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Sample records for age self-rated health

  1. Age and Self-Rated Health in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon

    2005-01-01

    I examine age variation in the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on self-rated health in Korea by including three alternative indicators of SES--liquid assets, home ownership, and real estate ownership--as well as two standard measures of education and household income. Furthermore, I consider the SES-health relationship and its variation by…

  2. Personality, Self-Rated Health and Subjective Age in a Life-Span Sample: The Moderating Role of Chronological Age

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Yannick; Demulier, Virginie; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether chronological age moderates the association between subjective age and self-rated health and personality in a community-dwelling lifespan sample (N=1,016; age-range: 18–91). Self-rated health, extraversion, and openness to experience were associated with a younger subjective age at older ages. Conscientious individuals felt more mature early in life. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness were not related to subjective age at older ages. These findings suggest that with aging self-rated health and personality traits are increasingly important for subjective age. PMID:22582885

  3. Age Matters: Exploring Correlates of Self-Rated Health Across Four Generations of Australian Males.

    PubMed

    Koelmeyer, Rachel; Currier, Dianne; Spittal, Matthew J; Schlichthorst, Marisa; Pirkis, Jane E; English, Dallas R

    2016-01-01

    The importance of addressing health disparities experienced by boys and men reached tangible prominence in Australia with adoption of the 2010 National Male Health Policy and the establishment of a national longitudinal study on male health-Ten to Men. Ten to Men is based on a holistic model of health with a strong focus on social determinants and health and well-being over the life course. Given the life course focus, we set out to assess if health-related characteristics and the correlates of self-rated health differ across the life course among four sociologically defined generations of Australian males. While some differences in the correlates of good or excellent health were observed across generations, addressing obesity and depression appear to be important for improving the health of Australian males of all ages. PMID:27337617

  4. Time Trends in Self-Rated Health and Disability in Older Spanish People: Differences by Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    GIRON, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background: To analyse time trends in self-rated health in older people by gender and age and examine disability in the time trends of self-rated health. Methods: The data used come from the Spanish National Health Surveys conducted in 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2011–12. Samples of adults aged 16 yr and older were selected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between age, gender, socio-economic status, marital status, disability and self-rated health across period study. Results: Women exhibited lower (higher) prevalence of good self-rated health (disability) compared to men. The multivariate analysis for time trends found that good self-rated health increased from 2001 to 2012. Overall, variables associated with a lower likelihood of good self-rated health were: being married or living with a partner, lower educational level, and disability. Conclusion: Trends of good self-rated health differ by gender according to socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of disability. PMID:27141490

  5. Changing predictors of self-rated health: Disentangling age and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Spuling, Svenja M; Wurm, Susanne; Tesch-Römer, Clemens; Huxhold, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that some predictors of self-rated health (SRH) become more important with age, while others become less important. Although based on cross-sectional data, these findings are often interpreted as age-related changes in evaluation criteria. However, results could be due to cohort effects as well. We attempted to disentangle age and cohort effects by combining and comparing cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a large-scale longitudinal survey. The sample consisted of 2,982 community-dwelling participants from 2 measurement occasions of the German Ageing Survey ages 40-81 years at baseline. Multigroup latent regression models were used to examine whether associations between various predictors and SRH differed between age groups and whether they changed over time. Comparisons of cross-sectional age differences in SRH-predictor associations and longitudinal age changes in the same associations allow the identification of cohort effects. Number of chronic conditions showed a constant negative association with SRH independently of age and cohort. In contrast, the association between SRH and all other predictors (physical functioning, exercise, life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and positive affect) changed longitudinally, pointing to an age effect. Prediction of SRH by depressive symptoms and positive affect showed an additional cohort effect: The negative associations between depressive symptoms and SRH and the positive associations between positive affect and SRH were stronger among younger cohorts. The findings provide not only longitudinal support for previous cross-sectional studies, but also show the impact of historical change: Emotional facets of psychological well-being increase in relevance for SRH across cohorts. PMID:25961881

  6. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one’s health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7–13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of

  7. Substance-use coping and self-rated health among US middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Pia M; Canham, Sarah L; Martins, Silvia S; Spira, Adam P

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use among US middle-aged and older adults is increasing. A subset of this population uses substances to cope with stress, but the characteristics of these individuals, and the association between substance-use coping and health outcomes remain unclear. We identified correlates of substance-use coping and measured its association with self-rated health in a community-based sample of adults aged 54-99 in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). In the 2008 HRS, 1351 participants reported their frequency of prescription/other drug-, alcohol-, and cigarette-use coping with stress and reported self-rated health (excellent/very good, good, or fair/poor); 1201 of these participants also reported self-rated health in 2010. One in six participants frequently used substances to cope. The oldest participants were least likely to engage in frequent alcohol-use coping. Those with elevated depressive symptoms were more likely to frequently engage in cigarette- and prescription/other drug-use coping. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, participants who frequently used cigarettes (compared to participants who infrequently used cigarettes) to cope had 2.7 times (95% CI=1.1-6.7) the odds of poor (vs. excellent) self-rated health. Relative to participants who infrequently used prescription/other drugs to cope, participants who frequently used prescription/other drugs to cope had 2.4 times (95% CI=1.1-5.1) the odds of reporting poor self-rated health. The association between prescription/other drug-use coping in 2008 and self-rated health in 2010 was statistically significant (relative OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.7-7.2). Participants engaging in substance-use coping likely have particular demographic and clinical characteristics. Interventions to reduce substance-use coping may prevent adverse health outcomes. PMID:25437264

  8. Relations between Concurrent Longitudinal Changes in Cognition, Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health and Everyday Function in Normally Aging Octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Classon, Elisabet; Fällman, Katarina; Wressle, Ewa; Marcusson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens. PMID:27551749

  9. Relations between Concurrent Longitudinal Changes in Cognition, Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health and Everyday Function in Normally Aging Octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens. PMID:27551749

  10. What does Self Rated Mental Health Represent

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Daphna; Kaplan, Giora

    2014-01-01

    Background Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859]. Results The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health Significance for public health The present study is an original study on the self rated physical, mental and overall health measures. Because of the wide range of associations with other health indicators, and the simplicity with which they are collected, self-rated health measures are widely used in large population surveys. The present study questions the automatic assumption that the self rated mental health functions as a proxy measure of psychiatric morbidity, and suggests that the self rated mental health is more closely related to subjective well-being. The results show that self rated mental health predicts self rated general health

  11. Social inequalities in self-rated health by age: Cross-sectional study of 22 457 middle-aged men and women

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Emily; Luben, Robert; Bingham, Sheila; Wareham, Nicholas; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2008-01-01

    Background We investigate the association between occupational social class and self-rated health (SRH) at different ages in men and women. Methods Cross sectional population study of 22 457 men and women aged 39–79 years living in the general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom, recruited using general practice age-sex registers in 1993–1997. The relationship between self-rated health and social class was examined using logistic regression, with a poor or moderate rating as the outcome. Results The prevalence of poor or moderate (lower) self-rated health increased with increasing age in both men and women. There was a strong social class gradient: in manual classes, men and women under 50 years of age had a prevalence of lower self-rated health similar to that seen in men and women in non-manual social classes over 70 years old. Even after adjustment for age, educational status, and lifestyle factors (body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity and alcohol consumption) there was still strong evidence of a social gradient in self-rated health, with unskilled men and women approximately twice as likely to report lower self-rated health as professionals (ORmen = 2.44 (95%CI 1.69, 3.50); ORwomen = 1.97 (95%CI 1.45, 2.68). Conclusion There was a strong gradient of decreased SRH with age in both men and women. We found a strong cross-sectional association between SRH and social class, which was independent of education and major health related behaviors. The social class differential in SRH was similar with age. Prospective studies to confirm this association should explore social and emotional as well as physical pathways to inequalities in self reported health. PMID:18611263

  12. 'In general, how do you feel today?'--self-rated health in the context of aging in India.

    PubMed

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is centered on self-rated health (SRH) as an outcome measure, as a predictor, and as a marker. The thesis uses primary data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) implemented in India in 2007. The structural equation modeling approach is employed to understand the pathways through which the social environment, disability, disease, and sociodemographic characteristics influence SRH among older adults aged 50 years and above. Cox proportional hazard model is used to explore the role of SRH as a predictor for mortality and the role of disability in modifying this effect. The hierarchical ordered probit modeling approach, which combines information from anchoring vignettes with SRH, was used to address the long overlooked methodological concern of interpersonal incomparability. Finally, multilevel model-based small area estimation techniques were used to demonstrate the use of large national surveys and census information to derive precise SRH prevalence estimates at the district and sub-district level. The thesis advocates the use of such a simple measure to identify vulnerable communities for targeted health interventions, to plan and prioritize resource allocation, and to evaluate health interventions in resource-scarce settings. The thesis provides the basis and impetus to generate and integrate similar and harmonized adult health and aging data platforms within demographic surveillance systems in different regions of India and elsewhere. PMID:24762983

  13. Factors Associated with Self-rated Health in the Rural Population: Age- and Gender-specific Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Kimata, Takaya; Uemura, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Multiple studies worldwide have supported the predictive validity of self-rated health (SRH) with regard to disability and mortality among elderly people. Although SRH is an important study topic providing clues to enhance a person’s quality of life, there is currently insufficient data on age- and gender-specific differences among factors associated with SRH in Japan, particularly in rural areas. The present study examined the factors associated with SRH of a segment of Japan’s rural population by age- and gender-specific analysis. Methods: We used data from a cohort study of all users who underwent an annual health checkup at a public clinic in a rural area. The study subjects were 155 male and 169 female users from June 2009 to August 2010 who agreed to participate in this study. We divided the study subjects into 4 categories as follows: men aged less than 65, women aged less than 65, men aged 65 and over, and women aged 65 and over. The subjects who responded positively to the SRH-related questions were defined as the high SRH group, and those who responded negatively were defined as the low SRH group. We then compared the data between the high and the low groups in each category. Results: In all four categories, there were statistically significant differences in regular hospital or clinic attendance between the high and low SRH groups. In all four categories, there were no significant differences in eating or exercise habits between the two SRH groups. Conclusion: Because regular hospital or clinic attendance by a subject is indicative of the presence of chronic health problems, it is natural for the subject’s perception of their own health to be negative. However, rural physicians should provide patients with emotional and psychological support to deal with any health-related concerns positively. PMID:25648990

  14. Correlates of Self-Rated Health and Self-Rated Mental Health in Older Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Huang, Ya-Ching; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Lin, Shumin

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the factors associated with self-rated health (SRH) and self-rated mental health (SRMH) in a sample of 108 older Chinese Americans (MeanAge = 70.6, SD = 7.70). SRH and SRMH were highly associated with each other. In the multiple regression models, chronic conditions and functional disability emerged as significant predictors of poor SRH and SRMH. However, the significance of depressive symptoms was only obtained in the model of SRMH. The findings reflect the body-mind connection among older Chinese Americans and provide implications for integrative health promotion efforts. PMID:27104949

  15. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  16. Assessing the Validity of Self-Rated Health with the Short Physical Performance Battery: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Emmanuelle; Zunzunegui, Maria–Victoria; Phillips, Susan; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the validity of self-rated health across different populations of older adults, when compared to the Short Physical Performance Battery. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study. Setting Five locations: Saint-Hyacinthe and Kingston (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia), and Natal (Brazil). Participants Older adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,995). Methods The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used to measure physical performance. Self-rated health was assessed with one single five-point question. Linear trends between SPPB scores and self-rated health were tested separately for men and women at each of the five international study sites. Poor physical performance (independent variable) (SPPB less than 8) was used in logistic regression models of self-rated health (dependent variable), adjusting for potential covariates. All analyses were stratified by gender and site of origin. Results A significant linear association was found between the mean scores of the Short Physical Performance Battery and ordinal categories of self-rated health across research sites and gender groups. After extensive control for objective physical and mental health indicators and socio-demographic variables, these graded associations became non-significant in some research sites. Conclusion These findings further confirm the validity of SRH as a measure of overall health status in older adults. PMID:27089219

  17. Racial Differences in Self-Rated Health at Similar Levels of Physical Functioning: An Examination of Health Pessimism in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Rooks, Ronica N.; Albert, Steven M.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Brenes, Gretchen A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Koster, Annemarie; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Newman, Anne B.

    2009-01-01

    Background The health pessimism hypothesis suggests that Black elders are more pessimistic about health than Whites and therefore tend to report lower self-rated health (SRH) at comparable health status. The current analysis examined the factors associated with SRH and tested the health pessimism hypothesis among older adults at similar levels of physical functioning. Methods The study example included 2,729 Health, Aging, and Body Composition study participants aged 70–79 years. We used hierarchical logistic regression to examine the association between race and SRH while adjusting for demographic, physical health, and psychosocial factors. The analyses were repeated for participants at similar levels of objective functioning to test the health pessimism hypothesis. Results The association between race and SRH remained independent of physical and psychosocial health variables, with Whites being 3.7 times more likely than Black elders to report favorable SRH. This association was significant at each level of physical functioning and greater at the higher (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5) versus lower (OR = 2.2) levels of functioning. Conclusions The results suggest greater health pessimism among Black elders and expand previous work by including objective functioning in multidimensional models to deconstruct race variations in the SRH of older adults. PMID:19176485

  18. Psychosocial functioning and self-rated health in Japanese school-aged children: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Masayuki; Sekiya, Mari; Okuda, Yumi; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Yoshitake, Norikazu; Hobara, Tatsuya

    2013-06-01

    Emotional and behavioral disorders in children are school-health concerns; however, Japanese screening tools for such disorders are not yet available. We examined the association between psychosocial functioning as measured by the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) and self-rated health within school settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted for 2513 fifth and eighth graders from all of the primary and secondary schools in Shunan City, Japan. The Japanese PSC had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90) and a factor structure similar to that of the English PSC. When the cut-off values were set to ≥ 28 and ≥ 17, 4-9% and 20-39% of our respondents, respectively, reported high PSC scores. A multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of a positive PSC score (≥ 28) for poorer self-rated health among ratings of "very good," "good," "fair," and "poor" was 3.5 (95% confidence interval = 2.6-4.8). There was a clear association between psychosocial dysfunction identified by a PSC score ≥ 28 and poor self-rated health. We offer directions for further research on appropriate PSC cut-off values with Japanese samples. PMID:23107460

  19. Self-rated health among physicians.

    PubMed

    Baubinas, Algirdas; Gurevicius, Romualdas; Jankauskiene, Konstancija; Salyga, Jonas; Kairys, Jonas; Jurkstiene, Vilma; Kevelaitis, Egidijus

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze self-rated health among physicians depending on their sex, age, workplace (hospital or polyclinic), and specialty. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The studied group consisted of 377 26-70-year-old physicians randomly selected from various county hospitals and polyclinics of Lithuania. There were 85 men and 292 women. The inquiry was performed using the complemented (by the authors of the study) version of the WHO anonymous questionnaire of the quality of life (1995). Responses were evaluated based on physicians' evaluation of their own health, which was rated as very good, good, satisfactory, poor, and very poor. RESULTS. Only 8.2% of males and 5.8% of females evaluated their health as very good (P>0.05). More men, compared to women, evaluated their health as good (62.3% and 53.1%, respectively; P<0.05), whereas more females evaluated their health as satisfactory, compared to males (36.0% and 25.9%, respectively; P<0.05); 2.4% of males and 5.1% of females (p>0.05) stated that their health was poor. In most cases, physicians of different age groups presented equal evaluations of their health except for physicians in the age groups of 26-37 and 38-43 years - those who evaluated their health as very good comprised a significantly higher percentage (P<0.05), compared to other age groups. As expected, a higher percentage of older physicians evaluated their health as satisfactory. In addition to that, more hospital physicians, compared to those working in polyclinics, evaluated their health as good (12.8% and 1.8%, respectively; P<0.05) and vice versa - significantly more physicians working in polyclinics evaluated their health as satisfactory, compared to those working in hospitals (38.1% and 26.8%, respectively; P<0.05). A significantly higher percentage of surgeons, compared to general practitioners or therapists, evaluated their health as very good (15.8%, 4.5%, and 6.1%, respectively; P<0.05) and a significantly lower percentage - as

  20. Does self-rated health predict death in adults aged 50 years and above in India? Evidence from a rural population under health and demographic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Juvekar, Sanjay; Sambhudas, Somnath; Lele, Pallavi; Blomstedt, Yulia; Wall, Stig; Berkman, Lisa; Tollman, Steve; Ng, Nawi

    2012-01-01

    Background The Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) aims to improve empirical understanding of health and well-being of adults in developing countries. We examine the role of self-rated health (SRH) in predicting mortality and assess how socio-demographic and other disability measures influence this association. Methods In 2007, a shortened SAGE questionnaire was administered to 5087 adults aged ≥50 years under the Health Demographic Surveillance System in rural Pune district, India. Respondents rated their own health with a single global question on SRH. Disability and well-being were assessed using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Index, Health State Score and quality-of-life score. Respondents were followed up every 6 months till June 2011. Any change in spousal support, migration or death during follow-up was updated in the SAGE dataset. Results In all, 410 respondents (8%) died in the 3-year follow-up period. Mortality risk was higher with bad/very bad SRH [hazard ratio (HR) in men: 3.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93–4.87; HR in women: 1.64, 95% CI: 0.94–2.86], independent of age, disability and other covariates. Disability measure (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Index) and absence of spousal support were also associated with increased mortality risk. Conclusion Our findings confirm an association between bad/very bad SRH and mortality for men, independent of age, socio-demographic factors and other disability measures, in a rural Indian population. This association loses significance in women when adjusted for disability. Our study highlights the strength of nesting cross-sectional surveys within the context of the Health Demographic Surveillance System in studying the role of SRH and mortality. PMID:23175517

  1. Self-rated health and associated factors among older South Africans: evidence from the study on global ageing and adult health

    PubMed Central

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Kose, Zamakayise; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Ramlagan, Shandir; Tabane, Cily; Davids, Adlai

    2013-01-01

    Background Population ageing has become significant in South African society, increasing the need to improve understandings of health and well-being among the aged. Objective To describe the self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning, and to identify factors associated with self-rated health among older South Africans. Design A national population-based cross-sectional survey, with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years and older, was completed in South Africa in 2008. Self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning were measured using a single self-reported health state covering nine health domains (used to generate the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) composite health state score). Disability was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-II) activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), perceptions of well-being, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life index/metric (WHOQoL). Results Overall, more than three quarters (76.8%) of adults rated their health as moderate or good. On balance, men reported very good or good health more often than women (p<0.001). Older people (aged 70 years and above) reported significantly poorer health status than those aged 50–59 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–2.30). Indians and Blacks were significantly more likely to report poorer health status at (AOR=4.01; 95% CI 1.27–12.70) and (AOR=0.42; 95% CI 0.18–0.98; 30 p <0.045), respectively, compared to Whites. Respondents with primary education (AOR=1.83; 95% CI 1.19–2.80) and less than primary education (AOR=1.94; 95% CI 1.37–2.76) were more likely to report poorer health compared to those with secondary education. In terms of wealth status, those in low wealth quintile (AOR=2.02; 95% CI 1.14–3.57) and medium wealth quintile (AOR=1.47; 95% CI 1.01–2.13) were more likely to report poorer health status than

  2. Social network properties and self-rated health in later life: comparisons from the Korean social life, health, and aging project and the national social life, health and aging project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper has two objectives. Firstly, it provides an overview of the social network module, data collection procedures, and measurement of ego-centric and complete-network properties in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP). Secondly, it directly compares the KSHAP structure and results to the ego-centric network structure and results of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), which conducted in-home interviews with 3,005 persons 57 to 85 years of age in the United States. Methods The structure of the complete social network of 814 KSHAP respondents living in Township K was measured and examined at two levels of networks. Ego-centric network properties include network size, composition, volume of contact with network members, density, and bridging potential. Complete-network properties are degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and brokerage role. Results We found that KSHAP respondents with a smaller number of social network members were more likely to be older and tended to have poorer self-rated health. Compared to the NSHAP, the KSHAP respondents maintained a smaller network size with a greater network density among their members and lower bridging potential. Further analysis of the complete network properties of KSHAP respondents revealed that more brokerage roles inside the same neighborhood (Ri) were significantly associated with better self-rated health. Socially isolated respondents identified by network components had the worst self-rated health. Conclusions The findings demonstrate the importance of social network analysis for the study of older adults’ health status in Korea. The study also highlights the importance of complete-network data and its ability to reveal mechanisms beyond ego-centric network data. PMID:25217892

  3. Some correlates of self-rated health for Australian women.

    PubMed Central

    Shadbolt, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify some of the correlates of self-rated health for young to middle-aged Australian women. METHODS: Regression analyses were based on a 4-year longitudinal study using a random sample of Sydney women 20 to 59 years of age at baseline. Participants were interviewed in 1986/87 and 1990. RESULTS: Cross-sectional relationships between self-assessed health and other health measures varied significantly by age, although physical health was a common correlate. Sixty-three percent of participants reported a similar rating of health over the 4-year period between the surveys. Changes in self-assessed health were sensitive to chronic disease. Also, participants' self-ratings of health were related to their subsequent chronic disease status. CONCLUSIONS: Self-rated health reflects a complex process of internalized calculations that encompass both lived experience and knowledge of disease causes and consequences. Women seem to take into consideration a broad range of factors, including lifestyle, vitality, mental attitude, and age, and, if they have a health condition, the chronicity of their disease, duration since diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:9224175

  4. ‘In general, how do you feel today?’ – self-rated health in the context of aging in India

    PubMed Central

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is centered on self-rated health (SRH) as an outcome measure, as a predictor, and as a marker. The thesis uses primary data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) implemented in India in 2007. The structural equation modeling approach is employed to understand the pathways through which the social environment, disability, disease, and sociodemographic characteristics influence SRH among older adults aged 50 years and above. Cox proportional hazard model is used to explore the role of SRH as a predictor for mortality and the role of disability in modifying this effect. The hierarchical ordered probit modeling approach, which combines information from anchoring vignettes with SRH, was used to address the long overlooked methodological concern of interpersonal incomparability. Finally, multilevel model-based small area estimation techniques were used to demonstrate the use of large national surveys and census information to derive precise SRH prevalence estimates at the district and sub-district level. The thesis advocates the use of such a simple measure to identify vulnerable communities for targeted health interventions, to plan and prioritize resource allocation, and to evaluate health interventions in resource-scarce settings. The thesis provides the basis and impetus to generate and integrate similar and harmonized adult health and aging data platforms within demographic surveillance systems in different regions of India and elsewhere. PMID:24762983

  5. The choice of self-rated health measures matter when predicting mortality: evidence from 10 years follow-up of the Australian longitudinal study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) measures with different wording and reference points are often used as equivalent health indicators in public health surveys estimating health outcomes such as healthy life expectancies and mortality for older adults. Whilst the robust relationship between SRH and mortality is well established, it is not known how comparable different SRH items are in their relationship to mortality over time. We used a dynamic evaluation model to investigate the sensitivity of time-varying SRH measures with different reference points to predict mortality in older adults over time. Methods We used seven waves of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (1992 to 2004; N = 1733, 52.6% males). Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between three time-varying SRH measures (global, age-comparative and self-comparative reference point) with mortality in older adults (65+ years). Results After accounting for other mortality risk factors, poor global SRH ratings increased mortality risk by 2.83 times compared to excellent ratings. In contrast, the mortality relationship with age-comparative and self-comparative SRH was moderated by age, revealing that these comparative SRH measures did not independently predict mortality for adults over 75 years of age in adjusted models. Conclusions We found that a global measure of SRH not referenced to age or self is the best predictor of mortality, and is the most reliable measure of self-perceived health for longitudinal research and population health estimates of healthy life expectancy in older adults. Findings emphasize that the SRH measures are not equivalent measures of health status. PMID:20403203

  6. The Relationship Between Self-Rated Health and Hospital Records.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Torben Heien

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates whether self-rated health (SRH) covaries with individual hospital records. By linking the Danish Longitudinal Survey on Ageing with individual hospital records covering all hospital admissions from 1995 to 2006, I show that SRH is correlated to historical, current, and future hospital records. I use both measures separately to control for health in a regression of mortality on wealth. Using only historical and current hospitalization controls for health yields the common result that SRH is a stronger predictor of mortality than objective health measures. The addition of future hospitalizations as controls shows that the estimated gradient on wealth is similar to one in which SRH is the control. The results suggest that with a sufficiently long time series of individual records, objective health measures can predict mortality to the same extent as global self-rated measures. PMID:25702929

  7. Factors Associated with American Indian Teens' Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tassy

    2004-01-01

    Factors related to American Indian (AI) high school students' self-rated health were examined. Self rated health was measured as a single-item with a four-point response option ranging from poor to excellent health. Of the 574 participants, 19% reported "fair" or "poor" health, a percentage more than twice that for U.S. high school students in…

  8. The increasing predictive validity of self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Schnittker, Jason; Bacak, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1980 to 2002 General Social Survey, a repeated cross-sectional study that has been linked to the National Death Index through 2008, this study examines the changing relationship between self-rated health and mortality. Research has established that self-rated health has exceptional predictive validity with respect to mortality, but this validity may be deteriorating in light of the rapid medicalization of seemingly superficial conditions and increasingly high expectations for good health. Yet the current study shows the validity of self-rated health is increasing over time. Individuals are apparently better at assessing their health in 2002 than they were in 1980 and, for this reason, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is considerably stronger across all levels of self-rated health. Several potential mechanisms for this increase are explored. More schooling and more cognitive ability increase the predictive validity of self-rated health, but neither of these influences explains the growing association between self-rated health and mortality. The association is also invariant to changing causes of death, including a decline in accidental deaths, which are, by definition, unanticipated by the individual. Using data from the final two waves of data, we find suggestive evidence that exposure to more health information is the driving force, but we also show that the source of information is very important. For example, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is smaller among those who use the internet to find health information than among those who do not. PMID:24465452

  9. Older Women and Lower Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Abdul Rashid, Sharifah Norazizan Syed

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have found that older women report lower self-rated health than men. However, it is not clear why older women are more likely to report poor self-rated health than older men. Data for this study came from a national cross-sectional survey, Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians (MHQoLOM). Included in the survey were…

  10. The Increasing Predictive Validity of Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Schnittker, Jason; Bacak, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1980 to 2002 General Social Survey, a repeated cross-sectional study that has been linked to the National Death Index through 2008, this study examines the changing relationship between self-rated health and mortality. Research has established that self-rated health has exceptional predictive validity with respect to mortality, but this validity may be deteriorating in light of the rapid medicalization of seemingly superficial conditions and increasingly high expectations for good health. Yet the current study shows the validity of self-rated health is increasing over time. Individuals are apparently better at assessing their health in 2002 than they were in 1980 and, for this reason, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is considerably stronger across all levels of self-rated health. Several potential mechanisms for this increase are explored. More schooling and more cognitive ability increase the predictive validity of self-rated health, but neither of these influences explains the growing association between self-rated health and mortality. The association is also invariant to changing causes of death, including a decline in accidental deaths, which are, by definition, unanticipated by the individual. Using data from the final two waves of data, we find suggestive evidence that exposure to more health information is the driving force, but we also show that the source of information is very important. For example, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is smaller among those who use the internet to find health information than among those who do not. PMID:24465452

  11. Self-Rated Health among Adult Women of Mexican Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Hernandez-Valero, Maria A.; Etzel, Carol J.; Barcenas, Carlos H.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Strom, Sara S.

    2006-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH), a consistent predictor of mortality among diverse populations, is sensitive to health indicators and social factors. American-born Hispanics report better SRH than their foreign-born counterparts but simultaneously report poorer health indicators and have shorter life expectancy. Using a matched prospective cross-sectional…

  12. Effects of Self-Rated Health and Self-Rated Economic Situation on Depressed Mood Via Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the relationship of self-rated health and self-rated economic situation with depressed mood, and life satisfaction as mediator of this relationship among older adults in Costa Rica. Method: A longitudinal study was conducted with a subsample (N = 1,618) from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES). Self-rated health, self-rated economic situation, depressed mood, and life satisfaction were measured at baseline, and depressed mood was reassessed 18 months later. Putative mechanisms for changes in depressed mood were examined by means of conditional process analysis. Results: Self-rated health was negatively associated to depressed mood. This effect took place via life satisfaction. An interaction showed that better economic situation compensated the effect of a low self-rated health on life satisfaction. Discussion: This study suggests that subjective variables such as self-rated health, economic situation, and life satisfaction should be considered when addressing the onset of depressed mood. PMID:26092651

  13. What Factors Predict Student Self-Rated Physical Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance J.; Adlaf, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Data from a randomly selected sample of 840 Ontario students were used to examine factors that affect self-rated physical health. Analyses focused on demographics, family structure, financial situation, child-parent relationship, school achievement, self-esteem, alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use as factors which directly and indirectly influence…

  14. Psychological Resources and Self-rated Health Status on Fifty-year-old Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study is to expand knowledge about predictors of the self-rated health and mental health in fifty-year-old women. The study exploring links between self-rated mental/health and optimism, self-esteem, acceptance of the changes in physical look and some sociodemographic factors. Methods Participants in this study were 209 women aged 50 to 59. A single-items measures of self-rated health and mental health were used. Self-esteem was measured through the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; optimism through the OPEB questionnaire; acceptance of the changes in physical look was rated by respondents on a seven-point scale. Participants were also asked about weight loss attempts, the amount of leisure time, and going on vacation during the last year. Results Predictors of the self-rated mental health in women in the age range of 50 to 59 were: acceptance of the changes in physical look, self-esteem and optimism. Predictors of the self-rated health were: optimism and acceptance of the changes in physical look. Conclusion Optimism and acceptance of the changes in physical look seem to be important factors that may impact subjective health both physical and mental of women in their 50s. The role of the leisure time and vacation in instilling the subjective health requires further investigation. PMID:26793678

  15. Differences between Older Men and Women in the Self-Rated Health-Mortality Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to examine differences between older men and women: (a) in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality, (b) in the effect of different follow-up periods on the self-rated health mortality relationship, and (c) in the relative importance of self-rated health and self-rated change in health in…

  16. Conscientiousness mediates the relation between perceived parental socialisation and self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Roberts, Brent W.; Hoshino, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    The pathways between parenting behaviours, personality and physical health have all been separately studied. Prior research has paid little attention to the indirect effects of personality in the path between parenting behaviours and better health. The purpose of this study was to explore the mediational effects of conscientiousness on the relationships between parental socialisation of responsibility and self-rated health, and to examine potential age differences in this mediational pathway. In total, 736 female and 749 male members across Japan participated in this study. They were divided into three groups by age category: younger-, middle-aged and older-aged. Conscientiousness and health were concurrently rated, while parental socialisation of responsibility was retrospectively assessed. Our analyses revealed that parental socialisation of responsibility is positively associated with conscientiousness and self-rated health, that conscientiousness is positively associated with self-rated health, and that conscientiousness fully mediated the effect of parental socialisation of responsibility on self-rated health. The mediational links were consistent across younger, middle-aged and older-aged cohorts. Our findings suggest that greater parental socialisation of responsibility relates to higher conscientiousness, and consequently healthier adults. These findings imply that parental behaviours could be a plausible target for intervention to foster the development of conscientiousness and better health. PMID:22292501

  17. Concepts of Self-Rated Health: Specifying the Gender Difference in Mortality Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Kriegsman, Didi M. W.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study addresses the question of how the relation between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality differs between genders. In addition to the general question, four specific concepts of SRH are distinguished: SRH in comparison with age peers, SRH in comparison with one's own health 10 years ago, and current and future health…

  18. Poor self-rated health and its associations with somatisation in two Australian national surveys

    PubMed Central

    Mewton, Louise; Andrews, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives It is hypothesised that across two national surveys poor self-rated health will be independently associated with somatisation and will result in high rates of service use after adjusting for established diagnoses. Design Two cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted in 1997 and 2007. The use of both surveys allowed replication of results. Setting Australia. Participants The 1997 and 2007 National Surveys of Mental Health and Well-Being were based on stratified, multistage area probability samples of persons living in private dwellings in Australia. The 1997 survey included 10 641 respondents aged 18–75 years, a response rate of 78%. The 2007 survey included 8841 respondents aged 16–85 years, a response rate of 60%. Main outcome measures Self-rated health. Results Approximately 15% of the Australian population rated their health as fair or poor in both surveys. The independent relationship between self-rated health and somatisation was replicated across both surveys in multivariate analyses. Individuals with negative self-rated health were 4.1 times as likely to screen positive for health anxiety (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.8 to 5.9) and 3.4 times as likely to be diagnosed with neurasthenia (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.2 to 5.2), when compared with individuals who rated their health positively. Individuals with negative self-rated health were also more likely to use health services after controlling for demographics and mental and physical illness. Conclusions These results confirm both of the study hypotheses: (1) that negative self-rated health was powerfully and independently associated with somatisation and (2) that this relationship manifested itself in high rates of service use, even after adjusting for an extensive range of demographics and psychiatric and physical conditions. PMID:23811174

  19. Mediators of Discrimination and Self-rated Health among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Adolfo G.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cao, Yumei; Nguyen, Nga; Wetter, David W.; Adams, Claire E.; Watkins, Kellie L.; Regan, Seann D.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether stress and depressive symptoms mediated relationships of perceived discrimination and self-rated health among African Americans. Methods A nonparametric bootstrapping procedure was used to assess mediation, controlling for sociodemographic variables, among 1406 cohort study adults (age=45.5±12.6, 25.1% male). Results Greater discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health (β=−.010, SE=.003, p = .001). Stress and depressive symptoms were each significant mediators of this relationship in single and multiple mediator models (ps ≤ 05). Conclusions Perceived discrimination may contribute to poorer self-rated health among African Americans through heightened levels of stress and depression. Interventions addressing these mechanisms might help reduce the impact of discrimination on health. Definitive results await longitudinal study designs to assess causal pathways. PMID:24001623

  20. A Genome-wide association study of self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    Mosing, Miriam A.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Medland, Sarah E.; Painter, Jodie; Gordon, Scott D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Self-rated health questions have been proven to be a highly reliable and valid measure of overall health as measured by other indicators in many population groups. It also has been shown to be a very good predictor of mortality, chronic or severe diseases, and the need for services, and is positively correlated with clinical assessments. Genetic factors have been estimated to account for 25 – 64% of the variance in the liability of self-rated health. The aim of the present study was to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) underlying the heritability of self-rated health by conducting a genome-wide association analysis in a large sample of 6,706 Australian individuals aged 18–92. No genome wide significant SNPs associated with self-rated health could be identified, indicating that self-rated health may be influenced by a large number of SNPs with very small effect size. A very large sample will be needed to identify these SNPs. PMID:20707712

  1. Predictors of Self-Efficacy and Self-Rated Health for Older Male Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Steffensmeier, Darrell; Kassab, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine: (1) the relationships between self-efficacy for health management and (a) health-promoting behaviors, (b) health-monitoring behaviors, and (c) self-rated health status in older male prisoners; and (2) the variations in self-rated health status and self-efficacy for health management by inmate characteristics of older men in prison. Background The graying of the inmate population around the globe can be attributed to increases in punitive crime control practices, life expectancy; and the aging baby boom generation. Older inmates are typically not a healthy group. Therefore, the needs of burgeoning numbers of older, sicker inmates are issues of international significance. Methods A descriptive, correlational, survey was conducted from late 2007 to mid-2008 with Bandura’s self-efficacy model as the guiding framework. Results/Findings Participants were 131 male inmates, age 50 and older. A significant positive relationship was found between self-efficacy for health management and the indexes measuring health-promoting behaviors (r=0.550; P<0.001), health-monitoring behaviors (r=0.323; P=0.001), and the single item rating for self-rated health (τb=0.411; P<0.001). There was a tendency for education to be positively related to self-rated health, but not self-efficacy (τb =0.140; P=0.054 and τb=0.105; P=0.122, respectively). Years of incarceration was not significantly related to self-rated health or self-efficacy. Conclusion These research findings support Bandura’s self-efficacy theoretical work and its applicability to health-related research in prisons. Nurses are front line health care providers in prison, who are in a key position to implement interventions that promote greater inmate self-efficacy for healthy behaviors and chronic disease management. PMID:21198807

  2. Self-Rated Health and the "First Move" around Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nan E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…

  3. The Association Between Self-Rated Mental Health Status and Total Health Care Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Muoi T.; Chan, Winnie Y.; Keeler, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both clinical diagnoses and self-rated measures of mental illness are associated with a variety of outcomes, including physical well-being, health utilization, and expenditure. However, much of current literature primarily utilizes clinically diagnosed data. This cross-sectional study explores the impact of mental illness and health care expenditure using 2 self-rated measures: self-rated measured of perceived mental health status (SRMH) and Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6). Data from the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized individuals (n = 18,295), were analyzed using bivariate χ2 tests and a 2-part model (logistics regression and generalized linear model regression for the first and second stages, respectively). Although predictive of any health expenditure, SRMH alone was not highly predictive of the dollar value of that health expenditure conditional on any spending. By comparison, the K6 measure was significantly and positively associated with the probability of any health expenditure as well as the dollar value of that spending. Taken together, both the K6 and SRMH measures suggest a positive relationship between poor mental health and the probability of any health expenditure and total expenditure conditional on any spending, even when adjusting for other confounding factors such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, educational attainment, insurance status, and some regional characteristics. Our results suggest that psychological distress and SRMH may represent potential pathways linking poor mental health to increased health care expenditure. Further research exploring the nuances of these relationships may aid researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in addressing issues of inflated health care expenditure in populations at risk for poor mental health. PMID:26334899

  4. Is Occupation a Good Predictor of Self-Rated Health in China?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhijun; Jian, Weiyan; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-01-01

    Background China’s rapidly changing economic landscape has led to widening social inequalities. Occupational status in terms of occupational type and prestige may reflect these socio-structural shifts of social position and be more predictive of self-rated health status than income and education, which may only reflect more gradual acquisitions of social status over time. The goals of this study were to understand the role of occupational status in predicting self-rated health, which is well known to be associated with long-term mortality, as well as compare the occupational status to the other major socioeconomic indicators of income and education. Methods Data from the 2010 baseline surveys of the China Family Panel Studies, which utilized multi-stage probability sampling with implicit stratification was used. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of various socioeconomic indicators (i.e. occupational status, income, and education) with self-rated health as the primary outcome of interest. A series of models considered the associations of occupational category or occupational prestige with self-rated health. Results The final sample consisted of 14,367 employed adults aged 18–60, which was nationally representative of working adults in China. We found that occupation was not a major predictor of self-rated health in China when age, ethnicity, location, marital status, physical and mental health status were controlled for, with the exception of women working in lower grade management and professional jobs (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.03–3.22). In comparison, income followed by education exhibited greater association with self-rated health. The highest income group had the least probability to report poor health (In men: OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.21–0.43. In women: OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26–0.73). People educated with junior high school had better self-rated health than those with primary and below education level (In men: OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.50–0

  5. Women with Turner syndrome: psychological well-being, self-rated health and social life.

    PubMed

    Boman, U W; Bryman, I; Halling, K; Möller, A

    2001-06-01

    Psychological well-being, self-rated health and social situation were investigated in a cross-sectional multidisciplinary study of 63 women with Turner syndrome (TS; mean age 31.5 years, range 18-59 years). The psychological examination included a semi-structured interview, and use of two standardized self-rating scales, the Psychological General Well-being Index (PGWB) and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Psychological well-being and self-rated health were similar in the women with TS and Swedish female normative data, matched for age. However, the women with TS reported more social isolation than the normative group. Within the TS group, the oldest women reported more psychological distress and poorer health than the youngest. Those with impaired self-rated health reported more emotional distress. The women with TS were studying or in employment to the same degree as the general population, although fewer were cohabiting. In the interview, both negative and positive consequences of TS were reported. This study did not find any evidence for impaired psychological well-being, although it did indicate that women with TS experience more difficulties in the area of social and partner relationships. PMID:11446152

  6. Self-rated health and ethnicity: focus on indigenous populations

    PubMed Central

    Bombak, Andrea E.; Bruce, Sharon G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Self-rated health (SRH) is a commonly used measure in surveys to assess general health status or health-related quality of life. Differences have been detected in how different ethnic groups and nationalities interpret the SRH measure and assess their health. This review summarizes the research conducted on SRH within and between ethnic groups, with a focus on indigenous groups. Study design and methods A search of published academic literature on SRH and ethnicity, including a comprehensive review of all relevant indigenous research, was conducted using PubMed and summarized. Results A wide variety of research on SRH within ethnic groups has been undertaken. SRH typically serves as an outcome measure. Minority respondents generally rated their health worse than the dominant population. Numerous culturally-specific determinants of SRH have been identified. Cross-national and cross-ethnicity comparisons of the associations of SRH have been conducted to assess the validity of SRH. While SRH is a valid measure within a variety of ethnicities, differences in how SRH is assessed by ethnicities have been detected. Research in indigenous groups remains generally under-represented in the SRH literature. Conclusions These results suggest that different ethnic groups and nationalities vary in SRH evaluations, interpretation of the SRH measure, and referents employed in rating health. To effectively assess and redress health disparities and establish culturally-relevant and effective health interventions, a greater understanding of SRH is required, particularly among indigenous groups, in which little research has been conducted. PMID:22663937

  7. Emotional support, education and self-rated health in 22 European countries

    PubMed Central

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Geyer, Siegfried

    2007-01-01

    Background The analyses focus on three aims: (1) to explore the associations between education and emotional support in 22 European countries, (2) to explore the associations between emotional support and self-rated health in the European countries, and (3) to analyse whether the association between education and self-rated health can be partly explained by emotional support. Methods The study uses data from the European Social Survey 2003. Probability sampling from all private residents aged 15 years and older was applied in all countries. The European Social Survey includes 42,359 cases. Persons under age 25 were excluded to minimise the number of respondents whose education was not complete. Education was coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education. Perceived emotional support was assessed by the availability of a confidant with whom one can discuss intimate and personal matters with. Self-rated health was used as health indicator. Results Results of multiple logistic regression analyses show that emotional support is positively associated with education among women and men in most European countries. However, the magnitude of the association varies according to country and gender. Emotional support is positively associated with self-rated health. Again, gender and country differences in the association were observed. Emotional support explains little of the educational differences in self-rated health among women and men in most European countries. Conclusion Results indicate that it is important to consider socio-economic factors like education and country-specific contexts in studies on health effects of emotional support. PMID:17908313

  8. Perceived Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in South Korea: A Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. Methods We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. Results For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87–1.29), 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96–1.55), 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19–2.14), and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26–2.51). Conclusion There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight social

  9. The associations between resilience, social capital and self-rated health among HIV-positive South Africans.

    PubMed

    Dageid, Wenche; Grønlie, Anette A

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between resilience, social capital and self-rated health among 263 HIV-positive South Africans living in poverty, using questionnaires. Self-rated good health was predicted by younger age, trust in community-based organizations and having contacts of different religions. The findings highlight the importance of community-based networks and resources for care and support for persons living with HIV/AIDS in poor, rural areas. Furthermore, resilience, which also related positively to education and income, contributed positively to self-rated health, drawing attention to the interplay between resources at individual and community levels. PMID:24345683

  10. Unemployment insurance and deteriorating self-rated health in 23 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Ferrarini, Tommy; Nelson, Kenneth; Sjöberg, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Background The global financial crisis of 2008 is likely to have repercussions on public health in Europe, not least through escalating mass unemployment, fiscal austerity measures and inadequate social protection systems. The purpose of this study is to analyse the role of unemployment insurance for deteriorating self-rated health in the working age population at the onset of the fiscal crisis in Europe. Methods Multilevel logistic conditional change models linking institutional-level data on coverage and income replacement in unemployment insurance to individual-level panel data on self-rated health in 23 European countries at two repeated occasions, 2006 and 2009. Results Unemployment insurance significantly reduces transitions into self-rated ill-health and, particularly, programme coverage is important in this respect. Unemployment insurance is also of relevance for the socioeconomic gradients of health at individual level, where programme coverage significantly reduces health risks attached to educational attainment. Conclusions Unemployment insurance mitigated adverse health effects both at individual and country-level during the financial crisis. Due to the centrality of programme coverage, reforms to unemployment insurance should focus on extending the number of insured people in the labour force. PMID:24616353

  11. Perceived Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in Europe: Evidence from the European Social Survey (2010)

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. Methods We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010). This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH) that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. Results The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1) age discrimination; (2) disability discrimination; and (3) sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based). Conclusion The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim to reduce the

  12. Healthcare Communication Barriers and Self-Rated Health in Older Chinese American Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tsoh, Janice Y; Sentell, Tetine; Gildengorin, Ginny; Le, Gem M; Chan, Elaine; Fung, Lei-Chun; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan; Wong, Ching; Woo, Kent; Burke, Adam; Wang, Jun; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T

    2016-08-01

    Older Chinese immigrants are a growing population in the United States who experience multiple healthcare communication barriers such as limited English proficiency and low health literacy. Each of these obstacles has been associated with poor health outcomes but less is known about their effects in combination. This study examined the association between healthcare communication barriers and self-rated health among older Chinese immigrants. Cross-sectional survey data were obtained from 705 Chinese American immigrants ages 50-75 living in San Francisco, California. Communication barriers examined included spoken English proficiency, medical interpreter needs, and health literacy in written health information. The study sample (81 % females, mean age = 62) included 67 % who spoke English poorly or not at all, 34 % who reported needing a medical interpreter, and 37 % who reported "often" or "always" needing assistance to read health information. Two-thirds reported poor self-rated health; many reported having access to racial-concordant (74 %) and language-concordant (86 %) healthcare services. Both poor spoken English proficiency and low health literacy were associated with poor self-rated health, independent of other significant correlates (unemployment, chronic health conditions, and having a primary doctor who was ethnic Chinese). Results revealed that spoken English proficiency and print health literacy are independent communication barriers that are directly associated with health status among elderly Chinese American immigrants. Access to racial- or language-concordant health care services did not appear to resolve these barriers. These findings underscore the importance of addressing both spoken and written healthcare communication needs among older Chinese American immigrants. PMID:26746205

  13. Family Structure and Fathers' Well-Being: Trajectories of Mental Health and Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Sarah O.

    2009-01-01

    The association between marital status and health among men has been well documented, but few studies track health trajectories following family structure transitions among unmarried fathers. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study this article examines trajectories of paternal mental health and self-rated health, focusing on…

  14. Health literacy, socioeconomic status and self-rated health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yoko; Kondo, Naoki; Yamagata, Zentaro; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy (HL) is a key determinant of health in a contemporary society characterized by abundant information. Previous studies have suggested that basic or functional HL is positively associated with health, whereas evidences on the association between health and communicative/critical HL are scarce. Furthermore, confounding by socioeconomic status on HL-health association has been poorly tested. Using cross-sectional data from a nationally representative community-based survey in Japan, we investigated whether communicative/critical HL is associated with self-rated health independent of socioeconomic status. A total of 1237 subjects participated in this study; the response rate was 62%. To measure communicative/critical HL, we used three questions assessing the respondents' ability to select, to communicate to others and to evaluate specific health-related information. Potential confounders included demographic factors, household income, employment status, and educational attainment. A multivariate model revealed that good self-reported health was significantly associated with younger age [odds ratio (OR), 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-0.99], employment (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.06-7.88) and higher communicative/critical HL scores (OR 2.75; 95%CI, 1.93-3.90). Respondents with lower education were likely to have poorer communicative/critical HL. These results imply that to close the health gap, policy interventions should focus on the promotion of HL among deprived sociodemographic groups. PMID:24131729

  15. The components of self-rated health among adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and physical and mental health is well documented in developed countries, very few studies have analyzed this association in the developing world, particularly in Africa. In this study, we examine the associations of SRH with measures of physical and mental health (chronic diseases, functional limitations, and depression) among adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and how these associations vary by sex, age, and education level. Methods This study was based on 2195 individuals aged 15 years or older who participated in a cross-sectional interviewer-administered health survey conducted in 2010 in areas of the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations of poor SRH with chronic diseases, functional limitations, and depression, first in the whole sample and then stratified by sex, age, and education level. Results Poor SRH was strongly correlated with chronic diseases and functional limitations, but not with depression, suggesting that in this context, physical health probably makes up most of people’s perceptions of their health status. The effect of functional limitations on poor SRH increased with age, probably because the ability to circumvent or compensate for a disability diminishes with age. The effect of functional limitations was also stronger among the least educated, probably because physical integrity is more important for people who depend on it for their livelihood. In contrast, the effect of chronic diseases appeared to decrease with age. No variation by sex was observed in the associations of SRH with chronic diseases, functional limitations, or depression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that different subpopulations delineated by age and education level weight the components of health differently in their self-rated health in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In-depth studies are needed to understand why and

  16. Effect of Self-Rated Health on Cognitive Performance in Community Dwelling Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Marko; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.

    1999-01-01

    A group of Dutch adults over 57 (n=4,528) were grouped into four categories based on self-ratings of their health: excellent/very good, good, fair, or poor. Those with poor health self-ratings had lower scores on a mental status exam, indicating that health influences cognitive functioning even after controlling for depression. (SK)

  17. Relationship of Self-Rated Health to Stroke Incidence and Mortality in Older Individuals with and without a History of Stroke: A Longitudinal Study of the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing (CFAS) Population

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nahal; van der Linde, Rianne; Parker, Richard; Savva, George; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Brayne, Carol; Mant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been associated with increased risk of death and poor health outcomes even after adjusting for confounders. However its’ relationship with disease-specific mortality and morbidity has been less studied. SRH may also be particularly predictive of health outcomes in those with pre-existing conditions. We studied whether SRH predicts new stroke in older people who have never had a stroke, or a recurrence in those with a prior history of stroke. Methods MRC CFAS I is a multicentre cohort study of a population representative sample of people in their 65th year and older. A comprehensive interview at baseline included questions about presence of stroke, self-rated health and functional disability. Follow-up at 2 years included self-report of stroke and stroke death obtained from death certificates. Multiple logistical regression determined odds of stroke at 2 years adjusting for confounders including disability and health behaviours. Survival analysis was performed until June 2014 with follow-up for up to 13 years. Results 11,957 participants were included, of whom 11,181 (93.8%) had no history of stroke and 776 (6.2%) one or more previous strokes. Fewer with no history of stroke reported poor SRH than those with stroke (5 versus 21%). In those with no history of stroke, poor self-rated health predicted stroke incidence (OR 1.5 (1.1–1.9)), but not stroke mortality (OR 1.2 (0.8–1.9)) at 2 years nor for up to 13 years (OR 1.2(0.9–1.7)). In those with a history of stroke, self-rated health did not predict stroke incidence (OR 0.9(0.6–1.4)), stroke mortality (OR 1.1(0.5–2.5)), or survival (OR 1.1(0.6–2.1)). Conclusions Poor self-rated health predicts risk of stroke at 2 years but not stroke mortality among the older population without a previous history of stroke. SRH may be helpful in predicting who may be at risk of developing a stroke in the near future. PMID:26928666

  18. Self-Rated Health Among Saudi Adults: Findings from a National Survey, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Daoud, Farah; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-10-01

    Self-rated health reflects a person's integrated perception of health, including its biological, psychological, and social dimensions. It is a predictor of morbidity and mortality. To assess the current status of self-rated health and associated factors in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. We conducted a large national survey of adults aged 15 years or older. A total of 10,735 participants completed a standardized health questionnaire. Respondents rated their health with a five-point scale. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, chronic diseases, health-related habits and behaviors, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Associated factors of self-rated health were analyzed using a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model. More than 77% of respondents rated their health as excellent/very good. Female sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.88], decades of age (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.25-1.46), diagnosed diabetes mellitus (OR 1.54, 95 CI 1.22-1.93), diagnosed hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.79), diagnosed hypertension (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.22-1.96), number of other diagnosed chronic diseases (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.41-2.03), limited vigorous activity (OR 3.59, 95% CI 2.84-4.53), need for special equipment (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.96-3.51), and more than 3 h of daily television/computer screen time (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.11-2.29) were positively associated with poor/fair health. Smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity were not associated with self-reported health. We found that preventable risk factors are not associated with Saudis' self-rated health. This optimistic perception of health poses a challenge for preventive interventions in the Kingdom and calls for campaigns to educate the public about the harm of unhealthy behaviors. PMID:25795222

  19. Gender Differentials in Self-Rated Health and Self-Reported Disability among Adults in India

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Jayanta Kumar; Saikia, Nandita

    2015-01-01

    Background The extant literature on gender differentials in health in developed countries suggests that women outlive men at all ages, but women report poorer health than men. It is well established that Indian women live longer than men, but few studies have been conducted to understand the gender dimension in self-rated health and self-reported disability. The present study investigates gender differentials in self-rated health (SRH) and self-reported disability (SRD) among adults in India, using a nationally representative data. Methods Using data on 10,736 respondents aged 18 and older in the 2007 WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health in India, prevalence estimates of SRH are calculated separately for men and women by socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The association of SRH with gender is tested using a multinomial logistic regression method. SRD is assessed using 20 activities of daily living (ADL). Further, gender differences in total life expectancy (TLE), disability life expectancy (DLE) and the proportion of life spent with a disability at various adult ages are measured. Results The relative risk of reporting poor health by women was significantly higher than men (relative risk ratio: 1.660; 95% confidence Interval (CI): 1.430–1.927) after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Women reported higher prevalence of severe and extreme disability than men in 14 measures out of a total20 ADL measures. Women aged less than 60 years reported two times more than men in SRD ≥ 5 ADLs. Finally, both DLE and proportion of life spent with a disability were substantially higher for women irrespective of their ages. Conclusion Indian women live longer but report poorer health than men. A substantial gender differential is found in self-reported disability. This makes for an urgent call to health researchers and policy makers for gender-sensitive programs. PMID:26536133

  20. Regional inequalities in self-rated health in Russia: What is the role of social and economic capital?

    PubMed

    Lyytikäinen, Laura; Kemppainen, Teemu

    2016-07-01

    Using the data from the European Social Survey (round 6, 2012), this article studies regional inequalities in self-rated health in Russia and examines the role that socio-demographic factors and economic and social capital play in these differences. Also, the regional variation in the determinants of self-rated health is analysed. The article argues that there are considerable and statistically significant unadjusted differences in self-rated health across Russian Federal Districts. We elaborated these differences by regression adjustments, with the result that some of the differences were explained by our predictors and some were amplified. The odds for good self-rated health were lower in the Volga than in Central Russia due to age and socio-economic composition. In contrast, the regression adjustments amplified the differences of the Northwest and the South in comparison to the Central District. The odds for good self-rated health were considerably lower in the Far Eastern part of the country than in the Central District, independently of the adjustments. While social and economic capital predicted good self-rated health at the individual level, they did not explain regional differences. Interaction analyses revealed regional variation in some of the determinants of self-rated health. Most notably, the effects of age, trade union membership and volunteering depended on the regional context. This article argues that the healthcare reforms that transfer funding responsibilities to regional administration may be dangerous for the already less affluent and less healthy rural regions. Thus, regional governance has a growing importance in preventing increases in health inequalities. PMID:27261533

  1. What Does Self-rated Health Mean? Changes and Variations in the Association of Obesity with Objective and Subjective Components Of Self-rated Health.

    PubMed

    Altman, Claire E; Van Hook, Jennifer; Hillemeier, Marianne

    2016-03-01

    There are concerns about the meaning of self-rated health (SRH) and the factors individuals consider. To illustrate how SRH is contextualized, we examine how the obesity-SRH association varies across age, periods, and cohorts. We decompose SRH into subjective and objective components and use a mechanism-based age-period-cohort model approach with four decades (1970s to 2000s) and five birth cohorts of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (N = 26,184). Obese adults rate their health more negatively than non-obese when using overall SRH with little variation by age, period, or cohort. However, when we decomposed SRH into objective and subjective components, the obesity gap widened with increasing age in objective SRH but narrowed in subjective SRH. Additionally, the gap narrowed for more recently born cohorts for objective SRH but widened for subjective SRH. The results provide indirect evidence that the relationship between obesity and SRH is socially patterned according to exposure to information about obesity and the availability of resources to manage it. PMID:26811364

  2. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status. PMID:25166945

  3. GPs asking patients to self-rate their health: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Göran; Hamberg, Katarina; Forssén, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Background In epidemiological research, self-rated health is an independent predictor of mortality, cardiovascular diseases, and other critical outcomes. It is recommended for clinical use, but research is lacking. Aim To investigate what happens in consultations when the question ‘How would you assess your general health compared with others your own age?’ is posed. Design and setting Authentic consultations with GPs at health centres in Sweden. Method Thirty-three planned visits concerning diabetes, pain, or undiagnosed symptoms were voice-recorded. Dialogue regarding self-rated health was transcribed verbatim and analysed using a systematic text condensation method. Speaking time of patients and doctors was measured and the doctors’ assessment of the value of the question was documented in a short questionnaire. Results Two overarching themes are used to describe patients’ responses to the question. First, there was an immediate reaction, often expressing strong emotions, setting the tone of the dialogue and influencing the continued conversation. This was followed by reflection regarding their functional ability, management of illnesses and risks, and/or situation in life. The GPs maintained an attitude of active listening. They sometimes reported a slight increase in consultation time or feeling disturbed by the question, but mostly judged it as valuable, shedding additional light on the patients’ situation and making it easier to discuss difficulties and resources. The patients’ speaking time increased noticeably during this part of the consultation. Conclusion Asking patients to comparatively self-rate their health is an effective tool in general practice. PMID:26324500

  4. Impact of self-rated health among elderly on visits tofamily physicians.

    PubMed

    Kurspahić-Mujčić, Amira; Čalkić, Melisa; Sivić, Suad

    2016-08-01

    Aim To evaluate animpact of eight dimensions of self-rated health measured by the SF-36 questionnaire on visits to family physicians among people older than 65. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in family medicine outpatient departments of the Public Institution Primary Health Care Center of Canton Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study included 200 respondents divided into two age groups:18-65 (n=100) and older than 65 (n=100). The SF-36 questionnaire for self-assessment of health status and a questionnaire for the evaluation of socio-demographic characteristics of respondents and health care utilization were used. Results In the group of respondents aged 18-65 the dimension that was related to physical functioning was assessed as best(79.1±25.6), while the dimension concerning the vitality was assessed as the worst (56.1±19.9). In the group of respondents older than 65 the dimension related to social functioning was assessed as best (65.4±24.9), and the dimensions related to general health was assessed as worst (47.7±20.4). Family physicians were visited by significantly more respondents older than 65 than those from the age group 18-65 (94% vs.74%) (p= 0.000). Scores on the scales of general health (p=0.021) and social functioning (p=0.024) in respondents older than 65 had a significant impact on visits to family physicians. Conclusion Poor self-rated general health and better social functioning are important predictors of visiting family physicians by elderly persons. PMID:27452322

  5. Tobacco use, Alcohol Consumption and Self-rated Oral Health among Nigerian Prison Officials

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Omili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The oral health condition and lifestyle in term of tobacco use and alcohol consumption of custodian of prisons have been left unstudied. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol consumption and self-rated oral health among Nigerian prison officials. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among prison officials working in Abuja, Nassarawa and Kano prison yards between March and June 2011 using 28-item self-administered questionnaire as a tool of data collection. The questionnaire elicited information on demography, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors, oral health conditions, tobacco use, pattern and quit attempts, alcohol consumption, type and pattern. Results: The participants were aged between 20 and 51 years, with a mean age of 32.25 ± 6.13 years. The majority of the participants were males (66.4%), Christians (76.7%), junior officials (78.1%) and of Northern origin (50.7%). A total of 50 (34.2%) of the participants indicated that they were tobacco users and 39 (78.0%) indulged in cigarette smoking only. Of the study participants, 67 (45.9%) indicated they consume alcohol, beer majorly and gin rarely with 23 (34.3%) consuming it excessively. The dominant tooth cleaning device utilized by the participants was toothbrush and toothpaste, and 65 (44.5%) had visited the dentists with the majority of the visit done >5 years ago. About one-third 57 (39.0%) reported experiencing one or more forms of oral disease. However, it was only 17 (11.6%) of them that rated their oral health poor/fair, and the determinants of self-rated oral health were age, rank, and oral health condition. Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and

  6. The Association between Long Working Hours and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. Methods We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Results Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. Conclusions This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Ethnic Consciousness, Racial Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the ‘racial climate’. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  8. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  9. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001). Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:26703659

  10. A spatial epidemiological analysis of self-rated mental health in the slums of Dhaka

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The deprived physical environments present in slums are well-known to have adverse health effects on their residents. However, little is known about the health effects of the social environments in slums. Moreover, neighbourhood quantitative spatial analyses of the mental health status of slum residents are still rare. The aim of this paper is to study self-rated mental health data in several slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh, by accounting for neighbourhood social and physical associations using spatial statistics. We hypothesised that mental health would show a significant spatial pattern in different population groups, and that the spatial patterns would relate to spatially-correlated health-determining factors (HDF). Methods We applied a spatial epidemiological approach, including non-spatial ANOVA/ANCOVA, as well as global and local univariate and bivariate Moran's I statistics. The WHO-5 Well-being Index was used as a measure of self-rated mental health. Results We found that poor mental health (WHO-5 scores < 13) among the adult population (age ≥15) was prevalent in all slum settlements. We detected spatially autocorrelated WHO-5 scores (i.e., spatial clusters of poor and good mental health among different population groups). Further, we detected spatial associations between mental health and housing quality, sanitation, income generation, environmental health knowledge, education, age, gender, flood non-affectedness, and selected properties of the natural environment. Conclusions Spatial patterns of mental health were detected and could be partly explained by spatially correlated HDF. We thereby showed that the socio-physical neighbourhood was significantly associated with health status, i.e., mental health at one location was spatially dependent on the mental health and HDF prevalent at neighbouring locations. Furthermore, the spatial patterns point to severe health disparities both within and between the slums. In addition to examining health

  11. Unemployment transitions and self-rated health in Europe: A longitudinal analysis of EU-SILC from 2008 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tøge, Anne Grete; Blekesaune, Morten

    2015-10-01

    The Great Recession of 2008 has led to elevated unemployment in Europe and thereby revitalised the question of causal health effects of unemployment. This article applies fixed effects regression models to longitudinal panel data drawn from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions for 28 European countries from 2008 to 2011, in order to investigate changes in self-rated health around the event of becoming unemployed. The results show that the correlation between unemployment and health is partly due to a decrease in self-rated health as people enter unemployment. Such health changes vary by country of domicile, and by individual age; older workers have a steeper decline than younger workers. Health changes after the unemployment spell reveal no indication of adverse health effects of unemployment duration. Overall, this study indicates some adverse health effects of unemployment in Europe--predominantly among older workers. PMID:26360419

  12. Is Self-Rated Health an Independent Index for Mortality among Older People in Indonesia?

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Nawi; Hakimi, Mohammad; Santosa, Ailiana; Byass, Peter; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; Wall, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Background Empirical studies on the association between self-rated health (SRH) and subsequent mortality are generally lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The evidence on whether socio-economic status and education modify this association is inconsistent. This study aims to fill these gaps using longitudinal data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in Indonesia. Methods In 2010, we assessed the mortality status of 11,753 men and women aged 50+ who lived in Purworejo HDSS and participated in the INDEPTH WHO SAGE baseline in 2007. Information on self-rated health, socio-demographic indicators, disability and chronic disease were collected through face-to-face interview at baseline. We used Cox-proportional hazards regression for mortality and included all variables measured at baseline, including interaction terms between SRH and both education and socio-economic status (SES). Results During an average of 36 months follow-up, 11% of men and 9.5% of women died, resulting in death rates of 3.1 and 2.6 per 1,000 person-months, respectively. The age-adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) for mortality was 17% higher in men than women (HR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.04–1.31). After adjustment for covariates, the hazard ratios for mortality in men and women reporting bad health were 3.0 (95% CI = 2.0–4.4) and 4.9 (95% CI = 3.2–7.4), respectively. Education and SES did not modify this association for either sex. Conclusions This study supports the predictive power of bad self-rated health for subsequent mortality in rural Indonesian men and women 50 years old and over. In these analyses, education and household socio-economic status do not modify the relationship between SRH and mortality. This means that older people who rate their own health poorly should be an important target group for health service interventions. PMID:22523584

  13. The influence of physical and mental health on life satisfaction is mediated by self-rated health: A study with Brazilian elderly.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Fontaine, Anne Marie; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases, signals and symptoms of health problems and objective losses in functionality are seen as strongly related to low levels of life satisfaction in old age. Among seniors, self-rated health is associated with both quality of health and life satisfaction, but its relationships with objective health measures are controversial. This study aimed at identifying the influence of self-rated health as a mediator of the relationships between objectives indicators of physical and mental health and the elderly's life satisfaction. Self-reporting and physical performance measures were derived from the data basis of the FIBRA Study, which investigated frailty and associated variables in a cross-sectional sample of 2164 subjects aged 65 and above, randomly selected in seven Brazilian cities. A model considering satisfaction as a dependent variable, the number of diseases, frailty, cognitive status and depressive symptoms as predictors and self-rated health as a mediating variable was tested through path analysis. The model fit the data well and explained 19% of life satisfaction's variance. According to the bootstrapping method, indirect effects were significant for all trajectories, suggesting that self-rated health is a mediator variable between physical and mental health and elderlýs life satisfaction. In conclusion, adverse conditions of physical and mental health can influence the elderlýs life satisfaction, mostly when they determine a decrease in their levels of self-rated health. PMID:27017415

  14. Providing emotional support to others, self-esteem, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of helping others on self-rated health in middle and late life. Data are from a nationwide sample of middle-aged and older adults (N=1154). The findings indicate that women and Blacks are more likely than men or Whites to help others. Moreover, the results suggest that people who attend church more often are especially likely to help others. The data further reveal that people who help others are more likely to have a greater sense of self-worth and people with more self-esteem, in turn, tend to rate their health in a more favorable way. The findings help clarify issues in the assessment of helping others in middle and late life. PMID:27061666

  15. Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Vingård, Eva; Josephson, Malin

    2007-12-01

    This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi(2)-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age. PMID:18212472

  16. Self-esteem, stress and self-rated health in family planning clinic patients

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, James E; Young, Rodney

    2004-01-01

    Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11), but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively). Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were .19 and .22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to .0043 and .0332). Conclusions Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status. PMID:15176984

  17. Does social participation improve self-rated health in the older population? A quasi-experimental intervention study.

    PubMed

    Ichida, Yukinobu; Hirai, Hiroshi; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Takeda, Tokunori; Endo, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    Social participation has been linked to healthy aging and the maintenance of functional independence in older individuals. However, causality remains tenuous because of the strong possibility of reverse causation (healthy individuals selectively participate in social activities). We describe a quasi-experimental intervention in one municipality of Japan designed to boost social participation as a way of preventing long-term disability in senior citizens through the creation of 'salons' (or community centers). In this quasi-experimental intervention study, we compared 158 participants with 1391 non-participants in salon programs, and examined the effect of participation in the salon programs on self-rated health. We conducted surveys of community residents both before (in 2006) and after (in 2008) the opening of the salons. Even with a pre/post survey design, our study could be subject to reverse causation and confounding bias. We therefore utilized an instrumental variable estimation strategy, using the inverse of the distance between each resident's dwelling and the nearest salon as the instrument. After controlling for self-rated health, age, sex, equivalized income in 2006, and reverse causation, we observed significant correlations between participation in the salon programs and self-rated health in 2008. Our analyses suggest that participation in the newly-opened community salon was associated with a significant improvement in self-rated health over time. The odds ratio of participation in the salon programs for reporting excellent or good self-rated health in 2008 was 2.52 (95% CI 2.27-2.79). Our study provides novel empirical support for the notion that investing in community infrastructure to boost the social participation of communities may help promote healthy aging. PMID:23931949

  18. A Cross-Sectional Study of Self-Rated Health among Older Adults: Association with Drinking Profiles and Other Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Moriconi, Pascale Audrey; Nadeau, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between drinking profiles and self-rated health with and without adjusting for other determinants of health among a sample of older adults from the general population. Respondents were 1,494 men and 2,176 women aged between 55 and 74 from the GENACIS Canadian survey. The dependent variable was self-rated health, an individual's perception of his or her own general health, a measure used as a proxy for health status. The independent variables were drinking profiles (types of drinkers and nondrinkers) as well as other demographic, psychosocial, and health-related variables (control variables). After adjustment for other determinants of health, regression analyses showed that (1) frequent/moderate drinkers were more likely to have a better self-rated health compared with nondrinkers (lifetime abstainers and former drinkers) and (2) self-rated health did not differ significantly between frequent/moderate drinkers and other types of drinkers (frequent/nonmoderate and infrequent drinkers). Our results suggest that drinking is related to a better self-rated health compared with nondrinking regardless of the drinking profile. Drinking and healthy lifestyle guidelines specific to older adults should be studied, discussed, and integrated into public health practices. PMID:26843861

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of Self-Rated Health among Older Adults: Association with Drinking Profiles and Other Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Moriconi, Pascale Audrey; Nadeau, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between drinking profiles and self-rated health with and without adjusting for other determinants of health among a sample of older adults from the general population. Respondents were 1,494 men and 2,176 women aged between 55 and 74 from the GENACIS Canadian survey. The dependent variable was self-rated health, an individual's perception of his or her own general health, a measure used as a proxy for health status. The independent variables were drinking profiles (types of drinkers and nondrinkers) as well as other demographic, psychosocial, and health-related variables (control variables). After adjustment for other determinants of health, regression analyses showed that (1) frequent/moderate drinkers were more likely to have a better self-rated health compared with nondrinkers (lifetime abstainers and former drinkers) and (2) self-rated health did not differ significantly between frequent/moderate drinkers and other types of drinkers (frequent/nonmoderate and infrequent drinkers). Our results suggest that drinking is related to a better self-rated health compared with nondrinking regardless of the drinking profile. Drinking and healthy lifestyle guidelines specific to older adults should be studied, discussed, and integrated into public health practices. PMID:26843861

  20. Religious Involvement, Humility, and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and test a conceptual model that assesses the following theoretical linkages: (1) people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members (i.e., encouragement to adopt religious teachings and principles); (2) individuals who get more frequent spiritual support are more likely to be humble; and (3) people with greater humility tend to rate their health more favorably. The data come from the third wave of a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults. The data provide support for each of the conceptual linkages identified above. PMID:20703366

  1. A multilevel analysis of the effects of neighbourhood income inequality on individual self-rated health in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Irene O L; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lo, Su-Vui; Leung, Gabriel M

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect on self-rated health of neighbourhood-level income inequality in Hong Kong, which has a high and growing Gini coefficient. Data were derived from two population household surveys in 2002 and 2005 of 25,623 and 24,610 non-institutional residents aged 15 or over. We estimated neighbourhood-level Gini coefficients in each of 287 Government Planning Department Tertiary Planning Units. We used multilevel regression analysis to assess the association of neighbourhood income inequality with individual self-perceived health status. After adjustment for both individual- and household-level predictors, there was no association between neighbourhood income inequality, median household income or household-level income and self-rated health. We tested for but did not find any statistical interaction between these three income-related exposures. These findings suggest that neighbourhood income inequality is not an important predictor of individual health status in Hong Kong. PMID:18995943

  2. Genomic Ancestry, Self-Rated Health and Its Association with Mortality in an Admixed Population: 10 Year Follow-Up of the Bambui-Epigen (Brazil) Cohort Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Macinko, James; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Cesar, Cibele C.; Peixoto, Sérgio V.; Magalhães, Wagner C. S.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Barreto, Mauricio; Castro-Costa, Erico; Firmo, Josélia O. A.; Proietti, Fernando A.; Leal, Thiago Peixoto; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Pereira, Alexandre; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) has strong predictive value for mortality in different contexts and cultures, but there is inconsistent evidence on ethnoracial disparities in SRH in Latin America, possibly due to the complexity surrounding ethnoracial self-classification. Materials/Methods We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual genomic proportions of African, European and Native American ancestry, and ethnoracial self-classification, with baseline and 10-year SRH trajectories in 1,311 community dwelling older Brazilians. We also examined whether genomic ancestry and ethnoracial self-classification affect the predictive value of SRH for subsequent mortality. Results European ancestry predominated among participants, followed by African and Native American (median = 84.0%, 9.6% and 5.3%, respectively); the prevalence of Non-White (Mixed and Black) was 39.8%. Persons at higher levels of African and Native American genomic ancestry, and those self-identified as Non-White, were more likely to report poor health than other groups, even after controlling for socioeconomic conditions and an array of self-reported and objective physical health measures. Increased risks for mortality associated with worse SRH trajectories were strong and remarkably similar (hazard ratio ~3) across all genomic ancestry and ethno-racial groups. Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time that higher levels of African and Native American genomic ancestry—and the inverse for European ancestry—were strongly correlated with worse SRH in a Latin American admixed population. Both genomic ancestry and ethnoracial self-classification did not modify the strong association between baseline SRH or SRH trajectory, and subsequent mortality. PMID:26680774

  3. In Sickness but Not in Health: Self-Ratings, Identity, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idler, Ellen; Leventhal, Howard; McLaughlin, Julie; Leventhal, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality has been studied primarily in large, representative populations, with relatively little progress toward understanding the information processing that individuals use to arrive at these ratings. With subsamples of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study…

  4. Perceptions of the neighbourhood environment and self rated health: a multilevel analysis of the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study

    PubMed Central

    Poortinga, Wouter; Dunstan, Frank D; Fone, David L

    2007-01-01

    Background In this study we examined whether (1) the neighbourhood aspects of access to amenities, neighbourhood quality, neighbourhood disorder, and neighbourhood social cohesion are associated with people's self rated health, (2) these health effects reflect differences in socio-demographic composition and/or neighbourhood deprivation, and (3) the associations with the different aspects of the neighbourhood environment vary between men and women. Methods Data from the cross-sectional Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Survey were analysed using multilevel modelling, with individuals nested within enumeration districts. In this study we used the responses of people under 75 years of age (n = 10,892). The response rate of this subgroup was 62.3%. All individual responses were geo-referenced to the 325 census enumeration districts of Caerphilly county borough. Results The neighbourhood attributes of poor access to amenities, poor neighbourhood quality, neighbourhood disorder, lack of social cohesion, and neighbourhood deprivation were associated with the reporting of poor health. These effects were attenuated when controlling for individual and collective socio-economic status. Lack of social cohesion significantly increased the odds of women reporting poor health, but did not increase the odds of men reporting poor health. In contrast, unemployment significantly affected men's health, but not women's health. Conclusion This study shows that different aspects of the neighbourhood environment are associated with people's self rated health, which may partly reflect the health impacts of neighbourhood socio-economic status. The findings further suggest that the social environment is more important for women's health, but that individual socio-economic status is more important for men's health. PMID:17925028

  5. Socio-demographic differentials of adult health indicators in Matlab, Bangladesh: self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level

    PubMed Central

    Razzaque, Abdur; Nahar, Lutfun; Akter Khanam, Masuma; Kim Streatfield, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database) were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories), health state (eight domains), quality of life (eight items) and disability level (12 items). Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level) documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in advance rather than

  6. Social cohesion and self-rated health: The moderating effect of neighborhood physical disorder.

    PubMed

    Bjornstrom, Eileen E S; Ralston, Margaret L; Kuhl, Danielle C

    2013-12-01

    Using data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey and its companion datasets, we examined how neighborhood disorder, perceived danger and both individually perceived and contextually measured neighborhood social cohesion are associated with self-rated health. Results indicate that neighborhood disorder is negatively associated with health and the relationship is explained by perceived cohesion and danger, which are both also significant predictors of health. Further, individually perceived cohesion emerges as a more important explanation of self-rated health than neighborhood-level social cohesion. Finally, neighborhood disorder and perceived cohesion interact to influence health, such that cohesion is especially beneficial when residents live in neighborhoods characterized by low to moderate disorder; once disorder is at high levels, cohesion no longer offers protection against poor health. We interpret our findings as they relate to prior research on neighborhoods, psychosocial processes, and health, and discuss their implications for intervention efforts that address disorder in urban communities. PMID:24048811

  7. Financial Hardship and Self-Rated Health among Low-Income Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Harley, Amy E.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be predictive of morbidity and mortality. Evidence also shows that SRH is socioeconomically patterned, although this association differs depending on the indicator of socioeconomic status used. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SRH and financial hardship among…

  8. Using Anchoring Vignettes to Assess Group Differences in General Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna; Freese, Jeremy; Hauser, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses a potentially serious problem with the widely used self-rated health (SRH) survey item: that different groups have systematically different ways of using the item's response categories. Analyses based on unadjusted SRH may thus yield misleading results. The authors evaluate anchoring vignettes as a possible solution to this…

  9. Ethnic and Gender Differentials in Non-Communicable Diseases and Self-Rated Health in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Jane K. L.; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Methods Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses. Results Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD), followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health. Conclusion Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people. PMID

  10. Political Regimes, Political Ideology, and Self-Rated Health in Europe: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined simultaneously. Methodology/Principal Findings Using adjusted logistic multilevel models to analyze data on individuals from 29 European countries and Israel, we found that individual ideology and political regime are independently associated with self-rated health. Individuals with rightwing ideologies report better health than leftwing individuals. Respondents from Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics report poorer health than individuals from social democratic, liberal, Christian conservative, and former Mediterranean dictatorship countries. In contrast to individual ideology and political regimes, country level aggregations of individual ideology are not related to reporting poor health. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that although both individual political ideology and contextual political regime are independently associated with individuals' self-rated health, individual political ideology appears to be more strongly associated with self-rated health than political regime. PMID:20661433

  11. Democracy and self-rated health across 67 countries: A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Patrick M; Dovel, Kathryn; Denney, Justin T

    2015-10-01

    Existing research has found a positive association between countries' level of democratic governance and the health of their populations, although that research is limited by the use of data from small numbers of high-income countries or aggregate data that do not assess individual-level health outcomes. We extend prior research by using multilevel World Health Survey (2002-2004) data on 313,554 individuals in 67 countries, and find that the positive association between democratic governance and self-rated health persists after adjusting for both individual- and country-level confounders. However, the mechanisms linking democracy and self-rated health remain unclear. Individual-level measures of socioeconomic status, and country-level measures of economic inequality and investments in public health and education, do not significantly mediate the association between democratic governance and self-rated health. The persistent association between democratic governance and health suggests that the political organization of societies may be an important upstream determinant of population health. PMID:26356825

  12. Cohort and duration patterns among Asian immigrants: Comparing trends in obesity and self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Annie; Geronimus, Arline; Bound, John; Griffith, Derek; Gee, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Many studies, but not all, suggest that immigrant health worsens with duration of residence in the U.S. Cohort effects may explain the inconsistent findings; not only are cohort effects confounded with duration, but the timing of entry into the US may also create qualitatively different migration experiences. The present study tests for duration and cohort patterns among Asian immigrants to the United States across six year-of-entry cohorts (pre-1980, 1981-1985, 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005). Data come from the Asian American sample (n=44,002) from the 1994-2009 waves of the National Health Interview Survey. The data show cohort differences for self-rated health, such that more recent cohorts showed improved baseline health compared to older cohorts. After accounting for cohorts, there was no significant change in self-rated health by duration. Older cohorts actually showed improving self-rated health with longer duration. Obesity showed the opposite pattern; there were no differences across cohorts, but duration in the United States correlated with higher obesity. These results imply that immigrant health is not simply an issue of duration and adaptation, but underscore the utility of considering cohorts as broader contexts of migration. Collectively, the results encourage future research that more carefully examines the etiological mechanisms that drive immigrant health. PMID:25879262

  13. Religiosity and Self-Rated Health: A Longitudinal Examination of Their Reciprocal Effects.

    PubMed

    Doane, Michael J; Elliott, Marta

    2016-06-01

    While religiosity tends to be favorably associated with physical health, further research is needed to assess the causal directions between religiosity and health. This study examined reciprocal pathways between them with a three-wave panel dataset (General Social Survey, 2006-2010). Among Christians (N = 585), religious activities were associated with improved self-rated health, while conservative religious beliefs were associated with worsened health over time. Additionally, worse health was associated with increased engagement in religious activities and greater endorsement of conservative religious beliefs over time. Results highlight the need for additional research and theory to map the complexity of the religion-health connection. PMID:25896028

  14. Trauma, Socioeconomic Resources, and Self-rated Health in an Ethnically Diverse Adult Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Klest, Bridget; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate ethnic group differences in the association between trauma exposure and health status among an ethnically diverse sample originating in Hawai‘i. Design Across a ten-year period (1998–2008), participants (N = 833) completed five waves of questionnaire assessments. Trauma exposure was measured retrospectively at the most recent assessment (wave 5), socioeconomic resources (educational attainment and employment status) were measured at wave 1, and self-rated health was measured at each of the five waves. Results Results indicated that greater exposure to trauma was associated with poorer self-rated health, as were lower educational attainment and lower work status. In addition there was ethnic group variation in health ratings, as well as in how strongly trauma exposure predicted health status. Specifically, within Filipino American and Native Hawaiian ethnic groups, there was a stronger negative association between trauma exposure and self-rated health. Conclusion These results suggest complex interrelations among trauma, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and physical health. Further understanding these relations may have implications for medical and behavioral interventions in vulnerable populations. PMID:22732011

  15. Self-rated health, life-style, and psychoendocrine measures of stress in healthy adult women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) is a robust predictor of subsequent health outcome, independent of objective health measures and life-style-related health risk factors. However, the determinants of SRH are as yet largely unknown. In accordance with the prevailing stress theory, we hypothesized that SRH is associated with personal coping resources, psychological strain, life-style variables, and endocrine variables. Methods A total of 106 healthy women, 22–59 years of age, were followed for up to 3 years with annual blood sampling (cortisol, prolactin, testosterone) and written questionnaires in which information on SRH, psychological strain, coping resources, socio-economic and life-style variables was sought. Results In bivariate, screening logistic regression analyses, intended to find candidate variables for a final analysis model, all coping resource variables (sense of coherence, mastery, and self-esteem) were significantly related to SRH, and so were two psychological strain variables (vital exhaustion, and sleep disturbances), one life-style variable (fitness), but none of the endocrine variables. In the final multivariate analysis model, including all candidate variables, only vital exhaustion (P < 0.0001), fitness (P = 0.0002), and sense of coherence (P = 0.0006) were independently associated with SRH, together explaining 74% of the SRH variance. Conclusion Some elements of the hypothesis, i.e. the effects of coping resources, psychological strain, and life-style variables on SRH, were supported by the results, while others, i.e. effects of endocrine measures on SRH, were not, indicating a possible gender difference. PMID:20977316

  16. The Impact of Self-Rated Health Status on Patient Satisfaction Integration Process.

    PubMed

    Otani, Koichiro; Shen, Ye; Chumbler, Neale R; Judy, Zachary; Herrmann, Patrick A; Kurz, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how patients' self-rated health status (SRHS) is associated with their attribute reaction integration process and, in turn, their overall ratings of hospitals. We collected patient satisfaction data from 70 hospitals by means of a patient satisfaction questionnaire. The sample included patients who were 18 years or older and discharged from the hospital from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2012. Data for 36,528 patients were available for analysis. We conducted multiple linear regression analysis with patients' SRHS and interaction effects with nursing care, physician care, staff care, and room, while controlling for age, gender, race, and education. Study findings showed an association between SRHS levels and the patient's overall rating of the hospital; they also revealed interaction effects with nursing care, physician care, and staff care variables in the model. The statistically significant interaction effects indicate that for patients whose SRHS was less than excellent, physician care became more important and nursing care and staff care became less important compared with patients whose SRHS was excellent. When we consider the nature of medical care, this transition seems reasonable. We also found that it is reasonable to categorize patients into two groups: those whose SRHS is excellent and those whose SRHS is less than excellent (i.e., very good, good, fair, or poor). As the study findings show, these two groups of patients combined their attribute reactions differently. PMID:26554265

  17. Self-rated health and residential segregation: how does race/ethnicity matter?

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Joseph; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-08-01

    Despite recent declines, racial segregation remains a detriment to minority neighborhoods. However, existing research is inconclusive as to the effects racial segregation has on health. Some argue that racial segregation is related to poor health outcomes, whereas others suspect that racial segregation may actually lead to improved health for some minority communities. Even less is known about whether minority access to white neighborhoods improves health. We address these gaps with individual data from the 2010 Public Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey and census tract data from the 2010 Decennial Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. We implement logistic multilevel models to determine whether and how a resident's self-rated health is affected by the racial/ethnic segregation of their neighborhoods. Our key finding suggests that the effects of segregation on self-rated health depend on an individual's race/ethnicity, with blacks and Latino residents most likely to experience adverse effects. Particularly, minorities living in predominantly white communities have a significantly higher likelihood to report poor/fair health than they would in segregated minority neighborhoods. These findings make clear that access to white neighborhoods is not sufficient to improve minority health; fuller neighborhood integration is necessary to ensure all have health equity. PMID:24515933

  18. Work Hours and Self rated Health of Hospital Doctors in Norway and Germany. A comparative study on national samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between extended work hours and health is well documented among hospital doctors, but the effect of national differences in work hours on health is unexplored. The study examines the relationship between work hours and self rated health in two national samples of hospital doctors. Methods The study population consisted of representative samples of 1,260 German and 562 Norwegian hospital doctors aged 25-65 years (N = 1,822) who received postal questionnaires in 2006 (Germany) and 2008 (Norway). The questionnaires contained items on demography, work hours (number of hours per workday and on-call per month) and self rated subjective health on a five point scale - dichotomized into "good" (above average) and "average or below". Results Compared to Norway, a significantly higher proportion of German doctors exceeded a 9 hour work day (58.8% vs. 26.7%) and 60 hours on-call per month (63.4% vs. 18.3%). Every third (32.2%) hospital doctor in Germany worked more than this, while this pattern was rare in Norway (2.9%). In a logistic regression model, working in Norway (OR 4.17; 95% CI 3.02-5.73), age 25-44 years (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.29-2.14) and not exceeding 9 hour work day and 60 hours on-call per month (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.03-1.77) were all independent significant predictors of good self reported health. Conclusion A lower percentage of German hospital doctors reported self rated health as "good", which is partly explained by the differences in work time pattern. Initiatives to increase doctors' control over their work time are recommended. PMID:21338494

  19. Self-Assessed Disability and Self-Rated Health among Rural Villagers in Peru: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, James E.; Merry, Stephen P.; Thacher, Thomas D.; Summers, Matthew R.; Alpern, Jonathan D.; Contino, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Risks for poor self-rated overall health in rural areas of developing nations have not been thoroughly investigated. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess potential risk factors for poor self-rated health among rural villagers in Peru. Methods: A door-to-door survey of villagers residing in the Pampas Grande region in Peru,…

  20. Self-rated health and health conditions of married and unmarried men in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: Since 1988, when Jamaica began collecting data on the living conditions of its people, men have reported seeking less health care than women. Despite this fact, the group has never been studied by researchers. The same is true about the health status of married and non-married men. Objectives: The current study will 1) evaluate the changing epidemiological patterns of diseases affecting men in Jamaica; 2) determine factors that correlate with good health status of men; 3) compare and contrast the differences in health status of men, in particular marital status; and 4) determine which marital status has the greater health status. Materials and Methods: The data for this research were taken from two secondary cross-sectional surveys. A sample of 8,078 respondents 15 years and older was extracted from the 2002 survey (n=25,018 respondents) and 2,224 respondents from the 2007 sample (n=6,783 respondents). SPSS for Windows 16.0 was used to store, retrieve and analyse the data. Chi-square, analysis of variance, t-test and logistic regression were used in this paper. Results: Married men are more likely to report an illness than never married (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.45-1.95), separated, divorced or widowed men (OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 2.06-3.33). No significant statistical difference existed between the self-rated health status of married and unmarried men. Conclusion: This study provides a platform upon which future studies can commence as we begin to examine men's health in Jamaica. PMID:22666722

  1. Race, life course socioeconomic position, racial discrimination, depressive symptoms and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darrell L; Puterman, Eli; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Matthews, Karen A; Adler, Nancy E

    2013-11-01

    Greater levels of socioeconomic position (SEP) are generally associated with better health. However results from previous studies vary across race/ethnicity and health outcomes. Further, the majority of previous studies do not account for the effects of life course SEP on health nor the effects of racial discrimination, which could moderate the effects of SEP on health. Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we examined the relationship between a life course SEP measure on depressive symptoms and self-rated health. A life course SEP was constructed for each participant, using a framework that included parental education and occupation along with respondents' highest level of education and occupation. Interaction terms were created between life course SEP and racial discrimination to determine whether the association between SEP and health was moderated by experiences of racial discrimination. Analyses revealed that higher levels of life course SEP were inversely related to depressive symptoms. Greater life course SEP was positively associated with favorable self-rated health. Racial discrimination was associated with more depressive symptoms and poorer self-rated health. Analyses indicated a significant interaction between life course SEP and racial discrimination on depressive symptoms in the full sample. This suggested that for respondents with greater levels of SEP, racial discrimination was associated with reports of more depressive symptoms. Future research efforts should be made to examine whether individuals' perceptions and experiences of racial discrimination at the interpersonal and structural levels limits their ability to acquire human capital as well as their advancement in education and occupational status. PMID:24161083

  2. An Investigation on Self-Rated Health of Adolescent Students and Influencing Factors From Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengying; Zhao, Li; Feng, Xianqiong; Hu, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    To investigate adolescent students' self-rated health status and to identify the influencing factors that affect students' health status. A stratified cluster sampling method and the Self-assessed General Health Questionnaires were used to enroll 503 adolescent students from Sichuan Province, Southwest part of China. Most adolescent students perceived their self-rated health as “Fair” (29.4%), “Good” (52.1%), or “Very Good” (16.3%). Regarding the sleep quality, most of them rated them as “Fair” (24.9%), “Good” (43.1%), or “Very Good” (19.7%), but 59.7% students reported to sleep less than 8 hours a day, even a few reported to sleep less than 6 hours (4.4%) or more than 9 hours (9.7%). A considerable number of students (41.1%) reported that they “Never” or just “Occasionally” participated in appropriate sports or exercises. As to the dietary habit, a significant number of students (15.7%) reported that they “Never” or “Occasionally” have breakfast. Students from different administrative levels of schools (municipal level, county level, and township level) rated differently (P < 0.05) in terms of their self-rated health, Health Behaviors, Sleeping, Dietary behaviors, Safety Awareness, and Drinking and Smoking behaviors. In general, Chinese teenage students perceived their own health status as fairly good. However, attention needs to be paid to health problems of some of the students, such as lack of sleep and exercise and inadequate dietary habits, etc. More concerns need to be addressed to students from different administrative levels of schools, and strategies should be put forward accordingly. PMID:27058576

  3. Lifestyle Behaviors and Self-Rated Health: The Living for Health Program

    PubMed Central

    Zarini, Gustavo G.; Vaccaro, Joan A.; Canossa Terris, Maria A.; Exebio, Joel C.; Ajabshir, Sahar; Cheema, Amanpreet; Huffman, Fatma G.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lack of adherence to dietary and physical activity guidelines has been linked to an increase in chronic diseases in the United States (US). The aim of this study was to assess the association of lifestyle behaviors with self-rated health (SRH). Methods. This cross-sectional study used self-reported data from Living for Health Program (N = 1,701) which was conducted from 2008 to 2012 in 190 health fair events in South Florida, US. Results. Significantly higher percent of females as compared to males were classified as obese (35.4% versus 27.0%), reported poor/fair SRH (23.4% versus 15.0%), and were less physically active (33.9% versus 25.4%). Adjusted logistic regression models indicated that both females and males were more likely to report poor/fair SRH if they consumed ≤2 servings of fruits and vegetables per day (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.30–3.54; OR = 2.86, 95% CI 1.12–7.35, resp.) and consumed mostly high fat foods (OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.03–2.43; OR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.67–2.43, resp.). The association of SRH with less physical activity was only significant in females (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.17–2.35). Conclusion. Gender differences in health behaviors should be considered in designing and monitoring lifestyle interventions to prevent cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25530764

  4. Self-Rated Health in Relation to Rape and Mental Health Disorders in a National Sample of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to employ a multivariate approach to examine the correlates of self-rated health in a college sample of women, with particular emphasis on sexual assault history and related mental health outcomes. Participants: A national sample of 2,000 female college students participated in a structured phone interview…

  5. Application of a Spatial Intelligent Decision System on Self-Rated Health Status Estimation.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Alberto; Liu, Jun; Wang, Hui; Nugent, Chris; Martinez, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Self- assessed general health status is a commonly-used survey technique since it can be used as a predictor for several public health risks such as mortality, deprivation, and fear of crime or poverty. Therefore, it is a useful alternative measure to help assessing the public health situation of a neighborhood or town, and can be utilized by authorities in many decision support situations related to public health, budget allocation and general policy-making, among others. It can be considered as spatial decision problems, since both data location and spatial relationships make a prominent impact during the decision making process. This paper utilizes a recently-developed spatial intelligent decision system, named, Spatial RIMER(+), to model the self-rated health estimation decision problem using real data in the areas of Northern Ireland, UK. The goal is to learn from past or partial observations on self-rated health status to predict its future or neighborhood behavior and reference it in the map. Three scenarios in line of this goal are discussed in details, i.e., estimation of unknown, downscaling, and predictions over time. They are used to demonstrate the flexibility and applicability of the spatial decision support system and their positive capabilities in terms of accuracy, efficiency and visualization. PMID:26330224

  6. Does urban sprawl impact on self-rated health and psychological distress? A multilevel study from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, Bin B; Garden, Frances L

    2011-09-01

    Mental health can be influenced by a number of neighbourhood physical and social environmental characteristics. We aimed to determine whether urban sprawl (based on population density) in Sydney, Australia, is associated with self-rated health and psychological distress. We used a cross-sectional multilevel study design. Individual level data on self-rated health and psychological distress were obtained from the 2006 and 2007 NSW Population Health Survey. We did not find significant associations between urban sprawl and self-rated health and psychological distress after controlling for individual and area level covariates. However, positive neighbourhood factors were generally associated with better self-rated health and lower psychological distress but few of these associations were statistically significant. PMID:21879398

  7. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  8. Predictors of Self-rated Health and Lifestyle Behaviours in Swedish University Students

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle behaviours are usually formed during youth or young adulthood which makes college students a particularly vulnerable group that easily can adopt unhealthy lifestyle behaviour. Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the influence of socio-demographic factors on Swedish university students’ lifestyle behaviours and self-rated health. Method: Data were collected from a convenience sample of 152 students using questionnaires consisting of a socio-demographic section followed by previously well-validated instruments. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics: t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression tests. Findings: The results of this study show that the lifestyle behaviours under study (physical activity, perceived stress and eating behaviours) as well as self-rated health can be predicted to a certain extent by socio-demographic factors such as gender, mother tongue and parents’ educational level. Male university students were shown to be physically more active than female students; the male students were less stressed and rated their overall health, fitness level and mental health higher. Female students were more prone to adopt unhealthy eating behaviours. Discussion: This study addresses gender differences and their influences on lifestyle behaviours; it provides both theoretical explanations for these differences as well as presents some practical implications of the findings. PMID:22980336

  9. Benefits Gained, Benefits Lost: Comparing Baby Boomers to Other Generations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    BADLEY, ELIZABETH M; CANIZARES, MAYILEE; PERRUCCIO, ANTHONY V; HOGG-JOHNSON, SHEILAH; GIGNAC, MONIQUE AM

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Context Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). Methods We analyzed Canada’s longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. Findings SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were

  10. Questioning the discriminatory accuracy of broad migrant categories in public health: self-rated health in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Bredström, Anna; Merlo, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences between natives and migrants in average risk for poor self-rated health (SRH) are well documented, which has lent support to proposals for interventions targeting disadvantaged minority groups. However, such proposals are based on measures of association that neglect individual heterogeneity around group averages and thereby the discriminatory accuracy (DA) of the categories used (i.e. their ability to discriminate the individuals with poor and good SRH, respectively). Therefore, applying DA measures rather than only measures of association our study revisits the value of broad native and migrant categorizations for predicting SRH. Design, setting and participants: We analyzed 27 723 individuals aged 18–80 who responded to a 2008 Swedish public health survey. We performed logistic regressions to estimate odds ratios (ORs), predicted risks and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AU-ROC) as a measure of epidemiological DA. Results: Being born abroad was associated with higher odds of poor SRH (OR = 1.75), but the AU-ROC of this variable only added 0.02 units to the AU-ROC for age alone (from 0.53 to 0.55). The AU-ROC increased, but remained unsatisfactorily low (0.62), when available social and demographic variables were included. Conclusions: Our results question the use of broad native/migrant categorizations as instruments for forecasting individual SRH. Such simple categorizations have a very low DA and should be abandoned in public health practice. Measures of association and DA should be reported together whenever an intervention is being considered, especially in the area of ethnicity, migration and health. PMID:26072519

  11. Social support and the self-rated health of older people

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yue; Zhang, Chen-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Quan; Li, Zhanzhan; Jiang, Caixiao; Huang, Hui-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The lack of social support in elderly populations incurs real societal costs and can lead to their poor health. The aim of this study is to investigate the self-rated health (SRH) and social support among older people as well as its associated factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 312 urban community-dwelling elderly aged 65 to 90 years in Tainan Taiwan and Fuzhou Fujian Province from March 2012 to October 2012. A Spearson correlation test, independent t test, a Pearson χ2 test, a linear regression analysis, and a multiple-level model were performed to analyze the results. The participants identified children as the most important source of objective and subjective support, followed by spouse and relatives. Tainan's elderly received more daily life assistance and emotional support, showed stronger awareness of the need to seek help, and maintained a higher frequency of social interactions compared with the elderly in Fuzhou. The mean objective support, subjective support, and support utilization scores as well as the overall social support among Tainan's elderly were significantly high compared with the scores among Fuzhou's elderly. Further, Tainan's elderly rated better SRH than Fuzhou's elderly. Correlation analysis showed that social support was significantly correlated with city, age, living conditions, marital status, and SRH. Multiple linear regression analysis, with social support as a dependent variable, retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model: city (4.792, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.068–6.516, P = 0.000), age (−0.805, 95% CI: −1.394 to −0.135, P = 0.013), marital status (−1.260, 95% CI: −1.891 to −0.629, P = 0.000), living conditions (4.069, 95% CI: 3.022–5.116, P = 0.000), and SRH −1.941, 95% CI: −3.194 to −0.688, P = 0.003). The multiple-level model showed that city would impact older people's social support (χ2 = 5.103, P < 0.001). Marital status (−2.133, 95

  12. Self-rated Health and Internet Addiction in Iranian Medical Sciences Students; Prevalence, Risk Factors and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling method including stratified and simple random sampling. The Young’s questionnaire of internet addiction and SRH question used for data collection. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression used in data analysis. Results: More than 79.9% of students reported their general health good and very good. The student’s mean score of general health was higher than the average. In addition, the prevalence of internet addiction was 28.7%. An inverse significant correlation observed between SRH and internet addiction score (r=-0.198, p=0.002). Using internet for Entertainment, using private Email and chat rooms were the most important predictors of affecting to internet addiction. Moreover, internet addiction is the most predictors of SRH and increased the odds of bad SRH. Conclusion: The good SRH of medical students was higher than general population but in health faculty’ students were lower than others. Due to the effect of internet addiction on SRH and increasing trend of internet use in medical students, as well as low age of participants, attention to psychological aspects and the job expectancy in future, can effective on increasing the good SRH. PMID:27493592

  13. Understanding Recession and Self-Rated Health with the Partial Proportional Odds Model: An Analysis of 26 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Adam; Foster, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Self-rated health is demonstrated to vary substantially by both personal socio-economic status and national economic conditions. However, studies investigating the combined influence of individual and country level economic indicators across several countries in the context of recent global recession are limited. This paper furthers our knowledge of the effect of recession on health at both the individual and national level. Methods Using the Life in Transition II study, which provides data from 19,759 individuals across 26 European nations, we examine the relationship between self-rated health, personal economic experiences, and macro-economic change. Data analyses include, but are not limited to, the partial proportional odds model which permits the effect of predictors to vary across different levels of our dependent variable. Results Household experiences with recession, especially a loss of staple good consumption, are associated with lower self-rated health. Most individual-level experiences with recession, such as a job loss, have relatively small negative effects on perceived health; the effect of individual or household economic hardship is strongest in high income nations. Our findings also suggest that macroeconomic growth improves self-rated health in low-income nations but has no effect in high-income nations. Individuals with the greatest probability of “good” self-rated health reside in wealthy countries ($23,910 to $50, 870 GNI per capita). Conclusion Both individual and national economic variables are predictive of self-rated health. Personal and household experiences are most consequential for self-rated health in high income nations, while macroeconomic growth is most consequential in low-income nations. PMID:26513660

  14. Racial disparities in self-rated health: Trends, explanatory factors, and the changing role of socio-demographics

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Audrey N.; Finch, Brian K.; Lin, Shih-Fan; Hummer, Robert A.; Masters, Ryan K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data from the U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (N = 1,513,097) to describe and explain temporal patterns in black-white health disparities with models that simultaneously consider the unique effects of age, period, and cohort. First, we employ cross-classified random effects age–period–cohort (APC) models to document black-white disparities in self-rated health across temporal dimensions. Second, we use decomposition techniques to shed light on the extent to which socio-economic shifts in cohort composition explain the age and period adjusted racial health disparities across successive birth cohorts. Third, we examine the extent to which exogenous conditions at the time of birth help explain the racial disparities across successive cohorts. Results show that black-white disparities are wider among the pre-1935 cohorts for women, falling thereafter; disparities for men exhibit a similar pattern but exhibit narrowing among cohorts born earlier in the century. Differences in socioeconomic composition consistently contribute to racial health disparities across cohorts; notably, marital status differences by race emerge as an increasingly important explanatory factor in more recent cohorts for women whereas employment differences by race emerge as increasingly salient in more recent cohorts for men. Finally, our cohort characteristics models suggest that cohort economic conditions at the time of birth (percent large family, farm or Southern birth) help explain racial disparities in health for both men and women. PMID:24581075

  15. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Callan, Mitchell J.; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4–6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures. PMID:26441786

  16. Does an immigrant health paradox exist among Asian Americans? Associations of nativity and occupational class with self-rated health and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    John, Dolly A; de Castro, A B; Martin, Diane P; Duran, Bonnie; Takeuchi, David T

    2012-12-01

    A robust socioeconomic gradient in health is well-documented, with higher socioeconomic status (SES) associated with better health across the SES spectrum. However, recent studies of U.S. racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants show complex SES-health patterns (e.g., flat gradients), with individuals of low SES having similar or better health than their richer, U.S.-born and more acculturated counterparts, a so-called "epidemiological paradox" or "immigrant health paradox". To examine whether this exists among Asian Americans, we investigate how nativity and occupational class (white-collar, blue-collar, service, unemployed) are associated with subjective health (self-rated physical health, self-rated mental health) and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders (any mental disorder, anxiety, depression). We analyzed data from 1530 Asian respondents to the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study in the labor force using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models controlling for confounders, subjective social status (SSS), material and psychosocial factors theorized to explain health inequalities. Compared to U.S.-born Asians, immigrants had worse socioeconomic profiles, and controlling for age and gender, increased odds for reporting fair/poor mental health and decreased odds for any DSM-IV mental disorder and anxiety. No strong occupational class-health gradients were found. The foreign-born health-protective effect persisted after controlling for SSS but became nonsignificant after controlling for material and psychosocial factors. Speaking fair/poor English was strongly associated with all outcomes. Material and psychosocial factors were associated with some outcomes--perceived financial need with subjective health, uninsurance with self-rated mental health and depression, social support, discrimination and acculturative stress with all or most DSM-IV outcomes. Our findings caution against using terms like "immigrant health paradox" which oversimplify

  17. Negative self-rated health in the elderly in cities with different levels of economic well-being: data from FIBRA.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Efigênia Passarelli; de Lucca, Sérgio Roberto; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-12-01

    This comparative, cross-sectional study analyzed negative self-rated health in elderly people, according to sociodemographic and health variables, use of public or private health services, functional performance, frailty and depressive symptoms. The participants lived in Belém (n = 571) and Campinas (n = 676), cities with different socioeconomic conditions, and the research formed part of a multicentric study on frailty (Fibra Study, Unicamp). Multivariate regression analysis showed that in both cities, negative self-rated health was associated with low education, three or more chronic diseases and sight deficiencies. In Belem, additional observations included associations with fatigue, three or more signs and symptoms and use of public health services; in Campinas, negative self-rated health was also associated with depressive symptoms. The associations suggest that poor health in old age is the result of an accumulation of deficits for lack of socioeconomic resources throughout life and that deficits are not sufficiently compensated for health services in old age. PMID:26691791

  18. Understanding the Association between Social Capital and Self-Rated Health of South Korean Elderly with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Youn; Kim, Jin Won

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the association between social capital and self-rated health among people who are elderly with disabilities in South Korea. For this purpose, the authors analyzed the fourth wave data of the Korean Health Panel Survey (KHPS) that included a sample of 408 people who are elderly with disabilities. The authors found that the unmet health care needs were significantly associated with self-rated health of the people who are elderly with disabilities (β = - .286, p < .05). The authors also found that respect was significantly related to self-rated health (β = .393, p < .05). PMID:27195932

  19. Using vignettes to rethink Latino-white disparities in self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Bzostek, Sharon; Sastry, Narayan; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne; Duffy, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often rely on respondents' self-rated health (SRH) to measure social disparities in health, but recent studies suggest that systematically different reporting styles across groups can yield misleading conclusions about disparities in SRH. In this study, we test whether this finding extends to ethnic differences in self-assessments of health in particular domains. We document differences between US-born whites and four Latino subgroups in respondents' assessments of health in six health domains using data from the second wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (N = 1468). We use both conventional methods and an approach that uses vignettes to adjust for differential reporting styles. Our results suggest that despite consistent evidence from the literature that Latinos tend to rate their overall health more poorly than whites, and that Latino immigrants report worse SRH than US-born Latinos, this pattern is not true of self-reports in individual health domains. We find that at the bivariate level, US-born whites (and often US-born Mexicans) have significantly more pessimistic reporting styles than Latino immigrants. After adding controls, we find evidence of significantly different reporting styles for only one domain: US-born Mexicans and whites consistently interpret head pain more severely than the other Latino subgroups. Finally, we find that both before and after adjusting for differences in rating styles across groups, non-Mexican Latino immigrants report better social and physical functioning and less pain than other groups. Our findings underscore the advantages of domain-specific ratings when evaluating ethnic differences in self-assessments of health. We encourage researchers studying social disparities in health to consider respondents' self-assessments in a variety of domains, and to also investigate (when possible) potential biases in their findings due to different reporting styles. The anchoring vignettes approach we use is

  20. Race, gender, class, and sexual orientation: intersecting axes of inequality and self-rated health in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intersectionality theory, a way of understanding social inequalities by race, gender, class, and sexuality that emphasizes their mutually constitutive natures, possesses potential to uncover and explicate previously unknown health inequalities. In this paper, the intersectionality principles of "directionality," "simultaneity," "multiplicativity," and "multiple jeopardy" are applied to inequalities in self-rated health by race, gender, class, and sexual orientation in a Canadian sample. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1 (N = 90,310) provided nationally representative data that enabled binary logistic regression modeling on fair/poor self-rated health in two analytical stages. The additive stage involved regressing self-rated health on race, gender, class, and sexual orientation singly and then as a set. The intersectional stage involved consideration of two-way and three-way interaction terms between the inequality variables added to the full additive model created in the previous stage. Results From an additive perspective, poor self-rated health outcomes were reported by respondents claiming Aboriginal, Asian, or South Asian affiliations, lower class respondents, and bisexual respondents. However, each axis of inequality interacted significantly with at least one other: multiple jeopardy pertained to poor homosexuals and to South Asian women who were at unexpectedly high risks of fair/poor self-rated health and mitigating effects were experienced by poor women and by poor Asian Canadians who were less likely than expected to report fair/poor health. Conclusions Although a variety of intersections between race, gender, class, and sexual orientation were associated with especially high risks of fair/poor self-rated health, they were not all consistent with the predictions of intersectionality theory. I conclude that an intersectionality theory well suited for explicating health inequalities in Canada should be capable of accommodating axis

  1. Urinary arsenic, heavy metals, phthalates, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons but not parabens, polyfluorinated compounds are associated with self-rated health: USA NHANES, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-06-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged, but the effects on self-rated health were less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary environmental chemicals and the self-rated health in a national and population-based study in recent years. Data was retrieved from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012, including demographics, serum measurements, lifestyle factors, self-rated health (with two grouping approaches) and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. T test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling were performed. Among American adults aged 12-80 (n = 6833), 5892 people had reported their general health condition. Two thousand three hundred sixty-nine (40.2 %) people reported their general health condition as excellent or very good while 3523 (59.8 %) reported good, fair, or poor. People who reported their general health condition as good, fair, or poor had higher levels of urinary arsenic, heavy metals (including cadmium, cobalt, manganese, molybdenum, lead, antimony, strontium, tungsten and uranium), phthalates, pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons but lower levels of benzophenone-3 and triclosan. There were no associations with urinary parabens, perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate or polyfluorinated compounds. However, only urinary cadmium, benzophenone-3, triclosan, and 2-hydroxynaphthalene remained significant when comparing between "good to excellent" and "poor to fair." This is the first time observing risk associations of urinary arsenic, heavy metal, phthalate, pesticide, and hydrocarbon concentrations and self-rated health in people aged 12-80, although the causality cannot be established. Further elimination of these environmental chemicals in humans might need to be considered in health and environmental policies. PMID:25943515

  2. Associations of a Short Sleep Duration, Insufficient Sleep, and Insomnia with Self-Rated Health among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Griep, Rosane Härter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that sleep duration and poor sleep are associated with mortality, as well as with a wide range of negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined the association between sleep and self-rated health, particularly through the combination of sleep complaints. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health is associated with sleep complaints, considering the combination of sleep duration, insomnia, and sleep sufficiency. This cross-sectional study was performed in the 18 largest public hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 2518 female nurses answered a self-filled multidimensional questionnaire. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated the chance of poor self-rated health in the presence of different combinations of sleep duration and quality. Compared with women who reported adequate sleep duration with no sleep quality complaints (reference group), the odds ratios (95% CI) for poor self-rated health were 1.79 (1.27–2.24) for those who reported only insufficient sleep, 1.85 (0.94–3.66) for only a short sleep duration, and 3.12 (1.94–5.01) for only insomnia. Compared with those who expressed all three complaints (short sleep duration, insomnia, and insufficient sleep), the odds ratio for poor self-rated health was 4.49 (3.25–6.22). Differences in the magnitude of the associations were observed, depending on the combination of sleep complaints. Because self-rated health is a consistent predictor of morbidity, these results reinforce the increasing awareness of the role of sleep in health and disease. Our findings contribute to the recognition of sleep as a public health matter that deserves to be better understood and addressed by policymakers. PMID:25961874

  3. Associations of a Short Sleep Duration, Insufficient Sleep, and Insomnia with Self-Rated Health among Nurses.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Griep, Rosane Härter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that sleep duration and poor sleep are associated with mortality, as well as with a wide range of negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined the association between sleep and self-rated health, particularly through the combination of sleep complaints. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health is associated with sleep complaints, considering the combination of sleep duration, insomnia, and sleep sufficiency. This cross-sectional study was performed in the 18 largest public hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 2518 female nurses answered a self-filled multidimensional questionnaire. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated the chance of poor self-rated health in the presence of different combinations of sleep duration and quality. Compared with women who reported adequate sleep duration with no sleep quality complaints (reference group), the odds ratios (95% CI) for poor self-rated health were 1.79 (1.27-2.24) for those who reported only insufficient sleep, 1.85 (0.94-3.66) for only a short sleep duration, and 3.12 (1.94-5.01) for only insomnia. Compared with those who expressed all three complaints (short sleep duration, insomnia, and insufficient sleep), the odds ratio for poor self-rated health was 4.49 (3.25-6.22). Differences in the magnitude of the associations were observed, depending on the combination of sleep complaints. Because self-rated health is a consistent predictor of morbidity, these results reinforce the increasing awareness of the role of sleep in health and disease. Our findings contribute to the recognition of sleep as a public health matter that deserves to be better understood and addressed by policymakers. PMID:25961874

  4. Secondary traumatization and self-rated health among wives of former prisoners of war: the moderating role of marital adjustment.

    PubMed

    Zerach, Gadi; Greene, Talya; Solomon, Zahava

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the relationships between secondary traumatization, marital adjustment, and self-rated health among wives of former prisoners of war. Participants were Israeli wives of former prisoners of war (N = 116) and a matched control group of wives of combat veterans (N = 56). Wives of former prisoners of war reported worse self-rated health compared to the control group of wives of combat veterans. Wives of former prisoners of war also reported higher levels of secondary traumatization, and marital adjustment moderated the relationship between wives' secondary traumatization and their general health. The experience of living with former prisoners of war who might also suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with wives' own psychological and self-rated health outcomes. PMID:24058125

  5. Rural/urban differences in self-rated health: examining the roles of county size and metropolitan adjacency.

    PubMed

    Monnat, Shannon M; Beeler Pickett, Camille

    2011-01-01

    This research explored the roles of 'rurality' - nonmetropolitan county population size and adjacency to metropolitan areas - on self-rated health among a nationally representative sample of US adults. Using seven years of pooled individual level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and county-level data from the County Characteristics survey, we found that residents of remote rural counties have the greatest odds of reporting bad health and that the significant differences in self-rated health between metropolitan residents and residents of rural areas can be entirely explained by rural structural disadvantage, including higher rates of unemployment and population loss and lower levels of educational attainment. PMID:21159541

  6. Acculturation and Self-Rated Mental Health Among Latino and Asian Immigrants in the United States: A Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Elif; Gayman, Matthew D

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses variations in acculturation experiences by identifying distinct acculturation classes, and investigates the role of these acculturation classes for self-rated mental health among Latino and Asian immigrants in the United States. Using 2002-2003 the National Latino and Asian American Study, Latent Class Analysis is used to capture variations in immigrant classes (recent arrivals, separated, bicultural and assimilated), and OLS regressions are used to assess the link between acculturation classes and self-rated mental health. For both Latinos and Asians, bicultural immigrants reported the best mental health, and separated immigrants and recent arrivals reported the worst mental health. The findings also reveal group differences in acculturation classes, whereby Latino immigrants were more likely to be in the separated class and recent arrivals class relative to Asian immigrants. While there was not a significant group difference in self-rated mental health at the bivariate level, controlling for acculturation classes revealed that Latinos report better self-rated mental health than Asians. Thus, Latino immigrants would actually have better self-rated mental health than their Asian counterparts if they were not more likely to be represented in less acculturated classes (separated class and recent arrivals) and/or as likely to be in the bicultural class as their Asian counterparts. Together the findings underscore the nuanced and complex nature of the acculturation process, highlighting the importance of race differences in this process, and demonstrate the role of acculturation classes for immigrant group differences in self-rated mental health. PMID:26250609

  7. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Myung

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH) for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural). The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month) were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea. PMID:26569279

  8. God-Mediated Control and Change in Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if feelings of God-mediated control are associated with change in self-rated health over time. In the process, an effort was made to see if a sense of meaning in life and optimism mediated the relationship between God-mediated control and change in health. The following hypothesized relationships were contained in the conceptual model that was developed to evaluate these issues: (1) people who go to church more often tend to have stronger God-mediated control beliefs than individuals who do not attend worship services as often; (2) people with a strong sense of God-mediated control are more likely to find a sense of meaning in life and be more optimistic than individuals who do not have a strong sense of God-mediated control; (3) people who are optimistic and who have a strong sense of meaning in life will rate their health more favorably over time than individuals who are not optimistic, as well as individuals who have not found a sense of meaning in life. Data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older adults provided support for each of these hypotheses. PMID:21057586

  9. Cross-border ties and self-rated health status for young Latino adults in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    At the same time that health researchers have mostly ignored the cross-border nature of immigrant social networks, scholars of immigrant “transnationalism” have left health largely unexamined. This paper addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between cross-border ties and self-rated health status for young Latino adults living in the greater Los Angeles area (n=1268). Findings based on an ordered logistic regression analysis suggest that cross-border relationships may have both protective and adverse effects on overall health status. Specifically, those reporting a period of extended parental cross-border separation during childhood have lower odds of reporting better categories of self-rated health, all else equal. Conversely, a significant positive association was found between having a close relative living abroad and self-rated health status for foreign-born respondents when interacted with immigrant generation (foreign versus U.S.-born). Given the findings of significant negative and positive relationships between cross-border ties and self-rated general health status, I discuss the implications for future research on the social determinants of immigrant health. PMID:23312794

  10. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Eleonore M.; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. Methods: We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50–1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Results: Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. Conclusions: In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations. PMID:26569282

  11. Poor Self-Rated Health Influences Hospital Service Use in Hospitalized Inpatients With Chronic Conditions in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Vivian; McLachlan, Craig S.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Huang, Chun-Ta; Wu, Chia-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to investigate the association between self-rated health (SRH) and use of hospital services (ie, medical outpatient department, emergency department, and general ward. admissions). Cross-sectional study data were collected from 230 consecutive patients admitted to medical departments of a 2000-bed academic medical center in Taiwan using standardized operating procedures for data collection of SRH (ie, a single-item question inquiring overall perceived health status), medical disorders, depressive symptoms, and combined service utilization over a 1-year period (ie, number of visits to outpatient department, number of visits to emergency department, and number of hospitalizations). Electronic medical records were retrieved, with self-reported external medical visits added to in-hospital frequencies of service use to provide better estimation of health service utilization. Fifty-two percent of study patients rated their health as poor or very poor. Poor SRH was associated with more visits to medical outpatient department, emergency department, and hospital admission. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated an independent association between poor SRH and services utilization after adjustment for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, metastatic cancer, number of chronic illness, life-threatening event, life-time suicidal ideation, and depression. SRH may be a useful research tool to model medical service use for inpatients with chronic conditions. PMID:26356706

  12. Poor Self-Rated Health Influences Hospital Service Use in Hospitalized Inpatients With Chronic Conditions in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Vivian; McLachlan, Craig S; Baune, Bernhard T; Huang, Chun-Ta; Wu, Chia-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the association between self-rated health (SRH) and use of hospital services (ie, medical outpatient department, emergency department, and general ward. admissions). Cross-sectional study data were collected from 230 consecutive patients admitted to medical departments of a 2000-bed academic medical center in Taiwan using standardized operating procedures for data collection of SRH (ie, a single-item question inquiring overall perceived health status), medical disorders, depressive symptoms, and combined service utilization over a 1-year period (ie, number of visits to outpatient department, number of visits to emergency department, and number of hospitalizations). Electronic medical records were retrieved, with self-reported external medical visits added to in-hospital frequencies of service use to provide better estimation of health service utilization. Fifty-two percent of study patients rated their health as poor or very poor. Poor SRH was associated with more visits to medical outpatient department, emergency department, and hospital admission. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated an independent association between poor SRH and services utilization after adjustment for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, metastatic cancer, number of chronic illness, life-threatening event, life-time suicidal ideation, and depression. SRH may be a useful research tool to model medical service use for inpatients with chronic conditions. PMID:26356706

  13. [Associations between socioeconomic status and self-rated health in northeast German rural communities in 1973, 1994, and 2004/2008].

    PubMed

    Röding, D; Beck, D; Elkeles, T

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports on selected results from the study "Health and Lifestyle in Rural Northeast Germany". A special characteristic of this study is the regional focus on peripheral rural communities and the trend study design. It was analyzed whether, and to what extent, associations exist between socioeconomic status and self-rated health in this regional context and over time. Thus, regression analyses were conducted using equivalent income, level of school education, and age as independent variables and self-rated health as the dependent variable. Analyses are based on paper-pencil surveys of the adult residents of 14 rural communities chosen at random in northeast Germany, performed in 1973, 1994, and 2004-2008. In all survey waves, a lower level of school education was associated with poor self-rated health. By contrast, associations between income and health were less consistent and constant over time. The associations between income and health are discussed as being specific to East Germany and as a consequence of social transformation in the context of reunification. PMID:23978980

  14. Analysis of Socio-demographics, Self-rated Health, Social Capital, and Happiness in a Medium-Sized Healthy City, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Heui Sug; Moon, Ji Young; Kim, Bong Gi; Nam, Eun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background This study explores the relationships between social capital, self-rated health, and happiness and suggests ways to improve the happiness level of a community. Methods The survey was conducted with 445 people using stratified random sampling in a medium-sized city in Korea. Collected information included socio-demographic characteristics, social capital, self-rated health, and happiness. Results Among the demographic characteristics, age had a statistically significant association with happiness level. People in their 40s (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13–0.88) and 50s (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57) were less happy than people of other ages. Married people (OR = 4.58, CI = 1.99–10.53) were more likely to have a high happiness level compared to unmarried people. Cognitive social capital (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.19–1.51) and self-rated health (OR = 2.22, CI = 1.59–3.09) were positively associated with happiness. Conclusion The results suggest that social capital and level of health are determinants of subjective happiness. Public policies and programs for improving social capital are needed to support happiness among community residents. PMID:26770893

  15. Are family, neighbourhood and school social capital associated with higher self-rated health among Croatian high school students? A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Dario; Suzuki, Etsuji; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the associations between self-rated health and social capital among Croatian high school students. Design A cross-sectional survey among high school students was carried out in the 2013–2014 school year. Setting High schools in Croatia. Participants Subjects were 3427 high school students (1688 males and 1739 females), aged 17–18 years. Main outcome measure Self-rated health was assessed by the single item: “How do you perceive your health?”. Possible responses were arranged along a five-item Likert-type scale: 1 very poor, 2 poor, 3 fair, 4 good, 5 excellent. The outcome was binarised as ‘good health’ (excellent, good or fair) versus ‘poor health’ (poor or very poor). Methods We calculated ORs and 95% CIs for good self-rated health associated with family, neighbourhood and school social capital, while adjusting for gender, self-perceived socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity and body mass index. We used generalised estimating equations using an exchangeable correlation matrix with robust SEs. Results Good self-rated health was significantly associated with higher family social capital (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.55 to 3.80), higher neighbourhood trust (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.48 to 2.76) and higher norms of reciprocity at school (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.84). When all of the social capital variables were entered simultaneously, good self-rated health remained significantly associated with higher family social capital (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.19 to 3.30), neighbourhood trust (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.51) and reciprocity at school (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.73). Conclusions Higher levels of social capital were independently associated with higher self-rated health among youth. Intervention and policies that leverage community social capital might serve as an avenue for health promotion in youth. PMID:26056122

  16. Impact of Literacy Influences and Perceived Reading Ability on Self-Rated Health of Public Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of literacy influences and perceived reading ability on the self-rated health (SRH) of 244 middle school students. Five literacy influences and reading ability independent variables resulted in moderate to substantial test-retest reliability [Kappas 46.6 to 63.8] over a two-week period. SRH served as the…

  17. The Relationship between Rural Status, Individual Characteristics, and Self-Rated Health in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Traci N.; Lopez, Russell P.; Cozier, Yvette C.; White, Laura F.; McClean, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine rural status and social factors as predictors of self-rated health in community-dwelling adults in the United States. Methods: This study uses multinomial logistic and cumulative logistic models to evaluate the associations of interest in the 2006 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a cross-sectional survey of…

  18. The relationship between rural status, individual characteristics, and self-rated health in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Bethea, Traci N.; Lopez, Russell P.; Cozier, Yvette C.; White, Laura F.; McClean, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine rural status and social factors as predictors of self-rated health in community-dwelling adults in the United States. Methods This study uses multinomial logistic and cumulative logistic models to evaluate the associations of interest in the 2006 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a cross-sectional survey of 347,790 non-institutionalized adults. Findings Self-rated health was poorer among rural residents, compared to urban residents (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.54, 1.90). However, underlying risk factors such as obesity, low income, and low educational attainment were found to vary by rural status and account for the observed increased risk (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.12). There was little evidence of effect modification by rural status, though the association between obesity and self-rated health was stronger among urban residents (OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 2.38, 2.64) than among rural residents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 2.03, 2.34). Conclusions Our findings suggest that differences in self-rated health by rural status were attributable to differential distributions of participant characteristics and not due to differential effects of those characteristics. PMID:23083079

  19. Self-rated health among Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami adolescents: associated risk and protective correlates

    PubMed Central

    Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine; Melhus, Marita; Kvernmo, Siv Eli; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami. Design Cross-sectional data were collected from “Well-being among Youth in Greenland” (WBYG) and “The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study” (NAAHS), conducted during 2003–2005 and comprising 10th and 11th graders, 378 Inuit and 350 Sami. Methods SRH was assessed by one single item, using a 4-point and 5-point scale for NAAHS and WBYG, respectively. Logistic regressions were performed separately for each indigenous group using a dichotomous measure with “very good” (NAAHS) and “very good/good” (WBYG) as reference categories. We simultaneously controlled for various socio-demographics, risk correlates (drinking, smoking, violence and suicidal behaviour) and protective correlates (physical activity, well-being in school, number of close friends and adolescent–parent relationship). Results A majority of both Inuit (62%) and Sami (89%) youth reported “good” or “very good” SRH. The proportion of “poor/fair/not so good” SRH was three times higher among Inuit than Sami (38% vs. 11%, p≤0.001). Significantly more Inuit females than males reported “poor/fair” SRH (44% vs. 29%, p≤0.05), while no gender differences occurred among Sami (12% vs. 9%, p≤0.08). In both indigenous groups, suicidal thoughts (risk) and physical activity (protective) were associated with poor and good SRH, respectively. Conclusions In accordance with other studies of indigenous adolescents, suicidal thoughts were strongly associated with poorer SRH among Sami and Inuit. The Inuit–Sami differences in SRH could partly be due to higher “risk” and lower “protective” correlates among Inuit than Sami. The positive impact of physical activity on SRH needs to be targeted in future intervention programs. PMID:23396865

  20. An exploratory multilevel analysis of income, income inequality and self-rated health of the elderly in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhixin; Wang, Wenfei Winnie; Jones, Kelvyn; Li, Yaqing

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development and growing economic inequality, such that economic disparities between rural and urban areas, as well as coastal and interior areas have deepened. Since the late 1990s China has also experienced an ageing population which has attracted attention to the wellbeing of the rapidly growing number of elderly. This research aims to characterise province differences in health and to explore the effects of individual income and economic disparity in the form of income inequality on health outcomes of the elderly. The study is based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data collected in 2008 for 23 provinces. Multilevel logistic models are employed to investigate the relationship between income, income inequality and self-rated health for the elderly using both individual and province-level variables. Results are presented as relative odds ratios, and for province differentials as Median Odds Ratios. The analysis is deliberately exploratory so as to find evidence of income effects if they exist and particular attention is placed on how province-level inequality (contemporaneous and lagged) may moderate individual relationships. The results show that the health of the elderly is not only affected by individual income (the odds of poor health are 3 times greater for the elderly with the lowest income compared to those at the upper quartile) but also by a small main effect for province-level income inequality (odds ratio of 1.019). There are significant cross-level interactions such that where inequality is high there are greater differences between those with and without formal education, and between men and women with the latter experiencing poorer health. PMID:23063218

  1. Depression and Self-Rated Health Among Rural Women Who Experienced Adolescent Dating Abuse: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Burton, Candace W; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rehm, Roberta S; Rankin, Sally H; Humphreys, Janice C

    2016-03-01

    This study used mixed methods to examine the experiences and health of rural, young adult women (N = 100) who self-reported past experience of physical, emotional and verbal, sexual, and relational abuse in adolescent dating relationships. Few studies have examined the lasting health ramifications of adolescent dating abuse adolescent dating abuse in rural populations, and almost no mixed methods studies have explored adolescent dating abuse. Participants completed questionnaires on demographics, relationship behaviors, and mental health symptoms. A subsample (n = 10) of participants also completed semi-structured, in-depth interviews with the primary investigator. Results suggest that depressive symptoms and self-rating of health in these women are associated with particular kinds and severity of abusive experiences, and that adolescent dating abuse has ramifications for health and development beyond the duration of the original relationship. Self-rated health (SRH) was inversely associated with abusive behaviors in the relationship, whereas depressive symptoms were positively correlated with such behaviors. Self-rated health was also negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. The results of this study represent an important step toward establishing lifetime health risks posed by adolescent dating abuse. PMID:25392389

  2. Neighborhood racial composition and trajectories of child self-rated health: an application of longitudinal propensity scores.

    PubMed

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Humphrey, Jamie L

    2014-11-01

    Children function within multiple socio-environmental contexts including family, school, and neighborhood. The role each of these contexts play in determining well-being is dynamic and changes throughout early-middle childhood. Recent literature on neighborhood context and health suggests that the life-course processes involved in building trajectories of health are not adequately captured in cross-sectional analysis, which has been the empirical focus of much of the research in this area. In this study we use a nationally representative longitudinal sample of approximately 21,400 United States school children derived from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) survey to examine the impact of longitudinal measures of neighborhood racial composition on child self-rated health between kindergarten and 8th grade. We employ two-level multilevel longitudinal logistic regression models with time-varying propensity scores to examine variation in the initial status and trajectories of child self-rated health between kindergarten and 8th grade. Since the ECLS-K tracked child mobility over time, we are able to model the impact of changes in neighborhood racial composition. We find significant differences in initial poor self-rated health by child race, household socioeconomic status and parental marital status but no evidence of a change in trajectory of health over time. Using time-varying propensity scores, we find no effect of neighborhood racial composition on initial health status or health status trajectories. PMID:25218151

  3. Self-rated health in multimorbid older general practice patients: a cross-sectional study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With increasing life expectancy the number of people affected by multimorbidity rises. Knowledge of factors associated with health-related quality of life in multimorbid people is scarce. We aimed to identify the factors that are associated with self-rated health (SRH) in aged multimorbid primary care patients. Methods Cross-sectional study with 3,189 multimorbid primary care patients aged from 65 to 85 years recruited in 158 general practices in 8 study centers in Germany. Information about morbidity, risk factors, resources, functional status and socio-economic data were collected in face-to-face interviews. Factors associated with SRH were identified by multivariable regression analyses. Results Depression, somatization, pain, limitations of instrumental activities (iADL), age, distress and Body Mass Index (BMI) were inversely related with SRH. Higher levels of physical activity, income and self-efficacy expectation had a positive association with SRH. The only chronic diseases remaining in the final model were Parkinson’s disease and neuropathies. The final model accounted for 35% variance of SRH. Separate analyses for men and women detected some similarities; however, gender specific variation existed for several factors. Conclusion In multimorbid patients symptoms and consequences of diseases such as pain and activity limitations, as well as depression, seem to be far stronger associated with SRH than the diseases themselves. High income and self-efficacy expectation are independently associated with better SRH and high BMI and age with low SRH. Trial registration MultiCare Cohort study registration:ISRCTN89818205. PMID:24387712

  4. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  5. Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Self-Rated Health in a Transitional Middle-Income Setting: Evidence From Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew James; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian C.

    2011-01-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) correlates strongly with mortality. In developed countries, women generally report worse SRH than males. Few studies have reported on SRH in developing countries. The authors report on SRH in Thailand, a middle-income developing country. The data were derived from a large nationwide cohort of 87 134 adult Open University students (54% female, median age 29 years). The authors included questions on socioeconomic and demographic factors that could influence SRH. The Thai cohort in this study mirrors patterns found in developed countries, with females reporting more frequent “poor” or “very poor” SRH (odds ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval = 1.26-1.44). Cohort males had better SRH than females, but levels were more sensitive to socioeconomic status. Income and education had little influence on SRH for females. Among educated Thai adults, females rate their health to be worse than males, and unlike males, this perception is relatively unaffected by socioeconomic status. PMID:20460290

  6. Valued Life Activity Disability Played a Significant Role in Self-Rated Health among Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia; Morris, Anne; Gregorich, Steve; Yazdany, Jinoos; Eisner, Mark; Yelin, Edward; Blanc, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objective Because self-rated health (SRH) is strongly associated with health outcomes, it is important to identify factors that individuals take into account when they assess their health. We examined the role of valued life activities (VLAs), the wide range of activities deemed to be important to individuals, in SRH assessments. Study Design and Setting Data were from 3 cohort studies of individuals with different chronic conditions – rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Each cohort’s data were collected through structured telephone interviews. Logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with ratings of fair/poor SRH. All analyses included sociodemographic characteristics, general and disease-specific health-related factors, and general measures of physical functioning. Results Substantial portions of each group rated their health as fair/poor (RA 37%, SLE 47%, COPD 40%). In each group, VLA disability was strongly associated with fair/poor health (RA: OR=4.44 [1.86,10.62]; SLE: OR=3.60 [2.10,6.16]; COPD: OR=2.76 [1.30,5.85], even after accounting for covariates. Conclusion VLA disability appears to play a substantial role in individual perceptions of health, over and above other measures of health status, disease symptoms, and general physical functioning. PMID:18722089

  7. Comorbid Visual and Cognitive Impairment: Relationship with Disability Status and Self-Rated Health Among Older Singaporeans

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, HE.; Malhotra, R.; Chan, A.; Matchar, DB.; Østbye, T.

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the prevalence and consequences of co-existing vision and cognitive impairments in an Asian population. Data were collected from 4508 community-dwelling Singaporeans aged 60 years and over. Cognition was assessed by the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire while vision, disability, and self-rated health (SRH) were determined by self-report. Vision impairment was present in 902 (18.5%) participants and cognitive impairment in 835 (13.6%), with 232 (3.5%) participants experiencing both impairments. Persons with the comorbidity experienced higher odds of disability than persons with either single impairment. The association of vision impairment with SRH was stronger among women (odds ratio [OR] 6.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.64 to 9.92) than among men (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.41). Concurrent cognitive and vision impairment is prevalent in older Singaporeans and associated with high rates of disability. Gender differences in vision-dependent roles may affect the patient-perceived impact of this comorbidity. PMID:22535554

  8. Health Information Seeking Partially Mediated the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Hong Kong Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Man Ping; Wang, Xin; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor self-rated health (SRH) is socially patterned with health communication inequalities, arguably, serving as one mechanisms. This study investigated the effects of health information seeking on SRH, and its mediation effects on disparities in SRH. Methods We conducted probability-based telephone surveys administered over telephone in 2009, 2010/11 and 2012 to monitor health information use among 4553 Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Frequency of information seeking from television, radio, newspapers/magazines and Internet was dichotomised as <1 time/month and ≥1 time/month. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for poor SRH were calculated for health information seeking from different sources and socioeconomic status (education and income). Mediation effects of health information seeking on the association between SES and poor SRH was estimated. Results Poor SRH was associated with lower socioeconomic status (P for trend <0.001), and less than monthly health information seeking from newspapers/magazines (aOR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.07–1.42) and Internet (aOR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.98–1.31). Increasing combined frequency of health information seeking from newspapers/magazines and Internet was linearly associated with better SRH (P for trend <0.01). Health information seeking from these two sources contributed 9.2% and 7.9% of the total mediation effects of education and household income on poor SRH, respectively. Conclusions Poor SRH was associated with lower socioeconomic status, and infrequent health information seeking from newspapers/magazines and Internet among Hong Kong Chinese. Disparities in SRH may be partially mediated by health information seeking from newspapers/magazines and Internet. PMID:24349347

  9. The pathways from perceived discrimination to self-rated health: An investigation of the roles of distrust, social capital, and health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Danhong; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the adverse impacts of perceived discrimination on health, it remains unclear how perceived discrimination gets under the skin. This paper develops a comprehensive structural equation model (SEM) by incorporating both the direct effects of perceived discrimination on self-rated health (SRH), a powerful predictor for many health outcomes, and the indirect effects of perceived discrimination on SRH through health care system distrust, neighborhood social capital, and health behaviors and health conditions. Applying SEM to 9,880 adults (aged between 18 and 100) in the 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey, we not only confirmed the positive and direct association between discrimination and poor or fair SRH, but also verified two underlying mechanisms: 1) perceived discrimination is associated with lower neighborhood social capital, which further contributes to poor or fair SRH; and 2) perceived discrimination is related to risky behaviors (e.g., reduced physical activity and sleep quality, and intensified smoking) that lead to worse health conditions, and then result in poor or fair SRH. Moreover, we found that perceived discrimination is negatively associated with health care system distrust, but did not find a significant relationship between distrust and poor or fair SRH. PMID:24581063

  10. Health, cultural and socioeconomic factors related to self-rated health of long-term Jewish residents, immigrants, and Arab women in midlife in Israel.

    PubMed

    Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Blumstein, Tzvia; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2014-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) has been found to predict future health, yet its importance is unique in the information it captures, beyond more objective measures. This information can include psychosocial and cultural factors that can be important in understanding women's health. Our goal was to test whether long-term Jewish residents (LTJR), immigrant, and Arab women differed in their SRH, whether these differences were maintained after controlling for indicators of health status, and, if so, whether the differences among the three groups reflected psychosocial or socioeconomic factors. A nationally representative sample of 814 women in Israel aged 45-64 years was interviewed (between June 2004 and March 2006) regarding socio-demographics, physical health, health behaviors, and psychosocial aspects. Both immigrant and Arab women reported poorer SRH, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic status. Differences between Arab women and LTJR were mostly explained by differences in health measures (e.g., medications and symptoms) and psychosocial measures (e.g., caregiving load and depressive symptoms) and were eliminated when socioeconomic measures were added to the multiple regression models. Differences in SRH between immigrants and LTJR remained after multiple adjustments, suggesting that they reflected unmeasured cultural factors. Even with universal healthcare coverage in a small country (i.e., with minimal financial and geographical barriers to healthcare) minority groups' health suffers in relation to their socioeconomic and life circumstances. PMID:24791665

  11. Characteristics associated with self-rated health in the CARDIA study: Contextualising health determinants by income group.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Shilpa; Hubbard, Alan; Sidney, Stephen; Syme, S Leonard

    2016-12-01

    An understanding of factors influencing health in socioeconomic groups is required to reduce health inequalities. This study investigated combinations of health determinants associated with self-rated health (SRH), and their relative importance, in income-based groups. Cross-sectional data from year 15 (2000 - 2001) of the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, USA) - 3648 men and women (mean 40 years) - were split into 5 income-based groups. SRH responses were categorized as 'higher'/'lower'. Health determinants (medical, lifestyle, and social factors, living conditions) associated with SRH in each group were analyzed using classification tree analysis (CTA). Income and SRH were positively associated (p < 0.05). Data suggested an income-based gradient for lifestyle/medical/social factors/living conditions. Profiles, and relative importance ranking, of multi-domain health determinants, in relation to SRH, differed by income group. The highest ranking variable for each income group was chronic burden-personal health problem (<$25,000); physical activity ($25-50,000; $50-75,000; $100,000 +); and cigarettes/day ($75-100,000). In lower income groups, more risk factors and chronic burden indicators were associated with SRH. Social support, control over life, optimism, and resources for paying for basics/medical care/health insurance were greater (%) with higher income. SRH is a multidimensional measure; CTA is useful for contextualizing risk factors in relation to health status. Findings suggest that for lower income groups, addressing contributors to chronic burden is important alongside lifestyle/medical factors. In a proportionate universalism context, in addition to differences in intensity of public health action across the socioeconomic gradient, differences in the type of interventions to improve SRH may also be important. PMID:27413683

  12. The role of personality traits in self-rated oral health and preferences for different types of flawed smiles.

    PubMed

    Montero, J; Gómez Polo, C; Rosel, E; Barrios, R; Albaladejo, A; López-Valverde, A

    2016-01-01

    Symmetric, aligned and luminous smiles are usually classified as 'beautiful' and aesthetic. However, smile perception is not strictly governed by standardised rules. Personal traits may influence the perception of non-ideal smiles. We aimed to determine the influence of personality traits in self-rated oral health and satisfaction and in the aesthetic preference for different strategically flawed smiles shown in photographs. Smiles with dark teeth, with uneven teeth, with lip asymmetry and dental asymmetry were ordered from 1 to 4 as a function of the degree of beauty by 548 participants, of which 50·7% were females with a mean age of 41·5 ± 17·6 years (range: 16-89 years). Self-assessment and oral satisfaction were recorded on a Likert scale. Personality was measured by means of the Big Five Inventory (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness), and the Life Orientation Test was used to measure optimism and pessimism. Of the four photographs with imperfect smiles, dental asymmetry was the most highly assessed in 63% of the sample, and the worst was lip asymmetry, in 43·7% of the sample. Some personality traits (above all conscientiousness and openness) were significantly correlated with the position assigned to the photographs with dental and lip asymmetry or with misaligned teeth. The extraversion, agreeableness and openness traits were correlated with the self-perceptions of oral health and aesthetics of the participants. Dental asymmetry seems to be better tolerated than lip asymmetry. Personality traits are weakly but significantly correlated with the aesthetic preference and oral health values, conscientiousness and openness being the most relevant domains in this sense. PMID:26333128

  13. [Gait speed, grip strength and self-rated health among the elderly: data from the FIBRA Campinas network, São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bez, Joelita Pessoa de Oliveira; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2014-08-01

    The article seeks to investigate patterns of performance and relationships between grip strength, gait speed and self-rated health, and investigate the relationships between them, considering the variables of gender, age and family income. This was conducted in a probabilistic sample of community-dwelling elderly aged 65 and over, members of a population study on frailty. A total of 689 elderly people without cognitive deficit suggestive of dementia underwent tests of gait speed and grip strength. Comparisons between groups were based on low, medium and high speed and strength. Self-related health was assessed using a 5-point scale. The males and the younger elderly individuals scored significantly higher on grip strength and gait speed than the female and oldest did; the richest scored higher than the poorest on grip strength and gait speed; females and men aged over 80 had weaker grip strength and lower gait speed; slow gait speed and low income arose as risk factors for a worse health evaluation. Lower muscular strength affects the self-rated assessment of health because it results in a reduction in functional capacity, especially in the presence of poverty and a lack of compensatory factors. PMID:25119074

  14. Active Aging: Exploration into Self-Ratings of "Being Active," Out-of-Home Physical Activity, and Participation among Older Australian Adults Living in Four Different Settings.

    PubMed

    Aird, Rosemary L; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether self-ratings of "being active" among older people living in four different settings (major city high and lower density suburbs, a regional city, and a rural area) were associated with out-of-home participation and outdoor physical activity. A mixed-methods approach (survey, travel diary, and GPS tracking over a one-week period) was used to gather data from 48 individuals aged over 55 years. Self-ratings of "being active" were found to be positively correlated with the number of days older people spent time away from home but unrelated to time traveled by active means (walking and biking). No significant differences in active travel were found between the four study locations, despite differences in their respective built environments. The findings suggest that additional strategies to the creation of "age-friendly" environments are needed if older people are to increase their levels of outdoor physical activity. "Active aging" promotion campaigns may need to explicitly identify the benefits of walking outdoors to ambulatory older people as a means of maintaining their overall health, functional ability, and participation within society in the long-term and also encourage the development of community-based programs in order to facilitate regular walking for this group. PMID:26346381

  15. Self-rated health showed a consistent association with serum HDL-cholesterol in the cross-sectional Oslo Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomten, Sissel E.; Høstmark, Arne T.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between serum HDL-cholesterol concentration (HDL-C) and self rated health (SRH) in several age groups of men and women. Study design and setting: The study had a cross-sectional design and included 18,770 men and women of the Oslo Health Study aged 30; 40 and 45; 69-60; 75-76 years. Results: In both sexes and all age groups, SRH (3 categories: poor, good, very good) was positively correlated with HDL-C. Logistic regression analysis on dichotomized values of SRH (i.e. poor vs. good health) in each age group of men and women showed that increasing HDL-C values were associated with increasing odds for reporting good health; the odds ratio (OR) was highest in young men, and was generally lower in women than in men. Odds ratios in the 4 age groups of men were 4.94 (2.63-9.29), 2.25 (1.63-3.09), 2.12 (1.58-2.86), 1.87 (1.37-2.54); and in women: 3.58 (2.46-5.21), 2.81 (2.23-3.53), 2.28 (1.84-2.82), 1.61 (1.31-1.99). In the whole material, 1 mmol/L increase in HDL-C increased the odds for reporting good health by 2.27 (2.06-2.50; p<0.001), when adjusting for sex, age group, time since food intake and use of cholesterol lowering drugs. Chronic diseases, pain, psychological distress, smoking, alcohol, length of education, and dietary items did not have any major influence on the pattern of the HDL-C vs. SRH association. Conclusion: There was a consistent positive association between HDL-C and SRH, in both men and women in four different age groups, with the strongest association in young people. PMID:18071582

  16. Early Parental Loss and Self-Rated Health of Older Women and Men: A Population-Based, Multi-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Susan P.; Carver, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Death of a parent in childhood can diminish both the nurturing that promotes healthy development, and household income. We consider, for the first time, whether this adverse childhood experience is associated with self-rated health decades later, among seniors and whether this lifelong effect is different for women and men. Methods The International Mobility in Aging (IMIAS) study is a prospective cohort with survey information and biophysical measures and markers from 2000 community-dwelling 65–74 year olds in Canada, Colombia, Brazil and Albania. We assessed the independent impact of death of a parent, early hunger, and witnessing violence, while controlling for current income sufficiency and other early adversities on self-rated health using baseline (2012) IMIAS data. Regressions grouping and then separating women and men were compared. Results Approximately 17% of the 1991 participants had experienced early parental loss. Overall 56% rated their health as good however parental loss predicted poorer adult health, as did early hunger but not witnessing violence. Disaggregated analyses revealed that the health consequences of parental loss were significant only among men (p = 0.000 versus p = 0.210 for women) whereas early hunger predicted poor self-rated health for both (p = 0.000). Conclusion Parental loss should be considered as a potent adverse childhood experience with life-long consequences for health. The gender difference in its effect, speaks to unidentified and modifiable traits that appear to be more common among women and that may build resilience to long-term harms of early parental death. PMID:25830511

  17. Self-Rated Health and Cardiovascular Disease Incidence: Results from a Longitudinal Population-Based Cohort in Norfolk, UK

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Rianne M.; Mavaddat, Nahal; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinmonth, Ann Louise

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Self-rated health (SRH) predicts chronic disease morbidity including cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a population-based cohort, we examined the association between SRH and incident CVD and whether this association was independent of socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural participant characteristics. Methods Population-based prospective cohort study (European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk). 20,941 men and women aged 39–74 years without prevalent CVD attended a baseline health examination (1993–1998) and were followed for CVD events/death until March 2007 (mean 11 years). We used a Cox proportional hazards model to quantify the association between baseline SRH (reported on a four point scale – excellent, good, fair, poor) and risk of developing CVD at follow-up after adjusting for socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural risk factors. Results Baseline SRH was reported as excellent by 17.8% participants, good by 65.1%, fair by 16.0% and poor by 1.2%. During 225,508 person-years of follow-up, there were 55 (21.2%) CVD events in the poor SRH group and 259 (7.0%) in the excellent SRH group (HR 3.7, 95% CI 2.8–4.9). The HR remained significant after adjustment for behavioural risk factors (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9–3.5) and after adjustment for all socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural risk factors (HR 3.3, 95% CI 2.4–4.4). Associations were strong for both fatal and non-fatal events and remained strong over time. Conclusions SRH is a strong predictor of incident fatal and non-fatal CVD events in this healthy, middle-aged population. Some of the association is explained by lifestyle behaviours, but SRH remains a strong predictor after adjustment for socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural risk factors and after a decade of follow-up. This easily accessible patient-centred measure of health status may be a useful indicator of individual and population health for those working in primary care and public health. PMID

  18. Civic Participation and Self-rated Health: A Cross-national Multi-level Analysis Using the World Value Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Saerom; Kim, Chang-yup; You, Myung Soon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Civic participation, that which directly influences important decisions in our personal lives, is considered necessary for developing a society. We hypothesized that civic participation might be related to self-rated health status. Methods: We constructed a multi-level analysis using data from the World Value Survey (44 countries, n=50 859). Results: People who participated in voting and voluntary social activities tended to report better subjective health than those who did not vote or participate in social activities, after controlling for socio-demographic factors at the individual level. A negative association with unconventional political activity and subjective health was found, but this effect disappeared in a subset analysis of only the 18 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Moreover, social participation and unconventional political participation had a statistically significant contextual association with subjective health status, but this relationship was not consistent throughout the analysis. In the analysis of the 44 countries, social participation was of borderline significance, while in the subset analysis of the OECD countries unconventional political participation was a stronger determinant of subjective health. The democratic index was a significant factor in determining self-rated health in both analyses, while public health expenditure was a significant factor in only the subset analysis. Conclusions: Despite the uncertainty of its mechanism, civic participation might be a significant determinant of the health status of a country. PMID:25652707

  19. Aging & Health.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    By 2050 an estimated 83.7 million Americans will be ages sixty-five and older, up from 40.3 million in 2010. The shock wave of aging Americans will have profound implications for older people, their families, health care providers, and the economy. Researchers, policy makers, health care leaders, and others are designing responses to the challenges these actuarial shifts will create. For example, delivering health care at home could help keep more older Americans out of costly emergency departments and nursing homes. But such steps require more health care providers, a broader distribution of providers than currently exists, and better use of the resources we have. PMID:27605632

  20. Active Traveling and Its Associations with Self-Rated Health, BMI and Physical Activity: A Comparative Study in the Adult Swedish Population

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45–75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity. PMID:27136570

  1. Active Traveling and Its Associations with Self-Rated Health, BMI and Physical Activity: A Comparative Study in the Adult Swedish Population.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45-75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity. PMID:27136570

  2. Social Support, Self-Rated Health, and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Identity Disclosure to Cancer Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Charles S.; Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Heckler, Charles E.; Flannery, Marie; Margolies, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe factors related to diagnosis, identity disclosure, and social support among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients with cancer, and to explore associations between these factors and self-rated health. Design Cross-sectional self-report survey design using descriptive and exploratory multivariate statistical approaches. Setting Online, Internet-based. Sample 291 LGBT patients (89% Caucasian; 50% gay, 36% lesbian, 7% bisexual, 3% transgender) with mixed cancers. Methods Participants completed a researcher-designed online survey assessing experiences of cancer diagnosis among LGBT patients at a single time point. Main Research Variables Demographics, which provider(s) delivered the patients’ cancer diagnoses, to whom patients had disclosed their LGBT identity, how they disclosed, who was on their social support team at the time of diagnosis, and current self-rated health. Findings 79% of participants reported disclosing their identities to more than one cancer care provider. Participants most commonly introduced the topic of LGBT identity themselves, sometimes as a way to correct heterosexual assumptions (34%). Friends were the most common members of LGBT patients’ support teams (79%). Four disclosure and support factors were consistently associated with better self-rated health. Conclusions Disclosure of LGBT identity is a common experience in the context of cancer care, and disclosure and support factors are associated with better self-reported health among LGBT patients. Implications for Nursing Creating safe environments for LGBT patients to disclose could improve cancer care delivery to this underserved population. Nurses and other providers should acknowledge and include diverse support team members in LGBT patients’ care. PMID:25542320

  3. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Association with Physical Capacity, Disability, and Self-Rated Health among Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study Participants

    PubMed Central

    Botoseneanu, Anda; Ambrosius, Walter T.; Beavers, Daniel P.; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Anton, Stephen; Church, Timothy; Folta, Sara C.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; King, Abby C.; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Spring, Bonnie; Wang, Xuewen; Gill, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its association with physical capacity, disability, and self-rated health among older adults at high risk for mobility disability, including those with and without diabetes. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study. Participants 1,535 community-dwelling sedentary adults aged 70–89 years old at high risk for mobility disability [short physical performance battery (SPPB) score ≤ 9; mean (SD) = 7.4 (1.6)]. Measurements MetS was defined according to the 2009 multi-agency harmonized criteria; outcomes were physical capacity (400m walk time, grip strength, and SPPB score), disability (composite 19-item score), and self-rated health (5-point scale ranging from “excellent” to “poor”). Results The prevalence of MetS was 49.8% in the overall sample, and 83.2% and 38.1% among diabetics and non-diabetics, respectively. MetS was associated with greater grip strength [mean difference (kilograms) Δ = 1.2, p = .01] in the overall sample and among participants without diabetes, and with poorer self-rated health (Δ = 0.1, p < .001) in the overall sample only. No significant differences were found in the 400m walk time, SPPB score, and disability score between participants with and without MetS, in either the overall sample or diabetes subgroups. Conclusion Metabolic dysfunction is highly prevalent among older adults at risk for mobility disability, yet consistent associations were not observed between MetS and walking speed, lower extremity function, and self-reported disability after adjusting for known and potential confounders. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate whether MetS accelerates declines in functional status in high-risk older adults and to inform clinical and public health interventions aimed at preventing or delaying disability in this group. PMID:25645664

  4. Associations of Employment Frustration with Self-Rated Physical and Mental Health Among Asian American Immigrants in the U.S. Labor Force

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, A.B.; Rue, Tessa; Takeuchi, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined the associations between employment frustration and both self-rated physical health (SRPH) and self-rated mental health (SRMH) among Asian American immigrants. Design and Sample A cross-sectional quantitative analysis was conducted utilizing data from 1,181 Asian immigrants participating in the National Latino and Asian American Study. Measures Employment frustration was measured by self-report of having difficulty finding the work one wants because of being of Asian descent. SRPH and SRMH were each assessed using a global one-item measure, with responses ranging from poor to excellent. Control variables included gender, age, ethnicity, education, occupation, income, whether immigrated for employment, years in the United States, English proficiency, and a general measure for everyday discrimination. Results Ordered logistic regression showed that employment frustration was negatively associated with SRPH. This relationship, however, was no longer significant in multivariate models including English proficiency. The negative association between employment frustration and SRMH persisted even when including all control variables. Conclusions The findings suggest that Asian immigrants in the United States who experience employment frustration report lower levels of both physical and mental health. However, English proficiency may attenuate the relationship of employment frustration with physical health. PMID:21087302

  5. A spatially filtered multilevel model to account for spatial dependency: application to self-rated health status in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to suggest an approach that integrates multilevel models and eigenvector spatial filtering methods and apply it to a case study of self-rated health status in South Korea. In many previous health-related studies, multilevel models and single-level spatial regression are used separately. However, the two methods should be used in conjunction because the objectives of both approaches are important in health-related analyses. The multilevel model enables the simultaneous analysis of both individual and neighborhood factors influencing health outcomes. However, the results of conventional multilevel models are potentially misleading when spatial dependency across neighborhoods exists. Spatial dependency in health-related data indicates that health outcomes in nearby neighborhoods are more similar to each other than those in distant neighborhoods. Spatial regression models can address this problem by modeling spatial dependency. This study explores the possibility of integrating a multilevel model and eigenvector spatial filtering, an advanced spatial regression for addressing spatial dependency in datasets. Methods In this spatially filtered multilevel model, eigenvectors function as additional explanatory variables accounting for unexplained spatial dependency within the neighborhood-level error. The specification addresses the inability of conventional multilevel models to account for spatial dependency, and thereby, generates more robust outputs. Results The findings show that sex, employment status, monthly household income, and perceived levels of stress are significantly associated with self-rated health status. Residents living in neighborhoods with low deprivation and a high doctor-to-resident ratio tend to report higher health status. The spatially filtered multilevel model provides unbiased estimations and improves the explanatory power of the model compared to conventional multilevel models although there are no changes in the

  6. Heterogeneity of Characteristics among Housing Adaptation Clients in Sweden—Relationship to Participation and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Thordardottir, Björg; Chiatti, Carlos; Ekstam, Lisa; Malmgren Fänge, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to explore the heterogeneity among housing adaptation clients. Cluster analysis was performed using baseline data from applicants in three Swedish municipalities. The analysis identified six main groups: “adults at risk of disability”, “young old with disabilities”, “well-functioning older adults”, “frail older adults”, “frail older with moderate cognitive impairments” and “resilient oldest old”. The clusters differed significantly in terms of participation frequency and satisfaction in and outside the home as well as in terms of self-rated health. The identification of clusters in a heterogeneous sample served the purpose of finding groups with different characteristics, including participation and self-rated health which could be used to facilitate targeted home-based interventions. The findings indicate that housing adaptions should take person/environment/activity specific characteristics into consideration so that they may fully serve the purpose of facilitating independent living, as well as enhancing participation and health. PMID:26729145

  7. Investigating the Associations of Self-Rated Health: Heart Rate Variability Is More Strongly Associated than Inflammatory and Other Frequently Used Biomarkers in a Cross Sectional Occupational Sample

    PubMed Central

    Jarczok, Marc N.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Koenig, Julian; Loerbroks, Adrian; Herr, Raphael M.; Hoffmann, Kristina; Fischer, Joachim E.; Benyamini, Yael; Thayer, Julian F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible mechanisms linking a single–item measure of global self-rated health (SRH) with morbidity by comparing the association strengths between SRH with markers of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, inflammation, blood glucose and blood lipids. Cross–sectional comprehensive health–check data of 3947 working adults (age 42±11) was used to calculate logistic regressions, partial correlations and compare correlation strength using Olkins Z. Adjusted logistic regression models showed a negative association between SRH (higher values indicating worse health) and measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Glycemic markers were positively associated with poor SRH. No adjusted association was found with inflammatory markers, BP or lipids. In both unadjusted and adjusted linear models Pearson’s correlation strength was significantly higher between SRH with HRV measures compared to SRH with other biomarkers. This is the first study investigating the association of ANS function and SRH. We showed that a global measure of SRH is associated with HRV, and that all measures of ANS function were significantly more strongly associated with SRH than any other biomarker. The current study supports the hypothesis that the extent of brain–body communication, as indexed by HRV, is associated with self-rated health. PMID:25693164

  8. Determinants of self-rated health in a representative sample of a rural population: a cross-sectional study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Darviri, Christina; Fouka, Georgia; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Artemiadis, Artemios K; Tigani, Xanthi; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C

    2012-03-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a health measure related to future health, mortality, healthcare services utilization and quality of life. Various sociodemographic, health and lifestyle determinants of SRH have been identified in different populations. The aim of this study is to extend SRH literature in the Greek population. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in rural communities between 2001 and 2003. Interviews eliciting basic demographic, health-related and lifestyle information (smoking, physical activity, diet, quality of sleep and religiosity) were conducted. The sample consisted of 1,519 participants, representative of the rural population of Tripoli. Multinomial regression analysis was conducted to identify putative SRH determinants. Among the 1,519 participants, 489 (32.2%), 790 (52%) and 237 (15.6%) rated their health as "very good", "good" and "poor" respectively. Female gender, older age, lower level of education and impaired health were all associated with worse SRH, accounting for 16.6% of SRH variance. Regular exercise, healthier diet, better sleep quality and better adherence to religious habits were related with better health ratings, after adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related factors. BMI and smoking did not reach significance while exercise and physical activity exhibited significant correlations but not consistently across SRH categories. Our results support previous findings indicating that people following a more proactive lifestyle pattern tend to rate their health better. The role of stress-related neuroendocrinologic mechanisms on SRH and health in general is also discussed. PMID:22690175

  9. Measuring Effort–Reward Imbalance in School Settings: A Novel Approach and Its Association With Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Shang, Li; Wang, Tao; Siegrist, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Background We attempted to apply the model of effort–reward imbalance (ERI) to school settings in order to measure students’ psychosocial stress and analyze its association with self-rated health in adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Kunming, China among 1004 Chinese students (468 boys and 536 girls) in grades 7 through 12, using a 19-item effort–reward imbalance questionnaire. Results Satisfactory internal consistencies for the scales for effort and reward were obtained; the value for the scale for overcommitment was acceptable. Factor analysis replicated the theoretical structure of the ERI construct in this sample of Chinese students. All 3 scales were associated with an elevated odds ratio for diminished self-rated health, and the effect was strongest for the effort–reward ratio, as predicted by the theory. Sex and grade differences were also observed. Conclusions The ERI questionnaire is a valid instrument for identifying sources of stressful experience, in terms of effort–reward imbalance, among adolescents in school settings. PMID:20037260

  10. The effects of Obama's political success on the self-rated health of blacks, Hispanics, and whites.

    PubMed

    Malat, Jennifer; Timberlake, Jeffrey M; Williams, David R

    2011-01-01

    Stress in the social environment can affect individual health. Election of the first Black President of the United States provides an opportunity to assess how a positive change in the macro-political climate impacts the health of Americans. Past research suggests that race-related political events influence the health of non-dominant racial groups. Yet many questions remain, including the types of events that affect health, the timing and durability of health effects, and whether effects are similar for Blacks and Hispanics in the United States. The present study uses data from the Ohio Family Health Survey, which was in the field from August 6, 2008 until January 24, 2009, to assess whether immediate changes in average self-rated health occurred after key events in the election of President Barack Obama. We find better average health ratings among Blacks and Hispanics immediately following Obama's nomination by the Democratic Party. Similar effects did not occur after the election or inauguration, and Whites showed no effect of any of the events. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of the theoretical links between macro-level social conditions, race/ethnicity, and health. PMID:21942169

  11. Chewing xylitol gum improves self-rated and objective indicators of oral health status under conditions interrupting regular oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Chewing xylitol gum provides oral health benefits including inhibiting Streptococcus mutans plaque. It is thought to be especially effective in conditions where it is difficult to perform daily oral cleaning. Our study aim was to determine the effects of chewing xylitol gum on self-rated and objective oral health status under a condition interfering with oral hygiene maintenance. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted on 55 healthy ≥ 20-year-old men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force who were undergoing field training. Participants were randomly assigned to a test group (chewing gum; n = 27) or a control group (no gum; n = 28) and the researchers were blinded to the group assignments. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of oral conditions subjectively evaluated oral health, and the stimulated salivary bacteria quantity objectively evaluated oral health 1 day before field training (baseline) and 4 days after the beginning of field training (follow-up). VAS scores of all three oral conditions significantly increased in the control group (malodor: p < 0.001; discomfort: p < 0.001; dryness: p < 0.001), but only two VAS scores increased in the test group (malodor: p = 0.021; discomfort: p = 0.002). The number of salivary total bacteria significantly increased in the control group (p < 0.01), while no significant change was observed in the test group (p = 0.668). Chewing xylitol gum positively affects self-rated and objective oral health status by controlling oral hygiene under conditions that interfere with oral hygiene maintenance. PMID:25744362

  12. Racial and ethnic stratification in the relationship between homeownership and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Ryan

    2014-08-01

    Social scientists have long demonstrated that socioeconomic resources benefit health. More recently, scholars have begun to examine the potential stratification in the health returns different groups receive for a given resource. Motivated by fundamental cause theory, this paper examines homeownership as a salient health resource with potentially stratified benefits. Homeowners have significantly greater housing quality, wealth, neighborhood quality and integration, and physical and mental health than renters. However, there are compelling theoretical reasons to expect the health advantage of homeownership to be unequally distributed across racial and ethnic groups. Regression analyses of 71,874 household heads in the United States from the 2012 March Current Population Survey initially suggest all homeowners experience a significant health advantage. Further examination finds robust evidence for a homeowner health advantage among Whites, on par with the difference between the married and divorced. The advantage among minority households is considerably smaller, and not significant among Latinos or Asians. Conditioning on a broad array of observable characteristics, White homeowners emerge as exceptionally healthy compared to White renters and all minority groups. This leads to the unexpected finding that racial/ethnic differences in health are concentrated among homeowners. The findings demonstrate the interactive nature of racial/ethnic stratification in health through both access to and returns from socioeconomic resources. PMID:24953499

  13. Racial and Ethnic Stratification in the Relationship Between Homeownership and Self-Rated Health*

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists have long demonstrated that socioeconomic resources benefit health. More recently, scholars have begun to examine the potential stratification in the health returns different groups receive for a given resource. Motivated by fundamental cause theory, this paper examines homeownership as a salient health resource with potentially stratified benefits. Homeowners have significantly greater housing quality, wealth, neighborhood quality and integration, and physical and mental health than renters. However, there are compelling theoretical reasons to expect the health advantage of homeownership to be unequally distributed across racial and ethnic groups. Analyses of the 2012 March Current Population Survey initially suggest all homeowners experience a significant health advantage. Further examination finds robust evidence for a homeowner health advantage among Whites, on par with the difference between the married and divorced. The advantage among minority households is considerably smaller, and not significant among Latinos or Asians. Conditioning on a broad array of observable characteristics, White homeowners emerge as exceptionally healthy compared to White renters and all minority groups. This leads to the unexpected finding that racial/ethnic differences in health are concentrated among homeowners. The findings demonstrate the interactive nature of racial/ethnic stratification in health through both access to and returns from socioeconomic resources. PMID:24953499

  14. Multiple contexts of exposure: Activity spaces, residential neighborhoods, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gregory; Denney, Justin T; Kimbro, Rachel T

    2015-12-01

    Although health researchers have made progress in detecting place effects on health, existing work has largely focused on the local residential neighborhood and has lacked a temporal dimension. Little research has integrated both time and space to understand how exposure to multiple contexts - where adults live, work, shop, worship, and seek healthcare - influence and shape health and well-being. This study uses novel longitudinal data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey to delve deeper into the relationship between context and health by considering residential and activity space neighborhoods weighted by the amount of time spent in these contexts. Results from multilevel cross-classified logistic models indicate that contextual exposure to disadvantage, residential or non-residential, is independently associated with a higher likelihood of reporting poor or fair health. We also find support for a contextual incongruence hypothesis. For example, adults living in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to report poor or fair health when they spend time in more advantaged neighborhoods than in more disadvantaged ones, while residents of more advantaged neighborhoods report worse health when they spend time in more disadvantaged areas. Our results suggest that certain types of place-based cumulative exposures are associated with a sense of relative neighborhood deprivation that potentially manifests in worse health ratings. PMID:26519605

  15. Self-Rated Health and Mortality: Does the Relationship Extend to a Low Income Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Jones, Nathan R.

    2004-01-01

    Although a relationship between poor self-reported health status and excess mortality risk has been well-established for industrialized countries, almost no research considers developing countries. We use data from Indonesia to show that in a low-income setting, as in more advantaged parts of the world, individuals who perceive their health to be…

  16. Gender Differences in the Impact of Warfare Exposure on Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joyce M.; Lee, Lewina O.; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study examined gender differences in the impact of warfare exposure on self-reported physical health. METHODS Data are from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans, a nationally representative survey of veterans from multiple eras of service. Regression analyses assessed gender differences in the association between warfare exposure (deployment to a war zone, exposure to casualties) and health status and functional impairment, adjusting for sociodemographics. FINDINGS Women reported better health status but greater functional impairment than men. In men, those who experienced casualties only or both casualties and deployment to a war zone had worse health compared to those who experienced neither stressor or deployment to a war zone only. In women, those who experienced casualties only or both stressors reported worse health than those who experienced war zone only, who did not differ from the unexposed. No association was found between warfare exposure and functional impairment in women, but in men, those who experienced exposure to casualties or both stressors had greater odds of functional impairment compared to those who experienced war zone only or neither stressor. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to casualties may be more predictive of health than deployment to a war zone, especially for men. We did not find a stronger association between warfare exposure and health for women than men. Given that the expansion of women's military roles has allowed them to serve in direct combat, their degree and scope of warfare exposure is likely to increase in the future. PMID:25442366

  17. Psychological morbidity, quality of life, and self-rated health in the military personnel

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Han-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Cheng; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective The mental health of military personnel varies as a result of different cultural, political, and administrative factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychological morbidity and quality of life of military personnel in Taiwan. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study utilized the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, brief version, Taiwan version, the General Health Questionnaire-12, Chinese version, and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) in several military units. Results More than half of the subjects (55.3%) identified themselves as mentally unhealthy on the General Health Questionnaire-12, Chinese version; however, a higher percentage of officers perceived themselves as healthy (57.4%) than did noncommissioned officers (38.5%) or enlisted men (42.2%). Officers also had higher total quality of life (QOL) scores (83.98) than did enlisted men (79.67). Scores on the VAS also varied: officers: 72.5; noncommissioned officers: 67.7; and enlisted men: 66.3. The VAS and QOL were positively correlated with perceived mental health among these military personnel. Conclusion Our subjects had higher rates of perceiving themselves as mentally unhealthy compared to the general population. Those of higher rank perceived themselves as having better mental health and QOL. Improving mental health could result in a better QOL in the military. The VAS may be a useful tool for the rapid screening of self-reported mental health, which may be suitable in cases of stressful missions, such as in disaster rescue; however, more studies are needed to determine the optimal cut-off point of this measurement tool. PMID:24570587

  18. Do bonding and bridging social capital affect self-rated health, depressive mood and cognitive decline in older Japanese? A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Matsuo, Eri; Nofuji, Yu; Shimizu, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    Little is known regarding the longitudinal effects of bonding and bridging social capital on health. This study examined the longitudinal associations of bonding and bridging social capital with self-rated health, depressive mood, and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older Japanese. Data analyzed in this study were from the 2010 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) Hatoyama Cohort Study. Bonding social capital was assessed by individual perception of homogeneity of the neighborhood (the level of homogeneity among neighbors) and of networks (the amount of homogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Bridging social capital was assessed by individual perception of heterogeneity of networks (the amount of heterogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the effects of baseline social capital on poor health outcome at follow-up by logistic regression analysis. In total, 681 people completed baseline and follow-up surveys. The mean age of participants was 71.8 ± 5.1 years, and 57.9% were male. After adjusting for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, comorbidity, functional capacity, baseline score of each outcome, and other bonding/bridging social capital, stronger perceived neighborhood homogeneity was inversely associated with poor self-rated health (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30-1.00) and depressive mood assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.34-0.99). When participants who reported a depressive mood at baseline were excluded, stronger perceived heterogeneous network was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.87). Neither bonding nor bridging social capital was significantly associated with cognitive decline assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, bonding and bridging social capital affect health in different ways, but they both have

  19. Self-Ratings of Spoken Language Dominance: A Multilingual Naming Test (MINT) and Preliminary Norms for Young and Aging Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Runnqvist, Elin; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated correspondence between different measures of bilingual language proficiency contrasting self-report, proficiency interview, and picture naming skills. Fifty-two young (Experiment 1) and 20 aging (Experiment 2) Spanish-English bilinguals provided self-ratings of proficiency level, were interviewed for spoken proficiency, and…

  20. Lay theories about social class buffer lower-class individuals against poor self-rated health and negative affect.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jacinth J X; Kraus, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    The economic conditions of one's life can profoundly and systematically influence health outcomes over the life course. Our present research demonstrates that rejecting the notion that social class categories are biologically determined-a nonessentialist belief-buffers lower-class individuals from poor self-rated health and negative affect, whereas conceiving of social class categories as rooted in biology-an essentialist belief-does not. In Study 1, lower-class individuals self-reported poorer health than upper-class individuals when they endorsed essentialist beliefs but showed no such difference when they rejected such beliefs. Exposure to essentialist theories of social class also led lower-class individuals to report greater feelings of negative self-conscious emotions (Studies 2 and 3), and perceive poorer health (Study 3) than upper-class individuals, whereas exposure to nonessentialist theories did not lead to such differences. Discussion considers how lay theories of social class potentially shape long-term trajectories of health and affect of lower-class individuals. PMID:25634909

  1. A different look at the epidemiological paradox: self-rated health, perceived social cohesion, and neighborhood immigrant context.

    PubMed

    Bjornstrom, Eileen E S; Kuhl, Danielle C

    2014-11-01

    We use data from Waves 1 and 2 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey to examine the effects of neighborhood immigrant concentration, race-ethnicity, nativity, and perceived cohesion on self-rated physical health. We limit our sample to adults whose addresses do not change between waves in order to explore neighborhood effects. Foreign-born Latinos were significantly less likely to report fair or poor health than African Americans and U.S.-born whites, but did not differ from U.S.-born Latinos. The main effect of immigrant concentration was not significant, but it interacted with nativity status to predict health: U.S.-born Latinos benefited more from neighborhood immigrant concentration than foreign-born Latinos. Perceived cohesion predicted health but immigrant concentration did not moderate the effect. Finally, U.S.-born Latinos differed from others in the way cohesion is associated with their health. Results are discussed within the framework of the epidemiological paradox. PMID:25240210

  2. Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity Attitudes in Relation to Self-Rated Health and Physical Pain and Impairment Among Two-Spirit American Indians/Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Karina L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between racial discrimination and actualization, defined as the degree of positive integration between self-identity and racial group identity, and self-rated health and physical pain and impairment. Methods. We used logistic regressions to analyze data from 447 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and other sexual-minority American Indians/Alaska Natives. Results. Greater self-reported discrimination was associated with higher odds of physical pain and impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13, 1.78); high levels of actualization were associated with lower odds of physical pain and impairment (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.35, 0.99) and self-rated fair or poor health (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.90). Actualization also moderated the influence of discrimination on self-rated health (t = –2.33; P = .020). Discrimination was positively associated with fair or poor health among participants with low levels of actualization, but this association was weak among those with high levels of actualization. Conclusions. Among two-spirit American Indians/Alaska Natives, discrimination may be a risk factor for physical pain and impairment and for fair or poor self-rated health among those with low levels of actualization. Actualization may protect against physical pain and impairment and poor self-rated health and buffer the negative influence of discrimination. PMID:19218182

  3. Impact of self-rated osteoarthritis severity in an employed population: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the national health and wellness survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although osteoarthritis (OA) often affects older persons, it has a profound effect on individuals actively employed. Despite reports of reduced productivity among workers with OA, data are limited regarding the impact of OA among workers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of self-rated OA severity on quality of life, healthcare resource utilization, productivity and costs in an employed population relative to employed individuals without OA. Methods This cross-sectional analysis used data derived from the 2009 National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS). Multivariable analyses characterized outcomes and costs (direct medical costs and indirect) among workers (full-time, part-time, or self-employed) ≥ 20 years of age who were diagnosed with OA and who self-rated their OA severity as mild, moderate, or severe relative to workers without OA. Evaluated outcomes included productivity, assessed using the Work Productivity and Impairment (WPAI) scale; health-related quality of life, using the SF-12v2 Health Survey; and healthcare resource utilization. Results 4,876 workers reported being diagnosed with OA (45.0% mild, 45.9% moderate, and 9.1% severe); 34,896 workers comprised the non-OA comparator cohort. There was a greater proportion of females in the OA cohort (55.5% vs 45.6%; P < 0.0001) and more individuals in the 40-64 year and ≥ 65 year age ranges (P < 0.0001). As OA severity increased, workers reported more frequent pain, poorer quality of life, greater use of specific healthcare resources (hospitalizations) and reduced productivity. All outcomes indicated a significantly greater burden among workers with OA relative to those without OA (P < 0.0001). Estimated total annual costs per worker were $9,801 for mild OA, $14,761 for moderate OA, $22,111 for severe OA compared with $7,901 for workers without OA (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Workers with OA were characterized by significant disease and economic burdens relative to workers

  4. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  5. Self-Rated Mental Health: Screening for Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Women Exposed to Perinatal Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Kastello, Jennifer C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Kodadek, Marie P; Bullock, Linda C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the validity of a single-item, self-rated mental health (SRMH) measure in the identification of women at risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Baseline data of 239 low-income women participating in an intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention study were analyzed. PTSD was measured with the Davidson Trauma Scale. Risk for depression was determined using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. SRMH was assessed with a single item asking participants to rate their mental health at the time of the baseline interview. Single-item measures can be an efficient way to increase the proportion of patients screened for mental health disorders. Although SRMH is not a strong indicator of PTSD, it may be useful in identifying pregnant women who are at increased risk for depression and need further comprehensive assessment in the clinical setting. Future research examining the use of SRMH among high-risk populations is needed. PMID:26535762

  6. Is poor self-rated health associated with low-grade inflammation in 43 110 late adolescent men of the general population? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Warnoff, Carin; Lekander, Mats; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Melin, Bo; Andreasson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health is a powerful predictor of long-term health and mortality, hence the importance of a better understanding of its biological determinants. Previous studies have shown that low-grade inflammation is associated with poor self-rated health in clinical and healthy populations, but the evidence is sparse in men and completely lacking for men in late adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation and self-rated health among conscripts. It was hypothesised that high levels of inflammatory factors would be associated with poor self-rated health. Design Data from 49 321 men (18–21 years) conscripted for military service in 1969 and 1970 were used. Inflammation had been measured through erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Self-rated health had been assessed on a five-point scale, and was dichotomised into Good (‘Very good’/‘Good’/‘Fair’) versus Poor (‘Poor’/‘Very poor’). Data from 43 110 conscripts with normal levels of ESR, and who reported self-rated health remained after exclusion of those with ESR <1 and >11 mm/h. Associations were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Adjustments were made for body mass index, socioeconomic position, inflammatory disease, emotion regulation, smoking, risky use of alcohol and physical activity. Results High levels of ESR were associated with higher odds for poor self-rated health (OR: 1.077 for each unit mm/h increase in ESR, 95% CI 1.049 to 1.105). Conclusions The present study shows for the first time a significant association between a marker of inflammation and self-rated health in late adolescent men, adding to evidence of an association between low-grade inflammation and subjective health perception also in men, as previously demonstrated in women. Further support for inflammation as part of a general psychobiological process that underpins subjective health perception is hereby provided. PMID:27113233

  7. Are Gender Differences in the Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Mortality Enduring? Results from Three Birth Cohorts in Melton Mowbray, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiers, Nicola; Jagger, Carol; Clarke, Michael; Arthur, Antony

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether there is an enduring gender difference in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality and investigate whether self-reported physical health problems account for this difference. Design and Methods: Cox models for 4-year survival were fitted to data from successive cohorts aged…

  8. Role of gender, family, lifestyle and psychological factors in self-rated health among urban adolescents in Peru: a school-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Dohyeong; Yoon, Young Min; Kim, Yeunju; Kim, Ha Yun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the role of gender, family, lifestyle and psychological factors in self-rated health. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A total of 970 randomly selected students from 11 secondary schools in Lima and Callao, Peru, participated in 2014. Main outcome measure Self-rated health was measured with a single item: ‘In general, how would you rate your health?’ Responses were arranged along a five-point Likert-type scale: ‘excellent’, ‘very good’, ‘good’, ‘fair’ and ‘poor’. The outcome variable was dichotomised as ‘good’ (excellent, very good or good) or ‘poor/fair’ (poor or fair). Methods We calculated adjusted ORs (AORs) and 95% CIs for poor/fair self-rated health using multivariate logistic regression analyses at 3-graded levels. Results 32.5% of the respondents had fair/poor self-rated health, 23.7% of the total males and 40.0% of the total female samples. Males were less likely to have poor/fair self-rated health (AOR 0.61; CI 0.41 to 0.91). Poor family support strongly increased the likelihood of having poor/fair self-rated health (no support, (AOR 3.15; CI 1.63 to 6.09); low support, (AOR 2.50; CI 1.29 to 4.85)). The other associated variables were missed meals due to a shortage of food (AOR 1.97; CI 1.15 to 3.36), television watching during leisure time (AOR 1.70; CI 1.09 to 2.67), low physical activity (AOR 1.49; CI 1.03 to 2.15), school absenteeism (AOR 1.54; CI 1.03 to 2.31) and perceived life satisfaction (AOR 0.28; CI 0.15 to 0.25). Conclusions Gender, missing meals due to a shortage of food, family support, physical activity and life satisfaction influenced self-rated health among adolescents in Peru. Interventions that focus on promoting physical activity for at least 1 h each day for 3 or more days per week, food security and strengthening supportive family roles may improve self-rated health during adolescence. PMID:26842274

  9. To What Extent Do Financial Strain and Labour Force Status Explain Social Class Inequalities in Self-Rated Health? Analysis of 20 Countries in the European Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Richard J.; Benzeval, Michaela; Popham, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nordic countries do not have the smallest health inequalities despite egalitarian social policies. A possible explanation for this is that drivers of class differences in health such as financial strain and labour force status remain socially patterned in Nordic countries. Methods Our analyses used data for working age (25–59) men (n = 48,249) and women (n = 52,654) for 20 countries from five rounds (2002–2010) of the European Social Survey. The outcome was self-rated health in 5 categories. Stratified by gender we used fixed effects linear regression models and marginal standardisation to instigate how countries varied in the degree to which class inequalities were attenuated by financial strain and labour force status. Results and Discussion Before adjustment, Nordic countries had large inequalities in self-rated health relative to other European countries. For example the regression coefficient for the difference in health between working class and professional men living in Norway was 0.34 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.42), while the comparable figure for Spain was 0.15 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.22). Adjusting for financial strain and labour force status led to attenuation of health inequalities in all countries. However, unlike some countries such as Spain, where after adjustment the regression coefficient for working class men was only 0.02 (95% CI −0.05 to 0.10), health inequalities persisted after adjustment for Nordic countries. For Norway the adjusted coefficient was 0.17 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.25). Results for women and men were similar. However, in comparison to men, class inequalities tended to be stronger for women and more persistent after adjustment. Conclusions Adjusting for financial security and labour force status attenuates a high proportion of health inequalities in some counties, particularly Southern European countries, but attenuation in Nordic countries was modest and did not improve their relative position. PMID:25313462

  10. The influence of re-employment on quality of life and self-rated health, a longitudinal study among unemployed persons in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unemployed persons have a poorer health compared with employed persons and unemployment may cause ill health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of re-employment on quality of life and health among unemployed persons on social benefits. Methods A prospective study with 18 months follow-up was conducted among unemployed persons (n=4,308) in the Netherlands, receiving either unemployment benefits or social security benefits. Quality of life, self-rated health, and employment status were measured at baseline and every 6 months of follow up with questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeling was performed to study the influence of re-employment on change in self-rated health and quality of life over time. Results In the study population 29% had a less than good quality of life and 17% had a poor self-rated health. Persons who started with paid employment during the follow-up period were more likely to improve towards a good quality of life (OR 1.76) and a good self-rated health (OR 2.88) compared with those persons who remained unemployed. Up to 6 months after re-employment, every month with paid employment, the likelihood of a good quality of life increased (OR 1.12). Conclusions Starting with paid employment improves quality of life and self-rated health. This suggests that labour force participation should be considered as an important measure to improve health of unemployed persons. Improving possibilities for unemployed persons to find paid employment will reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health. PMID:23706106

  11. First Report on Self-Rated Health in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIAN-iii study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mohsen; Maghami, Mahboobeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Khoshbin, Soheila; Amirkhani, Amir; Heshmat, Ramin; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Ardalan, Gelayol; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate predictive factors of adolescents’ appraisal of their health. Methods: The nationwide study, entitled “Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable Diseases (CASPIAN) study”, was conducted in 2010 among Iranian school students, aged 10-18. In addition to demographic factors and physical examination, variables as family structure, nutrition habits, physical activity, smoking, hygienic habits, violence, school attachment, family smoking, and family history of chronic diseases were assessed. The dependent variable is the self-rated health (SRH) and it was measured by 12 items, which had already been combined through latent class analysis. We had taken a dichotomous variable, i.e. the higher values indicate better SRH. The dependent variable was regressed on all predictors by generalized additive models. Results: 75% of adolescents had a good SRH. The linear and smooth effects of independent variables on SRH were observed. Among all the variables, physical activity had a positive linear effect on SRH (β = 0.08, P value = 0.003). Smoking, violence, and family history of disease associated to SRH non-linearly (P value < 0.05). Family smoking (β = −0.01) and hygienic habits (β = 0.27) related to SRH both linearly and non-linearly. Conclusions: Physical health and high risk behavior, either of linear or non-linear effect, are factors, which seem to shape the adolescents’ perception of health. PMID:23543891

  12. Self-rated health is prospectively associated with uptake of screening for the early detection of colorectal cancer, not vice versa.

    PubMed

    Neter, Efrat; Stein, Nili; Rennert, Gad; Hagoel, Lea

    2016-07-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a consistent predictor of mortality and other health outcomes. One of the mechanisms hypothesized to explain its validity as a predictor is that SRH affects the adoption of health behaviors. The present study examined the prospective association between SRH and performance of a recommended colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test. One thousand four hundred and seventy-six men and women aged 50-74 years, eligible for CRC screening, who had undergone the test a year before were interviewed 1-2 weeks (long interview, before testing) or 2 months (short interview, after testing) following the mailing of a test kit. Test performance was ascertained using an HMO's computerized data set. Respondents in the long interview group who rated their health as 'higher than others' performed the screening test 2 months following the invitation more than those who rated their health as similar to or lower than that of others (65.4, 61.6, and 49.1%, respectively, χ=8.02, P=0.018). At the same time, these respondents perceived the risk of CRC as significantly lower than that of those who rated their health as comparable with or lower than that of others. In a multivariate logistic regression of CRC screening behavior that included demographic and perceptual variables, age, intentions, and SRH were found to be significant predictors. Among respondents in the short interview, who tested before the interview, there was no significant association between SRH and behavior. SRH prospectively predicts uptake of CRC screening better than other perceptual variables, after accounting for demographic variables. PMID:26230609

  13. Latino residential segregation and self-rated health among Latinos: Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Plascak, Jesse J; Molina, Yamile; Wu-Georges, Samantha; Idris, Ayah; Thompson, Beti

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between Latino residential segregation and self-rated health (SRH) is unclear, but might be partially affected by social capital. We investigated the association between Latino residential segregation and SRH while also examining the roles of various social capital measures. Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2012-2014) and U.S. Census data were linked by zip code and zip code tabulation area. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate odds of good or better SRH by Latino residential segregation, measured by the Gini coefficient, and controlling for sociodemographic, acculturation and social capital measures of neighborhood ties, collective socialization of children, and social control. The Latino residential segregation - SRH relationship was convex, or 'U'-shaped, such that increases in segregation among Latinos residing in lower segregation areas was associated with lower SRH while increases in segregation among Latinos residing in higher segregation areas was associated with higher SRH. The social capital measures were independently associated with SRH but had little effect on the relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH. A convex relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH could explain mixed findings of previous studies. Although important for SRH, social capital measures of neighborhood ties, collective socialization of children, and social control might not account for the relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH. PMID:27173739

  14. The effect of immigrant generation and duration on self-rated health among US adults 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Bates, Lisa M; Osypuk, Theresa L; McArdle, Nancy

    2010-09-01

    Global self-rated health (SRH) is increasingly a key indicator in the assessment of immigrant health. However, evidence of the impact on SRH of generational status, duration of residence in the US, and socioeconomic status (SES) among immigrants and their offspring is limited and inconsistent. We overcome limitations in existing research on this topic by using a uniquely large and diverse data source, the March Annual Social and Economic Supplement of the Current Population Survey (CPS; 2003-2007) (n = 637,209). As a result, we are able to disaggregate results by race/ethnicity, account for country of origin, and consider the role of multiple dimensions of SES. We find that overall first-generation immigrants in the US have lower odds of poor/fair SRH compared to the third-generation. This association is particularly strong for blacks and Hispanics but not significant for Asians. Among first-generation Asians and Hispanics, longer duration of residence is positively associated with poor/fair SRH. Finally, socioeconomic gradients in SRH tend to be less pronounced among the first-generation (versus the third) and, within the first-generation, among recent arrivals (versus those with longer durations). Our results highlight the importance of explicitly accounting for multiple immigration-related variables and their interactions with race/ethnicity and SES. Otherwise, studies may misestimate SRH differences by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The continued growth of the US immigrant population and the second-generation underscore the need to examine patterns in immigrant health systematically. PMID:20624666

  15. Daily Steps in Midlife and Older Adults: Relationship with Demographic, Self-Rated Health, and Self-Reported Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payn, Tamara; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Hutto, Brent; Vena, John E.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Blair, Steven N.; Hooker, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between average daily step counts and age, body mass index (BMI), self-reported physical activity (PA) level, and perceived health was determined in 85 middle-aged and older adults who wore a pedometer for 7 consecutive days. Average daily steps were significantly (p less than 0.05) correlated with BMI (r = -0.26), age (r = -0.44)…

  16. Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-09-01

    Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P < 0.001). Interestingly, people in any smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition. PMID:26339168

  17. Comparing Self-Rated Health, Satisfaction and Quality of Life Scores between Diabetics and Others Living in the Bella Coola Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Angela; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Tildesley, Hugh; Michalos, Alex C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative effect that diabetes has on self-rated health, satisfaction with various specific domains of life, and satisfaction with quality of life operationalized as happiness, satisfaction with life as a whole, and satisfaction with overall quality of life. Design: Mixed methods--mailed survey and chart review. Study…

  18. Educational differences in self-rated physical fitness among Finns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The high educated live longer and healthier lives when compared to the low educated. Physical fitness as a health indicator reflects the level of physical activity along with other health-influencing factors such as obesity, smoking, chronic diseases and individual training effects. Studies support that self-rated physical fitness correlates with objectively measured physical fitness well. However, the educational differences in self-rated physical fitness are not known. Methods Our aim was to study educational differences in self-rated physical fitness in Finnish population. The data were collected in 2007 for a cross-sectional population based National FINRISK Study. The analyzed data included 2722 men and 3108 women aged 25 to 74 years. Statistical method was ordinal logistic regression. Results Longer educational career was associated with better self-rated physical fitness. The educational differences in self-rated physical fitness were largely explained by health behavior. Leisure-time physical activity explained fully and body mass index partly the educational differences in self-rated physical fitness among men. The combination of body mass index, history of chronic diseases and smoking explained the differences fully among men and partly among women. Leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activities, body mass index, history of chronic diseases and smoking together explained all educational differences in self-rated physical fitness among both genders. Conclusions Although educational differences in self-rated physical fitness were found, they were explained by health behavior related factors. Leisure-time physical activity offered the strongest single explanation for the educational differences in self-rated physical fitness. Thus, possibilities for leisure-time physical activity should be increased especially among the low educated. PMID:23433081

  19. Gender differences in the association of perceived social support and social network with self-rated health status among older adults: a population-based study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older adults are more likely to live alone, because they may have been predeceased by their spouse and friends. Social interaction could also be reduced in this age group due by limited mobility caused by chronic conditions. Therefore, aging is frequently accompanied by reduced social support, which might affect health status. Little is known about the role of gender in the relationship between social support and health in older adults. Hence, the present study tests the hypothesis that gender differences exist in the relationship between perceived social support, social network, and self-rated health (SRH) among older adults. Methods A cross-sectional study using two-stage probabilistic sampling recruited 3,649 individuals aged 60 years and above. Data were collected during the national influenza vaccination campaign in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006. Individual interviews collected information on SRH, perceived social support, social network, and other covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using nested models were conducted separately for males and females. Independent variables were organised into six blocks: (1) perceived social support and social network, (2) age group, (3) socioeconomic characteristics, (4) health-related behaviours, (5) use of health care services, (6) functional status measures and somatic health problems. Results Older men who did not participate in group activities were more likely to report poor SRH compared to those who did, (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.16–2.30). Low perceived social support predicted the probability of poor SRH in women (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.16–2.34). Poor SRH was associated with low age, low income, not working, poor functional capacity, and depression in both men and women. More somatic health problems were associated with poor SRH in women. Conclusions The association between social interactions and SRH varies between genders. Low social network involvement is associated with poor SRH in

  20. [Association of sleep problems with self-rated health - a large epidemiologic survey in the working population].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Naoto; Nakatani, Junko; Nakata, Akinori

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between various sleep problems and self-rated health (SRH), a total of 43,092 (34,164 men and 8,928 women) employees were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. The risk of suboptimal (poor, very poor) SRH associated with sleep problems was estimated using multivariable logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs) as measures of associations. Because the prevalence of suboptimal SRH differed by sex (men 29.4% and women 34.1%, P < 0.001), the analyses were done separately for men and women. Employees sleeping less than 6 hrs/day (OR = 1.39 for men, 1.40 for women), with difficulty initiating sleep (OR=4.44 for men, 3.85 for women), with difficulty maintaining sleep (OR=5.72 for men, 4.85 for women), with early morning awakening (OR=3.87 for men, 4.25 for women), with difficulty waking up in the morning (OR=3.30 for men, 3.40 for women), feeling tired when waking up in the morning (OR=4.97 for men, 4.82 for women), and excessive daytime sleepiness at work (OR=2.34 for men, 2.11 for women) had a significantly higher odds of suboptimal SRH compared to those without sleep problems. The association between sleep problems and suboptimal SRH did not differ between men and women. In conclusion, the data point to an independent relationship between sleep problems and suboptimal SRH among Japanese employees. PMID:25501763

  1. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Junfeng; Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Aggarwal, Anju; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES), on self-rated health (SRH) in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS) and in-person interviews (RECORD). All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle) and from real estate sales (Paris). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons. PMID:27413663

  2. Body Mass Index and Poor Self-Rated Health in 49 Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries, By Sex, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aolin; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and poor self-rated health differed by sex in low-income countries and middle-income countries. We analyzed data from the World Health Survey (2002-2004) on 160,099 participants from 49 low-income and middle-income countries by using random-intercept multilevel logistic regressions. We found a U-shaped relationship between BMI and poor self-rated health among both sexes in both low-income and middle-income countries, but the relationship differed by sex in strength and direction between low-income countries and middle-income countries. Differential perception of body weight and general health might explain some of the observed sex differences. PMID:26292064

  3. Self-ratings of Spoken Language Dominance: A Multi-Lingual Naming Test (MINT) and Preliminary Norms for Young and Aging Spanish-English Bilinguals*

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Runnqvist, Elin; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated correspondence between different measures of bilingual language proficiency contrasting self-report, proficiency interview, and picture naming skills. Fifty-two young (Experiment 1) and 20 aging (Experiment 2) Spanish-English bilinguals provided self-ratings of proficiency level, were interviewed for spoken proficiency, and named pictures in a Multilingual Naming Test (MINT, and in Experiment 1 also the Boston Naming Test; BNT). Self-ratings, proficiency interview, and the MINT did not differ significantly in classifying bilinguals into language-dominance groups, but naming tests (especially the BNT) classified bilinguals as more English-dominant than other measures. Strong correlations were observed between measures of proficiency in each language and language-dominance, but not degree of balanced bilingualism (index scores). Depending on the measure, up to 60% of bilinguals scored best in their self-reported non-dominant language. The BNT distorted bilingual assessment by underestimating ability in Spanish. These results illustrate what self-ratings can and cannot provide, illustrate the pitfalls of testing bilinguals with measures designed for monolinguals, and invite a multi-measure goal driven approach to classifying bilinguals into dominance groups. PMID:25364296

  4. Schooling, Skills, and Self-Rated Health: A Test of Conventional Wisdom on the Relationship between Educational Attainment and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Naomi; Macmillan, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Education is a key sociological variable in the explanation of health and health disparities. Conventional wisdom emphasizes a life course--human capital perspective with expectations of causal effects that are quasi-linear, large in magnitude for high levels of educational attainment, and reasonably robust in the face of measured and unmeasured…

  5. The contribution of lifestyle and work factors to social inequalities in self-rated health among the employed population in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hämmig, Oliver; Gutzwiller, Felix; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    We sought to examine the joint and independent contributions of working conditions and health-related behaviours in explaining social gradients in self-rated health (SRH). Nationally representative cross-sectional data from the Swiss Health Survey of 2007 were used for this study. Bi- and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out on a sample of 6950 adult employees of working age. We examined a comprehensive set of five health behaviours and lifestyle factors as well as twelve physical and psychosocial work factors as potential mediators of the relationship between social status and SRH. Analyses were stratified by sex and performed using two measures of social status, educational level and occupational position. Strong social gradients were found for SRH, but mainly in men whereas in women the associations were either not linear (educational level) or not statistically significant (occupational position). Social gradients were also found for most lifestyle and all physical and psychosocial work factors studied. These three groups of factors equally contributed to and largely accounted for the social gradients in SRH although not all of the individual factors turned out to be independent and significant risk factors for poor SRH. Such risk factors included physical inactivity and obesity, poor posture and no or low social support at work (both sexes), heavy smoking (men) and underweight, overweight, uniform arm or hand movements at work, monotonous work and job insecurity (women). In conclusion, social inequalities (or more precisely educational and occupational status differences) in SRH were more pronounced in men and can be attributed for the most part to a sedentary lifestyle and to a physically demanding and socially unsupportive and insecure work environment. Apart from this main finding and overall pattern, sex-specific risk profiles were observed with regard to SRH and need to be taken into consideration. PMID:25310888

  6. Association of Co-Existing Impairments in Cognition and Self-Rated Vision and Hearing With Health Outcomes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Phillip L.; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Burchett, Bruce M.; Whitson, Heather E.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the relationship of disability (activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL)), self-rated health (SRH), and 6-year mortality with co-existing impairments in vision (self-rated), hearing (self-rated) and/or cognition (Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire) in older adults. METHODS The study sample was comprised of 3871 participants from the North Carolina Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly study (NC EPESE). RESULTS Persons with all three impairments had increased odds of ADL/IADL disability, and low SRH. Participants with combined visual and cognitive impairments had increased odds of mortality. While sensory impairments were associated with poor SRH, cognitive impairment was not unless both sensory impairments were present. DISCUSSION Co-existent sensory and cognitive impairments were associated with higher risk of impaired functional status. Self-rated auditory impairment alone was not associated with higher odds of death, but mortality was linked to visual, and particularly cognitive impairment, alone or combined. PMID:27054148

  7. A Model of Racial Residential History and Its Association with Self-Rated Health and Mortality Among Black and White Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ruel, Erin; Robert, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    We construct a dynamic racial residential history typology and examine its association with self-rated health and mortality among black and white adults. Data are from a national survey of U.S. adults, combined with census tract data from 1970–1990. Results show that racial disparities in health and mortality are explained by both neighborhood contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Results suggest that living in an established black neighborhood or in an established interracial neighborhood may actually be protective of health, once neighborhood poverty is controlled. Examining the dynamic nature of neighborhoods contributes to an understanding of health disparities. PMID:20161138

  8. A Multiple-Group Path Analysis of the Role of Everyday Discrimination on Self-Rated Physical Health among Latina/os in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alegría, Margarita; Mahalingam, Ramaswami

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the psychosocial mechanisms through which self-reported discrimination may influence the health status of Latinos. Purpose This study examined the mediating role of subjective social status in the US and psychological distress on the relation between everyday discrimination and self-rated physical health, and the moderating role of gender and ethnicity. Methods A US population-based sample of Latinos (N= 2,554) was drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed measures of everyday discrimination, subjective social status, psychological distress, and self-rated physical health. Results Path analysis revealed that among the total sample, subjective social status and psychological distress sequentially mediated the effect of everyday discrimination on self-rated physical health. Psychological distress was a more consistent mediator across Latino subgroups. Gender and ethnicity moderated the mediation model. Conclusions This study provides a systematic examination of how psychosocial mechanisms may operate differently or similarly across Latino subgroups. PMID:23054945

  9. Impact of noise on self-rated job satisfaction and health in open-plan offices: a structural equation modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Lee, Byung Kwon; Jeon, Jin Yong; Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    This study uses a structural equation model to examine the effects of noise on self-rated job satisfaction and health in open-plan offices. A total of 334 employees from six open-plan offices in China and Korea completed a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included questions assessing noise disturbances and speech privacy, as well as job satisfaction and health. The results indicated that noise disturbance affected self-rated health. Contrary to popular expectation, the relationship between noise disturbance and job satisfaction was not significant. Rather, job satisfaction and satisfaction with the environment were negatively correlated with lack of speech privacy. Speech privacy was found to be affected by noise sensitivity, and longer noise exposure led to decreased job satisfaction. There was also evidence that speech privacy was a stronger predictor of satisfaction with environment and job satisfaction for participants with high noise sensitivity. In addition, fit models for employees from China and Korea showed slight differences. Practitioner Summary: This study is motivated by strong evidence that noise is the key source of complaints in open-plan offices. Survey results indicate that self-rated job satisfaction of workers in open-plan offices was negatively affected by lack of speech privacy and duration of disturbing noise. PMID:26366940

  10. The association between a living wage and subjective social status and self-rated health: a quasi-experimental study in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Landefeld, John C; Burmaster, Katharine B; Rehkopf, David H; Syme, S Leonard; Lahiff, Maureen; Adler-Milstein, Sarah; Fernald, Lia C H

    2014-11-01

    Poverty, both absolute and relative, is associated with poorer health. This is of particular concern in middle- and low-income countries facing a significant and growing burden of disease. There has been limited research specifically on whether interventions that increase income may foster better health outcomes. The establishment of a "living wage" apparel factory in the Dominican Republic provided a minimum income standard for factory workers, thus creating a natural experiment through which to study the effects of increased income on health indicators. The primary component of the intervention was a 350% wage increase, but apparel workers in the intervention factory also received education and professional development and were exposed to an enhanced occupational health and safety program. Workers at the intervention factory (n = 99) were compared with workers at a matched apparel factory (n = 105). Data were collected via in-person interviews in July and August of 2011, which was 15-16 months after workers were initially hired at the intervention site. Primary analyses used employment at the intervention factory as the independent variable and examined associations with two dependent variables: subjective social status and self-rated health. Results showed that receiving a 350% higher wage was associated with substantially higher subjective social status scores, as well as higher global and comparative self-rated health scores; effects were strongest in women. Subjective social status and self-rated health are associated with future health outcomes, so these results indicate that income increases for apparel workers may have positive long-term health outcomes, particularly for women. PMID:25442370

  11. Accumulated occupational class and self-rated health. Can information on previous experience of class further our understanding of the social gradient in health?

    PubMed

    Kjellsson, Sara

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has shown a social gradient in health with better health for people in more advantaged positions in society. This research has mainly been on the relationship between current position and health, or social position in childhood and health, but less is known about the potential accumulative impact of positions held in adulthood. In this paper I use the economic activity histories from the Swedish Level of Living survey to examine the relationship between accumulated occupational class positions and health. Step-wise linear probability models are used to investigate how to best capture the potential association between class experience and self-rated health (SRH), and whether the effect of current class is modified when measures of accumulated class are included. I then further test the potentially lasting association between previous exposure to the health risk of working class by analysing only individuals currently in higher or intermediate level service class; the classes under least exposure. I find a positive association between accumulated experiences of working class and less than good SRH. Furthermore, even for employees currently in non-manual positions the risk for less than good SRH increases with each added year of previous experience within working class. This suggests that the social gradient can be both accumulative and lasting, and that more information on the mechanisms of health disparities can be found by taking detailed information on peoples' pasts into account. Although gender differences in health are not a focus in this paper, results also indicate that the influence of class experiences on health might differ between men and women. PMID:23422057

  12. Pre- and post-displacement stressors and time of migration as related to self-rated health among Iraqi immigrants and refugees in Southeast Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Hikraei; Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia; Lambert, Richard; Wang, Yun; Ager, Joel; Arnetz, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether perceived health status of Iraqi immigrants and refugees residing in the United States was related to pre-migration environmental stress, current unemployment, and if they had emigrated before or after the 1991 Gulf War. A random sample of Iraqis residing in Southeast Michigan, US, was interviewed using an Arab language structured survey. The main outcome measure was self-rated health (SRH). Major predictors included socioeconomics, employment status, pre-migration environmental stress, and health disorders. Path analysis was used to look: at mediating effects between predictors and SRH. We found that SRH was significantly worse among participants that had left Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War. Unemployment and environmental stress exposure were inversely related to SRH. There was a direct path between Gulf War exposure and poor health. In addition, there were indirect paths mediated through psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders to SRH. Another path went from Gulf War exposure, via environmen tal stress and somatic health to poor health. Unemployment had a direct path, as well as an indirect paths mediated through psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders, to poor self-rated health. In conclusion, these results suggest that pre- as well as post-migration factors, and period of migration, affect health. PMID:21291168

  13. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i) purpose of instrument, (ii) construct measured, (iii) contents of construct, (iv) local idioms employed, (v) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64) aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old). The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14); CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20). The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7), "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10), and "feeling

  14. Language Bias and Self-Rated Health Status among the Latino Population: Evidence of the Influence of Translation in a Wording Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Vargas, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research seeks to understand how language bias in survey research impacts our abilities to make generalizations in the study of racial and ethnic disparities. This research uses a wording experiment to assess self-rated health among a representative study of the Latino population (n=1,200). Our analysis shows that by manipulating only the translation of the category fair health into Spanish we are able to directly test the hypothesis that the translation of fair to regular in Spanish suppresses Latino self-rated health. We find convincing evidence through the use of logistic and multinomial logistic regressions that respondents provided with the term regular report poorer health when compared to those who were given the alternative translation of mas o menos. We also find that this translation effect is driven solely by a movement of respondents to choose fair rather than good health, which can in fact explain lower than expected health status rates in studies looking to explore differences between Latinos and non-Latinos. This research informs the study of racial and ethnic disparities, providing a detailed explanation for mixed findings in the Latino health disparities literature. PMID:26439110

  15. Active Aging: Exploration into Self-Ratings of “Being Active,” Out-of-Home Physical Activity, and Participation among Older Australian Adults Living in Four Different Settings

    PubMed Central

    Aird, Rosemary L.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether self-ratings of “being active” among older people living in four different settings (major city high and lower density suburbs, a regional city, and a rural area) were associated with out-of-home participation and outdoor physical activity. A mixed-methods approach (survey, travel diary, and GPS tracking over a one-week period) was used to gather data from 48 individuals aged over 55 years. Self-ratings of “being active” were found to be positively correlated with the number of days older people spent time away from home but unrelated to time traveled by active means (walking and biking). No significant differences in active travel were found between the four study locations, despite differences in their respective built environments. The findings suggest that additional strategies to the creation of “age-friendly” environments are needed if older people are to increase their levels of outdoor physical activity. “Active aging” promotion campaigns may need to explicitly identify the benefits of walking outdoors to ambulatory older people as a means of maintaining their overall health, functional ability, and participation within society in the long-term and also encourage the development of community-based programs in order to facilitate regular walking for this group. PMID:26346381

  16. Validity analysis on merged and averaged data using within and between analysis: focus on effect of qualitative social capital on self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With an increasing number of studies highlighting regional social capital (SC) as a determinant of health, many studies are using multi-level analysis with merged and averaged scores of community residents’ survey responses calculated from community SC data. Sufficient examination is required to validate if the merged and averaged data can represent the community. Therefore, this study analyzes the validity of the selected indicators and their applicability in multi-level analysis. METHODS: Within and between analysis (WABA) was performed after creating community variables using merged and averaged data of community residents’ responses from the 2013 Community Health Survey in Korea, using subjective self-rated health assessment as a dependent variable. Further analysis was performed following the model suggested by WABA result. RESULTS: Both E-test results (1) and WABA results (2) revealed that single-level analysis needs to be performed using qualitative SC variable with cluster mean centering. Through single-level multivariate regression analysis, qualitative SC with cluster mean centering showed positive effect on self-rated health (0.054, p<0.001), although there was no substantial difference in comparison to analysis using SC variables without cluster mean centering or multi-level analysis. CONCLUSIONS: As modification in qualitative SC was larger within the community than between communities, we validate that relational analysis of individual self-rated health can be performed within the group, using cluster mean centering. Other tests besides the WABA can be performed in the future to confirm the validity of using community variables and their applicability in multi-level analysis. PMID:27292102

  17. Social safety, self-rated general health and physical activity: changes in area crime, area safety feelings and the role of social cohesion.

    PubMed

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Groenewegen, Peter P; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether changes over time in reported area crime and perceived area safety were related to self-rated general health and physical activity (PA), in order to provide support for a causal relationship between social safety and health. Additionally, we investigated whether social cohesion protects the residents against the negative impact of unsafe areas on health and PA. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on Dutch survey data, including 47,926 respondents living in 2974 areas. An increase in area level unsafety feelings between 2009 and 2011 was associated with more people reporting poor general health in 2012 in that area, but was not related to PA. Changes in reported area crime were not related to either poor general health or PA. The social cohesion in the area did not modify the effect of changes in social safety on health and PA. The results suggest that tackling feelings of unsafety in an area might contribute to the better general health of the residents. Because changes in area social safety were not associated with PA, we found no leads that such health benefits were achieved through an increase in physical activity. PMID:25463916

  18. Association of Neighbourhood and Individual Social Capital, Neighbourhood Economic Deprivation and Self-Rated Health in South Africa – a Multi-Level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chola, Lumbwe; Alaba, Olufunke

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Social capital is said to influence health, mostly in research undertaken in high income countries' settings. Because social capital may differ from one setting to another, it is suggested that its measurement be context specific. We examine the association of individual and neighbourhood level social capital, and neighbourhood deprivation to self-rated health using a multi-level analysis. Methods Data are taken from the 2008 South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey. Health was self-reported on a scale from 1 (excellent) to 5 (poor). Two measures of social capital were used: individual, measured by two variables denoting trust and civic participation; and neighbourhood social capital, denoting support, association, behaviour and safety in a community. Results Compared to males, females were less likely to report good health (Odds Ratio 0.82: Confidence Interval 0.73, 0.91). There were variations in association of individual social capital and self-rated health among the provinces. In Western Cape (1.37: 0.98, 1.91) and North West (1.39: 1.13, 1.71), trust was positively associated with reporting good health, while the reverse was true in Limpopo (0.56: 0.38, 0.84) and Free State (0.70: 0.48, 1.02). In Western Cape (0.60: 0.44, 0.82) and Mpumalanga (0.72: 0.55, 0.94), neighbourhood social capital was negatively associated with reporting good health. In North West (1.59: 1.27, 1.99) and Gauteng (1.90: 1.21, 2.97), increased neighbourhood social capital was positively associated with reporting good health. Conclusion Our study demonstrated the importance of considering contextual factors when analysing the relationship between social capital and health. Analysis by province showed variations in the way in which social capital affected health in different contexts. Further studies should be undertaken to understand the mechanisms through which social capital impacts on health in South Africa. PMID:23976923

  19. Reliability of perceived neighborhood conditions and the effects of measurement error on self-rated health across urban and rural neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Yan, Yan; Schootman, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Background Limited psychometric research has examined the reliability of self-reported measures of neighborhood conditions, the effect of measurement error on associations between neighborhood conditions and health, and potential differences in the reliabilities between neighborhood strata(urban vs. rural and low vs. high poverty). We assessed overall and stratified reliability of self-reported perceived neighborhood conditions using 5 scales (Social and Physical Disorder, Social Control, Social Cohesion, Fear) and 4 single items (Multidimensional Neighboring). We also assessed measurement error-corrected associations of these conditions with self-rated health. Methods Using random-digit dialing, 367 women without breast cancer (matched controls from a larger study) were interviewed twice, 2–3 weeks apart. We assessed test-retest (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]/weighted kappa [k]) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’sα). Differences in reliability across neighborhood strata were tested using bootstrap methods. Regression calibration corrected estimates for measurement error. Results All measures demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (α≥.70) and either moderate (ICC/k=.41–.60) or substantial (ICC/k=.61–.80) test-retest reliability in the full sample. Internal consistency did not differ by neighborhood strata. Test-retest reliability was significantly lower among rural (vs. urban) residents for 2 scales (Social Control, Physical Disorder) and 2 Multidimensional Neighboring items; test-retest reliability was higher for Physical Disorder and lower for 1 item Multidimensional Neighboring item among the high (vs. low) poverty strata. After measurement error correction, the magnitude of associations between neighborhood conditions and self-rated health were larger, particularly in the rural population. Conclusion Research is needed to develop and test reliable measures of perceived neighborhood conditions relevant to the health

  20. Bringing You More than the Weekend: Union Membership and Self-Rated Health in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Megan M.; Brady, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that higher incomes, safe workplaces, job security and healthcare access all contribute to favorable health. Reflecting the interest of economic and political sociologists in power relations and institutions, union membership has been linked with many such influences on health. Nevertheless, the potential relationship…

  1. Persistent Psychological Well-being Predicts Improved Self-Rated Health Over 9-10 Years: Longitudinal Evidence from MIDUS

    PubMed Central

    Ryff, Carol D.; Radler, Barry T.; Friedman, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological well-being has been linked with better health, but mostly with cross-sectional evidence. Using MIDUS, a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 4,963), longitudinal profiles of well-being were used to predict in cross-time change over a 9-10 years in self-reported health. Well-being was largely stable, although adults differed in whether they had persistently high versus persistently low or moderate levels of well-being. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, those with persistently high well-being reported better health (subjective health, chronic conditions, symptoms, functional impairment) across time compared to those with persistently low well-being. Further, persistently high well-being was protective of improved health especially among the educationally disadvantaged. The findings underscore the importance of intervention and educational programs designed to promote well-being for greater segments of society. PMID:26617988

  2. The Modifying Influence of Country Development on the Effect of Individual Educational Attainment on Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooi, Anne L. F.; Stronks, Karien; Thompson, Caroline A.; DerSarkissian, Maral

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how much the Human Development Index (HDI), a global measure of development, modifies the effect of education on self-reported health. Methods. We analyzed cross-sectional World Health Survey data on 217 642 individuals from 49 countries, collected in 2002 to 2005, with random-intercept multilevel linear regression models. Results. We observed greater positive associations between educational levels and self-reported good health with increasing HDI. The magnitude of this effect modification of the education–health relation tended to increase with educational attainment. For example, before adjustment for effect modification, at comparable HDI, on average, finishing primary school was associated with better general health (b = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.80). With adjustment for effect modification by HDI, the impact became 4.63 (95% CI = 3.63, 5.62) for every 0.1 increase in HDI. Among those who completed high school, these associations were, respectively, 5.59 (95% CI = 5.20, 5.98) and 9.95 (95% CI = 8.89, 11.00). Conclusions. The health benefits of educational attainment are greater in countries with greater human development. Health inequalities attributable to education are, therefore, larger in more developed countries. PMID:24028233

  3. Aging: Health Education's Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Bill C.

    The elderly have recently become a target of national concern. There are currently more than 22 million people 65 years of age or older in the United States, and this number is continually increasing. Health education must respond to the need for better understanding of the aging process and the aged by including information and materials designed…

  4. The Relevance of Objective and Subjective Social Position for Self-Rated Health: A Combined Approach for the Swedish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miething, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the health effects of subjective class position stratified by objective social position. Four types of subjective class were analysed separately for individuals with manual or non-manual occupational background. The cross-sectional analysis is based on the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey from 2000 and includes 4,139…

  5. The Role of Stress Management in the Relationship between Purpose in Life and Self-Rated Health in Teachers: A Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Chen, Jieyu; Yu, Lin; Jing, Yuan; Jiang, Pingping; Fu, Xiuqiong; Wu, Shengwei; Sun, Xiaomin; Luo, Ren; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    Background: To examine whether stress management mediates the relationship between purpose in life and self-rated health status (SRH). Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 6840 teachers in 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Purpose in life was assessed through the Purpose in Life Subscale of the Psychological Well-being Scale. Stress management was assessed using the eight-item questionnaire adapted from the Health-promoting Lifestyle Profile II. SRH was assessed by the Suboptimal Health Measurement Scale Version 1.0. The mediation hypothesis was tested by the structural equation model for path analysis. Results: It was found that purpose in life had direct and indirect effects on SRH. The path analysis showed the total effect (β = 0.563) of purpose in life on SRH was comprised of a direct effect (β = 0.319) and an indirect effect (β = 0.244), which was mediated by stress management. Conclusions: By supporting the mediation hypothesis, our results indicate that stress management mediated the effect of purpose in life on SRH. Enhancement of teachers’ purpose in life and improvement of training skills of stress management should be incorporated in the strategy of improving teachers’ health. PMID:27438843

  6. Indoor mildew odour in old housing was associated with adult allergic symptoms, asthma, chronic bronchitis, vision, sleep and self-rated health: USA NHANES, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-09-01

    A recent systematic review and meta-analysis has shown the effect of indoor mildew odour on allergic rhinitis risk, but its relation to other common chronic health outcomes in adults has not been investigated. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationship of indoor mildew odour and common health outcomes in adults in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005-2006, including the available information on demographics, housing characteristics, self-reported health conditions and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals. T test, chi-squared test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling were performed. Of all American adults (n = 4979), 744 (15.1%) reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell in their households. People who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also reported poorer self-rated health, sleep complaints, chronic bronchitis, asthma attack, itchy rash, sneezing and poor vision. In addition, people who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also tended to reside in older housing that were built 20 years earlier. However, there were no significant statistical associations found between indoor mildew odour or musty smell and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals, which was also found to be associated with old housing. People who lived in older housing with indoor mildew odour or musty smell tended to have chronic health problems. To protect occupants in old housing from chronic illnesses associated with indoor mildew odour, elimination of the odour sources should be explored in future research and therefore public health and housing programs. Graphical abstract Pathway from old housing to musty smell, environmental chemicals and then health outcomes. PMID:25971810

  7. The association of neighbourhood and individual social capital with consistent self-rated health: a longitudinal study in Brazilian pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social conditions, social relationships and neighbourhood environment, the components of social capital, are important determinants of health. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of neighbourhood and individual social capital with consistent self-rated health in women between the first trimester of pregnancy and six months postpartum. Methods A multilevel cohort study in 34 neighbourhoods was performed on 685 Brazilian women recruited at antenatal units in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Self-rated health (SRH) was assessed in the 1st trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and six months after childbirth (follow-up). The participants were divided into two groups: 1. Good SRH – good SRH at baseline and follow-up, and, 2. Poor SRH – poor SRH at baseline and follow-up. Exploratory variables collected at baseline included neighbourhood social capital (neighbourhood-level variable), individual social capital (social support and social networks), demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health-related behaviours and self-reported diseases. A hierarchical binomial multilevel analysis was performed to test the association between neighbourhood and individual social capital and SRH, adjusted for covariates. Results The Good SRH group reported higher scores of social support and social networks than the Poor SRH group. Although low neighbourhood social capital was associated with poor SRH in crude analysis, the association was not significant when individual socio-demographic variables were included in the model. In the final model, women reporting poor SRH both at baseline and follow-up had lower levels of social support (positive social interaction) [OR 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73-0.90)] and a lower likelihood of friendship social networks [OR 0.61 (95% CI: 0.37-0.99)] than the Good SRH group. The characteristics that remained associated with poor SRH were low level of schooling, Black and Brown ethnicity, more children

  8. The impact of an unconditional tax credit for families on self-rated health in adults: further evidence from the cohort study of 6900 New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Carter, Kristie; Kawachi, Ichiro; Davis, Peter; Blakely, Tony

    2014-05-01

    It is hypothesized that unconditional (given without obligation) publicly funded financial credits more effectively improve health than conditional financial credits in high-income countries. We previously reported no discernible short-term impact of an employment-conditional tax credit for families on self-rated health (SRH) in adults in New Zealand. This study estimates the effect of an unconditional tax credit for families, called Family Tax Credit (FTC), on SRH in the same study population and setting. A balanced panel of 6900 adults in families was extracted from seven waves (2002-2009) of the Survey of Family, Income and Employment. The exposures, eligibility for and amount of FTC, were derived by applying government eligibility and entitlement criteria. The outcome, SRH, was collected annually. Fixed effects regression analyses eliminated all time-invariant confounding and adjusted for measured time-varying confounders. Becoming eligible for FTC was associated with a small and statistically insignificant change in SRH over the past year [effect estimate: 0.013; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.011 to 0.037], as was an increase in the estimated amount of FTC by $1000 (effect estimate: -0.001; 95% CI -0.006 to 0.004). The unconditional tax credit for families had no discernible short-term impact on SRH in adults in New Zealand. It did not more effectively improve health status than an employment-conditional tax credit for families. PMID:24632096

  9. Associations of deliberate self-harm with loneliness, self-rated health and life satisfaction in adolescence: Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 Study

    PubMed Central

    Rönkä, Anna Reetta; Taanila, Anja; Koiranen, Markku; Sunnari, Vappu; Rautio, Arja

    2013-01-01

    Background Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is an act with a non-fatal outcome in which an individual initiates a behavior, such as self-cutting or burning, with the intention of inflicting harm on his or her self. Interpersonal difficulties have been shown to be a risk factor for DSH, but the association between subjective experience of loneliness and DSH have rarely been examined. Objective To examine the frequency of DSH or its ideation and loneliness among 16-year-olds to determine if associations exist between DSH and loneliness, loneliness-related factors, self-rated health and satisfaction with life. Design The study population (n=7,014) was taken from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (N=9,432). Cross-tabulations were used to describe the frequency of DSH by factors selected by gender. Logistic regression analysis was used to describe the association between DSH and loneliness and other selected factors. Results Nearly 8.7% (n=608) of adolescents reported DSH often/sometimes during the preceding 6 months, with girls (n=488, 13.4%) reporting DSH almost 4 times than that of boys (n=120, 3.6%). Nearly 3.2% of the adolescents (girls: n=149, 4.1%; boys: n=72, 2.2%) expressed that the statement I feel lonely was very/often true, and 26.4% (girls: n=1,265, 34.8%; boys: n=585, 17.4%) expressed that the statement was somewhat/sometimes true. Logistic regression showed that those who reported to be very/often lonely (girls: odds ratio (OR) 4.1; boys: OR 3.2), somewhat/sometimes lonely (girls: OR 2.4; boys: OR 2.4) were dissatisfied with life (girls: OR 3.3; boys: OR 3.3), felt unliked (girls: OR 2.2; boys: OR 6.0) and had moderate self-rated health (girls: OR 2.0; boys: OR 1.7), were more likely to report DSH than those without these feelings. Conclusion The results show that loneliness is associated with DSH, and that loneliness should be considered as a risk for individual health and well-being. PMID:23984286

  10. The effect of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on health behaviors, access to health services, and self-rated health in the United States, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Charters, Thomas J; Harper, Sam; Strumpf, Erin C; Subramanian, S V; Arcaya, Mariana; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-07-01

    The recent housing crisis offers the opportunity to understand the effects of unique indicators of macroeconomic conditions on health. We linked data on the proportion of mortgage borrowers per US metropolitan-area who were at least 90 days delinquent on their payments with individual-level outcomes from a representative sample of 1,021,341 adults surveyed through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) between 2003 and 2010. We estimated the effects of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on individual health behaviors, medical coverage, and health status, as well as whether effects varied by race/ethnicity. Results showed that increases in the metropolitan-area delinquency rate resulted in decreases in heavy alcohol consumption and increases in exercise and health insurance coverage. However, the delinquency rate was also associated with increases in smoking and obesity in some population groups, suggesting the housing crisis may have induced stress-related behavioral change. Overall, the effects of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on population health were relatively modest. PMID:27261531

  11. Relation between overweight/obesity and self-rated health among adolescents in Germany. Do socio-economic status and type of school have an impact on that relation?

    PubMed

    Krause, Laura; Lampert, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the relation between overweight/obesity and self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relation varies by social factors. Data was taken from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, baseline 2003‒2006). For the definition of overweight and obesity, body mass index was calculated based on standardized height and weight measurements. SRH of adolescents (n = 6813, 11‒17 years) was raised with the question: "How would you describe your health in general?" The response categories were "very good", "good", "fair", "poor", and "very poor". We dichotomized these responses into: "very good/good" vs. "fair/poor/very poor". Socio-economic status (SES) in the family of origin and adolescents' school type were analyzed as modifying factors. Prevalence and age-adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by binary logistic regression models. We found that overweight and obese boys and obese girls reported fair to very poor SRH more often than their normal weight peers, and that these differences were more apparent in early than late adolescence. In addition, the relation between obesity and SRH was similarly strong in all sub-groups, but there was seldom a relation between overweight and SRH. In summary, the results show that obesity is linked to poor SRH regardless of SES and school type, while the relation between overweight and SRH varies by social factors among adolescents. PMID:25690000

  12. The ability of self-rated health to predict mortality among community-dwelling elderly individuals differs according to the specific cause of death: data from the NEDICES Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Guerra-Vales, Juan M.; Trincado, Rocío; Fernández, Rebeca; Medrano, María José; Villarejo, Alberto; Benito-León, Julián; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2013-01-01

    Background The biomedical and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality in elderly individuals remain unclear. Objective To assess the association between different measurements of subjective health (global, age-comparative, and time-comparative SRH) and cause-specific mortality. Methods Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) is a prospective population-based survey of the prevalence and incidence of major age-associated conditions. Data on demographic and health-related variables were collected from 5,278 subjects (≥65 years) at the baseline questionnaire. Thirteen-year mortality and cause of death were obtained from the National Death Registry. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for SRH and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Results At baseline, 4,958 participants (93.9%) answered the SRH questionnaire. At the end of follow-up 2,468 (49.8%) participants had died (of whom 723 [29.2%] died from cardiovascular diseases, 609 [24.7%] from cancer, and 359 [14.5%] from respiratory diseases). Global SRH predicted independently all-cause mortality (aHR for “poor or very poor” vs. “very good” category: 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–1.69). Analysis of cause-specific mortality revealed that global SRH was an independent predictor for death due to respiratory diseases (aHR for “poor or very poor” vs. “very good” category: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.55–4.39), whereas age-comparative SRH exhibited a gradient effect on the risk of death due to stroke. Time-comparative SRH provided small additional predictive value. Conclusions The predictive ability of SRH for mortality largely differs according to the specific cause of death, with the strongest associations found for respiratory disease and stroke mortality. PMID:23615509

  13. [Development of the Saxon Health Target "Active aging - aging in health, autonomy, and participation"].

    PubMed

    Brockow, T; Schulze, J; Fürst, F; Sawatzki, R; Wegge, J; Kliegel, M; Zwingenberger, W; Thönges, B; Eberhard, C; Resch, K-L

    2009-07-01

    In Saxony, the consequences of demographic aging are observable already today. To manage the implications on the health sector, the Saxon Health Targets Steering Committee decided in March 2008 to develop a health target "Active Aging - Aging in Health, Autonomy, and Participation". Target development was based on a 7-level approach (fields of action, main goals, target areas, targets, strategies, intervention measures, indicators for evaluation). A quantitative content analysis was used to reveal 10 potential relevant fields of action, three of which were selected for target development. Targets were developed by 53 stakeholders in multiprofessional working groups. Criteria-based analyses were performed to assure appropriate scientific evidence and feasibility of targets and intervention measures. Over a period of 9 months, 24 targets were defined referring to the main goals "needs-based health care structures", "multiprofessional qualification", "self-rated health" and "intergenerational solidarity". Thirteen targets were developed into recommendations for specific intervention measures. Most of the proposed interventions aim to modify health-related structures or psychosocial determinants of health in the elderly. The best recommendations for intervention measures shall be implemented in cooperation with interested decision-makers. PMID:19565198

  14. Health-related quality of life in Huntington's disease patients: a comparison of proxy assessment and patient self-rating using the disease-specific Huntington's disease health-related quality of life questionnaire (HDQoL).

    PubMed

    Hocaoglu, Mevhibe B; Gaffan, E A; Ho, Aileen K

    2012-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease for which there is no known cure. Proxy evaluation is relevant for HD as its manifestation might limit the ability of persons to report their health-related quality of life (HrQoL). This study explored patient-proxy ratings of HrQoL of persons at different stages of HD, and examined factors that may affect proxy ratings. A total of 105 patient-proxy pairs completed the Huntington's disease health-related quality of life questionnaire (HDQoL) and other established HrQoL measures (EQ-5D and SF-12v2). Proxy-patient agreement was assessed in terms of absolute level (mean ratings) and intraclass correlation. Proxies' ratings were at a similar level to patients' self-ratings on an overall Summary Score and on most of the six Specific Scales of the HDQoL. On the Specific Hopes and Worries Scale, proxies on average rated HrQoL as better than patients' self-ratings, while on both the Specific Cognitive Scale and Specific Physical and Functional Scale proxies tended to rate HrQoL more poorly than patients themselves. The patient's disease stage and mental wellbeing (SF-12 Mental Component scale) were the two factors that primarily affected proxy assessment. Proxy scores were strongly correlated with patients' self-ratings of HrQoL, on the Summary Scale and all Specific Scales. The patient-proxy correlation was lower for patients at moderate stages of HD compared to patients at early and advanced stages. The proxy report version of the HDQoL is a useful complementary tool to self-assessment, and a promising alternative when individual patients with advanced HD are unable to self-report. PMID:22392579

  15. Aging and Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kay H.

    2014-01-01

    A recent study comparing older adults’ health literacy skills with their satisfaction with health care providers’ communication efforts did not find a correlation between the two measures. However, the results were interesting, including the fact that almost 40 percent of participants experienced moderate to severe difficulties in understanding everyday health information as presented in a food label (Newest Vital Sign assessment). This has implications for senior patient engagement in health care, particularly at a time when so many health transactions such as scheduling and records requests, not to mention general health information, are moving to online only format. Librarians should be aware of the issues surrounding health literacy in older adults and work with providers to address those deficits in health care navigation in this population. PMID:24634614

  16. The influence of neighbourhood formality status and socio-economic position on self-rated health among adult men and women: a multilevel, cross sectional, population study from Aleppo, Syria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence from high income countries that neighbourhoods have an influence on health independent of individual characteristics. However, neighbourhood characteristics are rarely taken into account in the analysis of urban health studies from developing countries. Informal urban neighbourhoods are home to about half of the population in Aleppo, the second largest city in Syria (population>2.5 million). This study aimed to examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) and formality status on self-rated health (SRH) of adult men and women residing in formal and informal urban neighbourhoods in Aleppo. Methods The study used data from 2038 survey respondents to the Aleppo Household Survey, 2004 (age 18–65 years, 54.8% women, response rate 86%). Respondents were nested in 45 neighbourhoods. Five individual-level SES measures, namely education, employment, car ownership, item ownership and household density, were aggregated to the level of neighbourhood. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations. Results We did not find evidence of important SRH variation between neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood average of household item ownership was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting excellent SRH in women; odds ratio (OR) for an increase of one item on average was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-4.4 (versus poor SRH)) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 (versus normal SRH)), adjusted for individual characteristics and neighbourhood formality. After controlling for individual and neighbourhood SES measures, women living in informal neighbourhoods were less likely to report poor SRH than women living in formal neighbourhoods (OR= 0.4; 95% CI (0.2- 0.8) (versus poor SRH) and OR=0.5; 95%; CI (0.3-0.9) (versus normal SRH). Conclusions Findings support evidence from high income countries that certain characteristic of neighbourhoods affect men and women in different ways. Further research from similar urban settings in

  17. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... than ever after menopause. But for other women, physical changes, illness, disabilities, and some medicines make sex painful, ... in Later Life - This brochure describes the normal physical changes in men and women that come with age. ...

  18. Psychiatric nurses' self-rated competence.

    PubMed

    Ewalds-Kvist, Beatrice; Algotsson, Martina; Bergström, Annelie; Lützén, Kim

    2012-07-01

    This study explored the self-rated competence of 52 Swedish psychiatric nurses in three clinical environments: forensic psychiatry, general psychiatric inpatient care, and clinical non-residential psychiatric care. A questionnaire wtih 56 statements from nine areas of expertise was completed. Forensic nurses were more skilled in safety and quality and in dealing with violence and conflicts. Non-specialist nurses appreciated their skills more so than specialist nurses in health promotion and illness prevention and conduct, information, and education. Women were inclined to invite patients' relatives for education and information. Men attended to a patients' spiritual needs; they also coped with violence and managed conflicts. PMID:22757599

  19. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  20. Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  1. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  2. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  3. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  4. Space age health care delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Space age health care delivery is being delivered to both NASA astronauts and employees with primary emphasis on preventive medicine. The program relies heavily on comprehensive health physical exams, health education, screening programs and physical fitness programs. Medical data from the program is stored in a computer bank so epidemiological significance can be established and better procedures can be obtained. Besides health care delivery to the NASA population, NASA is working with HEW on a telemedicine project STARPAHC, applying space technology to provide health care delivery to remotely located populations.

  5. Sex Differences in Biological Markers of Health in the Study of Stress, Aging and Health in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The apparent contradiction that women live longer but have worse health than men, the so called male-female health-survival paradox, is very pronounced in Russia. The present study investigates whether men in Moscow are healthier than women at the level of biomarkers, and whether the associations between biomarkers and subjective health have sex-specific patterns. Materials Previously collected data in the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (SAHR, n = 1800) were used to examine sex differences in biomarkers and their associations with physical functioning and self-rated health. Results The present study found mixed directions and magnitudes for sex differences in biomarkers. Women were significantly disadvantaged with regard to obesity and waist circumference, whereas men had a tendency toward higher prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities. No sex differences were indicated in the prevalence of immunological biomarkers, and mixed patterns were found for lipid profiles. Many biomarkers were associated with physical functioning and general health. Obesity and waist circumference were related to lower physical functioning among females only, while major Q-wave abnormalities with high probabilities of myocardial infarction and atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter were associated with physical functioning and self-rated health among males only. Conclusion No clear patterns of sex differences in prevalence of high-risk levels of biomarkers suggest that the male-female health-survival paradox is weaker at the level of health biomarkers. We found some evidence that certain biomarkers reflecting pathophysiological changes in the organism that do not possess acute health risks, but over many years may lead to physical disability, are associated with physical functioning and self-rated health in women, whereas others reflecting more serious life-threatening pathophysiological changes are associated with physical functioning and self-rated health

  6. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    ... maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Checkup - men - ages ... Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ages 18 to 39

  7. The Impact of Employment and Self-Rated Economic Condition on the Subjective Well-Being of Older Korean Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jung; Lee, Yura; Sangalang, Cindy; Harris, Lesley M

    2015-09-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated a relationship between socioeconomic factors and health among older adults, yet fewer studies have explored this relationship with older immigrants. This study aims to examine the influence of employment and self-rated economic condition on the subjective well-being of older Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study of 205 older Korean immigrants, aged 65 to 90, in Los Angeles County. Hierarchical regression was employed to explore the independent and interactive effects of employment status and self-rated economic condition. The study found that employment and self-rated economic status were positively associated with subjective well-being. Also, the interaction between employment and self-rated economic status was significantly associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, such that the influence of self-rated economic condition was stronger for unemployed older Korean immigrants compared with those who were employed. This population-based study provides empirical evidence that employment and self-rated economic condition are directly associated with subjective well-being for older Korean immigrants. PMID:26405056

  8. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 to 39; Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ...

  9. Psychological wellbeing, health and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across

  10. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  11. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:26895999

  12. Health, Lifestyle, and Gender Influences on Aging Well: An Australian Longitudinal Analysis to Guide Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Kendig, Hal; Browning, Colette J.; Thomas, Shane A.; Wells, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well (“healthy,” “active,” and “successful” aging) has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne longitudinal studies on healthy aging program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12-year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being under-weight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being under-weight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies. PMID:25072042

  13. THE ROLE OF DEFAMILIALIZATION IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARTNERSHIP AND SELF-RATED HEALTH: A CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISON OF CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; Clouston, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Partnered individuals live longer, healthier lives. It has been hypothesized that both social causation (partnership benefits) and health selection may explain this association. Since much of this literature is focused in the U.S., comparative studies of the potential impact of policy on the causation and selection components of this association have been scant. Using comparable data from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we test the selective and causal relationships evident during entrance into partnership. We use fixed change-point analysis with multilevel models (MLM) to fit trajectories of change in both Canada and the U.S. to understand the role of both health selection and partnership benefits. In Canada, partnership benefits were evident, while health selection was only marginally significant. In the US, health selection was prominent in both men and women, but partnership benefits were not significant. We argue that the differences in the extent of defamilialization of social policy between the two countries may impact the way and extent to which people choose partners and benefit from those partnerships. PMID:22800920

  14. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Keith T; Goodson, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter, we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  15. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; Goodson, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses, and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  16. The effect of ageing on health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Matthews, David

    The final article in this five-part series on the relationship between sociology and nursing practice discusses age-related health inequalities. Age has a direct influence on individuals' health and wellbeing. From a sociological viewpoint, individuals' health status in old age is a reflection of experiences throughout their lifetime, which means that health inequalities accumulate. PMID:26665634

  17. Health in Household Context: Living Arrangements and Health in Late Middle Age*

    PubMed Central

    HUGHES, MARY ELIZABETH; WAITE, LINDA J.

    2005-01-01

    People living in some arrangements show better health than persons in other living arrangements. Recent prospective studies document higher mortality among persons living in particular types of households. We extend this research by examining the influence of household structure on health using longitudinal data. We theorize that individuals experience role-based household relations as sets of resources and demands. In certain household structures, individuals are more likely to perceive that the demands made on them outweigh the resources available to them. This perceived imbalance poses a risk to individual health. We test our expectations by analyzing the relationship between living arrangements and health using data from waves 1 and 2 of the Health and Retirement Study. We focus on persons ages 51–61 and explore gender differences. We find prospective links between household structure and self-rated health, mobility limitation, and depressive symptoms. Married couples living alone or with children only are the most advantaged; single women living with children appear disadvantaged on all health outcomes. Men and women in other household types are disadvantaged on some health outcomes. Our results suggest that the social context formed by the household may be important to the social etiology of health. In addition, they qualify the well-known link between marital status and health: The effect of marital status on health depends on household context. PMID:11949193

  18. Self-reported functional and general health status among older respondents in China: the impact of age, gender, and place of residence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Yue, Yuwen; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-03-01

    This study made comparisons of self-reported functional and general health status between Chinese women and men in different age-groups in rural and urban settings and examined multiple factors relating to these health statuses in older adults. This study included a sample of 4017 respondents, aged 55 years and older, from the Hubei subsample of the Chinese National Health Service Survey III in 2003. The results illustrate that the differences in self-rated functional and general health status between genders and between urban and rural areas diminished with age. Access to health care was strongly associated with health status. The quality of the local environment, measured by access to tap water, was a significant factor for rural residents. Our study suggests that improving access to health care services and reducing environmental health risks are critical for improving physical functioning, psychological functioning, and self-rated general health for older adults in China. PMID:22199153

  19. Health information literacy in everyday life: a study of Finns aged 65-79 years.

    PubMed

    Eriksson-Backa, Kristina; Ek, Stefan; Niemelä, Raimo; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the health information literacy of elderly Finns. The results are based on a survey conducted in January 2011. The questionnaire was distributed to 1000 persons that were randomly drawn from the Finnish Population Register. The respondents were aged 65-79 years (mean age 70 years) and lived in the Turku region in Finland. A total of 281 questionnaires (28%) were returned. χ(2) analyses were used to find possible relationships between demographic factors, as well as interest, seeking activity, current self-rated health and different dimensions of health information literacy, including needs, seeking and use of health-related information. Significant relationships were found between education level, interest in health information, seeking activity, self-rated current health and dimensions of health information literacy. Some categories of elderly people are more vulnerable regarding obtaining and use of health information: those with lower levels of education, those with poor health, and those who are not interested in and active at seeking information. For people who are found in any of these categories, it is important that available health-related information is understandable and can be accessed without too much effort-something that information providers should take into account. PMID:22733677

  20. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  1. AGS Foundation for Health in Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... read more Join our e-newsletter! Health in Aging Blog read more Read posts about issues concerning older adults © 2016 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • ...

  2. State of Aging and Health in America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button The State of Aging and Health in America (SAHA) Recommend on Facebook ... this data for action. Â The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 The 2013 report ...

  3. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  4. Socioeconomic status and self-reported health among middle-aged Japanese men: results from a nationwide longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine potential associations between socioeconomic factors and self-rated health among a national sample of Japanese men aged 50–59 years between 2005 and 2010, including the 2008 global financial crisis. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Randomly selected 2515 census areas from a total of 1.8 million census areas in Japan. Participants This study utilised data from a national, longitudinal survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Starting in 2005, 16 738 Japanese men aged 50–59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire each year. We analysed data for the 6-year period (2005–2010) from participants who had worked for over 20 years in the same industry (n=9727). Main outcome measures We focused on worsening self-rated health status by occupation, education and employment contract. Results Working in the manufacturing industry was associated with worsening self-rated health scores when compared to those working in management (HR=1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.37). A relationship between education level and worsening self-rated health was also identified as follows: junior high school (HR=1.49; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.69), high school (HR=1.29; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.42), and vocational college (HR=1.25; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.46), when compared with those holding university-level qualifications. Precarious employment (HR=1.17; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.37) was also associated with worsening self-rated health status in the current study. Conclusions This study suggests that working in manufacturing for more than 20 years and having lower education levels may have a significant impact on the self-rated health of middle-aged Japanese men. This may reflect a progressive decline in Japanese working conditions following the global financial crisis and/or the impact of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:26109119

  5. Older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning: a systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Warmoth, Krystal; Tarrant, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Lang, Iain A

    2016-07-01

    Many older people perceive ageing negatively, describing it in terms of poor or declining health and functioning. These perceptions may be related to older adults' health. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing research on the relationship between older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases (ASSIA, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and PsycINFO). Citations within identified reports were also searched. Observational studies were included if they included perceptions of ageing and health-related measures involving participants aged 60 years and older. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using predefined criteria. Twenty-eight reports met the criteria for inclusion. Older adults' perceptions of ageing were assessed with a variety of measures. Perceptions were related to health and functioning across seven health domains: memory and cognitive performance, physical and physiological performance, medical conditions and outcomes, disability, care-seeking, self-rated health, quality of life and death. How ageing is perceived by older adults is related to their health and functioning in multiple domains. However, higher quality and longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate this relationship. PMID:26527056

  6. Age at First Birth, Health, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirowsky, John

    2005-01-01

    The biodevelopmental view sees the readiness and soundness of the organism at the time of first birth as its prime link to health and survival years and decades later. It suggests an optimum age at first birth shortly after puberty. The biosocial view emphasizes social correlates and consequences of age at first birth that may influence health and…

  7. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  8. Ethnicity, Aging and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    What is the relationship between ethnicity and the mental health problems of the elderly in American society? This paper offers some suggestions and reviews some data that might encourage further efforts in this area. (Author)

  9. Use of anchoring vignettes to evaluate health reporting behavior amongst adults aged 50 years and above in Africa and Asia – testing assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier; Oti, Samuel; Debpuur, Cornelius; Juvekar, Sanjay; Tollman, Stephen; Blomstedt, Yulia; Wall, Stig; Ng, Nawi

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparing self-rating health responses across individuals and cultures is misleading due to different reporting behaviors. Anchoring vignettes is a technique that allows identifying and adjusting self-rating responses for reporting heterogeneity (RH). Objective This article aims to test two crucial assumptions of vignette equivalence (VE) and response consistency (RC) that are required to be met before vignettes can be used to adjust self-rating responses for RH. Design We used self-ratings, vignettes, and objective measures covering domains of mobility and cognition from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health, administered to older adults aged 50 years and above from eight low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. For VE, we specified a hierarchical ordered probit (HOPIT) model to test for equality of perceived vignette locations. For RC, we tested for equality of thresholds that are used to rate vignettes with thresholds derived from objective measures and used to rate their own health function. Results There was evidence of RH in self-rating responses for difficulty in mobility and cognition. Assumptions of VE and RC between countries were violated driven by age, sex, and education. However, within a country context, assumption of VE was met in some countries (mainly in Africa, except Tanzania) and violated in others (mainly in Asia, except India). Conclusion We conclude that violation of assumptions of RC and VE precluded the use of anchoring vignettes to adjust self-rated responses for RH across countries in Asia and Africa. PMID:24011254

  10. Ageing, dementia and oral health.

    PubMed

    Foltyn, P

    2015-03-01

    Neurocognitive decline and delirium, frailty, incontinence, falls, hearing and vision impairment, medication compliance and pharmacokinetics, skin breakdown, impaired sleep and rest are regarded as geriatric giants by gerontologists, geriatricians and nursing home staff. As these are all interrelated in the elderly, failure to act on one can impact on the others. However, the implications of poor oral health have for too long been ignored and deserve equal status. Mouth pain can be devastating for the elderly, compound psychosocial problems, frustrate carers and nursing home staff and disrupt family dynamics. As appearance, function and comfort suffer, so may a person's self-esteem and confidence. The contributing factors for poor oral health such as rapid dental decay, acute and chronic periodontal infections and compromised systemic health on a background of a dry mouth, coupled with xerostomia-inducing medications, reduced fine motor function, declining cognition and motivation will not only lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality but also impact on quality of life. PMID:25762045

  11. Aging male bodies, health and the reproduction of age relations.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Ojala, Hanna; King, Neal; Calasanti, Toni

    2013-08-01

    This article explores the ways in which a group of male factory workers uses bodies as bases for hierarchical categorization of men by age in their talk of mundane aspects of their lives. Analysis of interviews about health (4 focus groups and 5 personal interviews) with Finnish working-class men under 40 years old shows that they portray age groups to which they do not belong as careless, even irresponsible toward health and its maintenance. As they categorize youth and old people by age, they leave themselves unmarked by it, providing no vocabulary to describe their own group. Despite their tendency to distance themselves particularly from old people, they also distinguish among older men by familiarity, providing relatively nuanced accounts of their fathers' aging. We discuss the marking of age groups in terms of social inequality and talk of fathers in terms of intergenerational relations. Even family ties among men of diverse ages involve ageism, which familiarity serves both to mitigate and to make less visible. This article documents the maintenance of age inequality in everyday, mundane behavior. PMID:23849422

  12. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. PMID:26613696

  13. Base Excision Repair, Aging and Health Span

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guogang; Herzig, Maryanne; Rotrekl, Vladimir; Walter, Christi A.

    2008-01-01

    DNA damage and mutagenesis are suggested to contribute to aging through their ability to mediate cellular dysfunction. The base excision repair (BER) pathway ameliorates a large number of DNA lesions that arise spontaneously. Many of these lesions are reported to increase with age. Oxidized guanine, repaired largely via base excision repair, is particularly well studied and shown to increase with age. Spontaneous mutant frequencies also increase with age which suggests that mutagenesis may contribute to aging. It is widely accepted that genetic instability contributes to age-related occurrences of cancer and potentially other age-related pathologies. BER activity decreases with age in multiple tissues. The specific BER protein that appears to limit activity varies among tissues. DNA polymerase-β is reduced in brain from aged mice and rats while AP endonuclease is reduced in spermatogenic cells obtained from old mice. The differences in proteins that appear to limit BER activity among tissues may represent true tissue-specific differences in activity or may be due to differences in techniques, environmental conditions or other unidentified differences among the experimental approaches. Much remains to be addressed concerning the potential role of BER in aging and age-related health span. PMID:18423806

  14. Self-Rated Competences Questionnaires from a Design Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Edith; Woodley, Alan; Richardson, John T. E.; Leidner, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical review of self-rated competences questionnaires. This topic is influenced by the ongoing world-wide reform of higher education, which has led to a focus on the learner outcomes of higher education. Consequently, questionnaires on self-rated competences have increasingly been employed. However, self-ratings are…

  15. Parental psychopathology and self-rated quality of life in adolescents with epilepsy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adewuya, Abiodun O

    2006-07-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between parental psychopathology and health-related quality of life in a group of Nigerian adolescents with epilepsy. The participants were 86 adolescents with epilepsy (50 males, 36 females; mean age 14y 5mo [SD 2y 1mo]; age range 12-18y). There were 54 (62.8%) adolescents with complex partial seizures, six (7.0%) with simple partial seizures, 14 (16.3%) with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, four (4.7%) with absence seizures, and eight (9.2%) with other types of seizure. They completed the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory for Adolescents (QOLIE-AD-48). Parents also completed the General Health Questionnaire, Zung's Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and Zung's Self-Rating Depressive Scale as measures of their psychopathology. Factors correlating with poor overall quality of life in the adolescents include longer duration of illness, large number of antiepileptic drugs, more severe medication toxicity, and psychopathology in the parents. General psychopathology in parents is significantly associated with QOLIE-AD-48 subscales of Epilepsy Impact (r=0.527, p<0.001), Attitude (r=0.214, p=0.047), Physical Function (r=0.417, p<0.001), Stigma (r=0.305, p=0.004), Social Support (r=0.365, p=0.001), and School Behaviour (r=0.220, p=0.042). There is a possibility of a cross-cultural difference on the effect of epilepsy on the quality of life of adolescents. Psychopathology in parents is significantly associated with poorer quality of life of these adolescents. Physicians should consider this, therefore, when planning intervention strategies in improving the quality of life in adolescents with epilepsy. PMID:16780631

  16. Mental health problems of aging and the aged*

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Martin

    1959-01-01

    The rapid increase in admission rates to mental hospitals in many countries in recent decades threatens to create serious problems. These may be to some extent remediable in that social factors are important in deciding the chances of admission to hospital, as well as the frequency of suicide, which reaches a peak among the aged in most countries. All communities possess valuable assets in the form of existing links between the aged and their families which may be lost by indiscriminate community planning. Although some psychological decline is inevitable during senescence, it is becoming clear that much that once passed for the ineluctable effects of mental and physical aging is due to disease that may be ameliorated or cured. The relationship between mental and physical health is particularly close in old age, and the effective treatment of the aged person with a psychiatric disorder demands the full resources of general medicine as well as psychiatry. For successful rehabilitation a full community service for the aged and proper integration of the work of the family doctor with that of preventive and hospital services are essential. The possibilities of prevention can be enhanced by fostering physical well-being and healthy adjustment during earlier stages of life, as well as by ascertaining, and remedying as far as possible, the mental and physical disorders of the aged in the early stages of their development. There is great scope for biological, medical and sociological research to define reasons for the wide variations in mental and physical well-being in old age. PMID:14439413

  17. Paternal age and mental health of offspring.

    PubMed

    Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred

    2015-06-01

    The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature demonstrates, in addition, a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder, and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to patients, their family, and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369

  18. Sexual health and relationships after age 60.

    PubMed

    Minkin, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used phrase describing aging is "60 is the new 40". Although in many aspects of life this may be correct, in discussing sexual health, challenges to maintaining excellent sexual health become more common around age 60. Biological aging challenges physical sexual activity and responsiveness. We commence by briefly surveying the extensive coverage of 'normal' physiological aging. We primarily focus on issues that arise in distinct disease and or pathophysiological states, including gynecological and breast cancer, as well as those associated with partners of men who are either prostate cancer survivors or who have taken therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). Regrettably, there is a very modest literature on sexual health and associated possible interventions in older patients in these cohorts. We discuss a variety of interventions and approaches, including those that we have developed and applied in a clinic at our host university, which have generally produced successful outcomes. The extended focus to sexual relationship dynamics in partners of men with either prostate cancer or ED in particular is virtually unexplored, yet is especially timely given the large numbers of women who encounter this situation. Finally, we briefly discuss cross-cultural distinctions in older couples' expectations, which exhibit remarkable variation. PMID:26547237

  19. Student Expectations About Mental Health and Aging.

    PubMed

    Silver, Michelle Pannor; Warrick, Natalie Irene; Cyr, Alaina

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from stereotype embodiment theory this study contributes to existing literature by examining whether and how expectations regarding mental health and aging changed for students enrolled in an undergraduate gerontology course at a Canadian research university (N = 51). At the beginning and end of the course, data from an open-ended word association exercise and the Expectations Regarding Aging (ERA-12) survey was collected and later analyzed. Investigators used content analysis and quantization to examine the word association data and statistical tests to analyze the mental health subscale (ERA-MHS). Findings were integrated and presented in a convergence code matrix. Results show that overall participants had more favorable expectations over time; in particular, ERA-MHS scores indicated less favorable expectations at Time 1 (M = 48.86) than at Time 2 (M = 65.36) significant at p < .01, while terms like "successful aging" increased and terms like "depressed" decreased. Findings have implications for geriatric mental health competencies of students in the health professions. PMID:25621721

  20. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life – the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33–2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  1. Autonomy, health and ageing: transnational perspectives.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, G

    2000-02-01

    A comparative study was undertaken in Italy and the UK to explore elderly people's perceptions of old age and ageing, and to establish a ranking of factors which were seen to contribute to the maintenance or loss of autonomy. The results were collated with the expressed views of practitioners and others working with elderly people in a range of settings in eight different European Union Member States. These data informed the compilation of an educational programme, presented as a handbook for use by and with elderly people, the focus of which was life-skills development as a prerequisite for health education. Life-skills were defined in terms of the development of a positive self-image, a social 'ease' and a feeling of 'belongingness' in the context of old age. Assumptions underlying the framing of the educational programme were a transnationally accepted relationship between autonomy, empowerment, self-image and health, and the centrality of life-skills development as catalytic in this process. The paper, however, flags substantial conceptual and methodological issues which arose in moving towards transnationally, shared understandings within the project team at each of the three stages of the project, and offers some evaluative observations on the strengths, concerns and achievements offered by transnational research and collaborative activity. PMID:10788198

  2. Examining Associations between Self-Rated Health and Proficiency in Literacy and Numeracy among Immigrants and U.S.-Born Adults: Evidence from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to analyze the relationship between self-reported health (SRH) and literacy and numeracy proficiency for immigrants compared to U.S.-born respondents and for Hispanic versus Asian immigrants. The research questions were: (1) Are literacy and numeracy scores associated with adults’ SRH? (2) Are associations between SRH and literacy and numeracy proficiency moderated by immigrant status? (3) Among immigrants, are literacy and numeracy scores more strongly associated with SRH for Hispanics versus Asians? Immigrants had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores, yet reported better health than U.S.-born respondents. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that literacy and numeracy were both positively related to SRH for immigrants and U.S.-born adults, and should therefore be viewed as part of the growing evidence that literacy is an independent and significant social determinant of health. Second, U.S.-born and immigrant adults accrued similarly positive health benefits from stronger literacy and numeracy skills. Third, although Hispanic immigrants were more disadvantaged than Asian immigrants on almost all socioeconomic characteristics and had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores and worse SRH than Asian immigrants, both Hispanic and Asian immigrants experienced similar positive health returns from literacy and numeracy proficiency. These findings underscore the potential health benefits of providing adult basic education instruction, particularly for immigrants with the least formal schooling and fewest socioeconomic resources. PMID:26132212

  3. Associations between Teacher-Rated versus Self-Rated Student Temperament and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullola, Sari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Jokela, Markus; Lipsanen, Jari; Alatupa, Saija; Ravaja, Niklas; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether teacher-rated versus self-rated student temperaments are different in relation to the school grades in Maths and Mother language (ML) instruction in a nationally representative sample of Finnish Secondary School students (n?=?1,063, mean age 15.1 years). The results indicated that teacher-rated temperament was more…

  4. Usefulness and Reliability of Tanner Pubertal Self-Rating to Urban Black Adolescents in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Shane A.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    Self-rating of pubertal development is the recommended method to assess puberty in large community-based surveys of adolescent development and behavior. The aim of this study was to validate for the first time pubertal self-assessment using the sexual maturation scale developed by Tanner among Black South African adolescents (n=182) aged between…

  5. Rejuvenating health systems for aging communities.

    PubMed

    Paccaud, Fred

    2002-08-01

    Nowadays, about the half of Swiss women die after their 84th birthday. This unprecedented proportion of the population reaching an old age, or even a very old age (25% of women die after 89 years, and 5% after 95 years) is a novel aspect of human demographics, and represents the very last stage of the epidemiological transition, a term coined to describe the transformation of the prevailing health burden in the population, shifting from infectious and communicable pathologies to chronic and degenerative diseases. In developed countries, this epidemiological transition has been well documented during the last century; worldwide, a similar transition is taking place, with some countries still at mid or early stages of transition. A striking aspect of the current transition is its speed. In India, the mean duration of life since 1947 has increased from 32 to 62 years. As a result, India, like many other developing countries, is facing a double burden of disease, i.e., an upsurge of degenerative diseases while the burden from the old agenda (i.e., malaria, tuberculosis) still reaches devastating proportions in the population. This double burden is certainly a crucial problem in developing countries, and probably is the most important health challenge for the coming century. A similar accelerated pace of change is observed with the decline of mortality at old age. Worldwide, the current estimate of centenarians is 100000, i.e., ten time more centenarians than the number estimated in 1960. The downward trend in mortality, which is steeper with increasing age, is now the leading factor to Increase the life expectancy in developed countries. In the United Kingdom, life expectancy increased by 2.5 years between 1971 and 1991; this is equivalent to the increase observed between 1851 and 1961. This accelerated increase will influence public health in two different ways. The first will be the absolute increase in the number of older persons, with a corresponding increase in

  6. [Accessible health information: a question of age?].

    PubMed

    Loos, E F

    2012-04-01

    Aging and digitalisation are important trends which have their impact on information accessibility. Accessible information about products and services is of crucial importance to ensure that all citizens can participate fully as active members of society. Senior citizens who have difficulties using new media run the risk of exclusion in today's information society. Not all senior citizens, however, encounter problems with new media. Not by a long shot. There is much to be said for 'aged heterogeneity', the concept that individual differences increase as people age. In two explorative qualitative case studies related to accessible health information--an important issue for senior citizens--that were conducted in the Netherlands, variables such as gender, education level and frequency of internet use were therefore included in the research design. In this paper, the most important results of these case studies will be discussed. Attention will be also paid to complementary theories (socialisation, life stages) which could explain differences in information search behaviour when using old or new media. PMID:22642049

  7. Structural health management for aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Roy; Haugse, Eric D.

    2001-06-01

    An effective structural health management (SHM) system can be a useful tool for making aircraft fleet management decisions ranging from individual aircraft maintenance scheduling and usage restrictions to fleet rotation strategies. This paper discusses the end-user requirements for the elements and architecture of an effective SHM system for application to both military and commercial aging aircraft fleets. The elements discussed include the sensor systems for monitoring and characterizing the health of the structure, data processing methods for interpreting sensor data and converting it into useable information, and automated methods for erroneous data detection, data archiving and information dissemination. Current and past SHM technology development/maturation efforts in these areas at the Boeing Company will be described. An evolutionary technology development strategy is developed in which the technologies needed will be matured, integrated into a vehicle health management system, and benefits established without requiring extensive changes to the end-user's existing operation and maintenance infrastructure. Issues regarding the end-user customer acceptance of SHM systems are discussed and summarized.

  8. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants A representative sample of men aged 71–92 years in 2010–2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978–1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Results Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had <21 teeth. For periodontal disease, 233 (19%) had loss of attachment (>5.5 mm) affecting 1–20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1–2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3–5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. Conclusions These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. PMID:26715480

  9. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes. PMID:24598696

  10. The Measurement of Self-Rated Depression: A Multidimensional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolon, Kevin; Barling, Julian

    1980-01-01

    Investigates the capacity of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale for providing specific multidimensional descriptors of depressive behavior. Ideational, physiological and behavioral depression factors were evident in data from 96 normal, white university student volunteers. (Author/RH)

  11. HEALTH OF CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESSER, ARTHUR

    A HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE STUDY OF SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMS, THIS REPORT PRESENTS STATISTICS ON (1) THE NATION'S CHILD POPULATION, (2) CHILDREN IN LOW-INCOME FAMILIES, (3) ILLNESSES OF CHILDHOOD, (4) SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES, AND (5) TRENDS IN THE PROVISION OF HEALTH CARE FOR CHILDREN. THE REPORT EMPHASIZES THE GAPS IN CHILD HEALTH SUPERVISION…

  12. Relationships Between Health Behaviors, Self-Efficacy, and Health Locus of Control of Students at the Universities of the Third Age

    PubMed Central

    Zielińska-Więczkowska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the relationship of health behaviors with the health locus of control and the sense of self-efficacy against the background of socio-economic factors and self-rated health among students of the Universities of the Third Age (U3As). Material/Methods The study included 320 U3A students, with mean age of 67.5 years. The following research tools were used: Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and an original survey of the author’s own design. Results Mean total HBI and GSES scores were 90.63 and 30.12, respectively. These results are satisfactory. A slight predominance of internal health locus of control was documented. A number of significant correlations were found between the HBI, GSES, and MHLC scores, except for the MHLC subscale expressing the influence of chance. Educational attainment was shown to have a significant impact on the scores for the positive attitude and proper dietary habits subscales of HBI, as well as on the GSES scores. Economic status of the participants influenced the levels of positive attitude, internal health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, internal health locus of control was found to be modulated by subjective health of the respondents. The scores for external health locus of control and the influence of chance increased significantly with age. Conclusions The currently noticeable emphasis placed on lifelong education should serve as a good prognostic factor for health behaviors and personal health resources for years to come. PMID:26879981

  13. Relationships Between Health Behaviors, Self-Efficacy, and Health Locus of Control of Students at the Universities of the Third Age.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Więczkowska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to determine the relationship of health behaviors with the health locus of control and the sense of self-efficacy against the background of socio-economic factors and self-rated health among students of the Universities of the Third Age (U3As). MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 320 U3A students, with mean age of 67.5 years. The following research tools were used: Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and an original survey of the author's own design. RESULTS Mean total HBI and GSES scores were 90.63 and 30.12, respectively. These results are satisfactory. A slight predominance of internal health locus of control was documented. A number of significant correlations were found between the HBI, GSES, and MHLC scores, except for the MHLC subscale expressing the influence of chance. Educational attainment was shown to have a significant impact on the scores for the positive attitude and proper dietary habits subscales of HBI, as well as on the GSES scores. Economic status of the participants influenced the levels of positive attitude, internal health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, internal health locus of control was found to be modulated by subjective health of the respondents. The scores for external health locus of control and the influence of chance increased significantly with age. CONCLUSIONS The currently noticeable emphasis placed on lifelong education should serve as a good prognostic factor for health behaviors and personal health resources for years to come. PMID:26879981

  14. Age-related preferences and age weighting health benefits.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the relevance of age in the paradigm of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The first section outlines two rationales for incorporating age weights into QALYs. One of them is based on efficiency concerns; and the other on equity concerns. Both of these are theoretical constructs. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of published empirical support for such age weighting. The second section is a brief survey of nine empirical studies that elicited age-related preferences from the general public. Six of these quantified the strength of the preferences, and these are discussed in more detail in the third section. The analysis distinguishes three kinds of age-related preference: productivity ageism, utilitarian ageism and egalitarian ageism. The relationship between them and their relevance to the two different rationales for age weighting are then explored. It is concluded that, although there is strong prima facie evidence of public support for both types of age weighting, the empirical evidence to support any particular set of weights is at present weak. PMID:10048783

  15. Cultivating Social Work Leadership in Health Promotion and Aging: Strategies for Active Aging Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Victor W.; Altpeter, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The rapid growth of the population of older adults and their concomitant physical status and health needs have captured the attention, collaboration, and funding support of an array of leaders in the fields of aging and health care. To help fill the void of literature available to social workers interested in health promotion and aging, the…

  16. The effects of gender and age on health related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Deeks, Amanda; Lombard, Catherine; Michelmore, Janet; Teede, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Background Lifestyle-related diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers represent the greatest global health threat. Greater insight into health needs and beliefs, using broad community samples, is vital to reduce the burden of chronic disease. This study aimed to investigate gender, age, screening practices, health beliefs, and perceived future health needs for healthy ageing. Methods Random probability sampling using self-completion surveys in 1456 adults residing in Australia. Results Screening behaviors were associated with gender and age. Men and women >51 years were more likely (27%) to have screening health checks than those <50 years (2%). Factors nominated to influence health were lifestyle (92%), relationships (82%), and environment (80%). Women were more likely to nominate preparedness to have an annual health check, willingness to seek advice from their medical practitioner and to attend education sessions. Numerous health fears were associated with ageing, however participants were more likely to have a financial (72%) rather than a health plan (42%). More women and participants >51 years wanted information regarding illness prevention than men or those aged <30 years. Conclusion Age and gender are associated with health related behaviors. Optimal health is perceived as a priority, yet often this perception is not translated into preventative action. These findings will inform future research and policy makers as we strive towards a healthier ageing society and the prevention of chronic disease. PMID:19563685

  17. Health and aging of urban American Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, B J

    1992-01-01

    Although half of the American Indian population resides off the reservation, mostly in the western states, research on the health of urban American Indians remains sparse. American Indians living in urban areas are not eligible for the federally mandated health care provided by the Indian Health Service and receive health care services in a variety of settings. This population is at high risk for many health problems, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Social, cultural, and economic barriers that impede access to health care for this group, particularly for elders living in an urban setting, could be reduced if physicians improved their understanding of and communication with American Indian patients. PMID:1413770

  18. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    ... for diabetes. COLON CANCER SCREENING If you are under age 50, you should be screened if you have ... bone density test (DEXA scan). If you are under age 65 and have risk factors for osteoporosis , you ...

  19. Confidence in, and self-rating of, driving ability among older drivers.

    PubMed

    Marottoli, R A; Richardson, E D

    1998-05-01

    Active drivers (n = 125) in a representative cohort of older individuals age 77 years and older in New Haven, Connecticut were interviewed. Confidence in different driving situations, self-rating of driving ability, and driving patterns were assessed during these in-person interviews. A history of crashes, moving violations and being stopped by police was available for approximately the past 6 years. Concurrent driving performance was assessed in a subsample (n = 35). Analyses focused on determining the relationship of confidence and self-rating of driving ability to: (1) each other; (2) driving patterns; (3) adverse driving events; and (4) driving performance. All participants rated themselves as being average or above average drivers compared to others their age, with the majority rating themselves as above average. Individuals who drove more miles and more frequently were more likely to rate themselves better drivers than same-age peers. Individuals who rated themselves as "much better" drivers than their peers tended to have higher confidence levels than those who rated themselves a "little bit better" or the "same" as other drivers. On-road driving performance and history of adverse events were not associated with self-ratings of driving ability. Confidence was associated with driving frequency and mileage, but not age or education. Although men were more likely to drive under risky conditions, for those conditions in which each drove, men and women were equally confident. No relationship was found between confidence and adverse driving events or driving performance. Understanding the relationship of confidence and self-rating of driving ability to driving patterns, adverse events and driving performance may provide additional insights into identifying older drivers at increased risk for problems and formulating intervention strategies to help lower risk. PMID:9663292

  20. Adulthood Predictors of Health Promoting Behavior in Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Suzuki, Rie

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adulthood predictors of health-promoting behavior in later aging. The participants were 162 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted (Terman et al., 1925), who responded in 1999 at an average age of 86 to a mailout questionnaire which included questions concerning their positive health behavior. Adulthood variables were…

  1. Health expenditures by age group, 1977 and 1987

    PubMed Central

    Waldo, Daniel R.; Sonnefeld, Sally T.; McKusick, David R.; Arnett, Ross H.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, concern has increased over the rapid growth of health care spending, especially spending on behalf of the aged. In 1987, those 65 years or over comprised 12 percent of the population but consumed 36 percent of total personal health care. This article is an examination of the current and future composition of the population and effects on health care spending. National health accounts aggregates for 1977 and 1987 are split into three age groups, and the consumption patterns of each group are discussed. The variations in spending within the aged cohort are also examined. PMID:10313274

  2. The role of social and built environments in predicting self-rated stress: A multilevel analysis in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Matthews, Stephen A

    2010-09-01

    Most studies of the predictors of stress focus on individual characteristics. Linking multiple contextual data sources to an individual-level health survey, we explore the associations of both built and social environment determinants with self-rated stress. At the individual level few social factors were significant predictors, although neighborhood trust and food insecurity have independent effects on stress. At the neighborhood level, the presence of hazardous waste sites and traffic volume were determinants of self-rated stress even after controlling for other individual characteristics. The latter two factors are of relevance to public health policy as they are potentially modifiable. PMID:20434389

  3. Mixed Rasch Modeling of the Self-Rating Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sehee; Min, Sae-Young

    2007-01-01

    In this study, mixed Rasch modeling was used on the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), a widely used measure of depression, among a non-Western sample of 618 Korean college students. The results revealed three latent classes and confirmed the unidimensionality of the SDS. In addition, there was a significant effect for gender in terms of class…

  4. Learning Wellness: How Ageing Australians Experience Health Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christine; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Given identified synergies between information use and health status greater understanding is needed about how people use information to learn about their health. This paper presents the findings of preliminary research into health information literacy. Analysis of data from semi-structured interviews revealed six different ways ageing Australians…

  5. Health of Aging Parents and Childless Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendig, Hal; Dykstra, Pearl A.; van Gaalen, Ruben I.; Melkas, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews and presents research findings on the relationships between parenthood and health over the life span. Existing research shows lacunae. The links between reproductive behavior and longevity generally focus on family size rather than contrasting parents and nonparents. Studies of marital status differentials in survival…

  6. Old age, disability and care in public health.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aging of the population profoundly changes the scope of action of public health, altering the profile of morbidity-mortality and increasing the demand for chronic care. In the aging population, disability serves as an indicator of health and a guideline for actions and policies. This enquiry, with a qualitative approach, based on interpretative anthropology and the emic perspective, aims to understand the way of thinking and acting of old people in the face of 'old age with disability' and their relationships with public health. Individual interviews were held at the subject's homes, using a semi-structured script, with 57 old people living in the city, including participants from the cohort of Bambuí. Collection and analysis of the data was oriented by the methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions, making possible anthropological investigation of the representations and concrete behaviors associated with disability in old age in the local culture. Two categories relating to the relationships between old age, disability and public healthcare emerged from the analysis: (i) experience of care in old age with disability; and (ii) the fear of lack of care. The results reveal that public health needs to review its concepts about disability in old age and incorporate disability into the agenda of the functional dimension of health and care for old age. PMID:26691789

  7. How Old Do You Feel? The Role of Age Discrimination and Biological Aging in Subjective Age

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age, or how young or old individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, is a crucial construct in gerontology. Subjective age is a significant predictor of important health outcomes, but little is known about the criteria by which individuals' subjectively evaluate their age. To identify psychosocial and biomedical factors linked to the subjective evaluation of age, this study examined whether perceived age discrimination and markers of biological aging are associated with subjective age. Participants were 4776 adults (Mage = 68) from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who completed measures of subjective age, age discrimination, demographic variables, self-rated health and depression, and had physical health measures, including peak expiratory flow, grip strength, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Telomere length was available for a subset of participants in the 2008 wave (n = 2214). Regression analysis indicated that perceived age discrimination, lower peak expiratory flow, lower grip strength, and higher waist circumference were associated with an older subjective age, controlling for sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, and depression. In contrast, blood pressure and telomere length were not related to subjective age. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that how old a person feels depends in part on psychosocial and biomedical factors, including the experiences of ageism and perceptible indices of fitness and biological age. PMID:25738579

  8. Impact of Community-Based Dental Education on Attainment of ADEA Competencies: Students' Self-Ratings.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Kimberly K; Nayar, Preethy; Ojha, Diptee; Chandak, Aastha; Gupta, Niodita; Lange, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Fourth-year dental students at the College of Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical Center participate in a community-based dental education (CBDE) program that includes a four-week rotation in rural dental practices and community health clinics across Nebraska and nearby states. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of participation in the CBDE program on the self-rated competencies of these students. A retrospective survey was administered to students who participated in extramural rotations in two academic years. The survey collected demographic data and asked students to rate themselves on a scale from 1=not competent at all to 5=very competent on attainment of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Competencies for the New General Dentist for before and after the rotations. A total of 92 responses were obtained: 43 students for 2011-12 and 49 students for 2012-13 (95% response rate for each cohort). The results showed that the students' mean pre-program self-ratings ranged from 3.28 for the competency domain of Practice Management and Informatics to 3.93 for Professionalism. Their mean post-program self-ratings ranged from 3.76 for Practice Management and Informatics to 4.31 for Professionalism. The students showed a statistically significant increase in self-ratings for all six competency domains. The increase was greatest in the domain of Critical Thinking and least in Communication and Interpersonal Skills. Overall, these results suggest that the CBDE program was effective in improving the students' self-perceptions of competence in all six domains and support the idea that a competency-based evaluation of CBDE programs can provide valuable information to dental educators about program effectiveness. PMID:27251348

  9. An Aging Game Simulation Activity for Allied Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Carolinda; Henry, Beverly W.; Kostiwa, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    The Aging Game, a simulation activity, has been used successfully with medical students in the development of empathetic attitudes toward older adults. To date, the Aging Game has not been used extensively with allied health students. It has been viewed as too costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  10. Social and Mental Health Needs of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolliver, Lennie-Marie

    1983-01-01

    The United States Commissioner on Aging describes challenges posed by the increasing size of the older adult population, outlines gaps in knowledge regarding aging and the elderly, and calls for greater collaboration between the elderly and existing mental health networks. (AOS)

  11. The Impact of Feedback on Self-rated Driving Ability and Driving Self-regulation Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Michelle L.; Crowe, Michael; Vance, David E.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Owsley, Cynthia; Ball, Karlene K.

    2011-01-01

    In 129 community-dwelling older adults, feedback regarding qualification for an insurance discount (based on a visual speed of processing test; Useful Field of View) was examined as a prospective predictor of change in self-reported driving ability, driving avoidance, and driving exposure over 3 months, along with physical, visual, health, and cognitive variables. Multiple regression models indicated that after controlling for baseline scores on the outcome measures, failure to qualify was a significant predictor of increased avoidance over 3 months (p = .02) but not change in self-rated driving ability or exposure. Female gender (p = .03) was a significant predictor of subsequent lower self-rated driving ability. Overall, the findings of this study provide support for the role of feedback in the self-monitoring of older adults’ driving behavior through avoidance of challenging driving situations but not through driving exposure or self-rated driving ability. PMID:21071621

  12. Life Styling for the Promotion of Health While Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gloria R.

    Classes on lifestyling for the promotion of health for the elderly were offered to a senior citizens' group in a community center setting. The objectives of the sessions were: (1) to teach the importance of health maintenance and primary prevention throughout the aging process; (2) to disseminate information relative to diet, exercise, and stress…

  13. Social Integration and Mental Health of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deimling, Gary T.; Harel Zev

    Social support has been found to be positively related to well being in elderly individuals. To examine the effects of social integration (social resources, social interaction, and perceived adequacy of resources), and health, age, marital status, and socioeconomic status (SES) on mental health among urban elderly individuals, 1,727 persons from…

  14. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  15. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ≥ 35

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, João Paulo; Cardoso, Salvador Massano

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional) with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36); health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD), Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001), with chronic disease (p < 0.0001), who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01), who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence) and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over health attitudes and

  16. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tyson H; Richardson, Liana J; Hargrove, Taylor W; Thomas, Courtney S

    2016-06-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. PMID:27284076

  17. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tyson H.; Richardson, Liana J.; Hargrove, Taylor W.; Thomas, Courtney S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. PMID:27284076

  18. Intelligence in youth and health at age 50

    PubMed Central

    Wraw, Christina; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Background The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort. Methods Participants were the 5793 participants in the NLSY-79 who responded to questions about health outcomes at age 50. Sixteen health outcomes were examined: two were summary measures (physical health and functional limitation), 9 were diagnosed illness conditions, 4 were self-reported conditions, and one was a measure of general health status. Linear and logistic regressions were used, as appropriate, to examine the relationship between intelligence in youth and the health outcomes. Age, sex and both childhood and adult SES, and its sub-components – income, education, & occupational prestige – are all adjusted for separately. Results & conclusion Higher pre-morbid intelligence is linked with better physical health at age 50, and a lower risk for a number of chronic health conditions. For example, a 1 SD higher score in IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of having good, very good, or excellent health, with an odds ratio of 1.70 (C.I. 1.55–1.86). Thirteen of the illness outcomes were significantly and negatively associated with IQ in youth; the odds ratios ranged from 0.85 for diabetes/high blood sugar to 0.65 for stroke, per one standard deviation higher score in IQ. Adjustment for childhood SES led to little attenuation but adult SES partially mediated the relationship for a number of conditions. Mediation by adult SES was not consistently explained by any one of its components—income, education, and occupation status. The current findings contribute to our understanding of lower intelligence as a risk factor for poor health and how this may contribute to health inequalities. PMID:26766880

  19. Correlates of Self-Reported Sleep Duration in Middle-Aged and Elderly Koreans: from the Health Examinees Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Yang, Jae Jeong; Song, Minkyo; Lee, Hwi-Won; Han, Sohee; Lee, Sang-Ah; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Jong-koo; Kang, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    Though various factors related to fluctuations in sleep duration have been identified, information remains limited regarding the correlates of short and long sleep duration among the Korean population. Thus, we investigated characteristics that could be associated with short and/or long sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Koreans. A total of 84,094 subjects (27,717 men and 56,377 women) who participated in the Health Examinees Study were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regression models. To evaluate whether sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, psychological conditions, anthropometry results, and health conditions were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with sleep duration of 6–7 hours as the reference group, accounting for putative covariates. Regardless of sexual differences, we found that adverse behaviors and lifestyle factors including low educational attainment, unemployment, being unmarried, current smoking status, lack of exercise, having irregular meals, poor psychosocial well-being, frequent stress events, and poor self-rated health were significantly associated with abnormal sleep duration. Similarly, diabetes mellitus and depression showed positive associations with abnormal sleep duration in both men and women. Our findings suggest that low sociodemographic characteristics, adverse lifestyle factors, poor psychological conditions, and certain disease morbidities could be associated with abnormal sleep duration in middle-aged and elderly Koreans. PMID:25933418

  20. [Social representations on aging by primary care health workers].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Cristina Katya Torres Teixeira; Alves, Maria do Socorro Costa Feitosa; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; Paredes, Maria Adelaide Silva; Rodrigues, Tatyanni Peixoto

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to get to know the social representations on aging developed by primary care health workers. This is an exploratory study involving 204 primary health care workers, in the city of João Pessoa, in the state of Paraíba. For data collection we used a semi-structured interview. The data obtained from 204 interviews was analyzed with the help of the Alceste software version 2010. The results indicated five classes or categories: vision of aging,psychosocial dimensions, a time of doubts, aging as a process, and aging versus disease, with positive content: joy, care, children, retirement, caregiver rights, maturity and wisdom, as well as negative factors: impairments, decadence, neglect, fragility, limitation, wrinkles, dependency and disease. It was observed that these meanings associated with aging express the need for total and humanized elderly care. PMID:23405821

  1. mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Yutao; Wang, Xiaoning; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries. PMID:26816664

  2. mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Yutao; Wang, Xiaoning; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries. PMID:26816664

  3. Is regular drinking in later life an indicator of good health? Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Holdsworth, Clare; Mendonça, Marina; Pikhart, Hynek; Frisher, Martin; de Oliveira, Cesar; Shelton, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background Older people who drink have been shown to have better health than those who do not. This might suggest that moderate drinking is beneficial for health, or, as considered here, that older people modify their drinking as their health deteriorates. The relationship between how often older adults drink and their health is considered for two heath states: self-rated health (SRH) and depressive symptoms. Methods Data were analysed from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a prospective cohort study of older adults, using multilevel ordered logit analysis. The analysis involved 4741 participants present at wave 0, (1998/1999 and 2001), wave 4 (2008/2009) and wave 5 (2010/2011). The outcome measure was frequency of drinking in last year recorded at all three time points. Results Older adults with fair/poor SRH at the onset of the study drank less frequently compared with adults with good SRH (p<0.05). Drinking frequency declined over time for all health statuses, though respondents with both continual fair/poor SRH and declining SRH experienced a sharper reduction in the frequency of their drinking over time compared with older adults who remained in good SRH or whose health improved. The findings were similar for depression, though the association between depressive symptoms and drinking frequency at the baseline was not significant after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusions The frequency of older adults’ drinking responds to changes in health status and drinking frequency in later life may be an indicator, rather than a cause, of health status. PMID:26797821

  4. Health-and disease-related biomarkers in aging research.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Voss, Joachim G

    2009-04-01

    This article focuses on a synthesis of knowledge about healthy aging research in human beings and then synthesized nurse-led research in gerontology and geriatrics that use biomarkers. Healthy aging research has attracted considerable attention in the biomedical and basic sciences within the context of four major areas: (a) genetic variations as an expression of successful or unsuccessful aging; (b) caloric restriction as an intervention to slow the progression of aging; (c) immunological aging; (d) neurobiology of the aging brain. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify nurse-led geriatric-related biomarker research. Nurse researchers who have chosen to integrate biomarkers as part of their research studies have been working in six focal areas, which are reviewed: health promotion within risk populations, cancer, vascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, caregiving, and complementary therapies. The article provides a discussion of contributions to date, identifying existing gaps and future research opportunities. PMID:20077975

  5. Progression of aging in Mexico: the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) 2012

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra; Palloni, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; González-González, César; López-Ortega, Mariana; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the third wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), completed in 2012, and present preliminary results. Materials and methods Descriptive analyses by gender and age group of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health conditions and health behaviors, as well as social support and life satisfaction measures are presented. In addition, external validations are presented by comparing MHAS 2012 indicators with other national data sources. Results For the panel of older adults in the sample, the rate of health care insurance coverage increased greatly between 2001 and 2012, a significantly higher change in rural compared to urban areas. The results for 2012 are consistent with the previous two waves for the main indicators of health and physical disability prevalence, risk factors, and behaviors. Conclusions The MHAS offers a unique opportunity to study aging in Mexico, as well as to complete cross-national comparisons. The cumulative number of deaths in the cohort should support the study of mortality and its association with health outcomes and behaviors over the life cycle. In addition, the sub-samples of objective markers will enable methodological research on self-reports and associations of biomarkers in old age with similar health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:26172238

  6. Mobility and Aging: New Directions for Public Health Action

    PubMed Central

    Guralnik, Jack M.; Jackson, Richard J.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Prohaska, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal mobility, defined as relative ease and freedom of movement in all of its forms, is central to healthy aging. Mobility is a significant consideration for research, practice, and policy in aging and public health. We examined the public health burdens of mobility disability, with a particular focus on leading public health interventions to enhance walking and driving, and the challenges and opportunities for public health action. We propose an integrated mobility agenda, which draws on the lived experience of older adults. New strategies for research, practice, and policy are needed to move beyond categorical promotion programs in walking and driving to establish a comprehensive program to enhance safe mobility in all its forms. PMID:22698013

  7. Principles for communicating with aging health-care consumers.

    PubMed

    Schewe, C D; Spotts, H E

    1990-01-01

    The health-care marketplace is aging by leaps and bounds and bringing with it new and different medical needs. As costs soar and public assistance programs dwindle in impact, health-care providers will need better marketing strategies to bring treatments to patients/consumers. This article looks at the research findings of behavioral scientists and offers guidelines for effective communication with aging audiences. Health-care providers can use these findings to design more effective advertising, promotional brochures, newsletters, and a host of other communication tools targeted at an older market. Health-care managers and other professionals should find the guidelines useful in their daily interactions with patients and colleagues. PMID:10107270

  8. The paradox of better subjective oral health in older age.

    PubMed

    Slade, G D; Sanders, A E

    2011-11-01

    We analyzed data from the 2004-06 Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health to investigate the paradoxical relationship of better subjective oral health in older adults compared with young or middle-aged adults. In interviews with 14,092 adults, prevalence of problems with eating or appearance was not significantly associated with age among dentate people with no denture(s). In contrast, among dentate denture-wearers, prevalence ranged from 18.7% in ≥ 65-year-olds to 46.7% in 25- to 34-year-olds (p < 0.01). Dentate interviewees (n = 3,724) underwent oral epidemiological examinations and completed the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire, evaluating adverse impacts of oral conditions. In multivariable analysis, mean OHIP-14 scores were only weakly associated with age among people who had none of 5 clinical conditions [≥ 5 missing teeth, denture(s), untreated decay, moderate/severe periodontitis, toothache]. However, for people with ≥ 2 clinical conditions, there was a three-fold, inverse association between age and mean OHIP-14 scores (p < 0.01). The findings show that experience of oral disease is more deleterious to subjective oral health when it occurs early in adulthood than when it occurs in old age, a pattern that likely reflects high expectations of young generations and, conversely, great resilience in Australia's oldest generation. PMID:21917599

  9. Patient Age Influences Perceptions About Health Care Communication

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Wallace, Lorraine S.; Fryer, George E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study’s objective was to determine if a patient’s age is independently associated with how he/she perceives interactions with health care providers Methods We used a secondary, cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative data from the 2002 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). We measured the independent association between patient age and six outcomes pertaining to communication and decision-making autonomy, while simultaneously controlling for gender, race, ethnicity, family income, educational attainment, census region, rural residence, insurance status, and usual source of care. Results Compared to patients ≥ 65 years, patients ages 18–64 were less likely to report that their provider “always” listened to them, “always” showed respect for what they had to say, and “always” spent enough time with them. Discussion Patient perceptions of health care interactions vary by age. A better understanding of how and why age is associated with patient-provider communication could be useful to design practice-level interventions that enhance services and also to develop national policies that improve health care delivery and health outcomes. PMID:19184691

  10. Ethnicity, aging, and oral health outcomes: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R M; Davidson, P L

    1997-05-01

    An expanded version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization is used as the theoretical and analytical framework for the International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II). The conceptual framework for understanding determinants of oral health is based on a "systems" perspective. The framework posits that characteristics of the external environment, the dental care delivery system, and the personal characteristics of the population influence oral health behaviors. The expanded behavioral model conceptualizes health behaviors (oral hygiene practices and dental services utilization) as intermediate dependent variables, which in turn influence oral health outcomes (evaluated, perceived, patient satisfaction). The framework is presented with an increased focus on the effects of race-ethnicity and age cohort, the major exogenous variables used in this study for systematic assessment of the differences in the multitude of factors influencing oral health. The framework can be applied by policy analysis and health services managers to help describe, predict, and explain population-based health behaviors and health outcomes. PMID:9549985

  11. Preventive health behaviours among parents of infants aged four months.

    PubMed

    Redman, S; Booth, P; Smyth, H; Paul, C

    1992-06-01

    Six preventive health behaviours have been frequently identified as having the potential to reduce mortality and morbidity during infancy: breast-feeding until the age of six months; no solid food until after four months of age; immunisation against whooping cough, diphtheria, poliomyelitis and tetanus; the use of a baby capsule to restrain the infant when travelling in a motor vehicle; regular attendance at a health care provider for preventive health checks; and no maternal smoking. This study surveyed 191 primiparous women four months after the birth of their babies to explore the proportion of parents who perform the recommended preventive health behaviours and the association among the behaviours. Thirty-nine per cent of the women reported that they were no longer breast-feeding by the time their infant was four months old; 35 per cent had introduced solids before 16 weeks of age; 35 per cent did not always use a baby capsule when travelling with their baby in their car, 25 per cent did not regularly attend the early childhood health centres and 22 per cent smoked. Forty-eight per cent of the sample were performing four or fewer of the six preventive health behaviours and 21 per cent were performing three or fewer. The relationship between performing each preventive health behaviour and a range of demographic variables was investigated. A logistic regression indicated that performing three or fewer of the health behaviours was associated with lower levels of education, having public health insurance and being born in a country other than Australia. PMID:1391160

  12. Demographics, Management, Preventive Health Care and Disease in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Joanne L

    2016-08-01

    Gerontology has become increasingly important in equine veterinary medicine, with aged animals representing a significant proportion of the equine population. Horses are defined as geriatric or aged from age 15 years onwards but can have a life span of more than 40 years. Despite a high level of owner concern for the well-being of their geriatric animal, provision of preventive health care may be suboptimal. Owners seem to under-recognize some of the most prevalent diseases identified in geriatric horses. This review focuses on the demographic characteristics of the equine geriatric population and management and preventive care practices of older horses. PMID:27449388

  13. The arts, health, and aging in america: 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Gay Powell; Noelker, Linda S; Bienvenu, Beth

    2015-04-01

    In advance of the White House Conference on Aging (WHCoA) in 1981, 1995, and 2005, the arts and aging communities held mini-conferences to ensure that arts, culture, and livability were part of larger public policy discussions. This article takes a historical look at recommendations from the 2005 WHCoA Mini-Conference on Creativity and Aging in America, including arts in health care, lifelong learning, and livability through universal design. Overarching recommendations in 2005 requested investments in research, including cost-benefit analyses; identification of best practices and model programs; program dissemination to broaden the availability of arts programs. The "Arts" is a broad term encompassing all forms of arts including music, theater, dance, visual arts, literature, multimedia and design, folk, and traditional arts to engage the participation of all older Americans; promotion of innovative public and private partnerships to support arts program development, including workforce development (e.g., artists, social workers, and health care providers); and public awareness of the importance of arts participation to healthy aging. Through the leadership of the National Endowment for the Arts and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, thinking about the arts and aging has broadened to include greater emphasis on a whole-person approach to the health and well-being of older adults. This approach engages older adults in arts participation not only as audience members, but as vital members of their community through creative expression focusing on life stories for intergenerational as well as interprofessional collaboration. This article reviews progress made to date and identifies critical gaps in services for future consideration at a 2015 Mini-Conference on Creativity and Aging related to the WCHoA area of emphasis on healthy aging. PMID:26035603

  14. Impact of Marijuana Use on Self-Rated Cognition in Young Adult Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Deirdre A.; Kurth, Megan E.; Brower, Kirk J.; Strong, David R.; Stein, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Marijuana (MJ) is a widely used substance that has been shown to impair cognition in laboratory settings. There is a growing number of medical marijuana dispensaries and state policies permitting the use of MJ in the United States. This study is a naturalistic study that explores the association of same day marijuana use on self-rated cognition in young adult men and women. Methods Forty-eight young adults (22F; mean age=22.3) participated. After a baseline assessment, participants made daily phone calls to study staff over the next three weeks. Cumulative minutes of MJ use in the last 24-hours were assessed. Demographic information were collected and self-ratings of cognitive impairment were assessed using six questions about areas of difficulty thinking each day. Results There was a significant relationship between greater number of minutes of marijuana use and higher levels of self-rated cognitive difficulties (b=0.004; SE=0.001; p<0.006). There was no main effect of gender (b=1.0; SE=0.81; p<0.22). Planned evaluation of the interaction between gender and minutes of marijuana use was not significant statistically, suggesting a similar relationship between minutes of marijuana use and cognitive difficulties among women compared to men (p<0.54). Conclusions and Scientific Significance There is an association between current and heavy MJ use and self-perceived cognitive ability in both males and females. These findings reveal important information regarding one consequence of MJ use that has real-world meaning to young adult smokers. PMID:25864605

  15. Consistency of Self-Ratings Across Measurement Conditions and Test Administrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froberg, Debra G.

    1984-01-01

    Using participants in a continuing education conference, an experiment was conducted to examine: (1) the consistency of self-ratings of ability across four different measurement conditions; and, (2) the relative leniency of retrospective pretest self-ratings compared to pretest self-ratings. Implications for evaluators are discussed. (Author/BS)

  16. Using and Interpreting Mental Health Measures in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Carolyn; Hedberg, E. C.; Kozloski, Michael; Dale, William

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) included five unique mental health measures in Waves 1 and 2 that researchers can use to measure the overall emotional health of participants: depressive symptoms, happiness–unhappiness, anxiety symptoms, perceived stress, and felt loneliness. For each, we detail the rationale for its development and explain how to score, analyze, and interpret results. Method. NSHAP developed its measures by modifying traditional short-form scales to improve response efficiency and reduce respondent burden. Scoring protocols and interpretations were developed for each measure. U.S. population estimates for older adults born between 1920 and 1947 were generated using age-eligible samples from Waves 1 and 2. Results. NSHAP’s protocols yielded U.S. prevalence rates similar to other nationally representative studies of older adults and comparable between waves. Higher estimates of anxiety symptoms and perceived stress in Wave 2 compared with Wave 1 were explained by age, administration mode, and time period. Analytic strategies for longitudinal analyses are provided. In Wave 2, mental health generally was worse at older ages, with women having more symptoms at younger ages than men. Women had fewer anxiety symptoms at the oldest ages. Discussion. NSHAP’s mental health measures were successfully integrated into the project’s survey and showed acceptable external reliability as well as moderately stable individual characteristics across the 5 years between Waves 1 and 2. Depressive symptoms and unhappiness may form a mental health cluster in the elderly, distinct from anxiety symptoms, perceived stress, and felt loneliness. Gender differences in age-specific patterns of mental health were evident using the exact age of participants rather than the traditional decade groupings. Administration mode and time period (between 2005–2006 and 2010–2011) were determined to be potential confounds that need to be

  17. Health and Wellbeing through Work and Retirement Transitions in Mature Age: Understanding Pre-Post and Retrospective Measures of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Yvonne; de Vaus, David; Kendig, Hal; Quine, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to measure change is essential in examining successful adaptation to ageing. Few studies measuring change have compared findings using pre-post approaches (employing difference scores) with those from retrospective approaches (employing self-ratings). Where this has occurred, differences have been attributed either to ceiling and…

  18. Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

    2012-01-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  19. Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and health.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Krause, Neal; Chatters, Linda M; Connell, Cathleen M; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship between receiving emotional support from parents early in life and an individual's health in adulthood. Analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of adults ages 25-74 years suggests that a lack of parental support during childhood is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and chronic conditions in adulthood. These associations between early parental support and adult health persist with increasing age throughout adulthood. Personal control, self-esteem, and social relationships during adulthood account for a large portion of these long-term associations. These findings underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in studying the social determinants of health among adults. PMID:15065927

  20. [COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH IN BABIES OF EARLY PRESCHOOL AGE].

    PubMed

    Denisov, A P; Semenova, N V; Kun, O A; Denisova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Health of the children's population is one of the most important components of safety of the country. The incidence level in children of early age reflects an interaction of economic, ecological, social and hygienic and medico-organizational factors in society. The issue of the paper is the comprehensive assessment of health of children of the first three years of life upon indices of the morbidity rate, physical development, interrelation of given indices with the structure of the family and their social status. Indices of the physical development of boys in the all age groups exceeded the corresponding indices in girls (p < 0.05). There was also statistically significant and augmentation of indices of body weights of children along with the age (p < 0.05). The highest morbidity rate in children was established in the first year of life, the minimal one--in the third year. In the all age groups diseases of respiratory organs prevailed, at this their proportion in the total amount of diseases in the third year of life considerably exceeded the same in first and second years of life. The highest incidences of children took place in the families formed by juvenile and lonely women. Diseases of digestive organs in the second and third years of life in children from juvenile and lonely mothers were considerably enlarged on frequency (by 1,4-1,7 times), infectious and parasitic diseases (by 1,1-1,7 times) in comparison with children from full families. In the all studied types offamilies and age groups the state of health of children was worse, than in full families. There was substantiated the development of the multilevel system for the prophylaxis of losses of health in children at early preschool age. PMID:26856178

  1. Income gradients in oral health according to child age.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Murasko, Jason E; Gansky, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether the well-known income disparities in oral health seen over the life course are indeed absent in 9- to 11-yr-old children, and to explore the role of access to dental care in explaining the age-profile of the income gradient in child oral health. We used data from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health. Income gradients in parental reports of children's decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, broken teeth, bleeding gums, and fair/poor condition of teeth were assessed in stratified analyses according to age of child (1-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 yr), using survey logistic regression to control for family-, parental-, and child-level covariates. Health insurance status and use of preventive dental care were the indicators for children's access to dental care. The adjusted ORs for the effect of family income on having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth were not significant in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Different age-patterns were found for broken teeth and bleeding gums. The attenuation of the income gradients in having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth, previously seen in 9- to 11-yr-old children, was also seen in 15- to 17-, 12- to 14-, and 6- to 8-yr-old children, respectively, after controlling for children's access to dental care. This study supports the attenuation of income inequalities in oral health in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Access to dental care could attenuate income gradients in oral health in other age groups. PMID:26031837

  2. The health and social system for the aged in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2002-08-01

    Japan implemented a new social insurance scheme for the frail and elderly, Long-Term-Care Insurance (LTCI) on 1 April 2000. This was an époque-making event in the history of the Japanese public health policy, because it meant that in modifying its tradition of family care for the elderly, Japan had moved toward socialization of care. One of the main ideas behind the establishment of LTCI was to "de-medicalize" and rationalize the care of elderly persons with disabilities characteristic of the aging process. Because of the aging of the society, the Japanese social insurance system required a fundamental reform. The implementation of LTCI constitutes the first step in the future health reform in Japan. The LTCI scheme requires each citizen to take more responsibility for finance and decision-making in the social security system. The introduction of LTCI is also bringing in fundamental structural changes in the Japanese health system. With the development of the Integrated Delivery System (IDS), alternative care services such as assisted living are on-going. Another important social change is a community movement for the healthy longevity. For example, a variety of public health and social programs are organized in order to keep the elderly healthy and active as long as possible. In this article, the author explains on-going structural changes in the Japanese health system. Analyses are focused on the current debate for the reorganization of the health insurance scheme for the aged in Japan and community public health services for them. PMID:12462371

  3. Social gradients in self-reported health and well-being among adults aged 50 and over in Pune District, India

    PubMed Central

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Juvekar, Sanjay; Lele, Pallavi; Agarwal, Dhiraj

    2010-01-01

    Background India's older population is projected to increase up to 96 million by 2011 with older people accounting for 18% of its population by 2051. The Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health aims to improve empirical understanding of health and well-being of older adults in developing countries. Objectives To examine age and socio-economic changes on a range of key domains in self-reported health and well-being amongst older adults. Design A cross-sectional survey of 5,430 adults aged 50 and over using a shortened version of the SAGE questionnaire to assess self-reported assessments (scales of 1–5) of performance, function, disability, quality of life and well-being. Self-reported responses were calibrated using anchoring vignettes in eight key domains of mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, interpersonal relationships, sleep/energy, affect, and vision. WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Index and WHO health scores were calculated to examine for associations with socio-demographic variables. Results Disability in all domains increased with increasing age and decreasing levels of education. Females and the oldest old without a living spouse reported poorer health status and greater disability across all domains. Performance and functionality self-reports were similar across all SES quintiles. Self-reports on quality of life were not significantly influenced by socio-demographic variables. Discussion The study provides standardised and comparable self-rated health data using anchoring vignettes in an older population. Though expectations of good health, function and performance decrease with age, self-reports of disability severity significantly increased with age, more so if female, if uneducated and living without a spouse. However, the presence or absence of spouse did not significantly alter quality of life self-reports, suggesting a possible protective effect provided by traditional joint family structures in India, where older people are social if not

  4. Health Screening and Random Recruitment for Cognitive Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kathy J.; Moye, Jennifer; Armson, Rossana Rae; Kern, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    A survey of 197 cognitive aging studies revealed infrequent use of structured health assessments and random recruitment. In this study, a health screening questionnaire developed to identify subjects with medical problems that might impair cognition was administered to 315 adults aged 60 and older who were recruited by random digit dialing. On the basis of self-reported medical problems, 35% of the subjects were excluded. Those excluded were older (p < .001) and tended to be male but did not differ in education from those who passed the screening. Subjects who passed the screening and decided to participate in a neuropsychological research project were younger (p < .001), better educated (p < .001), and more likely to be male (p < .001) than nonparticipants. These findings suggest that careful assessment, selection, and description of subjects is needed to aid interpretation of cognitive aging research. Further attention to health status is needed to aid interpretation of cognitive aging research. Although random recruitment of the elderly is feasible, obtaining representative samples may require stratification on demographic variables. PMID:1610509

  5. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future. PMID:16905991

  6. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

  7. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  8. Oral health care in residential aged care services: barriers to engaging health-care providers.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Lydia; Slack-Smith, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The oral health of older people living in residential aged care facilities has been widely recognised as inadequate. The aim of this paper is to identify barriers to effective engagement of health-care providers in oral care in residential aged care facilities. A literature review was conducted using MEDline, CINAHL, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete and PsychInfo between 2000 and 2013, with a grey literature search of government and non-government organisation policy papers, conference proceedings and theses. Keywords included: dental/oral care, residential aged care, health-care providers, barriers, constraints, and limitations. A thematic framework was used to synthesise the literature according to a series of oral health-care provision barriers, health-care provider barriers, and cross-sector collaborative barriers. A range of system, service and practitioner level barriers were identified that could impede effective communication/collaboration between different health-care providers, residents and carers regarding oral care, and these were further impeded by internal barriers at each level. Findings indicated several areas for investigation and consideration regarding policy and practice improvements. While further research is required, some key areas should be addressed if oral health care in residential aged care services is to be improved. PMID:25155109

  9. [Wellbeing, health and autonomy in old age: the Basal IDA Study (Interdisciplinary Aging Study)].

    PubMed

    Perrig-Chiello, P; Perrig, W J; Stähelin, H B; Krebs-Roubicek, E; Ehrsam, R

    1996-01-01

    Current research on successful aging reflects a multicriteria approach, although a consensus on the interrelationship between different factors has not yet been achieved. The longitudinal-sequential study presented here aims at identifying psychological, biological and sociobiographical predictors of well-being, health and autonomy in old age and their interdependency. The concern of this study is thus a multidisciplinary approach including psychology, psychiatry, geriatrics and sports sciences. The ongoing study is described and first findings are reported. Four hundred and forty-two people, aged 65 to 94, were tested twice (1993 and 1995). Since this project is a pursuit of a medical longitudinal study (Basler-Studie), bio-medical parameters from former status measurements (1960, 1965, 1971, 1985, 1990) are available and taken into account for comparison with the newly collected data from 1993 and 1995. The tests included both a medical examination and cognitive and personality measurements. The medical test battery included: clinical and anthropometrical data, bio-chemical data as well as the medical history, health behaviour, complaints and subjective health. The psychological assessment included psychological well-being, health-related control beliefs, causal attribution, religiosity, etc. For memory assessment a computerized test was used which allows to test 1) perceptual error-scanning, 2) naming speed, and memory resources in terms of 3) capacity, 4) explicit and 5) implicit components. It therefore integrates direct (free recall, recognition) and indirect memory tests (perceptual identification: clarification), that were used previously in different experimental and quasi-experimental studies to investigate memory performance over the life-span. Furthermore, the following three experimental interventions are performed: memory and reattribution training, physical training and psychoanalytical group therapy. First descriptive results are presented

  10. Using anchoring vignettes to assess the comparability of self-rated feelings of sadness, lowness or depression in France and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Guindon, G Emmanuel; Boyle, Michael H

    2012-03-01

    General measures of self-rated health are collected routinely in national health surveys and widely used in the analyses of determinants of health and health care utilization. However, these subjective assessments can be influenced by health expectations (contextualized beliefs about health) that may vary systematically across individuals and be associated with their socio-demographic characteristics. Our objective is to contrast the impact of health expectations associated with respondent characteristics (reporting heterogeneity) on self-rated feelings of sadness, lowness or depression obtained from general population samples in France and Vietnam. Based on self ratings and ratings in response to common anchoring vignettes depicting different levels of depression, we used nationally representative data from the World Health Survey conducted in France (2002) and Vietnam (2002-2003) and a modification of the standard probit model to test and adjust for reporting heterogeneity associated with individual characteristics. We find evidence of reporting heterogeneity within France and Vietnam and across the two countries. In particular we find that, when adjusted for reporting heterogeneity, sex is no longer significantly associated with self-rated feelings of sadness, lowness or depression in France. Given the absence of clear biological markers in the definitions of depressive disorders and the substantial impact reporting heterogeneity is shown to have, measures of depressive disorders based on self-reports should be interpreted with caution. PMID:22411195

  11. Sclera color changes with age and is a cue for perceiving age, health, and beauty.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard; Sweda, Jennifer R; Porcheron, Aurélie; Mauger, Emmanuelle

    2014-09-01

    Redness or yellowness of the sclera (the light part of the eye) are known signs of illness, as is looking older than one's actual age. Here we report that the color of the sclera is related to age in a large sample of adult Caucasian females. Specifically, older faces have sclera that are more dark, red, and yellow than younger faces. A subset of these faces were manipulated to increase or decrease the darkness, redness, or yellowness of the sclera. Faces with decreased sclera darkness, redness, or yellowness were perceived to be younger than faces with increased sclera darkness, redness, or yellowness. Further, these manipulations also caused the faces to be perceived as more or less healthy, and more or less attractive. These findings show that sclera coloration is a cue for the perception of age, health, and attractiveness that is rooted in the physical changes that occur with age. PMID:25244481

  12. Bone health as a primary target in the pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Caradonna, P; Rigante, D

    2009-01-01

    Bone tissue is constantly renewed during childhood and adolescence to assure skeleton growth both in size and mineral density: up to 90 percent of peak bone mass is acquired by age 18 in girls and age 20 in boys, which makes youth the best time to "invest" in bone health. The reduction in bone mineral density leading to compromised strength and microarchitecture of bone tissue can favour the occurrence of fragility fractures in the pediatric age. Assessing the normality of bone density measurements in childhood by current methods is hampered by the lack of normative control data. The understanding of factors useful for maximizing peak bone mass, as well as the knowledge of diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies for managing a state of reduced bone mineral density are crucial to prevent fractures throughout lifetime. PMID:19499847

  13. What has ageing to do with periodontal health and disease?

    PubMed

    Persson, G Rutger

    2006-08-01

    Periodontitis is a multi-factorial disease and in most cases also a disease with a chronic progression. Exposure to factors which contribute to periodontitis occurs over a long period, so that at the time of diagnosis it may be difficult to identify and evaluate what co-factors have contributed to its development. These include exposure to bacteria and viruses, inflammation, genetic factors, health behaviours and a variety of social factors, socio-economic status, behavioural and nutritional habits, the ability to cope with stress and the ability of the immune system to fight infections. Many patients in their 50s also experience other conditions such as heart disease, diabetes mellitus, or rheumatoid arthritis and recent reports on the associations and potential biological mechanisms by which periodontitis can be linked to other systemic diseases suggest that the patient with periodontitis is a challenged individual. Neither individuals nor their oral health care providers are currently prepared for the challenges in oral health care as the expectation of successful ageing with remaining and aesthetically functional teeth is increasing. The scientific evidence is, however, growing, and while the opportunities to prepare for successful ageing exist they must be included in the educational process of both current and future oral health care providers and their patients. PMID:16972399

  14. [Scarcity in health care, age as selection criterion and the value of old age. Current discussion].

    PubMed

    Naafs, J

    1993-06-01

    There is a growing attention for setting limits in health care. Contemporary medical scarcity makes choices necessary, but what are the arguments? Only medical criteria for selection are accepted in the Netherlands, but that does not mean at all that age is an unimportant criterion. In this article the discussion on age as criterion for selection is reviewed. It seems that arguments are based on different basic (moral) assumptions and that age and aging can be appreciated from different points of view. There is among other things the principle of justice and the idea of a natural life-span (Daniels), the norm of a worthwhile life-time (the fair-innings argument of Harris) and the idea of old age as a period of its own (Callahan). The different starting points can lead to the same way of thinking about age as a criterion for selection. Daniels, Harris, and Callahan justify this kind of selection. The Dunning-committee however does not accept it, from the point of a fundamental equality of people, the protection of life and the principle of solidarity in our society. It seems that not only the different arguments lead towards different conclusions but also the different views on the value of old age by different groups or by society as a whole. PMID:8328008

  15. Reductions in serum IGF-1 during aging impair health span

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhenwei; Kennedy, Oran; Sun, Hui; Wu, YingJie; Williams, Garry A; Klein, Laura; Cardoso, Luis; Matheny, Ronald W; Hubbard, Gene B; Ikeno, Yuji; Farrar, Roger P; Schaffler, Mitchell B; Adamo, Martin L; Muzumdar, Radhika H; Yakar, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In lower or simple species, such as worms and flies, disruption of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and the insulin signaling pathways has been shown to increase lifespan. In rodents, however, growth hormone (GH) regulates IGF-1 levels in serum and tissues and can modulate lifespan via/or independent of IGF-1. Rodent models, where the GH/IGF-1 axis was ablated congenitally, show increased lifespan. However, in contrast to rodents where serum IGF-1 levels are high throughout life, in humans, serum IGF-1 peaks during puberty and declines thereafter during aging. Thus, animal models with congenital disruption of the GH/IGF-1 axis are unable to clearly distinguish between developmental and age-related effects of GH/IGF-1 on health. To overcome this caveat, we developed an inducible liver IGF-1-deficient (iLID) mouse that allows temporal control of serum IGF-1. Deletion of liver Igf -1 gene at one year of age reduced serum IGF-1 by 70% and dramatically impaired health span of the iLID mice. Reductions in serum IGF-1 were coupled with increased GH levels and increased basal STAT5B phosphorylation in livers of iLID mice. These changes were associated with increased liver weight, increased liver inflammation, increased oxidative stress in liver and muscle, and increased incidence of hepatic tumors. Lastly, despite elevations in serum GH, low levels of serum IGF-1 from 1 year of age compromised skeletal integrity and accelerated bone loss. We conclude that an intact GH/IGF-1 axis is essential to maintain health span and that elevated GH, even late in life, associates with increased pathology. PMID:24341939

  16. Reductions in serum IGF-1 during aging impair health span.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhenwei; Kennedy, Oran; Sun, Hui; Wu, YingJie; Williams, Garry A; Klein, Laura; Cardoso, Luis; Matheny, Ronald W; Hubbard, Gene B; Ikeno, Yuji; Farrar, Roger P; Schaffler, Mitchell B; Adamo, Martin L; Muzumdar, Radhika H; Yakar, Shoshana

    2014-06-01

    In lower or simple species, such as worms and flies, disruption of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and the insulin signaling pathways has been shown to increase lifespan. In rodents, however, growth hormone (GH) regulates IGF-1 levels in serum and tissues and can modulate lifespan via/or independent of IGF-1. Rodent models, where the GH/IGF-1 axis was ablated congenitally, show increased lifespan. However, in contrast to rodents where serum IGF-1 levels are high throughout life, in humans, serum IGF-1 peaks during puberty and declines thereafter during aging. Thus, animal models with congenital disruption of the GH/IGF-1 axis are unable to clearly distinguish between developmental and age-related effects of GH/IGF-1 on health. To overcome this caveat, we developed an inducible liver IGF-1-deficient (iLID) mouse that allows temporal control of serum IGF-1. Deletion of liver Igf-1 gene at one year of age reduced serum IGF-1 by 70% and dramatically impaired health span of the iLID mice. Reductions in serum IGF-1 were coupled with increased GH levels and increased basal STAT5B phosphorylation in livers of iLID mice. These changes were associated with increased liver weight, increased liver inflammation, increased oxidative stress in liver and muscle, and increased incidence of hepatic tumors. Lastly, despite elevations in serum GH, low levels of serum IGF-1 from 1 year of age compromised skeletal integrity and accelerated bone loss. We conclude that an intact GH/IGF-1 axis is essential to maintain health span and that elevated GH, even late in life, associates with increased pathology. PMID:24341939

  17. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  18. Social Determinants, Race, and Brain Health Outcomes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A

    2015-01-01

    The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging. PMID:26239039

  19. A critique of using age to ration health care.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R W

    1993-01-01

    Daniel Callahan has argued that economic and social benefits would result from a policy of withholding medical treatments which prolong life in persons over a certain age. He claims 'the real goal of medicine' is to conquer death and prolong life with the use of technology, regardless of the age and quality of life of the patient, and this has been responsible for the escalation of health care expenditure. Callahan's proposal is based on economic rationalism but there is little evidence to suggest that substantial economic savings could be achieved. Moreover, his argument raises serious moral objections. A policy of withholding treatments from members of a social group involves elements of compulsion and discrimination, both of which would intrude on the doctor-patient relationship, undermine the autonomy of elderly patients, and invoke the slippery slope towards involuntary forms of euthanasia. Life-death decisions should be based on more than the one criterion of age, and take account of more relevant factors such as the patient's usual state of well-being, her/his expressed wishes, informed consent and the type of illness. Any move to the implementation and enforcement of the policy Callahan recommends would be rejected by health professionals and the public. PMID:8459434

  20. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  1. Aging and Hearing Health: The Life-course Approach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrian; McMahon, Catherine M; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen M; Russ, Shirley; Lin, Frank; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Chadha, Shelly; Tremblay, Kelly L

    2016-04-01

    Sensory abilities decline with age. More than 5% of the world's population, approximately 360 million people, have disabling hearing loss. In adults, disabling hearing loss is defined by thresholds greater than 40 dBHL in the better hearing ear.Hearing disability is an important issue in geriatric medicine because it is associated with numerous health issues, including accelerated cognitive decline, depression, increased risk of dementia, poorer balance, falls, hospitalizations, and early mortality. There are also social implications, such as reduced communication function, social isolation, loss of autonomy, impaired driving ability, and financial decline. Furthermore, the onset of hearing loss is gradual and subtle, first affecting the detection of high-pitched sounds and with difficulty understanding speech in noisy but not in quiet environments. Consequently, delays in recognizing and seeking help for hearing difficulties are common. Age-related hearing loss has no known cure, and technologies (hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive devices) improve thresholds but do not restore hearing to normal. Therefore, health care for persons with hearing loss and people within their communication circles requires education and counseling (e.g., increasing knowledge, changing attitudes, and reducing stigma), behavior change (e.g., adapting communication strategies), and environmental modifications (e.g., reducing noise). In this article, we consider the causes, consequences, and magnitude of hearing loss from a life-course perspective. We examine the concept of "hearing health," how to achieve it, and implications for policy and practice. PMID:26994265

  2. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states. PMID:27594848

  3. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states. PMID:27594848

  4. The black aged: a strategy for future mental health services.

    PubMed

    Carter, J H

    1978-12-01

    The younger generation of today will become the elderly of tomorrow. The qualitative differences in life experiences of blacks versus whites lead to differences in the manifestations of emotional problems. Thus the need for a special psychiatric strategy for aged blacks in the future. The problems of blacks, regardless of age, are inextricably linked with beliefs regarding illness, health and institutionalized racism. The many psychiatric ghettoes stemming from the depopulation of mental hospitals reflect poor planning and an obvious disregard for the realities of the whole life situations of elderly blacks. There should be an end to living in squalor and being the victims of muggings, rape and all forms of exploitation. Psychiatry should step forward with some careful and significant plans. PMID:712025

  5. Aging in two languages: Implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Bialystok, Ellen; Abutalebi, Jubin; Bak, Thomas H; Burke, Deborah M; Kroll, Judith F

    2016-05-01

    With the population aging and a dramatic increase in the number of senior citizens, public health systems will be increasingly burdened with the need to deal with the care and treatment of individuals with dementia. We review evidence demonstrating how a particular experience, bilingualism, has been shown to protect cognitive function in older age and delay onset of symptoms of dementia. This paper describes behavioral and brain studies that have compared monolingual and bilingual older adults on measures of cognitive function or brain structure and reviews evidence demonstrating a protective effect of bilingualism against symptoms of dementia. We conclude by presenting some data showing the potential savings in both human costs in terms of demented patients and economic considerations in terms of public money if symptoms of dementia could be postponed. PMID:26993154

  6. Maternal oral health predicts their children's caries experience in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shearer, D M; Thomson, W M; Broadbent, J M; Poulton, R

    2011-05-01

    The long-term effects of poor maternal oral health are unknown. We determined whether maternal oral health when children were young was a risk indicator for caries experience in adulthood, using oral examination and interview data from age-5 and age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study, and maternal self-rated oral health data from the age-5 assessment. The main outcome measure was probands' caries status at age 32. Analyses involved 835 individuals (82.3% of the surviving cohort) dentally examined at both ages, whose mothers were interviewed at the age-5 assessment. There was a consistent gradient in age-32 caries experience across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status (from the age-5 assessment): it was greatest among the probands whose mothers rated their oral health as "poor" or who were edentulous, and lowest among those whose mothers rated their oral health as "excellent". Unfavorable maternal self-rated oral health when children are young should be regarded as a risk indicator for poor oral health among offspring as they reach adulthood. PMID:21248361

  7. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health ... NIH Why is it important to have a research focus on older adults? One reason is that ...

  8. Probiotics and prebiotics and health in ageing populations.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Flint, Harry J

    2013-05-01

    In healthy adults microbial communities that colonise different regions of the human colon contribute nutrients and energy to the host via the fermentation of non-digestible dietary components in the large intestine. A delicate balance of microbial species is required to maintain healthy metabolism and immune function. Disturbance in this microbial balance can have negative consequences for health resulting in elevated inflammation and infection, that are contributory factors in diabetes and cancer. There is a growing awareness that the microbial balance in the colon may become increasingly perturbed with aging and therefore hasten the onset of certain diseases. Societal and dietary factors influence microbial community composition both in the short and long term in the elderly (>65 years old) whilst immunosenescence may also be linked to a perturbed distal gut microbiota and frailty in the elderly. Significant progress has been made in defining some of the dominant members of the microbial community in the healthy large intestine and in identifying their roles in metabolism. There is therefore an urgent need for better awareness of the impact of diet, prebiotic and probiotic strategies in driving human colonic microbial composition in order to understand the possibilities for maintaining healthy gut function and well-being in an increasingly elderly population. Here we review gut microbial changes associated with aging and how diet, prebiotics and probiotics may modulate the gut microbiota to maintain health in the elderly. PMID:23489554

  9. How personal resources predict work engagement and self-rated performance among construction workers: a social cognitive perspective.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Laura; Salanova, Marisa; Martínez, Isabel M; Vera, María

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, research focussing on psychosocial factors in the construction industry has focused mainly on the negative aspects of health and on results such as occupational accidents. This study, however, focuses on the specific relationships among the different positive psychosocial factors shared by construction workers that could be responsible for occupational well-being and outcomes such as performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether personal resources predict self-rated job performance through job resources and work engagement. Following the predictions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources Model, we expect that the relationship between personal resources and performance will be fully mediated by job resources and work engagement. The sample consists of 228 construction workers. Structural equation modelling supports the research model. Personal resources (i.e. self-efficacy, mental and emotional competences) play a predicting role in the perception of job resources (i.e. job control and supervisor social support), which in turn leads to work engagement and self-rated performance. This study emphasises the crucial role that personal resources play in determining how people perceive job resources by determining the levels of work engagement and, hence, their self-rated job performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24821509

  10. Do Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditures Rise with Age Among Older Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Relationships are examined between age and out-of-pocket costs for different health goods and services among the older population. Design and Methods: Age patterns in health service use and out-of-pocket costs are examined by use of the 1990 Elderly Health Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,031, age 66+). Multivariate…

  11. Workplace-based health and wellness programs: the intersection of aging, work, and health.

    PubMed

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; James, Jacquelyn Boone; Matz-Costa, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Workplace-based health and wellness programs (HWPs) may be an obvious yet under-utilized strategy for promoting positive health-related behaviors among older workers and for increasing their ability to continue to work. Given the unprecedented number of older adults who extend their labor force attachment beyond traditional retirement ages, a new vision of older adults' economic security and overall quality-of-life should take into account the intersections of aging, work, and health. The purpose of this article is to: (a) discuss the workplace as an increasingly important setting that can expand the reach and effectiveness of health promotion efforts; (b) examine current knowledge of barriers and facilitators that can affect older workers' participation in workplace-based HWPs; and (c) suggest new incentive structures that may increase older workers' engagement in these programs. We develop a rationale for our proposition that sustained participation in HWPs may improve the health status of older workers and reduce health care costs. It is our conclusion that there is significant potential for workplace-based HWPs to support older adults who want to or need to work. PMID:26035602

  12. NGTA and IGTA Training and Experience: Comparisons Between Self-Ratings and Undergraduate Student Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twale, Darla J.; Shannon, David M.; Moore, Matthew S.

    1997-01-01

    A study compared self-ratings and undergraduate student ratings of graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) on nine factors of teaching effectiveness, examining how math and science GTAs who speak English as their native language (NGTAs) differ from their international counterparts (IGTAs). Overall, self-ratings were consistently higher than student…

  13. Ageing, Health and Life Satisfaction of the Oldest Old: An Analysis for Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    This analysis uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to assess the effect of ageing and health on the life satisfaction of the oldest old (defined as 75 and older). We observe a U-shaped relationship between age and levels of life satisfaction for individuals aged between 16 and 65.…

  14. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  15. Rhesus Factor Modulation of Effects of Smoking and Age on Psychomotor Performance, Intelligence, Personality Profile, and Health in Czech Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Geryk, Jan; Volný, Jindra; Klose, Jiří; Černochová, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH3 or CO2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E), radicalism (Q1), self-sentiment integration (Q3), and ergic tension (Q4), and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD) was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year) was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in future studies. PMID

  16. Think Fast, Feel Fine, Live Long: A 29-Year Study of Cognition, Health, and Survival in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In a 29-year study of 6,203 individuals ranging in age from 41 to 96 years at initial assessment, we evaluated the relative and combined influence of 65 mortality risk factors, which included sociodemographic variables, lifestyle attributes, medical indices, and multiple cognitive abilities. Reductions in mortality risk were most associated with higher self-rated health, female gender, fewer years as a smoker, and smaller decrements in processing speed with age. Thus, two psychological variables-subjective health status and processing speed-were among the top predictors of survival. We suggest that these psychological attributes, unlike risk factors that are more narrowly defined, reflect (and are influenced by) a broad range of health-related behaviors and characteristics. Information about these attributes can be obtained with relatively little effort or cost and-given the tractability of these measures in different cultural contexts-may prove expedient for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions related to increased mortality risk in diverse human populations. PMID:26917212

  17. Heritability of Health and Aging Limitations on Personally Desired Activities

    PubMed Central

    Gurland, Barry J.; Page, William; Small, Brent; McArdle, John J.; Plassman, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate heritability of incident limitations on personally desired activities within the eighth decade of life. We measured self-rated ability to perform ten personally desired activities in 1606 male veteran twin pairs at baseline and four years later. At follow-up, 33% of the cohort reported more limitations in desired activities. Among twins who completed both assessments, there were no statistically significant differences in incidence rates of limitations as a function of zygosity. Sensitivity tests showed the same for change scores; and that, if cognitive impairment or death are deemed to belong among limitations of desired activities, zygosity contributed 10% to new limitations at follow-up. Maintaining personally desired activities over four years in the eighth decade is not subject to substantial genetic influence. However, if death and cognitive impairment are added to incident limitations, then genetics plays a modest role. In all cases, unique environment is the predominant influence. PMID:26973959

  18. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Joan Earle; FitzGerald, Leah; Markham, Young Kee; Glassman, Paul; Guenther, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP) students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students' perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3. PMID:22619708

  19. The work of Andrew Weil and Deepak Chopra--two holistic health/New Age gurus: a critique of the holistic health/New Age movements.

    PubMed

    Baer, Hans A

    2003-06-01

    Despite the popular roots of the holistic health/New Age movements, a growing number of biomedical physicians have become proponents of holistic health as well as New Age healing. Over the past two decades, Andrew Weil and Deepak Chopra, two biomedically trained physicians, have emerged as the visible and financially successful spokespersons of the movement. This article provides brief biographical sketches of Weil and Chopra and compares and contrasts their respective views on health, illness, healing, and health care. It also considers the response of various biomedical parties to these holistic health/New Age gurus who have attempted to integrate biomedicine and various alternative healing and metaphysical systems. Finally, this article argues that Weil and Chopra both epitomize the limitations of the holistic health/New Age movements, albeit in different ways. PMID:12846118

  20. Role of walnuts in maintaining brain health with age.

    PubMed

    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Because of the combination of population growth and population aging, increases in the incidence of chronic neurodegenerative disorders have become a societal concern, both in terms of decreased quality of life and increased financial burden. Clinical manifestation of many of these disorders takes years, with the initiation of mild cognitive symptoms leading to behavioral problems, dementia and loss of motor functions, the need for assisted living, and eventual death. Lifestyle factors greatly affect the progression of cognitive decline, with high-risk behaviors including unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking, and exposure to environmental toxins leading to enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Although there exists an urgent need to develop effective treatments for age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease, prevention strategies have been underdeveloped. Primary prevention in many of these neurodegenerative diseases could be achieved earlier in life by consuming a healthy diet, rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, which offers one of the most effective and least expensive ways to address the crisis. English walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are rich in numerous phytochemicals, including high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and offer potential benefits to brain health. Polyphenolic compounds found in walnuts not only reduce the oxidant and inflammatory load on brain cells but also improve interneuronal signaling, increase neurogenesis, and enhance sequestration of insoluble toxic protein aggregates. Evidence for the beneficial effects of consuming a walnut-rich diet is reviewed in this article. PMID:24500933

  1. Implementing the Ages and Stages questionnaire in health visiting practice.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Sara

    2014-11-01

    NHS South of Tyne and Wear introduced the Ages and Stages developmental screening tool as part of the health visiting core offer in June 2012. The tool comprises two sets of questionnaires, which cover the development of communication, gross and fine motor skills, problem-solving ability and personal-social skills (ASQ-3], self- regulation, compliance, communication, adaptive functioning, autonomy, affect and interactions (ASQ-SE). ASQ was chosen over other screening tools for its reliability and validity. The introduction of the ASQ was to assist health visitors in the early detection of developmental problems and to support early interventions. By involving parents more, it was envisaged that they would be afforded a specific opportunity to think about how their child is developing, and should any developmental concerns become apparent, they would be more willing to accept referrals for early intervention. Initial feedback from parents and paediatricians has been positive. Most parents using the questionnaires felt that they were easy to complete and many found that they gained insight into their child's abilities. Further work should be undertaken to achieve a more representative sample of the target population. PMID:25612412

  2. Health Literacy, Smoking, and Health Indicators in African American Adults.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Diana Stewart; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A; Cano, Miguel A; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W; McNeill, Lorna H

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical health (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after we controlled for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  3. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  4. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  5. Health-Risk Behaviors among Persons Aged 12-21 Years: United States, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    Noting that health-risk behaviors among youth may result in immediate health problems or extend into adulthood and increase risk for chronic diseases, this report examines the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among a nationally representative sample of persons aged 12 to 21 years and presents age group comparisons of the most important…

  6. Investigation of the self-reported health and health-related behaviours of Victorian mothers of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F; Knightbridge, Elizabeth; McLelland, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle may influence many health-related issues currently facing Australian women. The extent to which women with school-aged children attend to their own health is unknown and the associations between health behaviours and health status requires investigation. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of health behaviours (alcohol consumption, health-promoting activities) and their impact on self-reported health (weight, sleep quality, mental health) among mothers of school-aged children in Victoria. Mail-out survey design (n=263) including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) and Health Promoting Activities Scale was used to explore issues. The results indicated that substantial numbers of mothers reported moderate to extreme DASS scores: depression (n=45, 17%); anxiety (n=41, 15.6%); stress (n=57, 21.7%). The majority participated in physical activity less often than daily. High rates of daily alcohol use (20%) and poor sleep quality were reported. Nearly one-half (n=114, 46%) of the sample were overweight or obese and also reported poorer mental health than other women in the sample (P<0.001). Significant associations were detected between maternal weight, mental health and participation in health-promoting activities. The findings indicate that there is a need for increased health education and services for women with school-aged children. Direct services and population-based health promotion strategies may be required to address healthy lifestyle issues and educate mothers about the possible health legacy of poor health behaviours. PMID:24134959

  7. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-03-08

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (NM) impedance technique are sighted and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency EIM impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acoustic-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens, (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  8. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-02-29

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance technique are cited and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency E/M impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acousto-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  9. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor; Redmond, James M.; Roach, Dennis P.; Rackow, Kirk

    2000-06-01

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance technique are cited and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high frequency E/M impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acousto- ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens, (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  10. Health literacy, smoking, and health indicators in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Diana W.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after controlling for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  11. The Children's Sleep Comic: Psychometrics of a Self-rating Instrument for Childhood Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Schwerdtle, Barbara; Kanis, Julia; Kübler, Andrea; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-02-01

    The Children's Sleep Comic is a standardized self-report questionnaire for assessing insomnia in children ages 5-11 years. The goal of the present study is to introduce a revised version of this measure and to present psychometrics and a cut-off score. Therefore, the revised Children's Sleep Comic, the Sleep Self Report, the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and the Child Behavior Checklist were applied to a sample of 393 children and their parents. Of the parents who participated voluntarily, a subsample (n = 176) was interviewed on the phone to diagnose their children with sleep disorders according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, if applicable. The results indicated that the Children's Sleep Comic is a reliable self-rating instrument for diagnosing childhood insomnia. Internal consistency was α = 0.83; and convergent and divergent validity were adequate. The child-friendly format can foster a good therapeutic relationship, and thus establish the basis for successful intervention. PMID:25783950

  12. Abnormalities in Automatic Processing of Illness-Related Stimuli in Self-Rated Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Laura; Pintzinger, Nina M.; Tran, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate abnormalities in automatic information processing related to self- and observer-rated alexithymia, especially with regard to somatization, controlling for confounding variables such as depression and affect. Sample 89 healthy subjects (60% female), aged 19–71 years (M = 32.1). 58 subjects were additionally rated by an observer. Measures Alexithymia (self-rating: TAS-20, observer rating: OAS); automatic information processing (priming task including verbal [illness-related, negative, positive, neutral] and facial [negative, positive, neutral] stimuli); somatoform symptoms (SOMS-7T); confounders: depression (BDI), affect (PANAS). Results Higher self-reported alexithymia scores were associated with lower reaction times for negative (r = .19, p < .10) and positive (r = .26, p < .05) verbal primes when the target was illness-related. Self-reported alexithymia was correlated with number (r = .42, p < .01) and intensity of current somatoform symptoms (r = .36, p < .01), but unrelated to observer-rated alexithymia (r = .11, p = .42). Discussion Results indicate a faster allocation of attentional resources away from task-irrelevant information towards illness-related stimuli in alexithymia. Considering the close relationship between alexithymia and somatization, these findings are compatible with the theoretical view that alexithymics focus strongly on bodily sensations of emotional arousal. A single observer rating (OAS) does not seem to be an adequate alexithymia-measure in community samples. PMID:26090893

  13. Aging and health: Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Albertina L; Silva, José T; Lima, Margarida P

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate the Escala de Autoeficácia para a Autodireção na Saúde (EAAS – Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale). METHODS Non-experimental quantitative study of EAAS validation, by confirmatory factorial analyses, evaluating a sample of 508 older adults from the north and the center of Portugal with mean age of 71.67 (from 51 to 96 years), to whom the Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale were applied. The EAAS was developed from the theoretical constructs of self-efficacy and from self-directed learning within the PALADIN European project framework, aiming to develop an instrument able to assess the extent to which older adults take good care of their health. RESULTS The internal consistency was 0.87 (Cronbach’s alpha) and confirmatory factorial analyses enabled to find a model near the one theoretically proposed, indicating a structure consisting of four dimensions: physical exercise, healthy diet, engaging in health-related learning, and visits to health professionals. From the psychometric point of view, the model in four factors showed quite satisfactory fit indicators. CONCLUSIONS The Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale, with 16 items, is adequate to evaluate to what extent older adults have confidence in their ability to take care of their own health, with high degree of autonomy. PMID:27384970

  14. Validation of the Kirundi versions of brief self-rating scales for common mental disorders among children in Burundi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Sub Saharan Africa, there has been limited research on instruments to identify specific mental disorders in children in conflict-affected settings. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of three self-report scales for child mental disorder in order to inform an emerging child mental health programme in post-conflict Burundi. Methods Trained lay interviewers administered local language versions of three self-report scales, the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS), the Child PSTD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-41), to a sample of 65 primary school children in Burundi. The test scores were compared with an external ‘gold standard’ criterion: the outcomes of a comprehensive semistructured clinical psychiatric interview for children according the DSM-IV criteria (the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – K-SADS-PL). Results The DSRS has an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.85 with a confidence interval (c.i.) of 0.73–0.97. With a cut-off point of 19, the sensitivity was 0.64, and the specificity was 0.88. For the CPSS, with a cut-off point of 26, the AUC was 0.78 (c.i.: 0.62–0.95) with a sensitivity of 0.71 and a specificity of 0.83. The AUC for the SCARED-41, with a cut-off point of 44, was 0.69 (c.i.: 0.54–0.84) with a sensitivity of 0.55 and a specificity of 0.90. Conclusions The DSRS and CPSS showed good utility in detecting depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in Burundian children, but cut-off points had to be put considerably higher than in western norm populations. The psychometric properties of the SCARED-41 to identify anxiety disorders were less strong. The DSRS and CPSS have acceptable properties, and they could be used in clinical practice as part of a two-stage screening procedure in public mental health programmes in Burundi and in similar cultural and linguistic settings in the African Great Lakes region

  15. Maternal Oral Health Predicts Their Children’s Caries Experience in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, D.M.; Thomson, W.M.; Broadbent, J.M.; Poulton, R.

    2011-01-01

    The long-term effects of poor maternal oral health are unknown. We determined whether maternal oral health when children were young was a risk indicator for caries experience in adulthood, using oral examination and interview data from age-5 and age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study, and maternal self-rated oral health data from the age-5 assessment. The main outcome measure was probands’ caries status at age 32. Analyses involved 835 individuals (82.3% of the surviving cohort) dentally examined at both ages, whose mothers were interviewed at the age-5 assessment. There was a consistent gradient in age-32 caries experience across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status (from the age-5 assessment): it was greatest among the probands whose mothers rated their oral health as “poor” or who were edentulous, and lowest among those whose mothers rated their oral health as “excellent”. Unfavorable maternal self-rated oral health when children are young should be regarded as a risk indicator for poor oral health among offspring as they reach adulthood. PMID:21248361

  16. Health and Aging Curriculum Grade Level: Preschool-Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    This curriculum on aging is designed to help promote positive attitudes toward age and aging among young children. It focuses on developing the concepts of: (1) aging is a natural and lifelong process of growing and developing; (2) old and young are similar in many ways; (3) older people are valuable and contributing members of society; (4) old…

  17. Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over

    MedlinePlus

    ... April 18, 2012 Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over ... and Roberto Valverde, M.P.H., Division of Health Care Statistics Abstract Objective —This report presents national estimates ...

  18. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  19. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans Versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig M.; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  20. Older chinese' attitudes toward aging and the relationship to mental health: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the predictive effects of attitude toward aging on mental health of aging Chinese. Data were obtained from community surveys utilizing mixed sampling methods of 4,240 elderly Chinese 55 years or older in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Canada, and the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used, with sociodemographic variables entered first, followed by the health variables, and then attitude toward aging. The effect of attitude toward aging on mental health was stronger than most other predictive factors. Social workers should focus on creating social/community environments that build a positive attitude toward aging. PMID:19360529

  1. Coping with stress: a physician's guide to mental health in aging.

    PubMed

    Solomon, R

    1996-07-01

    The mental and emotional health of people of all ages is related to how well they cope with or adapt to the stresses and changes in their lives. Although risks to health do increase with advancing age, stress is not an inevitable consequence of old age. However, two transitional stressors that are more common with increased age are the onset of illness and/or physical impairment and the death of loved ones. As recently as 1987, less than 1.5% of community-based mental health care went to persons over age 65. The elderly consistently report that when they do seek help with emotional problems, they first consult with their primary care physicians. Therefore, these physicians need to be knowledgeable about mental health in aging and familiar with mental health services their patients could use. PMID:8675047

  2. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  3. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  4. Aging and Functional Health Literacy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Jane; Wolf, Michael S.; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence on the association between age and limited health literacy, overall and by health literacy test, and to investigate the mediating role of cognitive function. Method: The Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases were searched. Eligible studies were conducted in any country or language, included participants aged ≥50 years, presented a measure of association between age and health literacy, and were published through September 2013. Results: Seventy analyses in 60 studies were included in the systematic review; 29 of these were included in the meta-analysis. Older age was strongly associated with limited health literacy in analyses that measured health literacy as reading comprehension, reasoning, and numeracy skills (random-effects odds ratio [OR] = 4.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.13–5.64). By contrast, older age was weakly associated with limited health literacy in studies that measured health literacy as medical vocabulary (random-effects OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03–1.37). Evidence on the mediating role of cognitive function was limited. Discussion: Health literacy tests that utilize a range of fluid cognitive abilities and mirror everyday health tasks frequently observe skill limitations among older adults. Vocabulary-based health literacy skills appear more stable with age. Researchers should select measurement tests wisely when assessing health literacy of older adults. PMID:25504637

  5. Physical Health of Young, Australian Women: A Comparison of Two National Cohorts Surveyed 17 Years Apart

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, Ingrid J; Dobson, Annette J; Mishra, Gita D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Very little is known about the extent of physical health issues among young women in early adulthood and whether this is changing over time. Methods We used data from two national samples of young women aged 18–23 years, surveyed 17 years apart, who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We used multinomial logistic regression to compare the women’s physical health (i.e., self-rated health, common symptoms and conditions) and identify whether sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and stress explained any physical health differences between the samples. Results Women aged 18–23 years in 2013 (N = 17,069) were more likely to report poor self-rated health and physical symptoms (particularly urogenital and bowel symptoms) than women aged 18–23 years in 1996 (N = 14,247). Stress accounted for a large proportion of the physical health differences between the cohorts, particularly for allergies, headaches, self-rated health, severe tiredness, skin problems, severe period pain and hypertension. Conclusions Women’s health appears to be changing, with young women born in more recent decades reporting greater physical symptom levels. Changing socio-cultural and economic conditions may place pressure on young adults, negatively affecting their health and wellbeing. Assessing the extent to which social structures and health care policies are offering adequate support to young women may offer avenues for promoting positive health and wellbeing. PMID:26528902

  6. Oral Health Status: Impact on Dental Student Attitudes toward the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, James D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Researchers have repeatedly found negative attitudes toward the aged among health professionals. Evaluates the impact of oral health status upon dental student attitudes toward the aged. Suggests that attitudes of students may become initially more negative due to exposure to generally poor oral conditions of elderly patients. (Author)

  7. Social, Health, and Age Differences Associated with Depressive Disorders in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plach, Sandra K.; Napholz, Linda; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2005-01-01

    Depression in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to social role experiences, physical health, and age. The purpose of this study was to examine the social and health factors contributing to depression in two age groups of women with RA. One-hundred and thirty-eight midlife and late-life women with a diagnosis of RA participated in…

  8. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  9. Health Co-Morbidities in Ageing Persons with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, M.; Gill, M.; McCallion, P.; Begley, C.

    2005-01-01

    Consideration of the relationship between physical and mental health co-morbidities in ageing persons with Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is of clinical importance both from a care and resource perspective. To investigate and measure health co-morbidities in ageing persons with Down syndrome with and without AD. Recorded physical…

  10. Career Preparation: A Curriculum in Mental Health and Aging for Service Providers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Thomas A.; And Others

    This document contains a final report of a project which developed a model multidisciplinary graduate curriculum in mental health and aging. The introductory chapter, "Career Preparation: A Curriculum in Mental Health and Aging for Service Providers" (Thomas A. Rich, et al.), includes background information and discussions of the curriculum…

  11. Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

  12. Data Protection Compliance in the Age of Digital Health.

    PubMed

    Hordern, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Advances in technology are transforming the way that health data is collected and used. This includes improvements in existing technology as well as innovations in mobile technology such as smartphone apps and wearables. Health data is strictly regulated under the EU Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. Under current data protection rules, health data is broadly interpreted and will, in most circumstances not connected to the provision of healthcare, require organisations to obtain explicit consent from individuals for its collection and use. Further data protection compliance issues arise such as identifying who is a controller, ensuring transparency, using health data for research purposes and keeping health data secure. As the EU data protection landscape is due to change in the next few years and will affect the collection and use of health data, the forthcoming Data Protection Regulation also deserves attention. PMID:27491248

  13. Pain and self-assessed health: does the association vary by age?

    PubMed

    Rubin, Sara; Zimmer, Zachary

    2015-04-01

    The association between pain and self-assessed health among adults age 20 and older is examined with data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional nationally representative survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Models emphasize whether and how the association differs across age cohorts. 5032 respondents age 20 and older were asked about their experience with pain. Responses are used to create two different pain measures: general and site-specific. Self-assessed health is categorized into groups that are ordered from fair/poor to excellent. Bivariate analyses and ordered logistic regressions reveal pain, measured both ways, have robust inverse associations with self-assessed health. Associations remain robust after adjusting for a series of health conditions and indicators plus demographic, socioeconomic and social support characteristics. Models test the effect of age by pain interactions on self-assessed health and confirm substantial variation across cohorts. Those of middle-age, 40-59, display the strongest association while self-assessed health is virtually unassociated among older-old, those 80 and older. Findings suggest that the way pain impacts self-assessed health varies by age cohort. Conclusions discuss the importance of considering pain as a health condition and the implications of the findings for well-being across age cohorts. PMID:25734611

  14. Time preference and its relationship with age, health, and survival probability

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Pereira, Nuno Sousa; Pauly, Mark V.

    2009-01-01

    Although theories from economics and evolutionary biology predict that one's age, health, and survival probability should be associated with one's subjective discount rate (SDR), few studies have empirically tested for these links. Our study analyzes in detail how the SDR is related to age, health, and survival probability, by surveying a sample of individuals in townships around Durban, South Africa. In contrast to previous studies, we find that age is not significantly related to the SDR, but both physical health and survival expectations have a U-shaped relationship with the SDR. Individuals in very poor health have high discount rates, and those in very good health also have high discount rates. Similarly, those with expected survival probability on the extremes have high discount rates. Therefore, health and survival probability, and not age, seem to be predictors of one's SDR in an area of the world with high morbidity and mortality. PMID:20376300

  15. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  16. Conscientiousness, Health, and Aging: The Life Course of Personality Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Michael J.; Hill, Patrick L.; Roberts, Brent W.; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The Conscientiousness (C) of the self and significant others influences health by way of mediational chains involving socioeconomic attainment, the avoidance and neutralization of stressors, the promotion of health behaviors and the minimization of risk behaviors, and the management of symptoms and diseases. Yet, meta-analyses reveal that these…

  17. Mental Health of Sons and Daughters of the Institutionalized Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Elaine M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined 331 adult children with parents in nursing homes. Predictors of depression were poor health, time pressures, viewing parent as demanding, and lack of involvement with instrumental activities of daily living tasks. Emotional effects specific to parent's situation were predicted by poor health, negative perceptions of nursing home staff,…

  18. Preventive dental health care experiences of preschool-age children with special health care needs

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Colleen E.; Chi, Donald L.; Masterson, Erin; Milgrom, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the preventive dental health care experiences of young children with special needs and determined the feasibility of conducting clinical dental examinations at a community-based early intervention services center. Methods Study methods included 90 parent interviews and dental examinations of their preschool-age children. Results Thirteen percent of the children received optimal preventive care, defined as twice daily tooth brushing with fluoridated toothpaste and two preventive dental visits in the prior 12 months; 37 percent experienced care that fell short in both areas. Optimal care was more common among children of parents who reported tooth brushing was not a struggle and those with a personal dentist. Parents' opinion of the study experience was generally positive. Conclusions Few children with special needs receive effective preventive care early, when primary prevention could be achieved. Barriers to optimal care could be readily addressed by the dental community in coordination with early intervention providers. PMID:25082666

  19. The Accuracy of Older and Younger Australians' Understanding of Mental Health and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    1993-01-01

    Administered quiz about positive and negative aspects of mental health in old age to 250 Australian adults (ages 17-81). Retirees scored lowest, with no significant differences among younger students versus nonstudents. Age was more important mediator of retirees' low scores than was gender, living with older person, or self-definition as retired.…

  20. The influence of subjective aging on health and longevity: a meta-analysis of longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Miche, Martina; Brothers, Allyson F; Barrett, Anne E; Diehl, Manfred; Montepare, Joann M; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wurm, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating on the effects of subjective aging-that is, how individuals perceive their own aging process-on health and survival in later life. The goal of this article is to synthesize findings of existing longitudinal studies through a meta-analysis. A systematic search in PsycInfo, Web of Science, Scopus, and Pubmed resulted in 19 longitudinal studies reporting effects of subjective aging on health, health behaviors, and longevity. The authors combine the outcomes reported in these studies using a random effects meta-analysis, assuming that there would be differences in effect sizes across studies. The meta-analysis resulted in an overall significant effect of subjective aging (likelihood ratio = 1.429; 95% confidence interval = 1.273-1.604; p < .001). The analyses revealed heterogeneity, with stronger effects for studies with a shorter period of follow-up, for studies of health versus survival, for studies with younger participants (average age of the studies varies between 57 and 85 years with a median of 63 years), and for studies in welfare systems where state provisions of welfare are minimal. However, effects did not vary either across different operationalizations of subjective aging or by study quality. Subjective aging has a small significant effect on health, health behaviors, and survival. Further theoretical conceptualizations and empirical studies are needed to determine how subjective aging contributes to health and survival. PMID:25365689

  1. Fundamental frequency perturbation indicates perceived health and age in male and female speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, David R.

    2001-05-01

    There is strong support for the idea that healthy vocal chords are able to produce fundamental frequencies (F0) with minimal perturbation. Measures of F0 perturbation have been shown to discriminate pathological versus healthy populations. In addition to measuring vocal chord health, F0 perturbation is a correlate of real and perceived age. Here, the role of jitter (periodic variation in F0) and shimmer (periodic variation in amplitude of F0) in perceived health and age in a young adult (males aged 18-33, females aged 18-26), nondysphonic population was investigated. Voices were assessed for health and age by peer aged, opposite-sex raters. Jitter and shimmer were measured with Praat software (www.praat.org) using various algorithms (jitter: DDP, local, local absolute, PPQ5, and RAP; shimmer: DDA, local, local absolute, APQ3, APQ5, APQ11) to reduce measurement error, and to ascertain the robustness of the findings. Male and female voices were analyzed separately. In both sexes, ratings of health and age were significantly correlated. Measures of jitter and shimmer correlated negatively with perceived health, and positively with perceived age. Further analysis revealed that these effects were independent in male voices. Implications of this finding are that attributions of vocal health and age may reflect actual underlying condition.

  2. The Relationship between Age, Gender, Historical Change, and Adults' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin, James B.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991, 2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health…

  3. Employee, Partner, and Mother: Woman's Three Roles and Their Implications for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostiainen, Elisa; Martelin, Tuija; Kestila, Laura; Martikainen, Pekka; Koskinen, Seppo

    2009-01-01

    A large number of Western women today occupy the roles of an employee, a partner, and a mother. The three life spheres may spell contradictory expectations, demands, and rewards. The aim of this article is to examine self-rated health (SRH) and psychological distress of Finnish women aged 30 to 49 years. In addition to the number of roles the…

  4. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587

  5. The Black-White Difference in Age Trajectories of Functional Health over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JinYoung; Miech, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether the racial disparity in functional health grows unabated over the adult life course – the cumulative disadvantage hypothesis – or shrinks among the oldest old – the age-as-leveler hypothesis. Special emphasis is placed on the role of socioeconomic status (SES), which is highly associated with race. The analysis uses latent growth-curve modeling to examine differences in age trajectories of functional health between Black and White Americans and is based on nationally-representative panel data of 3,617 adults. Results cautiously support the age-as-leveler hypothesis. Net of functional health at baseline, Black adults experience a growing disadvantage in functional health over time until the oldest ages, when the gap in functional health begins to shrink. Results indicate that the potential leveling mechanisms of age may be specific to women. SES including financial assets explains the divergence in functional health across young and middle-aged Black and White adults, but not the later-life convergence. This study reveals the life course pattern of racial disparity in functional health and suggests that more theoretical development is needed in this field to explain how and why the age-as-leveler and cumulative disadvantage processes are outcome-specific. PMID:19167804

  6. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. PMID:25934599

  7. Conscientiousness, health, and aging: the life course of personality model.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Michael J; Hill, Patrick L; Roberts, Brent W; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Friedman, Howard S

    2014-05-01

    The Conscientiousness (C) of the self and significant others influences health by way of mediational chains involving socioeconomic attainment, the avoidance and neutralization of stressors, the promotion of health behaviors and the minimization of risk behaviors, and the management of symptoms and diseases. Yet, meta-analyses reveal that these associations are moderated by factors that are not well understood. We propose the Life Course of Personality Model (LCP Model), which comprises a series of hypotheses that suggest how such mediational chains are subject to 2 sources of contingency. First, the mechanisms by which C translates into health and the avoidance of risk change from early childhood to late adulthood, involving processes that are specific to phases of the life course; also, however, C influences health by way of continuous processes extending over many decades of life. Second, C may be more consequential in some social contexts than in others, and when accompanied by some constellations of personality characteristics than by others. That is, the mediational processes by which C translates into health and the avoidance of disease are likely moderated by timing, social context (including the C of others), and other aspects of the individual's personality. We consider methodological implications of the LCP Model. PMID:23244406

  8. Health-promoting residential aged care: a pilot project in Austria.

    PubMed

    Krajic, Karl; Cichocki, Martin; Quehenberger, Viktoria

    2015-09-01

    Long-term care for the aged is an area that has not been in the focus of health promotion so far. The paper describes context, concept and project plan of a 2-year pilot project of comprehensive health-promoting setting development in residential aged care in Austria, and provides an overview over main experiences and results. Austria's most relevant health promotion agencies, a specialized scientific institute and Austria's largest provider of aged care acted as partners. The project aimed at developing elements of a comprehensive approach, but also providing evidence for the effectiveness of health promotion. Therefore, the project combined an organizational development approach with a scientific, randomized controlled study on mobility enhancement for residents. A comprehensive settings approach turned out acceptable for the main stakeholders of aged care (owners and management, staff, residents and residents' relatives). Strategy development, based on a systematic needs assessment, found staff health to be of special interest for the organization (ergonomics, workability over life course), and residents' relatives, got more attention. The mobility study was able to achieve positive results on occupational performance, concerning quality-of-life indicators and reached also formerly inactive groups. After the end of the project, health promotion is still on the agenda of the organization; further developments will be monitored. Good support from the policy level and well-established networking between the aged care provider, health promotion agencies and a network for health promotion in health care seems to have been an important resource for success. PMID:24682545

  9. Legislating fear and the public health in gilded age Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Teigen, Philip M

    2007-04-01

    Between 1876 and 1881 Massachusetts experienced an outbreak of human rabies (hydrophobia). The entire state--the Governor, the legislature, the State Board of Health, newspapers, and the citizenry and elected officials of every town and city--reacted to the disease. Central to the response was the Commonwealth's legislature--called the General Court. Through public hearings, their own debates, and the passage of legislation, it resolved widespread fear and anger, mediated conflicting concepts of disease, and promoted social solidarity in the face of an epidemic. This article first narrates the General Court's legislative actions; it then examines the conflicting understandings of disease causality; finally, it explores the social and political rituals the legislature drew upon to deal with this public health crisis. Arguing that public health legislation is simultaneously instrumental and symbolic, this article demonstrates that attention to both enriches the study of epidemics, historical and yet to come. PMID:16980330

  10. A Shared Genetic Propensity Underlies Experiences of Bullying Victimization in Late Childhood and Self-Rated Paranoid Thinking in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Sania; McGuire, Phillip; Cardno, Alastair G.; Freeman, Daniel; Plomin, Robert; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a risk factor for developing psychotic experiences (PEs). Whether bullying is associated with particular PEs, and the extent to which genes and environments influence the association, are unknown. This study investigated which specific PEs in adolescence are associated with earlier bullying victimization and the genetic and environmental contributions underlying their association. Method: Participants were 4826 twin pairs from a longitudinal community-based twin study in England and Wales who reported on their bullying victimization at the age of 12 years. Measures of specific PEs (self-rated Paranoia, Hallucinations, Cognitive disorganization, Grandiosity, Anhedonia, and parent-rated Negative Symptoms) were recorded at age of 16 years. Results: Childhood bullying victimization was most strongly associated with Paranoia in adolescence (r = .26; P < .01), with weaker associations with Hallucinations, Cognitive Disorganization, parent-rated Negative Symptoms (r = .12–.20; P < .01), Grandiosity (r = .04; P < .05), and Anhedonia (r = .00, n.s.). Bivariate twin model-fitting demonstrated that bullying victimization and Paranoia were both heritable (35% and 52%, respectively) with unique environmental influences (39% and 48%, respectively), and bullying victimization showed common environmental influences (26%). The association between bullying victimization and Paranoia operated almost entirely via genetic influences (bivariate heritability = 93%), with considerable genetic overlap (genetic correlation = .55). Conclusion: In contrast to the assumed role of bullying victimization as an environmental trigger, these data suggest that bullying victimization in late childhood is particularly linked to self-rated Paranoia in adolescence via a shared genetic propensity. Clinically, individuals with a history of bullying victimization are predicted to be particularly susceptible to paranoid symptoms. PMID:25323579

  11. Health impact: longitudinal analysis of employment at middle and old age in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    GONZÁLEZ-GONZÁLEZ, César; WONG, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    We use longitudinal data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study to analyze the relationship between health and labor force participation of population aged 50 years and older in Mexico. The results confirm that health, measured through chronic diseases and difficulty to perform activities of daily living, has a powerful influence on labor force participation. We also find important differences by gender; hypertension and diabetes have effects in both, men and women; heart disease and stroke only in men. We provide concrete evidence on economic participation and highlight the importance of public policies to create adequate jobs for the population at middle and old age. PMID:25722646

  12. Polyphenols: Benefits to the Cardiovascular System in Health and in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Sandhya; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Hollingsworth, Amanda; Piche, Matthew; Tai, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of naturally occurring dietary polyphenols in promoting cardiovascular health and emphasized the significant role these compounds play in limiting the effects of cellular aging. Polyphenols such as resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and curcumin have been acknowledged for having beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, while some have also been shown to be protective in aging. This review highlights the literature surrounding this topic on the prominently studied and documented polyphenols as pertaining to cardiovascular health and aging. PMID:24077237

  13. The Relationship between Student Self-Ratings and Teacher Ratings of Special Needs Students' Reasoning Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenan, James P.; Jarwan, Fathi A.

    1994-01-01

    Little agreement between student self-ratings and teacher ratings appeared when 226 secondary special needs students and 78 teachers rated students' reasoning skills. Possible causes were the halo effect, students' lack of knowledge, and students' difficulty in understanding the ratings. (SK)

  14. Parent-, Teacher-, and Self-Rated Motivational Styles in ADHD Subtypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Caryn L.; Booth, Jane E.; Shin, Misung; Canu, Will H.

    2002-01-01

    Examination of the motivational styles of 63 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using parent, teacher, and self-ratings found ADHD children characterized by a preference for easy work, less enjoyment of learning, less persistence, and a greater reliance on external than on internal standards. Some differences between children…

  15. A Self Rating Scale as a Pre and Post Assessment Tool for Use with Instructional Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotts, Sandra Harris

    This article describes a self rating pre- and post-assessment instrument that has been developed at the Central Michigan University (CMU). Nine instructional modules have been developed and are being used in science methods courses at CMU. Each module focuses on an identified area of competency for elementary science teachers and contains a…

  16. Substance Use among Middle School Students: Associations with Self-Rated and Peer-Nominated Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Joan S.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Zhou, Annie J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Shih, Regina A.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    Associations of popularity with adolescent substance use were examined among 1793 6-8th grade students who completed an in-school survey. Popularity was assessed through both self-ratings and peer nominations. Students who scored higher on either measure of popularity were more likely to be lifetime cigarette smokers, drinkers, and marijuana…

  17. Predicting Cognitive Development, Intellectual Styles, and Personality Traits from Self-Rated Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reports a series of six studies, each investigating the power of self-rated analytical, creative, and practical abilities for predicting one of six individual-difference variables: cognitive development, modes of thinking, career interests, learning approaches, thinking styles, and personality traits. Contributing to the…

  18. Do Thinking Styles Contribute to Metacognition beyond Self-Rated Abilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2010-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to explore the predictive power of thinking styles for metacognition when self-rated abilities were taken into account. As a preliminary step, the study examined the psychometric properties of the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI). Four hundred and twenty-four university students from mainland China…

  19. The Acquisition of Vector Knowledge and Its Relation to Self-Rated Direction Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehl, Karen A.; Sholl, M. Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Self-rated sense of direction is reliably related to people's accuracy when pointing in the direction of unseen landmarks from imagined or actual perspectives. It is proposed that the cognitive substrate of accurate pointing responses is a vector representation, which is defined as an integrated network of displacement vectors. Experiment 1…

  20. Stutterers' Self-Ratings of How Natural Speech Sounds and Feels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Patrick; Ingham, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    Twelve adult stutterers were instructed to self-rate the speech naturalness (how natural their speech sounds) and feel naturalness (the amount of attention they are paying to the way they are speaking) of their speech under a variety of conditions across repeated rating occasions. Results showed that subjects were relatively consistent and valid…

  1. Proteostasis and the Aging Proteome in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of the proteome is essential to preserve cell functionality and the ability to respond and adapt to the changing environment. This is regulated by the proteostasis network, a dedicated set of molecular components comprised of molecular chaperones and protein clearance mechanisms, regulated by cell stress signaling pathways, that prevents the toxicity associated with protein misfolding and accumulation of toxic aggregates in different subcellular compartments and tissues. The efficiency of the proteostasis network declines with age and this failure in protein homeostasis has been proposed to underlie the basis of common age-related human disorders. The current advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of proteostasis and of the different types of digressions in this process in aging have turned the attention toward the therapeutic opportunities offered by the restoration of proteostasis in age-associated degenerative diseases. Here, we discuss some of the unresolved questions on proteostasis that need to be addressed to enhance healthspan and to diminish the pathology associated with persistent protein damage. PMID:24833584

  2. Role of walnuts in maintaining brain health with age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the combination of population growth and population aging, increases in the incidence of chronic neurodegenerative disorders have become a societal concern, both in terms of decreased quality of life and increased financial burden. Clinical manifestation of many of these disorders takes years...

  3. Health Information-Seeking in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percheski, Christine; Hargittai, Eszter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the sources of health information among first-year university students and whether the predictors of information-seeking varied by information source. Participants: First-year students in a required course at a midwestern public university were eligible to participate, and 82% (n = 1,060) completed the study.…

  4. Protecting public health in the age of emerging infections.

    PubMed

    Lev, Ori; Rager-Zisman, Bracha

    2014-11-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infections cause huge concern among public health workers and international and national bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). Indeed, scientists around the world express the view that despite the danger, research on these emerging virulent pathogens is crucial and must continue. While most of the studies underway are targeted at improving and protecting public health, some studies bear potentiallyserious risks resulting from misuse. These studies are defined as dual-use research of concern (DURC), where it is not evident that the benefits outweigh the risks. The H5N1 controversy has pushed various governments to institute new policies to govern such research. We describe the regulations that govern this emerging field of research in the United States and Israel, two countries that have taken leading stands on these issues. We suggest that the existing policies are able to mitigate many of the risks that this research encapsulates, yet more work is required--especially on the global level. PMID:25558694

  5. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  6. Development and validation of the Affective Self Rating Scale for manic, depressive, and mixed affective states.

    PubMed

    Adler, Mats; Liberg, Benny; Andersson, Stig; Isacsson, Göran; Hetta, Jerker

    2008-01-01

    Most rating scales for affective disorders measure either depressive or hypomanic/manic symptoms and there are few scales for hypomania/mania in a self-rating format. We wanted to develop and validate a self-rating scale for comprehensive assessment of depressive, manic/hypomanic and mixed affective states. We developed an 18-item self-rating scale starting with the DSM-IV criteria for depression and mania, with subscales for depression and mania. The scale was evaluated on 61 patients with a diagnosis of affective disorder, predominantly bipolar disorder type I, using Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hypomania Interview Guide-Clinical version (HIGH-C) and Clinical Global Impression scale, modified for bipolar patients (CGI-BP) as reference scales. Internal consistency of the scale measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 for the depression subscale and 0.91 for the mania subscale. Spearman's correlation coefficients (two-tailed) between the depression subscale and MADRS was 0.74 (P<0.01) and between mania subscale and HIGH-C 0.80 (P<0.01). A rotated factor analysis of the scale supported the separation of symptoms in the mania and depression subscale. We established that the self-rating scales sensitivity to identify mixed states, with combined cut-offs on the MADRS and HIGH-C as reference, was 0.90 with a specificity of 0.71. The study shows that the Affective Self Rating Scale is highly correlated with ratings of established interview scales for depression and mania and that it may aid the detection of mixed affective states. PMID:18569776

  7. Pollinator visitation patterns strongly influence among-flower variation in selfing rate

    PubMed Central

    Karron, Jeffrey D.; Holmquist, Karsten G.; Flanagan, Rebecca J.; Mitchell, Randall J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Adjacent flowers on Mimulus ringens floral displays often vary markedly in selfing rate. We hypothesized that this fine-scale variation in mating system reflects the tendency of bumble-bee pollinators to probe several flowers consecutively on multiflower displays. When a pollinator approaches a display, the first flower probed is likely to receive substantial outcross pollen. However, since pollen carryover in this species is limited, receipt of self pollen should increase rapidly for later flowers. Here the first direct experimental test of this hypothesis is described. Methods In order to link floral visitation sequences with selfing rates of individual flowers, replicate linear arrays were established, each composed of plants with unique genetic markers. This facilitated unambiguous assignment of paternity to all sampled progeny. A single wild bumble-bee was permitted to forage on each linear array, recording the order of floral visits on each display. Once fruits had matured, 120 fruits were harvested (four flowers from each of five floral displays in each of six arrays). Twenty-five seedlings from each fruit were genotyped and paternity was unambiguously assigned to all 3000 genotyped progeny. Key Results The order of pollinator probes on Mimulus floral displays strongly and significantly influenced selfing rates of individual fruits. Mean selfing rates increased from 21 % for initial probes to 78 % for the fourth flower probed on each display. Conclusions Striking among-flower differences in selfing rate result from increased deposition of geitonogamous (among-flower, within-display) self pollen as bumble-bees probe consecutive flowers on each floral display. The resulting heterogeneity in the genetic composition of sibships may influence seedling competition and the expression of inbreeding depression. PMID:19218584

  8. Health care strategy for ensuring work ability in an aging Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungsun; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Soo Geun; Yoo, Cheol-In; Son, Junseok; Yim, Jun; Kim, Dae-Seong; Rhee, Kyung Young; Kim, Yangho

    2016-01-01

    The rapid aging trend in South Korea will cause a growing shortage of labor and decreasing quality of the labor force. The purpose of this commentary is to recommend a health care strategy to maintain and promote the work ability of employees in an aging Korea. Strategies to promote the work ability require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. First, the common goal should be the reinforcement of follow-up measure in general medical examinations and the promotion of healthy lifestyles for workers. Second, collaborating activities should be performed among the Worker's Health Center, the Health Promotion Center, and community health centers. In conclusion, health care strategies for ensuring the work ability in an aging Korea require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. PMID:27610236

  9. [Standardization of the Greek version of Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)].

    PubMed

    Samakouri, M; Bouhos, G; Kadoglou, M; Giantzelidou, A; Tsolaki, K; Livaditis, M

    2012-01-01

    Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), introduced by Zung, has been widely used in research and in clinical practice for the detection of anxiety. The present study aims at standardizing the Greek version of SAS. SAS consists of 20 items rated on a 1-4 likert type scale. The total SAS score may vary from 20 (no anxiety at all) to 80 (severe anxiety). Two hundred and fifty four participants (114 male and 140 female), psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals, aged 45.40±11.35 years, completed the following: (a) a demographic characteristics' questionnaire, (b) the SAS Greek version, (c) the Spielberg's Modified Greek State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI-Gr.-X) and (d) the Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS). Seventy six participants answered the SAS twice within a 12th-day median period of time. The following parameters were calculated: (a) internal consistency of the SAS in terms of Cronbach's α co-efficient, (b) its test-retest reliability in terms of the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and (c) its concurrent and convergent validities through its score's Spearman's rho correlations with both the state and trait subscales of STAI-Gr X and the ZDRS. In addition, in order to evaluate SAS' discriminant validity, the scale's scores of the three groups of participants (psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals) were compared among each other, in terms of Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. SAS Cronbach's alpha equals 0.897 while ICC regarding its test-retest reliability equals 0.913. Spearman's rho concerning validity: (a) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr.-X (state), equals it 0.767, (b) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr. X (trait), it equals 0.802 and (c) when SAS is compared to ZDRS, it equals 0.835. The mentally ill scored significantly higher in SAS compared to both the healthy and the general population. In conclusion, the SAS Greek version presents very satisfactory psychometric properties regarding

  10. Does early establishment of favorable oral health behavior influence caries experience at age 5 years?

    PubMed Central

    Wigen, Tove I.; Wang, Nina J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to study associations between tooth brushing frequency, use of fluoride lozenges and consumption of sugary drinks at 1.5 year of age and having caries experience at 5 years of age. Methods This study was based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and by the Public Dental Services. A total of 1095 children were followed from pregnancy to the age of 5 years. Questionnaires regarding oral health behavior were completed by the parents at 1.5 and 5 years of age. Clinical and radiographic examination of the children was performed at the age of 5 years. Results In multiple logistic regression, having caries experience at 5 years of age was associated with; at 1.5 year of age having the teeth brushed less than twice daily (OR 2.1, CI 1.3–3.6) and being offered sugary drinks at least once a week (OR 1.8, CI 1.1–2.9) when controlled for family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. Conclusions Tooth brushing frequency and consumption of sugary drinks in early childhood were related to caries development during preschool age independent of family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. The results indicate that early established habits regarding tooth brushing and consumption of sugary drinks have long term effects on caries development. Parents encountering difficulties in establishing favorable oral health behavior in children’s first years of life should receive special attention from health personnel. PMID:25385683

  11. Chronological and subjective age differences in flourishing mental health and major depressive episode.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Corey L M; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2012-01-01

    Mental health is more than the absence of psychopathology, but few studies use positive mental health along with a measure of past year major depressive episode (MDE). This study addresses this gap by investigating the association of MDE and flourishing mental health (FMH) with chronological age and subjective (felt and ideal) age. Data are from the Midlife in the United States random digit dialing sample of adults ages 25 to 74, collected in 1995 (n = 3032). Rates of MDE were lowest, and FMH highest, among the three oldest age cohorts (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years). Subjective age was linked with chronological age; with age, adults tend to feel younger, and want to be an age that is younger, than their actual age. As predicted by the model of subjective age as an adaptive strategy, feeling younger was related to a lower risk of MDE and a higher risk of FMH. However, wanting to be younger was related to a lower risk of FMH and unrelated to MDE. PMID:21780972

  12. The Color of Health: Skin Color, Ethnoracial Classification, and Discrimination in the Health of Latin Americans

    PubMed Central

    Perreira, Krista M.; Telles, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is one of the most ethnoracially heterogeneous regions of the world. Despite this, health disparities research in Latin America tends to focus on gender, class and regional health differences while downplaying ethnoracial differences. Few scholars have conducted studies of ethnoracial identification and health disparities in Latin America. Research that examines multiple measures of ethnoracial identification is rarer still. Official data on race/ethnicity in Latin America are based on self-identification which can differ from interviewer-ascribed or phenotypic classification based on skin color. We use data from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to examine associations of interviewer-ascribed skin color, interviewer-ascribed race/ethnicity, and self-reported race/ethnicity with self-rated health among Latin American adults (ages 18-65). We also examine associations of observer-ascribed skin color with three additional correlates of health – skin color discrimination, class discrimination, and socio-economic status. We find a significant gradient in self-rated health by skin color. Those with darker skin colors report poorer health. Darker skin color influences self-rated health primarily by increasing exposure to class discrimination and low socio-economic status. PMID:24957692

  13. The color of health: skin color, ethnoracial classification, and discrimination in the health of Latin Americans.

    PubMed

    Perreira, Krista M; Telles, Edward E

    2014-09-01

    Latin America is one of the most ethnoracially heterogeneous regions of the world. Despite this, health disparities research in Latin America tends to focus on gender, class and regional health differences while downplaying ethnoracial differences. Few scholars have conducted studies of ethnoracial identification and health disparities in Latin America. Research that examines multiple measures of ethnoracial identification is rarer still. Official data on race/ethnicity in Latin America are based on self-identification which can differ from interviewer-ascribed or phenotypic classification based on skin color. We use data from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to examine associations of interviewer-ascribed skin color, interviewer-ascribed race/ethnicity, and self-reported race/ethnicity with self-rated health among Latin American adults (ages 18-65). We also examine associations of observer-ascribed skin color with three additional correlates of health - skin color discrimination, class discrimination, and socio-economic status. We find a significant gradient in self-rated health by skin color. Those with darker skin colors report poorer health. Darker skin color influences self-rated health primarily by increasing exposure to class discrimination and low socio-economic status. PMID:24957692

  14. Reasons, assessments and actions taken: sex and age differences in uses of Internet health information.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele; Suman, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The Internet is transforming the way in which consumers approach their health care needs. Sex and age are influential aspects of one's health as well as disease risk and are thus integral components of the emerging picture of health information seekers. Using data from Surveying the Digital Future, Year 4, a nationally representative, longitudinal telephone survey of Americans 12 years of age and older (n = 2010), we examine the reasons for, assessments of and actions taken as a result of health information found online among men and women and older and younger people. Although we tend to think of the Internet as a young person's technology, the percent of adults 60 years of age and older is similar to that of adolescents using the Internet as a health care information resource, thus suggesting an untapped opportunity with online interventions for older adults. Nonetheless, as age increases so too does the report of frustration with the experience. Men are more likely to report a positive seeking experience than women. Differences in Internet use fail to explain these observed sex and age differences in the seeking experience. Across the spectrum of age, sex and Internet skill, Internet health information seeking appears to enhance the patient-provider relationship. PMID:16880222

  15. Oral health beliefs in diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Nakazono, T T; Davidson, P L; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    Using data from population-based samples of adults participating in the ICS-II USA study, and using principal components analysis, we constructed oral health belief measures corresponding to the Health Belief Model (HBM) dimensions. Tests of validity and reliability were performed. Scales measuring perceived benefit of preventive practices and seriousness of oral disease had the highest validity and reliability. We used multiple regression analysis to examine sociodemographic predictors of perceived benefits of preventive practices. Race-ethnicity and age cohort were significant predictors among Baltimore and San Antonio adults. White adults and middle-aged persons in both research locations were more likely to believe in the benefit of preventive practices. Female gender, higher educational attainment, and better self-rated health were significant indicators of more positive oral health beliefs in every research location. Results also characterize persons who place lower value on preventive practices (i.e., males, less-educated persons, and those reporting poorer self-rated health). The design of effective dental public health messages and outreach efforts requires an analysis of the individual's health orientation and the factors influencing oral health beliefs. Oral health education interventions designed to improve health beliefs should contain an evaluation component for assessing the impact of education on health practices and oral health status. PMID:9549989

  16. The Role of Social Relationships in Predicting Loneliness: The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore associations between objective and subjective social network characteristics and loneliness in later life, using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a nationally representative sample of individuals ages 57 to 85 in the United States. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the associations…

  17. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  18. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  19. Planning for End-of-Life Care: Findings from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Douglas D.; Tuokko, Holly; Stajduhar, Kelli I.; Lindsay, Joan; Buehler, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Steps involved in formalizing end-of-life care preferences and factors related to these steps are unclear in the literature. Using data from the third wave of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-3), we examined the relations between demographic and health predictors, on the one hand, and three outcomes, on the other (whether participants…

  20. Health Disparities Grants Funded by National Institute on Aging: Trends between 2000 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Giyeon; DeCoster, Jamie; Huang, Chao-Hui; Parmelee, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The present study examined the characteristics of health disparities grants funded by National Institute on Aging (NIA) from 2000 to 2010. Objectives were (a) to examine longitudinal trends in health disparities-related grants funded by NIA and (b) to identify moderators of these trends. Design and Methods: Our primary data…

  1. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  2. Family relations and health over the life course. A Lebanese perspective.

    PubMed

    Ajrouch, Kristine J; Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Antonucci, Toni C

    2015-01-01

    The link between family relations and well-being in old age has received ample attention in the international literature, but remains least examined in the Arab region where cultural ideals assume positive intergenerational relations within families as the norm. In this paper, we employ survey data collected in Greater Beirut in 2009 to explore associations between family relations and health. over the life course. We tested (1) the extent to which age and social relation characteristics predict health; and (2) whether the association between age and health is stronger for those who report: smaller social networks and poorer relationship quality. We employed self-rated health and self-reported chronic illness as the health outcome measures and:social network size, positive quality and negative quality with family members as the social relations measures. Our findings suggest that social relations are differentially important depending on the health status indicator examined. The single dimension that influenced both self-rated health and the probability of reporting a chronic illness was positive relationship quality with spouse. Further, social relations, particularly having a negative relationship quality with spouse and adult child, exert stronger effects on both self-rated health and chronic illness for older compared to younger adults. The findings of the present study are important for clinical practitioners who often consider the role and importance of available social resources as they address the health needs of older adults. PMID:25906508

  3. Social implications and workforce issues in the oral health of an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Wright, Fac

    2015-03-01

    A functional and socially acceptable level of oral health is an integral part of healthy ageing! More teeth, more sophisticated dental technology and increasing co-morbidities of an ageing Australian society will have significant impacts on oral health professionals and their capacities to work within expanded teams of health, education and social organizations. Society is adapting its perspective on the social role of older citizens; replacing its perception of the elderly as an economic social burden, to one of senior citizens as being a respected and active source of social and economic benefit. Maintaining general and oral health for older Australians will bring into sharp focus the need for recognizing and managing not only the biological markers associated with ageing and frailty, but also the potential mediators on health outcomes associated with changing health and social behaviours. Increasing social capital of older Australians through national policy initiatives such as the Living Longer Living Better reforms, and greater involvement of allied health and carers' organizations in oral health education and health promotion will set a new scene for the roles of dental professionals. Issues of equity will drive the service delivery agenda, and a socio-cultural shift to 'consumer-directed' health outcomes will shape the range of services, quality of care and support required by an older Australian population. Formal education and training modules for aged care workers, allied health practitioners and geriatricians will develop. The challenge for the dental profession is the coordination and integration of these changes into new models of dental and general health care. PMID:25762048

  4. Public health law in an age of terrorism: rethinking individual rights and common goods.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2002-01-01

    The balance between individual interests and common goods needs to be recalibrated in an age of terrorism. Public health agencies should have a robust infrastructure to conduct essential public health services at a level of performance that matches evolving threats to the health of the public. This includes a well-trained workforce, electronic information, surveillance, and laboratory capacity. This paper explains modern efforts at public health law reform: a Model Public Health Statute and the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA), which has been enacted wholly or in part by nineteen states and the District of Columbia. Next, the paper shows why existing public health laws provide a weak foundation for public health practice. Finally, the paper offers a systematic defense of MSEHPA, which has galvanized the public debate around the appropriate balance between public goods and individual rights. PMID:12442842

  5. Dynamical network model for age-related health deficits and mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneja, Swadhin; Mitnitski, Arnold B.; Rockwood, Kenneth; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2016-02-01

    How long people live depends on their health, and how it changes with age. Individual health can be tracked by the accumulation of age-related health deficits. The fraction of age-related deficits is a simple quantitative measure of human aging. This quantitative frailty index (F ) is as good as chronological age in predicting mortality. In this paper, we use a dynamical network model of deficits to explore the effects of interactions between deficits, deficit damage and repair processes, and the connection between the F and mortality. With our model, we qualitatively reproduce Gompertz's law of increasing human mortality with age, the broadening of the F distribution with age, the characteristic nonlinear increase of the F with age, and the increased mortality of high-frailty individuals. No explicit time-dependence in damage or repair rates is needed in our model. Instead, implicit time-dependence arises through deficit interactions—so that the average deficit damage rates increase, and deficit repair rates decrease, with age. We use a simple mortality criterion, where mortality occurs when the most connected node is damaged.

  6. Health Promotion Behaviors and Chronic Diseases of Aging in the Elderly People of Iranshahr*- IR Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mofrad, Zahra Pishkar; Jahantigh, Mozhgan; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aim: Aging is considered as the phenomenon of the day in the health arena of the world and Iran. It is anticipated that there will be an explosion of aging population in Iran in about 2031 and 20-25% of the population will be aged over 60 years. With aging, chronic diseases also increase and diminish the functional ability of older people. On the other hand, increased healthcare costs should be also added to this issue. Health promotion is a concept of process that continues throughout life. As much as health promotion is important in children and adults, it is equally important in older people. In fact, the elderlies, as a group, also acquire many benefits from health promotion behaviors. Due to the increasing elderly population, geriatric health promotion and enhancing the health level of older people is proposed as a health priority that should be properly planned. Hence, the present study has been conducted in this regard and aims to identify behaviors of health promotion and chronic diseases of aging in the elderly people of Iranshahr-Iran. Materials and Methods: The present research is a cross-sectional descriptive study whose population consists of 425 elderly people aged 60 years and over, who lived in the city of Iranshahr*, IR Iran. The random cluster sampling method has been used to select the research samples. The required information was collected using a questionnaire which was distributed among the older people through visiting their homes; then, the collected data was statistically analyzed using the statistical software of SPSS version 13. Findings: The research findings show that the mean age of older people is 66.33 ± 7.7 and the highest frequency belongs to the age group of 60 years and the maximum age is 92 years. 69.5% of the older people were in the age group of the young elderly (60-69 years) and 44% of them lived with their married children; also 55.8%, 81.9%, 70.5%, and 74.4% of them were respectively female, illiterate

  7. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues. PMID:21234684

  8. Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees’ performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

  9. Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Amdam, Gro V

    2013-01-01

    Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees' performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

  10. Age, Health and Culture: An Examination of Health Among Spanish-Speaking Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Gil, Fernando

    The study examined the utilization of health care facilities, the barriers to utilization, the need for health services, the coping mechanisms (family, religion, folk medicine, or other vehicles used by older persons to help cope with health problems), and the way in which the different phases (prevention, initial utilization, and maintenance) of…

  11. Religiosity, health, and well-being among Kuwaiti personnel.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2008-02-01

    In a sample of 424 Kuwaiti personnel (219 men, 205 women; M age = 37.6 yr., SD = 8.9; M age = 33.4 yr., SD = 7.9, respectively), self-ratings of religiosity were significantly and positively correlated with the self-ratings of physical health, mental health, and happiness, as well as the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Love of Life Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale among men and women. Principal components analysis of the correlation matrix yielded only one salient factor labeled "Well-being, health and religiosity" that explained 52.7% and 56.5% of the variance for men and women, respectively. Religiosity is an important element in the lives of the majority of the present sample of Kuwaiti Muslim employees. PMID:18481679

  12. Informing evidence-based policies for ageing and health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Byles, Julie; Aquah, Charles; Amofah, George; Biritwum, Richard; Panisset, Ulysses; Goodwin, James; Beard, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem Ghana’s population is ageing. In 2011, the Government of Ghana requested technical support from the World Health Organization (WHO) to help revise national policies on ageing and health. Approach We applied WHO’s knowledge translation framework on ageing and health to assist evidence based policy-making in Ghana. First, we defined priority problems and health system responses by performing a country assessment of epidemiologic data, policy review, site visits and interviews of key informants. Second, we gathered evidence on effective health systems interventions in low- middle- and high-income countries. Third, key stakeholders were engaged in a policy dialogue. Fourth, policy briefs were developed and presented to the Ghana Health Services. Local setting Ghana has a well-structured health system that can adapt to meet the health care needs of older people. Relevant changes Six problems were selected as priorities, however after the policy dialogue, only five were agreed as priorities by the stakeholders. The key stakeholders drafted evidence-based policy recommendations that were used to develop policy briefs. The briefs were presented to the Ghana Health Service in 2014. Lessons learnt The framework can be used to build local capacity on evidence-informed policy-making. However, knowledge translation tools need further development to be used in low-income countries and in the field of ageing. The terms and language of the tools need to be adapted to local contexts. Evidence for health system interventions on ageing populations is very limited, particularly for low- and middle-income settings. PMID:25558107

  13. Self-rated right-left confusability and performance on the Money Road-Map Test.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2013-09-01

    This study assessed the relationship between self-rated right-left confusability and performance on the Money Road-Map Test (MRMT). Eighty-six undergraduate university students (44 women and 42 men) rated right-left subjective confusability using a questionnaire, and then completed the MRMT. Low- and high-confusability groups were determined using self-rated confusability scores. The high-confusability participants were less accurate and slower than the low-confusability participants in completing the MRMT. Self-confusability ratings significantly correlated with both accuracy scores and completion times on the MRMT. Although, women showed a significantly greater inclination than men to judge themselves as being more prone to confusion in right-left discrimination, the male advantage was not observed in terms of accuracy of response: there was a significant difference only in the completion time on the MRMT. PMID:22965921

  14. Social Cohesion, Social Support and Health Among Latinos in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Alegria, Margarita; Sribney, William; Mulvaney-Day, Norah E.

    2009-01-01

    The role of individual versus community level social connections in promoting health is an important factor to consider when addressing Latino health. This analysis examines the relationships between social support, social cohesion, and health in a sample of Latinos in the United States. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the analysis uses ordered logistic regression to explore the relationships of family support, friend support, family cultural conflict, and neighborhood social cohesion with self-rated physical and mental health, taking into account language proficiency and use, nativity, and sociodemographic variables. Family support, friend support, and neighborhood social cohesion were positively related to self-rated physical and mental health, and family cultural conflict was negatively related when controlled only for sex and age. After controlling for education, income, and other demographic measures, only family support was found to have a weak association with self-rated physical health; however, the relationship seemed to be mediated by language. In contrast, family support and family cultural conflict were strongly associated with self-rated mental health, after controlling for language, education, income, and other demographic measures. The study did not find neighborhood social cohesion to be significantly related to either self-rated physical or mental health, after accounting for the effects of the other social connection variables. Language of interview did not explain the highly significant effects of language proficiency and use. Social connections are important for health and mental health, but language and other sociodemographic factors seem to be related to how Latinos establish these social linkages. Further investigation into the role of language in the development and maintenance of social connections may help unravel the mechanisms by which they promote or decrease health. PMID:17049701

  15. A Review of Secondary Health Conditions in Post-Polio Syndrome: Prevalence and Effects of Aging

    PubMed Central

    McNalley, Thomas E.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Jensen, Mark P.; Truitt, Anjali R.; Schomer, Katherine G.; Baylor, Carolyn; Molton, Ivan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study seeks to better understand the prevalence and severity of secondary health conditions in individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS), and the association between these conditions and aging. Design A scoping literature review was conducted searching electronic databases for studies published from 1986 – 2011. The scoping review provided information regarding the prevalence and associations of secondary health conditions in PPS with age or other duration-related variables. Results The findings indicate that: (1) individuals with PPS experience a number of serious secondary health conditions; (2) the most common conditions or symptoms are fatigue, pain, respiratory and sleep complaints, and increased risk of falls; (3) reports of the associations between the frequency or severity of conditions and age-related factors are variable, perhaps because of methodological inconsistencies between studies; and (4) there is a marked lack of longitudinal research examining the natural course of health conditions in people aging with PPS. Conclusions Longitudinal research is needed to understand the course of health conditions and the impact of multiple secondary conditions in people aging with PPS. Efforts are also needed to develop and test the efficacy of interventions to prevent these health secondary conditions or reduce their negative impact. PMID:25122095

  16. Age at First Birth and Fathers' Subsequent Health: Evidence From Sibling and Twin Models

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 540 siblings and twins from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, this study examines the relationship between the age at which men become biological fathers and their subsequent health. The analysis includes both between-family models that treat brothers as independent observations and within-family models that account for unobserved genetic and early-life environmental endowments shared by brothers within families. Findings indicate that age at first birth has a positive, linear effect on men's health, and this relationship is not explained by the confounding influences of unobserved early-life characteristics. However, the effect of age at first birth on fathers' health is explained by men's socioeconomic and family statuses. Whereas most research linking birth timing to specific diseases focuses narrowly on biological mechanisms among mothers, this study demonstrates the importance of reproductive decisions for men's health and well-being. PMID:19477723

  17. The developmental aging and origins of health and disease hypotheses explained by different protein networks.

    PubMed

    Feltes, Bruno César; de Faria Poloni, Joice; Bonatto, Diego

    2011-08-01

    One theory that attempts to explain how and why an organism ages is the developmental hypothesis of aging (DevAge), which describes how developmental programming leads to aging in adults. Interestingly, the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis (DOHaD) asserts that some aging-associated diseases that occur in adults are closely related to development and to conditions in the intrauterine environment. Thus, both aging and aging-associated diseases can be viewed, at least in part, as the result of a developmental program that is activated early in embryogenesis and persists throughout the lifespan of the organism. We would expect this developmental program to be regulated by a set of interacting protein networks that connect environmental and molecular signals. However, the connection between aging and development is not clear. Thus, a systems biology approach that incorporates different "omic" databases for two mammalian models, Homo sapiens and Mus musculus, was used to evaluate how development and aging are interconnected. Interestingly, three major, evolutionarily conserved processes, namely the immune system, epigenetics, and aerobic metabolism, appear to regulate aging and development in both H. sapiens and M. musculus. Considering that these three processes are essential to embryogenesis, the protein networks within these processes are subjected to strong selective pressure to eliminate gross developmental abnormalities in early embryogenesis. This selective pressure becomes more relaxed in the adult organism, permitting the onset of aging-associated diseases and inflammation-related aging; this concept echoes the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis of aging. PMID:21380541

  18. [Health service organization during the age of pestilence. 2].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2003-12-01

    The author presents the history of the places where patients with epidemic pathologies were isolated. Since the study of medicine began, such places have been known as asclepiei, xenodochi, hospices, lazarettos, sanitary cordons, and quarantine stations and they contributed to controlling epidemics in Europe. Important not only in the context in which they were created, these structures expressed the medical culture and point of view of that age. Although very far from discovering the cause of the pathology due to their lack of scientific knowledge, the medical class sometimes knew how to effectively organize the isolation of patients. The history of such structures interweaves with the long history of Christianity and with the emerging nations of Europe and the city-states of the Italian Renaissance. Previously, in classical Greece and Imperial Rome there had also been "homes for the sick" to isolate patients. Today the world is periodically hit by epidemics. In such moments the medical profession uses its research ability and organizational capabilities but also historical memory to reduce epidemic contagion. PMID:14988671

  19. The health of male veterans and nonveterans aged 25-64: United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Kramarow, Ellen A; Pastor, Patricia N

    2012-08-01

    The well-being of military personnel and their families is a topic of growing concern in public health. The effects of military service on physical and psychological health, especially after extended overseas deployments, are complex. There may also be long-term consequences of military service for the health and health care utilization of veterans as they age (1). Today, over 12 million men aged 25-64 in the United States are veterans, representing 15% of the total U.S. male population at those ages (2). More attention is now being paid to gathering accurate data to help veterans readjust to civilian life (3). Many studies of veterans only use information from military or veteran databases, which limits the ability to make comparisons with the overall population. This report uses data from the 2007-2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to describe the health status of community-dwelling male veterans aged 25-64. It directly compares the health status of veterans with nonveterans on a variety of measures. PMID:23101789

  20. Relationship between age at gonadectomy and health problems in kittens adopted from shelters.

    PubMed

    Porters, N; Polis, I; Moons, C P H; Van de Maele, I; Ducatelle, R; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; de Rooster, H

    2015-05-30

    Prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG) is promoted as a way of managing overpopulation in cats, but concerns about PPG and potential health issues still exist. The objective of the present study was to evaluate short-term and long-term health problems in cats subjected to PPG in comparison to gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG). In a prospective clinical trial, 800 shelter kittens aged between approximately 8 weeks and 12 weeks were recruited before adoption and randomly assigned to either the PPG group (gonadectomy performed immediately) or the TAG group (gonadectomy delayed until six months to eight months of age). Short-term health issues included mortality between when kittens arrived at the clinic and up to seven days after they returned to the shelter, as well as the occurrence of various other health issues arising in the first month following adoption. Kittens were followed-up until 24 months of age specifically for feline lower urinary tract disease, urethral obstruction (male cats), lameness, fractures and hypersensitivity disorders with dermatological presentation. In the short term, there were no significant differences between health problems in PPG and TAG kittens. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between treatment groups in terms of the type or number of health issues in the long term. In conclusion, there are no health-related contraindications to advocating PPG strategies in shelter cats. Ideally, PPG should be performed at the shelter facility itself as long as excellent infectious disease control and postoperative clinical observation before adoption are guaranteed. PMID:25820324

  1. Active ageing: independence through technology assisted health optimisation.

    PubMed

    Manning, B R M; McCann, J; Benton, S; Bougourd, J

    2008-01-01

    The potential doubling in the percentage of the elderly within the populations of Europe and beyond over the next decades has focused informatics research on the development Assistive Technologies and Smart Homes. However its concentration on creating a supportive home environment also has the potential for makings its users over dependent on its facilities and as a result trapped within it. This paper outlines an approach that extends the smart homes concept out into the wider community to create a smart environment that not only maintains contact with all their home-based services, but also expands these to include other facilities needed to assist them whilst on the move. This involves the convergence of physiological monitoring, communications and computing with leading-edge textile technologies, which uses a multi-layered, multi-functional clothing system as a mobile and extended variant of a smart home IP hub. In addition to variable functionality capabilities of the clothing layers in terms of thermal, shock-absorbent and other characteristics, wireless IP connectivity is provided between layers with external links typically being WiFi enabled. Health optimisation is provided by on-going lifestyle guidance/action feedback based on auto-diagnostic analysis. PMID:18560086

  2. Preferences of urban Zimbabweans for health and life lived at different ages.

    PubMed Central

    Jelsma, Jennifer; Shumba, Darlies; Kristian, Hansen; De Weerdt, Willy; De Cock, Paul

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the age-weighting preferences of urban Zimbabweans in relation to health care priorities. METHOD: A total of 67 randomly selected residents of a high-density area of Harare participated in the study. Participants were asked "person trade-off" questions to determine their preferences in terms of the numbers of people of various ages who would be saved from death and from suffering a year of ill-health relative to the number of 30-year-olds who would be saved from these eventualities. FINDINGS: The responses indicate that the value of averting a year of ill-health was judged greatest for 15-year-olds and was equal for people aged 1, 30, and 45 years. The value of averting a death primarily reflected the expected years of life lost, but the influence of age-weighting was evident in that 15 years was the most highly valued age. CONCLUSION: Although the age-weighting curves did not correspond exactly with the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) age-weights, Zimbabweans showed a preference for saving the lives of young adults. The GBD age-weights should be used to determine the disability-adjusted life years lost in the Zimbabwean population. PMID:11984606

  3. Expert perspectives on Western European prison health services: do ageing prisoners receive equivalent care?

    PubMed

    Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2014-09-01

    Health care in prison and particularly the health care of older prisoners are increasingly important topics due to the growth of the ageing prisoner population. The aim of this paper is to gain insight into the approaches used in the provision of equivalent health care to ageing prisoners and to confront the intuitive definition of equivalent care and the practical and ethical challenges that have been experienced by individuals working in this field. Forty interviews took place with experts working in the prison setting from three Western European countries to discover their views on prison health care. Experts indicated that the provision of equivalent care in prison is difficult mostly due to four factors: variability of care in different prisons, gatekeeper systems, lack of personnel, and delays in providing access. This lack of equivalence can be fixed by allocating adequate budgets and developing standards for health care in prison. PMID:24965437