cross-sector collaborative barriers. A range of system, service and practitioner level barriers were identified that could impede effective communication/collaboration between different health-care providers, residents and carers regarding oral care, and these were further impeded by internal barriers at each level. Findings indicated several areas for investigation and consideration regarding policy and practice improvements. While further research is required, some key areas should be addressed if oral health care in residential aged care services is to be improved. PMID:25155109

  11. Bone health as a primary target in the pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Caradonna, P; Rigante, D

    2009-01-01

    Bone tissue is constantly renewed during childhood and adolescence to assure skeleton growth both in size and mineral density: up to 90 percent of peak bone mass is acquired by age 18 in girls and age 20 in boys, which makes youth the best time to "invest" in bone health. The reduction in bone mineral density leading to compromised strength and microarchitecture of bone tissue can favour the occurrence of fragility fractures in the pediatric age. Assessing the normality of bone density measurements in childhood by current methods is hampered by the lack of normative control data. The understanding of factors useful for maximizing peak bone mass, as well as the knowledge of diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies for managing a state of reduced bone mineral density are crucial to prevent fractures throughout lifetime. PMID:19499847

  12. Stabilisation of health as the centre point of a health psychology of ageing.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Urte; König, Claudia; Eicher, Stefanie; Martin, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Current health psychological theories and research mainly cover improvement of health, recovery from illness or maintenance of health. With this theoretical manuscript, we argue that in ageing societies in which chronic illness and multimorbidity become the norm rather than the exception, this focus of health psychology is no longer sufficient. Instead, in line with a recent conceptualisation of health as "the ability to adapt and to self-manage", we suggest that the centre point of a health psychology of ageing needs to be the stabilisation of health. Current theories of lifespan development, such as the model of selection, optimisation and compensation, the motivational theory of life span development, the two-process model of assimilative and accommodative coping and the recently introduced functional quality of life model are described with regard to their assumptions and related research focussing on stabilisation. All of these models explicitly comprise stabilisation as an important process of successful, healthy ageing. So far, however, the empirical research examining these models does not take stabilisation into account. Implications for research methods and practise of health stabilisation are discussed.

  13. Comparison of two self-rating scales to detect depression: HADS and PHQ-9

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Maja; Chotai, Jayanti; Nordstöm, Annika; Bodlund, Owe

    2009-01-01

    Background More than half of patients with depression go undetected. Self-rating scales can be useful in screening for depression, and measuring severity and treatment outcome. Aim This study compares the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) with regard to their psychometric properties, and investigates their agreement at different cut-off scores. Method Swedish primary care patients and psychiatric outpatients (n = 737) who reported symptoms of depression completed the self-rating scales. Data were collected from 2006 to 2007. Analyses with respect to internal consistency, factor analysis, and agreement (Cohen's κ) at recommended cut-offs were performed. Results Both scales had high internal consistency (α = 0.9) and stable factor structures. Using severity cut-offs, the PHQ-9 (≥5) diagnosed about 30% more patients than the HADS depression subscale (HADS-D; ≥8). They recognised the same prevalence of mild and moderate depression, but differed in relation to severe depression. When comparing recommended screening cut-offs, HADS-D ≥11 (33.5% of participants) and PHQ-9 ≥10 (65.9%) agreement was low (κ = 0.35). Using the lower recommended cut-off in the HADS-D (≥8), agreement with PHQ-9 ≥10 was moderate (κ = 0.52). The highest agreement (κ = 0.56) was found comparing HADS-D ≥8 with PHQ-9 ≥12. This also equalised the prevalence of depression found by the scales. Conclusion The HADS and PHQ-9 are both quick and reliable. The HADS has the advantage of evaluating both depression and anxiety, and the PHQ-9 of being strictly based upon the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The agreement between the scales at the best suitable cut-off is moderate, although the identified prevalence was similar. This indicates that the scales do not fully identify the same cases. This difference needs to be further explored. PMID:19761655

  14. Gerontological Knowledge and Elderly Health Care Services in Alaska: Aging in the Last Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosich, Rosellen M.; Thompson, S. Rae

    1997-01-01

    Responses from 159 of 837 health and mental health professionals in Alaska showed the following: (1) 54% said community services for the aging were inadequate; (2) 55% felt health professionals' knowledge of aging was insufficient; and (3) 91.8% needed further training in aging and geriatrics, especially regarding mental health and Alzheimer's…

  15. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  16. Socioeconomic inequalities in health after age 50: Are health risk behaviors to blame?

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Benjamin A.; McGeever, Kelly; Grubert, Elizabeth; Agahi, Neda; Fors, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that socioeconomic inequalities in health extend into the elderly population, even within the most highly developed welfare states. One potential explanation for socioeconomic inequalities in health focuses on the role of health behaviors, but little is known about the degree to which health behaviors account for health inequalities among older adults, in particular. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (N=19,245), this study examined the degree to which four behavioral risk factors – smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, and heavy drinking – are associated with socioeconomic position among adults aged 51 and older, and whether these behaviors mediate socioeconomic differences in mortality, and the onset of disability among those who were disability-free at baseline, over a 10-year period from 1998–2008. Results indicate that the odds of both smoking and physical inactivity are higher among persons with lower wealth, with similar stratification in obesity, but primarily among women. The odds of heavy drinking decrease at lower levels of wealth. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and disability onset are apparent among older men and women; however, the role that health behaviors play in accounting for these inequalities differs by age and gender. For example, these health behaviors account for between 23–45% of the mortality disparities among men and middle aged women, but only about 5% of the disparities found among women over 65 years. Meanwhile, these health behaviors appear to account for about 33% of the disparities in disability onset found among women survivors, and about 9–14% among men survivors. These findings suggest that within the U.S. elderly population, behavioral risks such as smoking and physical inactivity contribute moderately to maintaining socioeconomic inequalities in health. As such, promoting healthier lifestyles among the socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults should help

  17. How personal resources predict work engagement and self-rated performance among construction workers: a social cognitive perspective.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Laura; Salanova, Marisa; Martínez, Isabel M; Vera, María

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, research focussing on psychosocial factors in the construction industry has focused mainly on the negative aspects of health and on results such as occupational accidents. This study, however, focuses on the specific relationships among the different positive psychosocial factors shared by construction workers that could be responsible for occupational well-being and outcomes such as performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether personal resources predict self-rated job performance through job resources and work engagement. Following the predictions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources Model, we expect that the relationship between personal resources and performance will be fully mediated by job resources and work engagement. The sample consists of 228 construction workers. Structural equation modelling supports the research model. Personal resources (i.e. self-efficacy, mental and emotional competences) play a predicting role in the perception of job resources (i.e. job control and supervisor social support), which in turn leads to work engagement and self-rated performance. This study emphasises the crucial role that personal resources play in determining how people perceive job resources by determining the levels of work engagement and, hence, their self-rated job performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24821509

  18. How personal resources predict work engagement and self-rated performance among construction workers: a social cognitive perspective.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Laura; Salanova, Marisa; Martínez, Isabel M; Vera, María

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, research focussing on psychosocial factors in the construction industry has focused mainly on the negative aspects of health and on results such as occupational accidents. This study, however, focuses on the specific relationships among the different positive psychosocial factors shared by construction workers that could be responsible for occupational well-being and outcomes such as performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether personal resources predict self-rated job performance through job resources and work engagement. Following the predictions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources Model, we expect that the relationship between personal resources and performance will be fully mediated by job resources and work engagement. The sample consists of 228 construction workers. Structural equation modelling supports the research model. Personal resources (i.e. self-efficacy, mental and emotional competences) play a predicting role in the perception of job resources (i.e. job control and supervisor social support), which in turn leads to work engagement and self-rated performance. This study emphasises the crucial role that personal resources play in determining how people perceive job resources by determining the levels of work engagement and, hence, their self-rated job performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  19. Social Determinants, Race, and Brain Health Outcomes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A

    2015-01-01

    The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging. PMID:26239039

  20. Social Determinants, Race, and Brain Health Outcomes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A

    2015-01-01

    The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging.

  1. A critique of using age to ration health care.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R W

    1993-01-01

    Daniel Callahan has argued that economic and social benefits would result from a policy of withholding medical treatments which prolong life in persons over a certain age. He claims 'the real goal of medicine' is to conquer death and prolong life with the use of technology, regardless of the age and quality of life of the patient, and this has been responsible for the escalation of health care expenditure. Callahan's proposal is based on economic rationalism but there is little evidence to suggest that substantial economic savings could be achieved. Moreover, his argument raises serious moral objections. A policy of withholding treatments from members of a social group involves elements of compulsion and discrimination, both of which would intrude on the doctor-patient relationship, undermine the autonomy of elderly patients, and invoke the slippery slope towards involuntary forms of euthanasia. Life-death decisions should be based on more than the one criterion of age, and take account of more relevant factors such as the patient's usual state of well-being, her/his expressed wishes, informed consent and the type of illness. Any move to the implementation and enforcement of the policy Callahan recommends would be rejected by health professionals and the public. PMID:8459434

  2. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  3. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states.

  4. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states. PMID:27594848

  5. Aging and Hearing Health: The Life-course Approach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrian; McMahon, Catherine M; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen M; Russ, Shirley; Lin, Frank; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Chadha, Shelly; Tremblay, Kelly L

    2016-04-01

    Sensory abilities decline with age. More than 5% of the world's population, approximately 360 million people, have disabling hearing loss. In adults, disabling hearing loss is defined by thresholds greater than 40 dBHL in the better hearing ear.Hearing disability is an important issue in geriatric medicine because it is associated with numerous health issues, including accelerated cognitive decline, depression, increased risk of dementia, poorer balance, falls, hospitalizations, and early mortality. There are also social implications, such as reduced communication function, social isolation, loss of autonomy, impaired driving ability, and financial decline. Furthermore, the onset of hearing loss is gradual and subtle, first affecting the detection of high-pitched sounds and with difficulty understanding speech in noisy but not in quiet environments. Consequently, delays in recognizing and seeking help for hearing difficulties are common. Age-related hearing loss has no known cure, and technologies (hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive devices) improve thresholds but do not restore hearing to normal. Therefore, health care for persons with hearing loss and people within their communication circles requires education and counseling (e.g., increasing knowledge, changing attitudes, and reducing stigma), behavior change (e.g., adapting communication strategies), and environmental modifications (e.g., reducing noise). In this article, we consider the causes, consequences, and magnitude of hearing loss from a life-course perspective. We examine the concept of "hearing health," how to achieve it, and implications for policy and practice. PMID:26994265

  6. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states. PMID:27594848

  7. 75 FR 59723 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Testing Successful Health Communications Surrounding Aging...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... research on aging to the scientific community, health care providers, and the public.'' The primary... audiences--older people, caregivers, and health professionals. Methods will include focus groups,...

  8. The black aged: a strategy for future mental health services.

    PubMed

    Carter, J H

    1978-12-01

    The younger generation of today will become the elderly of tomorrow. The qualitative differences in life experiences of blacks versus whites lead to differences in the manifestations of emotional problems. Thus the need for a special psychiatric strategy for aged blacks in the future. The problems of blacks, regardless of age, are inextricably linked with beliefs regarding illness, health and institutionalized racism. The many psychiatric ghettoes stemming from the depopulation of mental hospitals reflect poor planning and an obvious disregard for the realities of the whole life situations of elderly blacks. There should be an end to living in squalor and being the victims of muggings, rape and all forms of exploitation. Psychiatry should step forward with some careful and significant plans.

  9. Probiotics and prebiotics and health in ageing populations.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Flint, Harry J

    2013-05-01

    In healthy adults microbial communities that colonise different regions of the human colon contribute nutrients and energy to the host via the fermentation of non-digestible dietary components in the large intestine. A delicate balance of microbial species is required to maintain healthy metabolism and immune function. Disturbance in this microbial balance can have negative consequences for health resulting in elevated inflammation and infection, that are contributory factors in diabetes and cancer. There is a growing awareness that the microbial balance in the colon may become increasingly perturbed with aging and therefore hasten the onset of certain diseases. Societal and dietary factors influence microbial community composition both in the short and long term in the elderly (>65 years old) whilst immunosenescence may also be linked to a perturbed distal gut microbiota and frailty in the elderly. Significant progress has been made in defining some of the dominant members of the microbial community in the healthy large intestine and in identifying their roles in metabolism. There is therefore an urgent need for better awareness of the impact of diet, prebiotic and probiotic strategies in driving human colonic microbial composition in order to understand the possibilities for maintaining healthy gut function and well-being in an increasingly elderly population. Here we review gut microbial changes associated with aging and how diet, prebiotics and probiotics may modulate the gut microbiota to maintain health in the elderly. PMID:23489554

  10. Do Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditures Rise with Age Among Older Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Relationships are examined between age and out-of-pocket costs for different health goods and services among the older population. Design and Methods: Age patterns in health service use and out-of-pocket costs are examined by use of the 1990 Elderly Health Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,031, age 66+). Multivariate…

  11. Ageing, Health and Life Satisfaction of the Oldest Old: An Analysis for Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    This analysis uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to assess the effect of ageing and health on the life satisfaction of the oldest old (defined as 75 and older). We observe a U-shaped relationship between age and levels of life satisfaction for individuals aged between 16 and 65.…

  12. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  13. Rhesus Factor Modulation of Effects of Smoking and Age on Psychomotor Performance, Intelligence, Personality Profile, and Health in Czech Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Geryk, Jan; Volný, Jindra; Klose, Jiří; Černochová, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH3 or CO2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E), radicalism (Q1), self-sentiment integration (Q3), and ergic tension (Q4), and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD) was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year) was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in future studies. PMID

  14. Think Fast, Feel Fine, Live Long: A 29-Year Study of Cognition, Health, and Survival in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In a 29-year study of 6,203 individuals ranging in age from 41 to 96 years at initial assessment, we evaluated the relative and combined influence of 65 mortality risk factors, which included sociodemographic variables, lifestyle attributes, medical indices, and multiple cognitive abilities. Reductions in mortality risk were most associated with higher self-rated health, female gender, fewer years as a smoker, and smaller decrements in processing speed with age. Thus, two psychological variables-subjective health status and processing speed-were among the top predictors of survival. We suggest that these psychological attributes, unlike risk factors that are more narrowly defined, reflect (and are influenced by) a broad range of health-related behaviors and characteristics. Information about these attributes can be obtained with relatively little effort or cost and-given the tractability of these measures in different cultural contexts-may prove expedient for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions related to increased mortality risk in diverse human populations. PMID:26917212

  15. Social and psychological resources associated with health status in a representative sample of adults affected by the 2004 Florida hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Amstadter, Ananda B; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Overall health status after a disaster may be associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Little is known about factors associated with overall health status in the aftermath of disasters. We examined self-rated health in relation to disaster characteristics, social resources, and post-disaster outcomes in a sample of adults who experienced the 2004 Florida hurricanes. We interviewed a representative sample of 1,452 adults aged 18 years and older residing in the 33 Florida counties that were in the direct path of at least one of the 2004 hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne). Overall health status was assessed using a self-rating format known to be predictive of mortality. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 14.6% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (p < 0.001), extreme fear during the hurricane (p = 0.03), low social support (p = 0.03), and depression (p = 0.003) since the hurricane. Self-rated health following the Florida hurricanes was strongly associated with two variables (social support and depression) that potentially can be mitigated through targeted interventions after disasters. Future work should evaluate secondary prevention strategies that can address general health-related concerns in the wake of a disaster.

  16. Global Self-rating Validation of the Measurement of Extraversion and Neuroticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Frank H.; Soper, Robert E.

    1976-01-01

    Results show that individuals identified by the personality inventory as extravert or introvert differed significantly in the expected direction on the global self ratings. The results were also obtained for neuroticism. (Author/DEP)

  17. Effects of feedback accountability and self-rating information on employee appraisals: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Shore, Ted H; Tashchian, Armen

    2007-06-01

    The influence of feedback accountability and self-rating information on employee performance appraisals was examined. Undergraduate business student participants assumed the role of "supervisor" and evaluated a fictitious "subordinate" whose performance on a clerical task was either moderately poor or very good. Participants were either given fictitious self-rating information, or no self-rating information, and were told they were expected to provide performance feedback to their ratee, or there was no feedback expectation. As expected, in Study 1 both self-rating information and expected feedback-sharing independently resulted in lenient ratings for poor performance, and the combined effects resulted in the highest ratings. By contrast, results for good performance (Study 2) were not significant. Implications of the findings for human resource management practice and research were discussed.

  18. The Children's Sleep Comic: Psychometrics of a Self-rating Instrument for Childhood Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Schwerdtle, Barbara; Kanis, Julia; Kübler, Andrea; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-02-01

    The Children's Sleep Comic is a standardized self-report questionnaire for assessing insomnia in children ages 5-11 years. The goal of the present study is to introduce a revised version of this measure and to present psychometrics and a cut-off score. Therefore, the revised Children's Sleep Comic, the Sleep Self Report, the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and the Child Behavior Checklist were applied to a sample of 393 children and their parents. Of the parents who participated voluntarily, a subsample (n = 176) was interviewed on the phone to diagnose their children with sleep disorders according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, if applicable. The results indicated that the Children's Sleep Comic is a reliable self-rating instrument for diagnosing childhood insomnia. Internal consistency was α = 0.83; and convergent and divergent validity were adequate. The child-friendly format can foster a good therapeutic relationship, and thus establish the basis for successful intervention.

  19. Mechanisms of yogic practices in health, aging, and disease.

    PubMed

    Kuntsevich, Viktoriya; Bushell, William C; Theise, Neil D

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the modulating effects of yogic cognitive-behavioral practices (eg, meditation, yoga asanas, pranayama breathing, caloric restriction) on human physiology can be classified into 4 transduction pathways: humoral factors, nervous system activity, cell trafficking, and bioelectromagnetism. Here we give examples of these transduction pathways and how, through them, yogic practices might optimize health, delay aging, and ameliorate chronic illness and stress from disability. We also recognize that most studies of these mechanisms remain embedded in a reductionist paradigm, investigating small numbers of elements of only 1 or 2 pathways. Moreover, often, subjects are not long-term practitioners, but recently trained. The models generated from such data are, in turn, often limited, top-down, without the explanatory power to describe beneficial effects of long-term practice or to provide foundations for comparing one practice to another. More flexible and useful models require a systems-biology approach to gathering and analysis of data. Such a paradigm is needed to fully appreciate the deeper mechanisms underlying the ability of yogic practice to optimize health, delay aging, and speed efficient recovery from injury or disease. In this regard, 3 different, not necessarily competing, hypotheses are presented to guide design of future investigations, namely, that yogic practices may: (1) promote restoration of physiologic setpoints to normal after derangements secondary to disease or injury, (2) promote homeostatic negative feedback loops over nonhomeostatic positive feedback loops in molecular and cellular interactions, and (3) quench abnormal "noise" in cellular and molecular signaling networks arising from environmental or internal stresses.

  20. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Joan Earle; FitzGerald, Leah; Markham, Young Kee; Glassman, Paul; Guenther, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP) students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students' perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3. PMID:22619708

  1. Validation of the Kirundi versions of brief self-rating scales for common mental disorders among children in Burundi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Sub Saharan Africa, there has been limited research on instruments to identify specific mental disorders in children in conflict-affected settings. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of three self-report scales for child mental disorder in order to inform an emerging child mental health programme in post-conflict Burundi. Methods Trained lay interviewers administered local language versions of three self-report scales, the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS), the Child PSTD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-41), to a sample of 65 primary school children in Burundi. The test scores were compared with an external ‘gold standard’ criterion: the outcomes of a comprehensive semistructured clinical psychiatric interview for children according the DSM-IV criteria (the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – K-SADS-PL). Results The DSRS has an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.85 with a confidence interval (c.i.) of 0.73–0.97. With a cut-off point of 19, the sensitivity was 0.64, and the specificity was 0.88. For the CPSS, with a cut-off point of 26, the AUC was 0.78 (c.i.: 0.62–0.95) with a sensitivity of 0.71 and a specificity of 0.83. The AUC for the SCARED-41, with a cut-off point of 44, was 0.69 (c.i.: 0.54–0.84) with a sensitivity of 0.55 and a specificity of 0.90. Conclusions The DSRS and CPSS showed good utility in detecting depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in Burundian children, but cut-off points had to be put considerably higher than in western norm populations. The psychometric properties of the SCARED-41 to identify anxiety disorders were less strong. The DSRS and CPSS have acceptable properties, and they could be used in clinical practice as part of a two-stage screening procedure in public mental health programmes in Burundi and in similar cultural and linguistic settings in the African Great Lakes region

  2. Role of walnuts in maintaining brain health with age.

    PubMed

    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Because of the combination of population growth and population aging, increases in the incidence of chronic neurodegenerative disorders have become a societal concern, both in terms of decreased quality of life and increased financial burden. Clinical manifestation of many of these disorders takes years, with the initiation of mild cognitive symptoms leading to behavioral problems, dementia and loss of motor functions, the need for assisted living