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Sample records for age serum creatinine

  1. Serum Creatinine and Functional Limitation in Elderly Persons

    PubMed Central

    Shlipak, Michael G.; Tager, Ira B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Creatinine is a commonly used measure of kidney function, but serum levels are also influenced by muscle mass. We hypothesized that higher serum creatinine would be associated with self-reported functional limitation in community-dwelling elderly. Methods Subjects (n = 1,553) were participants in the Study of Physical Performance and Age-Related Changes in Sonomans, a cohort to study aging and physical function. We explored three strategies to account for the effects of muscle mass on serum creatinine. Results We observed a J-shaped association of creatinine with functional limitation. Above the study-specific mean creatinine (0.97 mg/dL in women and 1.15 mg/dL in men), the unadjusted odds ratio of functional limitation per standard deviation (0.20 mg/dL in women and 0.23 mg/dL in men) higher creatinine was 2.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75–2.94, p < .001) in women and 1.42 (95% CI 1.12–1.80, p = .003) in men. This association was inverted in persons with creatinine levels below the mean. Adjustment for muscle mass did not have an important effect on the association between creatinine and functional limitation. These associations remained after multivariable adjustment for demographics and health conditions but were statistically significant only in women. Conclusions In elderly adults, higher creatinine levels are associated with functional limitation, consistent with prior literature that has demonstrated reduced physical performance in persons with kidney disease. However, the association of low creatinine levels with functional limitation suggests that creatinine levels are influenced by factors other than kidney function and muscle mass in the elderly. PMID:19181716

  2. Serum creatinine concentration in very-low-birth-weight infants from birth to 34–36 wk postmenstrual age

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, David A.; Thomas, William; Parravicini, Elvira; Polesana, Elena; Locatelli, Chiara; Lorenz, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Serum creatinine (s[Cr]) reference ranges for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants must account for physiologic changes in the first months of life. Methods: We retrospectively identified a sample of 218 appropriate-for-gestational age (GA) VLBW infants without risk factors for renal impairment, and classified into one of three GA groups: 25–27, 28–29, and 30–33 wk. We observed three phases of s[Cr] change (initial, decline, and equilibrium), whose characteristics varied by GA group. We used mixed-effects regression models to estimate mean and upper 95th prediction interval of s[Cr] for each GA group from birth to 34–36 wk post menstrual age (PMA). Results: In phase I, s[Cr] increased after birth, then returned slowly to baseline. The duration of phase I and the magnitude of s[Cr] rise decreased with increasing GA. In phase II, s[Cr] declined abruptly at a rate that increased with GA. A gradual transition to phase III, a steady-state equilibrium with similar s[Cr] among GA groups, began at approximately 34–36 wk PMA. We constructed GA group-specific nomograms depicting s[Cr] behaviour across the three phases. Conclusion: The reference ranges derived from a sample of infants without risk factors for renal impairment provide a context for quantitative interpretation of s[Cr] trends in VLBW infants. PMID:25675426

  3. Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral

    PubMed Central

    Mendelssohn, D C; Barrett, B J; Brownscombe, L M; Ethier, J; Greenberg, D E; Kanani, S D; Levin, A; Toffelmire, E B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of earlier referral to a nephrologist of patients with elevated levels of serum creatinine include identifying and treating reversible causes of renal failure, slowing the rate of decline associated with progressive renal insufficiency, managing the coexisting conditions associated with chronic renal failure and facilitating efficient entry into dialysis programs for all patients who might benefit. METHODS: A subcommittee of the Canadian Society of Nephrology, which included representatives from family practice and internal medicine, conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 1966 to 1998 using the key words referral and consultation, dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal replacement therapy and kidney diseases. Where published evidence was lacking, conclusions were reached by consensus. GUIDELINES: Earlier referral to nephrologists of patients with elevated creatinine levels is expected to lead to better health care outcomes and lower costs for both the patients and the health care system. All patients with newly discovered renal insufficiency (as evidenced by serum creatinine elevated to a level above the upper limit of the normal range of that laboratory, adjusted for age and height in children) must undergo investigations to determine the potential reversibility of disease, to evaluate the prognosis and to optimize planning of care. All patients with an established, progressive increase in serum creatinine level should be followed with a nephrologist. Adequate preparation for dialysis or transplantation (or both) requires at least 12 months of relatively frequent contact with a renal care team. Nephrologists should provide consultation in a timely manner for any patient with an elevated serum creatinine level. In addition, they should provide advice about what aspects of the condition require particularly urgent or emergency assessment. SPONSORS: This clinical practice guideline has been endorsed by the Canadian

  4. An exploratory study of serum creatinine levels in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueping; Guo, Xiaoyan; Huang, Rui; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yongping; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2014-10-01

    The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unknown, but existing data argue for a role of creatinine in ALS pathophysiology. Our aim is to clarify the correlation between serum creatinine and ALS in Chinese population. A total of 512 sporadic ALS (SALS) patients and 501 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALS-FRS-R) was used to assess the motor functional status of SALS patients. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. Serum creatinine levels were significantly lower in SALS patients than in controls (p < 0.001). Patients with the second, the third and highest quartiles of creatinine levels had a significantly lower presence of ALS compared to those with the lowest quartile (p for trend <0.001). However, decreased presence of ALS was not found in the highest quartiles compared with the lowest quartiles in females. Sporadic ALS patients with different site of onset have similar serum creatinine levels, but underweight patients presented lower levels of serum creatinine. Patients with low serum creatinine levels are more likely to have severe motor impairment and low body mass index (BMI) values. This study demonstrates that SALS patients have lower serum creatinine levels than well-matched controls. Higher levels of serum creatinine are less likely to be associated with the presence of ALS in Chinese populations. Low serum creatinine levels may be related to severe motor impairment in SALS patients, after adjusting the confounding factor-BMI. However, serum creatinine has no deleterious impact on survival in ALS.

  5. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  6. Creatinine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Results from creatinine tests may be used in calculations that help assess kidney function: Blood creatinine measurements, ... seen with conditions that result in decreased muscle mass. Levels of 24-hour urine creatinine are evaluated ...

  7. Immobilized enzyme electrode for creatinine determination in serum.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V K; Wolff, C M; Seris, J L; Schwing, J P

    1991-03-15

    An immobilized enzyme electrode for continuous creatinine determination in blood serum is described. The enzymes creatinine amidohydrolase, creatine amidinohydrolase, and sarcosine oxidase are coimmobilized to the surface of the polypropylene membrane of a Clark-type electrode responsive to oxygen. The immobilized enzymes catalyze the decomposition of creatinine with the consumption of oxygen and thus permit the creatinine measurement. The whole assay takes less than 1 min. Effects of pH and temperature on electrode response are also described. The proposed technique offers a rapid, simple, and inexpensive means to determine creatinine in blood serum within the normal and abnormal ranges. The repeatability of the creatine determination in serum is 2.5% (relative standard deviation), and the detection limit is 3 x 10(-6) mol L-1. The results obtained by this method were compared to those obtained with the Technicon AutoAnalyzer SMAC system based on the Jaffé reaction; the correlation factor between the two methods was found to be r = 0.9997.

  8. Preliminary Findings of Serum Creatinine and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsieh, Molly; Lin, Pei-Ying

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the kidney function profile--serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and to examine the relationships of predisposing factors to abnormal serum creatinine in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Data were collected by a cross-sectional study of 827 aged 15-18 years adolescents…

  9. Effects of moderate-dose versus high-dose trimethoprim on serum creatinine and creatinine clearance and adverse reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Naderer, O; Nafziger, A N; Bertino, J S

    1997-01-01

    The effects of a 10-day course of moderate-dose (10 mg/kg/day) or high-dose (20 mg/kg/day) trimethoprim therapy on serum creatinine, measured creatinine clearance, urinary creatinine excretion, and serum folate were studied in 20 healthy volunteers. Serum creatinine concentrations increased significantly during trimethoprim therapy, began to decrease near day 10, and returned to baseline during the washout phase at both dosage levels. At the same time, measured creatinine clearance and urine creatinine changed in the opposite direction. No clinical or statistical differences were noted between changes in the moderate- versus the high-dose phases. Serum folate concentration decreases during high-dose trimethoprim therapy were statistically significant. Adverse drug reactions in the two groups were statistically different during the first study period, with the high-dose group having a 75% incidence rate and the moderate-dose group having an 11% incidence rate (P < 0.02). Serum creatinine, measured creatinine clearance, and urinary creatinine excretion demonstrated statistically, but not clinically, significant changes during trimethoprim therapy. In addition, high-dose trimethoprim caused significantly more adverse drug reactions than moderate-dose trimethoprim in normal volunteers. PMID:9371351

  10. Evaluation of Serum Creatinine Changes With Integrase Inhibitor Use in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Tara A.; Duggan, Joan M.; Sahloff, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective chart review evaluated changes in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance (CrCl) after initiation of an integrase inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimen as initial treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Serum creatinine and CrCl changes were similar to those seen in clinical trials for INSTIs. No renal-related serious adverse events or discontinuations occurred. PMID:27092314

  11. High serum creatinine nonlinearity: a renal vital sign?

    PubMed

    Palant, Carlos E; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Faselis, Charles; Li, Ping; Pallone, Thomas L; Kimmel, Paul L; Amdur, Richard L

    2016-08-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may have nonlinear serum creatinine concentration (SC) trajectories, especially as CKD progresses. Variability in SC is associated with renal failure and death. However, present methods for measuring SC variability are unsatisfactory because they blend information about SC slope and variance. We propose an improved method for defining and calculating a patient's SC slope and variance so that they are mathematically distinct, and we test these methods in a large sample of US veterans, examining the correlation of SC slope and SC nonlinearity (SCNL) and the association of SCNL with time to stage 4 CKD (CKD4) and death. We found a strong correlation between SCNL and rate of CKD progression, time to CKD4, and time to death, even in patients with normal renal function. We therefore argue that SCNL may be a measure of renal autoregulatory dysfunction that provides an early warning sign for CKD progression. PMID:27194712

  12. ["Occult" renal insufficiency due to evaluating renal function using only serum creatinine].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fresnedo, G; de Francisco, A L M; Rodrigo, E; Piñera, C; Herráez, I; Ruiz, J C; Arias, M

    2002-01-01

    Timely referral to nephrologists depends on identification of renal failure. Most primary care physicians and specialists rely on serum creatinine as the standard test for determination of renal function. Creatinine clearance requires 24 hours urine collection with many pitfalls and wrong results. We compare serum creatinine and the Cockcroft-Gault (C-G) equation as measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The study included 1,053 outpatients with serum creatinine lower than 2.5 mg/dl referred to our nephrological laboratory for serum creatinine and GFR determination using the C-G formula. Patients were grouped into two groups: normal renal function (serum creatinine < 1.3 mg/dl) and "incipient" abnormal renal function (serum creatinine 1.3-2.5 mg/dl). In the group of females with normal creatinine 22% (60-70 y), 35% (70-80 y) and 57% (> 80 y) had GFR values below 50 ml/min. In the group of males 11.3% (70-80 y) and 33.3% (> 80 y) also had GFR reduction in spite of normal serum creatinine. A severe renal insufficiency with creatinine clearance lower than 30 ml/min was observed in the group with "incipient" renal failure based on serum creatinine: 22.7%, 40% and 82.9% for females and 6%, 22.7% and 57% for male (60-70 y; 70-80 y; and > 80 y respectively). In order to improve management and prevention of renal failure appropriate measurements of renal function other than serum creatinine should be emphasize.

  13. Effect of Diet on Serum Creatinine in Healthy Subjects During a Phase I Study

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Eduardo; Jensen, Markus; Jung, David; Schaumann, Frank; Boxnick, Stefanie; Truebel, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Creatinine is widely used as an indirect marker of renal function. However, interfering factors such as diet, exercise and problems with the assay can generate false results and misinterpretation of real kidney function. In this article, we report the dietary effects on serum creatinine during a phase I single dose escalation study and discuss the reasons why serum creatinine should be measured under fasting conditions. PMID:27738487

  14. Reference intervals for serum cystatin C and serum creatinine in adults.

    PubMed

    Erlandsen, E J; Randers, E; Kristensen, J H

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for cerum cystatin C and serum creatinine in adults. Blood samples were collected from 270 healthy blood donors (135 men and 135 women between 20 and 65 years old with 15 men and 15 women in each five-year-interval). Serum cystatin C was analyzed using an automated particle-enhanced immunoassay (DAKO Cystatin C PET kit) on the Cobas Mira S analyzer. Serum creatinine was analyzed using the Vitros Creatinine Slide, an enzymatic method on the Vitros 950 chemistry analyzer. The calculated reference intervals for serum cystatin C were 0.62-1.15 mg/l in women (median 0.84 mg/l, range 0.56-1.29 mg/l) and 0.51-1.25 mg/l in men (median 0.87 mg/l, range 0.42-1.39 mg/l). The Mann-Whithey U-test revealed no gender-related difference for cystatin C (p = 0.48). A common reference interval in women and men was calculated to be 0.54-1.21 mg/l (median 0.85 mg/l, range 0.42-1.39 mg/l). The non-parametric reference interval for serum creatinine was 57-95 mumol/l in women (median 72 mumol/l, range 44-105 mumol/l) and 69-111 mumol/l in men (median 89 mumol/l, range 58-123 mumol/l).

  15. Elevated serum creatinine and low albumin are associated with poor outcomes in patients with liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Panotopoulos, Joannis; Posch, Florian; Funovics, Philipp T; Willegger, Madeleine; Scharrer, Anke; Lamm, Wolfgang; Brodowicz, Thomas; Windhager, Reinhard; Ay, Cihan

    2016-03-01

    Low serum albumin levels and impaired kidney function have been associated with decreased survival in patients with a variety of cancer types. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 84 patients with liposarcoma treated at from May 1994 to October 2011. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and competing risk analyses were performed to evaluate the association between putative biomarkers with disease-specific and overall survival. The median age of the study population was 51.7 (range 19.6-83.8) years. In multivariable analysis adjusted for AJCC tumor stage, serum creatinine was highly associated with disease-specific survival (Subdistribution Hazard ratio (SHR) per 1 mg/dl increase = 2.94; 95%CI 1.39-6.23; p = 0.005). High albumin was associated with improved overall and disease-specific survival (Hazard Ratio (HR) per 10 units increase = 0.50; 95%CI 0.26-0.95; p = 0.033 and SHR = 0.64; 95%CI 0.42-1.00; p = 0.049). The serum albumin-creatinine-ratio emerged to be associated with both overall and disease-specific survival after adjusting for AJCC tumor stage (HR = 0.95; 95%CI 0.92-0.99; p = 0.011 and SHR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.93-0.99; p = 0.08). Our study provides evidence for a tumor-stage-independent association between higher creatinine and lower albumin with worse disease-specific survival. Low albumin and a high albumin-creatinine-ratio independently predict poor overall survival. Our work identified novel prognostic biomarkers for prognosis of patients with liposarcoma.

  16. Serum creatinine level, a surrogate of muscle mass, predicts mortality in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit

    2016-01-01

    Serum creatinine (SCr) has been widely used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Creatinine generation could be reduced in the setting of low skeletal muscle mass. Thus, SCr has also been used as a surrogate of muscle mass. Low muscle mass is associated with reduced survival in hospitalized patients, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Recently, studies have demonstrated high mortality in ICU patients with low admission SCr levels, reflecting that low muscle mass or malnutrition, are associated with increased mortality. However, SCr levels can also be influenced by multiple GFR- and non-GFR-related factors including age, diet, exercise, stress, pregnancy, and kidney disease. Imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound, have recently been studied for muscle mass assessment and demonstrated promising data. This article aims to present the perspectives of the uses of SCr and other methods for prediction of muscle mass and outcomes of ICU patients. PMID:27162688

  17. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook; Parsons, Patrick J.; Spector, June; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Jaar, Bernard G.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Todd, Andrew C.; and others

    2011-11-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) {mu}g/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r{sub s}=0.5; p<0.001). After adjustment, ln (urine cadmium) was not associated with serum cystatin-C-based measures. However, higher ln (urine cadmium) was associated with higher creatinine-based eGFRs including the MDRD and an equation incorporating serum cystatin C and creatinine (beta-coefficient=4.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  18. Serum creatinine concentration at the onset of uremia: higher levels in black males.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, J G; Shemin, D; Chazan, J A

    1992-06-01

    We compared serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations, estimated creatinine clearances and frequency of uremic symptoms at the start of chronic hemodialysis in all 20 black and 179 white males treated between 1969 and 1983. Serum creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in black males (16.5 +/- 5.9 mg/dl) than in white males (11.7 +/- 4.7 mg/dl; p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in blood urea nitrogen concentration, estimated creatinine clearance and frequency of uremic symptoms between the two groups. Blood urea nitrogen to serum creatinine ratios were lower in black males, (7.3 +/- 1.9) than in white males (11.4 +/- 3.8; p = 0.0001), and only one black male had a ratio greater than 10 compared to 60% of whites. We concluded that black males tend to have higher serum creatinine concentrations than white males at the onset of uremic symptoms, and that higher striated muscle creatinine production in black males and not lower renal function may be the cause.

  19. Effect of co-trimoxazole and sulfamethoxazole on serum creatinine in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Roy, M T; First, M R; Myre, S A; Cacini, W

    1982-01-01

    Significant elevation of serum creatinine concentration and reduction in creatinine clearance have been reported following cotrimoxazole therapy in patients with normal and impaired renal function. Both components of co-trimoxazole, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, have been proposed as the causative agent. Ten healthy male volunteers were treated for seven days with either sulfamethoxazole (5 subjects) or co-trimoxazole (5 subjects) in the usual recommended doses. After a one-week recovery period, the subjects were allocated to the alternate treatment regimen for another seven days. Cotrimoxazole caused a mean elevation in the serum creatinine concentration of 0.12 mg/dl over the base-line value (p less than 0.05). Sulfamethoxazole produced an insignificant fall in the serum creatinine level. The increase in the serum creatinine concentration induced by co-trimoxazole was reversed seven days after discontinuation of the drug. From this study, it can be concluded that either trimethoprim alone or an interaction between trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole is responsible for the increase in serum creatinine observed following co-trimoxazole therapy and that sulfamethoxazole alone is not the causative agent. PMID:7071907

  20. [New topics regarding equations for GFR estimation based on serum creatinine and cystatin C].

    PubMed

    Horio, Masaru

    2014-02-01

    Japanese GFR equations and CKD-EPI equations based on standardized serum creatinine and standardized cystatin C are recommended in recent Japanese CKD guides and KDIGO guidelines for CKD management, respectively. CKD-EPIcreat overestimates GFR in Japanese subjects, probably due to the difference in muscle mass between Japanese and Caucasians. Unlike CKD-EPIcreat, CKD-EPIcys performs well in Japanese subjects, indicating the advantages of using cystatin C as a GFR marker. KDIGO guidelines suggest measuring eGFRcys in adults with eGFRcreat of 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 who do not have markers of kidney damage if confirmation of CKD is required. Creatinine is excreted by glomerular filtration, but also secreted by the tubules. Alteration of the tubular secretion of creatinine may influence the performance of GFR equations based on serum creatinine. Multivariate analysis showed that GFR and serum albumin levels were independent parameters affecting the fractional excretion of creatinine (FE-Cr). Alteration of FE-Cr according to the serum albumin levels may be one of the reasons for the bias of GFR equations based on serum creatinine. Low GFR is a risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a general population. However, the relationship between eGFR and the hazard risk of events is different depending on whether cystatin C or creatinine is used to calculate eGFR. The association between eGFRcys and the hazard risk is much stronger compared with eGFRcreat. Cystatin C may be a useful alternative to creatinine for detecting a high risk of complications in a general population and subjects with CKD.

  1. Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios and serum amylase isoenzymes in moderate renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Banks, P A; Sidi, S; Gelman, M L; Lee, K H; Warshaw, A L

    1979-12-01

    Both the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (normal 1.55%) and proportion of pancreatic isoamylase in serum (normal 41.0%) increase in acute pancreatitis, and are therefore useful measurements to support that diagnosis. Whether renal insufficiency interferes with the accuracy and specificity of these tests has been debated. Our study indicates that even moderate renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance 30.5 ml/minute) raises the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (3.23%) close enough to values characteristic of acute pancreatitis (4.41%) to cause potential diagnostic confusion. The fraction of pancreatic isoamylase in serum is also increased (69.9%), but not to the levels of acute pancreatitis (91.0%). We therefore caution against the use of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in patients with moderate renal insufficiency.

  2. Single baseline serum creatinine measurements predict mortality in critically ill patients hospitalized for acute heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Schefold, Joerg C.; Hodoscek, Lea Majc; Blöchlinger, Stefan; Doehner, Wolfram; von Haehling, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute heart failure (AHF) is a leading cause of death in critically ill patients and is often accompanied by significant renal dysfunction. Few data exist on the predictive value of measures of renal dysfunction in large cohorts of patients hospitalized for AHF. Methods Six hundred and eighteen patients hospitalized for AHF (300 male, aged 73.3 ± 10.3 years, 73% New York Heart Association Class 4, mean hospital length of stay 12.9 ± 7.7 days, 97% non‐ischaemic AHF) were included in a retrospective single‐centre data analysis. Echocardiographic data, serum creatinine/urea levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and clinical/laboratory markers were recorded. Mean follow‐up time was 2.9 ± 2.1 years. All‐cause mortality was recorded, and univariate/multivariate analyses were performed. Results Normal renal function defined as eGFR > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was noted in only 3% of AHF patients at baseline. A significant correlation of left ventricular ejection fraction with serum creatinine levels and eGFR (all P < 0.002) was noted. All‐cause mortality rates were 12% (90 days) and 40% (at 2 years), respectively. In a multivariate model, increased age, higher New York Heart Association class at admission, higher total cholesterol levels, and lower eGFR independently predicted death. Patients with baseline eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 had an exceptionally high risk of death (odds ratio 2.80, 95% confidence interval 1.52–5.15, P = 0.001). Conclusions In a large cohort of patients with mostly non‐ischaemic AHF, enhanced serum creatinine levels and reduced eGFR independently predict death. It appears that patients with eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 have poorest survival rates. Our data add to mounting data indicating that impaired renal function is an important risk factor for non‐survival in patients hospitalized for AHF.

  3. Serum Creatinine Detection by a Conducting Polymer Based Electrochemical Sensor to Identify Allograft Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fang; Cheng, Scott; Korin, Yael; Reed, Elaine F.; Gjertson, David; Ho, Chih-ming; Gritsch, H. Albin; Veale, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplant recipients who have abnormally high creatinine levels in their blood often have allograft dysfunction secondary to rejection. Creatinine has become the preferred marker for renal dysfunction and is readily available in hospital clinical settings. We developed a rapid and accurate polymer-based electrochemical point-of-care (POC) assay for creatinine detection from whole blood to identify allograft dysfunction. The creatinine concentrations of 19 blood samples from transplant recipients were measured directly from clinical serum samples by the conducting polymer based electrochemical (EC) sensor arrays. These measurements were compared to the traditional clinical laboratory assay. The time required for detection was less than 5 minutes from sample loading. Sensitivity of the detection was found to be 0.46 mg/dL of creatinine with only 40 μL sample in the creatinine concentration range of 0 mg/dL to 11.33 mg/dL. Signal levels that were detected electrochemically correlated closely with the creatinine blood concentration detected by the UCLA Ronald Reagan Medical Center traditional clinical laboratory assay (correlation coefficient 0.94). This work is encouraging for the development of a rapid and accurate POCT device for measuring creatinine levels in whole blood. PMID:22881369

  4. Early and small changes in serum creatinine concentrations are associated with mortality in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Nin, Nicolás; Lombardi, Raúl; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Esteban, Andrés; Lorente, José A; Ferguson, Niall D; Hurtado, Javier; Apezteguia, Carlos; Brochard, Laurent; Schortgen, Fréderique; Raymondos, Konstantinos; Tomicic, Vinko; Soto, Luis; González, Marco; Nightingale, Peter; Abroug, Fekri; Pelosi, Paolo; Arabi, Yaseen; Moreno, Rui; Anzueto, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that minor changes in serum creatinine concentrations are associated with increased hospital mortality rates. However, whether serum creatinine concentration (SCr) on admission and its change are associated with an increased mortality rate in mechanically ventilated patients is not known. We have conducted an international, prospective, observational cohort study enrolling adult intensive care unit patients under mechanical ventilation (MV). Recursive partitioning was used to determine the values of SCr at the start of MV (SCr0) and the change in SCr ([DeltaSCr] defined as the maximal difference between the value at start of MV [day 0] and the value on MV day 2 at 8:00 am) that best discriminate mortality. In-hospital mortality, adjusted by a proportional hazards model, was the primary outcome variable. A total of 2,807 patients were included; median age was 59 years and median Simplified Acute Physiology Score II was 44. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 44%. The variable that best discriminated outcome was a SCr0 greater than 1.40 mg/dL (mortality, 57% vs. 36% for patients with SCr0 age, severity of illness, reason for MV, and cardiovascular and hepatic failure were also associated with mortality. Our study suggests that SCr0 greater than 1.40 mg/dL and, in patients with low baseline SCr, a DeltaSCr greater than 0.31 are predictors of in-hospital mortality in mechanically ventilated patients.

  5. Trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio and serum immunoreactive trypsin in digestive and pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Del Favero, G; Fabris, C; Bonvicini, P; Piccoli, A; Baccaglini, U; Pedrazzoli, S; Burlina, A; Naccarato, R

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio (Ctr/Ccr) and serum immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was evaluated in a total of 168 subjects with pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis and non-pancreatic digestive diseases. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (Cam/Ccr) and serum amylase levels were also evaluated in order to establish their possible relationship with Ctr/Ccr and IRT values. Elevated Ctr/Ccr and IRT values were observed in several patients with pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. Abnormal IRT and Ctr/Ccr values were found in 28.2 and 4% of non-pancreatic digestive diseases, respectively. IRT and amylase serum levels showed consensual modifications, while Ctr/Ccr showed a behavior different from that of Cam/Ccr. Liver damage seems to play a role in increasing serum IRT levels of patients without pancreatic involvement, while the increased Ctr/Ccr seems to depend on other factors, for instance renal tubular dysfunction.

  6. Difficulties in diagnosing acute kidney injury post liver transplantation using serum creatinine based diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Banwari; Davenport, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Renal function in patients with advanced cirrhosis is an important prognostic factor for survival both prior to and following liver transplantation. The importance of renal function is reflected by the introduction of the model for end stage liver disease (MELD) score, which includes serum creatinine. The MELD score has been shown to predict the short term risk of death for transplant wait listed patients and is currently used by many countries to allocate liver transplants on the basis of severity of underlying illness. Changes in serum creatinine are also used to stage acute kidney injury. However prior to liver transplantation the serum creatinine typically over estimates underlying renal function, particularly when a colorimetric Jaffe based assay is used, and paradoxically then under estimates renal function post liver transplantation, particularly when immunophyllins are started early as part of transplant immunosuppression. As acute kidney injury is defined by changes in serum creatinine, this potentially leads to over estimation of the incidence and severity of acute kidney injury in the immediate post-operative period. PMID:25349641

  7. Serum creatinine and albumin decline predict the contraction of nosocomial aspiration pneumonia in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Minakuchi, Hitoshi; Wakino, Shu; Hayashi, Koichi; Inamoto, Hajime; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Aspiration pneumonia (AP) is prevalent in older adults and the hemodialysis (HD) population has been getting older. Therefore, it is speculated that increasing number of HD patients would suffer from AP. However, the clinical aspects of AP in HD patients have not been elucidated. Consecutive HD patients with nosocomial AP hospitalized in our university hospital from April 2007 to December 2008 were recruited. Their clinical characteristics, risk factors for contraction, and the fatality of AP and treatment options were described. Nineteen out of 356 hospitalized HD patients had AP and 8 out of 19 AP patients died, indicating the incidence rate and fatality rate were 5.34% and 42.1%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the risk factors for contracting AP included age, body mass index, serum creatinine levels (Cre) and the monthly decline rate of Cre. It also revealed that serum albumin (Alb) and basal total cholesterol levels, the decline rate of Alb and Cre levels, and the duration of AP were independent risk factors for fatality. Survivors were most often treated with tube feeding. Both contraction rate and fatality of nosocomial AP were high among HD patients. Both the malnutrition as well as the decline rate for nutrition and muscle volume indicated by falls in Alb and Cre, respectively, had clinical relevance in AP. Maintaining nutritional state by tube feeding and muscle volume seems to be the mainstay for the prevention and the treatment of AP in HD patients.

  8. Urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid levels in postmortem serum, vitreous humor, and pericardial fluid.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Mangin, Patrice

    2015-03-01

    Urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid are relatively stable in postmortem serum and may, therefore, be used for diagnostic purposes when chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure are investigated as causes of death. Nevertheless, uncertainties remain in defining the best alternative to postmortem serum for the identification and assessment of significantly decreased kidney function. In this study, we investigated urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid levels in postmortem serum, pericardial fluid, and vitreous humor in a series of medico-legal cases (500 autopsies) with various causes of death. No postmortem interval-related differences were observed in any of the investigated fluids for any analyzed parameter, confirming the biochemical stability of all compounds after death. Data analysis failed to reveal statistically significant differences between postmortem serum and pericardial fluid urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid concentrations. Conversely, statistically significant differences were observed in all analyzed biomarkers between postmortem serum and vitreous humor levels, with lower concentrations of all markers measured in vitreous. The results of this study suggest that, in order to estimate as accurately as possible blood analyte concentrations at the time of death, pericardial fluid should be preferred to vitreous humor.

  9. Serum Creatinine Modifies Associations between Body Mass Index and Mortality and Morbidity in Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sakao, Yukitoshi; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Hideo; Hashimoto, Seiji; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Kato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Background High body mass index (BMI) is paradoxically associated with better outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study aimed to examine whether serum creatinine (Cr), a marker of muscle mass, could modify the association between BMI, and mortality and morbidity in prevalent HD patients. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using a nationwide database from the registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. A total of 119,099 patients were selected (age: 65±12 years; median time on HD: 5.6 years; male: 62%), and we examined the association of basal BMI with mortality and morbidity after a 1-year period. Patients were stratified either by BMI into 4 groups or by serum Cr levels into 3 tertiles. Odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] was calculated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Higher BMI did not predict a higher 1-year total mortality. However, when we stratified the patients by serum Cr levels, the risk of cardiac death became significantly higher in obese patients with the lowest Cr levels, in both males (OR 2.82 [1.51–5.27], p<0.01) and females (OR 2.00 [1.03–3.90], p<0.05). The risk of new cerebral infarction was also higher in obese male patients within the lowest Cr tertile. In contrast, there was a significantly lower risk of cardiac, cerebrovascular, and infection-related death in non-obese patients with higher levels of Cr. Higher serum Cr was also related to a lower risk of cardiovascular events and hip fracture in non-obese HD patients. Conclusions The obesity paradox was found to be present in HD patients only when obesity was defined by BMI. Decreased serum Cr levels were found to be positively associated with clinical poor outcomes in all BMI groups. Thus, irrespective of BMI, the evaluation of serum Cr levels is important to predict mortality and morbidity in patients receiving regular HD. PMID:26930325

  10. Amylase:creatinine clearance ratios, serum amylase, and lipase after operations with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Smith, C R; Schwartz, S I

    1983-09-01

    Forty-two adults who underwent cardiac operations were studied prospectively for evidence of clinical or subclinical pancreatitis. Clinically detectable pancreatitis was not seen. Serum amylase and lipase levels did not change significantly following operation. The amylase:creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) immediately following operation was abnormally elevated in 31% of the samples obtained, and the mean ACCR increased from 2.08 +/- 1.85% before operation to 6.2% +/- 6.77% (P less than 0.05). An abnormally elevated ACCR was most often associated with a low urine creatinine concentration. The mean urine creatinine level decreased significantly from 78 +/- 53 mg/dl before operation to 38 +/- 49 mg/dl immediately following operation (P less than 0.02), and 73% of the samples obtained at that time had an abnormally low urine creatinine level (P less than 0.01). The abnormalities observed in ACCR and urine creatinine could not be related to any of several variables presumed to reflect the degree of perioperative physiologic stress, nor could they be related to postoperative hemodynamic performance. It was concluded that ACCR rises following cardiac operation because of perioperative changes in renal function, and not as a reflection of subclinical pancreatic injury.

  11. Amylase:creatinine clearance ratios, serum amylase, and lipase after operations with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Smith, C R; Schwartz, S I

    1983-09-01

    Forty-two adults who underwent cardiac operations were studied prospectively for evidence of clinical or subclinical pancreatitis. Clinically detectable pancreatitis was not seen. Serum amylase and lipase levels did not change significantly following operation. The amylase:creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) immediately following operation was abnormally elevated in 31% of the samples obtained, and the mean ACCR increased from 2.08 +/- 1.85% before operation to 6.2% +/- 6.77% (P less than 0.05). An abnormally elevated ACCR was most often associated with a low urine creatinine concentration. The mean urine creatinine level decreased significantly from 78 +/- 53 mg/dl before operation to 38 +/- 49 mg/dl immediately following operation (P less than 0.02), and 73% of the samples obtained at that time had an abnormally low urine creatinine level (P less than 0.01). The abnormalities observed in ACCR and urine creatinine could not be related to any of several variables presumed to reflect the degree of perioperative physiologic stress, nor could they be related to postoperative hemodynamic performance. It was concluded that ACCR rises following cardiac operation because of perioperative changes in renal function, and not as a reflection of subclinical pancreatic injury. PMID:6193594

  12. Four-week effects of allopurinol and febuxostat treatments on blood pressure and serum creatinine level in gouty men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ah; Seo, Young-Il; Song, Yeong W

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of uric acid lowering therapy (UALT), febuxostat and allopurinol, on blood pressure (BP) and serum creatinine level. Post-hoc data were derived from a phase-III, randomised, double-blind, 4-week trial of male gouty patients that compared the safety and efficacy of febuxostat and allopurinol in adults with gout. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups, 35-37 in each group (febuxostat: 40, 80, 120 mg/d; allopurinol: 300 mg/d; control group: placebo). Blood pressure and serum creatinine level were measured at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Diastolic BP and creatinine level had decreased significantly in the UALT groups compared to the control group at week 4. Diastolic BP had decreased significantly in the allopurinol group and serum creatinine level had decreased significantly in the febuxostat groups at week 4. After adjusting for confounding variables, serum uric acid changes were found to be significantly correlated with changes in serum creatinine level but were not associated with changes in systolic or diastolic BP. UALT in gouty subjects significantly decreased diastolic BP and serum creatinine level. Changes in uric acid were significantly correlated with those in serum creatinine level, suggesting the feasibility of renal function improvement through UALT in gouty men.

  13. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K12: The determination of creatinine in serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Michael J.; Phinney, Curtis P.; Parris, Reenie M.; May, Willie E.; Heo, Gwi Suk; Henrion, Andre; O'Conner, Gavin; Schimmel, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    A Key Comparison on the determination of creatinine in human serum organized by the Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance (CCQM) was carried out in 2001. To address the measurement traceability needs of the clinical chemistry community, the CCQM is undertaking Key Comparisons to document the capabilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) that provide measurement services in this area. This Key Comparison, along with two others recently completed, CCQM-K6 and CCQM-K11, determination of total cholesterol and glucose, respectively, in serum, will provide a basis for evaluating the capabilities of NMIs for the determination of well-defined, organic substances of similar molecular weights and concentrations in human serum. Participants in CCQM-K12 included: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) [USA], Coordinating Laboratory; Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) [EU]; Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) [S Korea]; Laboratory of the Government Chemist, (LGC) [UK]; and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) [Germany]. Two frozen human serum materials were analyzed by each of the participants using either ID-GC/MS-based methods (three laboratories) or ID-LC/MS-based methods (two laboratories). Agreement of results among the participants was excellent, in accordance with the agreement found in a pilot study (CCQM-P9) for creatinine in serum. The resulting Key Comparison Reference Values had expanded uncertainties of less than 1% for both materials. In conclusion, five NMIs have demonstrated their ability to make reference measurements of creatinine in serum using isotope dilution-based methods that, when executed properly, provide measurements that are precise, accurate and SI traceable. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer

  14. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S; Raghavendra, K M; Biswas, S

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  15. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S; Raghavendra, K M; Biswas, S

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one.

  16. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, S.; Raghavendra, K. M.; Biswas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  17. Effect of trimethoprim on serum creatinine in healthy and chronic renal failure volunteers.

    PubMed

    Myre, S A; McCann, J; First, M R; Cluxton, R J

    1987-06-01

    The effect of trimethoprim (TMP) on serum creatinine concentration (SCr) was studied in 10 healthy (H) subjects and nine subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF). Each volunteer was given TMP 100 mg perorally every 12 h for 10 days followed by a 7-day washout period. SCr was measured colorimetrically immediately before the study (baseline), on day 10 of TMP, and 7 days after TMP had been discontinued. SCr increased an average of 14.8% from baseline during TMP administration in the H volunteers, but this increase was not statistically significant. During TMP administration to the CRF volunteers, a pronounced elevation (34.6%) of mean SCr from baseline was observed (p less than 0.05). SCr returned to baseline values in both groups following the 7-day washout period. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that TMP competitively inhibits the renal tubular secretion of creatinine. PMID:3617154

  18. Serum amylase determinations and amylase to creatinine clearance ratios in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, F J; Harter, H R; Alpers, D H

    1976-10-01

    Patients with severe chronic renal failure may have significant hyperamylasemia in the absence of clinical symptoms or signs of acute pancreatitis. Amylase to creatinine clearance (CA/CC) ratios were usually elevated in patients with chronic renal failure and were not helpful in evaluating the possibility of acute pancreatitis. The mean amylase to creatinine clearance ratio for the controls with normal renal function was 1.24 +/- 0.13. In patients with chronic renal failure, it was 3.17 +/- 0.42 (P less than 0.001). Serum amylase isoenzyme patterns revealed no difference in salivary to pancreatic isoenzyme ratios between normals (1.04 +/- 0.12) and patients with severe renal insufficiency without evidence of pancreatic disease (1.07 +/- 0.13). The isoenzymes were helpful in excluding the diagnosis of pancreatic in 1 renal failure patient whose hyperamylasemia was primarily salivary in origin and in confirming the diagnosis in another who had only a pancreatic band.

  19. The role of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations in the diagnosis of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Kin Tekce, Buket; Tekce, Hikmet; Aktas, Gulali; Uyeturk, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty of measurement is the numeric expression of the errors associated with all measurements taken in clinical laboratories. Serum creatinine concentration is the most common diagnostic marker for acute kidney injury. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations on the diagnosis of acute kidney injury. We calculated the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine according to the Nordtest Guide. Retrospectively, we identified 289 patients who were evaluated for acute kidney injury. Of the total patient pool, 233 were diagnosed with acute kidney injury using the AKIN classification scheme and then were compared using statistical analysis. We determined nine probabilities of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of patients diagnosed with acute kidney injury when uncertainty of measurement was taken into consideration (first probability compared to the fifth p = 0.023 and first probability compared to the ninth p = 0.012). We found that the uncertainty of measurement for serum creatinine concentrations was an important factor for correctly diagnosing acute kidney injury. In addition, based on the AKIN classification scheme, minimizing the total allowable error levels for serum creatinine concentrations is necessary for the accurate diagnosis of acute kidney injury by clinicians.

  20. How the use of creatine supplements can elevate serum creatinine in the absence of underlying kidney pathology.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lydia; New, David

    2014-09-19

    Serum creatinine is a widely used marker in the assessment of renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest kidney dysfunction, prompting the need for further investigation. This report describes a case in which the consumption of the bodybuilding supplement creatine ethyl ester resulted in raised serum creatinine in the absence of true underlying kidney pathology. The abnormalities reversed after discontinuation of the supplement. A case of pseudo renal failure was recognised and kidney function was concluded to be normal. This report aims to address the mechanisms by which the ingestion of creatine ethyl ester can mimic the blood results expected in advanced renal failure, and confronts the problems faced when relying on serum creatinine as a diagnostic tool.

  1. How the use of creatine supplements can elevate serum creatinine in the absence of underlying kidney pathology

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Lydia; New, David

    2014-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a widely used marker in the assessment of renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest kidney dysfunction, prompting the need for further investigation. This report describes a case in which the consumption of the bodybuilding supplement creatine ethyl ester resulted in raised serum creatinine in the absence of true underlying kidney pathology. The abnormalities reversed after discontinuation of the supplement. A case of pseudo renal failure was recognised and kidney function was concluded to be normal. This report aims to address the mechanisms by which the ingestion of creatine ethyl ester can mimic the blood results expected in advanced renal failure, and confronts the problems faced when relying on serum creatinine as a diagnostic tool. PMID:25239988

  2. Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate Based on Serum Cystatin C versus Creatinine in a Uruguayan Population

    PubMed Central

    Lujambio, Inés; Sottolano, Mariana; Robaina, Sebastián; Carusso, Florencia; da Rosa, Alicia; Ríos, Ana Carina; Olascoaga, Alicia; Gadola, Liliana; Noboa, Oscar; Staessen, Jan A.; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Background. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from biomarkers has evolved and multiple equations are available to estimate renal function at bedside. Methods. In a random sample of 119 Uruguayans (54.5% women; 56.2 years (mean)), we used Bland and Altman's method and Cohen's kappa statistic to assess concordance on a continuous or categorical (eGFR < 60 versus ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2) scale between eGFRcys (reference) and eGFR derived from serum creatinine according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (eGFRmdrd) or the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations (eGFRepi) or from both serum cystatin C and creatinine (eGFRmix). Results. In all participants, eGFRmdrd, eGFRepi, and eGFRmix were, respectively, 9.7, 11.5, and 5.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher (P < 0.0001) than eGFRcys. The prevalence of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was the highest for eGFRcys (21.8%), intermediate for eGFRmix (11.8%), and the lowest for eGFRmdrd (5.9%) and eGFRepi (3.4%). Using eGFRcys as reference, we found only fair agreement with the equations based on creatinine (Cohen's kappa statistic 0.15 to 0.23). Conclusion. Using different equations we reached clinically significant differences in the estimation of renal function. eGFRcys provides lower estimates, resulting in higher prevalence of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. PMID:25215234

  3. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Cats.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables), highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years), indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8%) cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02) only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more likely to

  4. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Cats.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables), highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years), indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8%) cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02) only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more likely to

  5. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Cats

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables), highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80) were fed either test food or owner’s-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years), indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner’s-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner’s-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8%) cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner’s-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner’s-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02) only for cats fed owner’s-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner’s-choice foods. Cats fed owner’s-choice foods were

  6. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables), controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition). Dogs (n = 210) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Dogs were included based on age and body weight: small (6.8 to 11.4 kg) and medium dogs (11.5 to 22.7 kg) were ≥ 9 years, whereas dogs >22.7 kg were ≥ 7 years at baseline. At baseline, all dogs had to have serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval and be free of chronic disease. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline, and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months, were evaluated. Only dogs consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations (both P ≤ 0.05) across time. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 18 dogs (8.6%) had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr, consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 9 dogs fed test food and 9 dogs fed owner's-choice foods. Compared with baseline, after feeding 9 dogs test food for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 8 dogs and increased in 1 dog. After feeding 9 dogs owner's-choice foods for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 4 dogs and increased in 4 dogs (remained stable in 1 dog). The decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were significant (both P = 0.03) only for dogs fed test food. These results suggest that nonazotemic dogs with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a test food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate improved renal function compared with dogs fed owner

  7. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables), controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition). Dogs (n = 210) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Dogs were included based on age and body weight: small (6.8 to 11.4 kg) and medium dogs (11.5 to 22.7 kg) were ≥ 9 years, whereas dogs >22.7 kg were ≥ 7 years at baseline. At baseline, all dogs had to have serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval and be free of chronic disease. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline, and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months, were evaluated. Only dogs consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations (both P ≤ 0.05) across time. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 18 dogs (8.6%) had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr, consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 9 dogs fed test food and 9 dogs fed owner's-choice foods. Compared with baseline, after feeding 9 dogs test food for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 8 dogs and increased in 1 dog. After feeding 9 dogs owner's-choice foods for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 4 dogs and increased in 4 dogs (remained stable in 1 dog). The decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were significant (both P = 0.03) only for dogs fed test food. These results suggest that nonazotemic dogs with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a test food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate improved renal function compared with dogs fed owner

  8. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables), controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition). Dogs (n = 210) were fed either test food or owner’s-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Dogs were included based on age and body weight: small (6.8 to 11.4 kg) and medium dogs (11.5 to 22.7 kg) were ≥ 9 years, whereas dogs >22.7 kg were ≥ 7 years at baseline. At baseline, all dogs had to have serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval and be free of chronic disease. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline, and after consuming test food or owner’s-choice foods for 3 and 6 months, were evaluated. Only dogs consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations (both P ≤ 0.05) across time. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 18 dogs (8.6%) had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr, consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 9 dogs fed test food and 9 dogs fed owner’s-choice foods. Compared with baseline, after feeding 9 dogs test food for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 8 dogs and increased in 1 dog. After feeding 9 dogs owner’s-choice foods for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 4 dogs and increased in 4 dogs (remained stable in 1 dog). The decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were significant (both P = 0.03) only for dogs fed test food. These results suggest that nonazotemic dogs with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a test food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate improved renal function compared with dogs fed owner

  9. [Amylase in serum, amylase excretion and the amylase-creatinine-ratio. Individual variation and diagnostic specifity (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Koch, C D; Rommel, K

    1981-06-01

    The amylase activity in serum, the amylase excretion and the amylase-creatinine-ratio was investigated in 25 volunteers monthly for one year and daily for two weeks. The intraindividual variation of the amylase-activity in serum showed only small oscillations. The large refernce value of the group and the need to use individual reference values prefer the 24 hour amylase excretion as a diagnostic tool. The amylase-creatinine-ratio showed individual and seasonal large variations. Therefore the ratio is not suitable for diagnostic questions.

  10. Creatinine Index as a Surrogate of Lean Body Mass Derived from Urea Kt/V, Pre-Dialysis Serum Levels and Anthropometric Characteristics of Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Canaud, Bernard; Granger Vallée, Alexandre; Molinari, Nicolas; Chenine, Leila; Leray-Moragues, Hélène; Rodriguez, Annie; Chalabi, Lotfi; Morena, Marion; Cristol, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Protein-energy wasting is common in long-term haemodialysis (HD) patients with chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The creatinine index (CI) is a simple and useful nutritional parameter reflecting the dietary skeletal muscle protein intake and skeletal muscle mass of the patient. Because of the complexity of creatinine kinetic modeling (CKM) to derive CI, we developed a more simplified formula to estimate CI in HD patients. Design, Setting, Participants & Measurements A large database of 549 HD patients followed over more than 20 years including monthly CKM-derived CI values was used to develop a simple equation based on patient demographics, predialysis serum creatinine values and dialysis dose (spKt/V) using mixed regression models. Results The equation to estimate CI was developed based on age, gender, pre-dialysis serum creatinine concentrations and spKt/V urea. The equation-derived CI correlated strongly with the measured CI using CKM (correlation coefficient  = 0.79, p-value <0.001). The mean error of CI prediction using the equation was 13.47%. Preliminary examples of few typical HD patients have been used to illustrate the clinical relevance and potential usefulness of CI. Conclusions The elementary equation used to derive CI using demographic parameters, pre-dialysis serum creatinine concentrations and dialysis dose is a simple and accurate surrogate measure for muscle mass estimation. However, the predictive value of the simplified CI assessment method on mortality deserves further evaluation in large cohorts of HD patients. PMID:24671212

  11. Serum creatinine elevation after switch to dolutegravir in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Malat, G E; Bias, T E; Harhay, M N; Ranganna, K; Doyle, A M

    2016-08-01

    Dolutegravir is a preferred antiretroviral drug for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following solid organ transplantation. It has potent antiretroviral activity and does not interact with calcineurin inhibitors. We describe a case of an HIV-infected kidney transplant patient, who was noted to have a rising serum creatinine following initiation of dolutegravir. At first, an acute rejection episode was suspected, but this finding was later attributed to inhibition of creatinine secretion by dolutegravir. We suggest that an awareness of this potential effect of dolutegravir is important for providers who take care of HIV-positive kidney transplant recipients, in order to prevent potentially unnecessary testing. PMID:27159656

  12. Estimating the concentration of urea and creatinine in the human serum of normal and dialysis patients through Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-09-01

    Urea and creatinine are commonly used as biomarkers of renal function. Abnormal concentrations of these biomarkers are indicative of pathological processes such as renal failure. This study aimed to develop a model based on Raman spectroscopy to estimate the concentration values of urea and creatinine in human serum. Blood sera from 55 clinically normal subjects and 47 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis were collected, and concentrations of urea and creatinine were determined by spectrophotometric methods. A Raman spectrum was obtained with a high-resolution dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm). A spectral model was developed based on partial least squares (PLS), where the concentrations of urea and creatinine were correlated with the Raman features. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate dialysis patients from normal subjects. The PLS model showed r = 0.97 and r = 0.93 for urea and creatinine, respectively. The root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) for the model were 17.6 and 1.94 mg/dL, respectively. PCA showed high discrimination between dialysis and normality (95 % accuracy). The Raman technique was able to determine the concentrations with low error and to discriminate dialysis from normal subjects, consistent with a rapid and low-cost test. PMID:27393683

  13. Associations of increases in serum creatinine with mortality and length of hospital stay after coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Weisbord, Steven D; Chen, Huanyu; Stone, Roslyn A; Kip, Kevin E; Fine, Michael J; Saul, Melissa I; Palevsky, Paul M

    2006-10-01

    The absence of a universally accepted definition of radiocontrast nephropathy (RCN) has hampered efforts to characterize effectively the incidence and the clinical significance of this condition. The objective of this study was to identify a clinically relevant definition of RCN by assessment of the relationships between increases in serum creatinine (Scr) of varying magnitude after coronary angiography and clinical outcomes. An electronic medical database was used to identify all patients who underwent coronary angiography at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center during a 12-yr period and abstract Scr levels before and after angiography, as well as demographic characteristics and comorbid conditions. Changes in Scr after angiography were categorized into mutually exclusive categories on the basis of absolute and relative changes from baseline levels, with a separate category denoting "unknown" change. Discrete proportional odds models were used to examine the association between increases in Scr and 30-d in-hospital mortality and length of stay. A total of 27,608 patients who underwent coronary angiography were evaluated. Small absolute (0.25 to 0.5 mg/dl) and relative (25 to 50%) increases in Scr were associated with risk-adjusted odds ratios for in-hospital mortality of 1.83 and 1.39, respectively. Larger increases in Scr generally were associated with greater risks for these clinical outcomes. Small increases in Scr after the administration of intravascular radiocontrast are associated with adverse patient outcomes. This observation will help guide the post-procedure care of patients who undergo coronary angiography and has important implications for future studies that investigate RCN.

  14. Acute Kidney Injury Classified by Serum Creatinine and Urine Output in Critically Ill Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Gómez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and is associated with higher mortality. Cancer patients are at an increased risk of AKI. Our objective was to determine the incidence of AKI in our critically ill cancer patients, using the criteria of serum creatinine (SCr) and urine output (UO) proposed by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of a prospectively collected database at the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología from January 2013 to March 2015. Results. We classified AKI according to the KDIGO definition. We included 389 patients; using the SCr criterion, 192 (49.4%) had AKI; using the UO criterion, 219 (56.3%) had AKI. Using both criteria, we diagnosed AKI in 69.4% of patients. All stages were independently associated with six-month mortality; stage 1 HR was 2.04 (95% CI 1.14–3.68, p = 0.017), stage 2 HR was 2.73 (95% CI 1.53–4.88, p = 0.001), and stage 3 HR was 4.5 (95% CI 2.25–8.02, p < 0.001). Patients who fulfilled both criteria had a higher mortality compared with patients who fulfilled just one criterion (HR 3.56, 95% CI 2.03–6.24, p < 0.001). Conclusion. We diagnosed AKI in 69.4% of patients. All AKI stages were associated with higher risk of death at six months, even for patients who fulfilled just one AKI criterion. PMID:27803928

  15. Estimated glomerular filtration rate by serum creatinine or standardized cystatin C in Japanese patients with Graves׳ disease.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshitake; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Seimiya, Masanori; Yoshida, Toshihiko; Sawabe, Yuji; Ogawa, Makoto; Nomura, Fumio

    2015-12-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by serum creatinine (eGFRCr) or standardized cystatin C (eGFRCysC) were estimated in Japanese patients with Graves׳ disease (GD) of different sex. Clinical samples were collected from patients with GD with normal renal function to accurately validate eGFRCr and eGFRCysC levels and evaluate how hyperthyroidism affects renal function. Levels of eGFRCr and eGFRCysC showed clinical usefulness in successfully treated euthyroid patients with GD regardless of sex. The article includes detailed experimental methods and data used in our analysis. The data relates to the "Paradoxical effect of thyroid function on the estimated glomerular filtration rate by serum creatinine or standardized cystatin C in Japanese Graves' disease patients" (Suzuki et al., 2015) [1].

  16. Changes of serum amylase, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in dogs with experimentally induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Akuzawa, M; Morizono, M; Nagata, K; Hayano, S; Sakamoto, H; Yasuda, N; Okamoto, K; Kawasaki, Y; Deguchi, E

    1994-04-01

    To investigate the diagnostic application of amylase to canine pancreatic diseases, serum amylase activities, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) were analyzed in normal intact dogs and dogs experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. There was no statistic difference between normal male and female dogs. Amylase specific activities in pancreatic tissue extracts were more than 2,300 times higher than that in serum, and were also higher than those in other tissues; parotid and mandibular salivary glands, lung, heart, liver, spleen, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and kidney. Following the chloroform injection into the pancreatic tissue, WBC increased from 6 to 240 hr and serum glucose significantly increased at 72 and 96 hr, and no urine glucose was detected. BUN as well as serum and urine creatinine showed normal levels. ACCR increased until 96 hr without statistic significance. Serum amylase activities increased significantly after 3 hr and its isozyme was separated into 4 fractions (Amy1-Amy4) in contrast to 3 fractions (Amy2-Amy4) in intact dogs. Since this extra Amy1 seen from 1 hr increasing after 6 hr similarly to other 3 fractions, the evaluation of serum amylase and its isozyme fractions was indicated to be useful for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs.

  17. Changes of serum amylase, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in dogs with experimentally induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Akuzawa, M; Morizono, M; Nagata, K; Hayano, S; Sakamoto, H; Yasuda, N; Okamoto, K; Kawasaki, Y; Deguchi, E

    1994-04-01

    To investigate the diagnostic application of amylase to canine pancreatic diseases, serum amylase activities, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) were analyzed in normal intact dogs and dogs experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. There was no statistic difference between normal male and female dogs. Amylase specific activities in pancreatic tissue extracts were more than 2,300 times higher than that in serum, and were also higher than those in other tissues; parotid and mandibular salivary glands, lung, heart, liver, spleen, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and kidney. Following the chloroform injection into the pancreatic tissue, WBC increased from 6 to 240 hr and serum glucose significantly increased at 72 and 96 hr, and no urine glucose was detected. BUN as well as serum and urine creatinine showed normal levels. ACCR increased until 96 hr without statistic significance. Serum amylase activities increased significantly after 3 hr and its isozyme was separated into 4 fractions (Amy1-Amy4) in contrast to 3 fractions (Amy2-Amy4) in intact dogs. Since this extra Amy1 seen from 1 hr increasing after 6 hr similarly to other 3 fractions, the evaluation of serum amylase and its isozyme fractions was indicated to be useful for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs. PMID:7521216

  18. Elevated amylase creatinine clearance ratio and normal serum amylase levels in chronic relapsing pancreatitis after partial pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cattau, E L; Garcia-Torres, F

    1980-12-01

    A 29-year-old woman admitted for alcohol detoxification five years after a 90% distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis had abdominal pain similar to that associated with preoperative pancreatitis. Although her clinical course was consistent with recurrent pancreatitis, the serum amylase level remained normal, but the amylase creatinine clearance ratio became elevated and then returned to normal, paralleling her clinical course. The ACCR may be a useful laboratory method in diagnosing chronic recurrent pancreatitis in patients with decreased functional pancreatic tissue.

  19. Estimating GFR using Serum Cystatin C Alone and in Combination with Serum Creatinine: A Pooled Analysis of 3418 Individuals with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Lesley A; Coresh, Josef; Schmid, Christopher H; Feldman, Harold I.; Froissart, Marc; Kusek, John; Rossert, Jerome; Van Lente, Frederick; Bruce, Robert D.; Zhang, Yaping (Lucy); Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S

    2008-01-01

    Background Serum cystatin C (Scys) has been proposed as a potential replacement for serum creatinine (Scr) in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation. We report development and evaluation of GFR estimating equations using Scys alone and Scys, Scr or both with demographic variables. Study Design Test of diagnostic accuracy. Setting and Participants Participants screened for three chronic kidney disease (CKD) studies in the US (n=2980) and a clinical population in Paris, France (n=438) Reference Test Measured GFR (mGFR). Index Test Estimated GFR using the four new equations based on Scys alone, Scys, Scr or both with age, sex and race. New equations were developed using regression with log GFR as the outcome in 2/3 data from US studies. Internal validation was performed in remaining 1/3 of data from US CKD studies; external validation was performed in the Paris study. Measurements GFR was measured using urinary clearance of 125I-iothalamate in the US studies and chromium-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (51Cr-EDTA) in the Paris study. Scys was measured by Dade Behring assay, standardized Scr. Results Mean mGFR, Scr and Scys were 48 (5th–95th percentile 15–95) ml/min/1.73m2 2.1 mg/dL and 1.8 mg/L respectively. For the new equations, the coefficients for age, sex and race were significant in the equation with Scys but 2 to 4 fold smaller than in the equation with Scr. Measures of performance among new equations were consistent across development, internal and external validation datasets. Percent of eGFR within 30% of mGFR for equations based on Scys alone, Scys, Scr or both with age, sex and race were 81, 83, 85, and 89%, respectively. The equation using Scys alone yields estimates with small biases in age, sex and race subgroups, which are improved in equations including these variables. Limitations Study population composed mainly of patients with CKD. Conclusions Scys alone provides GFR estimates that are nearly as accurate as Scr adjusted for age, sex and race

  20. Antegrade cerebral perfusion at 25 °C for arch reconstruction in newborns and children preserves perioperative cerebral oxygenation and serum creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhawna; Dodge-Khatami, Ali; Tucker, Juan; Taylor, Mary B.; Maposa, Douglas; Urencio, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) typically is used with deep hypothermia for cerebral protection during aortic arch reconstructions. The impact of ACP on cerebral oxygenation and serum creatinine at a more tepid 25 °C was studied in newborns and children. Methods Between 2010 and 2014, 61 newborns and children (<5 years old) underwent aortic arch reconstruction using moderate hypothermia (25.0±0.9 °C) with ACP and a pH-stat blood gas management strategy. These included 44% Norwood-type operations, 30% isolated arch reconstructions, and 26% arch reconstructions with other major procedures. Median patient age at surgery was 9 days (range, 3 days–4.7 years). Cerebral oxygenation (NIRS) was monitored continuously perioperatively for 120 hours. Serum creatinine was monitored daily. Results Median cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cross clamp times were 181 minutes (range, 82–652 minutes) and 72 minutes (range, 10–364 minutes), respectively. ACP was performed at a mean flow rate of 46±6 mL/min/kg for a median of 48 minutes (range, 10–123 minutes). Cerebral and somatic NIRS were preserved intraoperatively and remained at baseline postoperatively during the first 120 hours. Peak postoperative serum creatinine levels averaged 0.7±0.3 mg/dL for all patients. There were 4 (6.6%) discharge mortalities. Six patients (9.8%) required ECMO support. Median postoperative length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay were 16 days(range, 4–104 days) and 9 days (range, 1–104 days), respectively. Two patients (3.3%) received short-term peritoneal dialysis for fluid removal, and none required hemodialysis. Three patients (4.9%) had an isolated seizure which resolved with medical therapy, and none had a neurologic deficit or stroke. Conclusions ACP at 25 °C preserved perioperative cerebral oxygenation and serum creatinine for newborns and children undergoing arch reconstruction. Early outcomes are encouraging, and additional study is warranted to

  1. Elevated amylase creatinine clearance ratio and normal serum amylase levels in chronic relapsing pancreatitis after partial pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cattau, E L; Garcia-Torres, F

    1980-12-01

    A 29-year-old woman admitted for alcohol detoxification five years after a 90% distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis had abdominal pain similar to that associated with preoperative pancreatitis. Although her clinical course was consistent with recurrent pancreatitis, the serum amylase level remained normal, but the amylase creatinine clearance ratio became elevated and then returned to normal, paralleling her clinical course. The ACCR may be a useful laboratory method in diagnosing chronic recurrent pancreatitis in patients with decreased functional pancreatic tissue. PMID:6160621

  2. Underestimation of urinary biomarker-to-creatinine ratio resulting from age-related gain in muscle mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Tonomura, Yutaka; Morikawa, Yuji; Takagi, Shingo; Torii, Mikinori; Matsubara, Mitsunobu

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts have been made to identify useful urinary biomarkers of nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, the application of urine to the other toxicities as new biomarker source has been recently expanded. Meanwhile, correction of urinary biomarker concentrations according to fluctuations in urine flow rate is required for adequate interpretation of the alteration. The urinary biomarker-to-creatinine ratio (UBCR) is widely used because of the convenience, while the urinary biomarker-excretion rate is regarded as the gold standard corrective method. Because creatinine is a catabolite in energy production in muscles, we hypothesized that altered muscle mass could affect creatinine kinetics, ultimately affecting UBCR. However, no study has examined this hypothesis. In this study, we examined the influence of muscle mass gain on UBCR, using male Sprague-Dawley rats during the growth phase, 6-12-week old. Both plasma creatinine and excretion of urinary creatinine (Ucr excretion) showed increases with muscle mass gain in rats, in which the alterations of UBCR were lowered. The renal mRNA level of the organic cation transporter-2 (Oct2), a creatinine transporter, showed an age-related increase, whereas the mRNA level of multidrug and toxin extrusions-1 (Mate1) remained constant. Multiple regression analysis showed that the increase in creatinine clearance highly contributed to the age-related increase in Ucr excretion compared to the mRNA levels of Oct2 and Mate1. This suggested that the age-related increase in Ucr excretion may be attributable to the increased transglomerular passage of creatinine. In conclusion, the results suggest that muscle mass gain can affect creatinine kinetics, leading to underestimation of UBCR. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of the corrective method when using urinary biomarker, the failure of which can result in an incorrect diagnosis.

  3. A Comprehensive Software and Database Management System for Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation by Radionuclide Plasma Sampling and Serum Creatinine Methods.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation by plasma sampling method is considered as the gold standard. However, this method is not widely used because the complex technique and cumbersome calculations coupled with the lack of availability of user-friendly software. The routinely used Serum Creatinine method (SrCrM) of GFR estimation also requires the use of online calculators which cannot be used without internet access. We have developed user-friendly software "GFR estimation software" which gives the options to estimate GFR by plasma sampling method as well as SrCrM. We have used Microsoft Windows(®) as operating system and Visual Basic 6.0 as the front end and Microsoft Access(®) as database tool to develop this software. We have used Russell's formula for GFR calculation by plasma sampling method. GFR calculations using serum creatinine have been done using MIRD, Cockcroft-Gault method, Schwartz method, and Counahan-Barratt methods. The developed software is performing mathematical calculations correctly and is user-friendly. This software also enables storage and easy retrieval of the raw data, patient's information and calculated GFR for further processing and comparison. This is user-friendly software to calculate the GFR by various plasma sampling method and blood parameter. This software is also a good system for storing the raw and processed data for future analysis.

  4. A Comprehensive Software and Database Management System for Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation by Radionuclide Plasma Sampling and Serum Creatinine Methods.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation by plasma sampling method is considered as the gold standard. However, this method is not widely used because the complex technique and cumbersome calculations coupled with the lack of availability of user-friendly software. The routinely used Serum Creatinine method (SrCrM) of GFR estimation also requires the use of online calculators which cannot be used without internet access. We have developed user-friendly software "GFR estimation software" which gives the options to estimate GFR by plasma sampling method as well as SrCrM. We have used Microsoft Windows(®) as operating system and Visual Basic 6.0 as the front end and Microsoft Access(®) as database tool to develop this software. We have used Russell's formula for GFR calculation by plasma sampling method. GFR calculations using serum creatinine have been done using MIRD, Cockcroft-Gault method, Schwartz method, and Counahan-Barratt methods. The developed software is performing mathematical calculations correctly and is user-friendly. This software also enables storage and easy retrieval of the raw data, patient's information and calculated GFR for further processing and comparison. This is user-friendly software to calculate the GFR by various plasma sampling method and blood parameter. This software is also a good system for storing the raw and processed data for future analysis. PMID:26097422

  5. A Comprehensive Software and Database Management System for Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation by Radionuclide Plasma Sampling and Serum Creatinine Methods

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation by plasma sampling method is considered as the gold standard. However, this method is not widely used because the complex technique and cumbersome calculations coupled with the lack of availability of user-friendly software. The routinely used Serum Creatinine method (SrCrM) of GFR estimation also requires the use of online calculators which cannot be used without internet access. We have developed user-friendly software “GFR estimation software” which gives the options to estimate GFR by plasma sampling method as well as SrCrM. We have used Microsoft Windows® as operating system and Visual Basic 6.0 as the front end and Microsoft Access® as database tool to develop this software. We have used Russell's formula for GFR calculation by plasma sampling method. GFR calculations using serum creatinine have been done using MIRD, Cockcroft-Gault method, Schwartz method, and Counahan-Barratt methods. The developed software is performing mathematical calculations correctly and is user-friendly. This software also enables storage and easy retrieval of the raw data, patient's information and calculated GFR for further processing and comparison. This is user-friendly software to calculate the GFR by various plasma sampling method and blood parameter. This software is also a good system for storing the raw and processed data for future analysis. PMID:26097422

  6. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Prashanth; Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram NV; Lakshmanasami, Ravivarman; Prakash, ML; Reddy, Yogesh NV

    2016-01-01

    This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. PMID:27729810

  7. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio might help prediction of acute myocardial infarction in patients with elevated serum creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Nalbant, Ahmet; Cinemre, Hakan; Kaya, Tezcan; Varim, Ceyhun; Varim, Perihan; Tamer, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Diagnostic performance of troponin assays is affected by renal insufficiency. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio(NLR) is an independent predictor of acute coronary syndrome. Our objective was to evaluate performance of NLR in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among patients with elevated serum creatinine. Methods: Patients with elevated creatinine levels evaluated for coronary artery disease were included (n=284). Patients were divided into two groups according to having AMI or non-specific chest pain. AMI diagnosis was made based on clinical and laboratory data, including serial EKG and cardiac enzymes, ECHO and coronary angiography. Results: Troponin, neutrophil, and NLR were found to be higher in patients with AMI, compared to patients without AMI (P= 0.001, P= 0.001 and P=0.028, respectively). ROC curve analysis for NLR in diagnosing AMI was significant (AUC: 0.607; P=0.003). Sensitivity, specificity, LR +, LR-, PPV and NPV for NLR>7.4 were found as 42.3%, 74.7%, 1.68%, 0.77%, 77% and 40%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients whose NLR>7.4 were 2.18 times as likely to have AMI. Conclusions: NLR can be used as an independent predictor of AMI in patients with renal insufficiency. This seems to get more important in the era of high sensitivity troponin assays. Our results might also help in early diagnosis of AMI in this high risk population while serial cardiac enzyme results are pending. PMID:27022355

  8. The effects of new polyherbal Unani formulation AJMAL06 on serum creatinine level in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Shakil Ahmad; Saeed, Aftab; Nawaz, Allah; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Unani Ajmal06, an herbal formulation for management of chronic renal failure (CRF). The therapeutic evaluations of three different formulations such as Itrifal Kashneezi, Jawarsih Zarooni Sada medicines were conducted on number 35 CRF patients clinically diagnosed cases of chronic kidney failure. It was found that herbal coded Ajmal06 was effective for the treatment of CRF in 70% of the patients treated. SPSS tests on sign and symptoms indicated the efficacy of Ajmal06 in lowering serum creatinine level in 70% of patients of chronic renal failure. In clinical response of BUN exhibited 75% of patients improved where as in case of fatigue (70%), edema (90%), leg pain (76%) improved these types of conditions with significant p value. PMID:27113299

  9. Specificity of serum amylase and amylase creatinine clearance ratio in the diagnosis of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Grosberg, S J; Wapnick, S; Purow, E; Purow, J R

    1979-07-01

    In 31 patients with pancreatitis, the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio (CACR) was significantly greater than for controls (10.7 +/- 1.7 vs. 2.6 +/- 0.3, P less than .001). Sixteen pancreatitis patients with serum amylase (SAm) within the normal range had a mean CACR significantly greater than that of 19 hospital control patients with normal SAm (9.2 +/- 1.5 vs. 3.0 +/- 0.4, P less than .001). For control patients a highly significant inverse correlation between SAm and CACR was observed. No relationship was detected between these parameters for pancreatitis patients. The results suggest that the CACR may be of aid in establishing the diagnosis of pancreatitis even in patients without hyperamylasemia.

  10. Doubling of serum creatinine and the risk of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Cornelia; Coll, Blai; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R

    2016-01-01

    Background Doubling of serum creatinine is often used as a marker for worsening kidney function in nephrology trials. Most people with chronic kidney disease die of other causes before reaching end-stage renal disease. We were interested in the association between doubling of serum creatinine and the risk of a first-time diagnosis of angina pectoris, congestive heart failure (CHF), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or transient ischemic attack in patients with chronic kidney disease and with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We identified all adult patients registered in the “Clinical Practice Research Datalink” between 2002 and 2011 with incident chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and did a cohort study with a Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results We identified in total 27,811 patients, 693 developed angina pectoris, 1,069 CHF, 508 MI, 970 stroke, and 578 transient ischemic attacks. Patients whose serum creatinine doubled during follow-up had increased risks of CHF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.27–3.89), MI (HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.62–3.96), and stroke (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.38–2.69), as compared with patients whose serum creatinine did not double. The relative risks of angina pectoris (HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.66–2.10) or a transient ischemic attack (HR 1.32, 95% CI 0.78–2.22) were similar in both groups. Conclusion Diabetic patients with a doubling of serum creatinine were at an increased risk of CHF, MI, or stroke, compared with diabetic patients whose serum creatinine did not double during follow-up. PMID:27354825

  11. [Simultaneous determination of creatinine, pseudouridine and uric acid in serum and urine by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Peng, Z; Wang, C; Li, C; Gao, Q; Wang, Z; Zhang, G; Zhang, J; Li, X; Peng, J

    1998-03-01

    In this paper a sensitive, rapid and simple HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of creatinine (Cr), pseudouridine (Pu) and uric acid(UA) has been established. We have evaluated clinical value of the method in the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Separation was obtained using Shim-pack CLC-ODS 15 x 0.6 cm column and mobile phase of buffer solution of phosphate (pH 3.0, 0.02 mol/L) with flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was performed with UV detector at an automatic adjustment of wavelength. The recoveries of Cr, Pu and UA were 101.4%, 104.9% and 105.0% respectively. The calibration curves were linear within the concentration range of 8.6-274.6 mumol/L for Cr, 0.72-22.93 mumol/L for Pu and 19.1-612.7 mumol/L for UA (n = 6, r > 0.999, p < 0.01). The CV for within day and between day measurements were < 2.5% and < 5.0% respectively. In addition, Pu, Cr and UA were simultaneously determined in serum and urine of 39 patients with diabetic mellitus (DM). 15 patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) and 53 normal subjects by the method. Results include: 1. the levels of serum Pu in all DM patients (100%) with microalbuminuria (MiAU) and macroalbuminuria (MaAU) were greater than maximum of normal subjects (X + 2S). In addition, in 9 DM patients (41%) with normal albuminuria (NAU) the levels were also greater than the maximum. 2. In patients with DM, there was no correlation between the serum Pu and the urinary albumin excretion (UAE), whereas the serum Pu correlated closely with the serum Cr. However, the incidence for serum Pu increase was significantly greater in patients. 3. The levels of serum Pu in patients with NS were greater than those in control subjects and patients with DM. Conclusion is that the determination of serum Pu could be used as sensitivity index for the early diagnosis of DN.

  12. Comparison of serum creatinine and serum cystatin C as biomarkers to detect sepsis-induced acute kidney injury and to predict mortality in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Souza, Ana Carolina P; Street, Jonathan M; Hsu, Victor; Tsuji, Takayuki; Doi, Kent; Li, Lingli; Hu, Xuzhen; Zhou, Hua; Kumar, Parag; Schnermann, Jürgen; Star, Robert A; Yuen, Peter S T

    2014-10-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) dramatically increases sepsis mortality, but AKI diagnosis is delayed when based on serum creatinine (SCr) changes, due in part, to decreased creatinine production. During experimental sepsis, we compared serum cystatin C (sCysC), SCr, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) to inulin glomerular filtration rate (iGFR) before or 3-18 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in CD-1 mice. sCysC had a faster increase and reached peak levels more rapidly than SCr in both sepsis and bilateral nephrectomy (BiNx) models. sCysC was a better surrogate of iGFR than SCr during sepsis. Combining sCysC with SCr values into a composite biomarker improved correlation with iGFR better than any biomarker alone or any other combination. We determined the renal contribution to sCysC handling with BiNx. sCysC and SCr were lower post-BiNx/CLP than post-BiNx alone, despite increased inflammatory and nonrenal organ damage biomarkers. Sepsis decreased CysC production in nephrectomized mice without changing body weight or CysC space. Sepsis decreased sCysC production and increased nonrenal clearance, similar to effects of sepsis on SCr. sCysC, SCr, and BUN were measured 6 h postsepsis to link AKI with mortality. Mice with above-median sCysC, BUN, or SCr values 6 h postsepsis died earlier than mice with below-median values, corresponding to a substantial AKI association with sepsis mortality in this model. sCysC performs similarly to SCr in classifying mice at risk for early mortality. We conclude that sCysC detects AKI early and better reflects iGFR in CLP-induced sepsis. This study shows that renal biomarkers need to be evaluated in specific contexts.

  13. Differentiation of acute renal failure and chronic renal failure by 2-dimensional analysis of urinary dipeptidase versus serum creatinine.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Kang, B Y; We, J S; Park, S K; Park, H S

    1999-03-01

    The differential diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF) may be possible by measuring urinary dipeptidase (Udpase) activity and serum creatinine (Scr) concentration. When the mass test of 246 individuals was examined on a 2-dimensional plot of Udpase (y-axis) versus Scr (x-axis) with the data obtained from healthy volunteers (n = 189), ARF (n = 19) and CRF (n = 38) patients, the characteristic distribution of each group was obvious. It is summarized by the mean values of healthy volunteers (1.44 +/- 0.39 mg/dL, 1.19 (0.59 mU/mL), ARF (6.04 +/- 5.04 mg/dL, 0.12 +/- 0.08 mU/mL), and CRF patients (8.72 +/- 2.93 mg/dL, 0.81 +/- 0.44 mU/mL). The healthy volunteers are distributed along the y-axis and the ARF patients the x-axis, thus separating the two groups 90 degrees apart. The CRF patients are scattered away from both x-, and y-axis. This 2-dimensional approach is thought to be very useful for the differential diagnosis of ARF suggesting Udpase as a new member of the marker enzymes of renal disease.

  14. Change in serum creatinine levels between 6 and 12 months and kidney graft survival: influence of proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fresnedo, G; Rodrigo, E; de Francisco, A L M; Escallada, R; Ruiz, J C; Cotorruelo, J C; Zubimendi, J A; Arias, M

    2005-04-01

    Renal function within the first year after transplantation has been shown to be an important parameter influencing long-term survival. In this study, we examined the relationship between long-term outcome in 365 renal transplants and renal function in the first year, expressed as serum creatinine (SCr) level at 6 months and at 1 year as well as namely deltaCr, the change in SCr between 6 months and 1 year. In addition, we examined the influence of the presence of proteinuria as a predictive factor for a worse evolution. Graft survival was worse among patients with higher deltaCr, especially among those who developed proteinuria. In a Cox regression analysis of long-term graft survival, both deltaCr and proteinuria were important predictors of half-life. The risk of graft loss when deltaCr >0.3 was 2.65 (1.8-3.8; P < .000), whereas the risk increased to 5.67 (3.3-9.4; P < .00) when proteinuria was present. In conclusion, deltaCr values predict long-term graft survival. Patients who developed proteinuria were at higher risk for graft loss compared with those without proteinuria. By using a combination of SCr and deltaCr with proteinuria, it is possible to identify a subset of transplant recipients with a predictably shortened half-life.

  15. Life-threatening hyperkalemia – an overlooked acute kidney injury with a serum creatinine rise in the ‘normal’ range

    PubMed Central

    Latus, Joerg; Braun, Niko; Alscher, M Dominik; Kimmel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman (51 kg, 158 cm, body mass index 20.5) was admitted to the hospital because of an acute kidney injury with hyperkalemia. On admission, she reported progredient muscle weakness of all limbs for several days. Serum potassium level was dramatically elevated and ECG showed QRS with a ‘sine-wave’ pattern and haemodialysis was started. 45 days ago, Hartmann’s operation was done because of stenosing sigmoid diverticulitis. At this time, the serum creatinine was 0.4 mg/dl (‘normal’ 0.5–1.2). Thereafter, she got severe ‘high output-ileostoma’ with severe intestinal fluid losses and treatment with potassium supplementation and spironolactone was started by the surgeons. She was discharged with elevated serum potassium levels and serum creatinine of 1.0 mg/dl (‘normal’ range (0.5–1.2 mg/dl)). This case illustrates impressively the lack of serum creatinine as an ideal kidney function test, because it is depending on muscle mass and there is no interindividual normal range. PMID:22605836

  16. Simultaneous determination of creatinine and creatine in human serum by double-spike isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, Mario; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; Añón Álvarez, M Elena; Rodríguez, Felix; Menéndez, Francisco V Álvarez; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    This work describes the first multiple spiking isotope dilution procedure for organic compounds using (13)C labeling. A double-spiking isotope dilution method capable of correcting and quantifying the creatine-creatinine interconversion occurring during the analytical determination of both compounds in human serum is presented. The determination of serum creatinine may be affected by the interconversion between creatine and creatinine during sample preparation or by inefficient chemical separation of those compounds by solid phase extraction (SPE). The methodology is based on the use differently labeled (13)C analogues ((13)C1-creatinine and (13)C2-creatine), the measurement of the isotopic distribution of creatine and creatinine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the application of multiple linear regression. Five different lyophilized serum-based controls and two certified human serum reference materials (ERM-DA252a and ERM-DA253a) were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the proposed double-spike LC-MS/MS method. The methodology was applied to study the creatine-creatinine interconversion during LC-MS/MS and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and the separation efficiency of the SPE step required in the traditional gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-IDMS) reference methods employed for the determination of serum creatinine. The analysis of real serum samples by GC-MS showed that creatine-creatinine separation by SPE can be a nonquantitative step that may induce creatinine overestimations up to 28% in samples containing high amounts of creatine. Also, a detectable conversion of creatine into creatinine was observed during sample preparation for LC-MS/MS. The developed double-spike LC-MS/MS improves the current state of the art for the determination of creatinine in human serum by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), because corrections are made for all the possible errors

  17. Urinary chromium excretion, diurnal changes, and relationship to creatinine excretion in healthy and sick individuals of different ages.

    PubMed

    Gürson, C T; Saner, G

    1978-07-01

    Since urine is the main excretory pathway for chromium, this study was conducted to compare in normal individuals the daily urinary chromium excretion with a 4 hr sample, to investigate diurnal fluctuations of urinary chromium and age-dependent relationship between urinary chromium and creatinine excretion. The results can be summarized as 1) there was no significant difference between the observed 24 hr chromium excretion and 24 hr excretion calculated from the one 4 hr samples, 2) a diurnal variation was observed when urinary excretion was expressed as chromium per minute, but no time-related variation could be established when chromium/creatinine (Cr/Cre) ratios in samples from three different periods of the same day were compared, although a significant positive correlation existed between urinary chromium and creatinine concentration, 3) the Cr/Cre ratio was found to be age-dependent, 4) in malnourished children the Cr/Cre ratio was very high and significantly different from that of normal infants, 5) This ratio for the eight diabetics was found to be significantly higher when compared with normal adults. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that morning 4 hr urinary chromium reflects the daily chromium excretion and that the Cr/Cre ratio of single urine samples obtained during this period is a reliable criterion in the evaluation of chromium nutrition of individuals in different conditions, provided that the influence of age is taken into consideration.

  18. Comparison of Measured GFR, Serum Creatinine, Cystatin C, and Beta-Trace Protein to Predict ESRD in African Americans With Hypertensive CKD

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Nrupen A.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Kusek, John W.; Contreras, Gabriel; Bakris, George; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Identification of persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are at highest risk to progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD) is necessary to reduce the burden of kidney failure. The relative utility of traditional markers of kidney function, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and serum creatinine, and emerging markers of kidney function, including cystatin C and beta-trace protein (BTP), to predict ESRD and mortality has yet to be established. Study Design Randomized clinical trial followed by an observational cohort study. Setting & Participants 865 African American individuals with hypertensive CKD enrolled in a clinical trial of two levels of blood pressure control and three different antihypertensive drugs as initial therapy and subsequently followed by an observational cohort study. Predictors Quintile of measured GFR (mGFR) by iothalamate clearance, serum creatinine, serum creatinine-based estimated GFR (eGFRSCr), cystatin C, and BTP. Outcomes and Measurements Incidence of ESRD and mortality. Results A total of 246 participants reached ESRD over a median follow-up of 102 months. The incidence rate of ESRD was higher with higher quintiles of each marker. The association between higher BTP and ESRD was stronger than those for the other markers, including mGFR. All the markers remained significantly associated with ESRD after adjustment for mGFR and relevant covariates (all p<0.05), with BTP retaining the strongest association (HR for highest versus lowest quintile, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.2-14.9). Associations with the combined endpoint of ESRD or mortality (n=390) were weaker, but remained significant for cystatin C (p=0.05) and BTP (p=0.004). Limitations The ability of these markers to predict ESRD and mortality in other racial and ethnic groups and among individuals with CKD due to other causes is unknown. Conclusions Plasma BTP and cystatin C may be useful adjuncts to serum creatinine and mGFR in evaluating risk for progression of

  19. Cystatin C, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration, and long-term mortality in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hojs Fabjan, Tanja; Penko, Meta; Hojs, Radovan

    2014-02-01

    Renal dysfunction is associated with mortality in patients after ischemic stroke. Cystatin C is a potentially superior marker of renal function compared to creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In our observational cohort study, 390 Caucasian patients suffered from acute ischemic stroke (mean age 70.9 years; 183 women and 207 men) were included and prospectively followed up to maximal 56 months. Serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured at admission to the hospital; GFR was estimated according to CKD-EPI creatinine and CKD-EPI creatinine/cystatin equations. According to values of serum creatinine, estimated GFR and serum cystatin C patients were divided into quintiles. In the follow-up period, 191 (49%) patients died. For serum cystatin C and estimated GFR based on creatinine and cystatin C, the mortality and the hazard ratios for long-term mortality increased from the first to the fifth quintile nearly linearly. The associations of serum creatinine and estimated GFR categories based on creatinine with long-term mortality were J-shaped. As compared with lowest quintile of serum cystatin C, the fifth quintile was associated with long-term mortality significantly also after multivariate adjustment (age, gender, initial stroke severity, known risk factors for stroke mortality). In contrast, in adjusted analysis serum creatinine and estimated GFR (CKD-EPI creatinine and CKD-EPI creatinine/cystatin) were not associated with long-term mortality. In summary, serum cystatin C was independently and better associated with the risk of long-term mortality in patients suffering from ischemic stroke than were creatinine and estimated GFR using both CKD-EPI equations.

  20. Trends and physiology of common serum biochemistries in children aged 0-18 years.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tze Ping; Metz, Michael Patrick

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to visually present and discuss in detail the physiological trends of 22 serum biochemistries in children aged 0-18.A data-mining, LMS (lambda, mu, and sigma) approach was employed to derive the smoothed continuous serum biochemistry centile charts, after application of stringent outlier exclusion criteria.Serum sodium and calculated osmolality are low in early life and rise with age due to maturing kidney and body water redistribution. Urea, creatinine and uric acid is high at birth, declines to reach a trough by 1 month of age and gradually rises again thereafter. Serum bicarbonate falls initially during the neonatal and toddler period, then rises with declining respiratory rate, further increasing sodium and suppressing chloride. Potassium, calcium and phosphate are required for somatic growth and are actively accrued during periods of rapid growth. Albumin increases until puberty while globulin rises to age 10 as a result of increased hepatic synthetic capacity and maturing immunity. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity peaks during bone growth spurts in infancy and adolescence due to osteoblast leakage, while creatinine increases with muscle mass. Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities are high at birth and decline with age. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity is low at birth and is induced by increased gluconeogenesis. Serum bilirubin increases continuously with age, mirroring haemoglobin concentration. Serum total cholesterol declines more markedly in boys than girls during puberty due to the combined effects of free testosterone (lowering high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in boys) and oestradiol (lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in boys and girls).It is important to understand trends and biological variation when interpreting results since partitioned reference intervals may mask this information. PMID:26126034

  1. The frequency of marcroamylasemia and the diagnostic value of the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio in patients with elevated serum amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Dürr, H K; Bindrich, D; Bode, J C

    1977-01-01

    190 patients with elevated serum amylase levels were tested for macroamylasemia and the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio. Macroamylasemia was found in 3 patients. In these patients macroamylasemia persisted after the total activity of serum amylase had fallen to nearly normal levels. The Cam/Ccr-ratios were determined 14 times in the 3 macroamylasemic patients. Only one of the 14 values was clearly less than 1%. Cam/Ccr-ratios above 4% were found in 83 patients. In 56 of them the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis could not be confirmed. 19 out of 46 patients with the established diagnosis of acute pancreatitis had Cam/Ccr-ratios below 4%. Cam/Ccr-ratios below 1% were also found in patients without macroamylasemia. It is concluded that high and low Cam/Ccr-ratios are not specific for acute pancreatitis and macroamylasemia, respectively, and--moreover--that a normal Cam/Ccr-ratio excludes neither acute pancreatitis nor macroamylesemia.

  2. MedlinePlus: Creatinine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney Diseases Resources Creatinine (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Creatinine - blood Also in Spanish Creatinine - urine Also ... and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio ( ...

  3. Evaluation of the potency of telaprevir and its metabolites as inhibitors of renal organic cation transporters, a potential mechanism for the elevation of serum creatinine.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Tomohisa; Kito, Tomoko; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Masuda, Satohiro; Inui, Ken-ichi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Hisanaga, Noriko; Adachi, Yasuhisa; Suzuki, Masayuki; Yamada, Ichimaro; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Telaprevir-based triple therapy is a highly effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C. However, adverse reactions include reversible and dose-dependent elevation of serum creatinine levels. We speculated that this effect reflects inhibition of the renal organic cation transporters hOCT2, hMATE1, and hMATE2-K by telaprevir or its metabolites (VRT-127394 and VRT-0922061). Telaprevir, VRT-127394, and VRT-0922061 showed negligible or weak effects on hOCT2 at concentrations of ≥20 µM, but inhibited hMATE1 by 35, 38, and 53% and hMATE2-K by 47, 45, and 61% at 100 µM, respectively. Telaprevir or its metabolites (10 µM) did not affect basal-to-apical transport of MPP(+) across monolayers of hOCT2-hMATE1 double-transfected MDCKII cells, whereas pyrimethamine, a potent inhibitor of hMATE1, markedly inhibited MPP(+) transport. Taken together, inhibition of hOCT2, hMATE1, and hMATE2-K is unlikely to be clinically relevant because unbound plasma concentrations of telaprevir and its metabolites reach only 2 µM following oral administration of a dose of 750 mg telaprevir. Hence, elevated serum creatinine during telaprevir therapy may not be related to direct inhibition of renal organic cation transporters.

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on the effects of potassium supplements on serum potassium and creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccio, Francesco P; Buchanan, Laura A; Ji, Chen; Siani, Alfonso; Miller, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives High potassium intake could prevent stroke, but supplementation is considered hazardous. We assessed the effect of oral potassium supplementation on serum or plasma potassium levels and renal function. Setting We updated a systematic review of the effects of potassium supplementation in randomised clinical trials carried out worldwide, published in 2013, extending it to July 2015. We followed the PRISMA guidelines. Participants Any individual taking part in a potassium supplementation randomised clinical trial. Studies included met the following criteria: randomised clinical trials, potassium supplement given and circulating potassium levels reported. Intervention Oral potassium supplementation. Primary outcome measures Serum or plasma potassium and serum or plasma creatinine. Results A total of 20 trials (21 independent groups) were included (1216 participants from 12 different countries). All but 2 were controlled (placebo n=16, control n=2). Of these trials, 15 were crossover, 4 had a parallel group and 1 was sequential. The duration of supplementation varied from 2 to 24 weeks and the amount of potassium given from 22 to 140 mmol/day. In the pooled analysis, potassium supplementation caused a small but significant increase in circulating potassium levels (weighted mean difference (WMD) 0.14 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.19, p<1×10−5), not associated with dose or duration of treatment. The average increase in urinary potassium excretion was 45.75 mmol/24 hours, 95% CI 38.81 to 53.69, p<1×10−5. Potassium supplementation did not cause any change in circulating creatinine levels (WMD 0.30 µmol/L, 95% CI −1.19 to 1.78, p=0.70). Conclusions In short-term studies of relatively healthy persons, a moderate oral potassium supplement resulted in a small increase in circulating potassium levels and no change in renal function. PMID:27566636

  5. Serum osteocalcin (BGP) levels in normal men: a longitudinal evaluation reveals an age-associated increase.

    PubMed

    Orwoll, E S; Deftos, L J

    1990-03-01

    Serum levels of bone gla protein (BGP) have been reported to increase with aging and hence to reflect an age-related increase in bone remodeling activity. To evaluate the relationship between aging and serum BGP levels in a study of longitudinal design, we measured BGP concentrations in 77 normal men at 6 month intervals over a 3 year period. Mean BGP levels at the onset (4.95 +/- 1.5 ng/ml) increased significantly during the study (p = 0.004), and the mean of individual BGP slopes was positive (0.38 +/- 0.6 ng/ml per year, p = 0.0001). The rate of change in BGP was not related to serum creatinine levels or dietary calcium intake.

  6. Effects of Aging and Blood Contamination on the Urinary Protein–Creatinine Ratio in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Lammey, Michael L; Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Videan, Elaine; Sleeper, Meg M

    2011-01-01

    The initial goal of this study was to evaluate proteinuria by using the protein to creatinine (UPC) ratio of urine obtained by cystocentesis of healthy adult captive chimpanzees. Urine samples were collected by using ultrasound-guided cystocentesis from 125 (80 male, 45 female) captive chimpanzees. All samples were collected over a 17-mo time period (August 2008 to January 2010) during the animal's annual physical examination. Samples were assayed at a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Results indicated that both age and blood contamination affect the UPC ratio and therefore alter the diagnostic utility of the UPC ratio in chimpanzees. In addition, this research establishes reference ranges by age for the UPC ratio in healthy adult chimpanzees. Chimps younger than the median age of 24.6 y have a median UPC ratio of 0.098 (range, 0 to 1.76), whereas older animals have a median UPC of 0.288 (range, 0 to 2.44). Our results likely will enable veterinarians working with chimpanzees to better evaluate their renal function. PMID:21640034

  7. Effects of aging and blood contamination on the urinary protein-creatinine ratio in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lammey, Michael L; Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Videan, Elaine; Sleeper, Meg M

    2011-05-01

    The initial goal of this study was to evaluate proteinuria by using the protein to creatinine (UPC) ratio of urine obtained by cystocentesis of healthy adult captive chimpanzees. Urine samples were collected by using ultrasound-guided cystocentesis from 125 (80 male, 45 female) captive chimpanzees. All samples were collected over a 17-mo time period (August 2008 to January 2010) during the animal's annual physical examination. Samples were assayed at a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Results indicated that both age and blood contamination affect the UPC ratio and therefore alter the diagnostic utility of the UPC ratio in chimpanzees. In addition, this research establishes reference ranges by age for the UPC ratio in healthy adult chimpanzees. Chimps younger than the median age of 24.6 y have a median UPC ratio of 0.098 (range, 0 to 1.76), whereas older animals have a median UPC of 0.288 (range, 0 to 2.44). Our results likely will enable veterinarians working with chimpanzees to better evaluate their renal function. PMID:21640034

  8. [Method selected for the determination of creatinine in plasma or serum. Choice of optimal conditions of measurement].

    PubMed

    Labbé, D; Vassault, A; Cherruau, B; Baltassat, P; Bonète, R; Carroger, G; Costantini, A; Guérin, S; Houot, O; Lacour, B; Nicolas, A; Thioulouse, E; Trépo, D

    1996-01-01

    The method selected by the SFBC (Société française de biologie clinique) is derived from the colorimetric reaction of creatinine with alkaline picrate, measured kinetically, without any pretreatment step. The key parameters of the reaction determining the quality of the results are studied, with special regard to samples including known interferents. The aims of the study were to gain an optimal analytical sensitivity and to reduce main interferences (acetoacetate, bilirubine, glucose, protein) which plague the Jaffé reaction, through a comprehensive study of the reagents, of their concentrations and of the analytical procedures. The selected concentrations (in the test) are: 150 mmol/L sodium hydroxide, 10 mmol/L picric acid and 2 g/L sodium dodecyl sulfate. Ten millilitres of a BRIJ solution (30% volvol) are added to the reagent. The operating procedures are as follow: sample ratio 0.07 to 0.08; wavelength 505 to 510 nm; temperature 37 degrees C; incubation of the specimen with the alkaline reagent 5 mn (at least), before starting the reaction with picric acid. A seric calibrator is recommended. The first measurement is taken 20 to 40 s after starting the reaction. Total measurement time is 120 to 150 seconds.

  9. Pharmacogenetic effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors over age-related urea and creatinine variations in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Juliana Marília; Suchi Chen, Elizabeth; Cardoso Smith, Marilia; Ferreira Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal function declines according to age and vascular risk factors, whereas few data are available regarding genetically-mediated effects of anti-hypertensives over renal function. Objective: To estimate urea and creatinine variations in dementia due to Alzheimer disease (AD) by way of a pharmacogenetic analysis of the anti-hypertensive effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis). Methods: Consecutive outpatients older than 60 years-old with AD and no history of kidney transplant or dialytic therapy were recruited for prospective correlations regarding variations in fasting blood levels of urea and creatinine in one year, considering ACE genotypes of rs1800764 and rs4291 and their respective haplotypes, and treatment with ACEis along with blood pressure variations. Results: For 190 patients, 152 had arterial hypertension, and 122 used ACEis. Minor allele frequencies were 0.492 for rs1800764-C and 0.337 for rs4291-T, both in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There were no overall significant yearly variations in levels of urea and creatinine, but their concurrent variations were positively correlated (ρ <0.0001). Each A allele of rs4291 led to an yearly urea increase of 3,074 mg/dL, and an yearly creatinine increase of 0.044 mg/dL, while the use of ACEis was protective regarding creatinine variations. The use of ACEis was also protective for carriers of rs1800764-CT/rs4291-AA, while carriers of rs1800764-CT/rs4291-AT had steeper reductions in creatinine levels, particularly when they were treated with ACEis. Conclusions: Effects of ACEis over creatinine variations are genetically mediated and independent of blood pressure variations in older people with AD. PMID:27546928

  10. Creatinine clearance test

    MedlinePlus

    Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply energy, mainly to muscles. By comparing the creatinine level in urine with the creatinine level in blood , this test estimates the ...

  11. Serum Dioxin Concentrations and Age at Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Warner, Marcella; Marks, Amy R.; Samuels, Steven; Gerthoux, Pier ario; Vercellini, Paolo; Olive, David L.; Needham, Larry; Patterson, Donald G.; Mocarelli, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorobenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a halogenated compound that binds the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, is a by-product of numerous industrial processes including waste incineration. Studies in rats and monkeys suggest that TCDD may affect ovarian function. We examined the relationship of TCDD and age at menopause in a population of women residing near Seveso, Italy, in 1976, at the time of a chemical plant explosion. We included 616 of the women who participated 20 years later in the Seveso Women’s Health Study. All women were premenopausal at the time of the explosion, had TCDD levels measured in serum collected soon after the explosion, and were ≥ 35 years of age at interview. Using proportional hazards modeling, we found a 6% nonsignificant increase in risk of early menopause with a 10-fold increase in serum TCDD. When TCDD levels were categorized, compared with women in the lowest quintile (< 20.4 ppt), women in quintile 2 (20.4–34.2 ppt) had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.1 (p = 0.77), quintile 3 (34.3–54.1 ppt) had an HR of 1.4 (p = 0.14), quintile 4 (54.2–118 ppt) had an HR of 1.6 (p = 0.10), and quintile 5 (> 118 ppt) had an HR of 1.1 (p = 0.82) for risk of earlier menopause. The trend toward earlier menopause across the first four quintiles is statistically significant (p = 0.04). These results suggest a nonmonotonic dose-related association with increasing risk of earlier menopause up to about 100 ppt TCDD, but not above. PMID:16002373

  12. Serum chemistry profiles for Lechwe waterbucks (Kobus leche): variations with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Váhala, J; Kase, F

    1993-09-01

    1. Over an 8-year period, 19 biochemical parameters have been determined at various ages in the blood serum of 92 clinically healthy Lechwe waterbucks (Kobus leche), 33 males and 59 females. 2. Significant differences have been noted with age. In neonates, the lowest values of total proteins, glucose, creatinine, urea, AST, ALT and iron have been noted; the highest ones have been seen for cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphorus. 3. With regard to sex, raised values of glucose, urea, alkaline phosphatase and ALT, and lowered values of cholesterol, have been noted in juvenile females compared with males of the same age. 4. In adult females, higher levels of urea and cholesterol and lower levels of glucose, triglycerides and natrium have been recorded compared with males. 5. With sex and age, no significant changes have been found in the levels of GGT, magnesium, chlorides and copper. 6. Our findings are discussed with those abstracted from the literature for related species.

  13. SERUM BIOMARKERS OF AGING IN THE BROWN NORWAY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Serum biomarkers to identify susceptibility to disease in aged humans are well researched. On the other hand, our understanding of biomarkers in animal models of aging is limited. Hence, we applied a commercially available panel of 58 serum analytes to screen for possible biomark...

  14. Creatinine urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply energy, mainly to muscles. This test is done to see how well your kidneys work. Creatinine is removed by the body ...

  15. Creatinine blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical made by the body and is used to supply energy mainly to muscles. This test is done to see how well your kidneys work. Creatinine is removed from the body ...

  16. [Effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonist (losartan) on renal function, serum potassium and blood pressure in patients with advanced renal failure: differences between patients with a serum creatinine (SCr) level higher than 3 mg/dl and those with a lower SCr level].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Tanno, Yudo; Otsuka, Yasushi; Takahashi, Hajime; Ikeda, Masato; Katoh, Naohiko; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Tokutome, Goro; Hosoya, Tatsuo

    2002-10-01

    The administration of angiotensin II receptor antagonist(AIIA) to patients with advanced chronic renal failure(CRF) is not actively recommended. This study was performed to verify the appropriateness of this situation and to determine if there are any substantial differences between patients with a serum creatinine(SCr) level higher than 3 mg/dl and those with a lower SCr level in terms of the clinical effects such as renal function, serum potassium level and systemic blood pressure(BP) after the administration of AIIA. Sixteen patients with advanced CRF who were admitted to the out-patient clinic in Jikei University Hospital(1998/1-1999/12) were enrolled(average age: 65 years, underlying renal disease: diabetic nephropathy 6, CGN 5, and other 1). They had never been administered AIIA before. The patients were classified into two groups in accordance with their level of SCr: group A(SCr lower than 3.0 mg/dl; n = 11), and Group B(SCr higher than 3.0 mg/dl; n = 5). Losartan(50 mg/day) administration was started in order to examine parameters such as the SCr, potassium, BP at the out-patient clinic, and urinary protein excretion at the 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 month time points. Although the 1/SCr values provided negative slopes with time in both groups, no significant difference was found between the two slopes. There were no changes in the serum potassium levels or urinary protein excretion during the study period in either group, and no statistical difference was found between the two groups. Although the serum potassium level exceeded 5.5 mEq/l in two patients each in both groups, the level was controlled by diet therapy with restricted potassium. BP was reduced significantly in both groups during the study period, and no statistical difference in BP reduction was observed between the two groups. In conclusion, the results indicate there were no differences in the effect on renal function, serum potassium levels or systemic BP between the patients with a SCr level

  17. A New Equation to Estimate Muscle Mass from Creatinine and Cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Kwang-il; Chin, Ho Jun; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Background With evaluation for physical performance, measuring muscle mass is an important step in detecting sarcopenia. However, there are no methods to estimate muscle mass from blood sampling. Methods To develop a new equation to estimate total-body muscle mass with serum creatinine and cystatin C level, we designed a cross-sectional study with separate derivation and validation cohorts. Total body muscle mass and fat mass were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 214 adults aged 25 to 84 years who underwent physical checkups from 2010 to 2013 in a single tertiary hospital. Serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were also examined. Results Serum creatinine was correlated with muscle mass (P < .001), and serum cystatin C was correlated with body fat mass (P < .001) after adjusting glomerular filtration rate (GFR). After eliminating GFR, an equation to estimate total-body muscle mass was generated and coefficients were calculated in the derivation cohort. There was an agreement between muscle mass calculated by the novel equation and measured by DXA in both the derivation and validation cohort (P < .001, adjusted R2 = 0.829, β = 0.95, P < .001, adjusted R2 = 0.856, β = 1.03, respectively). Conclusion The new equation based on serum creatinine and cystatin C levels can be used to estimate total-body muscle mass. PMID:26849842

  18. Comparison of serum creatinine, cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for acute kidney injury occurrence according to risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage criteria classification system in early after living kidney donation.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, Reza; Mohebi, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the kidney function after living kidney donation, we measured serum creatinine (SCr), cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) of 42 living donors before uninephrectomy and in three immediate days after it. We also evaluated the prevalence of the occurrence of the different stages of acute kidney injury (AKI) classified according to risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage (RIFLE) criteria, and accuracy of each of these three biomarkers for predicting them were evaluated. Significant serum NGAL (s-NGAL) changes were limited to the 1 st day after donation, whereas SCr and cystatin C changes continued to the third day after donation. s-NGAL level in the 1 st day and serum cystatin C in the 3 rd day after donation, respectively, had the largest area under curve and best sensitivity and specificity for Stage 1 (risk) AKI prediction. During the immediate three days after donation, about half of patients suffered from AKI; mostly Stage 1 (injury). The sequence of the emergence of s-NGAL and s-cystatin C in the 1 st and 3 rd days as biomarkers with highest accuracy and power for RIFLE criteria defined AKI stage discrimination in our study was comparable to previous studies. We conclude that our study suggests that AKI was best detected in the 1 st day after uninephrectomy by the s-NGAL levels, whereas cystatin C was the best in the 3 rd day after donation for detection of AKI. PMID:27424680

  19. Age, baseline kidney function, and medication exposure are associated with declines in creatinine clearance on PrEP: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Glidden, David; Mayer, Kenneth; Schechter, Mauro; Buchbinder, Susan; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hosek, Sybil; Casapia, Martin; Guanira, Juan; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Louie, Alexander; Horng, Howard; Benet, Leslie Z.; Liu, Albert; Grant, Robert

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background As pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for the prevention of HIV infection enters a phase of global roll-out, strategies to maintain effectiveness, but minimize adverse effects, merit close consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate rates and predictors of renal toxicity in a large open-label study of PrEP to help provide guidance on safety monitoring with this important prevention strategy. Methods The iPrEx open-label-extension (OLE) study (NCT00458393) enrolled HIV-negative MSM/transgender participants from three previous PrEP trials from Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and the U.S into an open-label PrEP study. There were no restrictions on current renal function for enrollment into iPrEx OLE.. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) on PrEP was estimated every 12 weeks and in a subset, hair samples were collected for measuring tenofovir (TFV)/FTC concentrations via liquid-chromatography/tandem-mass-spectrometry. Change in CrCl from baseline was calculated and predictors identified. Findings Baseline characteristics of participants in iPrEx-OLE (n=1224; 7475 person-visits) and its hair substudy (n=220; 1114 person-visits) were similar. Over 72 weeks (median), the average decline in CrCl was −2·9% (p<0.0001), but declines were significantly greater for those starting PrEP at older ages (−4·2% (95% CI −2·8%, −5·5%), baseline age 40–50 years; −4·9% (−3·1%, −6·8%), age ≥50). Besides age, baseline CrCl of <90ml/min in multivariate models predicted renal decline. There was a monotonic relationship between percent decrease in CrCl and number of doses of TDF/FTC taken per week as estimated by hair levels (p 0.008). Interpretation With the global roll-out of PrEP, our analysis suggests that the frequency of safety monitoring may differ by age group and that pharmacologic measures of adherence can additionally monitor for toxicities. Funding NIH PMID:27658870

  20. Amylase creatinine clearance ratio after biliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, L A; McIntosh, W; Joffe, S N

    1977-01-01

    The amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) is considered to be a more sensitive index of acute pancreatitis than the serum amylase level. Serial ACCR estimations were undertaken in 25 patients undergoing an elective cholecystectomy. Using accepted criteria, 28% of these patients developed, in the postoperative period, biochemical evidence of pancreatic gland damage, although the serum amylase level remained normal. This raised ACCR was particularly noted in patients who had undergone an exploration of the common bile duct. The ACCR would appear to be a more sensitive index of pancreatic gland disruption secondary to biliary surgery than the serum amylase level.

  1. Amylase creatinine clearance ratio after biliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, L A; McIntosh, W; Joffe, S N

    1977-01-01

    The amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) is considered to be a more sensitive index of acute pancreatitis than the serum amylase level. Serial ACCR estimations were undertaken in 25 patients undergoing an elective cholecystectomy. Using accepted criteria, 28% of these patients developed, in the postoperative period, biochemical evidence of pancreatic gland damage, although the serum amylase level remained normal. This raised ACCR was particularly noted in patients who had undergone an exploration of the common bile duct. The ACCR would appear to be a more sensitive index of pancreatic gland disruption secondary to biliary surgery than the serum amylase level. PMID:402305

  2. Premature Aging in Skeletal Muscle Lacking Serum Response Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lahoute, Charlotte; Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Favier, Marilyne; Guillet-Deniau, Isabelle; Charvet, Claude; Ferry, Arnaud; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Metzger, Daniel; Tuil, David; Daegelen, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass, increased adiposity and fibrosis that leads to sarcopenia. At the molecular level, muscle aging is known to alter the expression of a variety of genes but very little is known about the molecular effectors involved. SRF (Serum Response Factor) is a crucial transcription factor for muscle-specific gene expression and for post-natal skeletal muscle growth. To assess its role in adult skeletal muscle physiology, we developed a post-mitotic myofiber-specific and tamoxifen-inducible SRF knockout model. Five months after SRF loss, no obvious muscle phenotype was observed suggesting that SRF is not crucial for myofiber maintenance. However, mutant mice progressively developed IIB myofiber-specific atrophy accompanied by a metabolic switch towards a more oxidative phenotype, muscular lipid accumulation, sarcomere disorganization and fibrosis. After injury, mutant muscles exhibited an altered regeneration process, showing smaller regenerated fibers and persistent fibrosis. All of these features are strongly reminiscent of abnormalities encountered in aging skeletal muscle. Interestingly, we also observed an important age associated decrease in SRF expression in mice and human muscles. Altogether, these results suggest that a naturally occurring SRF down-regulation precedes and contributes to the muscle aging process. Indeed, triggering SRF loss in the muscles of mutant mice results in an accelerated aging process. PMID:19079548

  3. Quantification of creatinine in biological samples based on the pseudoenzyme activity of copper-creatinine complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Avinash, Krishnegowda; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Krishna, Honnur

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the marker of chronic kidney disease can be analyzed by the concentration of cystatin C or creatinine and its clearance in human urine and serum samples. The determination of cystatin C alone as an indicator of GFR does not provide high accuracy, and is more expensive, thus measurement of creatinine has an important role in estimating GFR. We have made an attempt to quantify creatinine based on its pseudoenzyme activity of creatinine in the presence of copper. Creatinine in the presence of copper oxidizes paraphenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPDD) which couples with dimethylamino benzoicacid (DMAB) giving green colored chromogenic product with maximum absorbance at 710 nm. Kinetic parameters relating this reaction were evaluated. Analytical curves of creatinine by fixed time and rate methods were linear at 8.8-530 μmol L-1 and 0.221-2.65 mmol L-1, respectively. Recovery of creatinine varied from 97.8 to 107.8%. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 2.55 and 8.52 μmol L-1 respectively whereas Sandell's sensitivity and molar absorption coefficient values were 0.0407 μg cm-2 and 0.1427 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 respectively. Precision studies showed that within day imprecision was 0.745-1.26% and day-to-day imprecision was 1.55-3.65%. The proposed method was applied to human urine and serum samples and results were validated in accordance with modified Jaffe's procedure. Wide linearity ranges with good recovery, less tolerance from excipients and application of the method to serum and urine samples are the claims which ascertain much advantage to this method.

  4. Elevated plasma creatinine due to creatine ethyl ester use.

    PubMed

    Velema, M S; de Ronde, W

    2011-02-01

    Creatine is a nutritional supplement widely used in sport, physical fitness training and bodybuilding. It is claimed to enhance performance. We describe a case in which serum creatinine is elevated due to the use of creatine ethyl esther. One week after withdrawal, the plasma creatinine had normalised. There are two types of creatine products available: creatine ethyl esther (CEE) and creatine monohydrate (CM). Plasma creatinine is not elevated in all creatine-using subjects. CEE , but not CM, is converted into creatinine in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result the use of CEE may be associated with elevated plasma creatinine levels. Since plasma creatinine is a widely used marker for renal function, the use of CEE may lead to a false assumption of renal failure.

  5. Effect of fasting ramadan in diabetes control status - application of extensive diabetes education, serum creatinine with HbA1c statistical ANOVA and regression models to prevent hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Kamran M A

    2013-09-01

    Ramadan fasting is an obligatory duty for Muslims. Unique physiologic and metabolic changes occur during fasting which requires adjustments of diabetes medications. Although challenging, successful fasting can be accomplished if pre-Ramadan extensive education is provided to the patients. Current research was conducted to study effective Ramadan fasting with different OHAs/insulins without significant risk of hypoglycemia in terms of HbA1c reductions after Ramadan. ANOVA model was used to assess HbA1c levels among different education statuses. Serum creatinine was used to measure renal functions. Pre-Ramadan diabetes education with alteration of therapy and dosage adjustments for OHAs/insulin was done. Regression models for HbA1c before Ramadan with FBS before sunset were also synthesized as a tool to prevent hypoglycemia and successful Ramadan fasting in future. Out of 1046 patients, 998 patients fasted successfully without any episodes of hypoglycemia. 48 patients (4.58%) experienced hypoglycemia. Χ(2) Test for CRD/CKD with hypoglycemia was also significant (p-value < 0.001). Significant associations and linear regression were found for HbA1c and sunset FBS; RBS post-dawn with RBS mid-day and FBS at sunset. The proposed regression models of this study can be used as a guide in future for Ramadan diabetes management. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this paper.

  6. Comparison between doppler ultrasound resistive index, serum creatinine, and histopathologic changes in patients with kidney transplant dysfunction in early posttransplantation period: A single center study with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kajal N; Patel, Nitin A; Gandhi, Shruti P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the relationship between resistive index (RI) measured by Doppler ultrasound, serum creatinine (SCr), and histopathological changes on biopsy during kidney trans- plant dysfunction in early postoperative period, we studied 47 kidney transplant patients; 61% of the patients had acute transplant rejection, 19% had acute tubular necrosis, 4% had calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, 11% had normal morphology in biopsy, and 5% had changes compatible with pyelonephritis. None of the study patients had interstitial fibrosis or tubular atrophy on biopsy. We found that the sensitivity and specificity of RI in diagnosing transplant dysfunction was highly variable depending on the selected cutoff value. Sensitivity of RI decreased and its specificity increased with increasing the RI thresholds. Using an RI threshold of 0.7 resulted in a high sensitivity of 78% at a cost of very low specificity 40%, whereas using an RI threshold of 0.9 resulted in 100% specificity at a cost of very low sensitivity 16%. Acceptable specificity was only achieved at the expense of very low sensitivity, resulting in poor utility of RI as a screening tool for dysfunction. We found that there were no significant differences in the mean RI value between patients with and without biopsy-proven transplant dysfunction. However, we found a significant correlation between SCr value and RI of 0.383, P = 0.007.

  7. Comparison between doppler ultrasound resistive index, serum creatinine, and histopathologic changes in patients with kidney transplant dysfunction in early posttransplantation period: A single center study with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kajal N; Patel, Nitin A; Gandhi, Shruti P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the relationship between resistive index (RI) measured by Doppler ultrasound, serum creatinine (SCr), and histopathological changes on biopsy during kidney trans- plant dysfunction in early postoperative period, we studied 47 kidney transplant patients; 61% of the patients had acute transplant rejection, 19% had acute tubular necrosis, 4% had calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, 11% had normal morphology in biopsy, and 5% had changes compatible with pyelonephritis. None of the study patients had interstitial fibrosis or tubular atrophy on biopsy. We found that the sensitivity and specificity of RI in diagnosing transplant dysfunction was highly variable depending on the selected cutoff value. Sensitivity of RI decreased and its specificity increased with increasing the RI thresholds. Using an RI threshold of 0.7 resulted in a high sensitivity of 78% at a cost of very low specificity 40%, whereas using an RI threshold of 0.9 resulted in 100% specificity at a cost of very low sensitivity 16%. Acceptable specificity was only achieved at the expense of very low sensitivity, resulting in poor utility of RI as a screening tool for dysfunction. We found that there were no significant differences in the mean RI value between patients with and without biopsy-proven transplant dysfunction. However, we found a significant correlation between SCr value and RI of 0.383, P = 0.007. PMID:27215246

  8. Is the fasting calcium/creatinine a bone resorption marker in patients with calcium renal stones?

    PubMed

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Poyatos-Andujar, Antonio; Cardenas-Grande, Encarnacion; Merino-Salas, Sergio; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2012-06-01

    Osteoporosis and osteopenia are an important endocrine-metabolic disease that affect women and men from a certain age and it has a high risk and health cost. The aim of this short communication is to show that fasting calcium/creatinine ratio in patients with calcium stones is a marker of bone resorption.We studied 180 patients with renal stones with calcium composition and the relationship of them between the calcium/creatinine in urine after 8 h of fasting with bone densitometry (T-score) and values of bone resorption marker β-crosslaps (ng/ml). The Pearson correlation test was applied for the analysis of linear correlations between quantitative variables.We have observed a statistically significant positive linear correlation between the fasting calcium/creatinine and serum and β-crosslaps (R = 0.534, p < 0.0001) and a statistically significant negative linear correlation between fasting calcium/creatinine and T-score of bone densitometry in hip (R = -0.237, p = 0.002), femoral neck (R = -0.217, p = 0.009) and lumbar spine (R = 0.292, p = 0.001).The fasting ratio calcium/creatinine in urine is associated with increased levels of β-crosslaps marker and therefore may be useful as a marker of bone resorption in these patients.

  9. Analysis of Aged Human Serum Albumin Affinity for Doxazosin.

    PubMed

    Chudzik, Mariola; Równicka-Zubik, Joanna; Pożycka, Jadwiga; Pawelczak, Bartosz; Sulkowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Structural changes of human serum albumin (HSA) caused by old age and coexisting diseases result in differences in the binding of doxazosin (DOX). DOX is a postsynaptic α1- adrenoreceptor antagonist used for treatment of hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. In elderly people suffering from various renal or hepatic diseases the significant portion of N-form of human serum albumin (normal) is converted to A-form (aged). The differences in binding of doxazosin to N- and Aform of albumin are an important factor, which may determines therapeutic dosage and toxicity of the test drug. To indicate these differences, the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy was used. The association constant (Ka) obtained from fluorescence quenching demonstrated that doxazosin has higher affinity for AHSA than for HSA. In order to describe the cooperativity in binding process, the values of the Hill's coefficient has been analysed. For DOX-HSA system (λex 295 nm) Hill's coefficient is close to 1 and it indicates that there is a single class of binding sites. For DOX-HSA (λex 275 nm) and DOX-AHSA (λex 275 nm and λex 295 nm) systems we observed positive cooperativity (nH>1). A greater red shift of fluorescence emission maximum of AHSA than HSA in the presence of DOX was observed. This suggests that the binding of DOX to AHSA was accompanied by a stronger increase in polarity around the fluorophores in comparison to HSA. The binding interaction between DOX and HSA has been also studied by molecular docking simulation.

  10. A review on creatinine measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Mohabbati-Kalejahi, Elham; Azimirad, Vahid; Bahrami, Manouchehr; Ganbari, Ahmad

    2012-08-15

    This paper reviews the entire recent global tendency for creatinine measurement. Creatinine biosensors involve complex relationships between biology and micro-mechatronics to which the blood is subjected. Comparison between new and old methods shows that new techniques (e.g. Molecular Imprinted Polymers based algorithms) are better than old methods (e.g. Elisa) in terms of stability and linear range. All methods and their details for serum, plasma, urine and blood samples are surveyed. They are categorized into five main algorithms: optical, electrochemical, impedometrical, Ion Selective Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET) based technique and chromatography. Response time, detection limit, linear range and selectivity of reported sensors are discussed. Potentiometric measurement technique has the lowest response time of 4-10 s and the lowest detection limit of 0.28 nmol L(-1) belongs to chromatographic technique. Comparison between various techniques of measurements indicates that the best selectivity belongs to MIP based and chromatographic techniques.

  11. Stamping SERS for creatinine sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Santos, Greggy M.; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Urine can be obtained easily, readily and non-invasively. The analysis of urine can provide metabolic information of the body and the condition of renal function. Creatinine is one of the major components of human urine associated with muscle metabolism. Since the content of creatinine excreted into urine is relatively constant, it is used as an internal standard to normalize water variations. Moreover, the detection of creatinine concentration in urine is important for the renal clearance test, which can monitor the filtration function of kidney and health status. In more details, kidney failure can be imminent when the creatinine concentration in urine is high. A simple device and protocol for creatinine sensing in urine samples can be valuable for point-of-care applications. We reported quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine samples by using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) based SERS substrate. S-SERS technique enables label-free and multiplexed molecular sensing under dry condition, while NPGD provides a robust, controllable, and high-sensitivity SERS substrate. The performance of S-SERS with NGPDs is evaluated by the detection and quantification of pure creatinine and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges.

  12. Creatinine Deiminase Adsorption onto Silicalite-Modified pH-FET for Creation of New Creatinine-Sensitive Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Svitlana V; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kurc, Burcu Akata; Soldatkin, Alexei P; Dzyadevych, Sergei V

    2016-12-01

    In the work, silicalite particles were used for the surface modification of pH-sensitive field-effect transistors (pH-FETs) with the purpose of developing new creatinine-sensitive biosensor. Creatinine deiminase (CD) adsorbed on the surface of silicalite-coated pH-FET served as a bioselective membrane. The biosensor based on CD immobilized in glutaraldehyde vapor (GA) was taken as control. The creatinine-sensitive biosensor obtained by adsorption on silicalite was shown to have better analytical characteristics (two- to threefold increased sensitivity to creatinine, three- to fourfold lesser response and recovery times, a decrease of the detection limit of creatinine determination to 5 μM, etc.).Additionally, the biosensor based on CD adsorbed on silicalite (Sil/CD) was characterized by high signal reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD) for creatinine measurement = 2.6 %) and stability during storage (over 13 months). It was experimentally confirmed that the proposed biosensor was not sensitive either to high concentrations of sodium chloride or to the macromolecular protein fractions and can be used for direct quantitative analysis of creatinine in the blood serum.It was concluded that the method of CD adsorption on silicalite is well-suited for the creation of creatinine-sensitive biosensor with improved working characteristics. PMID:27033849

  13. [Considerations when using creatinine as a measure of kidney function].

    PubMed

    Drion, I Iefke; Fokkert, M J Marion; Bilo, H J G Henk

    2013-01-01

    Reported serum creatinine concentrations can sometimes vary considerably, even when the renal function does less so or even not. This variation is partly due to true changes in actual serum concentration, and partly due to interferences in the measurement technique, thus not reflecting a true change in concentration. Increased or decreased endogenous creatinine production, ingested creatinine sources through meat eating or certain creatine formulations, and interference by either browning of chromogenic substances in Jaffe measurement techniques or promotors and inhibitors of enzymatic reaction methods do play a role. Reliable serum creatinine measurements are needed for renal function estimating equations. In screening circumstances and daily practice, chronic kidney disease staging is based on these estimated glomerular filtration rate values. Given the possible influences on reported serum creatinine concentrations, it is important for health care workers to remain critical when interpreting outcomes of renal function estimating equations and to not see every reported result based on an equation as a true reflection of renal function. PMID:24330793

  14. Serum transthyretin levels in senile systemic amyloidosis: effects of age, gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Joel; Koziol, James; Connors, Lawreen H

    2008-12-01

    Serum transthyretin (TTR) levels are reduced in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). A single study of patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) in Sweden found that those individuals also had a significantly lower mean serum TTR concentration than age- and gender-matched controls. To determine if the same phenomenon prevailed in an ethnically more heterogeneous population, we compared the serum TTR levels, as determined by ELISA, in 45 documented SSA patients with congestive heart failure, 20 AL patients with congestive heart failure and population controls. Serum TTR concentrations in the controls were influenced in a statistically significant manner by age, gender and ethnicity. Although it is unlikely that such differences are clinically relevant, they must be considered when assessing the meaning of serum TTR concentrations in any clinically defined population. The serum concentrations in patients with SSA did not differ from age, gender and ethnically matched controls or from a group of AL patients with significant clinical cardiac involvement. We also compared TTR concentrations in 12 African-Americans carrying the TTR V122I allele with those in 826 African-Americans who were homozygous wild type at the TTR locus. The TTR V122I carriers had significantly lower serum TTR concentrations than appropriate controls even though the majority of such individuals had not reached the age of clinical or anatomic risk, i.e. over 60. Thus, as in carriers of other TTR mutations the serum TTR level is lower than normal, despite having a much later appearance of clinical disease. PMID:19065297

  15. Recognition and Sensing of Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Guinovart, Tomàs; Hernández-Alonso, Daniel; Adriaenssens, Louis; Blondeau, Pascal; Martínez-Belmonte, Marta; Rius, F Xavier; Andrade, Francisco J; Ballester, Pablo

    2016-02-12

    Current methods for creatinine quantification suffer from significant drawbacks when aiming to combine accuracy, simplicity, and affordability. Here, an unprecedented synthetic receptor, an aryl-substituted calix[4]pyrrole with a monophosphonate bridge, is reported that displays remarkable affinity for creatinine and the creatininium cation. The receptor works by including the guest in its deep and polar aromatic cavity and establishing directional interactions in three dimensions. When incorporated into a suitable polymeric membrane, this molecule acts as an ionophore. A highly sensitive and selective potentiometric sensor suitable for the determination of creatinine levels in biological fluids, such as urine or plasma, in an accurate, fast, simple, and cost-effective way has thus been developed. PMID:26749029

  16. Age-specific reference values for serum FSH and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period.

    PubMed

    Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Plebani, Maddalena; Milani, Silvano; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale; La Marca, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    High serum day 3 FSH levels are associated with poor ovarian reserve and reduced fertility, but the interpretation of FSH values according to age is still not univocal. The purpose of this study was to determine age-dependent reference values in women with regular menstrual cycles and FSH as a guide for specialists. The study was performed at the Department of Mother-Infant of a University-based tertiary care centre. One-hundred ninety-two healthy normal menstruating women were recruited for the study. All patients attended the department on menstrual cycle day 3 for a blood sample for FSH and estradiol determination. A linear relationship between FSH or estradiol serum levels and age was observed. The FSH level increased by 0.11 IU for every year of age (1 IU for every 9 years of age). The values of FSH and estradiol corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th centiles for any specific age have been calculated. Serum FSH levels need to be interpreted according to age-dependent reference values. Serum FSH levels on 95th centile for any age may represent a warning sign for reduced ovarian reserve.

  17. Aging and serum MCP-1 are associated with gut microbiome composition in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Melissa N.; Wong, Carmen P.; Duyck, Kyle M.; Hord, Norman; Ho, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Age is the primary risk factor for major human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammation is associated with aging and the progression of immunosenescence. Immunosenescence may play an important role in the development of age-related chronic disease and the widely observed phenomenon of increased production of inflammatory mediators that accompany this process, referred to as “inflammaging.” While it has been demonstrated that the gut microbiome and immune system interact, the relationship between the gut microbiome and age remains to be clearly defined, particularly in the context of inflammation. The aim of our study was to clarify the associations between age, the gut microbiome, and pro-inflammatory marker serum MCP-1 in a C57BL/6 murine model. Results. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile the composition of fecal microbiota associated with young and aged mice. Our analysis identified an association between microbiome structure and mouse age and revealed specific groups of taxa whose abundances stratify young and aged mice. This includes the Ruminococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. We also profiled pro-inflammatory serum MCP-1 levels of each mouse and found that aged mice exhibited elevated serum MCP-1, a phenotype consistent with inflammaging. Robust correlation tests identified several taxa whose abundance in the microbiome associates with serum MCP-1 status, indicating that they may interact with the mouse immune system. We find that taxonomically similar organisms can exhibit differing, even opposite, patterns of association with the host immune system. We also find that many of the OTUs that associate with serum MCP-1 stratify individuals by age. Discussion. Our results demonstrate that gut microbiome composition is associated with age and the pro-inflammatory marker, serum MCP-1. The correlation between age

  18. Aging and serum MCP-1 are associated with gut microbiome composition in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Conley, Melissa N; Wong, Carmen P; Duyck, Kyle M; Hord, Norman; Ho, Emily; Sharpton, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Age is the primary risk factor for major human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammation is associated with aging and the progression of immunosenescence. Immunosenescence may play an important role in the development of age-related chronic disease and the widely observed phenomenon of increased production of inflammatory mediators that accompany this process, referred to as "inflammaging." While it has been demonstrated that the gut microbiome and immune system interact, the relationship between the gut microbiome and age remains to be clearly defined, particularly in the context of inflammation. The aim of our study was to clarify the associations between age, the gut microbiome, and pro-inflammatory marker serum MCP-1 in a C57BL/6 murine model. Results. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile the composition of fecal microbiota associated with young and aged mice. Our analysis identified an association between microbiome structure and mouse age and revealed specific groups of taxa whose abundances stratify young and aged mice. This includes the Ruminococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. We also profiled pro-inflammatory serum MCP-1 levels of each mouse and found that aged mice exhibited elevated serum MCP-1, a phenotype consistent with inflammaging. Robust correlation tests identified several taxa whose abundance in the microbiome associates with serum MCP-1 status, indicating that they may interact with the mouse immune system. We find that taxonomically similar organisms can exhibit differing, even opposite, patterns of association with the host immune system. We also find that many of the OTUs that associate with serum MCP-1 stratify individuals by age. Discussion. Our results demonstrate that gut microbiome composition is associated with age and the pro-inflammatory marker, serum MCP-1. The correlation between age

  19. Sensitivity of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Farrar, W H; Calkins, G

    1978-06-01

    An elevated amylase-creatinine clearance ratio has been established as being highly specific for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. In the present study, the sensitivity of this test was compared to that of the serum amylase and the one-hour urinary amylase test in 29 patients with acute pancreatitis. Abnormal elevations of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio were found less frequently than abnormal elevations of the serum and one-hour urinary amylases. Moreover, abnormal elevations of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio showed less deviation from normal and values returned to normal sooner than those of the serum and one-hour urinary amylases. When compared to the serum amylase and the one-hour urinary amylase tests, the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio is a relatively insensitive test in patients with acute pancreatitis.

  20. Serum lipid values and age in healthy women: a preliminary report on cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Williams, G Z

    1993-04-01

    In a 20-year prospective study of the influence of lifestyle and age on health parameters in men's and women's serum cholesterol, triglycerides and high density and low density lipoproteins were measured periodically to determine each person's longitudinal profile. The accumulated data for 1008 women of 20 to 70 years is averaged by five-year age brackets. Scatter plots and simple regression of these five-year group means for ages 20 to 45 years, reveals a gradual increase in serum cholesterol, increasing from 176 mg/dl to 196 with a slope of 0.61 mg/dl per year. Between ages 45 and 70, the slope increases substantially to 1.91 mg/dl per year, and the five-year group means rise from 196 at age 45 to 239 at age 70 in rather uniform increments. The data have been analyzed for the other lipids and the relationship to estrogen replacement, nutritional, and exercise habits.

  1. The Impact of Sex and Age on Serum Prohepcidin Concentration in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jasiniewska, Joanna; Dymek, Grazyna; Gruszka, Marzenna

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Within the last 8 years, it has become evident that hepcidin has a diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Therefore, it is a great need to establish the reference interval for hepcidin and its precursor. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of age and sex on serum prohepcidin concentration in healthy adults. Material and methods: 100 healthy volunteers were enrolled during the 18 months of the study - 56 males and 44 females, mean age 34.8±10.1 yrs. Serum prohepcidin, ferritin, soluble transferring receptor (sTfR) and plasma erythropoietin were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Serum iron and unsaturated iron binding capacity were determined on ARCHITECT ci8200 (Abbott Diagnostics) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Results Serum prohepcidin concentrations ranged from 74.9 ng/ml to 300.4 ng/ml in healthy adults of both sexes. However, prohepcidin levels were significantly higher in males (median value 145.7 ng/ml) than in females (median 127.3 ng/ml) (p=0.0016). Serum prohepcidin was not associated with age in the group of healthy adults. Conclusions Serum prohepcidin concentrations were found to be related to sex. Significantly lower prohepcidin levels were observed in females compared with males.

  2. Serum homocysteine and folate concentrations are associated with prevalent age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Rochtchina, Elena; McMahon, Catherine M; Mitchell, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Elevated total serum homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations associated with vitamin B-12 or folate deficiencies may adversely affect blood flow to the cochlea, leading to age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). However, only 2 small cross-sectional studies have assessed the link between folate, vitamin B-12, or tHcy and presbycusis. We aimed to determine both the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B-12, or tHcy and risk of age-related hearing loss. The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a population-based survey of age-related hearing loss (1997-1999 to 2002-2004). Presbycusis was measured in 2956 participants (aged >or=50 y) and was defined as the pure-tone average of frequencies 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz >25 dB hearing level (HL). Serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy were determined from blood samples. Participants with elevated tHcy (>20 micromol/L) concentrations had a 64% increased likelihood of prevalent hearing loss (>25 dB HL) [multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.64; 95% CI, 1.06-2.53]. Low serum folate levels (<11 nmol/L) increased the odds of prevalent mild hearing loss (>25-40 dB HL), multivariate-adjusted [OR 1.37 (CI 1.04-1.81)]. Serum vitamin B-12, however, was not significantly associated with prevalent hearing loss. Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy concentrations were also not significantly associated with an increased risk of incident hearing loss. Serum concentrations of tHcy and folate were associated with age-related hearing loss cross-sectionally, but no temporal links were observed, which could be due to insufficient study power. Further, large prospective studies will be required in the future to assess these associations.

  3. The value of the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, A R

    1978-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis usually confronts the clinician with a difficult diagnostic task. For years, the primary laboratory diagnostic tests were the serum and urine amylase and the serum lipase determinations. Recent studies have introduced the concept of the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio as a means of increasing the specificity of the laboratory diagnosis. This paper reviews the laboratory evaluation of acute pancreatitis with emphasis on the rationale, derivation, and specificity of the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio.

  4. Urinary Total Hydroxyproline: Creatinine Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, B. A.; Gough, G.; Williams, Angela; Kitts, Sheila; Pennock, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    The total hydroxyproline: creatinine ratio has been determined in random samples of urine collected from 1577 normal Bristol children and from children with hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency, coeliac disease, and rickets. The results in normal children had a profile similar to that of length velocity. When specific therapy was given to the children with growth failure there was a prompt increase in the total hydroxyproline: creatinine ratio, which occurred well before a growth spurt could be detected by anthropometry. The ratio could be a useful chemical adjunct to anthropometry and radiology in the assessment of normal and abnormal growth. The prompt response of the ratio to changes in growth rate suggests that it may be particularly useful in studying physiological variation in growth over short periods of time and in close monitoring of treatment regimens for growth failure. Random samples of urine may be used, automated methods of analysis are available, and other specialities find the investigation a useful one, so that for the paediatrician the urine total hydroxyproline: creatinine ratio has a potentially wide application. PMID:5018659

  5. A creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Sun, Tai-Ping; Jheng, Deng-Yun; Tsai, Hou-Wei; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2015-08-01

    Regular check of blood creatinine level is very important as it is a measurement of renal function. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement for precise determination of creatinine. The creatinine biosensor was fabricated with creatinine deiminase immobilized on screen-printed carbon electrodes. Admittance measurement at a specific frequency ranges (22.80 - 84.71 Hz) showed that the biosensor has an excellent linear (r2 > 0.95) response range (50 - 250 uM), which covers the normal physiological and pathological ranges of blood creatinine levels. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed that the biosensor has excellent reliability and validity (ICC = 0.98). In conclusion, a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor was developed and it is capable of precisely determining blood creatinine levels in both the normal physiological and pathological ranges.

  6. Mechanisms Underpinning Increased Plasma Creatinine Levels in Patients Receiving Vemurafenib for Advanced Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hurabielle, Charlotte; Pillebout, Evangéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Pagès, Cécile; Roux, Jennifer; Schneider, Pierre; Chevret, Sylvie; Chaffaut, Cendrine; Boutten, Anne; Mourah, Samia; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lebbé, Céleste; Flamant, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Context Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. Methods We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow-up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. Results 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Conclusion Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective. PMID:26930506

  7. Serum profiling of healthy aging identifies phospho- and sphingolipid species as markers of human longevity.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Ivan; Scherer, Max; Beguelin, Fiona; DaSilva, Laeticia; Mari, Daniela; Salvioli, Stefano; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Capri, Miriam; Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Garagnani, Paolo; Monti, Daniela; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; Kussmann, Martin; Rezzi, Serge; Franceschi, Claudio; Collino, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    As centenarians well represent the model of healthy aging, there are many important implications in revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms behind such successful aging. By combining NMR metabonomics and shot-gun lipidomics in serum we analyzed metabolome and lipidome composition of a group of centenarians with respect to elderly individuals. Specifically, NMR metabonomics profiling of serum revealed that centenarians are characterized by a metabolic phenotype distinct from that of elderly subjects, in particular regarding amino acids and lipid species. Shot- gun lipidomics approach displays unique changes in lipids biosynthesis in centenarians, with 41 differently abundant lipid species with respect to elderly subjects. These findings reveal phospho/sphingolipids as putative markers and biological modulators of healthy aging, in humans. Considering the particular actions of these metabolites, these data are suggestive of a better counteractive antioxidant capacity and a well-developed membrane lipid remodelling process in the healthy aging phenotype.

  8. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements.

    PubMed

    Barr, Dana B; Wilder, Lynn C; Caudill, Samuel P; Gonzalez, Amanda J; Needham, Lance L; Pirkle, James L

    2005-02-01

    Biologic monitoring (i.e., biomonitoring) is used to assess human exposures to environmental and workplace chemicals. Urinary biomonitoring data typically are adjusted to a constant creatinine concentration to correct for variable dilutions among spot samples. Traditionally, this approach has been used in population groups without much diversity. The inclusion of multiple demographic groups in studies using biomonitoring for exposure assessment has increased the variability in the urinary creatinine levels in these study populations. Our objectives were to document the normal range of urinary creatinine concentrations among various demographic groups, evaluate the impact that variations in creatinine concentrations can have on classifying exposure status of individuals in epidemiologic studies, and recommend an approach using multiple regression to adjust for variations in creatinine in multivariate analyses. We performed a weighted multivariate analysis of urinary creatinine concentrations in 22,245 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and established reference ranges (10th-90th percentiles) for each demographic and age category. Significant predictors of urinary creatinine concentration included age group, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Time of day that urine samples were collected made a small but statistically significant difference in creatinine concentrations. For an individual, the creatinine-adjusted concentration of an analyte should be compared with a "reference" range derived from persons in a similar demographic group (e.g., children with children, adults with adults). For multiple regression analysis of population groups, we recommend that the analyte concentration (unadjusted for creatinine) should be included in the analysis with urinary creatinine added as a separate independent variable. This approach allows the urinary analyte concentration to be appropriately adjusted for

  9. Greater cognitive decline with aging among elders with high serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive decline is very common in elders, age-related cognitive decline substantially differs among elders and the determinants of the differences in age-related cognitive decline are unclear. We investigated our hypothesis that the association between age and cognition was stronger in those with higher serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common persistent and strongly lipophilic neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Six OC pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodipenyldichloroethylene (DDE), β-hexachlorocyclohexane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide) were evaluated. "Lower cognitive function" was defined as having a low Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score (<25th percentile of DSST score, cutpoint 28 symbols substituted). Higher levels of β-hexachlorocyclohexane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide modified the associations between age and lower cognitive function (Pinteraction<0.01, 0.03, <0.01, and 0.02, respectively). Elders in the 3rd tertile of these chemicals demonstrated a greater risk of lower cognitive function with aging, compared to those in the combined 1st and 2nd tertiles. Among those with highest OC pesticides (3rd tertile), the odds ratio for the risk of lower cognitive function was about 6 to 11 for the highest quintile of age (80-85 years) vs. the first quintile of age (60-63 years), while the association between age and lower cognitive function became flatter in those with lower OC pesticides (combined 1st and 2nd tertiles). Both DDT and DDE showed no interaction, with lower DSST scores for higher age irrespective of serum concentrations of DDT or DDE. Even though DSST score measures only one aspect of cognition, several OC pesticides modified aging-related prevalence of low cognitive score, a finding which should be evaluated in

  10. Defective serum opsonization activity in children aged 6-48 months having acute purulent otitis media.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, I; Yilmaz, Y; Oner, F; Yel, L; Sanal, O; Ersoy, F; Onerci, M; Berkel, A I

    1997-01-01

    Serum opsonization of yeast (Saccharomyces) was investigated in 51 patients whose ages were between six and 48 months (median 15 months) with acute purulent otitis media and in an age-matched control group (median 13 months). Opsonization was assessed by measuring yeast particle uptake in an assay based on an electronic count of the unphagocytosed particles in serum by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Despite normal levels of CH50 and serum immunoglobulins, a defective opsonization was determined in 13.7 percent of the patients (7 in 51). The corresponding figure was 2.9 percent in 103 healthy controls (p < 0.001). On the other hand, 218 percent (5 in 23) of the children having a history of recurrent purulent otitis media showed defective opsonization (p < 0.001). Previously, the presence of an opsonization defect has been linked to low levels of mannan binding lectin (MBL), a calcium dependent serum lectin that acts as an opsonin. Therefore, our findings indirectly support the idea that MBL has an important role as host defense, particularly in the earlier period of life when the antibody repertoire is restricted.

  11. Point of care creatinine measurement for diagnosis of renal disease using a disposable microchip.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Mónica; Floris, Arjan; Staal, Steven; Ríos, Ángel; Eijkel, Jan; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-11-01

    A point-of-care device for the determination of elevated creatinine levels in blood is reported. This device potentially offers a new and simple clinical regime for the determination of creatinine that will give huge time savings and removal of several steps of determination. The test employs a disposable prefilled microchip and the handheld Medimate Multireader®. By optimizing the analytical conditions it was found that the LOD of the proposed method was 87 μM creatinine, close to the normal human serum levels that are in the range of 60 to 100 μM. A statistical analysis of the residual shows a normal distribution, indicating the absence of systematic errors in the proposed method. The test can be used to distinguish patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine levels >100 μM) from healthy persons. Long-term monitoring could furthermore distinguish between acute renal failure and chronic kidney disease by the rate of creatinine concentration rise.

  12. Age-related changes of serum mitochondrial uncoupling 1, rumen and rectal temperature in goats.

    PubMed

    Arfuso, Francesca; Rizzo, Maria; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Thermoregulatory processes are induced not only by exposure to cold or heat but also by a variety of physiological situations including age, fasting and food intake that result in changes in body temperature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differences in serum mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), rumen temperature (TRUMEN) and rectal temperature (TRECTAL) values between adult and kids goats. Ten adult male Maltese goats aged 3-5 years old (Group A) and 30 male kids, raised for meat, were enrolled in this study. The kids were equally divided into 3 groups according to their age: Group B included kids aged 3 months, Group C included kids aged 4 months and Group D included kids aged 5 months. Blood samples and measurements of TRUMEN and TRECTAL were obtained from each animal. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to evaluate the effect of age on the studied parameters. Statistically significant higher serum UCP1 levels (P<0.001) were found in Group A as compared to Groups B, C and D. Higher TRUMEN values (P<0.001) were found in Group A than in Groups B, C and D, and in Group B than in Groups C and D. Group A showed lower TRECTAL values (P<0.001) than Groups B, C and D. The Pearson's Correlation test was applied to assess significant relationship among studied parameters showing a statistically significant negative correlation between the values of TRECTAL and serum UCP1 in all studied Groups (P<0.001). These results indicate that goats have good control of body temperature suggesting that further details about the thermogenic capacity and the function of UCP1 in kids and adult goats are worth exploring. PMID:27264887

  13. Age-related changes of serum mitochondrial uncoupling 1, rumen and rectal temperature in goats.

    PubMed

    Arfuso, Francesca; Rizzo, Maria; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Thermoregulatory processes are induced not only by exposure to cold or heat but also by a variety of physiological situations including age, fasting and food intake that result in changes in body temperature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differences in serum mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), rumen temperature (TRUMEN) and rectal temperature (TRECTAL) values between adult and kids goats. Ten adult male Maltese goats aged 3-5 years old (Group A) and 30 male kids, raised for meat, were enrolled in this study. The kids were equally divided into 3 groups according to their age: Group B included kids aged 3 months, Group C included kids aged 4 months and Group D included kids aged 5 months. Blood samples and measurements of TRUMEN and TRECTAL were obtained from each animal. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to evaluate the effect of age on the studied parameters. Statistically significant higher serum UCP1 levels (P<0.001) were found in Group A as compared to Groups B, C and D. Higher TRUMEN values (P<0.001) were found in Group A than in Groups B, C and D, and in Group B than in Groups C and D. Group A showed lower TRECTAL values (P<0.001) than Groups B, C and D. The Pearson's Correlation test was applied to assess significant relationship among studied parameters showing a statistically significant negative correlation between the values of TRECTAL and serum UCP1 in all studied Groups (P<0.001). These results indicate that goats have good control of body temperature suggesting that further details about the thermogenic capacity and the function of UCP1 in kids and adult goats are worth exploring.

  14. Serum leptin concentrations are not related to dietary patterns but are related to sex, age, body mass index, serum triacylglycerol, serum insulin, and plasma glucose in the US population

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Vijay; Kafai, Mohammad R; McCarthy, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Background Leptin is known to play a role in food intake regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between serum leptin concentrations and dietary patterns and demographic, lifestyle, and health factors in the US population. Methods Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994 were used to study the association between fasting serum leptin and dietary patterns, sex, race-ethnicity, smoking, age, energy and alcohol intakes, body mass index (BMI), plasma glucose, serum triacylglycerol, and serum insulin in 4009 individuals. Factor analysis was used to derive three principle factors and these were labeled as Vegetable, Fruit, and Lean Meat, Western, and Mixed dietary patterns. Results Serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in Vegetable, Fruit, and Lean Meat (8.5 fg/L) and Mixed patterns (8.0 fg/L) compared to Western pattern (6.29 fg/L) (P < 0.0001). When analysis was adjusted for confounding variables, no significant association was observed between serum leptin and dietary patterns (P = 0.22). Multivariate adjusted serum leptin concentrations were significantly associated with sex (higher in women than in men; β = -1.052; P < 0.0001), age (direct relation, β = 0.006, P < 0.0001), BMI, (direct relation, β = 0.082, P < 0.0001), fasting plasma glucose (inverse relation, β = -0.024, P = 0.0146), serum triacylglycerol (direct relation, β = 0.034, P = 0.0022), and serum insulin (direct relation, β = 0.003, P < 0.0001) but not with race-ethnicity (P = 0.65), smoking (P = 0.20), energy intake (P = 0.42), and alcohol intake (P = 0.73). Conclusion In this study, serum leptin was not independently associated with dietary patterns. Sex, age, BMI, serum triacylglycerol, plasma glucose, and serum insulin are independent predictors of serum leptin concentrations. PMID:19144201

  15. Creatinine Change on Vasoconstrictors as Mortality Surrogate in Hepatorenal Syndrome: Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, Justin M.; Coca, Steven G.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Hepatorenal syndrome is a severe complication of cirrhosis and associates with significant mortality. Vasoconstrictor medications improve renal function in patients with hepatorenal syndrome. However, it is unclear to what extent changes in serum creatinine during treatment may act as a surrogate for changes in mortality. We have performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials of vasoconstrictors assessing the association between changes in serum creatinine, taken as a continuous variable, and mortality, both while on treatment and during the follow-up period for survivors. Methods The electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science and Embase were searched for randomized trials evaluating the efficacy of vasoconstrictor therapy for treatment of HRS type 1 or 2. The relative risk (RR) for mortality was calculated against delta creatinine. The proportion of treatment effect explained (PTE) was calculated for delta creatinine. Results Seven trials enrolling 345 patients were included. The correlation between delta creatinine and ln (RR) was moderately good (R2 = 0.61). The intercept and parameter estimate indicated a fall in creatinine while on treatment of 1 mg/dL resulted in a 27% reduction in RR for mortality compared to the control arm. In patients surviving the treatment period, a fall in creatinine while on treatment of 1 mg/dL resulted in a 16% reduction in RR for post-treatment mortality during follow-up. The PTE of delta creatinine for overall mortality was 0.91 and 0.26 for post-treatment mortality. Conclusions Changes in serum creatinine in response to vasoconstrictor therapy appear to be a valid surrogate for mortality, even in the period following the completion of treatment. PMID:26295585

  16. A general photonic crystal sensing motif: creatinine in bodily fluids.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anjal C; Jana, Tushar; Kesavamoorthy, Rasu; Shi, Lianjun; Virji, Mohamed A; Finegold, David N; Asher, Sanford A

    2004-03-10

    We developed a new sensing motif for the detection and quantification of creatinine, which is an important small molecule marker of renal dysfunction. This novel sensor motif is based on our intelligent polymerized crystalline colloidal array (IPCCA) materials, in which a three-dimensional crystalline colloidal array (CCA) of monodisperse, highly charged polystyrene latex particles are polymerized within lightly cross-linked polyacrylamide hydrogels. These composite hydrogels are photonic crystals in which the embedded CCA diffracts visible light and appears intensely colored. Volume phase transitions of the hydrogel cause changes in the CCA lattice spacings which change the diffracted wavelength of light. We functionalized the hydrogel with two coupled recognition modules, a creatinine deiminase (CD) enzyme and a 2-nitrophenol (2NPh) titrating group. Creatinine within the gel is rapidly hydrolyzed by the CD enzyme in a reaction which releases OH(-). This elevates the steady-state pH within the hydrogel as compared to the exterior solution. In response, the 2NPh is deprotonated. The increased solubility of the phenolate species as compared to that of the neutral phenols causes a hydrogel swelling which red-shifts the IPCCA diffraction. This photonic crystal IPCCA senses physiologically relevant creatinine levels, with a detection limit of 6 microM, at physiological pH and salinity. This sensor also determines physiological levels of creatinine in human blood serum samples. This sensing technology platform is quite general. It may be used to fabricate photonic crystal sensors for any species for which there exists an enzyme which catalyzes it to release H(+) or OH(-). PMID:14995215

  17. Enhancement of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Naeije, R; Neuray, F; Van Melsen, A; Delcourt, A

    1979-01-01

    The renal clearance of amylase, expressed as a proportion of simultaneous creatinine clearance (Cam/-Ccr), was determined in 131 women in various stages of pregnancy. No abnormal serum levels of amylase were found. A moderate but significant increase in Cam/Ccr occurred during the last 15 weeks of pregnancy. Possible causes for this change were investigated in smaller groups of subjects. No increase in rapidly cleared isoamylase could be detected. No modification in renal tubular handling of protein could be evidenced, as assessed by measurements of the renal clearance of beta 2 microglobulin, expressed as a proportion of simultaneous creatinine clearance. An incrased glomerular permeability to amylase probably accounts for elevated Cam/Ccr in pregnancy.

  18. [Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios in burned patients (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Minaire, Y; Marichy, J; Forichon, J; Motin, J

    1978-09-01

    The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) has been examined every 3 days, in 34 burned patients during the 20 days following the accident. This ratio was often abnormal since it was found increased at least on one occasion, in 75% of these patients, to be compared with 23 and 13% for amylase in serum and urine respectively. In another group of 9 burned patients, the ACCR was monitored for time-period between 10 to 52 days. It was observed that a high frequency in increased ACCR was associated with a fatal outcome. Finally simultaneous measurements of ACCR and of the beta2 microglobulin/creatinine clearance ratio (MCCR) showed that increased ACCR were statistically associated with increased MCCR suggesting a decreased renal tubular reabsorption of low molecular weight proteins in these burned patients.

  19. [Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios in burned patients (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Minaire, Y; Marichy, J; Forichon, J; Motin, J

    1978-09-01

    The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) has been examined every 3 days, in 34 burned patients during the 20 days following the accident. This ratio was often abnormal since it was found increased at least on one occasion, in 75% of these patients, to be compared with 23 and 13% for amylase in serum and urine respectively. In another group of 9 burned patients, the ACCR was monitored for time-period between 10 to 52 days. It was observed that a high frequency in increased ACCR was associated with a fatal outcome. Finally simultaneous measurements of ACCR and of the beta2 microglobulin/creatinine clearance ratio (MCCR) showed that increased ACCR were statistically associated with increased MCCR suggesting a decreased renal tubular reabsorption of low molecular weight proteins in these burned patients. PMID:360162

  20. Relationship of serum TCDD concentrations and age at exposure of female residents of Seveso, Italy.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Mocarelli, Paolo; Warner, Marcella; Needham, Larry; Patterson, Donald G; Samuels, Steven; Turner, Wayman; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Brambilla, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    In 1976, a chemical plant explosion near Seveso, Italy, resulted in the highest known exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in residential populations. In 1996, we initiated the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS), a historical cohort study of females who were 40 years old at the time of explosion and residents of the most heavily contaminated areas, zones A and B. Serum samples collected near the time of the explosion were analyzed for TCDD. We also analyzed pooled serum samples collected in 1976 from females who resided in zone non-ABR, the "unexposed" zone, to assess concurrent background exposures to other dioxins, furans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The median lipid-adjusted TCDD level for residents of zones A and B combined was 56 ppt (range = 2.5-56,000 ppt). Zone A residents had 5-fold higher TCDD levels (n = 67, median = 272 ppt) than did zone B residents (n = 814, median = 47 ppt). The youngest children had the highest TCDD levels, which decreased with age at explosion until approximately 13 years of age and were constant thereafter. Therefore, children living in zones A and B received a disproportionately higher exposure to TCDD as a result of the explosion. Zone of residence and age were the strongest predictors of TCDD level. Chloracne, nearby animal mortality, location (outdoors vs. indoors) at the time of explosion, and consumption of homegrown food were also related to serum TCDD levels. The serum pools from zone non-ABR residents had an average TCDD concentration of 20.2 ppt, and average total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration of 100.4 ppt. Therefore, background exposure to dioxins, furans, and PCBs unrelated to the explosion may have been substantial. As a consequence, previous SWHS studies that considered only TCDD exposure may have underestimated health effects due to total TEQ concentrations.

  1. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of free-ranging brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) in Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are reported for 105 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Hematocrit, estimated total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Hematologic and serum chemistry values varied with age and sex. Values were compared with those of red-footed boobies and other tropical and temperate marine pelecaniforms.

  2. Age-Specific Serum Anti-Mullerian Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Concentrations in Infertile Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Raeissi, Alireza; Torki, Alireza; Moradi, Ali; Mousavipoor, Seyed Mehdi; Pirani, Masoud Doosti

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted by the granulosa cells of growing follicles during the primary to large antral follicle stages. Abnormal levels of AMH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) may indicate a woman’s diminished ability or inability to conceive. Our aim is to investigate the changes in serum AMH and FSH concentrations at different age groups and its correlation with ovarian reserves in infertile women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed serum AMH and FSH levels from 197 infertile women and 176 healthy controls, whose mean ages were 19-47 years. Sample collection was performed by random sampling and analyzed with SPSS version 16 software. Results There were significantly lower mean serum AMH levels among infertile women compared to the control group. The mean AMH serum levels from different ages of infertile and control group (fertile women) decreased with increasing age. However, this reduction was greater in the infertile group. The mean FSH serum levels of infertile women were significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum FSH levels consistently increased with increasing age in infertile women; however mean luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were not consistent. Conclusion We have observed increased FSH levels and decreased AMH levels with increasing age in women from 19 to 47 years of age. Assessments of AMH and FSH levels in combination with female age can help in predicting ovarian reserve in infertile women. PMID:25918589

  3. Impact on creatinine renal clearance by the interplay of multiple renal transporters: a case study with INCB039110.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Warren, Mark S; Zhang, Xuexiang; Diamond, Sharon; Williams, Bill; Punwani, Naresh; Huang, Jane; Huang, Yong; Yeleswaram, Swamy

    2015-04-01

    Serum creatinine is commonly used as a marker of renal function, but increases in serum creatinine might not represent changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). INCB039110 (2-(3-(4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-day]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1-(1-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile) is an inhibitor of the Janus kinases (JAKs) with selectivity for JAK1. In a phase 1 study, a modest and reversible increase in serum creatinine was observed after treatment with INCB039110. However, a dedicated renal function study with INCB039110, assessed by iohexol plasma clearance, conducted in healthy volunteers indicated no change in GFR. In vitro studies were therefore conducted to investigate the interaction of INCB039110 with five transporters that are likely involved in the renal clearance of creatinine. Cell systems expressing individual or multiple transporters were used, including a novel quintuple-transporter model OAT2/OCT2/OCT3/MATE1/MATE2-K. INCB039110 potently inhibited OCT2-mediated uptake of creatinine as well as MATE1-/MATE2-K-mediated efflux of creatinine. Given the interactions of INCB039110 with multiple transporters affecting creatinine uptake and efflux, an integrated system expressing all five transporters was sought; in that system, INCB039110 caused a dose-dependent decrease in transcellular transport of creatinine with weaker net inhibition compared with the effects on individual transporters. In summary, a molecular mechanism for the increase in serum creatinine by INCB039110 has been established. These studies also underline the limitations of using serum creatinine as a marker of renal function. PMID:25605813

  4. Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 Levels in Healthy Children Between 0 and 6 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Bilgin; Özbek, M. Nuri; Mungan, Neslihan Önenli; Darendeliler, Feyza; Budan, Bahar; Bideci, Aysun; Çetinkaya, Ergün; Berberoğlu, Merih; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Arslanoğlu, İlknur; Darcan, Şükran; Bundak, Ruveyda; Ercan, Olcay

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Along with growth hormone (GH) levels, measurements of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are used in the diagnosis of GH deficiency and in monitoring the efficacy and safety of long-term GH treatment. The purpose of the present study was to establish reference values for serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in healthy Turkish children less than 6 years of age. Methods: This study was designed as a multicenter project. Five hundred sixty-seven healthy children younger than 6 years of age from different geographical regions of Turkey, with weight and height values between the 10th and 90th percentiles according to the national standards were included in the study. In addition to anthropometric parameters, serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were measured in all subjects. Results: Although not statistically significant, the serum IGF-1 levels in infants at age 6 months were lower than those in infants at age 3 months. The IGF-1 levels showed a slow increase with age. Serum IGF-1 levels were lower in girls as compared to boys only at age 6 months. No correlation was found between either serum IGFBP-3 levels and body mass index (BMI) or serum IGFBP-3 and weight and height standard deviation scores (SDS). A weak correlation was observed between serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentrations. Conclusions: The age- and gender-specific reference values for serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 reported in this study will aid in the diagnosis of GH deficiency and in the monitoring of children receiving GH treatment. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21750637

  5. Serum Concentrations of IgG4 in the Spanish Adult Population: Relationship with Age, Gender, and Atopy

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, Iago; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Gude, Francisco; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Serum IgG4 concentrations are commonly measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate serum IgG4 concentrations in adults and their potential relationship with demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and allergy-related factors. Methods Serum IgG4 concentrations were measured with a commercial assay in 413 individuals (median age 55 years, 45% males) who were randomly selected from a general adult population. Results Median IgG4 concentration was 26.8 mg/dL. Five out of the 413 individuals (1.2%) exhibited IgG4 concentrations >135 mg/dL, and 17 out of 411 (4.1%) exhibited an IgG4/total IgG ratio >8%. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females and decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly influenced by alcohol consumption, smoking or common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and the related metabolic syndrome). Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation markers. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations. Serum IgG4 concentrations tended to be higher in atopics (individuals with IgE-mediated sensitization to aeroallergens) than in non-atopics, particularly among atopics without respiratory symptoms. Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with total eosinophil blood count. Cases of IgG4-related disease were neither present at baseline nor detected after a median of 11 years of follow-up. Conclusions Studies aimed at defining reference IgG4 values should consider partitioning by age and sex. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential influence of atopy status on serum IgG4 concentrations. PMID:26910567

  6. The amylase creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Murray, W R; Mackay, C

    1977-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-two patients have been studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) as a simple diagnostic test for acute pancreatitis. Sixteen out of 17 patients with acute pancreatitis had significant elevations in ACCR; in only 10 of these 17 cases was the serum amylase greater than 1200iu/l. The mean ACCR was within the normal range in control patients, in patients with chronic gastro-intestinal disease and in patients with acute abdominal conditions excluding pancreatitis; however, the mean serum amylase was significantly greater in patients with acute abdominal conditions than in the control group (P less than 0-05). The ACCR remained significantly elevated in patients with acute pancreatitis for longer than either serum or urine amylase values. The findings of the study suggest that the amylase creatinine clearance ratio is a simple yet reliable diagnostic test which could be used when screening patients suspected of having acute pancreatitis.

  7. The amylase creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Murray, W R; Mackay, C

    1977-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-two patients have been studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) as a simple diagnostic test for acute pancreatitis. Sixteen out of 17 patients with acute pancreatitis had significant elevations in ACCR; in only 10 of these 17 cases was the serum amylase greater than 1200iu/l. The mean ACCR was within the normal range in control patients, in patients with chronic gastro-intestinal disease and in patients with acute abdominal conditions excluding pancreatitis; however, the mean serum amylase was significantly greater in patients with acute abdominal conditions than in the control group (P less than 0-05). The ACCR remained significantly elevated in patients with acute pancreatitis for longer than either serum or urine amylase values. The findings of the study suggest that the amylase creatinine clearance ratio is a simple yet reliable diagnostic test which could be used when screening patients suspected of having acute pancreatitis. PMID:890263

  8. [COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SEROTONIN LEVELS IN RAT PLATELETS, SERUM AND BRAIN ON THE AGING].

    PubMed

    Taborskaya, K I; Frolova, M Yu; Kuleva, N V

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin functions as neurotransmitter in central nervous system and is involved in the regulation of vascular tone, gastro-intestinal motility and blood coagulation in the periphery. The appearance of new data on the significant correlation between serotonin levels in platelets and cerebrospinal fluid (Audhya et al., 2012) renewed interest in the hypothesis in which the platelet is seen as a model of cerotoninergic neuron. In our study, the levels of serotonin in platelets, serum and various brain regions of rats aged 6 and 24 months have been determined and comparatively analyzed. The method of high performance liquid chromatography was used. The decrease of serotonin level in platelets from 0.768 to 0.359 μg per 10(9) cells and its increase in the middle brain from 0.260 to 0.439 μg per 1 of wet weight have been clearly demonstrated in aging of animals. The differences in the content of serotonin in other parts of the brain and in the blood serum of young and old animals were statistically insignificant. Therefore, despite the attractiveness of the concept of platelet as a model of a neuron, the extrapolation of the data on platelet serotonin transport into neuronal ones requires caution, especially in the study of aging.

  9. Serum antibodies to Giardia lamblia by age in populations in Colorado and Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Janoff, E. N.; Taylor, D. N.; Echeverria, P.; Glode, M. P.; Blaser, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    We measured levels of antibodies to Giardia lamblia by age in serum specimens from persons in Denver, Colorado, and Soongnern, Thailand. Serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, and IgA G lamblia-specific antibodies measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay increased substantially during childhood in both geographic areas, although children in Soongnern showed significantly higher mean levels of each antibody class (P less than .05). After adolescence, levels of G lamblia-specific IgM fell steadily with age in both populations. In contrast, specific IgA levels remained elevated throughout life among the Thai but decreased to low levels among adults in Denver. Similarly, rates of carriage of G lamblia were high among children aged 1 to 4 years in Denver and Soongnern (14.3% versus 26.5%, respectively) but were much lower among adults in Denver (0% versus 14%; P less than .01). These data suggest that levels of G lamblia-specific IgM may reflect exposure to the parasite early in life in both areas. Levels of parasite-specific IgA may reflect recurrent exposure to G lamblia in Soongnern, where G lamblia is endemic, but less frequent exposure to the parasite in Denver, where exposure is often episodic. PMID:2333701

  10. Differential effects of chitooligosaccharides on serum cytokine levels in aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Min; Hong, Seung Heon; Yoo, Su Jin; Baek, Kyung Sin; Jeon, You Jin; Choung, Se Young

    2006-01-01

    Free amine chitooligosaccharides (FACOS, Kitto Life, Seoul, Republic of Korea) with an average molecular mass of 3.5 kDa were efficiently produced using an ultrafiltration membrane reactor system. To evaluate the effect of chitooligosaccharides on serum cytokine levels in elderly adults after oral intake, 5.1 g/day of FACOS was given to elderly (age range, 74-86 years; mean, 80 +/- 3 years) volunteers during an 8-week experimental period. Interleukin (IL)-12 and interferonã levels were significantly higher in the FACOS group than in the control group (P < .05). However, levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha decreased after FACOS intake during the experimental period. The results of this study suggest that the oral intake of chitooligosaccharides may have beneficial effects on specific cell-mediated immunity while also acting as an anti-inflammatory agent in aged subjects.

  11. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  12. [Studies on the renal handling of urea nitrogen, creatinine, water and electrolytes in hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Shirota, T

    1991-05-20

    To delineate the pathophysiological basis for increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), decreased serum creatinine (SCr) and increased BUN/SCr ratio in patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease, systematic evaluation on renal handling of solutes and water was carried out before and during treatment of the disease. First, BUN, SCr, serum sodium (Na), serum potassium (K), serum chloride (Cl), creatine kinase (CK), serum triiodothyronine (T3) and serum thyroxine (T4) were consecutively measured in 16 patients (aged 18-62 yrs, 4 males and 12 females) with Graves' disease before and during antithyroid drug therapy, and 16 healthy subjects (aged 22-64 yrs, 4 males and 12 females) served as controls. BUN (14.8 +/- 2.9 mg/100ml) was significantly higher (p less than 0.01), and SCr (0.62 +/- 0.16 mg/100ml) and CK (41.7 +/- 23.6 U/l) were significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in untreated patients compared to respective values in the control group (BUN, 13.2 +/- 2.9 mg/100ml; SCr, 0.87 +/- 0.16 mg/100ml; CK, 99.3 +/- 49.5 U/l). Consequently, BUN/SCr ratio was significantly elevated (p less than 0.01) in the patients. As T4 and T3 returned to normal, BUN, SCr, BUN/SCr ratio and CK of the patients also normalized. Serum electrolytes were not significantly different in the patients compared to the controls. Second, renal clearance of para-aminohippurate (CPAH), inulin (CIn), creatinine (CCr), free water (CH2O) and chloride (CCl) was evaluated in 7 untreated patients (aged 17-44 yrs, 4 males and 3 females) and in 7 controls (aged 24-39 yrs, 5 males and 2 females). In patients with untreated Graves' disease, CPAH, CCr and Curea were significantly greater than in the controls (847 +/- 367 vs 442 +/- 124 ml/min, p less than 0.05, 132.7 +/- 14.7 vs 76.6 +/- 14.4 ml/min, p less than 0.01, and 86.9 +/- 16.0 ml/min vs 52.1 +/- 12.6 ml/min, p less than 0.05, respectively). CIn was slightly but insignificantly increased in the patients (95.3 +/- 20.8 ml/min) compared to the

  13. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Methods Men and women aged 45–69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study were recruited in Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six urban centres in the Czech Republic. Tests of immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency and letter search were administered at baseline and repeated in 2006–2008. Serum concentrations of biomarkers at baseline were measured in a sub-sample of participants. Associations of vitamin quartiles with baseline (n = 4166) and follow-up (n = 2739) cognitive domain-specific z-scores were estimated using multiple linear regression. Results After adjusting for confounders, folate was positively associated with letter search and vitamin B-12 with word recall in cross-sectional analyses. In prospective analyses, participants in the highest quartile of folate had higher verbal fluency (p < 0.01) and immediate recall (p < 0.05) scores compared to those in the bottom quartile. In addition, participants in the highest quartile of vitamin B-12 had significantly higher verbal fluency scores (β = 0.12; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21). Conclusions Folate and vitamin B-12 were positively associated with performance in some but not all cognitive domains in older Central and Eastern Europeans. These findings do not lend unequivocal support to potential importance of folate and vitamin B-12 status for cognitive function in older age. Long-term longitudinal studies and randomised trials are required before drawing conclusions on the role of these vitamins in cognitive decline. PMID:26808046

  14. Age-dependent variations of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities in water buffalo calf serum.

    PubMed

    Avallone, L; Lombardi, P; Florio, S; d'Angelo, A; Bogin, E

    1996-12-01

    The electrophoretic patterns of the serum enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase from water buffalo calves are described. Differences in total activities as well as their relative distribution were seen at ages ranging from 1 to 10 weeks. While total lactate dehydrogenase activity increased by over 100%, total creatine kinase increased by almost 400%. The relative activities of lactate dehydrogenase 1 and 5 decreased with age. Lactate dehydrogenase 2 and 3 increased and lactate dehydrogenase 4 did not change. In relation to creatine kinase, the prevalent isoenzyme was creatine kinase-MM, but it's relative activity gradually decreased in comparison to the other two isoenzymes (creatine kinase-MB and creatine kinase-BB). Creatine kinase-BB was completely absent until the 3rd week of age. The percentage modifications of creatine kinase isoenzymes were correlated to age. The results suggest that isoenzymatic separation and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in relation to the various tissues can significantly contribute to the diagnosis of diseases which are linked to tissue damage.

  15. Eight Common Genetic Variants Associated with Serum DHEAS Levels Suggest a Key Role in Ageing Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jordana T.; Bhasin, Shalender; Eriksson, Joel; Eriksson, Anna; Ernst, Florian; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M.; Glass, Daniel; Grundberg, Elin; Haring, Robin; Hedman, Åsa K.; Hofman, Albert; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Liu, Yongmei; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Maggio, Marcello; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mangino, Massimo; Melzer, David; Miljkovic, Iva; Nica, Alexandra; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Small, Kerrin S.; Soranzo, Nicole; Uitterlinden, André G.; Völzke, Henry; Wilson, Scott G.; Xi, Li; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Harris, Tamara B.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Ohlsson, Claes; Murray, Anna; de Jong, Frank H.; Spector, Tim D.; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2011-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) is the most abundant circulating steroid secreted by adrenal glands—yet its function is unknown. Its serum concentration declines significantly with increasing age, which has led to speculation that a relative DHEAS deficiency may contribute to the development of common age-related diseases or diminished longevity. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data with 14,846 individuals and identified eight independent common SNPs associated with serum DHEAS concentrations. Genes at or near the identified loci include ZKSCAN5 (rs11761528; p = 3.15×10−36), SULT2A1 (rs2637125; p = 2.61×10−19), ARPC1A (rs740160; p = 1.56×10−16), TRIM4 (rs17277546; p = 4.50×10−11), BMF (rs7181230; p = 5.44×10−11), HHEX (rs2497306; p = 4.64×10−9), BCL2L11 (rs6738028; p = 1.72×10−8), and CYP2C9 (rs2185570; p = 2.29×10−8). These genes are associated with type 2 diabetes, lymphoma, actin filament assembly, drug and xenobiotic metabolism, and zinc finger proteins. Several SNPs were associated with changes in gene expression levels, and the related genes are connected to biological pathways linking DHEAS with ageing. This study provides much needed insight into the function of DHEAS. PMID:21533175

  16. [Creatinine and calcium in urine and blood after brief exposure to magnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, F; Mannsåker, T; Løvlie, R

    1999-02-10

    In this experimental study, 35 males were exposed to artificial magnetic fields. The fields were produced by a set of Helmholz coils internally isolated by a Faraday cage which effectively eliminated electrical fields. Each participant stayed inside the coils for 40 minutes on two occasions with an interval of seven days, but was actually only once exposed to a static magnetic field (9.6 mT) and oscillating magnetic fields of variable frequency and strength. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exposure, and before and after non-exposure. Analysis detected significant changes in serum creatinine level after exposure (p < 0.0001). The changes in serum creatinine level in the nonexposed situation were significantly smaller than the changes found in the exposed situation (p < 0.0001). The changes i urine creatinine after 40 minutes of exposure was also found to be significant (p < 0.01). Exposure to magnetic fields may induce biological reactions.

  17. Effect of the Indian gooseberry (amla) on serum cholesterol levels in men aged 35-55 years.

    PubMed

    Jacob, A; Pandey, M; Kapoor, S; Saroja, R

    1988-11-01

    The effect on total serum cholesterol and its lipoprotein fractions of supplementation of the diet with amla (Emblica officinalis, Gaertn., the Indian gooseberry) was studied in normal and hypercholesterolaemic men aged 35-55 years. The supplement was given for a period of 28 d in the raw form. Both normal and hypercholesterolaemic subjects showed a decrease in cholesterol levels. Two weeks after withdrawing the supplement, the total serum cholesterol levels of the hypercholesterolaemic subjects rose significantly almost to initial levels. PMID:3250870

  18. Creatinine generation is reduced in patients requiring continuous venovenous hemodialysis and independently predicts mortality

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Francis P.; Sheehan, Jessica M.; Mariani, Laura H.; Berns, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing systems for grading severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) rely on a change of serum creatinine concentration over a defined time interval. The rate of change in serum creatinine increases by degree of reduction in glomerular filtration rate, but is mitigated by low creatinine generation rate (CGR). Failure to appreciate variation in CGR may lead to erroneous conclusions regarding severity of AKI and distorted predictions regarding patient outcomes based on AKI severity. Methods Cohort study of 103 patients who received continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) over a 2-year period in a tertiary care hospital setting. Study participants entered the cohort when they were anuric, receiving a stable and uninterrupted dose of CVVHD with serum creatinine in steady state. They were followed until hospital discharge. CGR was measured based on dialyzate effluent volume and effluent creatinine concentration (prospective cohort) and via effluent volume and serum creatinine concentration (retrospective cohort). Results CGR (mean 10.5, range 1.7–22.4 mg/kg/day) was substantially lower in this patient population than what would be predicted from existing equations. Correlates of CGR in multivariable analysis included the length of hospitalization prior to measurement and presence of an oncologic diagnosis. Lower CGR was independently associated with in-hospital mortality in unadjusted analysis and after multivariable adjustment for measures of severity of illness. Conclusions Grading systems for severity of AKI fail to account for variation in CGR, limiting their ability to predict relevant outcomes. Calculation of CGR is superior to other risk metrics in predicting hospital mortality in this population. PMID:22273668

  19. In serum veritas—in serum sanitas? Cell non-autonomous aging compromises differentiation and survival of mesenchymal stromal cells via the oxidative stress pathway

    PubMed Central

    Geißler, S; Textor, M; Schmidt-Bleek, K; Klein, O; Thiele, M; Ellinghaus, A; Jacobi, D; Ode, A; Perka, C; Dienelt, A; Klose, J; Kasper, G; Duda, G N; Strube, P

    2013-01-01

    Even tissues capable of complete regeneration, such as bone, show an age-related reduction in their healing capacity. Here, we hypothesized that this decline is primarily due to cell non-autonomous (extrinsic) aging mediated by the systemic environment. We demonstrate that culture of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in serum from aged Sprague–Dawley rats negatively affects their survival and differentiation ability. Proteome analysis and further cellular investigations strongly suggest that serum from aged animals not only changes expression of proteins related to mitochondria, unfolded protein binding or involved in stress responses, it also significantly enhances intracellular reactive oxygen species production and leads to the accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins. Conversely, reduction of oxidative stress levels in vitro markedly improved MSC function. These results were validated in an in vivo model of compromised bone healing, which demonstrated significant increase regeneration in aged animals following oral antioxidant administration. These observations indicate the high impact of extrinsic aging on cellular functions and the process of endogenous (bone) regeneration. Thus, addressing the cell environment by, for example, systemic antioxidant treatment is a promising approach to enhance tissue regeneration and to regain cellular function especially in elderly patients. PMID:24357801

  20. Association of Serum Ferritin and Kidney Function with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Il Hwan; Choi, Eun Young; Park, Joon-Sung; Lee, Chang Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Ferritin is considered to be a marker of the body’s iron stores and has a potential relationship with the systemic manifestations of inflammatory reactions. Data on the association between increased levels of serum ferritin and ocular problems are limited, particularly in relation to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Serum ferritin levels, as a possible clinical parameter for predicting AMD, were analyzed in anthropometric, biochemical, and ophthalmologic data from a nation-wide, population-based, case-control study (KNHNES IV and V). All native Koreans aged ≥ 20 years and who had no medical illness were eligible to participate. Among them, 2.9% had AMD, and its prevalence was found to increase in the higher ferritin quintile groups (Ptrend < 0.0001). In multiple linear regression analysis, serum ferritin level was closely related to conventional risk factors for AMD. Comparison of early AMD with a control group showed that serum ferritin levels were closely associated with AMD (OR = 1.004, 95% CI = 1.002–1.006), and further adjustment for age, gender, serum iron, and kidney function did not reduce this association (OR = 1.003, 95% CI = 1.001–1.006). Furthermore, the relationship between ferritin quintile and early AMD was dose-dependent. Thus, an increased level of serum ferritin in a healthy person may be a useful indicator of neurodegenerative change in the macula. A large population-based prospective clinical study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27096155

  1. Association of Serum Ferritin and Kidney Function with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Oh, Il Hwan; Choi, Eun Young; Park, Joon-Sung; Lee, Chang Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Ferritin is considered to be a marker of the body's iron stores and has a potential relationship with the systemic manifestations of inflammatory reactions. Data on the association between increased levels of serum ferritin and ocular problems are limited, particularly in relation to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Serum ferritin levels, as a possible clinical parameter for predicting AMD, were analyzed in anthropometric, biochemical, and ophthalmologic data from a nation-wide, population-based, case-control study (KNHNES IV and V). All native Koreans aged ≥ 20 years and who had no medical illness were eligible to participate. Among them, 2.9% had AMD, and its prevalence was found to increase in the higher ferritin quintile groups (Ptrend < 0.0001). In multiple linear regression analysis, serum ferritin level was closely related to conventional risk factors for AMD. Comparison of early AMD with a control group showed that serum ferritin levels were closely associated with AMD (OR = 1.004, 95% CI = 1.002-1.006), and further adjustment for age, gender, serum iron, and kidney function did not reduce this association (OR = 1.003, 95% CI = 1.001-1.006). Furthermore, the relationship between ferritin quintile and early AMD was dose-dependent. Thus, an increased level of serum ferritin in a healthy person may be a useful indicator of neurodegenerative change in the macula. A large population-based prospective clinical study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27096155

  2. Prepubertal Serum Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides and Age at Sexual Maturity in Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Thuy; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Korrick, Susan A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M.; Patterson, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few human studies have evaluated the impact of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) on pubertal development. Objective We evaluated associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (βHCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)] with age at attainment of sexual maturity among boys. Methods From 2003 through 2005, 350 8- to 9-year-old boys from Chapaevsk, Russia, with measured OCPs were enrolled and followed annually for 8 years. We used multivariable interval-censored models to evaluate associations of OCPs (quartiles) with three physician-assessed measures of sexual maturity: Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth, Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth, or testicular volume (TV) ≥ 20 mL in either testis. Results In adjusted models, boys with higher HCB concentrations achieved sexual maturity reflected by TV ≥ 20 mL a mean of 3.1 months (95% CI: –1.7, 7.8), 5.3 months (95% CI: 0.6, 10.1), and 5.0 months (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.04). Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth was attained a mean of 2.2 months (95% CI: –3.1, 7.5), 5.7 months (95% CI: 0.4, 11.0), and 3.7 months (95% CI: –1.7, 9.1) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, of βHCH compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.09). Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth occurred 6–9 months later on average for boys in the highest versus lowest quartile for HCB (p trend < 0.001), βHCH (trend p = 0.01), and p,p´-DDE (p trend = 0.04). No associations were observed between p,p´-DDE and Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth or TV ≥ 20 mL. Conclusions and relevance Higher prepubertal serum HCB and βHCH concentrations were associated with a later age at attainment of sexual maturity. Only the highest quartile of serum p,p´-DDE was associated with later pubic hair maturation. Citation Lam T, Williams PL, Lee MM, Korrick SA, Birnbaum LS, Burns JS, Sergeyev O

  3. Serum uric acid correlates in elderly men and women with special reference to body composition and dietary intake (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System).

    PubMed

    Loenen, H M; Eshuis, H; Löwik, M R; Schouten, E G; Hulshof, K F; Odink, J; Kok, F J

    1990-01-01

    In 460 apparently healthy Dutch elderly, aged 65-79 years, serum uric acid correlates were studied by linear regression analyses, for men and women separately. Diuretic therapy, total serum cholesterol (women only) and creatinine clearance (in bivariate analysis only) were significantly associated with serum uric acid level. Positive associations of serum uric acid with body weight, body mass index, body fatness (men) and lean body mass (men) were observed, with and without adjustment for diuretic therapy, creatinine clearance and age. Serum uric acid levels, whether adjusted or not for these variables and for body mass index, were positively associated with alcohol intake (men) and consumption of meat and fish (women), and inversely with consumption of bread, margarine and milk products (women). These results indicate that limited medication with diuretics, weight control and restriction of alcohol use may help to prevent hyperuricemia in the elderly.

  4. Age, body mass index, current smoking history, and serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels associated with bone mineral density in middle-aged Korean men.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Ki-Won; Lee, Won-Young; Kim, Sun-Woo; Oh, Eun-Sook; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Moo-Il; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung-Joon; Park, Sung-Woo

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a growing health problem in women and in men. This cross-sectional study examined the association of anthropometric, lifestyle, and hormonal factors with bone mineral density (BMD) in 152 healthy Korean middle-aged men. Smoking habits and alcohol consumption were assessed by interview. Serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, and serum growth hormone (GH) levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay. GH stimulation tests were performed after the ingestion of 500 mg of L-dopa. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and at the femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Of the middle-aged men, 3.9% were osteoporotic and 28.3% were osteopenic at the lumbar spine site, and 5.9% were osteoporotic and 45.4% were osteopenic at the femoral neck site. Lumbar spine BMD correlated significantly with body mass index (BMI), and femoral neck BMD correlated significantly with age, BMI, and serum IGF-I levels. The lowest quartile group for serum IGF-I levels showed the lowest femoral neck BMD. Osteoporotic men by lumbar spine BMD showed significant differences from the normal BMD group in terms of BMI and smoking habits. Also, osteoporotic men by femoral neck BMD were significantly different for mean age, BMI, and serum IGF-I levels compared with the normal BMD group. On multiple regression analysis, BMI was found to be the only independent predictor of lumbar spine BMD, whereas both BMI and serum IGF-I levels were found to be the independent predictors of femoral neck BMD. Overall, 28.3%-45.4% of middle-aged Korean men were osteopenic. We suggest that higher age, a lower BMI, current smoking history, and lower serum IGF-I levels are risk factors for lower BMD in middle-aged Korean men; however, serum testosterone levels and GH secretory capacity were not found to be correlated with BMD.

  5. A prospective study to compare serum human placental lactogen and menstrual dates for determining gestational age.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, P G; Lind, T; Lawson, J Y

    1987-01-01

    In a group of 575 healthy pregnant women with certain menstrual dates the estimation of the length of gestation from maternal serum human placental lactogen concentrations has been compared with gestational age calculated from the last menstrual period and ultrasonic measurements of the fetal biparietal diameter. In 412 of these patients labor started spontaneously, and the estimated dates of delivery determined by these three methods were also compared. In the range of 9 to 17 weeks of pregnancy, gestational age can be determined by human placental lactogen measurement to within 7 days (+/- 1 SD) which compares favorably with other methods. Regarding the prediction of the expected date of delivery, 88% were delivered within 2 weeks of the date predicted by last menstrual period, 82% within 2 weeks of the sonar date, and 80% by the date determined by human placental lactogen assessment. Prediction of delivery in a further group of 139 women with uncertain dates gave 73% within 2 weeks by sonar date and 69% within 2 weeks by human placental lactogen determination. We suggest human placental lactogen measurements should become part of routine antenatal care complementing rather than replacing the role of ultrasonic scanning. For those doctors and patients who wish to avoid more exposure to ultrasonic scanning than absolutely necessary, human placental lactogen estimates offer an alternative method for assessing the length of gestation.

  6. Accuracy of GFR estimation formula in determination of glomerular filtration rate in kidney donors: Comparison with 24 h urine creatinine clearance.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Abdul Rauf; Idrees, Muhammad Khalid; Akhtar, Syed Fazal

    2016-03-01

    To determine the accuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), Cockcroft-Gault (CG), and chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-EPI) formulas in potential kidney donors compared with 24-h urine creatinine clearance, we studied 207 potential live kidney donors in our center. There were 126 (60.9%) males and 81 (39.1%) females. Male:female ratio was 1.6:1. The age of the donors ranged from 18-58 years, with mean age of 35.30 ± 9.23 years and most of the individuals were below 40 years of age. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and venous blood samples were obtained for the measurement of serum creatinine and every study participant was instructed to collect 24-h urine. GFR was calculated based on 24-h urine creatinine clearance and the formulas. The accuracy of GFR estimation formula was taken as positive if the GFR calculated by the formulas and urine creatinine clearance fell between 90-120 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The accuracy of the MDRD formula was 48.8% and the CG formula was 41.5% whereas the accuracy of the CKD-EPI formula was 78.2%. The accuracy of the eGFR using the MDRD formula was significantly higher in males than females (57.9% vs. 33.3% P = 0.001), while there was no statistically significant difference in the eGFR between them in case of the use of the CG and the CKD-EPI formulas. BMI and obesity had no effect on the accuracy of eGFR by the use of the different formulas. The performance of GFR estimation formulas was sub optimal and these either underestimated and/or over-estimated the GFR in healthy subjects. CKD-EPI is closer to 24 -h urinary creatinine clearance in the calculation of eGFR. However, none of the eGFR formulas can be used in renal transplant donors because of their low accuracy, and 24-h urine creatinine clearance should be used for evaluation of the GFR in this population.

  7. Serum Trans Fatty Acids Are Not Associated with Weight Gain or Linear Growth in School-Age Children123

    PubMed Central

    Baylin, Ana; Perng, Wei; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marin, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Animal and human adult studies indicate that long-term intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs) may be associated with weight gain. High intake of fast foods and snacks, which are rich in TFAs, is linked to overweight status among school-age children. However, the specific effects of TFAs in this population are unknown. Objective: We examined whether serum TFAs, used as biomarkers of intake, are associated with faster weight gain and linear growth during school years. Methods: We quantified TFAs by GLC in serum samples of 668 children aged 5–12 y at the time of recruitment into an ongoing cohort study performed in Bogota (Colombia) since 2006. Serum proportions of trans palmitoleic acid (16:1t), trans oleic acid (18:1t), trans linoleic acid (18:2t), and total TFAs were used as biomarkers of intake. Anthropometric characteristics were measured periodically for a median of 30 mo. Body mass index-for-age z scores (BAZs) and height-for-age z scores (HAZs) were calculated with the use of the WHO reference. We estimated mean changes in BAZs and HAZs over follow-up according to quartiles of each TFA at baseline by using mixed-effects regression models with restricted cubic splines. Results: Proportions of trans palmitoleic acid, trans oleic acid, trans linoleic acid, and total TFAs (mean ± SD, % of total serum FAs), were 0.22 ± 0.06, 0.91 ± 0.37, 0.96 ± 0.27, and 2.10 ± 0.59, respectively. Serum TFAs were not associated with changes in BAZs and HAZs after adjusting for sex, baseline age, and socioeconomic status. In a subgroup analysis by sex, serum trans palmitoleic acid was positively associated with the estimated change in HAZs from ages 6 to 14 y in boys (with use of the first quartile as the reference, differences in HAZs for trans palmitoleic acid quartiles were 0.73, 0.53, and 0.70, P-trend = 0.03). Conclusions: Proportions of serum TFAs, used as biomarkers of TFA intake, were not associated with weight gain in children aged 6–14 y in low- and middle

  8. Does growth hormone prevent aging in the healthy elderly with low serum insulin-like growth factor-I ?

    PubMed

    Lee, K O; Liao, L; Mukherjee, J J

    2004-04-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual decline in the function of a number of endocrine glands. While there are phenotypic similarities seen in the changes of aging with some endocrine hormone deficiency states, the relationship between the decline in growth hormone (GH) secretion, and the decrease in serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), with these body composition changes is far from clear. The decline in serum IGF-I, unlike that of thyroxine and estradiol, is not accompanied by an increase in pituitary GH secretion. The recent enthusiastic recommendation for GH 'replacement' in the aging population with low serum IGF-I remains highly controversial. The evidence is still unclear on any significant beneficial effect of such replacement in healthy fit elderly men and women. There is some early evidence of beneficial effects of such replacement in the frail elderly. There are no studies that have investigated the effect of GH on longevity in humans, but results from animal studies on caloric restriction and longevity do not suggest that GH administration will increase life span. There is still insufficient evidence that treatment with exogenous GH in the healthy elderly that attains serum IGF-I levels similar to that of young adults is beneficial or safe. PMID:15063105

  9. Different dietary lifestyles and serum zinc and copper in women of reproductive age

    SciTech Connect

    Breskin, M.W.; Worthington-Roberts, B.S.; Monsen, E.R.

    1986-03-01

    Nutrient intakes and biochemical measures of zinc and copper were compared in non-pregnant young women representing different dietary lifestyles, viz, those who habitually ate red meat (RM), fish or poultry (FP), or lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LV) sources of protein. All were in good health and concerned about their diets; none was using supplements or oral contraceptives. Three-day food records were analyzed for nutrient content. Serum and drinking water samples were assayed for zinc and copper (AAS), and serum, for ceruloplasmin (RID). Sign. diff. in dietary Zn or Cu content were not reflected by serum(Zn) or (Cu), but the incidence of serum(Zn) < the 95% CI for RM eaters was sign. higher in FP and LV groups (X/sup 2/ = 20.65, p < 0.001). Thus, use of diets limited in animal protein sources may be associated with an increase risk of low serum (Zn).

  10. Two low-cost digital camera-based platforms for quantitative creatinine analysis in urine.

    PubMed

    Debus, Bruno; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Yaroshenko, Irina; Sidorova, Alla; Piven, Alena; Legin, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    In clinical analysis creatinine is a routine biomarker for the assessment of renal and muscular dysfunctions. Although several techniques have been proposed for a fast and accurate quantification of creatinine in human serum or urine, most of them require expensive or complex apparatus, advanced sample preparation or skilled operators. To circumvent these issues, we propose two home-made platforms based on a CD Spectroscope (CDS) and Computer Screen Photo-assisted Technique (CSPT) for the rapid assessment of creatinine level in human urine. Both systems display a linear range (r(2) = 0.9967 and 0.9972, respectively) from 160 μmol L(-1) to 1.6 mmol L(-1) for standard creatinine solutions (n = 15) with respective detection limits of 89 μmol L(-1) and 111 μmol L(-1). Good repeatability was observed for intra-day (1.7-2.9%) and inter-day (3.6-6.5%) measurements evaluated on three consecutive days. The performance of CDS and CSPT was also validated in real human urine samples (n = 26) using capillary electrophoresis data as reference. Corresponding Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression models provided for mean relative errors below 10% in creatinine quantification.

  11. Two low-cost digital camera-based platforms for quantitative creatinine analysis in urine.

    PubMed

    Debus, Bruno; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Yaroshenko, Irina; Sidorova, Alla; Piven, Alena; Legin, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    In clinical analysis creatinine is a routine biomarker for the assessment of renal and muscular dysfunctions. Although several techniques have been proposed for a fast and accurate quantification of creatinine in human serum or urine, most of them require expensive or complex apparatus, advanced sample preparation or skilled operators. To circumvent these issues, we propose two home-made platforms based on a CD Spectroscope (CDS) and Computer Screen Photo-assisted Technique (CSPT) for the rapid assessment of creatinine level in human urine. Both systems display a linear range (r(2) = 0.9967 and 0.9972, respectively) from 160 μmol L(-1) to 1.6 mmol L(-1) for standard creatinine solutions (n = 15) with respective detection limits of 89 μmol L(-1) and 111 μmol L(-1). Good repeatability was observed for intra-day (1.7-2.9%) and inter-day (3.6-6.5%) measurements evaluated on three consecutive days. The performance of CDS and CSPT was also validated in real human urine samples (n = 26) using capillary electrophoresis data as reference. Corresponding Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression models provided for mean relative errors below 10% in creatinine quantification. PMID:26454461

  12. Creatinine Clearance Is Associated with Toxicity from Molecularly Targeted Agents in Phase I Trials

    PubMed Central

    Basu, B.; Vitfell-Pedersen, J.; Moreno Garcia, V.; Puglisi, M.; Tjokrowidjaja, A.; Shah, K.; Malvankar, S.; Anghan, B.; de Bono, J.S.; Kaye, S.B.; Molife, L.R.; Banerji, U.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate any correlations between baseline creatinine clearance and the development of grade 3/4 toxicities during treatment within oncology phase I trials of molecularly targeted agents where entry criteria mandate a serum creatinine of ≤1.5 × the upper limit of normal. Methods Documented toxicity and creatinine clearance (calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula) from all patients treated with molecularly targeted agents in the context of phase I trials within our centre over a 5-year period were analyzed. Results Data from 722 patients were analyzed; 116 (16%) developed at least one episode of grade 3/4 toxicity. Patients who developed a late-onset (>1 cycle) grade 3/4 toxicity had a lower creatinine clearance than those who did not (82.69 ml/min vs. 98.97 ml/min; p = < 0.001). Conclusion Creatinine clearance (even when within normal limits) should be studied as a potential factor influencing late toxicities in the clinical trials of molecularly targeted anti-cancer drugs. PMID:22889980

  13. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  14. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  15. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  16. Random Urinary Calcium/Creatinine Ratio for Screening Hypercalciuria in Children with Hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Su; Jung, Eui Seok; Choi, Young Earl; Cho, Young Kuk; Kim, Chan Jong

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercalciuria is one of the most common causes of unexplained isolated hematuria. The diagnostic methods for hypercalciuria have not yet been standardized. The aim of this study was to assess whether random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio could be used as a screening tool for hypercalciuria in children with hematuria. Methods This prospective study included 264 children with primary hematuria for whom both random and 24 hr urinary evaluations were performed. Pearson correlation and ROC curve were used to assess the correlations. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze effects of age, weight, height, body mass index, and body surface area on random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio. Results There was a moderately strong correlation between random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio and 24 hr urinary calcium excretion (r=0.584, P<0.001). The most appropriate cutoff value of random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio for the estimation of hypercalciuria was 0.075 mg/mg (sensitivity, 77.8%; specificity, 64.3%; area under the curve, 0.778). Body mass index and 24 hr urinary calcium excretion significantly affected random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio with a low coefficient of determination (r2=0.380, P<0.001). Conclusions Random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio is not suitable for screening hypercalciuria in children with hematuria. Twenty-four hour urinary analysis should be performed to diagnose hypercalciuria in children with hematuria. PMID:24205487

  17. Creatinine and urea biosensors based on a novel ammonium ion-selective copper-polyaniline nano-composite.

    PubMed

    Zhybak, M; Beni, V; Vagin, M Y; Dempsey, E; Turner, A P F; Korpan, Y

    2016-03-15

    The use of a novel ammonium ion-specific copper-polyaniline nano-composite as transducer for hydrolase-based biosensors is proposed. In this work, a combination of creatinine deaminase and urease has been chosen as a model system to demonstrate the construction of urea and creatinine biosensors to illustrate the principle. Immobilisation of enzymes was shown to be a crucial step in the development of the biosensors; the use of glycerol and lactitol as stabilisers resulted in a significant improvement, especially in the case of the creatinine, of the operational stability of the biosensors (from few hours to at least 3 days). The developed biosensors exhibited high selectivity towards creatinine and urea. The sensitivity was found to be 85 ± 3.4 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the creatinine biosensor and 112 ± 3.36 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the urea biosensor, with apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (KM,app), obtained from the creatinine and urea calibration curves, of 0.163 mM for creatinine deaminase and 0.139 mM for urease, respectively. The biosensors responded linearly over the concentration range 1-125 µM, with a limit of detection of 0.5 µM and a response time of 15s. The performance of the biosensors in a real sample matrix, serum, was evaluated and a good correlation with standard spectrophotometric clinical laboratory techniques was found.

  18. Bile acid concentrations in serum and duodenal aspirates of healthy preterm infants: effects of gestational and postnatal age.

    PubMed

    Boehm, G; Braun, W; Moro, G; Minoli, I

    1997-01-01

    In 41 healthy human-milk-fed preterm infants the preprandial total bile acid (BA) concentrations in serum and duodenal juice were simultaneous measured during the first 60 days of life. The infants were subdivided into four groups according to their gestational age: 6 infants with a gestational age of 27 and 28 weeks, 7 infants with a gestational age of 29 and 30 weeks, 21 infants with a gestational age of 31 and 32 weeks and 7 infants with a gestational age of 33 and 34 weeks. The BA levels were enzymatically determined using 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. In the duodenal juice, cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid were separately quantified by thin-layer chromatography. During the first month of life, the serum BA concentrations increased significantly with postnatal age (p < 0.01) but remained nearly constant during the second month of life. In the duodenal aspirates, the BA concentrations increased continuously up to the end of the observations period (p < 0.001). In the duodenal aspirates, the CA/CDCA ratio was high immediately after birth and decreased significantly with increasing postnatal age (p < 0.001). During the first weeks of life, the BA levels were preferentially conjugated with taurine, but in spite of the taurine-rich diet during the whole observation period the taurine/glycine ratio decreased with postnatal age (p < 0.001). In all samples of duodenal juice, the sum of primary BA was > 98% of total 3-alpha-hydroxy-BA. These data indicate that the establishment of an intestinal microbial flora necessary for intestinal BA transformation and the development of the enterohepatic BA circulation lasts some months of postnatal life. The serum BA concentration reflects hepatic synthesis, intestinal absorption, renal excretion and hepatocellular transport into bile in a very complex way which may limit the diagnostic value of serum BA during this time. Additionally, a duodenal BA concentration below 4

  19. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  20. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Sara; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Spissu, Nicoletta; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Fiore, Filippo; Cocco, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels in dogs' plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p < 0.005) and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p < 0.005) after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs. PMID:26464952

  1. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  2. Association of Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Serum Total Antioxidant Status

    PubMed Central

    Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Katusic, Damir; Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Supe-Domic, Daniela; Bucan, Kajo; Tandara, Leida; Rogosic, Veljko

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to estimate association of the oxidative stress with the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and additionally serum total antioxidant status (TAS) were used as indicators of the oxidative stress level. 57 AMD patients (32 early and 25 late AMD) and 50 healthy, age and gender matched controls were included. GPx activity (P < 0.001) and serum TAS (P = 0.015) were significantly lower in AMD patients. The difference was not significant for SOD or CAT activities. Significant interaction between GPx and SOD was detected (P = 0.003). At high levels of SOD activity (over 75th percentile), one standard deviation decrease in GPx increases the odds for AMD for six times (OR = 6.22; P < 0.001). ROC analysis revealed that combined values of GPx activity and TAS are significant determinants of AMD status. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 75%, 95%, 52%, 69%, and 90%, respectively. The study showed that low GPx activity and TAS are associated with AMD. SOD modulates the association of GPx and AMD. The results suggest that erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity and serum TAS could be promising markers for the prediction of AMD. PMID:25815109

  3. Accurate assessment of early gestational age in normal and diabetic women by serum human placental lactogen concentration.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, P G; Aspillaga, M O; Lind, T

    1983-08-01

    Serum human placental lactogen (hPL) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were assayed and fetal crown-rump length (CRL) was determined by sonar in three groups of pregnant women--35 with uncomplicated pregnancies, 13 with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 21 who represented a general pregnancy population. Each patient had a regular cycle and recorded last menstrual period, ovulated spontaneously, and was delivered of a single live baby. Serum hPL concentrations within the range 0.01-0.80 microU/ml in patients in the first group gave estimates of gestation with an SD of 6.3 days which was the same as the SD derived from CRL measurements. When the hPL regression equation was applied to the diabetic mothers the difference between the gestational age estimated from hPL and that estimated from LMP had a mean value of - 0.9 days with an SD of 6.2 days; this difference was not significantly different from zero. The third group of patients had a mean difference between hPL and LMP derived gestational age of 0.7 days (+/- 6.7 SD). Serum hPL offers a method of estimating gestation sufficiently precise to be used as a practical alternative to sonar measurements of CRL.

  4. Soft-shelled turtle eggs inhibit the formation of AGEs in the serum and skin of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Mikihiro; Shirakawa, Jun-ichi; Ohno, Rei-ichi; Shinagawa, Masatoshi; Hatano, Kota; Sugawa, Hikari; Arakawa, Shoutaro; Furusawa, Chisato; Nagai, Mime; Nagai, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Although soft-shelled turtle eggs (STE) have been used as a folk medicine for revitalization and the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, the scientific evidence to support the use of STE in this manner is scarce. To clarify the physiological evidence, STE was administered to diabetic rats and the inhibitory effects on the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which are known to increase with the progression of lifestyle-related diseases, were examined. STE and citric acid were administered to diabetic rats for 3 months, and serum Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) contents were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the administration of STE did not affect the body weight, glycoalbumin or ketone body levels, it significantly reduced the serum level of CML. The accumulation of AGEs, which was measured by fluorescence intensity in the auricle skin and the lower gums, was also reduced by the administration of STE to a similar extent to that observed with citric acid. This report provides the first evidence that the oral administration of STE reduces the formation of AGEs, suggesting that one of the health effects of STE may be the inhibition of AGEs formation. PMID:27013779

  5. Soft-shelled turtle eggs inhibit the formation of AGEs in the serum and skin of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Mikihiro; Shirakawa, Jun-Ichi; Ohno, Rei-Ichi; Shinagawa, Masatoshi; Hatano, Kota; Sugawa, Hikari; Arakawa, Shoutaro; Furusawa, Chisato; Nagai, Mime; Nagai, Ryoji

    2016-03-01

    Although soft-shelled turtle eggs (STE) have been used as a folk medicine for revitalization and the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, the scientific evidence to support the use of STE in this manner is scarce. To clarify the physiological evidence, STE was administered to diabetic rats and the inhibitory effects on the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which are known to increase with the progression of lifestyle-related diseases, were examined. STE and citric acid were administered to diabetic rats for 3 months, and serum N (ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) contents were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the administration of STE did not affect the body weight, glycoalbumin or ketone body levels, it significantly reduced the serum level of CML. The accumulation of AGEs, which was measured by fluorescence intensity in the auricle skin and the lower gums, was also reduced by the administration of STE to a similar extent to that observed with citric acid. This report provides the first evidence that the oral administration of STE reduces the formation of AGEs, suggesting that one of the health effects of STE may be the inhibition of AGEs formation. PMID:27013779

  6. Serum biomarkers in young adult and aged Brown Norway (BN) rats following episodic (weekly) ozone exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) is an air pollutant that is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Older adults are considered to be particularly susceptible to oxidant air pollutants such as 03. Serum biomarkers are being sought that would lead to better predictions of susceptibili...

  7. Altered serum glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end product (AGE) and soluble AGE receptor levels indicate carbonyl stress in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mayu; Ohnuma, Tohru; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Katsuta, Narimasa; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Takebayashi, Yuto; Higa, Motoyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nishimon, Shohei; Sannohe, Takahiro; Hotta, Yuri; Hanzawa, Ryo; Higashiyama, Ryoko; Shibata, Nobuto; Gohda, Tomohito; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Arai, Heii

    2015-04-23

    Recent cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicate that measurements of peripheral blood carbonyl stress markers such as the advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine and the reactive carbonyl-detoxifying B6 vitamin pyridoxal could be used as therapeutic biological markers in subpopulations of schizophrenia patients. Glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGE) have strong neurotoxicity, and soluble receptors for AGEs (sRAGE) may ameliorate the effects of AGEs. In the present study, we measured Glycer-AGEs and sRAGE levels to determine their potential as diagnostic, therapeutic, or clinical biological markers in patients with schizophrenia. After enrollment of 61 admitted Japanese patients with acute schizophrenia and 39 healthy volunteers, 54 patients were followed up from the acute stage to remission. Serum biomarkers were measured in blood samples taken before breakfast using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and Glycer-AGEs were significantly higher and sRAGE levels were significantly lower in patients with acute schizophrenia than in healthy controls. Glycer-AGEs/sRAGE ratios were also higher in schizophrenia patients and were stable during the clinical course. Furthermore, discriminant analyses confirmed that Glycer-AGEs and Glycer-AGEs/sRAGE ratios are significant diagnostic markers for schizophrenia, and distinguished between patients and healthy controls in 70.0% of cases. However, these markers of carbonyl stress were not correlated with clinical features, including disease severity, or with daily chlorpromazine doses. These data indicate the potential of Glycer-AGEs, RAGEs, and their relative ratios as diagnostic markers for patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Differentiating the Influences of Aging and Adiposity on Brain Weights, Levels of Serum and Brain Cytokines, Gastrointestinal Hormones, and Amyloid Precursor Protein.

    PubMed

    Banks, William A; Abrass, Christine K; Hansen, Kim M

    2016-01-01

    Aging and obesity exert important effects on disease. Differentiating these effects is difficult, however, because weight gain often accompanies aging. Here, we used a nested design of aged, calorically restricted, and refed rats to measure changes in brain and blood levels of cytokines and gastrointestinal hormones, brain amyloid precursor protein levels, and brain and body weights. By comparing groups and using path analysis, we found divergent influences of chronological aging versus body weight, our main findings being (i) changes in whole brain weight and serum macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels correlated better with body weight than with chronological aging, (ii) a decrease in brain cytokines and brain plasminogen activator inhibitor levels correlated better with chronological aging than with body weight, (iii) serum erythropoietin levels were influenced by both body weight and aging, (iv) serum plasminogen activator inhibitor, serum cytokines, and brain tumor necrosis factor were not influenced by aging or body weight, and (v) brain amyloid precursor protein more closely related to body weight and serum levels of gastrointestinal hormones than to brain weight, chronological aging, or cytokines. These findings show that although aging and body weight interact, their influences are distinct not only among various cytokines and hormones but also between the central nervous system and the peripheral tissue compartments.

  9. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213

  10. Rapamycin selectively alters serum chemistry in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai-Mir, Hooman; Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Lee, Hak Joo; Bokov, Alex F.; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Diaz, Vivian; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Richardson, Arlan; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to explore the effect of rapamycin, an anti-inflammatory agent, on the metabolic profile of type 2 diabetic mice. Seven-month-old diabetic db/db mice and their lean littermate non-diabetic controls (db/m) were randomized to receive control chow or chow mixed with rapamycin (2.24 mg/kg/day) (each group n =20, males and females) for 4 months and sacrificed. Serum samples were analyzed for the measurement of glucose, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and total protein, using the automated dry chemistry analysis. Rapamycin elevated serum glucose in female diabetic mice. Serum creatinine tended to be higher in diabetic mice but was not affected by rapamycin; there was no difference in BUN levels among the groups. Serum ALP was elevated in diabetic mice and rapamycin lowered it only in female diabetic mice; serum ALT levels were increased in female diabetic mice, unaffected by rapamycin. Serum total protein was elevated in diabetic mice of both genders but was not affected by rapamycin. Diabetic mice from both genders had elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides; rapamycin did not affect serum cholesterol but decreased serum total triglycerides in male diabetic mice. We conclude that rapamycin elicits complex metabolic responses in aging diabetic mice, worsening hyperglycemia in females but improving ALP in female diabetic and total triglycerides in male diabetic mice, respectively. The metabolic effects of rapamycin should be considered while performing studies with rapamycin in mice. PMID:22953036

  11. Rapamycin selectively alters serum chemistry in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Tabatabai-Mir, Hooman; Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Lee, Hak Joo; Bokov, Alex F; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Diaz, Vivian; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Richardson, Arlan; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to explore the effect of rapamycin, an anti-inflammatory agent, on the metabolic profile of type 2 diabetic mice. Seven-month-old diabetic db/db mice and their lean littermate non-diabetic controls (db/m) were randomized to receive control chow or chow mixed with rapamycin (2.24 mg/kg/day) (each group n =20, males and females) for 4 months and sacrificed. Serum samples were analyzed for the measurement of glucose, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and total protein, using the automated dry chemistry analysis. Rapamycin elevated serum glucose in female diabetic mice. Serum creatinine tended to be higher in diabetic mice but was not affected by rapamycin; there was no difference in BUN levels among the groups. Serum ALP was elevated in diabetic mice and rapamycin lowered it only in female diabetic mice; serum ALT levels were increased in female diabetic mice, unaffected by rapamycin. Serum total protein was elevated in diabetic mice of both genders but was not affected by rapamycin. Diabetic mice from both genders had elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides; rapamycin did not affect serum cholesterol but decreased serum total triglycerides in male diabetic mice. We conclude that rapamycin elicits complex metabolic responses in aging diabetic mice, worsening hyperglycemia in females but improving ALP in female diabetic and total triglycerides in male diabetic mice, respectively. The metabolic effects of rapamycin should be considered while performing studies with rapamycin in mice. PMID:22953036

  12. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  13. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A.

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  14. Performance of Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Creatinine-Cystatin C Equation for Estimating Kidney Function in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Dowling, Thomas C.; Weir, Matthew R.; Seliger, Stephen L.; Christenson, Robert H.; Magder, Laurence S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) equations are insufficiently accurate for estimating GFR in cirrhosis. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) recently proposed an equation to estimate GFR in subjects without cirrhosis using both serum creatinine and cystatin C levels. Performance of the new CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation (2012) was superior to previous creatinine- or cystatin C-based GFR equations. To evaluate the performance of the CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation in subjects with cirrhosis, we compared it to GFR measured by non-radiolabeled iothalamate plasma clearance (mGFR) in 72 subjects with cirrhosis. We compared the “bias”, “precision” and “accuracy” of the new CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation to that of 24-hour urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl), Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and previously reported creatinine- and/or cystatin C-based GFR-estimating equations. Accuracy of CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation as quantified by root mean squared error of difference scores [differences between mGFR and estimated GFR (eGFR) or between mGFR and CrCl, or between mGFR and CG equation for each subject] (RMSE=23.56) was significantly better than that of CrCl (37.69, P=0.001), CG (RMSE=36.12, P=0.002) and GFR-estimating equations based on cystatin C only. Its accuracy as quantified by percentage of eGFRs that differed by greater than 30% with respect to mGFR was significantly better compared to CrCl (P=0.024), CG (P=0.0001), 4-variable MDRD (P=0.027) and CKD-EPI creatinine 2009 (P=0.012) equations. However, for 23.61% of the subjects, GFR estimated by CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation differed from the mGFR by more than 30%. CONCLUSIONS The diagnostic performance of CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation (2012) in patients with cirrhosis was superior to conventional equations in clinical practice for estimating GFR. However, its diagnostic performance was substantially worse than

  15. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Ergür, Ayça Törel; Dursun, Zarife Esra; Gülerman, Fulya

    2014-11-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) accompanies any other intra-abdominal pathology. Serum amylase/lipase levels are commonly used in order to rule out acute pancreatitis in patients having abdominal pain in DKA. A more specific and noninvasive diagnostic tool - amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) - can be used to rule out pancreatitis in patients with DKA. A 14-year-old girl was admitted with abdominal pain and nausea. She had been followed up for type 1 diabetes mellitus for the last 5 years. The serum amylase levels were increased up to 687 U/L (normal: 28-120 U/L) on the third day of hospitalization. Simultaneous serum and urinary amylase concentrations were measured, and ACCR was calculated (1.2%). The diagnosis of pancreatitis was ruled out. The serum amylase levels decreased in the following days, and she was discharged. ACCR determination is a simple and specific test to diagnose pancreatitis, especially in patients with DKA.

  16. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Ergür, Ayça Törel; Dursun, Zarife Esra; Gülerman, Fulya

    2014-11-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) accompanies any other intra-abdominal pathology. Serum amylase/lipase levels are commonly used in order to rule out acute pancreatitis in patients having abdominal pain in DKA. A more specific and noninvasive diagnostic tool - amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) - can be used to rule out pancreatitis in patients with DKA. A 14-year-old girl was admitted with abdominal pain and nausea. She had been followed up for type 1 diabetes mellitus for the last 5 years. The serum amylase levels were increased up to 687 U/L (normal: 28-120 U/L) on the third day of hospitalization. Simultaneous serum and urinary amylase concentrations were measured, and ACCR was calculated (1.2%). The diagnosis of pancreatitis was ruled out. The serum amylase levels decreased in the following days, and she was discharged. ACCR determination is a simple and specific test to diagnose pancreatitis, especially in patients with DKA. PMID:25153214

  17. Specific gravity and creatinine as corrections for variation in urine concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys.

    PubMed

    White, Brent C; Jamison, Keri M; Grieb, Cassie; Lally, Drew; Luckett, Cloe; Kramer, Katie S; Phillips, Justin

    2010-12-01

    Hormones excreted in the urine are widely used to assess the physiological and psychological condition of unrestrained animals. In order to control for variation in the water concentration of urine samples, the hormone concentration is often indexed to the concentration of creatinine. Because there are several problems with using creatinine, we have investigated the efficacy of specific gravity as an alternative basis for adjusting the hormone concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys. In an experimental manipulation of human urine hydration, ten volunteers drank a water load proportional to body weight, and provided complete urine collection and saliva samples for four consecutive 20 min intervals. From the urine, we measured cortisol (radioimmunoassay), creatinine (colorimetric assay), and specific gravity (refractometer). Only cortisol was assayed from saliva. During 80 min following water ingestion, cortisol, creatinine, and specific gravity declined as urine became diluted; however, total cortisol excretion remained constant. Only cortisol concentration indexed to specific gravity accurately reflected the consistent cortisol excretion. Specific gravity and creatinine-corrected cortisol values were highly correlated but were significantly different. Salivary cortisol provided evidence for the relative stability of serum cortisol. To determine the utility of these corrections in other primates, we compared specific gravity- and creatinine-corrected cortisol in urine samples from captive gorillas (N=16) and woolly monkeys (N=8). As with the human study, the two corrections were strongly correlated in each species, but the means were different. Specific gravity correction was superior in revealing the circadian variation in cortisol.

  18. Creatinine metabolism in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus bacillisporus.

    PubMed Central

    Polacheck, I; Kwon-Chung, K J

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenic species of Cryptococcus, C. neoformans and C. bacillisporus, utilized creatinine as a source of nitrogen but not of carbon. Chromatographic and autoradiographic studies suggest that creatinine metabolism in both species involves a single step resulting in the production of methylhydantoin and ammonia. The enzyme responsible for this step, creatinine deiminase, was produced by the cells only in the presence of creatinine in both species. The synthesis of creatinine deiminase was repressed by ammonia in C. neoformans, but not in C. bacillisporus. A possible explanation for this variation, based on the ecological differences between the two species, is discussed. A novel method for measuring creatinine deiminase activity is also described. Images PMID:6989801

  19. Effects of allergic diseases and age on the composition of serum IgG glycome in children.

    PubMed

    Pezer, Marija; Stambuk, Jerko; Perica, Marija; Razdorov, Genadij; Banic, Ivana; Vuckovic, Frano; Gospic, Adrijana Miletic; Ugrina, Ivo; Vecenaj, Ana; Bakovic, Maja Pucic; Lokas, Sandra Bulat; Zivkovic, Jelena; Plavec, Davor; Devereux, Graham; Turkalj, Mirjana; Lauc, Gordan

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that immunoglobulin G (IgG) plays a regulatory role in allergic reactions. The glycans on the Fc region are known to affect IgG effector functions, thereby possibly having a role in IgG modulation of allergic response. This is the first study investigating patients' IgG glycosylation profile in allergic diseases. Subclass specific IgG glycosylation profile was analyzed in two cohorts of allergen sensitized and non-sensitized 3- to 11-year-old children (conducted at University of Aberdeen, UK and Children's Hospital Srebrnjak, Zagreb, Croatia) with 893 subjects in total. IgG was isolated from serum/plasma by affinity chromatography on Protein G. IgG tryptic glycopeptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In the Zagreb cohort IgG glycome composition changed with age across all IgG subclasses. In both cohorts, IgG glycome composition did not differ in allergen sensitized subjects, nor children sensitized to individual allergens, single allergen mean wheal diameter or positive wheal sum values. In the Zagreb study the results were also replicated for high total serum IgE and in children with self-reported manifest allergic disease. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate no association between serum IgG glycome composition and allergic diseases in children. PMID:27616597

  20. Effects of allergic diseases and age on the composition of serum IgG glycome in children

    PubMed Central

    Pezer, Marija; Stambuk, Jerko; Perica, Marija; Razdorov, Genadij; Banic, Ivana; Vuckovic, Frano; Gospic, Adrijana Miletic; Ugrina, Ivo; Vecenaj, Ana; Bakovic, Maja Pucic; Lokas, Sandra Bulat; Zivkovic, Jelena; Plavec, Davor; Devereux, Graham; Turkalj, Mirjana; Lauc, Gordan

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that immunoglobulin G (IgG) plays a regulatory role in allergic reactions. The glycans on the Fc region are known to affect IgG effector functions, thereby possibly having a role in IgG modulation of allergic response. This is the first study investigating patients’ IgG glycosylation profile in allergic diseases. Subclass specific IgG glycosylation profile was analyzed in two cohorts of allergen sensitized and non-sensitized 3- to 11-year-old children (conducted at University of Aberdeen, UK and Children’s Hospital Srebrnjak, Zagreb, Croatia) with 893 subjects in total. IgG was isolated from serum/plasma by affinity chromatography on Protein G. IgG tryptic glycopeptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In the Zagreb cohort IgG glycome composition changed with age across all IgG subclasses. In both cohorts, IgG glycome composition did not differ in allergen sensitized subjects, nor children sensitized to individual allergens, single allergen mean wheal diameter or positive wheal sum values. In the Zagreb study the results were also replicated for high total serum IgE and in children with self-reported manifest allergic disease. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate no association between serum IgG glycome composition and allergic diseases in children. PMID:27616597

  1. High serum adiponectin levels predict incident falls among middle-aged and older adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Niu, Kaijun; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Cui, Yufei; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties. However, higher circulating adiponectin levels are related to poor muscle function and physical disability, which suggests a potential link between adiponectin and risk of falls. Nevertheless, no direct association between circulating adiponectin levels and incident fall risk has been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and incident falls in a population of middle-aged and older adults. Design: a prospective cohort study. Setting: Oroshisho Center in Sendai City, Japan. Subjects: Japanese adults who were ≥45 years old (n = 430). Measurements: serum adiponectin levels were measured at baseline, and the subjects were divided into sex-specific tertiles. Data regarding a history of falls were collected via participant recall using a self-reported questionnaire. Incident falls were defined as falls that were experienced by people without a history of falls at baseline. Results: during the 2-year follow-up, 15.6% (67/430) of the subjects experienced an incident fall. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, incident falls were significantly more frequent across the increasing sex-specific serum adiponectin tertiles (P for trend = 0.008). Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident falls were 2.31 (1.07–4.98) in the middle tertile and 3.61 (1.63–7.99) in the highest tertile; this risk was significantly higher than that for the lowest adiponectin tertile (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusions: the findings of this prospective cohort study indicate that higher serum adiponectin levels may be a predictor of incident falls. PMID:27013505

  2. Comparison of cystatin C- and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate to predict coronary heart disease risk in Japanese patients with obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryo; Yamakage, Hajime; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Wada, Hiromichi; Otani, Sumire; Yonezawa, Kazuya; Ogo, Atsushi; Okajima, Taiichiro; Adachi, Masahiro; Araki, Rika; Yoshida, Kazuro; Saito, Miho; Nagaoka, Tadasu; Toyonaga, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Tsutomu; Ota, Itsuro; Oishi, Mariko; Miyanaga, Fumiko; Shimatsu, Akira; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine which indicator of chronic kidney disease most closely correlates with 10-year Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk among serum creatinine, serum cystatin C (S-CysC), urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR), estimated creatinine-based GFRs (eGFRcre), and estimated CysC-based GFRs (eGFRcys) in patients with obesity and diabetes. Serum creatinine, S-CysC, UACR, and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) were examined in 468 outpatients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, free of severe renal dysfunction or previous history of cardiovascular disease, as a cross-sectional survey using baseline data from the multi-centered Japan Diabetes and Obesity Study. S-CysC and eGFRcys had significantly stronger correlations with the 10-year Framingham CHD risk than serum creatinine, eGFRcre, and UACR (creatinine, ρ = 0.318; S-CysC, ρ = 0.497; UACR, ρ = 0.174; eGFRcre, ρ = -0.291; eGFRcys, ρ = -0.521; P < 0.01 by Fisher's z-test). S-CysC and eGFRcys had significantly stronger correlations with CAVI than serum creatinine, eGFRcre, and UACR (creatinine, ρ = 0.198; S-CysC, ρ = 0.383; UACR, ρ = 0.183; eGFRcre, ρ = -0.302; eGFRcys, ρ = -0.444; P < 0.05 by Fisher's z-test). The receiver operating characteristic curves to distinguish the high-risk patients for CHD revealed significantly larger areas under the curve of S-CysC and eGFRcys than those of serum creatinine, UACR, and eGFRcre (serum creatinine, 0.64; S-CysC, 0.75; UACR, 0.56; eGFRcre, 0.63; eGFRcys, 0.76; P < 0.01). The data suggested that eGFRcys can be more predictive of the 10-year CHD risk than eGFRcre in Japanese patients with obesity and diabetes.

  3. [Studies on the clinical significance concerning the changes in serum pepsinogen-I and gastrin levels in aged patients with chronic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Y; Kamiya, K; Koyama, M; Asaka, M; Matsushima, T; Myazaki, T; Kamiya, T

    1988-03-01

    Of 86 cases of aged patients with chronic gastritis treated with Trimebutine or Flutazolam, we evaluated the changes of serum pepsinogen-I and gastrin levels in their clinical courses from the points of the correlation with severity of chronic gastritis, aging phenomenon and the changes of symptom and endoscopic findings. In order to elucidate the multidimensional interrelation among these items, we used Hayashi's quantification theory II as a conventional analysis method. In aged patients, generally, although the serum gastrin levels were rather high compared with younger generation, the serum pepsinogen-I levels were consistently low throughout their clinical courses. There were some correlation between the levels of serum gastrin and the severity of chronic gastritis. When the drugs were effective on improving the condition of the disease, the level of gastrin revealed gradual decrease. These changes of gastrin were more typical in patients treated with Trimebutine. PMID:2898425

  4. [The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in the differential diagnosis of pancreatitis and gastroduodenal ulcer with hyperamylasemia].

    PubMed

    Pezzangora, V; Della Dora, R; Pagliarini, A; Dell'Olivo, I

    1978-04-01

    The Authors followed 29 patients, hospitaled with a diagnosis of pancreatitis. They all presented the same sympotomatology and a considerable increase of the serum amylase ad urinary amylase. The examination of the ratio between the clearance of amylasis and creatinine permitted to make a differential diagnosis for 8 cases (4rd group) that were nothing but peptic ulcera. Such a diagnosis was confirmed by the radiological contrastographic examination or by the intraoperative report. So if the ratio between the clearance of amylase and creatinine is normal we must think about a pathological situation were the iperamylasemia has a pathogenetic cause different from pancreatitis.

  5. Distribution of creatinine following intravenous and oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, J; Hirate, J; Iwamoto, K; Ozeki, S

    1981-05-01

    To evaluate the distribution of creatinine in rats, urinary, fecal and expiratory excretion, plasma levels and whole-body autoradiography following intravenous or oral administration of [carbonyl-14C]creatinine was investigated. More than 90% of the exogeneous creatinine was excreted in the urine in 24 hr following intravenous administration, and both fecal and expiratory excretion were only about 1%. In case of oral administration, however, it was found that expiratory excretion could not be neglected, ranging from about 1 to 30%. Plasma creatinine concentration-time curves following the intravenous administration (70.4 micrograms/kg or 400 mg/kg as creatinine) were analyzed according to a two-compartment open model. There were significant but very small differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters for these two doses. When these parameters were compared with those of urea, k12 and k21, which are transfer rate constants between compartment 1 and 2, for creatinine were significantly smaller than those of urea. On the other hand, k10 was larger in creatinine. Furthermore, (V'd)extrap for creatinine was about three times that of urea. Whole-body autoradiograms at 5 minutes following intravenous administration showed that exogeneous creatinine distributes with higher concentrations in liver, lung and kidney than in muscle and fat. This results was remarkably different from that of urea which distributes almost uniformly throughout the body at the same time. This difference observed in the autoradiograms would be the consequence of the fact that urea has larger k12 and k21 than creatinine.

  6. Creatinine Deiminase Adsorption onto Silicalite-Modified pH-FET for Creation of New Creatinine-Sensitive Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, Svitlana V.; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kurc, Burcu Akata; Soldatkin, Alexei P.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.

    2016-03-01

    In the work, silicalite particles were used for the surface modification of pH-sensitive field-effect transistors (pH-FETs) with the purpose of developing new creatinine-sensitive biosensor. Creatinine deiminase (CD) adsorbed on the surface of silicalite-coated pH-FET served as a bioselective membrane. The biosensor based on CD immobilized in glutaraldehyde vapor (GA) was taken as control. The creatinine-sensitive biosensor obtained by adsorption on silicalite was shown to have better analytical characteristics (two- to threefold increased sensitivity to creatinine, three- to fourfold lesser response and recovery times, a decrease of the detection limit of creatinine determination to 5 μM, etc.).

  7. The influence of serum vitamin B12 and folate status on cognitive functioning in very old age.

    PubMed

    Robins Wahlin, T B; Wahlin, A; Winblad, B; Bäckman, L

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between low levels of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid (FA) and cognitive functioning in very old age. The four subsamples of non-demented persons aged 75-96 years - normal B12/normal FA; low B12/normal FA; normal B12/low FA; and low B12/low FA, were matched for age and education. A battery of cognitive tests was administered including Clock Tests, Block Design, Trail Making Tests (TMT), Digit Span, and tests of verbal fluency. Subjects with low levels of vitamins showed deficits in Block Design, TMT-B, Digit Span Backward, and letter fluency, but not in the remaining tests. In general, the effects of FA exceeded those of B12. This pattern of results was interpreted to mean that elderly persons with low vitamin levels have difficulty when fast and accurate processing of novel information is required, but are quite efficient in utilizing pre-existing knowledge structures. PMID:11399353

  8. Serum concentrations of p, p'-DDE, HCB, PCBs and reproductive hormones among men of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kelly K; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Meeker, John D

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with changes in reproductive hormone levels, however most groups studied have been highly exposed. We investigated the association of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and p, p'-DDE with serum sex hormones in 341 adult men from a US infertility clinic with exposure levels consistent with those observed in the general population. In crude regression models we observed several negative associations of PCBs and HCB with steroid hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and total and free testosterone. After adjustment for lipids, age and BMI, nearly all significant associations were attenuated. A negative relationship remained between PCB 118 and SHBG (p<0.01), and relationships of dioxin-like PCBs with SHBG and total testosterone, and between PCB 118 and total testosterone, were suggestive. These results suggest a minimal relationship between PCB exposures at low background levels similar to those observed in the general population of the US and circulating reproductive hormones.

  9. Swimming exercise and diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet affect the serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines differently depending on the age of rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Marlon R; Cechella, José L; Mantovani, Anderson C; Duarte, Marta M M F; Nogueira, Cristina W; Zeni, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the inflammatory process is one of the main factors that contribute to aging. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2-supplemented diet (1p.p.m., 4weeks) and swimming exercise (3% of body weight, 20min per day, 4weeks) on the serum levels of cytokines in Wistar rats of different ages. The results demonstrated an increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα and INFγ) and a decrease in the levels of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, with age. In middle-age rats, the swimming exercise and (PhSe)2-supplemented diet decreased serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased the levels of IL-10. By contrast, in old rats the swimming exercise protocol increased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased the levels IL-10. Diet supplemented with (PhSe)2 did not alter the serum levels of cytokines in old rats. Middle-age and old rats subjected to swimming exercise and supplemented with (PhSe)2 in the diet had a decrease in the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in the levels of IL-10. This study demonstrated that swimming exercise and (PhSe)2-supplemented diet affect the serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines differently depending on the age of rats. (PhSe)2 supplemented in the diet had an anti-inflammatory effect, similar to that of induced by swimming exercise, in middle-age rats and reversed the pro-inflammatory effects of swimming exercise in old rats.

  10. Age- and gender-associated changes in the concentrations of serum TGF-1β, DHEA-S and IGF-1 in healthy captive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis).

    PubMed

    Willis, E L; Wolf, R F; White, G L; McFarlane, D

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in the concentration of factors like TGF-1β, DHEA-S and IGF-1 may increase the risk of disease and illnesses in advanced life. A better understanding of these changes would aid in the development of more appropriate treatments and/or preventative care for many conditions associated with age. Due to their similar immune system and vulnerability to pathogens, baboons are an ideal model for humans. However, little research has been done examining the general effects of age in baboons. Therefore, we wanted to further examine the effects of aging in baboons by determining the age-dependent changes in serum TGF-1β, DHEA-S and IGF-1 concentrations. Blood samples were collected during routine health checks in 113-118 captive baboons. In addition, longitudinal samples from 23 to 27 adult individuals were collected an average of 10.7years apart. Both age and gender influenced the concentrations of serum TGF-1β and IGF-1. When both genders were analyzed together, TGF-1β increased 16.1% as adults, compared to younger and older animals, but male and female baboons showed a slightly different temporal pattern of change. IGF-1 decreased with increasing age and males had a 30% greater concentration of IGF-1 than did females. While there was no effect of gender among our population, serum DHEA-S was negatively correlated with age, decreasing by 51.6% in the oldest animals. There were no effects of age or gender on serum IGFBP-3. In longitudinal samples collected from the same individuals, the concentrations of TGF-1β, DHEA-S and IGF-1 were reduced with age. The results presented herein provide additional knowledge of the aging process in baboons and further validate the use of this species as an appropriate model for aging in humans.

  11. Determination of Urinary Neopterin/Creatinine Ratio to Distinguish Active Tuberculosis from Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhut, Michael; Hargreaves, Dougal S.; Scott, Anne; Housley, David; Walters, Andrew; Mulla, Rohinton

    2016-01-01

    Background. Biomarkers to distinguish latent from active Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis infection in clinical practice are lacking. The urinary neopterin/creatinine ratio can quantify the systemic interferon-gamma effect in patients with M. tuberculosis infection. Methods. In a prospective observational study, urinary neopterin levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with active tuberculosis, in people with latent M. tuberculosis infection, and in healthy controls and the urinary neopterin/creatinine ratio was calculated. Results. We included a total of 44 patients with M. tuberculosis infection and nine controls. 12 patients had active tuberculosis (8 of them culture-confirmed). The median age was 15 years (range 4.5 to 49). Median urinary neopterin/creatinine ratio in patients with active tuberculosis was 374.1 micromol/mol (129.0 to 1072.3), in patients with latent M. tuberculosis infection it was 142.1 (28.0 to 384.1), and in controls it was 146.0 (40.3 to 200.0), with significantly higher levels in patients with active tuberculosis (p < 0.01). The receiver operating characteristics curve had an area under the curve of 0.84 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.97) (p < 0.01). Conclusions. Urinary neopterin/creatinine ratios are significantly higher in patients with active tuberculosis compared to patients with latent infection and may be a significant predictor of active tuberculosis in patients with M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:27433370

  12. [Ratio of amylase clearance and creatinine clearance in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Haffter, D; Reichlin, B; Gyr, K

    1981-05-30

    In 21 healthy volunteers the ratio of amylase clearance and creatinine clearance (Cam/Ccr) was determined in urine collected at admission, after a 1-hour collection period and after a 2-hour collection period. The normal values were 1.8 +/- 1.6%, 1.9 +/- 2% and 2.0 +/- 1.7% respectively. They were comparable with those published by others. The reproducibility of the method was acceptable (r = 0.62). When compared with serum amylase determinations, Cam/Ccr showed neither better sensitivity in 19 patients suffering an acute episode of proven pancreatitis, nor better specificity in 19 patients with acute abdomen but no evidence of pancreatitis.

  13. Serum Levels of Toxic AGEs (TAGE) May Be a Promising Novel Biomarker for the Onset/Progression of Lifestyle-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) generated with aging or in the presence of diabetes mellitus, particularly AGEs derived from the glucose/fructose metabolism intermediate glyceraldehyde (Glycer-AGEs; termed toxic AGEs (TAGE)), were recently shown to be closely involved in the onset/progression of diabetic vascular complications via the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). TAGE also contribute to various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; cancer; Alzheimer’s disease, and; infertility. This suggests the necessity of minimizing the influence of the TAGE-RAGE axis in order to prevent the onset/progression of lifestyle-related diseases (LSRD) and establish therapeutic strategies. Changes in serum TAGE levels are closely associated with LSRD related to overeating, a lack of exercise, or excessive ingestion of sugars/dietary AGEs. We also showed that serum TAGE levels, but not those of hemoglobin A1c, glucose-derived AGEs, or Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine, have potential as a biomarker for predicting the progression of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. We herein introduce the usefulness of serum TAGE levels as a biomarker for the prevention/early diagnosis of LSRD and the evaluation of the efficacy of treatments; we discuss whether dietary AGE/sugar intake restrictions reduce the generation/accumulation of TAGE, thereby preventing the onset/progression of LSRD. PMID:27338481

  14. Minor Postoperative Increases of Creatinine Are Associated with Higher Mortality and Longer Hospital Length of Stay in Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kork, Felix; Balzer, Felix; Spies, Claudia D.; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Ginde, Adit A.; Jankowski, Joachim; Eltzschig, Holger K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical patients frequently experience postoperative increases in creatinine levels. The authors hypothesized that even small increases in postoperative creatinine levels are associated with adverse outcomes. Methods The authors examined the association of postoperative changes from preoperative baseline creatinine with all-cause in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay (HLOS) in a retrospective analysis of surgical patients at a single tertiary care center between January 2006 and June 2012. Results The data of 39,369 surgical patients (noncardiac surgery n = 37,345; cardiac surgery n = 2,024) were analyzed. Acute kidney injury (AKI)—by definition of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome group—was associated with a five-fold higher mortality (odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% CI, 4.1 to 5.7; P < 0.001) and a longer HLOS of 5 days (P < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, congestive heart failure, preoperative hemoglobin, preoperative creatinine, exposure to radiocontrast agent, type of surgery, and surgical AKI risk factors. Importantly, even minor creatinine increases (Δcreatinine 25 to 49% above baseline but < 0.3 mg/dl) not meeting AKI criteria were associated with a two-fold increased risk of death (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4; P < 0.001) and 2 days longer HLOS (P < 0.001). This was more pronounced in noncardiac surgery patients. Patients with minor creatinine increases had a five-fold risk of death (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 20.3; P < 0.05) and a 3-day longer HLOS (P < 0.01) when undergoing noncardiac surgery. Conclusions Even minor postoperative increases in creatinine levels are associated with adverse outcomes. These results emphasize the importance to find effective therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat even mild forms of postoperative kidney dysfunction to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:26492475

  15. Mechanism of increased renal clearnace of amylase/creatinine in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S G; Ellis, C J; Levitt, M D

    1976-11-25

    We investigated three possible causes of the increased ratio of amylase/creatinine clearance observed in acute pancreatitis. The presence of rapidly cleared isoamylase was excluded by studies of serum and urine, which demonstrated no anomalous isoamylases. In pancreatitis, the ratios (+/-1 S.E.M.) of both pancreatic isoamylase (9.2+/-0.6 per cent) and salivary isoamylase (8.6+/-1.6 per cent) were significantly (P less than 0.01) elevated over respective control values (2.4+/-0.2 and 1.8+/-0.2 per cent). Increased glomerular permeability to amylase was excluded by the demonstration of normal renal clearance of dextrans. We tested tubular reabsorption of protein by measuring the renal clearance of beta2-microglobulin, which is relatively freely filtered at the glomerulus and then avidly reabsorbed by the normal tubule. During acute pancreatitis the ratio of the renal clearance of beta2-microglobulin to that of creatinine was 1.22+/-0.52 per cent, an 80-fold increase over normal (0.015+/-0.002 per cent), with a rapid return toward normal during convalescence. Presumably, this reversible renal tubular defect also reduces amylase reabsorption and accounts for the elevated renal clearance of amylase/creatinine observed in acute pancreatitis.

  16. Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and prevalence of age-related nuclear cataract in older women. Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study participants aged 50 y+, at 3 sites, who reported high (above the 78th percentile...

  17. Inhibin B, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone during childhood and puberty in males: changes in serum concentrations in relation to age and stage of puberty.

    PubMed

    Chada, M; Průsa, R; Bronský, J; Kotaska, K; Sídlová, K; Pechová, M; Lisá, L

    2003-01-01

    Inhibin B is a gonadal dimeric polypeptide hormone that regulates synthesis and secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in a negative feedback loop. The aim of the present study was to determine changes in serum inhibin B, gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations during childhood and puberty in males. We studied the relationship between circulating inhibin B, gonadotropins and testosterone in serum of healthy boys during the first two years of life and then in pubertal development. Using a recently developed two-side enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), inhibin B levels were measured in the serum of 78 healthy boys divided into eleven age groups from birth to the end of pubertal development. In addition, serum levels of gonadotropins and testosterone were measured. Serum inhibin B, gonadotropins and testosterone increased during the first months of postnatal life. A peak in serum inhibin B and gonadotropins concentrations was observed around 3-4 months of age. There was a significant positive correlation between serum inhibin B and gonadotropins and testosterone levels during the first 2 years of life. After this early increase, serum inhibin B, gonadotropins and testosterone levels decreased significantly and remained low until puberty followed by an increase beginning with the onset of puberty. Serum levels of inhibin B reached a peak at stage G3 of puberty. Around midpuberty, inhibin B lost its positive correlation with luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone from early puberty, and developed a strong negative correlation with FSH, which persisted into adulthood. We conclude that inhibin B plays a key role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis during male childhood and pubertal development. Inhibin B is a direct marker of the presence and function of Sertoli cells and appears to reflect testicular function in boys.

  18. The Relationship Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Nuclear Cataract in the Carotenoid Age-Related Eye Study (CAREDS), an Ancillary Study of the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Prethy; Millen, Amy E.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Liu, Zhe; Voland, Rickie; Sondel, Sheri; Tinker, Lesley; Wallace, Robert B.; Blodi, Barbara A.; Binkley, Neil; Sarto, Gloria; Robinson, Jennifer; LeBlanc, Erin; Mares, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and nuclear cataract among participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS). Methods. Nuclear cataract was assessed from slit lamp photographs (2001–2004) taken 6 years after collecting serum analyzed for 25(OH)D levels at WHI baseline (1994–1998) in 1278 CAREDS participants age 50 to 79 years. Multivariate (age, iris color, smoking, pulse pressure) odds ratios (ORs) for nuclear cataract (nuclear opacities > level 4 or cataract extraction) by quintiles of serum 25(OH)D were estimated using logistic regression. Results. No significant association was observed between serum 25(OH)D and nuclear cataract among women of all ages (age-adjusted OR [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.97 [0.65–1.45]). However, there was a significant age interaction (P for interaction = 0.04). There were no significant associations in the women 70 years or older. In women younger than 70 years, we observed an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D and nuclear cataract (multivariate adjusted ORs [95% CI] 0.54 [0.29–0.99] and 0.66 [0.36–1.20] for quintiles 4 and 5 vs. 1, respectively; P = 0.03). Further adjustment for 25(OH)D determinants (body mass index, vitamin D intake, and UVB exposure) attenuated this association. Conclusions. Serum 25(OH)D levels were unrelated to nuclear opacities in this study sample. However, exploratory analyses suggest a protective association in women younger than 70 years. Further investigations of the relationship between vitamin D and nuclear lens opacities are warranted. PMID:26132781

  19. Serum vitamin A status is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome among school-age children in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoping; Peng, Rong; Cao, Jiaoyang; Kang, Yu; Qu, Ping; Liu, Youxue; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Li, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the association of vitamin A status with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in school-age children in Chongqing, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1,928 children aged 7~11 years from 5 schools in Chongqing, China. Body height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure were measured. Blood glucose, lipids and vitamin A were determined. Overall prevalences for overweight, obesity and MS were 10.1%, 6.7% and 3.5%, respectively. There were 274 (14.2%) marginally vitamin A deficient (MVAD) children and 53 (2.8%) vitamin A deficient (VAD) children, respectively. Serum vitamin A in the obese group was significantly lower than in the overweight and normal weight groups (p<0.001). Body mass index (BMI), WC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and glucose were strongly associated with vitamin A status (p<0.05). In a separate model adjusted for age and sex, compared with normal children, participants with obesity had a significantly higher risk of having vitamin A insufficiency (<=1.05 μmol/L) (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.59, 3.55) (p<0.001), and participants with MS had a 1.99-fold (95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) greater risk of having vitamin A insufficiency (p=0.016), while participants with VAD had significantly higher risk of having MS (OR: 3.82; 95% CI: 1.44, 10.2) (p=0.007). Vitamin A insufficiency among Chongqing urban school-age children was found to be a severe health problem, significantly associated with obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and MS. PMID:27440692

  20. Binding studies of creatinine and urea on iron-nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Biswadip; Pramanik, Sumit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Kidney diseases are complicated and can be fatal. Dialysis and transplantation are the only survival solutions to the patients suffering from kidney failures. Both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are risky, due to the possibility of infection and these are expensive and time consuming. The development of simple and reliable technique for the clearance of creatinine and urea from the body is an important part of biotechnology. We have synthesized an iron nanoparticle (INP) and studied its binding with creatinine and urea. The DLS, TEM, AFM, FT-IR and Powder-XRD studies demonstrate strong binding of creatinine and urea to the nanoparticles. This finding may be helpful if it is used in the dialysis technologies. The proposed method may substantially decrease dialysis time and improve its quality in terms of urea and creatinine clearances.

  1. Potassium sorbate as an AGE activator for human serum albumin in the presence and absence of glucose.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, F; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Bohlooli, M; Hadi Alijanvand, H; Salami, M; Maghami, P; Saboury, A A; Farhadi, M; Yousefi, R; Habibi-Rezaei, M; Sheibani, N

    2013-11-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are the predominant intermediates of glycation process, and mediate oxidative stress and complications of diabetes. Potassium sorbate (PS) as a widespread preservative is an oxidative agent and used in different dairy and drug products, which can readily enter biological matrices. Here we studied the PS interference with glycation of human serum albumin (HSA) in the presence of glucose (Glc) using various techniques. These included TNBSA assay, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Th T assay, and atomic force microscopy. Our results indicated that HSA glycation was accelerated in the presence of PS. Furthermore, PS produced AGEs in the absence of glucose. Secondary and tertiary structural changes were also observed in HSA incubated with glucose in the presence or absence of PS through beta-sheet inducing effects. Th T assay demonstrated the role of PS in HSA fibril formation in the presence or absence of glucose. Atomic force microscopy determined different amyloid fibril formation in HSA incubated with PS in the presence or absence of glucose. Together our results indicated that PS has a stimulatory effect on glycation and fibrillation of HSA in the presence or absence of glucose, and could exacerbate complication of diabetes. PMID:24001567

  2. Serum Folate Shows an Inverse Association with Blood Pressure in a Cohort of Chinese Women of Childbearing Age: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minxue; Tan, Hongzhuan; Zhou, Shujin; Retnakaran, Ravi; Smith, Graeme N.; Davidge, Sandra T.; Trasler, Jacquetta; Walker, Mark C.; Wen, Shi Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been reported that higher folate intake from food and supplementation is associated with decreased blood pressure (BP). The association between serum folate concentration and BP has been examined in few studies. We aim to examine the association between serum folate and BP levels in a cohort of young Chinese women. Methods We used the baseline data from a pre-conception cohort of women of childbearing age in Liuyang, China, for this study. Demographic data were collected by structured interview. Serum folate concentration was measured by immunoassay, and homocysteine, blood glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured through standardized clinical procedures. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression model were applied in the analysis. Results A total of 1,532 healthy normotensive non-pregnant women were included in the final analysis. The mean concentration of serum folate was 7.5 ± 5.4 nmol/L and 55% of the women presented with folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L). Multiple linear regression and principal component regression showed that serum folate levels were inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP, after adjusting for demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical factors. Conclusions Serum folate is inversely associated with BP in non-pregnant women of childbearing age with high prevalence of folate deficiency. PMID:27182603

  3. Urine Creatinine Excretion and Clinical Outcomes in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Di Micco, Lucia; Quinn, Robert Ross; Ronksley, Paul Everett; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Lewin, Adriane Marlene; Cianciaruso, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Twenty-four–hour urine creatinine excretion is a reliable approximation of muscle mass. Whether changes in urine creatinine predict clinical outcomes in persons with CKD is unknown. This work studied the relationship between urine creatinine and patient and renal survival in people with CKD not requiring renal replacement therapy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This longitudinal cohort study included incident stages 3–5 CKD patients referred to the renal clinic at the University Federico II in Naples between January of 1995 and December of 2005. Clinical data and urine creatinine were updated at each visit. Main outcomes were all-cause mortality and kidney failure requiring dialysis. Results This study enrolled 525 individuals and followed them for a median of 6 years (range of 4 months to 15 years). Urine creatinine excretion declined by 16 mg/d per year (95% confidence interval, 14 to 19) in participants with CKD stages 3a, 3b, and 4, and it remained stable in participants with stage 5 CKD. Per each 20 mg/d decline in urine creatinine, mortality increased by 3% (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.05), and the risk of initiating dialysis increased by 2% (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.03). These associations were independent of body mass index and GFR. Conclusions In persons with CKD stages 3 and 4, urine creatinine declines at a rate of 16 mg/d per year. Lower urine creatinine excretion predicts greater risk of kidney failure and patient mortality. PMID:24158796

  4. Timely Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury Using Kinetic eGFR and the Creatinine Excretion to Production Ratio, E/eG - Creatinine Can Be Useful!

    PubMed

    Endre, Zoltán H; Pianta, Timothy J; Pickering, John W

    2016-01-01

    Post transplant repeated measurements of urine volume and serum creatinine (sCr) are used to assess kidney function. Under non-steady state conditions, repeated measurement of sCr allows calculation of the kinetic estimated GFR (KeGFR). Additional measurement of urinary creatinine allows the calculation of the creatinine excretion to (estimated) production ratio (E/eG). We hypothesized that post-transplant KeGFR and E/eG would predict delayed graft function (DGF), as early as 4 h and outperform a validated clinical model at 12 h. This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data in a study of 56 recipients of deceased-donor kidney transplant. We assessed predictive performance with the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) and the added value to a clinical model with integrated discrimination improvement analysis. At 4 h, the AUC for E/eG was 0.87 (95% CI 0.77-0.96) and for KeGFR 0.69 (95% CI 0.56-0.83). Both E/eG and KeGFR improved the risk prediction of a clinical model for DGF by 32 and 18%, and for non-DGF by 17 and 10%, respectively. While E/eG had better predictive performance of DGF than KeGFR, KeGFR might also facilitate perioperative management including drug dosing after kidney transplantation. Together these measurements may facilitate the possibility of conducting trials of early intervention to ameliorate the adverse effects of ischaemia-reperfusion injury on long-term DGF. PMID:26950884

  5. Aerobic exercise training-induced changes in serum adropin level are associated with reduced arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Sato, Koji; Fujita, Satoshi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2015-11-15

    Aging-induced arterial stiffening is reduced by aerobic exercise training, and elevated production of nitric oxide (NO) participates in this effect. Adropin is a regulator of endothelial NO synthase and NO release, and circulating adropin level decreases with age. However, the effect of habitual aerobic exercise on circulating adropin levels in healthy middle-aged and older adults remains unclear. We sought to determine whether serum adropin level is associated with exercise training-induced changes in arterial stiffness. First, in a cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between serum adropin level and both arterial stiffness and cardiorespiratory fitness in 80 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (65.6 ± 0.9 yr). Second, in an intervention study, we examined the effects of 8-wk aerobic exercise training on serum adropin level and arterial stiffness in 40 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (67.3 ± 1.0 yr) divided into two groups: aerobic exercise training and sedentary controls. In the cross-sectional study, serum adropin level was negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.437, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with plasma NOx level (r = 0.493, P < 0.001) and cardiorespiratory fitness (r = 0.457, P < 0.001). Serum adropin levels were elevated after the 8-wk aerobic exercise training intervention, and training-induced changes in serum adropin level were correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.399, P < 0.05) and plasma NOx level (r = 0.623, P < 0.001). Thus the increase in adropin may participate in the exercise-induced reduction of arterial stiffness.

  6. Association of serum fatty acid and estimated desaturase activity with hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yan, Jing; Ye, Xiong-Wei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acid (FA) and related Δ-desaturase with hypertension among 2,447 community-dwellers aged 35–79 years living in Zhejiang Province, China. Individual FA was determined in serum, Δ5-desaturase (D5D) and Δ6-desaturase (D6D) activities were indirectly estimated by FA product/precursor ratios. Participants in the highest quartile of D5D component scores (20:4n–6, 20:5n–3, 22:6n–3 and D5D) have significantly lower odds of hypertension compared with individuals in the lowest (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.46–0.98). When further stratified by gender, high D5D component scores were significantly associated with lower odds of hypertension in women (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35–0.80), but not in men (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.52-1.18). Multivariate-adjusted prevalent OR for an interquartile increment of individual FA and estimated desaturase was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.08–1.50) for 16:0, 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01–1.30) for 16:1n–7, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80–0.99) for 22:6n–3, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.01–1.72) for D6D (18:3n–6/18:2n–6), and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.98) for D5D (20:4n–6/20:3n–6). Present findings suggested that high serum 22:6n–3 and D5D as well as low 16:0, 16:1n–7 and D6D were associated with a low prevalence of hypertension in this Chinese population. PMID:27006169

  7. Seasonal hematology and serum chemistry of wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Norman, Stephanie A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Burek, Kathy A; Quakenbush, Lori T; Cornick, Leslie A; Romano, Tracy A; Spoon, Tracey; Miller, Woutrina; Beckett, Laurel A; Hobbs, Roderick C

    2012-01-01

    We collected blood from 18 beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), live-captured in Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA, in May and September 2008, to establish baseline hematologic and serum chemistry values and to determine whether there were significant differences in hematologic values by sex, season, size/age, or time during the capture period. Whole blood was collected within an average of 19 min (range=11-30 min) after the net was set for capture, and for eight animals, blood collection was repeated in a later season after between 80-100 min; all blood was processed within 12 hr. Mean hematocrit, chloride, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in May than they were in September, whereas mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, monocytes, phosphorous, magnesium, blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, and creatinine kinase were significantly higher. Mean total protein, white blood cell count, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were significantly higher early in the capture period than they were later. No significant differences in blood analyte values were noted between males and females. Using overall body length as a proxy for age, larger (older) belugas had lower white blood cell, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts as well as lower sodium, potassium, and calcium levels but higher creatinine levels than smaller belugas. These data provide values for hematology and serum chemistry for comparisons with other wild belugas.

  8. Seasonal hematology and serum chemistry of wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Norman, Stephanie A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Burek, Kathy A; Quakenbush, Lori T; Cornick, Leslie A; Romano, Tracy A; Spoon, Tracey; Miller, Woutrina; Beckett, Laurel A; Hobbs, Roderick C

    2012-01-01

    We collected blood from 18 beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), live-captured in Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA, in May and September 2008, to establish baseline hematologic and serum chemistry values and to determine whether there were significant differences in hematologic values by sex, season, size/age, or time during the capture period. Whole blood was collected within an average of 19 min (range=11-30 min) after the net was set for capture, and for eight animals, blood collection was repeated in a later season after between 80-100 min; all blood was processed within 12 hr. Mean hematocrit, chloride, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in May than they were in September, whereas mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, monocytes, phosphorous, magnesium, blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, and creatinine kinase were significantly higher. Mean total protein, white blood cell count, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were significantly higher early in the capture period than they were later. No significant differences in blood analyte values were noted between males and females. Using overall body length as a proxy for age, larger (older) belugas had lower white blood cell, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts as well as lower sodium, potassium, and calcium levels but higher creatinine levels than smaller belugas. These data provide values for hematology and serum chemistry for comparisons with other wild belugas. PMID:22247370

  9. Evaluation of serum anti-mullerian hormone as a biomarker of early ovarian aging in young women undergoing IVF/ICSI cycle

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pin-Yao; Huang, Fu-Jen; Kung, Fu-Tsai; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Lin, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yi-Chi; Lan, Kuo-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether or not the level of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is related to early ovarian aging in young women (< 35 years of age) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: An IVF laboratory in a university hospital in Taiwan. Patient (s): 70 young women (< 35 years of age) with low level of serum AMH (< 2 ng/ml) and 104 young women with level of serum AMH (≥ 2 ng/ml) who underwent IVF/ICSI cycles between January 2011 and November 2012 were enrolled. Intervention (s): None. Main outcome measure (s): Number of oocytes, fertilization rate, embryo quality, cycle cancellation rate, clinical pregnancy/abortion rate, and perinatal/infant outcomes. Results: The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer was favorable (low AMH group vs. normal AMH group [47.2% and 47.9%]) for women < 35 years of age, including women with a low serum AMH. Similarly, the live birth rate per transfer (low AMH group vs. normal AMH group [37.7% and 35.4%]) and perinatal outcomes were also comparable between the two groups. A significantly higher cycle cancellation was noted in the low AMH group than the normal AMH group (24.2% vs. 7.6%). Conclusion: Although early ovarian aging should be taken into consideration for young and infertile women with low AMH level than expected, our results suggest that low serum AMH level may suggest early ovarian aging in accelerated oocyte loss only, but may not fully represent “early ovarian aging” based on the favorable outcomes of pregnancy. PMID:25337276

  10. Clinical value of creatinine kinase in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vitoratos, N; Gregoriou, O; Papadias, C; Konidaris, S; Kalogirou, D; Kalampokis, D; Chryssikopoulos, A

    1998-08-01

    The role of creatinine kinase (CK) in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was studied. We selected 56 patients divided into 4 groups. Group A consisted of 10 patients with asymptomatic tubal pregnancy, group B consisted of 11 patients with symptomatic tubal pregnancy whereas groups C and D consisted of 20 and 15 patients with normal and threatened intrauterine pregnancy, respectively. Serum samples of CK were taken from all patients on admission. No significant difference was observed in the median CK value of cases with normal pregnancy (58.5 +/- 7.24 U/1, mean +/- SE) as well as threatened abortion (73 +/- 11.43 U/1) compared to that of cases with asymptomatic 58.5 +/- 12.42 U/1) or symptomatic tubal pregnancy (59 +/- 10.08 U/1). We conclude that serum CK is not a useful biochemical marker in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9701684

  11. Serum Anti-Cryptosporidial gp15 Antibodies in Mothers and Children Less than 2 Years of Age in India

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Robin P.; Ajjampur, Sitara S. R.; Sarkar, Rajiv; Geetha, Jayanthy C.; Prabakaran, Ashok D.; Velusamy, Vasanth; Naumova, Elena N.; Ward, Honorine D.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the type and longevity of the humoral response to cryptosporidial infections in developing countries. We evaluated serum antibody response to Cryptosporidium gp15 in 150 sets of maternal, preweaning and postinfection/end-of-follow-up sera from children followed up to 2 years of age to determine the influence of maternal and preweaning serological status on childhood cryptosporidiosis. Fifty two percent (N = 78) of mothers and 20% (N = 30) of children were seropositive preweaning. However, most positive preweaning samples from children were collected early in life indicating transplacental transfer and subsequent rapid waning of antibodies. Although 62% (N = 94) of children had a parasitologically confirmed cryptosporidial infection (detected by stool polymerase chain reaction) during the follow-up, only 54% (N = 51) of children were seropositive postinfection. Given there were striking differences in seropositivity depending on when the sample was collected, even though Cryptosporidium was detected in the stool of the majority of the children, this study indicates that antibodies wane rapidly. During follow-up, the acquisition or severity of cryptosporidial infections was not influenced by maternal (P = 0.331 and 0.720, respectively) as well as the preweaning serological status of the child (P = 0.076 and 0.196, respectively). PMID:26304924

  12. Serum Perfluorinated Compound Concentration and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children 5–18 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are persistent environmental pollutants. Toxicology studies demonstrate the potential for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other PFCs to affect human growth and development. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder with suspected environmental and genetic etiology. Objectives: We examined the cross-sectional association between serum PFC concentration and parent or self-report of doctor-diagnosed ADHD with and without current ADHD medication. Methods: We used data from the C8 Health Project, a 2005–2006 survey in a Mid-Ohio Valley community highly exposed to PFOA through contaminated drinking water, to study non-Hispanic white children 5–18 years of age. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age and sex. Results: Of the 10,546 eligible children, 12.4% reported ADHD and 5.1% reported ADHD plus ADHD medication use. We observed an inverted J-shaped association between PFOA and ADHD, with a small increase in prevalence for the second quartile of exposure compared with the lowest, and a decrease for the highest versus lowest quartile. The prevalence of ADHD plus medication increased with perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) levels, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.59 (95% confidence interval, 1.21–2.08) comparing the highest quartile of exposure to the lowest. We observed a modest association between perfluorooctane sulfonate and ADHD with medication. Conclusions: The most notable finding for PFOA and ADHD, a reduction in prevalence at the highest exposure level, is unlikely to be causal, perhaps reflecting a spurious finding related to the geographic determination of PFOA exposure in this population or to unmeasured behavioral or physiologic correlates of exposure and outcome. Possible positive associations between other PFCs and ADHD, particularly PFHxS, warrant continued investigation. PMID:21665566

  13. Influence of season on sexual development in heifers: age at puberty as related to growth and serum concentrations of gonadotropins, prolactin, thyroxine and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Schillo, K K; Hansen, P J; Kamwanja, L A; Dierschke, D J; Hauser, E R

    1983-03-01

    An experiment was done to test the hypothesis that seasonal changes in environment during the first and second 6 months of life influence age at puberty in heifers. Twenty-eight Angus X Holstein heifers, born in March (M) or September (S), were reared under natural conditions until 6 months of age. From 6 to 12 months of age, heifers were reared in environmental chambers programmed to simulate seasonal changes in temperature and photoperiod characteristic of spring, summer and early autumn (Sp-F chamber) or autumn, winter and early spring (F-Sp chamber). S were younger (P less than 0.06) at puberty than M, and Sp-F were younger (P less than 0.08) than F-Sp for both M and S. Mean ages at puberty were 295 for S, Sp-F; 319 for S, F-Sp; 321 for M, Sp-F and 346 days for M, F-Sp. Average daily gain (ADG) between 6 and 9 months of age [1.03 kg/day (S) vs. 0.91 kg/day (M)] and mean concentrations of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) between 6 and 7 months of age [3.45 ng/ml (S) vs. 0.47 ng/ml (M)] were greater (P less than 0.01) for S than M, suggesting an association between these traits and date of birth effects on age at puberty. Differences in these traits did not seem to be involved in the chamber effect on age at puberty, since ADG from 6-9 months of age was greater (P less than 0.05) for F-Sp heifers and chamber did not generally affect LH concentrations. Serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were not significantly influenced by month of birth or chamber, but concentrations tended to decrease with age. Serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4) were higher in M than S at 6 months of age (7.8 micrograms/dl vs. 6.3 micrograms/dl) but not at other times, and chamber did not have a significant affect. Prolactin (Prl) concentrations paralleled patterns of temperature and day length and did not appear to be related to age. Although cattle are not seasonal breeders, these results demonstrate that season of birth and season of attainment of puberty influence

  14. Influence of different periods of the year and age on the parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in the blood serum of breeding bulls.

    PubMed

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-06-01

    The sources of variations that may cause physiological differences between blood serum biochemistry parameters of bulls have not been investigated in detail. Aim of the present study was to establish influence of different periods of the year and the age of breeding bulls on parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in their serum and to correlate these monitored variables. Research was performed on two groups, each comprising 9 Simmental bulls: a younger group (YB) (aged 2-4 years) and older one (OB) (aged 5-10 years). Blood samples for biochemical analyses were collected from jugular vein in cold (CP) and warm periods (WP) of the year. Reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid (UA), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and protein carbonyl content (PCC) serum concentration were determined, as well as activities of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), total superoxide dismutase (TSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT). Serum values of SeGSH-Px, MnSOD, UA and TP in OB were significantly higher compared to those in YB during CP of the year. Significantly higher PCC concentration in serum of YB and OB were established in CP of the year than in WP. TBARS serum concentration in YB was significantly higher in comparison to that in OB during CP of the year. It can be concluded that both OB and YB show a great sensitivity to climate condition alterations during CP in comparison to WP of the year and that YB show even greater sensitivity.

  15. Chemiluminescence of creatinine/H2O2/Co(2+) and its application for selective creatinine detection.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Saima; John, Peter; Gao, Wenyue; Saqib, Muhammad; Qi, Liming; Xu, Guobao

    2016-01-15

    Creatinine is an important biomarker in clinical diagnosis and biomonitoring programs as well as urinary metabolomic/metabonomics research. Current methods are either nonselective, time consuming or require heavy and expensive instruments. In this study, chemiluminescence of creatinine with hydrogen peroxide has been reported for the first time, and its chemiluminescence is remarkably enhanced in the presence of cobalt ions. By utilizing these phenomena, we have developed a sensitive and selective chemiluminescence method for creatinine determination by coupling with flow injection analysis. The calibration curve is linear in the range of 1×10(-7)-3×10(-5)mol/L with a limit of detection (S/N=3) of 7.2×10(-8)mol/L, which is adequate for detecting creatinine in the clinically accepted range. The relative standard deviation for seven measurements of 3×10(-5)mol/L creatinine is 1.2%. The chemiluminescence method was then utilized to detect creatinine in human urine samples after simple dilution with water. It takes less than 1min each measurement and the recoveries for spiked urine samples were 100-103%. The interference study demonstrates that some common species in urine, such as amino acids, ascorbic acid and creatine, have negligible effects on creatinine detection. The present method does not use expensive instruments, enzymes and separation technique. This method has the advantages of sensitivity, selectivity, simplicity, rapidity, and low cost. It holds great promise for basic or comprehensive metabolic panel, drug screening, anti-dopping, and urinary metabolomic/metabonomics research. PMID:26339931

  16. Effect of the Medicinal Mushroom, Grifola gargal (Agaricomycetes), on Bone Turnover Markers and Serum Lipids in Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese Women.

    PubMed

    Harada, Etsuko; Morizono, Toshihiro; Sumiya, Toshimitsu; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    A clinical study was performed to examine the effect of the edible mushroom, Grifola gargal, on bone turnover markers and serum lipids in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women. Postmenopausal women aged 51-73 years (mean age, 61 years) received daily oral administration of 5 g G. gargal fruiting bodies (hot air-dried and powdered; G. gargal powder [GGP]). Serum levels of bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and lipids and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were measured before and 2 weeks after the start of GGP treatment. As a result, urinary DPD bone resorption marker levels in women treated with GGP decreased significantly. Serum levels of the BAP bone formation marker also tended to increase, but the difference was not significant. By contrast, the atherogenic index decreased and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio increased significantly. However, there were no statistically significant differences in serum lipids of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, this study demonstrated for the first time that G. gargal is safe for human consumption. PMID:27279439

  17. Inactivated Seasonal Influenza Vaccines Increase Serum Antibodies to the Neuraminidase of Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) 2009 Virus in an Age-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Marcelin, Glendie; Bland, Hilliary M.; Negovetich, Nicholas J.; Sandbulte, Matthew R.; Ellebedy, Ali H.; Webb, Ashley D.; Griffin, Yolanda S.; DeBeauchamp, Jennifer L.; McElhaney, Janet E.; Webby, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Levels of preexisting antibodies to the hemagglutinin of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 (hereafter pandemic H1N1) virus positively correlate with age. The impact of contemporary seasonal influenza vaccines on establishing immunity to other pandemic H1N1 proteins is unknown. We measured serum antibodies to the neuraminidase (NA) of pandemic H1N1 in adults prior to and after vaccination with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines. Serum antibodies to pandemic H1N1 NA were observed in all age groups; however, vaccination elevated levels of pandemic H1N1 NA antibodies predominately in elderly individuals (age,⩾60 years). Therefore, contemporary seasonal vaccines likely contribute to reduction of pandemic H1N1-associated disease in older individuals. PMID:20979454

  18. Immunity to Escherichia coli in pigs: Serum Gamma Globulin Levels, Indirect Hemagglutinating Antibody Titres and Bactericidal Activity Against E. coli in pigs up to five Weeks of Age

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. R.; Svendsen, J.

    1972-01-01

    Serum gamma globulin levels, indirect hemagglutinating antibody titres and bactericidal activity against the 0149:K91;K88ac:H10 Serotype of Escherichia coli were determined in pigs up to five weeks of age from vaccinated and non-vaccinated sows. Gamma globulin levels at two days of age were approximately twice adult levels, by three weeks of age they were one quarter of adult levels and remained so until five weeks of age. Indirect hemagglutinating antibody activity was highest at two days of age, fell until three weeks of age and then rose. Little or no indirect hemagglutinating antibody activity was detected in sera taken at two days of age from pigs from non-vaccinated sows. Only three of 26 two day old pigs had demonstrable bactericidal activity; by three weeks of age 16 of 26 had bactericidal activity. Serum from piglets of vaccinated sows had no more bactericidal activity than did sera from non-vaccinated sows. PMID:4110608

  19. Quantitative Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry--the determination of creatinine by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Tony; Stokes, Peter; O'Connor, Gavin

    2005-01-01

    Accurate quantitation has been demonstrated on many different types of mass spectrometer. However, quantitative applications of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) have been limited. In this study, the quantitative potential of FTICRMS has been investigated using an exact matching isotope dilution method for the determination of creatinine in serum. Creatinine is an important clinical biomarker and its measurement is used as an assessment of renal function. The quantitation of creatinine was selected because a high-accuracy high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) determination using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer has already been successfully developed in-house. Therefore, a direct comparison of the quantitative capability of FTICRMS could be made against an established method. The accuracy of the quantitation of creatinine was found to be equivalent to that obtained using LC/MS. However, the expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2) was larger, at 6%, when using FTICRMS compared with 1% when using HPLC/MS with the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  20. Quantitation of renal function with 99Tcm-DMSA. A comparison with creatinine clearance in children with single kidney.

    PubMed

    Baillet, G; Gagnadoux, M F; De Vernejoul, P; Broyer, M

    1985-11-01

    To study the accuracy of renal function quantification with 99Tcm-DMSA we compared DMSA renal uptake and creatinine clearance in 16 cases of children with single kidney. The age of the patients ranged from two months to fourteen years. Creatinine clearance was normalized to 1.73 m2. DMSA uptake was measured 7 h after intravenous injection. Background subtraction was used and soft tissue attenuation was taken into account. The uptake was normalized in percentage of the injected activity. A significant correlation was found between creatinine clearance and DMSA uptake (rt = 0.866, p less than 0.01). Normal creatinine clearance range in children (80 to 120 ml min-1/1.73 m2) allowed determination of normal uptake range (36 to 60%). This study indicates that in case of asymmetrical renal impairment renal uptake will reflect split renal creatinine clearance. Since the former is much easier to measure, DMSA should play an important role in the evaluation of differential renal function.

  1. Influence of amylase assay technique on renal clearance of amylase-creatinine ratio.

    PubMed

    Levitt, M D; Johnson, S G; Ellis, C J; Engel, R R

    1977-06-01

    The influence of amylase assay technique on the renal amylase/creatinine clearance measurement was determined by analysis of serum and urine specimens obtained from 10 normal subjects. CAm/CCr averaged 2.19 +/- 0.18% with a saccharogenic technique, 1.52 +/- 0.2% with an iodometric technique, and 0.80 +/- 0.08% with a chromogenic technique. Each of these values differed significantly (P less than 0.05) from the other two. Recovery studies were carried out by adding partially purified human salivary or pancreatic amylase to human newborn serum or urine (which contain minimal endogenous amylase). Equal amylase activity was recovered from serum and urine by the saccharogenic technique whereas recovery from urine was less than 50% of that from serum using the iodometric and chromogenic techniques. The accuracy of the chromogenic technique is markedly improved by the addition of albumin to the urine assay system. Although it appears that only the saccharogenic method provides an accurate estimate of CAm/CCr, each assay technique distinguished the elevated CAm/CCr of patients with pancreatitis from the normal range established for that technique. Accurate clinical interpretation of CAm/CCr measurment requires knowledge of the amylase assay technique used.

  2. Blood pressure and creatinine clearance in lead-exposed children: the effect of treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, M.A.; Brooks, C.T.; Sheehe, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The authors speculated that normal growth might cause the release of stored lead in children, providing an endogenous source of exposure for years after the acute toxic episode had resolved. The purpose of this study was to answer the following two questions: (1) is a chelation-responsive lead burden present 2 to 5 yr after therapy for acute poisoning; and (2) does blood pressure or creatinine clearance correlate with body lead burden, as demonstrated by chelation. Thirty-eight children who had undergone ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid mobilization testing at least one time during the course of treatment in a lead clinic returned for follow-up care within 2-5 yr. All were asymptomatic. To determine the current level of body lead burden, a single-dose oral chelation with penicillamine was performed. Blood pressure and creatinine clearences were measured. From the data obtained for each child, we generated a geometric ''area'' representing the magnitude of lead burden integrated over the length of carriage of this burden. Multiple regression analysis indicated that after adjustment for the background variables of age, sex, height, and weight, none of the three parameters-mobilization ratio ''area,'' blood lead level, or FEP level-was a significant contributor to the variation observed in the blood pressures or creatinine clearances of the 38 lead-exposed children (P>.05).

  3. Serum resistin is associated with the severity of microangiopathies in type 2 diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, Haruhiko . E-mail: harosawa@m.ehime-u.ac.jp; Ochi, Masaaki; Kato, Kenichi; Yamauchi, Junko; Nishida, Wataru; Takata, Yasunori; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Onuma, Hiroshi; Takasuka, Tomomi; Shimizu, Ikki; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Ohashi, Jun; Makino, Hideichi

    2007-04-06

    Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance and diabetes in rodents. To determine the relation between serum resistin and diabetic microangiopathies in humans, we analyzed 238 Japanese T2DM subjects. Mean serum resistin was higher in subjects with either advanced retinopathy (preproliferative or proliferative) (P = 0.0130), advanced nephropathy (stage III or IV) (P = 0.0151), or neuropathy (P = 0.0013). Simple regression analysis showed that serum resistin was positively correlated with retinopathy stage (P = 0.0212), nephropathy stage (P = 0.0052), and neuropathy (P = 0.0013). Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and BMI, revealed that serum resistin was correlated with retinopathy stage (P = 0.0144), nephropathy stage (P = 0.0111), and neuropathy (P = 0.0053). Serum resistin was positively correlated with the number of advanced microangiopathies, independent of age, gender, BMI, and either the duration of T2DM (P = 0.0318) or serum creatinine (P = 0.0092). Therefore, serum resistin was positively correlated with the severity of microangiopathies in T2DM.

  4. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  10. Serum Uric Acid Level Predicts Progression of IgA Nephropathy in Females but Not in Males

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Tatsuya; Shinzawa, Maki; Hasuike, Yukiko; Nagatoya, Katsuyuki; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Terumasa; Kuragano, Takayuki; Moriyama, Toshiki; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is one of most common forms of glomerulonephritis. At this point, the clinical impact of hyperuricemia on IgAN is not clear. The aim of the present study was to explore the clinical impact of hyperuricemia on the progression of IgAN. Study Design Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Setting & Participants 935 IgAN patients who were diagnosed by kidney biopsy at Osaka University Hospital, Osaka General Hospital, and Osaka Rosai Hospital. were included in this study. Predictor Uric acid levels at renal biopsy. Outcomes The outcome of interest was the time from the kidney biopsy to the time when a 50% increase in the baseline serum creatinine level was observed, which was defined as "progression". Measurements The baseline characteristics according to the kidney biopsy at the time of diagnosis were collected from the medical records, and included age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (use of antidiabetic drugs), serum levels of creatinine, urinary protein, smoking status, RAAS blockers and steroid therapy. Results An elevated serum uric acid level was an independent risk factor for progression in female patients (per 1.0 mg/dL, multivariate-adjusted incident rate ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval 1.07, 1.64], P = 0.008) but not in male patients (1.02 [0.81, 1.29], P = 0.855). To control a confounding effect of renal function on an association between serum uric acid level and progression in female patients, age- and serum creatinine-matched and propensity score-matched analyses were performed, and these results also supported the effect by uric acid on kidney disease progression independent of basal kidney function. Limitations A cohort analyzed retorospectively. Conclusions This study revealed that an elevated uric acid level was an independent risk factor for ESKD in female IgAN patients. Therefore, uric acid might be a treatable target in female IgAN patients. PMID:27560997

  11. Analytical nanosphere sensors using quantum dot-enzyme conjugates for urea and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Ruedas-Rama, Maria J; Hall, Elizabeth A H

    2010-11-01

    An enzyme-linked analytical nanosphere sensor (ANSor) is described, responding to enzyme-substrate turnover in the vicinity of a quantum dot (QD) due to coimmobilized enzyme and pH sensitive ligand. QD capping by mercapto-alkanoic acids were rejected as a pH sensitive ligand, but with the use of a layer-by-layer assembly on mercaptopropionic capped QDs and an intermediate poly(allylamine hydrochloride) layer, anthraquinone sulfonate (calcium red, CaR) was introduced to modify the pKa in the immobilized system > 8. QD-CaR absorption shows spectral overlap with QD530 emission at all pHs and gives a complex pH dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency, due to excited state proton transfer (λ(ex) = 540 nm; λ(em) = 585 nm). In contrast QD615-CaR with spectral overlap between the QD and CaR gave a strong and reproducible pH response. QD-urease and QD-creatinine deiminase conjugates could be linked with pH changes produced by enzyme degradation of urea and creatinine, respectively. Close coupling between the pH sensitive QD and enzyme conjugate maximized signal compared with solution based assays: QD-urease and QD-CD bioconjugates were tested in model biological media (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's Medium and fetal calf serum) and in urine, showing a response in 3-4 min. PMID:20939534

  12. Higher serum carotenoid concentrations associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Shi, Wen-Qi; Cao, Yi; He, Li-Ping; Guan, Ke; Ling, Wen-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2014-12-28

    The association between serum carotenoids and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain, and little is known about this relationship in the Chinese population. The present study examined the association between serum carotenoid concentrations and the MetS in Chinese adults. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in which 2148 subjects (1547 women and 601 men) aged 50-75 years were recruited in urban Guangzhou, China. Dietary data and other covariates were collected during face-to-face interviews. Blood pressure, waist circumference, blood lipids, glucose and serum carotenoids (α-, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin) were examined. We found dose-response inverse relationships between individual serum carotenoid concentrations and total carotenoids and the prevalence of the MetS after adjusting for potential confounders (P for trend < 0.001). The OR of the MetS for the highest (v. lowest) quartile were 0.31 (95% CI 0.20, 0.47) for α-carotene, 0.23 (95% CI 0.15, 0.36) for β-carotene, 0.44 (95% CI 0.29, 0.67) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.39 (95% CI 0.26, 0.58) for lycopene, 0.28 (95% CI 0.18, 0.44) for lutein+zeaxanthin and 0.19 (95% CI 0.12, 0.30) for total carotenoids. Higher concentrations of each individual carotenoid and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the number of abnormal MetS components (P for trend < 0.001-0.023). Higher serum carotenoid levels were associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS and fewer abnormal MetS components in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. PMID:25345663

  13. [Radioisotopic quantification of kidney function using Tc-99m-DMSA. Comparison with creatinine clearance in children with a single kidney].

    PubMed

    Baillet, G; Gagnadoux, M F; Mathonnat, F; de Vernejoul, P; Broyer, M

    1986-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of renal function quantification with Tc 99m-DMSA in children, we compared DMSA renal uptake and creatinine clearance in 16 cases of children with single kidney. The age of the patients ranged from two month to fourteen years. DMSA renal uptake was measured 7 hours after injection and was normalized in percent of the injected activity. A significant correlation was found between creatinine clearance and DMSA uptake (Pearson's r = 0.866, p less than 0.01). Normal creatinine clearance in children (80 to 120 ml/min-1 X 1.73 m-2) allowed determination of normal renal uptake (36 to 60%). This study indicates that in cases of asymmetrical renal impairment renal uptake reflects split renal creatinine clearance. Since the former is much easier to measure, DMSA should play an important role in the evaluation of differential renal function.

  14. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus.

    PubMed

    Hudson-Lamb, Gavin C; Schoeman, Johan P; Hooijberg, Emma H; Heinrich, Sonja K; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-01-01

    Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L - 166 mmol/L), potassium (3.9 mmol/L - 5.2 mmol/L), magnesium (0.8 mmol/L - 1.2 mmol/L), chloride (97 mmol/L - 130 mmol/L), urea (8.2 mmol/L - 25.1 mmol/L) and creatinine (88 µmol/L - 288 µmol/L). Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs. PMID:26974036

  15. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus.

    PubMed

    Hudson-Lamb, Gavin C; Schoeman, Johan P; Hooijberg, Emma H; Heinrich, Sonja K; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-02-26

    Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L - 166 mmol/L), potassium (3.9 mmol/L - 5.2 mmol/L), magnesium (0.8 mmol/L - 1.2 mmol/L), chloride (97 mmol/L - 130 mmol/L), urea (8.2 mmol/L - 25.1 mmol/L) and creatinine (88 µmol/L - 288 µmol/L). Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs.

  16. Serum betaine is inversely associated with low lean mass mainly in men in a Chinese middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling population.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bi-Xia; Zhu, Ying-Ying; Tan, Xu-Ying; Lan, Qiu-Ye; Li, Chun-Lei; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Hui-Lian

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that betaine supplements increase lean body mass in livestock and improve muscle performance in human beings, but evidence for its effect on human lean mass is limited. Our study assessed the association of circulating betaine with lean mass and its composition in Chinese adults. A community-based study was conducted on 1996 Guangzhou residents (weight/mass: 1381/615) aged 50-75 years between 2008 and 2010. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. Fasting serum betaine was assessed using HPLC-MS. A total of 1590 participants completed the body composition analysis performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during a mean of 3·2 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, regression analyses demonstrated a positive association of serum betaine with percentage of lean mass (LM%) of the entire body, trunk and limbs in men (all P<0·05) and LM% of the trunk in women (P=0·016). Each sd increase in serum betaine was associated with increases in LM% of 0·609 (whole body), 0·811 (trunk), 0·422 (limbs), 0·632 (arms) and 0·346 (legs) in men and 0·350 (trunk) in women. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of lower LM% decreased by 17 % (whole body) and 14 % (trunk) in women and 23 % (whole body), 28 % (trunk), 22 % (arms) and 26 % (percentage skeletal muscle index) in men with each sd increment in serum betaine. Elevated circulating betaine was associated with a higher LM% and lower prevalence of lower LM% in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, particularly men. PMID:27079329

  17. Serum betaine is inversely associated with low lean mass mainly in men in a Chinese middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling population.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bi-Xia; Zhu, Ying-Ying; Tan, Xu-Ying; Lan, Qiu-Ye; Li, Chun-Lei; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Hui-Lian

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that betaine supplements increase lean body mass in livestock and improve muscle performance in human beings, but evidence for its effect on human lean mass is limited. Our study assessed the association of circulating betaine with lean mass and its composition in Chinese adults. A community-based study was conducted on 1996 Guangzhou residents (weight/mass: 1381/615) aged 50-75 years between 2008 and 2010. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. Fasting serum betaine was assessed using HPLC-MS. A total of 1590 participants completed the body composition analysis performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during a mean of 3·2 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, regression analyses demonstrated a positive association of serum betaine with percentage of lean mass (LM%) of the entire body, trunk and limbs in men (all P<0·05) and LM% of the trunk in women (P=0·016). Each sd increase in serum betaine was associated with increases in LM% of 0·609 (whole body), 0·811 (trunk), 0·422 (limbs), 0·632 (arms) and 0·346 (legs) in men and 0·350 (trunk) in women. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of lower LM% decreased by 17 % (whole body) and 14 % (trunk) in women and 23 % (whole body), 28 % (trunk), 22 % (arms) and 26 % (percentage skeletal muscle index) in men with each sd increment in serum betaine. Elevated circulating betaine was associated with a higher LM% and lower prevalence of lower LM% in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, particularly men.

  18. Serum Cystatin C – Marker of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Morbidity in Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 1-4

    PubMed Central

    Muslimovic, Alma; Tulumovic, Denijal; Hasanspahic, Senad; Hamzic-Mehmedbasic, Aida; Temimovi, Ramajana

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the research was to compare the relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and procoagulants with kidney function assessed by using cystatin C, serum creatinine, and eGFR and determine the sensitivity of cystatin C, serum creatinine and eGFR to total cardiovascular morbidity in patients with CKD stages 1-4. Methods: The research included 120 patients older than 18 years with CKD stages 1-4 monitored over a period of 24 months. Results: Serum cystatin C correlates with fibrinogen (p<0.01), serum albumin (p<0.01), D-dimer (p<0.05), antithrombin III (p<0.01) strongly in relation to the evaluation of kidney function based on serum creatinine and eGFR. By following cystatin C, creatinine and eGFR with comparison of ROC to total cardiovascular morbidity, the highest sensitivity in relation to the presence of cardiovascular morbidity shows cystatin C, then eGFR and the lowest, creatinine, with a significant difference between cystatin C and serum creatinine (p<0.05). Conclusion: Serum cystatin C is more strongly correlated with some biomarkers (fibrinogen, serum albumin, D-dimer, antithrombin III), while simultaneously showing a stronger sensitivity in relation to total cardiovascular morbidity compared with the assessment of kidney function based on serum creatinine and eGFR. PMID:26005379

  19. Effect of Supplemental Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Serum, Macular Pigmentation, and Visual Performance in Patients with Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yang-Mu; Dou, Hong-Liang; Huang, Fei-Fei; Xu, Xian-Rong; Zou, Zhi-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the 2-year effect of multiple doses of lutein/zeaxanthin on serum, macular pigmentation, and visual performance on patients with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. In this randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial, 112 early AMD patients randomly received either 10 mg lutein, 20 mg lutein, a combination of lutein (10 mg) and zeaxanthin (10 mg), or placebo daily for 2 years. Serum concentration of lutein/zeaxanthin, macular pigment optical density (MPOD), visual functions including best-spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), flash recovery time (FRT), and vision-related quality of life (VFQ25) was quantified. Results. Serum lutein concentration and MPOD significantly increased in all the active treatment groups. Supplementation with 20 mg lutein was the most effective in increasing MPOD and CS at 3 cycles/degree for the first 48 weeks. However, they both significantly increased to the same peak value following supplementation with either 10 mg or 20 mg lutein during the intervention. No statistical changes of BCVA or FRT were observed during the trial. Conclusions. Long-term lutein supplementation could increase serum lutein concentration, MPOD, and visual sensitivities of early AMD patients. 10 mg lutein daily might be an advisable long-term dosage for early AMD treatment. PMID:25815324

  20. FRET-Aptamer Assays for Bone Marker Assessment, C-Telopeptide, Creatinine, and Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1.0 to 1.5% of their bone mass per month on long-duration spaceflights. NASA wishes to monitor the bone loss onboard spacecraft to develop nutritional and exercise countermeasures, and make adjustments during long space missions. On Earth, the same technology could be used to monitor osteoporosis and its therapy. Aptamers bind to targets against which they are developed, much like antibodies. However, aptamers do not require animal hosts or cell culture and are therefore easier, faster, and less expensive to produce. In addition, aptamers sometimes exhibit greater affinity and specificity vs. comparable antibodies. In this work, fluorescent dyes and quenchers were added to the aptamers to enable pushbutton, one-step, bind-and-detect fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays or tests that can be freeze-dried, rehydrated with body fluids, and used to quantitate bone loss of vitamin D levels with a handheld fluorometer in the spacecraft environment. This work generated specific, rapid, one-step FRET assays for the bone loss marker C-telopeptide (CTx) when extracted from urine, creatinine from urine, and vitamin D congeners in diluted serum. The assays were quantified in nanograms/mL using a handheld fluorometer connected to a laptop computer to convert the raw fluorescence values into concentrations of each analyte according to linear standard curves. DNA aptamers were selected and amplified for several rounds against a 26- amino acid form of CTx, creatinine, and vitamin D. The commonalities between loop structures were studied, and several common loop structures were converted into aptamer beacons with a fluorophore and quencher on each end. In theory, when the aptamer beacon binds its cognate target (CTx bone peptide, creatinine, or vitamin D), it is forced open and no longer quenched, so it gives off fluorescent light (when excited) in proportion to the amount of target present in a sample. This proportional increase in fluorescence is

  1. Serum androgen concentrations in young men: a longitudinal analysis of associations with age, obesity, and race. The CARDIA male hormone study.

    PubMed

    Gapstur, Susan M; Gann, Peter H; Kopp, Peter; Colangelo, Laura; Longcope, Christopher; Liu, Kiang

    2002-10-01

    Serum testosterone concentration appears to be higher in black men than white men, particularly at younger ages. The higher incidence of prostate cancer in blacks has been attributed, at least in part, to this difference. Other factors associated with androgen levels in men include age and obesity. However, most of the studies of adult androgen levels are limited by their cross-sectional design. We conducted longitudinal analyses (Generalized Estimating Equation) of the associations of age, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference with total and free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations during an 8-year period and compared these hormonal factors between black (n = 483) and white (n = 695) male participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. For men ages 24 years and older at the time of the first hormone measurement, increasing age was associated with a statistically significant decrease in serum total and free testosterone and an increase in SHBG (P < 0.05). BMI and waist circumference were inversely associated with total testosterone and SHBG, but only BMI was inversely associated with free testosterone. After adjustment for age and BMI, total testosterone was higher in blacks (0.21 ng/ml; P = 0.028) than whites, an approximately 3% difference. However, after further adjustment for waist circumference, there was no black-white difference (0.05 ng/ml; P = 0.62). These results indicate that the age-associated decrease in circulating testosterone and increase in SHBG begin during the 3rd decade of life, and that increasing obesity, particularly central obesity, is associated with decreasing total testosterone and SHBG. Results also suggest that the previously observed difference in total testosterone between black and white men could be attributed, for the most part, to racial differences in abdominal obesity.

  2. The influence of creatinine versus GFR on NSAID prescriptions in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krupa; Diamantidis, Clarissa; Zhan, Min; Hsu, Van Doren; Walker, Loreen D.; Gardner, James; Weir, Matthew R.; Fink, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, are generally contraindicated in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This investigation sought to identify the frequency of NSAID/COX2 prescription and determine the influence of serum Cr versus estimated GFR on this practice pattern. Methods An established Veterans Health Administration (VHA) CKD safety cohort (n = 70,154) was examined to determine the frequency of NSAID/COX2 in fiscal year 2005 (FY05) for up to 30 days preceding the index hospitalization and as many as 365 days during that year. Binomial regression was used to determine adjusted prevalence ratios for prescription of NSAID/COX2 with respect to continuous eGFR measurement and serum creatinine (Cr) categories. CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results 15.4% of subjects had an NSAID/COX2 prescription during the observation period with the proportion prescribed these agents decreasing with declining renal function, but remained significant at any stage of CKD given the renal harm related to these medications. At specific GFR estimates, serum creatinine (Cr) remained a significant predictor of NSAID/COX prescription. At GFR set at 42 ml/min/1.73, the predicted proportion prescribed NSAID/COX2 was 0.29 (95% CI: 0.24,0.36); 0.23 (95% CI: 0.22,0.26); 0.20 (95%: 0.19,0,22); 0.12 (95% CI: 0.10,0.14) for Cr strata of ≤ 1.3 mg/dl, 1.4 – 1.6 mg/dl, 1.7 –2.1 mg/dl, ≥ 2.2 mg/dl, respectively (all p < 0.05). Conclusion A significant proportion of individuals with CKD continue to be prescribed NSAID/COX2 and serum Cr remains an influential guide to NSAID/COX2 prescription, even in GFR ranges where these agents are ill-advised. PMID:22699456

  3. Association of dietary and serum vitamin E with bone mineral density in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-qi; Liu, Jun; Cao, Yi; Zhu, Ying-ying; Guan, Ke; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-14

    Previous studies have suggested that vitamin E (VE) may affect bone health, but the findings have been inconclusive. We examined the relationship between VE status (in both diet and serum) and bone mineral density (BMD) among Chinese adults. This community-based study included 3203 adults (2178 women and 1025 men) aged 40-75 years from Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. General and dietary intake information were collected using structured questionnaire interviews. The serum α-tocopherol (TF) level was quantified by reversed-phase HPLC. The BMD of the whole body, the lumbar spine and left hip sites (total, neck, trochanter, intertrochanter and Ward's triangle) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In women, the dietary intake of VE was significantly and positively associated with BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, intertrochanter and femur neck sites after adjusting for covariates (P(trend): 0·001-0·017). Women in quartile 3 of VE intake typically had the highest BMD; the covariate-adjusted mean BMD were 2·5, 3·06, 3·41 and 3·54% higher, respectively, in quartile 3 (v. 1) at the four above-mentioned sites. Similar positive associations were observed between cholesterol-adjusted serum α-TF levels and BMD at each of the studied bone sites (P(trend): 0·001-0·022). The covariate-adjusted mean BMD were 1·24-4·83% greater in quartile 4 (v. 1) in women. However, no significant associations were seen between the VE levels (dietary or serum) and the BMD at any site in men. In conclusion, greater consumption and higher serum levels of VE are associated with greater BMD in Chinese women but not in Chinese men.

  4. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Juan; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Rui; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Previous studies have suggested a positive link between serum uric acid (UA) and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we re-examined the association between UA and BMD and further explored whether this was mediated by skeletal muscle mass in a general Chinese population. Method This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 3079 (963 men and 2116 women) Chinese adults aged 40–75 years. Face-to-face interviews and laboratory analyses were performed to determine serum UA and various covariates. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess the BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = ASM/Height2, kg/m2) for the total limbs, arms, and legs was then calculated. Results The serum UA was graded and, in general, was significantly and positively associated with the BMD and muscle mass, after adjustment for multiple covariates in the total sample. Compared with participants in lowest quartile of UA, those participants in highest quartile showed a 2.3%(whole body), 4.1%(lumbar spine), 2.4%(total hip), and 2.0% (femoral neck) greater BMDs. The mean SMIs in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile increased by 2.7% (total), 2.5% (arm), 2.7% (leg) respectively. In addition, path analysis suggested that the favorable association between UA and BMD might be mediated by increasing SMI. Conclusion The elevated serum UA was associated with a higher BMD and a greater muscle mass in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population and the UA-BMD association was partly mediated by muscle mass. PMID:27144737

  5. Serum sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Drug allergy - serum sickness; Allergic reaction - serum sickness; Allergy - serum sickness ... penicillin, cefaclor, and sulfa) can cause a similar reaction. Injected proteins such as antithymocyte globulin (used to ...

  6. Low Serum Testosterone Increases Mortality Risk among Male Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Parini, Paolo; Arver, Stefan; Lindholm, Bengt; Bárány, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Men treated with hemodialysis (HD) have a very poor prognosis and an elevated risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the general population, associations between low testosterone concentrations and cardiovascular risk have been suggested. We performed a prospective observational study involving a well characterized cohort of 126 men treated with HD to examine the relationship between testosterone concentration and subsequent mortality during a mean follow-up period of 41 mo. Independent of age, serum creatinine, and sexual hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone levels inversely and strongly associated with the inflammatory markers IL-6 and CRP. Patients with a clinical history of CVD had significantly lower testosterone levels. During follow up, 65 deaths occurred, 58% of which were a result of CVD. Men with testosterone values in the lowest tertile had increased all-cause and CVD mortality (crude hazard ratios [HRs] 2.03 [95% CI 1.24 to 3.31] and 3.19 [1.49 to 6.83], respectively), which persisted after adjustment for age, SHBG, previous CVD, diabetes, ACEi/ARB treatment, albumin, and inflammatory markers, but was lost after adjustment for creatinine. In summary, among men treated with HD, testosterone concentrations inversely correlate with all-cause and CVD-related mortality, as well as with markers of inflammation. Hypogonadism may be an additional treatable risk factor for patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:19144759

  7. Low serum testosterone increases mortality risk among male dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Parini, Paolo; Arver, Stefan; Lindholm, Bengt; Bárány, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Men treated with hemodialysis (HD) have a very poor prognosis and an elevated risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the general population, associations between low testosterone concentrations and cardiovascular risk have been suggested. We performed a prospective observational study involving a well characterized cohort of 126 men treated with HD to examine the relationship between testosterone concentration and subsequent mortality during a mean follow-up period of 41 mo. Independent of age, serum creatinine, and sexual hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone levels inversely and strongly associated with the inflammatory markers IL-6 and CRP. Patients with a clinical history of CVD had significantly lower testosterone levels. During follow up, 65 deaths occurred, 58% of which were a result of CVD. Men with testosterone values in the lowest tertile had increased all-cause and CVD mortality (crude hazard ratios [HRs] 2.03 [95% CI 1.24 to 3.31] and 3.19 [1.49 to 6.83], respectively), which persisted after adjustment for age, SHBG, previous CVD, diabetes, ACEi/ARB treatment, albumin, and inflammatory markers, but was lost after adjustment for creatinine. In summary, among men treated with HD, testosterone concentrations inversely correlate with all-cause and CVD-related mortality, as well as with markers of inflammation. Hypogonadism may be an additional treatable risk factor for patients with chronic kidney disease.

  8. Growth curves and age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum parameters, and intestinal transporter gene expression in domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Gao, C Q; Yang, J X; Chen, M X; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to fit growth curves, and determine age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia). In experiment 1, body weight (BW) of 30 pigeons was respectively determined at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days old to fit growth curves and to describe the growth of pigeons. In experiment 2, eighty-four 1-day-old squabs were grouped by weight into 7 groups. On d 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, twelve birds from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and post-slaughter analysis. The results showed that BW of pigeons increased rapidly from d 1 to d 28 (a 25.7-fold increase), and then had little change until d 35. The Logistic, Gompertz, and Von Bertalanffy functions can all be well fitted with the growth curve of domestic pigeons (R2>0.90) and the Gompertz model showed the highest R2value among the models (R2=0.9997). The equation of Gompertz model was Y=507.72×e-(3.76exp(-0.17t))(Y=BW of pigeon (g); t=time (day)). In addition, breast meat yield (%) increased with age throughout the experiment, whereas the leg meat yield (%) reached to the peak on d 14. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose concentration were increased with age, whereas serum uric acid concentration was decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, the gene expressions of nutrient transporters (y+LAT2, LAT1, B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2) in jejunum of pigeon were increased with age. The results of correlation analysis showed the gene expressions of B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2 had positive correlations with BW (0.73age for meat type pigeon. And the various physiological and functional properties of organs, serum profiles, and gene expression of nutrient transporters in small intestine might cause the differences in their development patterns.

  9. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    PubMed Central

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  10. Colorimetric Detection of Creatinine Based on Plasmonic Nanoparticles via Synergistic Coordination Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianjun; Zhu, Bowen; Leow, Wan Ru; Chen, Shi; Sum, Tze Chien; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    A simple and portable colorimetric assay for creatinine detection is fabricated based on the synergistic coordination of creatinine and uric acid with Hg(2+) on the surface of gold nanoparticles, which exhibits good selectivity and sensitivity. Point-of-care clinical creatinine monitoring can be supported for monitoring renal function and diagnosing corresponding renal diseases at home.

  11. Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Levels Are Higher in Children (2–5 Years of Age) than in Infants and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.; Sjödin, Andreas; Harden, Fiona; Hobson, Peter; Jones, Richard; Edenfield, Emily; Mueller, Jochen F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many products and have been detected in human samples worldwide. Limited data show that concentrations are elevated in young children. Objectives We investigated the association between PBDEs and age with an emphasis on young children from Australia in 2006–2007. Methods We collected human blood serum samples (n = 2,420), which we stratified by age and sex and pooled for analysis of PBDEs. Results The sum of BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 concentrations (∑4PBDE) increased from 0–0.5 years (mean ± SD, 14 ± 3.4 ng/g lipid) to peak at 2.6–3 years (51 ± 36 ng/g lipid; p < 0.001) and then decreased until 31–45 years (9.9 ± 1.6 ng/g lipid). We observed no further significant decrease among ages 31–45, 45–60 (p = 0.964), or > 60 years (p = 0.894). The mean ∑4PBDE concentration in cord blood (24 ± 14 ng/g lipid) did not differ significantly from that in adult serum at ages 15–30 (p = 0.198) or 31–45 years (p = 0.140). We found no temporal trend when we compared the present results with Australian PBDE data from 2002–2005. PBDE concentrations were higher in males than in females; however, this difference reached statistical significance only for BDE-153 (p = 0.05). Conclusions The observed peak concentration at 2.6–3 years of age is later than the period when breast-feeding is typically ceased. This suggests that in addition to the exposure via human milk, young children have higher exposure to these chemicals and/or a lower capacity to eliminate them. PMID:19750114

  12. Clinically insignificant improvement of prostate cancer prediction by addition of sex steroid hormones and SHBG serum levels to serum PSA, fPSA%, and age in a screening setting.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Isabel; Popovscaia, Marina; Ramoner, Reinhold; Schäfer, Georg; Stenzel, Birgit; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang; Klocker, Helmut

    2012-10-01

    Abstract Various findings implicate sex hormones in prostate growth and development and also in prostate carcinogenesis. We investigated if addition of sex steroid hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) serum levels to standard risk assessment parameters [prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA percentage (fPSA%), and age] improves prostate cancer prediction in a PSA screening setting. Steroid hormones testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and estradiol (E2), and binding protein SHBG levels were measured in 762 men undergoing prostate biopsy due to suspect PSA serum levels. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 286 (37.5%) of these men. Our data confirmed that PSA (mean BE=5.09; mean CA=6.05; p=1.24×10-5), fPSA% (mean BE=22.08; mean CA=18.67; p=1.97×10-7), and age (mean BE=60.64; mean CA=64.5; p=7.05×10-10) differentiate men with cancer (CA) and men with benign disease (BE), such as benign prostate hyperplasia. In addition, SHBG (mean BE=50.3; mean CA=54.9; p=0.008) also differed statistically significantly between these two groups. All hormones except E2 and tumor markers correlated significantly with age (T: ρ=-0.09; fT: ρ=-0.27; SHBG: ρ=0.21; PSA: ρ=0.32; and fPSA%: ρ=0.22). Furthermore, we found that PSA correlates with E2 (ρ=0.08), and fPSA% with SHBG (ρ=0.1) and fT (ρ=-0.09). Addition of hormones and SHBG to a baseline marker model including PSA, fPSA%, and age improved cancer prediction in three multivariate classification methods; however, the improvement was minimal. The best improvement by 0.8% was obtained in the logistic regression model with the addition of T and SHBG or of E2 and SHBG, or in the support vector machine model with the addition of SHBG and all steroid hormones to the combination of standard markers PSA, fPSA%, and age; however, this additional gain of accuracy is too small to justify the additional efforts and costs.

  13. Back to Basics: Is There a Good Reason to Not Systematically Measure Urine Creatinine in Acute Kidney Injury Monitoring?

    PubMed

    Maciel, Alexandre Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Regardless of the recent advancements in the understanding of the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI), its diagnosis remains fundamentally dependent on the serum creatinine (sCr) level and urine output (UO), both of which are considered late markers of AKI, offering only a vague idea of the actual creatinine clearance (CrCl). Although not ideal, CrCl is still the most common alternative of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in clinical practice. It is generally accepted that early diagnosis of AKI must reveal kidney impairment before sCr increases. Much effort has been made to find tubular and glomerular markers of injury which increase (in blood and/or in urine) before the 'official' diagnosis of AKI. Most of these markers are expensive and not widely available, especially in developing countries. Urine creatinine (CrU), the major link between sCr and UO, has been systematically ignored and clinicians are usually unaware of its value. The reasons for this are unclear, but it may be related to the lack of a reference range, dependence of its concentration value on the urine flow (which in turn is only adequately assessed with an indwelling urinary catheter) and the clinical unavailability of its counterbalance part - creatinine production. Changes in urine tend to precede changes in blood in the course of AKI development and recovery. Hence, it is important to bear in mind that changes in sCr signal renal dysfunction with a significant delay. The search for a more dynamic, 'real-time' but pragmatic assessment of renal function, especially in patients at risk of abrupt decrease in GFR is certainly one of the most relevant focus of research in the field of AKI monitoring. Systematic CrU assessment may be highly relevant in this case. PMID:27270242

  14. Relation Between Serum Total Cholesterol Level and Cardiovascular Disease Stratified by Sex and Age Group: A Pooled Analysis of 65 594 Individuals From 10 Cohort Studies in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Sin-ya; Okamura, Tomonori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Yamada, Michiko; Watanabe, Makoto; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2012-01-01

    Background The relation between serum total cholesterol (TC) and cardiovascular disease in women and in the elderly is unclear, especially in Asian populations. Methods and Results We examined this relation in the largest-scale pooled analysis of the Japanese population, the Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan (EPOCH-JAPAN) study. A total of 65 594 participants who were 40 to 89 years of age and did not have a past history of cardiovascular disease were examined. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for death from total stroke, cerebral infarction, intracranial cerebral hemorrhage, or coronary heart disease. The mean follow-up period was 10.1 years, with the number of deaths from total stroke, cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and coronary heart disease being 875, 457, 212, and 374, respectively. The participants were divided into 2 age groups: middle-aged (40 to 69 years; mean age 55 years) and elderly (70 to 89 years; mean age 75 years). In men, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for coronary heart disease in the highest TC category (≥6.21 mmol/L) compared with the lowest category (<4.14 mmol/L) were 2.52 (95% confidence interval: 1.15–5.07) in middle-aged participants and 2.77 (1.09–7.03) in elderly participants. In women, the hazard ratios of the highest TC category (≥6.72 mmol/L) compared with the lowest category (<4.66 mmol/L) were 3.20 (1.44–7.09) in middle-aged participants and 1.02 (0.42–2.49) in elderly participants. TC levels were not associated with cerebral infarction in any age or sex group and were associated negatively with total stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. Conclusion High serum TC levels are associated with coronary heart disease in middle-aged Japanese men and women, but evidence in elderly Japanese individuals is still limited. PMID:23316288

  15. Renal medullary changes in renal allograft recipients with raised serum creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Sis, B; Sarioglu, S; Celik, A; Kasap, B; Yildiz, S; Kavukcu, S; Gulay, H; Camsari, T

    2006-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that the renal medulla may reflect rejection related changes and thus have a predictive value in the assessment of acute renal allograft rejection or chronic graft damage. Methods 75 post‐transplant biopsies from 57 patients were scored according to the Banff 1997 scheme. The biopsies with adequate cortical and medullary tissue (n = 23) were selected and medullary tissues were reviewed for rejection related lesions except intimal arteritis. Chronic damage was determined by image analysis depending on periodic acid‐methenamine silver (PAMS)‐Masson trichrome (MT) staining. Medullary and cortical changes were compared. Results Interstitial inflammation and tubulitis were more frequent and severe in the cortex (p<0.001). Medullary tubulitis was associated with intimal arteritis (p = 0.003, r = 0.598). Medullary interstitial inflammation (n = 8) and tubulitis (n = 4) were associated with cortical borderline changes (n = 5) or allograft rejection (n = 3). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of medullary inflammatory changes in predicting cortical allograft rejection were 43%, 69%, 37%, and 73%, respectively. A significant association was observed between medullary MT‐SAP and cortical PAMS‐SAP values (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.23). Conclusions Acute rejection related lesions are more common and severe in the cortex, and the renal medulla does not sufficiently reflect cortical rejection. The positive and negative predictive values of medullary changes for allograft rejection are low, and medullary inflammation is not a reliable indicator of allograft rejection. Increased medullary fibrosis is correlated with chronic cortical damage. PMID:16461569

  16. Evaluation of postmortem urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid levels in pericardial fluid in forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Quan, Li; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2005-10-01

    In postmortem biochemistry, there is insufficient data available for the practical analysis of factors in the pericardial fluid. The aim of the present study was to examine postmortem pericardial fluid for urea nitrogen (UN), creatinine (Cr) and uric acid (UA) levels to investigate the pathophysiology of death in forensic autopsy cases (total, n = 409; within 48 h postmortem), which included blunt, sharp instrument injury, asphyxiation, drowning, fire fatalities, hyperthermia, hypothermia, methamphetamine-related fatalities, other poisoning, delayed death from trauma and natural diseases. There was a significant elevation in the three markers for chronic renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, hyperthermia, hypothermia, methamphetamine fatalities and delayed traumatic death, which was comparable with the clinical criteria for their serum levels. These postmortem findings showed azotemia due to renal failure, elevated protein catabolism and rhabdomyolysis. Although the pericardial levels were otherwise similar to the clinical serum reference ranges, only the drowning fatalities showed significantly lower levels for each marker. These observations suggested the stability of UN, Cr and UA in the pericardial fluid within 48 h postmortem and their usefulness for the pathophysiological investigation of death involving azotemia.

  17. Associations of age with serum insulin, proinsulin and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratio: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin responses and insulin levels seem to decline with age. However, the question of beta cell impairment attributable to ageing has been sparsely addressed in population-based studies. Non-fasting insulin levels are determined by the ambient degree of insulin resistance together with the capacity of beta cells to compensate by insulin secretion to prevent hyperglycaemia. A raised proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (proinsulin/insulin) due to impaired processing of proinsulin is an early marker of beta cell dysfunction. We hypothesised that in a general population, signs of beta cell failure with advancing age manifest not only by decreases in random insulin, but also with a corresponding increase in its precursor proinsulin. Methods In the Tromsø Study 1994-95 we measured insulin and proinsulin concentrations in random blood samples from 6212 persons without self-reported diabetes mellitus and plotted the levels as percentiles according to age. In regression analyses we assessed the relationships between age and insulin, proinsulin, and proinsulin/insulin, while adjusting for the concomitant measurements of glucose and other metabolic variables, and the time since the last meal. Results Median insulin concentrations declined significantly with advancing age group in men, but not in women. Proinsulin levels and proinsulin/insulin increased across age groups in both genders. After adjustment, greater age was associated with lower log10(insulin) and higher log10(proinsulin) and log10(proinsulin/insulin) (p = 0.0001 for all). Conclusions Negative associations of age with random insulin levels, together with positive associations of age with proinsulin and proinsulin/insulin, point towards a loss of beta cell function inherent in the ageing process. PMID:21162746

  18. A comparison of GFR by modified gates method with measured creatinine clearance rate (CCR) & MDRD formula based estimation in type 2 diabetic subjects with nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Haque, M F; Iqbal, M M; Ahmed, Z; Sultan, T; Rahman, M; Quddus, S; Rahman, M Q; Ahmed, N N

    2013-10-01

    Accurate estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential for the evaluation of patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The present study was a comparison between modified gates GFR with laboratory measured CCR & MDRD formula based estimated GFR method. Pre-diagnosed 180 diabetic nephropathy patients were selected. All the time of evaluation the blood glucose of the patients were controlled and serum creatinine was stable. Then CCR was done and GFR was estimated by Modified Gates method & MDRD method. All the patients were categorized in 5 stages of CKD. They were matched for age, BMI, blood pressure, duration of diabetes, the blood sugar and HbA1C levels. The Gates GFR in stage-2 (70±13) & stage-3 (48±12) was closer with MDRD in stage-2 (77±8) and stage 3 (43±7). The CCR is closer in stage-1 (110±52) & stage-4 (30±10) with MDRD in stage-1 (112±13) and stage-4 (21±4). Association study showed MDRD GFR had highest correlation with Gates GFR (r=0.86; p<0.05). The estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in different methods varied significantly between each other at different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in type 2 diabetic nephropathy subjects.

  19. Serum metabolites from walnut-fed aged rats attenuate stress-induced neurotoxicity in brain cells in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The shift in equilibrium towards excess reactive oxygen or nitrogen species production from innate antioxidant defense in brain is a critical factor in the declining neural functions and cognitive deficits accompanying age. In aging, there are noticeable alterations in the membrane microenvironment,...

  20. Age-Dependent Association among Helicobacter pylori Infection, Serum Pepsinogen Levels and Immune Response of Children to Live Oral Cholera Vaccine CVD 103-HgR

    PubMed Central

    Muhsen, Khitam; Lagos, Rosanna; Reymann, Mardi K.; Graham, David Y.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Levine, Myron M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Through its effects on gastric secretion, we hypothesized that Helicobacter pylori infection may influence oral immunization. Accordingly, we examined the association between H. pylori infection, serum pepsinogen (PG) (measures for H. pylori gastritis) and vibriocidal antibody (a correlate of protection) seroconversion following oral immunization with CVD 103-HgR live cholera vaccine among children of different ages. Methods Sera from 422 Chilean children who were vaccinated with a single dose of CVD 103-HgR were tested by ELISA for serum IgG antibodies to H. pylori, PG I and PG II levels and antibodies to Shigella flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide and hepatitis A virus (as markers of low socioeconomic status and exposure to enteric pathogens). Results The likelihood of vibriocidal antibody seroconversion following vaccination with CVD 103-HgR was significantly decreased in H. pylori-seropositive children age 6 months to 4 years with PG II>8 µg/L (adjusted OR 0.14 (95% CI 0.03–0.61; P = 0.009), and also in H. pylori seropositives with lower PG II level (adjusted OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14–0.83; P = 0.017), compared to H. pylori-seronegatives. H. pylori-seropositive children aged 5–9 years with serum PG I>30 µg/L (indicating more severe gastritis) had higher odds of vibriocidal seroconversion than those with lower PG I levels (adjusted OR 4.41, 95%CI 1.26–15.38; P = 0.02). There was no significant association between exposures to S. flexneri 2a or hepatitis A virus and vibriocidal seroconversion. Conclusions As H. pylori gastritis progresses with increasing pediatric age in developing country venues, changes in gastric secretion ensue that we believe explain the observed differences in age-related immune responses to immunization with live oral cholera vaccine. The effect of H. pylori and changes of gastric acid secretion on the immunogenicity of various oral vaccines should be studied in different developing, transitional and industrialized

  1. The interaction of serum testosterone levels and androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism on the risk of erectile dysfunction in aging Taiwanese men.

    PubMed

    Liu, C C; Lee, Y C; Tsai, V F S; Cheng, K H; Wu, W J; Bao, B Y; Huang, C N; Yeh, H C; Tsai, C C; Wang, C J; Huang, S P

    2015-09-01

    Testosterone has been found to play important roles in men's sexual function. However, the effects of testosterone can be modulated by androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat polymorphism. It could also contribute to the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study is to evaluate the interaction of serum testosterone levels and AR CAG repeat polymorphism on the risk of ED in aging Taiwanese men. This cross-sectional data of Taiwanese men older than 40 years were collected from a free health screening held between August 2010 and August 2011 in Kaohsiung city, Taiwan. All participants completed a health questionnaires included five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the International Prostate Symptoms Score, received a detailed physical examination and provided 20 cm3 whole blood samples for biochemical and genetic evaluation. The IIEF-5 was used to evaluate ED. Serum albumin, total testosterone (TT), and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured. Free testosterone level was calculated. AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism was determined by direct sequencing. Finally, 478 men with the mean age of 55.7 ± 4.8 years were included. When TT levels were above 330 ng/dL, the effect of testosterone level on erectile function seemed to reach a plateau and a significantly negative correlation between AR CAG repeat length and the score of IIEF-5 was found (r = -0.119, p = 0.034). After adjusting for other covariates, the longer AR CAG repeat length was still an independent risk factor for ED in subjects with TT above 330 ng/dL (p = 0.006), but not in TT of 330 ng/dL or below. In conclusion, both serum testosterone levels and AR CAG repeat polymorphism can influence erectile function concomitantly. In subjects with normal TT concentration, those with longer AR CAG repeat lengths have a higher risk of developing ED.

  2. Mechanism and specificity of increased amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Marten, A; Beales, D; Elias, E

    1977-09-01

    The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (Cam/Ccr ratio) was determined in 239 subjects. In 87 hospitalised patients without pancreatic disease (controls) the Cam/Ccr ratio was 3.02 +/- 0.69 (mean +/- ISD). The ratio was above the normal range in all patients with acute pancreatitis but was normal in those with chronic pancreatitis and carcinoma of the pancreas. In 18 patients with choledocholithiasis a raised ratio distinguished those with pancreatitis as assessed independently by the surgeon at laparotomy from those with a macroscopically normal pancreas. Raised Cam/Ccr ratios were also found in diabetics with ketoacidosis and in three patients with fulminant alcoholic liver disease. Though a positive correlation was found between the Cam/Ccr ratio and serum creatinine concentration, abnormally high ratios did not occur in 30 patients with chronic renal failure. A significant increase in Cam/Ccr ratios was produced in six healthy volunteers by intravenous injection of glucagon. However, it is unlikely that hyperglucagonaemia alone accounts for the increased Cam/Ccr ratio seen in acute pancreatitis, as no correlation was found between the clearance ratio and the plasma glucagon concentration in a series of patients. In two other patients in whom excess circulating pancreatic polypeptide was detected the Cam/Ccr ratio was normal. It is concluded that, in view of the sensitivity and relative specificity of finding an increased Cam/Ccr ratio in acute pancreatitis, its determination should be valuable clinically, especially in those cases of hyperamylasaemia where the cause is in doubt. The mechanism whereby the ratio is increased is unknown, and it is unlikely that either glucagon or pancreatic polypeptide is a major factor in its production.

  3. Serum Ceramide Kinase as a Biomarker of Cognitive Functions, and the Effect of Using Two Slimming Dietary Therapies in Obese Middle Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    Moaty, Maha I. A.; Fouad, Suzanne; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Kazem, Yusr M. I.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Mohamed, Magda S.; Hussein, Ahmed M. S.; Arafa, Atiat M.; Hanna, Laila M.; Tapozada, Salwa T.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Highlighting the impact of obesity on mental and cognitive functions using serum ceramide kinase enzyme concentration as a biomarker for cognitive evaluation in the middle aged females, and also targeting to control the obesity and simultaneously postponing the deterioration of the cognitive functions, by implementing two slimming dietary therapies each incorporating different functional ingredients known to boost cognition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety six obese middle aged females, divided into two groups volunteered to follow a low caloric balanced diet combined with two bread supplements composed essentially of barley flour and wheat germ mixed with either 5% turmeric, group (A); or with 5% ginger, group (B) for 4 weeks, phase (1); to be followed by the hypocaloric diet alone for another 4 weeks, phase (2). RESULTS: By the end of phase (1), the biochemical analysis showed a positive response of the levels of C-peptide and modified homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; also increased levels of the serum ceramide kinase enzyme, coupled with improved cognitive functions tests. Improvement of the relevant metabolic profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and the anthropometric measurements was detected. CONCLUSION: Using dietary therapy supported by special formulas which contain active ingredients succeeded in reducing weight and improving both the metabolic profile and the cognitive functions. PMID:27275191

  4. Serum metabolomic profiles from patients with acute kidney injury: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinchun; Shannon, Melissa; Ando, Yosuke; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Khan, Nasim A; Portilla, Didier; Beger, Richard D

    2012-04-15

    Low sensitivity of current clinical markers (serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)) in early stages of the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) limits their utility. Rapid LC/MS-based metabolic profiling of serum demonstrated in a pilot study that metabolomics could provide novel indicators of AKI. Metabolic profiles of serum samples from seventeen hospitalized patients with newly diagnosed AKI were compared with the profiles of serum from age-matched subjects with normal kidney function. Increases in acylcarnitines and amino acids (methionine, homocysteine, pyroglutamate, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and phenylalanine) and a reduction in serum levels of arginine and several lysophosphatidyl cholines were observed in patients with AKI compared to healthy subjects. Increases in homocysteine, ADMA and pyroglutamate have been recognized as biomarkers of cardiovascular and renal disease, and acylcarnitines represent biomarkers of defective fatty acid oxidation. The results of this pilot study demonstrate the utility of metabolomics in the discovery of novel serum biomarkers that can facilitate the diagnosis and determine prognosis of AKI in hospitalized patients.

  5. Serum Metabolomic Profiles from Patients with Acute Kidney Injury: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinchun; Shannon, Melissa; Ando, Yosuke; Schnackenberg, Laura K.; Khan, Nasim A.; Portilla, Didier; Beger, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Low sensitivity of current clinical markers (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN)) in early stages of the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) limits their utility. Rapid LC/MS-based metabolic profiling of serum demonstrated in a pilot study that metabolomics could provide novel indicators of AKI. Metabolic profiles of serum samples from seventeen hospitalized patients with newly diagnosed AKI were compared with the profiles of serum from age-matched subjects with normal kidney function. Increases in acylcarnitines and amino acids (methionine, homocysteine, pyroglutamate, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and phenylalanine) and a reduction in serum levels of arginine and several lysophosphatidyl cholines were observed in patients with AKI compared to healthy subjects. Increases in homocysteine, ADMA and pyroglutamate have been recognized as biomarkers of cardiovascular and renal disease, and acylcarnitines represent biomarkers of defective fatty acid oxidation. The results of this pilot study demonstrate the utility of metabolomics in the discovery of novel serum biomarkers that can facilitate the diagnosis and determine prognosis of AKI in hospitalized patients. PMID:22429878

  6. Detection of urinary creatinine using gold nanoparticles after solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Sittiwong, Jarinya; Unob, Fuangfa

    2015-03-01

    Label-free gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were utilized in the detection of creatinine in human urine after a sample preparation by extraction of creatinine on sulfonic acid functionalized silica gel. With the proposed sample preparation method, the interfering effects of the urine matrix on creatinine detection by AuNPs were eliminated. Parameters affecting creatinine extraction were investigated. The aggregation of AuNPs induced by creatinine resulted in a change in the surface plasmon resonance signal with a concomitant color change that could be observed by the naked eye and quantified spectrometrically. The effect of AuNP concentration and reaction time on AuNP aggregation was investigated. The method described herein provides a determination of creatinine in a range of 15-40mgL(-1) with a detection limit of 13.7mgL(-1) and it was successfully used in the detection of creatinine in human urine samples.

  7. Normalization of urinary drug concentrations with specific gravity and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Caplan, Yale H; Moser, Frank; Robert, Tim; Shelby, Melinda K; Black, David L

    2009-01-01

    Excessive fluid intake can substantially dilute urinary drug concentrations and result in false-negative reports for drug users. Methods for correction ("normalization") of drug/metabolite concentrations in urine have been utilized by anti-doping laboratories, pain monitoring programs, and in environmental monitoring programs to compensate for excessive hydration, but such procedures have not been used routinely in workplace, legal, and treatment settings. We evaluated two drug normalization procedures based on specific gravity and creatinine. These corrections were applied to urine specimens collected from three distinct groups (pain patients, heroin users, and marijuana/ cocaine users). Each group was unique in characteristics, study design, and dosing conditions. The results of the two normalization procedures were highly correlated (r=0.94; range, 0.78-0.99). Increases in percent positives by specific gravity and creatinine normalization were small (0.3% and -1.0%, respectively) for heroin users (normally hydrated subjects), modest (4.2-9.8%) for pain patients (unknown hydration state), and substantial (2- to 38-fold increases) for marijuana/cocaine users (excessively hydrated subjects). Despite some limitations, these normalization procedures provide alternative means of dealing with highly dilute, dilute, and concentrated urine specimens. Drug/metabolite concentration normalization by these procedures is recommended for urine testing programs, especially as a means of coping with dilute specimens.

  8. Interaction between glycated serum albumin and AGE-receptors depends on structural changes and the glycation reagent.

    PubMed

    Indurthi, Venkata S K; Leclerc, Estelle; Vetter, Stefan W

    2012-12-15

    Physiologically relevant reactive carbonyl compounds vary greatly in their glycation reactivity and the resulting advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) are likely to have distinct structural and biological properties. We characterized a panel of twenty AGE-BSA preparations in terms of (i) their biophysical properties, (ii) their binding to the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and galectin-3, and (iii) their effects on cellular proliferation. We could establish correlations between lysine glycation and changes in secondary structure. Circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry experiments showed that glycation causes albumin to adopt folding properties of a molten globule. Binding studies between AGE-albumin and RAGE or galectin-3 indicate that binding to the isolated receptor domains was weak. Only AGE compounds derived by glycation with ribose were able to bind tightly (K(d) < 10 μM) to both AGE receptors. Cell based assays using an engineered melanoma cell line demonstrated correlations between the extent of (i) lysine side chain modification, (ii) β-sheet content and (iii) albumin multimerization with stimulation of cell proliferation. However, in addition to structural properties of the protein, the chemical structures of the AGE-modifications were important for receptor binding and biological activity as well. PMID:23079546

  9. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys: relation to age, stage of puberty, and follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and estradiol levels.

    PubMed

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H; Müller, J; Groome, N P; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-12-01

    Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol levels were measured. Serum levels of inhibin B, FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol all increased significantly between stages I and II of puberty. From stage II of puberty the inhibin B level was relatively constant, whereas the FSH level continued to increase between stages II and III. From stage III of puberty the FSH level was also relatively constant, although there was a nonsignificant trend of slightly decreased FSH levels at pubertal stage V compared to stage IV. The levels of serum LH, testosterone, and estradiol increased progressively throughout puberty. In prepubertal boys younger than 9 yr, there were no correlation between inhibin B and the other three hormones. In prepubertal boys older than 9 yr, a significant positive correlation was observed between inhibin B and FSH, LH, and testosterone. However, at this pubertal stage, each hormone correlated strongly with age, and when the effect of age was taken into account, only the partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone remained statistically significant. At stage II of puberty, the positive partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone was still present. At stage III of puberty, an negative partial correlation between inhibin B and FSH, LH, and estradiol was present, whereas no correlation between inhibin B and testosterone could be observed from stage III onward. The negative correlation between inhibin B and FSH persisted from stage III of puberty onward, whereas the correlation between inhibin B and LH and between inhibin B and estradiol was nonsignificant at stages IV and V of puberty. In conclusion, in boys, serum inhibin B levels

  10. Comparing GFR Estimating Equations Using Cystatin C and Creatinine in Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li; Levey, Andrew S.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Andresdottir, Margret B.; Gudmundsdottir, Hrefna; Indridason, Olafur S.; Palsson, Runolfur; Mitchell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend reporting eGFR using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations unless other equations are more accurate, and recommend the combination of creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys) as more accurate than either eGFRcr or eGFRcys alone. However, preferred equations and filtration markers in elderly individuals are debated. In 805 adults enrolled in the community-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study, we measured GFR (mGFR) using plasma clearance of iohexol, standardized creatinine and cystatin C, and eGFR using the CKD-EPI, Japanese, Berlin Initiative Study (BIS), and Caucasian and Asian pediatric and adult subjects (CAPA) equations. We evaluated equation performance using bias, precision, and two measures of accuracy. We first compared the Japanese, BIS, and CAPA equations with the CKD-EPI equations to determine the preferred equations, and then compared eGFRcr and eGFRcys with eGFRcr-cys using the preferred equations. Mean (SD) age was 80.3 (4.0) years. Median (25th, 75th) mGFR was 64 (52, 73) ml/min per 1.73 m2, and the prevalence of decreased GFR was 39% (95% confidence interval, 35.8 to 42.5). Among 24 comparisons with the other equations, CKD-EPI equations performed better in 9, similar in 13, and worse in 2. Using the CKD-EPI equations, eGFRcr-cys performed better than eGFRcr in four metrics, better than eGFRcys in two metrics, and similar to eGFRcys in two metrics. In conclusion, neither the Japanese, BIS, nor CAPA equations were superior to the CKD-EPI equations in this cohort of community-dwelling elderly individuals. Using the CKD-EPI equations, eGFRcr-cys performed better than eGFRcr or eGFRcys. PMID:25527647

  11. Age and Sex Influence Cystatin C in Adolescents With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Prentice, Nicole; McFann, Kim; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Jalal, Diana; Bishop, Franziska K.; Aragon, Brittany; Wadwa, R. Paul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare serum cystatin C levels, a novel biomarker of renal function, in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes and to determine what factors affect cystatin C levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cystatin C was measured in youth 12–19 years of age with (n = 259, diabetes duration 9 ± 3 years, HbA1c 8.9 ± 1.6%) and without diabetes (n = 78). Data were compared by diabetes status, and linear regression was used to determine factors affecting cystatin C. RESULTS Cystatin C (0.698 ± 0.083 vs. 0.688 ± 0.127 mg/L, P = 0.40) was similar by diabetes status. In multiple linear regression, cystatin C was associated with age and serum creatinine in nondiabetic subjects and sex, age, and serum creatinine in subjects with diabetes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest sex differences and age-related changes in cystatin C in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. An understanding of these changes is needed to determine the potential role of cystatin C as a marker of renal function in this population. PMID:21926294

  12. The reduced serum free triiodothyronine and increased dorsal hippocampal SNAP-25 and Munc18-1 had existed in middle-aged CD-1 mice with mild spatial cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fang; Yang, Qi-Gang; Wang, Chao; Chen, Yong-Ping; Chen, Gui-Hai

    2013-12-01

    Changes of synaptic proteins in highlighted brain regions and decreased serum thyroid hormones (THs) have been implied in age-related learning and memory decline. Previously, we showed significant pairwise correlations among markedly impaired spatial learning and memory ability, decreased serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) and increased hippocampal SNAP-25 and Munc18-1 in old Kunming mice. However, whether these changes and the correlations occur in middle-age mice remains unclear. Since this age is one of the best stages to study age-related cognitive decline, we explored the spatial learning and memory ability, serum THs, cerebral SNAP-25 and Munc18-1 levels and their relationships of middle-aged mice in this study. The learning and memory abilities of 35 CD-1 mice (19 mice aged 6 months and 16 mice aged 12 months) were measured with a radial six-arm water maze (RAWM). The SNAP-25 and Munc18-1 levels were semi-quantified by Western blotting and the serum THs were detected by radioimmunoassay. The results showed the middle-aged mice had decreased serum FT3, increased dorsal hippocampal (DH) SNAP-25 and Munc18-1, and many or long number of errors and latency in both learning and memory phases of the RAWM. The Pearson's correlation test showed that the DH SANP-25 and Munc18-1 levels were positively correlated with the number of errors and latency in learning phases of the RAWM. Meanwhile, the DH SANP-25 and Munc18-1 levels negatively correlated with the serum FT3 level. These results suggested that reduced FT3 with increased DH SNAP-25 and Munc18-1 levels might be involved in the spatial learning ability decline in the middle-aged mice.

  13. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of seven species of free-ranging tropical pelagic seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    I established reference values for weight, hematology, and serum chemistry for seven species of free-ranging Hawaiian tropical pelagic seabirds comprising three orders (Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, Charadriiformes) and six families (Procellariidae, Phaethontidae, Diomedeidae, Sulidae, Fregatidae, and Laridae). Species examined included 84 Hawaiian darkrumped petrels (Pterodoma phaeopygia), 90 wedge-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), 151 Laysan albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis), 69 red-footed boobies (Sula sula), 154 red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaeton rubricauda), 90 great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), and 72 sooty terns (Sterna fuscata). Hematocrit, total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Among and within species, hematology and chemistry values varied with age, sex, season, and island of collection. Despite this variation, order-wide trends were observed.

  14. Substitution of whole cows' milk with defatted milk for 4 months reduced serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB in a sample of Mexican school-age children (6-16 years of age).

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Salvador; Lara Zamudio, Yaveth; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Manzano, Alejandra Contreras; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor

    2015-09-14

    We carried out this study to compare the effect of consuming whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months on serum concentrations of blood indicators of cardiovascular risk (CVR) in Mexican children and adolescents. Children aged between 6 and 16 years living in indigenous boarding schools in Mexico and who were usual consumers of whole milk were recruited to this study. Totally, thirteen boarding schools were randomly selected to receive full supplies of whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months. Serum total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol, apoA and total apoB, and Lp(a) concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Comparisons were made with multi-level mixed-effects linear regression models using the difference in differences approach. Compared with the whole milk group, TC, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB were lower in defatted milk consumers by -0·43, -0·28, -0·16 mmol/l and -0·05 g/l, respectively (all P<0·001). Compared with the whole milk group, the group that consumed partially defatted milk showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of LDL-cholesterol (-0·12, P=0·01), apoA (-0·05 g/l, P=0·01) and total apoB (-0·05 g/l, P=0·001). Defatted milk intake for 4 months reduced some of the serum indicators of CVR.

  15. Samoyed hereditary glomerulopathy: serial, clinical and laboratory (urine, serum biochemistry and hematology) studies.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, B; Valli, V E; Thorner, P; Baumal, R; Lumsden, J H

    1987-01-01

    Human hereditary nephritis refers to familial glomerular diseases which may progress to renal failure. Samoyed hereditary glomerulopathy has been shown previously to be a model for hereditary nephritis. Clinical and laboratory studies were performed to follow progression to renal failure in 44 dogs in a family with Samoyed hereditary glomerulopathy. Affected males appeared healthy for their first three months but then became progressively wasted. Proteinuria was detected between two to three months of age; after five months, urine protein electrophoresis showed pre-albumin, albumin and alpha and beta globulin peaks. From three months onward, a reduced glomerular filtration rate was detected. Serum albumin decreased while amylase, urea, creatinine and phosphate increased from four to five months of age. Death from renal failure occurred by 15 months. Carrier females also became thinner and developed proteinuria between two and three months of age, but neither renal failure nor death ensured. Hence, SHG progressed rapidly in affected males but not in carrier females. PMID:3651895

  16. Serum Galactose-Deficient IgA1 Level Is Not Associated with Proteinuria in Children with IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, M. Colleen; Afshan, Sabahat; Sanders, John T.; Kane, Oulimata; Eison, T. Matthew; Lau, Keith K.; Moldoveanu, Zina; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan; Wyatt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Percentage of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) relative to total IgA in serum was recently reported to correlate with proteinuria at time of sampling and during follow-up for pediatric and adult patients with IgA nephropathy. We sought to determine whether this association exists in another cohort of pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy. Methods. Subjects were younger than 18 years at entry. Blood samples were collected on one or more occasions for determination of serum total IgA and Gd-IgA1. Gd-IgA1 was expressed as serum level and percent of total IgA. Urinary protein/creatinine ratio was calculated for random specimens. Spearman's correlation coefficients assessed the relationship between study variables. Results. The cohort had 29 Caucasians and 11 African-Americans with a male : female ratio of 1.9 : 1. Mean age at diagnosis was 11.7 ± 3.7 years. No statistically significant correlation was identified between serum total IgA, Gd-IgA1, or percent Gd-IgA1 versus urinary protein/creatinine ratio determined contemporaneously with biopsy or between average serum Gd-IgA1 or average percent Gd-IgA1 and time-average urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Conclusion. The magnitude of proteinuria in this cohort of pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy was influenced by factors other than Gd-IgA1 level, consistent with the proposed multi-hit pathogenetic pathways for this renal disease. PMID:22754697

  17. Serum metabolites from walnut-fed aged rats attenuate stress-induced neurotoxicity in BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The shift in equilibrium towards excess reactive oxygen or nitrogen species production from innate antioxidant defenses in brain is a critical factor in the declining neural function and cognitive deficit accompanying age. Previous studies from our laboratory have reported that walnuts, rich in poly...

  18. Effects of Wheat and Oat-Based Whole Grain Foods on Serum Lipoprotein Size and Distribution in Overweight Middle Aged People: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Paula; Duthie, Garry; Brittenden, Julie; Vaughan, Nicholas; Mutch, William; Simpson, William G.; Duthie, Susan; Horgan, Graham W.; Thies, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies suggest three daily servings of whole-grain foods (WGF) might lower cardiovascular disease risk, at least partly by lowering serum lipid levels. We have assessed the effects of consuming three daily portions of wholegrain food (provided as wheat or a mixture of wheat and oats) on lipoprotein subclass size and concentration in a dietary randomised controlled trial involving middle aged healthy individuals. Methods After a 4-week run-in period on a refined diet, volunteers were randomly allocated to a control (refined diet), wheat, or wheat + oats group for 12 weeks. Our servings were determined in order to significantly increase the intakes of non starch polysaccharides to the UK Dietary Reference Value of 18 g per day in the whole grain groups (18.5 g and 16.8 g per day in the wheat and wheat + oats groups respectively in comparison with 11.3 g per day in the control group). Outcome measures were serum lipoprotein subclasses' size and concentration. Habitual dietary intake was assessed prior and during the intervention. Of the 233 volunteers recruited, 24 withdrew and 3 were excluded. Results At baseline, significant associations were found between lipoprotein size and subclasses' concentrations and some markers of cardiovascular risk such as insulin resistance, blood pressure and serum Inter cellular adhesion molecule 1 concentration. Furthermore, alcohol and vitamin C intake were positively associated with an anti-atherogenic lipoprotein profile, with regards to lipoprotein size and subclasses' distribution. However, none of the interventions with whole grain affected lipoprotein size and profile. Conclusion Our results indicate that three portions of wholegrain foods, irrelevant of the type (wheat or oat-based) do not reduce cardiovascular risk by beneficially altering the size and distribution of lipoprotein subclasses. Trial Registration www.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN 27657880. PMID:23940575

  19. The relationship between fasting serum glucose and cerebral glucose metabolism in late-life depression and normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Christopher M.; Workman, Clifford I.; Lyman, Christopher H.; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol R.; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; Smith, Gwenn S.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence exists for late-life depression (LLD) as both a prodrome of and risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The underlying neurobiological mechanisms are poorly understood. Impaired peripheral glucose metabolism may explain the association between depression and AD given the connection between type 2 diabetes mellitus with both depression and AD. Positron emission tomography (PET) measures of cerebral glucose metabolism are sensitive to detecting changes in neural circuitry in LLD and AD. Fasting serum glucose (FSG) in non-diabetic young (YC; n=20) and elderly controls (EC; n=12) and LLD patients (n=16) was correlated with PET scans of cerebral glucose metabolism on a voxel-wise basis. The negative correlations were more extensive in EC versus YC and in LLD patients versus EC. Increased FSG correlated with decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in LLD patients to a greater extent than in EC in heteromodal association cortices involved in mood symptoms and cognitive deficits observed in LLD and dementia. Negative correlations in YC were observed in sensory and motor regions. Understanding the neurobiological consequences of diabetes and associated conditions will have substantial public health significance given that this is a modifiable risk factor for which prevention strategies could have an important impact on lowering dementia risk. PMID:24650451

  20. Creatinine biomaterial thin films grown by laser techniques.

    PubMed

    György, E; Axente, E; Mihailescu, I N; Predoi, D; Ciuca, S; Neamtu, J

    2008-03-01

    Creatinine thin films were synthesised by matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques for enzyme-based biosensor applications. An UV KrF* (lambda=248 nm, tau approximately 10 ns) excimer laser source was used for the irradiation of the targets at incident fluence values in the 0.3-0.5 J/cm2 range. For the matrix assisted PLD the targets consisted on a frozen composite obtained by dissolving the biomaterials in distilled water. The surface morphology, chemical composition and structure of the obtained biomaterial thin films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as a function of the target preparation procedure and incident laser fluence.

  1. Serum Samples From Middle-aged Adults Vaccinated Annually with Seasonal Influenza Vaccines Cross-neutralize Some Potential Pandemic Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Alvarado-Facundo, Esmeralda; Chen, Qiong; Anderson, Christine M; Scott, Dorothy; Vassell, Russell; Weiss, Carol D

    2016-02-01

    We examined serum samples from adults ages 48-64 who received multiple seasonal influenza vaccines from 2004 to 2009 for cross-neutralizing antibodies to potential pandemic strains. Using pseudoviruses bearing various hemagglutinins (HA-pseudoviruses), we found serum neutralization titers (≥160) in 100% against A/Japan/305/1957 (H2N2), 53% against A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2), 56% against the H3N2 variant A/Indiana/08/11 (H3N2v), 11% against A/Hong Kong/G9/97 (H9N2), and 36% A/chicken/Hong Kong/SF4/01 (H6N1). None had titers >160 to A/Shanghai/2/13 (H7N9) or A/Netherlands/219/03 (H7N7). Thirty-six percent to 0% had neutralization titers to various H5N1 strains. Titers to H9, H6, and H5 HA-pseudoviruses correlated with each other, but not with H3N2v, suggesting group-specific cross-neutralization.

  2. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Lei; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The rate and odds ratio (OR) for SGA infant were calculated. The rate for SGA infant was 10.6% among subjects with H-Cd (≥1.06 μg/L), significantly higher than 7.5% among subjects with L-Cd (<1.06 μg/L). OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.90; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Adjusted OR for SGA infants was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.88; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Taken together, we observe the fact that maternal Cd exposure at middle gestational stage, elevates the risk of SGA in contrast to early gestational stage. The present results might be interesting and worth more discussing, and guarantee to further studies. PMID:26934860

  3. Relationship between serum leptin level and laboratory and anthropometric indices of malnutrition in patients on hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahamadi, F.; Bosorgmehr, R.; Razeghi, E.

    2008-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a major problem and one of the risk factors for mortality in hemodialysis patients. There is no single index in evaluation of nutritional status in these patients, so leptin can be used as one of the parameters. In this study, the correlation between serum leptin with biochemical and anthropometric parameters of nutrition has been evaluated. This cross-sectional study has been performed on 60 hemodialysis patients (32 males and 28 females) in 2006. The patients on hemodialysis for under 1 year and who has a history of consumption of lipid lowering agents or glucocorticoids, or an infectious or inflammatory disease were excluded. Malnutrition laboratory parameters and serum leptin were measured before hemodialysis. Serum leptin was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method with direct dbc kit and malnutrition laboratory parameters measured with standard laboratory methods, patients anthropometric parameters evaluated after hemodialysis. The mean age of patients was 47.5 ± 16.1 years and the range of serum leptin level was 0.6-64.8 ng/ml. Mean serum leptin level were 22.64 ± 19.54 ng/ml in females and 16.74 ± 20.16 ng/ml in males on hemodialysis and in spite of higher level of leptin in females there was not any statistically significant difference between females and males serum leptin. Absolute value of correlation coefficient between serum leptin and anthropometric parameters and most laboratory parameters was < 0.25 (except ferritin, iron, phosphorous in males and total protein, hemoglobin, urea, and creatinin in females which was between 0.25 and 0.50). Our results suggest that the increased serum leptin level does not have a major role in diagnosis of malnutrition in hemodialysis patients and there is a poor correlation between malnutrition parameters and serum leptin level. PMID:20142915

  4. Association between Cognition and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Middle-Aged & Older Men: An 8 Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Tumati, Shankar; Burger, Huibert; Martens, Sander; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), an essential neurotrophic factor, have been associated with worse cognitive function in older adults. However, few studies have assessed the prospective association of serum IGF-1 with cognitive function. We aimed to determine the association between serum IGF-1 on concurrent and prospective cognitive function in a population sample of men aged 40–80 years. Blood samples were assessed for IGF-1 levels at baseline and neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline (n = 400) and at follow-up after a mean duration of 8.3 years (n = 286). Linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the associations between quintiles of IGF-1 and cognitive function at the baseline and follow-up visits. Results showed that those in the top quintile of IGF-1 had lower processing capacity and global cognition scores at follow-up after controlling for cognitive function at baseline and other confounding factors. Additional analyses exploring associations with IGF-1 separately in middle-aged and older participants, and with quartiles of IGF-1 produced similar results. In those older than 60 years, high IGF-1 levels were also associated with lower baseline processing capacity. These results suggest that high IGF-1 levels are associated with worse long-term cognition in men. Together with past studies, we suggest that both, high and low levels of IGF-1 may be associated with poor cognitive function and that optimum levels of IGF-1 (quintile 2 and 3 in current study) may be associated with better cognitive function. PMID:27115487

  5. Cdx-2 polymorphism in Vitamin D Receptor gene was associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, bone mineral density and fracture in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yan; Lin, Huandong; Aleteng, Qiqige; Ma, Hui; Pan, Baishen; Gao, Jian; Gao, Xin

    2016-05-15

    The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between Cdx-2 polymorphism in the promoter region of the VDR gene and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture in Chinese population. This was a cross-sectional study, which included 738 individuals (428 women and 310 men) aged 45 years or older. In women, the association of Cdx-2 polymorphism with serum 25(OH)D levels was significant adjusting for age, BMI, estimated glomerular filtration rate, menopausal status and season of blood collection (P = 0.002). Cdx-2 polymorphism was associated with lumbar spine BMD adjusted for age, BMI, menopausal status and serum 25(OH)D in women (P = 0.005). But it was not associated with femoral neck BMD or total hip BMD in women. In women, Cdx-2 polymorphism was also associated with fracture adjusted for age, BMI, menopausal status, serum 25(OH)D and total hip BMD (P = 0.03). Carriers of AA and AG genotypes was associated with a higher odds of fracture compared with the carriers of GG genotype (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.04-4.42 and OR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.03-3.51). In men, Cdx-2 polymorphism was not associated with serum 25(OH)D levels, BMD or fracture. Our results indicate that the association of Cdx-2 polymorphism in the VDR gene with serum 25(OH)D levels, BMD and fracture may have sex differences. Cdx-2 polymorphism in the VDR gene may affect the serum 25(OH)D concentrations and the risk of osteoporosis and fracture in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. PMID:26970179

  6. Evaluation of Serum, Urine, and Hair Chromium Levels as Indices of Chromium Exposure and the Relationship of these Indices to Serum Lipid and Insulin Levels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Janis Avril

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr) in hair, serum, and urine, and serum concentrations of insulin and lipids of a selected group of men exposed to trivalent Cr (Cr III) were compared with those of men not exposed to Cr. Seventy -three tannery workers (TW) (mean age 37 +/- 12 years) from four Southern Ontario tanneries and fifty-two control subjects (CS) (mean age 41 +/- 13 years), matched for age, race, and socioeconomic status, from the Guelph and Toronto areas participated. The median hair and serum Cr concentrations for the TW were significantly higher (p < 0.01) than for the CS (hair Cr 453 vs 124 ng/g; serum Cr 0.49 vs 0.15 ng/ml). Median urinary Cr/creatinine ratios (Cr/Cre) for the TW on Monday morning (0.83 ng/mg) and Friday afternoon (0.68 ng/mg) were also significantly higher (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively) than the median urinary Cr/Cre ratio for the urine samples collected on a Friday afternoon from the CS (0.18 ng/mg). For the TW, the median Friday urinary Cr/Cre ratio was significantly higher (p = 0.03) than the corresponding Monday Cr/Cre ratio. For the TW, urinary Cr/Cre ratios (Monday and Friday) were correlated significantly and positively with both Cr concentrations in serum (r = 0.45, p < 0.01; r = 0.71, p < 0.01, respectively) and in hair (r = 0.43, p < 0.01; r = 0.64, p < 0.01, respectively). Concentrations of Cr in hair and in serum were also significantly correlated (r = 0.52, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the TW and CS in serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides, or in calculated values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, %HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C. Likewise, no significant differences in serum insulin concentrations were noted between the two groups. Results of this study indicate that Cr III, from compounds used in the leather tanning industry, is absorbed and retained. Absorption of Cr III had no significant effect on serum insulin

  7. Effect of Oestrogen on Altering the Serum and Urinary Levels of Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium in Hysterectomised Women Compared to Natural Menopausal South Indian Women: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Sonu, Yeldose; Avinash, S S; Sreekantha; Arun Kumar, K; Malathi, M; Shivashankara, A R

    2016-07-01

    Given the paucity of studies conducted to know the effect of suddenness and earlier onset of endocrinological changes associated with hysterectomy, on the serum and urinary levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate the present study was conducted to compare the levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in serum and urine of hysterectomised and natural menopausal south Indian women. This is a cross-sectional observational study. The study included three groups of 30 healthy premenopausal, 30 early surgical menopausal and 30 natural post menopausal women. Women suffering from any endocrine disease were excluded. Analysis was performed in serum and urine sample. The levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in serum and calcium/creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphate/creatinine ratio were estimated in urine by spectrophotometric method. Hysterectomised women (serum calcium: 8.7 ± 0.09 mg/dl; urine calcium/creatinine: 0.16 ± 0.02) have significantly low serum calcium (p < 0.001) and high urinary calcium/creatinine (p = 0.002) ratio and post menopausal women (serum magnesium: 2.1 ± 0.03; serum phosphate: 4.4 ± 0.16; urinary calcium/creatinine: 0.17 ± 0.02; urinary magnesium/creatinine: 0.09 ± 0.01) have significantly high serum magnesium (p = 0.016), serum phosphate (p = 0.043) and high urinary calcium/creatinine (p = 0.002), magnesium/creatinine ratio (p = 0.025) compared to healthy pre menopausal women. Post menopausal women (serum calcium: 9.1 ± 0.08) have significantly high serum calcium and phosphate compared to hysterectomised women (serum phosphate: 3.93 ± 0.11). Hysterectomised women have significantly low serum calcium, oestrogen and high urinary calcium/creatinine ratio compared to healthy premenopausal women and low serum calcium and low serum phosphate compared to natural postmenopausal women. Natural postmenopausal women had low serum oestrogen and high serum magnesium, serum phosphate, urinary calcium

  8. The screening value of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Van Hee, R; Hubens, A

    1979-01-01

    The screening value of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis is studied. A series of 28 patients with pancreatic disease is compared with 80 controls and 82 patients with other intra-abdominal disease. The greatest specificity of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio value is reached at the 3.5 level. The amylase creatinine clearance ratio value proves to be of interest, not only in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis but also in differentiating mild and heavy forms of pancreatitis.

  9. Serum Soluble (Pro)Renin Receptor Levels in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Amari, Yoshifumi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Nakajima, Fumitaka; Ando, Takashi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] is cleaved by furin to generate soluble (P)RR [s(P)RR], which reflects the status of the tissue renin-angiotensin system. Hemodialysis patients have advanced atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between serum s(P)RR levels and background factors, including indices of atherosclerosis, in hemodialysis patients. Serum s(P)RR levels were measured in hemodialysis patients and clearance of s(P)RR through the membrane of the dialyzer was examined. Furthermore, relationships between serum s(P)RR levels and background factors were assessed. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients (30.4 ± 6.1 ng/ml, n = 258) than those in subjects with normal renal function (21.4 ± 6.2 ng/ml, n = 39, P < 0.0001). Clearance of s(P)RR and creatinine were 56.9 ± 33.5 and 147.6 ± 9.50 ml/min, respectively. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in those with ankle-brachial index (ABI) of < 0.9, an indicator of severe atherosclerosis, than those with ABI of ≥ 0.9 (32.2 ± 5.9 and 30.1 ± 6.2 ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.05). An association between low ABI and high serum s(P)RR levels was observed even after correction for age, history of smoking, HbA1c, and LDL-C. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients when compared with subjects with normal renal function, although s(P)RR is dialyzed to some extent, but to a lesser extent than creatinine. High serum s(P)RR levels may be associated with atherosclerosis independent of other risk factors, suggesting that serum s(P)RR could be used as a marker for atherosclerotic conditions in hemodialysis patients. PMID:27367528

  10. Situation of serum antibodies against Newcastle disease virus in slaughter-age ostriches after vaccination campaign in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ruenphet, Sakchai; Jahangir, Alam; Shoham, Dany; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2012-04-01

    A total of 516 slaughter-age ostrich sera were collected in Japan during 2006-2009. Sixty-one of five hundred and sixteen were positive by virus neutralization (VN) test and the titer of most positive samples was low level. Within the 61 positive sera, 35 sera were collected from unvaccinated ostriches. This result implies that these ostriches might have been infected naturally with low-virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Within the 455 negative samples, 125 samples were from vaccinated ostriches. Since ostrich farmers use live attenuated vaccines, it is reasonable that the titer decreased to below detection level by 1 or 1.5 year-old. The above data indicate that NDV has infiltrated into ostrich farms in Japan, and that the efficacy of ostrich ND vaccination is often time-limited.

  11. [Evaluation of a modified exogenous creatinine clearance as a suitable renal function test for the small animal practice].

    PubMed

    Höchel, Joachim; Finnah, Anke; Velde, Karsten; Hartmann, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    A suitable method in the routine veterinary practice for the quantitative determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in dogs and cats has not been available until to date. Therefore, we modified the known plasma clearance model (=P-CL). The resulting P-CLterminal was assessed concerning its diagnostic value. P-CL of exogenous creatinine (P-CLcrea) and of inulin were determined in dogs (n=12, Beagle, 6 months of age) and cats (n=11, Domestic Short Hair, 14 months of age). The marker substances were administered as a bolus injection. In fasted dogs, P-CLcrea was 84.3 +/- 14.85 ml/min/m2 after a creatinine dose of 2.4 g/m2. An electrolyte infusion during the clearance determination did not alter the resulting values (p>0.05). In fasted cats, P-CLcrea was 54.7 +/- 5.8 ml/min/m2 (creatinine dose 2.0 g/m2). The inulin clearance, determined at the same time, was 104.5 +/- 19.81 ml/min/m2. Feeding the cats just before and during the test increased P-CL of both markers significantly (p<0.05). In order to adapt the clearance method for diagnostic assessment of GFR in the small animal practice, we aimed at minimizing the number of required blood samples (3 instead of 7 or more) and introduced the modified exogenous creatinine clearance (P-CLterminal). These values determined were 108.4 +/- 20.81 ml/min/m2 in fasted dogs and 66.3 +/- 11.81 ml/min/m2 in fasted cats. An electrolyte infusion (dogs) and feeding (cats) had the same effect on P-CLterminal values as described above for P-CL. In conclusion,the modified exogenous creatinine clearance is a suitable renal function test for the early diagnosis of renal disease in dogs and cats presented in small animal practices. PMID:15495934

  12. Increases in summer serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in elderly subjects in São Paulo, Brazil vary with age, gender and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypovitaminosis D is a common condition among elderly individuals in temperate-climate countries, with a clear seasonal variation on 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels, increasing after summer and decreasing after winter, but there are few data from sunny countries such as Brazil. Many factors can interfere on vitamin D cutaneous synthesis. We aimed at studying the 25OHD variations during winter and summer in an outdoor physically active elderly population living in São Paulo city, and analysed their determining factors. Methods Ninety-nine individuals (52 women and 47 men, from 55 to 83 years old) from different ethnic groups were selected from an outdoor physical activity group. Data are reported as Mean ± SD, and we used Pearson Linear Correlation, Student's t-test for non-related samples, Chi-square (χ²) test and One-way ANOVA for analysis. Results Mean 25OHD value for the whole group was 78.9 ± 30.9 nmol/L in the winter and 91.6 ± 31.7 nmol/L in the summer (p = 0.005). Mean winter serum 25OHD concentrations were not different between men and women (81.2 ± 30.1 nmol/L vs. 76.7 ± 31.8 nmol/L, respectively), and 19.2% of the individuals showed values < 50 nmol/L. In the summer, we noticed an increase only for men (107.6 ± 31.4 nmol/L) compared to women (76.7 ± 24.0 nmol/L), and 6.5% showed values < 50 nmol/L. A decrease in the mean PTH in the summer compared to the winter was noticed, with PTH levels showing a relationship with 25OHD concentrations only in the winter (r = -0.208, p = 0.041). White individuals showed an increase in mean serum 25OHD in the summer (p = 0.016) which was not noticed for other ethnic groups (Asians, native Brazilians and blacks). An increase in 25OHD values in the summer was observed in the age groups ranging from 51-60 and 61-70 years old (p < 0.05), but not in the age group from 71 years old on. Conclusions 25OHD values increased during the summer in elderly residents of São Paulo, but to different extents depending on

  13. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and development of radiographic and painful knee osteoarthritis. A community-based cohort of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kluzek, Stefan; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Judge, Andrew; Karsdal, Morten A.; Shorthose, Matthew; Spector, Tim; Hart, Deborah; Newton, Julia L.; Arden, Nigel K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context and objective: We evaluated the predictive value of serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP) levels over 20 years on the development of radiographic (RKOA) and painful knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in a longitudinal cohort of middle-aged women. Materials and methods: Five hundred and ninety-three women with no baseline KOA underwent 5-year knee radiographs over 20-years and were asked about knee pain a month before each assessment. A repeated measures logistic regression model was used where the outcomes were recorded at 5, 10, 15 and 20-years follow-up. Results: The highest quartile of sCOMP was associated with increased risk of RKOA with overall OR of 1.97 (95% CI: 1.33–2.91) over 20 years when compared with the lowest sCOMP quartile. The association with painful KOA was similar and also independent, but only when the fourth and third sCOMP quartiles were compared. Discussion and conclusion: This study demonstrates that sCOMP levels are predictive of subsequent structural changes and incidence of painful KOA, independently of age and BMI. PMID:26848781

  14. Serum enzyme activities after cardioversion

    PubMed Central

    Mandecki, Tadeusz; Giec, Leszek; Kargul, Włodzimierz

    1970-01-01

    Serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (SGPT), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), and butyric acid dehydrogenase (BDH) were determined in 94 patients before, 1½ hours, and 24 hours after cardioversion. An increase in SGOT and CPK activity was observed 24 hours after cardioversion in the group of patients treated with two or more DC shocks. The importance of this enzyme activity increase is discussed. It originates in the skeletal muscles and probably has no clinical significance, as no other signs of myocardial damage were observed simultaneously in a large group of patients. PMID:5470040

  15. Effect of creatinine and specific gravity normalization on urinary biomarker 1,6-hexamethylene diamine.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Linda G T; Fent, Kenneth W; Flack, Sheila L; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Ball, Louise M; Zhou, Haibo; Whittaker, Stephen G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2010-03-01

    Urine amine levels used as biomarkers of diisocyanate exposure have usually been normalized with creatinine concentration. The suitability of using creatinine concentration or specific gravity for these biomarkers in exposure assessment has not been established. We investigated the effect of creatinine concentration and specific gravity on urine 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in multiple mixed linear regression models using quantitative dermal and inhalation exposure data derived from a survey of automotive spray painters occupationally exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). Painters' dermal and breathing-zone HDI exposure were monitored for an entire workday for up to three workdays spaced approximately one month apart. One urine sample was collected before the start of work with HDI-containing paints, and multiple samples were collected throughout the workday. Both creatinine concentration and specific gravity were highly significant predictors (p < 0.0001) of urine HDA levels. When these two were used together in the same model, creatinine remained highly significant (p < 0.0001), but specific gravity decreased in significance (p-values 0.10-0.17). We used different individual factors to determine which affected creatinine and specific gravity. Urine collection time was a highly significant predictor of specific gravity (p = 0.003) and creatinine concentration (p = 0.001). Smoker status was significant (p = 0.026) in the creatinine model. The findings indicate that creatinine concentration is more appropriate to account for urine water content than specific gravity and that creatinine is best used as an independent variable in HDI exposure assessment models instead of traditional urine normalization with creatinine concentration.

  16. The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Murray, W R; Mittra, S; Mittra, D; Roberts, L B; Taylor, K M

    1981-08-01

    The incidence of unexplained pancreatitis in patients dying after cardiac operations has been recorded as 16%, with evidence to implicate ischemia in the pathogenesis of the pancreatitis. Increased amylase--to--creatinine clearance ratios (ACCR), suggesting pancreatic dysfunction, have been reported in patients following nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pulsatile CPB is increasingly recognized to be a more physiological form of perfusion, particularly with respect to capillary blood flow. In this study the ACCR has been determined before, during, and after cardiac operations performed with both nonpulsatile and pulsatile CPB. Twenty patients undergoing elective cardiac operations were studied. Ten patients had nonpulsatile CPB (nonpulsatile group) and 10 had pulsatile CPB (pulsatile group). The two groups were comparable as regards perioperative variables and perfusion parameters. In both groups the ACCR was estimated preoperatively, on three occasions during the operation, and daily on the first 5 postoperative days. A significant elevation in ACCR was observed in nine of 10 patients in the nonpulsatile group but in only one of 10 patients in the pulsatile group (p less than 0.001). The significant improvement of ACCR stability following pulsatile CPB may indicate that this form of perfusion will reduce the risk of pancreatitis following cardiac operations performed with CPB.

  17. Evaluation of dementia by acrolein, amyloid-β and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Kazuei; Yoshida, Madoka; Waragai, Masaaki; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2015-10-23

    Plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were examined for biochemical markers of dementia. Protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro) and the amyloid-β (Aβ)40/42 ratio in plasma can be used to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In plasma, PC-Acro and the Aβ40/42 ratio in MCI and AD were significantly higher relative to non-demented subjects. Furthermore, urine acrolein metabolite, 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid (3-HPMA)/creatinine (Cre) and amino acid-conjugated acrolein (AC-Acro)/Cre in AD were significantly lower than MCI. It was also shown that reduced urine 3-HPMA/Cre correlated with increased plasma Aβ40/42 ratio in dementia. The Aβ40/PC-Acro ratio in CSF, together with Aβ40 and Aβ40/42 ratio, was lower in AD than MCI. Increased plasma PC-Acro and Aβ40/42 ratio and decreased urine 3-HPMA/Cre correlated with cognitive ability (MMSE). These results indicate that the measurements of acrolein derivatives together with Aβ and Cre in biologic fluids is useful to estimate severity of dementia.

  18. The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Murray, W R; Mittra, S; Mittra, D; Roberts, L B; Taylor, K M

    1981-08-01

    The incidence of unexplained pancreatitis in patients dying after cardiac operations has been recorded as 16%, with evidence to implicate ischemia in the pathogenesis of the pancreatitis. Increased amylase--to--creatinine clearance ratios (ACCR), suggesting pancreatic dysfunction, have been reported in patients following nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pulsatile CPB is increasingly recognized to be a more physiological form of perfusion, particularly with respect to capillary blood flow. In this study the ACCR has been determined before, during, and after cardiac operations performed with both nonpulsatile and pulsatile CPB. Twenty patients undergoing elective cardiac operations were studied. Ten patients had nonpulsatile CPB (nonpulsatile group) and 10 had pulsatile CPB (pulsatile group). The two groups were comparable as regards perioperative variables and perfusion parameters. In both groups the ACCR was estimated preoperatively, on three occasions during the operation, and daily on the first 5 postoperative days. A significant elevation in ACCR was observed in nine of 10 patients in the nonpulsatile group but in only one of 10 patients in the pulsatile group (p less than 0.001). The significant improvement of ACCR stability following pulsatile CPB may indicate that this form of perfusion will reduce the risk of pancreatitis following cardiac operations performed with CPB. PMID:6166815

  19. Association of Serum Vitamin D with the Risk of Incident Dementia and Subclinical Indices of Brain Aging: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Karakis, Ioannis; Pase, Matthew P.; Beiser, Alexa; Booth, Sarah L.; Jacques, Paul F.; Rogers, Gail; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Annweiler, Cedric; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying nutrition- and lifestyle-based risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia may aid future primary prevention efforts. Objective We aimed to examine the association of serum vitamin D levels with incident all-cause dementia, clinically characterized Alzheimer’s disease (AD), MRI markers of brain aging, and neuropsychological function. Methods Framingham Heart Study participants had baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations measured between 1986 and 2001. Vitamin D status was considered both as a continuous variable and dichotomized as deficient (<10 ng/mL), or at the cohort-specific 20th and 80th percentiles. Vitamin D was related to the 9-year risk of incident dementia (n= 1663), multiple neuropsychological tests (n= 1291) and MRI markers of brain volume, white matter hyperintensities and silent cerebral infarcts (n = 1139). Results In adjusted models, participants with vitamin D deficiency (n = 104, 8% of the cognitive sample) displayed poorer performance on Trail Making B-A (β = −0.03 to −0.05 ±0.02) and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (β = −0.09 to −0.12 ±0.05), indicating poorer executive function, processing speed, and visuo-perceptual skills. These associations remained when vitamin D was examined as a continuous variable or dichotomized at the cohort specific 20th percentile. Vitamin D deficiency was also associated with lower hippocampal volumes (β = −0.01 ±0.01) but not total brain volume, white matter hyperintensities, or silent brain infarcts. No association was found between vitamin D deficiency and incident all-cause dementia or clinically characterized AD. Conclusions In this large community-based sample, low 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with smaller hippocampal volume and poorer neuropsychological function. PMID:26890771

  20. Increased concentrations of serum Lp(a) lipoprotein in patients with primary gout.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, S; Yamamoto, T; Moriwaki, Y; Tsutsumi, Z; Higashino, K

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate if serum Lp(a) lipoprotein (Lp(a)), a risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases, increases in patients with gout, who frequently also have atherosclerotic disease. METHODS--Fasting blood samples were taken for measurement of Lp(a) and other variables in 175 male patients with primary gout. Serum concentrations of Lp(a) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The median value and frequency distribution of Lp(a) in gout patients were compared with those in 172 control male subjects. In addition, we examined the effect of niceritorol on serum Lp(a) values in gout patients in whom the Lp(a) concentration was greater than 20 mg/dl. RESULTS--Serum Lp(a) was significantly higher in patients with gout than control subjects (median 15.5 mg/dl upsilon 8.6 mg/dl; p < 0.01). The frequency distribution of Lp(a) in gout was significantly shifted towards greater concentrations compared with control, although skewed distribution was noted in both groups. Serum Lp(a) concentration was not related to age, body mass index, alcohol intake, creatinine, fasting blood sugar or uric acid in patients with gout. Niceritorol decreased the serum concentrations of Lp(a) in gout. CONCLUSIONS--These observations suggest that serum Lp(a) concentrations are increased in patients with gout and may play a role as one of the risk factors for atherosclerotic diseases in gout. Niceritorol seems effective in decreasing high levels of Lp(a) in patients with gout without detrimental influence on serum uric acid concentration. PMID:7702412

  1. Dietary threonine requirement of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 days of age based on performance, yield, serum natural antibodies, and intestinal mucin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Xu, L; Doster, A; Murdoch, R; Cotter, P; Gardner, A; Applegate, T J

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted to establish the dietary Thr requirement of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. Experimental diets were formulated to contain 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, 0.75, and 0.85% Thr (0.57, 0.60, 0.64, 0.72, and 0.80% on an analyzed basis) and were studied in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, each diet was fed to 10 pens of 52 drakes per pen. Samples were collected at d 35 for determinations of carcass yields, serum immune parameters, and intestinal characteristics. Experiment 2 was a digestibility study, wherein 0.5% chromic oxide was mixed into the experimental diets and fed from 15 to 19 d. Ileal digesta were collected at d 19 to analyze mucin secretions and apparent ileal Thr digestibility. The results showed that feeding 0.72% versus 0.64% Thr improved 15 to 35 d BW gain by 55 g (P < 0.05), reduced feed-to-gain by 0.04 (P < 0.05), as well as increased carcass and breast meat yields by 22 and 24 g, respectively. Also, 0.72% Thr had the highest crude mucin secretion on a DM intake (DMI) basis (P < 0.05), although Thr had no effect on villus height, crypt depth, goblet cells, and MUC2 gene expression in the jejunum and ileum. In addition, serum natural IgY linearly increased (P < 0.0001) with dietary Thr increase. Using nonlinear regressions, Thr requirement was estimated to range from a low of 0.70% to maximize dry crude mucin secretion on a DMI basis to a high of 0.80% to maximize carcass weight and serum IgY production by the linear or quadratic regression. Equivalently, Thr requirement varied between a low of 0.62% to minimize mortality and a high of 0.73% to maximize dry crude mucin secretion expressed as DMI using the quadratic broken-line model. Correspondingly, the apparent ileal digestible Thr requirements were estimated to be 0.52 to 0.66% (0.70 to 0.80% dietary Thr) by quadratic and 0.47 to 0.56% (0.62 to 0.73% dietary Thr) by quadratic broken-line model.

  2. Safety and Immunogenicity of Human Serum Albumin-Free MMR Vaccine in US Children Aged 12–15 Months

    PubMed Central

    Mufson, Maurice A.; Diaz, Clemente; Leonardi, Michael; Harrison, Christopher J.; Grogg, Stanley; Carbayo, Antonio; Carlo-Torres, Simon; JeanFreau, Robert; Quintero-Del-Rio, Ana; Bautista, Gisele; Povey, Michael; Da Costa, Christopher; Nicholson, Ouzama; Innis, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    Background M-M-RTMII (MMRII; Merck & Co) is currently the only measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine licensed in the United States. Another licensed vaccine would reinforce MMR supply. This study assessed the immunogenicity of a candidate vaccine (PriorixTM, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines [MMR-RIT]) when used as a first dose among eligible children in the United States. Methods In this exploratory Phase-2, multicenter, observer-blind study, 1220 healthy subjects aged 12–15 months were randomized (3:3:3:3) and received 1 dose of 1 of 3 MMR-RIT lots with differing mumps virus titers (MMR-RIT-1 [4.8 log10]; MMR-RIT-2 [4.1 log10]; MMR-RIT-3 [3.7 log10] CCID50) or MMRII co-administered with hepatitis A vaccine (HAV), varicella vaccine (VAR) and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Immune response to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses was evaluated at Day 42 post-vaccination. Incidence of solicited injection site, general, and serious adverse events was assessed. Results Seroresponse rates for MMR vaccine viral components in MMR-RIT lots were 98.3–99.2% (measles), 89.7–90.7% (mumps), and 97.5–98.8% (rubella), and for MMRII were 99.6%, 91.1%, and 100%, respectively. Immune responses to HAV, VAR, and PCV7 were similar when co-administered with any of the 3 MMR-RIT lots or MMRII. There were no apparent differences in solicited or serious adverse events among the 4 groups. Conclusions Immune responses were above threshold levels for projected protection against the 3 viruses from MMR-RIT lots with differing mumps virus titers. MMR-RIT had an acceptable safety profile when co-administered with HAV, VAR, and PCV7. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00861744; etrack; 111870 PMID:26582873

  3. Variability of Creatinine Measurements in Clinical Laboratories: Results from the CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Marshall; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Feldman, Harold I.; Weir, Matthew; Landis, J.R.; Hamm, L. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Estimating equations using serum creatinine (SCr) are often used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Such creatinine (Cr)-based formulae may produce biased estimates of GFR when using Cr measurements that have not been calibrated to reference laboratories. In this paper, we sought to examine the degree of this variation in Cr assays in several laboratories associated with academic medical centers affiliated with the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study; to consider how best to correct for this variation, and to quantify the impact of such corrections on eligibility for participation in CRIC. Variability of Cr is of particular concern in the conduct of CRIC, a large multicenter study of subjects with chronic renal disease, because eligibility for the study depends on Cr-based assessment of GFR. Methods A library of 5 large volume plasma specimens from apheresis patients was assembled, representing levels of plasma Cr from 0.8 to 2.4 mg/dl. Samples from this library were used for measurement of Cr at each of the 14 CRIC laboratories repetitively over time. We used graphical displays and linear regression methods to examine the variability in Cr, and used linear regression to develop calibration equations. We also examined the impact of the various calibration equations on the proportion of subjects screened as potential participants who were actually eligible for the study. Results There was substantial variability in Cr assays across laboratories and over time. We developed calibration equations for each laboratory; these equations varied substantially among laboratories and somewhat over time in some laboratories. The laboratory site contributed the most to variability (51% of the variance unexplained by the specimen) and variation with time accounted for another 15%. In some laboratories, calibration equations resulted in differences in eligibility for CRIC of as much as 20%. Conclusions The substantial variability in SCr assays

  4. Neurocognitive outcomes at kindergarten entry after liver transplantation at <3 yr of age.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Charlene M T; Dinu, Irina A; Joffe, Ari R; Alton, Gwen Y; Yap, Jason Y K; Asthana, Sonel; Acton, Bryan V; Sauve, Reg S; Martin, Steven R; Kneteman, Norman M; Gilmour, Susan M

    2013-11-01

    This prospective inception cohort study determines kindergarten-entry neurocognitive abilities and explores their predictors following liver transplantation at age <3 yr. Of 52 children transplanted (1999-2008), 33 (89.2%) of 37 eligible survivors had psychological assessment at age 54.7 (8.4) months: 21 with biliary atresia, seven chronic cholestasis, and five acute liver failure. Neurocognitive scores (mean [s.d.], 100 [15]) as tested by a pediatric-experienced psychologist did not differ in relation to age group at transplant (≤12 months and >12 months): FSIQ, 93.9 (17.1); verbal (VIQ), 95.3 (16.5); performance (PIQ), 94.3 (18.1); and VMI, 90.5 (15.9), with >70% having scores ≥85, average or above. Adverse predictors from the pretransplant, transplant, and post-transplant (30 days) periods using univariate linear regressions for FSIQ were post-transplant use of inotropes, p = 0.029; longer transplant warm ischemia time, p = 0.035; and post-transplant highest serum creatinine, (p = 0.04). For PIQ, they were pretransplant encephalopathy, p = 0.027; post-transplant highest serum creatinine, p = 0.034; and post-transplant inotrope use, p = 0.037. For VMI, they were number of post-transplant infections, p = 0.019; post-transplant highest serum creatinine, p = 0.025; and lower family socioeconomic index, p = 0.039. Changes in care addressing modifiable predictors, including reducing acute post-transplant illness, pretransplant encephalopathy, transplant warm ischemia times, and preserving renal function, may improve neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:23961979

  5. Serum CETP and PLTP activity in middle-aged men living in urban or rural area of the Lower Silesia region. PURE Poland sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Wołyniec, Maria; Szuba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dependence of lipid transfer proteins on significant pro-atherogenic factors is unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity in relation to lipid disturbances in men living in an urban or rural area. Material and methods A group of 427 men, volunteers for the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) sub-study – 263 urban inhabitants (aged 51.9 ±6.0) and 164 residents of villages (aged 51.1 ±5.9) – were examined. In the multivariable linear regression model, the following factors were included as potential confounders: age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, hs-C-reactive protein reaction (hs-CRP) and co-existence of chronic diseases. Results In multiple linear regression models, site of residence (urban or rural area) was the most important independent and consistent predictor of CETP and PLTP activity; β coefficients (95% CI) for CETP (0.18) and PLTP (–0.29) were significant at levels of p < 0.001. Three-way analysis of variance showed no effect of smoking or moderate alcohol consumption on lipid transfer proteins; however, CETP activity showed an interaction effect between these risk factors. In the group of all men, CETP activity was significantly and positively correlated with total cholesterol (r = 0.24), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.18), and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.21), whereas PLTP activity was correlated with BMI (r = 0.12). Body mass index in rural men was higher than in the urban male population. Conclusions Increased PLTP activity, recognized as a pro-atherogenic factor, and decreased CETP activity, known as a protective factor, both observed in men living in rural areas, are probably conditioned by nutritional and/or genetic factors. PMID:27478449

  6. Relationship between blood urea, protein, creatinine, triglycerides and macro-mineral concentrations with the quality and quantity of milk in dairy Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Moghadam, Gholamali; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Babapour, Azadeh; Ramin, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Seventy six high and low producer cows were selected to determine the composition of the blood and milk parameters, and their interrelationships to determine the indices which could be useful to improve the milk yield. The highest mean blood concentrations were found in high producer cows. Mean values for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum protein (SPtn), creatinine, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) were 25.10 mg dL-1, 10.15 g dL-1, 0.81, 62.30, 177.10 and 0.16 mmol L-1, and for macro-minerals including SCa, SMg, serum in-organic phosphorus (SIP), SNa and SK were 3.85, 2.66, 4.63, 108.00 and 4.34 mmol L-1, respectively. The highest concentrations for milk parameters, were observed in the high producers, and were significant only for MCa, MIP and MMg. Mean values for milk urea nitrogen (MUN), milk protein (MPtn) and lactose were 19.90 mg dL-1, 0.39 g dL-1, and 4.12% and for macro-minerals, 13.24, 3.88, 11.03, 73.30 and 16.90 mmol L-1, respectively. There were significant positive correlations between the blood and milk parameters except for creatinine/BHB, TGs/cholesterol and MNa/MK which were not significant. The correlations between the blood parameters were greater than in the milk parameters. Creatinine and SPtn, MUN and MPtn were the main parameters in that the relationships between MPtn with BUN, SPtn and creatinine were more noticeable than others. The regression analysis showed that BUN with the SIP and creatinine, MPtn with the BUN and creatinine and MUN with the SIP and SMg were the appropriate parameters in improvement studies related to the milk yield. In conclusion, BUN, SPtn, MUN and MPtn concentrations are the most effective indices for predicting the preferred milk yield. PMID:25653747

  7. Automated urinalysis technique determines concentration of creatine and creatinine by colorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rho, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    Continuous urinalysis technique is useful in the study of muscle wastage in primates. Creatinine concentration in urine is determined in an aliquot mixture by a color reaction. Creatine is determined in a second aliquot by converting it to creatinine and measuring the difference in color intensity between the two aliquots.

  8. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio is a reliable indicator for evaluating complications of chronic kidney disease and progression in IgA nephropathy in China

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Lu; Yuezhong, Luo; Chao, Wang; HaiTao, Tu

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the correlation between the albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the urine and 24-hour urine proteinuria and whether the ratio can predict chronic kidney disease progression even more reliably than 24-hour proteinuria can, particularly in primary IgA nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 182 patients with primary IgA nephropathy were evaluated. Their mean urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria were determined during hospitalization. Blood samples were also analyzed. Follow-up data were recorded for 44 patients. A cross-sectional study was then conducted to test the correlation between these parameters and their associations with chronic kidney disease complications. Subsequently, a canonical correlation analysis was employed to assess the correlation between baseline proteinuria and parameters of the Oxford classification. Finally, a prospective observational study was performed to evaluate the association between proteinuria and clinical outcomes. Our study is registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and the registration number is ChiCTR-OCH-14005137. RESULTS: A strong correlation (r=0.81, p<0.001) was found between the ratio and 24-hour proteinuria except in chronic kidney disease stage 5. First-morning urine albumin-to-creatinine ratios of ≥125.15, 154.44 and 760.31 mg/g reliably predicted equivalent 24-hour proteinuria ‘thresholds’ of ≥0.15, 0.3 and 1.0 g/24 h, respectively. In continuous analyses, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with anemia, acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hypercholesterolemia and higher serum cystatin C. However, higher 24-hour proteinuria was only associated with hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia. Higher tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis scores were also associated with a greater albumin-to-creatinine ratio, as observed in the canonical correlation analysis. Finally, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour

  9. Interrelationship of βeta-2 microglobulin, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Shahram; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Allahverdizadeh, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) are used as indicators of glomerular filtration rate. The increased levels of these biomarkers are usually detectable at advanced stages of kidney complications. The aim of this study was to find the interrelationship of beta-2 microglobulin (β2M), BUN and Cr in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus in rabbits. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 65 mg kg-1 of STZ in rabbits. The levels of serum insulin, glucose and three above mentioned biomarkers were measured one day before (day -1) and on days 1-3 after injection of STZ and continued weekly to the end of the experiment (12 weeks). A statistically significant increase of serum β2M, BUN, Cr and glucose levels, and a significant decrease of insulin levels were observed in diabetic animals. However, β2M levels increased as early as one day after STZ injection compared to Cr and BUN that elevated at day two, suggesting a probable diagnostic advantage of β2M over currently used biomarkers in diabetic related kidney complications. PMID:25568686

  10. Dried blood spot analysis of creatinine with LC-MS/MS in addition to immunosuppressants analysis.

    PubMed

    Koster, Remco A; Greijdanus, Ben; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C; Touw, Daan J

    2015-02-01

    In order to monitor creatinine levels or to adjust the dosage of renally excreted or nephrotoxic drugs, the analysis of creatinine in dried blood spots (DBS) could be a useful addition to DBS analysis. We developed a LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of creatinine in the same DBS extract that was used for the analysis of tacrolimus, sirolimus, everolimus, and cyclosporine A in transplant patients with the use of Whatman FTA DMPK-C cards. The method was validated using three different strategies: a seven-point calibration curve using the intercept of the calibration to correct for the natural presence of creatinine in reference samples, a one-point calibration curve at an extremely high concentration in order to diminish the contribution of the natural presence of creatinine, and the use of creatinine-[(2)H3] with an eight-point calibration curve. The validated range for creatinine was 120 to 480 μmol/L (seven-point calibration curve), 116 to 7000 μmol/L (1-point calibration curve), and 1.00 to 400.0 μmol/L for creatinine-[(2)H3] (eight-point calibration curve). The precision and accuracy results for all three validations showed a maximum CV of 14.0% and a maximum bias of -5.9%. Creatinine in DBS was found stable at ambient temperature and 32 °C for 1 week and at -20 °C for 29 weeks. Good correlations were observed between patient DBS samples and routine enzymatic plasma analysis and showed the capability of the DBS method to be used as an alternative for creatinine plasma measurement.

  11. Differences in postmortem urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid levels between blood and pericardial fluid in acute death.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Tanaka, Sayaka; Zhao, Dong; Li, Dong-Ri; Quan, Li; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2007-05-01

    Previous studies showed significant differences in postmortem urea nitrogen (UN), creatinine (Cr) and uric acid (UA) levels in heart blood depending on the causes of death, including acute death. In addition, the levels in pericardial fluid approximated the clinical serum reference ranges, and their elevations may be assessed based on clinical criteria. The present study investigated difference between blood and pericardial levels of these markers. Medicolegal autopsy cases (n=556, within 48h postmortem) of the following causes of death were examined: injury (n=136), asphyxiation (n=50), drowning (n=39), fire fatalities (n=99), hyperthermia (n=11), hypothermia (n=8), poisoning (n=26), delayed traumatic death (n=44) and natural diseases (n=143). When serum UN, Cr and UA levels were compared with the pericardial levels, there was an equivalency for delayed traumatic death and chronic renal failure, although each level was markedly elevated. Parallel increases in serum and pericardial UA and/or Cr levels were also observed for hypothermia and gastrointestinal bleeding. However, in drowning cases, the left cardiac and pericardial UN levels were lower than the right cardiac and peripheral levels, suggesting the influence of water aspiration. Significant elevations in serum and pericardial Cr and UA levels with a higher serum/pericardial UA ratio for fatal methamphetamine intoxication suggest progressive skeletal muscle damage due to advanced hypoxia/acidosis. Similar findings were often observed for other acute and subacute deaths. These findings suggest that a comparison between blood and pericardial nitrogenous compounds would be useful for investigating the cause and process of death.

  12. Multiplex Analysis of Pro- or Anti-Inflammatory Serum Cytokines and Chemokines in relation to Gender and Age among Tanzanian Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Tehmina; Brokstad, Karl Albert; Mfinanga, Sayoki G.; Wiker, Harald G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with a female and paediatric preponderance, postulated to be due to differences in the immune response. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in the serum cytokine levels of tuberculous lymphadenitis patients with respect to age and gender. Methods. A multiplex bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-17 levels in sera of patients (n = 86) and healthy controls (n = 23). Results. Levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 were higher in adult patients than in controls, while those of IL-12 were lower (P < 0.05). Children had lower levels of TNF-α, GM-CSF, and IL-5 and higher levels of IL-2 compared with adult patients (P < 0.05). The male adult patients had higher levels of IL-17 and lower levels of IL-12 compared with female adult patients (P < 0.05).  Conclusion. There were significant differences in the levels of circulating cytokines with respect to gender and age. Children had generally lower levels of cytokines as compared to adults, which could make them more susceptible. Findings do not support that female preponderance is due to differences in immune response. PMID:26060581

  13. Relationship between urinary and serum growth hormone and pubertal status.

    PubMed Central

    Crowne, E C; Wallace, W H; Shalet, S M; Addison, G M; Price, D A

    1992-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (uGH) excretion and serum growth hormone concentrations have been compared in three groups of children. Group 1 consisted of 21 children who had had cranial irradiation as part of their treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; group 2, 18 normal children; and group 3, 12 boys with constitutional delay in growth and puberty who were in early puberty. Children in groups 1 and 2 each had a 24 hour serum growth hormone profile (sampling every 20 minutes) and concurrent urine collection. The 12 boys in group 3 had a total of 21 profiles (sampling every 15 minutes for 12 hours) and concurrent urine collections. In the prepubertal children (n = 17), in both groups 1 and 2, there was a significant correlation between mean serum growth hormone and total uGHng/g creatinine. There were also significant correlations between total uGHng/g creatinine and both peak serum growth hormone and mean amplitude of the pulses in the growth hormone profile. In the pubertal children (n = 22), in groups 1 and 2, whether combined or in separate groups, there was no significant correlation between total uGHng/g creatinine and mean serum growth hormone, peak serum growth hormone, or mean amplitude of the pulses in the growth hormone profile. In group 3 there were significant correlations between total uGHng/g creatinine and both the mean serum growth hormone and mean amplitude of the pulses in the profile. Therefore uGH estimations appear to correlate well with serum growth hormone profiles in children who are prepubertal or in early puberty, but not in those further advanced in pubertal development. These results may reflect a variation in the renal handling of growth hormone during pubertal development. uGH estimation may be an unreliable screening investigation for growth hormone sufficiency in mid to late puberty. PMID:1739346

  14. Determination of Urinary Creatinine in Washington State Residents via Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    West, Caroline E.; Rhodes, Blaine N.

    2014-01-01

    A viable, quick, and reliable method for determining urinary creatinine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and used to evaluate spot urine samples collected for the Washington Environmental Biomonitoring Survey (WEBS): part of the Washington State Department of Health, Public Health Laboratories (PHL). 50 µL of urine was mixed with a 1 : 1 acetonitrile/water solution containing deuterated creatinine as the internal standard and then analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode, the transition ions for creatinine and creatinine-d3 were determined to be 114.0 to 44.1 (quantifier), 114.0 to 86.1 (qualifier), and 117.0 to 47.1 (creatinine-d3). The retention time for creatinine was 0.85 minutes. The linear calibration range was 20–4000 mg/L, with a limit of detection at 1.77 mg/L and a limit of quantitation at 5.91 mg/L. LC/MS/MS and the colorimetric Jaffé reaction were associated significantly (Pearson r = 0.9898 and R2 = 0.9797, ρ ≤ 0.0001). The LC/MS/MS method developed at the PHL to determine creatinine in the spot urine samples had shorter retention times, and was more sensitive, reliable, reproducible, and safer than other LC/MS/MS or commercial methods such as the Jaffé reaction or modified versions thereof. PMID:25614740

  15. Serum Albumin as Predictor of Nutritional Status in Patients with ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Gama-Axelsson, Thiane; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter; Bárány, Peter; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Serum albumin is a widely used biomarker of nutritional status in patients with CKD; however, its usefulness is debated. This study investigated serum albumin and its correlation with several markers of nutritional status in incident and prevalent dialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a cross-sectional study, serum albumin (bromocresol purple), and other biochemical (serum creatinine), clinical (subjective global assessment [SGA]), anthropometric (handgrip strength; skinfold thicknesses), and densitometry (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) markers of nutritional status were assessed in 458 incident (61% male; mean age, 54±13 years; GFR, 6.6±0.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2; recruited 1994–2010) and 383 prevalent (56% male; mean age, 62±14 years; recruited 1989–2004) dialysis patients. Results In incident patients, serum albumin was correlated with age (β =−0.15; P<0.001), diabetes (β=−0.30; P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β =−0.37; P<0.001), and urinary albumin excretion (β=−0.38; P<0.001) but less so with poor nutritional status (SGA score > 1; β=−0.19; P<0.001). In prevalent patients, serum albumin was correlated with age (β=−0.15; P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β=−0.30; P<0.001), diabetes (β=−0.31; P<0.001), and SGA score > 1 (β=−0.16; P<0.001). In predicting nutritional status assessed by SGA and other markers, adding serum albumin to models that included age, sex, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease did not significantly increase explanatory power. Conclusions In incident and prevalent dialysis patients, serum albumin correlates poorly with several markers of nutritional status. Thus, its value as a reliable marker of nutritional status in patients with ESRD is limited. PMID:22723451

  16. Serum 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Levels and Their Association With Age, Body Mass Index, Smoking, Military Record-based Variables, and Estimated Exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Won, Jong-Uk; Song, Jae-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the levels of serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and evaluate their association with age, body mass index, smoking, military record-based variables, and estimated exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods Serum levels of TCDD were analyzed in 102 Vietnam veterans. Information on age, body mass index, and smoking status were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. The perceived exposure was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based exposures were constructed by division/brigade level and battalion/company level unit information using the Stellman exposure opportunity index model. Results The mean and median of serum TCDD levels was 1.2 parts per trillion (ppt) and 0.9 ppt, respectively. Only 2 Vietnam veterans had elevated levels of TCDD (>10 ppt). The levels of TCDD did not tend to increase with the likelihood of exposure to Agent Orange, as estimated from either proximity-based exposure or perceived self-reported exposure. The serum TCDD levels were not significantly different according to military unit, year of first deployment, duration of deployment, military rank, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Conclusions The average serum TCDD levels in the Korean Vietnam veterans were lower than those reported for other occupationally or environmentally exposed groups and US Vietnam veterans, and their use as an objective marker of Agent Orange exposure may have some limitations. The unit of deployment, duration of deployment, year of first deployment, military rank, perceived self-reported exposure, and proximity-based exposure to Agent Orange were not associated with TCDD levels in Korean Vietnam veterans. Age, body mass index and smoking also were not associated with TCDD levels. PMID:24137525

  17. [Sensitivity and specificity of blood amylase, amylase and creatinine clearance ratio and urinary amylase/urinary creatinine ratio in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Ligny, G; Meunier, J C; Hayard, P; Ligny, C; Van Cauter, J

    1987-12-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of amylasemia, the ratios of amylase/creatinine clearance and amylasuria/creatininuria were determined in four groups of patients: a control group (n = 43), patients with acute pancreatitis detected on computed tomography (n = 30, 25 cases of alcoholic pancreatitis), patients with an acute surgical abdomen without pancreatitis (n = 25), and patients with renal failure (n = 20). Sensitivity was defined for the acute pancreatitis group and specificity for the other groups. When amylasemia was greater than 20 UI/dl and the amylasuria/creatininuria ratio greater than 100, sensitivity was 98 per cent. The specificity of these two results in patients with an acute surgical abdomen was 98 per cent. When the ratio amylase/creatinine clearance ratio was greater than 4 sensitivity was 73 per cent and specificity in patients with acute surgical abdomen was 75 per cent. These two values were lower than those of the two preceding tests (p less than 0.01). Sensitivity of the association of an amylasemia greater than 13 UI/dl (m + 2SD) with a clearance ratio greater than 4 was 73 per cent. The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio did not seem to be reliable since its change was delayed with respect to the increase of amylasemia and amylasuria. This ratio has a poor specificity as it increased when the clearance of creatinine decreased in the group with an acute surgical abdomen associated with functional or organic renal failure. In these two groups, the correlation between the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio and creatininemia was significant. This suggested that the clearance of creatinine fell more rapidly than the clearance of amylase as renal failure increased.

  18. Limitation of amylase creatinine clearance ratio as a diagnostic test for postoperative pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wapnick, S; Evans, M I; Hadas, N; Grosberg, S J

    1980-05-01

    The mean +/- S.E.M. ratio of amylase to creatinine clearance significantly increased at 24 hours after operations on the stomach and gallbladder but not after operations at sites remote from the abdominal cavity. Clinically, the elevated amylase to creatinine clearance ratio was not accompanied by pancreatitis. In dogs, surgical handling of the pancreas alone caused a significant increase in this measurement. The amylase to creatinine clearance ratio is not likely to be helpful in predicting the rare, but serious, postoperative complication of pancreatitis.

  19. The relationship of nitric oxide synthesis capacity, oxidative stress, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio in black and white men: the SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Mels, Catharina M C; Huisman, Hugo W; Smith, Wayne; Schutte, Rudolph; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Atzler, Dorothee; Böger, Rainer H; Ware, Lisa J; Schutte, Aletta E

    2016-02-01

    Inadequate substrate availability and increased nitric oxide synthase inhibitor levels attenuate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, whereas increased vascular oxidative stress may lead to inactivation of NO. We compared markers of NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress in a bi-ethnic male population. Inter-relationships of ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio with NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress markers were investigated. NO synthesis capacity markers (L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA)) and oxidative stress markers (serum peroxides, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase) were measured. Black men displayed higher blood pressure and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (all p < 0.001), while NO synthesis capacity was more favorable (higher L-arginine and lower ADMA (p ≤ 0.003)). Antioxidant enzyme activities were similar except for the redox status markers (GR activity and GR/GPx ratio), which were upregulated in black men (p < 0.001). In black men, ADMA was inversely related to GPx activity (R (2) = 0.15; β = -0.20; p = 0.050) and GPx/SOD ratio (R (2) = 0.24; β = -0.37; p < 0.001), but none of these markers related to blood pressure or albumin-to-creatinine ratio. In white men, albumin-to-creatinine ratio was positively associated with ADMA (R (2) = 0.18; β = 0.39; p < 0.001) while ADMA was inversely related to GR activity (R (2) = 0.26; β = -0.29; p = 0.002) and GR/GPx ratio (R (2) = 0.25; β = -0.28; p = 0.003). Black men with elevated blood pressure and albumin-to-creatinine ratio displayed a favorable NO synthesis capacity. This may be counteracted by increased inactivation of NO, although it was not linked to vascular or renal phenotypes. In white men, reduced NO synthesis capacity may lower NO bio-availability, thereby influencing the albumin-to-creatinine

  20. It’s Never over until It’s over: How Can Age and Ovarian Reserve Be Mathematically Bound through the Measurement of Serum AMH—A Study of 5069 Romanian Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Wide regional differences in the age-related Anti Mullerian hormone (AMH) regression patterns or age at onset of natural menopause have been reported, possibly reflecting genetic, socioeconomic, environmental, racial or ethnic peculiarities. Moreover, adaptation of AMH levels from different assays using regression functions may lack accuracy and externally defined references for AMH levels may not fully comply with a specific geographical area. The current study aimed to establish an accurate mathematical relationship between AMH serum values and age in a large group of women from Romania, as any consistent difference from previously reported regression models may aid in building specific profiles for the AMH decline with age in this geographical region. Our study pointed out to the quadratic regression as the most fitted pattern of correlation for all the age groups between 24 and 45. To our knowledge the current manuscript is based on the singular study carried out in this geographical region, generating a particular age-related pattern of association between age and serum AMH levels in women, regardless of their subjacent pathologies. PMID:25909458

  1. Rare genetic variants in the CFI gene are associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration and commonly result in reduced serum factor I levels

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, David; Yu, Yi; Schramm, Elizabeth C.; Triebwasser, Michael; Wagner, Erin K.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Daly, Mark J.; Atkinson, John P.; Seddon, Johanna M.

    2015-01-01

    To assess a potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sequenced the complement factor I gene (CFI) in 2266 individuals with AMD and 1400 without, identifying 231 individuals with rare genetic variants. We evaluated the functional impact by measuring circulating serum factor I (FI) protein levels in individuals with and without rare CFI variants. The burden of very rare (frequency <1/1000) variants in CFI was strongly associated with disease (P = 1.1 × 10−8). In addition, we examined eight coding variants with counts ≥5 and saw evidence for association with AMD in three variants. Individuals with advanced AMD carrying a rare CFI variant had lower mean FI compared with non-AMD subjects carrying a variant (P < 0.001). Further new evidence that FI levels drive AMD risk comes from analyses showing individuals with a CFI rare variant and low FI were more likely to have advanced AMD (P = 5.6 × 10−5). Controlling for covariates, low FI increased the risk of advanced AMD among those with a variant compared with individuals without advanced AMD with a rare CFI variant (OR 13.6, P = 1.6 × 10−4), and also compared with control individuals without a rare CFI variant (OR 19.0, P = 1.1 × 10−5). Thus, low FI levels are strongly associated with rare CFI variants and AMD. Enhancing FI activity may be therapeutic and measuring FI provides a screening tool for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from complement inhibitory therapy. PMID:25788521

  2. EVALUATION OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS FOR QUANTATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND CREATININE IN URINE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project consisted of a laboratory study to evaluate an extraction and analysis method for quantifying biomarkers of pesticide exposure and creatinine in urine samples collected with commercially-available disposable diapers. For large exposure studies, such as the National ...

  3. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  4. A practical approach to using spot urine protein/creatinine ratios for assessing proteinuria in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Marnoch, Catherine A; Larson, Lucia; Weitzen, Sherry; Phipps, Maureen G; Sung, C James; Powrie, Raymond O

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the spot urine protein/creatinine ratio compared with the 24-hour urine protein in pregnancy. Study Design: In this prospective cohort study of inpatient pregnant women, the protein/creatinine ratio and dipstick protein were assessed from a single urine sample collected at the start of the 24-hour urine. Both tests were compared with the 24-hour urine protein for correlation and test characteristics. Results: In the 196 specimens analysed, we found a strong correlation between the spot urine protein/creatinine ratio and 24-hour urine protein (r 2 = 0.78, P < 0.01). A protein/creatinine ratio <0.1 ruled out significant proteinuria (≥300 mg/day) with sensitivity and negative predictive value 100%. A protein/creatinine ratio ≥0.4 detected significant proteinuria (specificity and positive predictive value of 100%). A protein/creatinine ratio ≥4.6 had a specificity and positive predictive value of 100% for detecting severe proteinuria (≥5000 mg/day). Urine dipsticks correlated poorly with the 24-hour urine protein (r 2 = 0.40, P = 0.826). Nineteen percent of dipsticks reading nil or trace were false-negative results. Conclusion: The spot urine protein/creatinine ratio correlated well with the 24-hour urine protein and performed better than the urine dipsticks. Significant proteinuria in pregnancy was excluded if the protein/creatinine ratio was <0.1 and identified when it was ≥0.4. PMID:27630741

  5. A facile low-cost enzymatic paper-based assay for the determination of urine creatinine.

    PubMed

    Talalak, Kwanrutai; Noiphung, Julaluk; Songjaroen, Temsiri; Chailapakul, Orawon; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-11-01

    Creatinine is one of many markers used to investigate kidney function. This paper describes a low-cost enzymatic paper-based analytical device (enz-PAD) for determining urine creatinine. The disposable dead volumes of creatinine enzyme reagents from an automatic analyser cassette were utilised. Whatman No. 3 paper was cut into long rectangular shapes (4×40 mm(2)) on which the enzyme reagents, R1 and R2, were adsorbed in two consecutive regions. The assay was performed by immersing test strips into urine samples contained in microwells to allow creatinine in the sample to react with immobilised active ingredients and, then, traverse via capillary action to the detection area where chromogen products accumulated. The method is based on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation via creatinine conversion using creatininase, creatinase, and sarcosine oxidase. The liberated H2O2 reacts with 4-aminophenazone and 2,4,6-triiodo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid to form quinoneimine with a pink-red colour at the detection zone. The linear range of the creatinine assay was 2.5-25 mg dL(-1) (r(2)=0.983), and the detection limit was 2.0 mg dL(-1). The colorimetric enz-PAD for the creatinine assay was highly correlated with a conventional alkaline picrate method when real urine samples were evaluated (r(2)=0.977; n=40). This simple and nearly zero-cost paper-based device provides a novel alternative method for screening urinary creatinine and will be highly beneficial for developing countries.

  6. Serum Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Infants and Children with Sepsis-Related Conditions with or without Acute Renal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Afify, Mohammed Farouk M.; Maher, Sheren Esam; Ibrahim, Nora Mohamed; El-Hamied, Waleed Mahamoud Abd

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To validate serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as an early biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI) in sepsis-related conditions and its predictive and prognostic values. PATIENTS AND METHODS This study included 65 patients, who were clinically evaluated for sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock, and 20 apparently healthy served as controls. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I (AKI-sepsis): 65 newly admitted patients diagnosed as sepsis, who were further divided into three subgroups according to the severity: systemic inflammatory response syndrome, severe sepsis, and septic shock, and Group II (control group): 20 apparently healthy subjects matched for age and sex, serum creatinine and serum NGAL concentrations were estimated initially within 24 hours of admission and after 72 hours of admission in all patients and control groups. RESULTS Serum NGAL increased significantly with increasing severity of renal impairment. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis suggested that serum NGAL cutoff value of 40 ng/mL within the first 24 hours of admission is highly specific and sensitive for predicting AKI, with sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 75.8%. CONCLUSION We concluded that early measurement of serum NGAL level in sepsis can serve as a clinically useful marker for early prediction of AKI and for grading of its severity. PMID:27547045

  7. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r=0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  8. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r=0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  9. Renal clearance of pancreatic and salivary amylase relative to creatinine in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Keogh, J B; McGeeney, K F; Drury, M I; Counihan, T B; O'Donnell, M D

    1978-12-01

    Pancreatic and salivary amylase/creatinine clearance ratios in patients with various degrees of renal impairment were compared with those obtained for control subjects. In chronic renal insufficiency (mean GFR 30 ml/min +/- 15 SD; n = 13) the clearance ratios for pancreatic (mean 3.5 +/- 1.85 SD) and salivary (mean 2.3 +/- 1.3 SD) amylase were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than those in controls. Corresponding control values (n = 26) were 2.64 +/- 0.86 (pancreatic) and 1.64 +/- 0.95 (salivary). Three patients showed values above the normal limit. In the diabetic group (mean GFR 41 ml/min +/- 22 SD; n = 10) salivary amylase/creatinine clearance ratios (mean 2.36 +/- 1.55 SD) were significantly higher than in controls (P less than 0.05). Three patients showed raised values. Pancreatic amylase clearance was raised in only one of these patients. Three patients with terminal disease (mean GFR 10 ml/min) showed markedly raised (two- to threefold) clearance ratios for both salivary and pancreatic amylase. Of a total of 26 patients, eight had increased total amylase/creatinine clearance ratios. Pancreatic amylase/creatinine clearance was increased in seven patients, while nine patients showed raised salivary amylase/creatinine ratios. Patients with raised clearance ratios did not have clinical evidence of pancreatitis. We suggest that, in the presence of impaired renal function, a high amylase/creatinine clearance ratio need not be indicative of pancreatic disease.

  10. Association between Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio within the Normal Range and Incident Hypertension in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Kang, Dae Ryong; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jang-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There have been few studies on gender difference in the impact of a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) within the normal range on the risk of hypertension. We evaluated whether the association between the UACR below the microalbuminuria range and the incident risk of hypertension is different between men and women. Materials and Methods A total of 1173 individuals (442 men and 731 women) aged 40 to 70 years without hypertension was examined at baseline (2005–2008) and followed (2008–2011). We defined the UACR as the amount of albumin (mg/dL) divided by creatinine (g/dL) in randomly voided urine. The subjects were classified according to UACR tertile. Results During an average of 2.6 years of follow-up, 57 men (12.9%) and 66 women (9.0%) developed hypertension. In multivariable-adjusted models, the odds ratio for new-onset hypertension comparing the highest and lowest tertiles of UACR was 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85–3.94] in men and 2.69 (95% CI 1.27–5.73) in women. In stratified analyses by menopausal status, higher tertiles of UACR were associated with an increased risk of incident hypertension in postmenopausal women. Conclusion Higher normal UACR levels were associated with an increased risk of incident hypertension in women. The UACR could have a clinical role in predicting the development of hypertension. PMID:27593874

  11. Lower Plasma Creatinine and Urine Albumin in Individuals at Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes with Factor V Leiden Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Fritsche, Andreas; Machicao, Fausto; Nawroth, Peter P.; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Isermann, Berend

    2014-01-01

    The factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is the most frequent genetic cause of venous thrombosis in Caucasians. However, protective effects have been suggested to balance the disadvantages. We have recently observed protective effects of FVL mutation on experimental diabetic nephropathy in mice as well as an association with reduced albuminuria in two human cohorts of diabetic patients. In the present study we aimed to reevaluate these findings in an independent, larger cohort of 1905 Caucasians at risk of developing type 2 diabetes and extend possible associations to earlier disease stages of nephropathy. Carriers of FVL mutation had a significantly lower urine albumin excretion (P = 0.03) and tended to have lower plasma creatinine concentrations (P = 0.07). The difference in plasma creatinine concentrations was significant after adjustment for the influencing factors: age, gender, and lean body mass (P = 0.048). These observations at a very early “disease” stage are an important extension of previous findings and suggest that modification of glomerular dysfunction by FVL mutation is relevant during very early stages of diabetic nephropathy. This makes the underlying mechanism an interesting therapeutic target and raises the question whether FVL mutation may also exert protective effects in other glomerulopathies. PMID:24729885

  12. [Excretion of normal and modified RNA catabolites and creatinine in the urine as a function of nutrition in children].

    PubMed

    Schöch, G; Heller-Schöch, G; Müller, J; Clemens, P; Holtgrewe, A; Heddrich, M

    1983-05-01

    The urinary excretion of 5 modified and 2 unmodified RNA catabolites and of creatinine has been investigated in two children aged 71/2 and 6 years under different isocaloric diets over 5 days each (phase I-III) and compared with the excretion values during a 12-day and libitum food intake (phase 0). On a diet (phase I) extremely rich in nucleic acids (meat) there is only a slight increase of the modified RNA catabolites and a pronounced increase of creatinine in urine. On a protein-rich diet free from nucleic acids (phase II) the urinary RNA catabolites largely parallel the values seen under ad libitum food intake. On a diet virtually free of nucleic acids and protein (phase III) there is a markedly decreased excretion of modified RNA catabolites. It is concluded that modified RNA catabolites in the urine are mainly of endogenous origin. These "one-way catabolites" permit an assessment of the RNA turnover. Thus, they can serve as a new sensitive biochemical criterion for anabolic and catabolic situations, respectively.

  13. Association of metabolic syndrome with serum fibroblast growth factor 21 in kidney transplanted patients

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Leila; Hami, Maryam; Mojahedi, Mohammad-Javad; Ghorban Sabbagh, Mahin; Ayatollahi, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on glucose and lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the serum level of FGF21 with and metabolic syndrome (MS) in kidney transplant recipients. Patients and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study on 86 stable renal transplant recipients to detect possible relation between serum FGF21 level and MS during October 2014 and Mach 2015. Patients with past history of diabetes mellitus were excluded. Results: There were 43 patients in each group with and without MS. Totally, they were 52 (60.5%) male and 34 (39.5%) female. The mean age of the MS group was significantly higher than that of non-MS group. There was not significant difference between mean serum creatinine level and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) between two groups (P > 0.05). The MS patients had higher weight and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05). The prevalence of BMI >25 kg/m2 in MS group was 25 (58.8%) versus non-MS group that only 10 (23.3%) had this condition (P < 0.05). The mean of FGF21 level in MS and non-MS groups was 1.23 ± 0.67 ng/l and 1.18 ± 0.71 ng/l, respectively (P > 0.05). There was not significant difference of serum FGF21 level between MS and non-MS patients (P > 0.05). Conclusion: While the elevated serum FGF21 level was found in subjects with insulin resistant states, however, this study revealed that serum FGF21 levels were not significantly increased in renal transplanted recipients with MS as compared with non-MS group. PMID:27471739

  14. Association of Serum Adropin Concentrations with Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Adropin is a newly identified regulatory protein encoded by the Enho gene and is critically involved in energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. This study aims to determine the correlation of serum adropin concentrations with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods. This study consisted of 245 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 81 healthy subjects. Then T2DM patients were divided into normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria subgroups based on urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Results. T2DM patients showed significantly lower serum adropin concentrations than those in the controls. T2DM patients with macroalbuminuria had significantly decreased serum adropin concentrations compared with the other three groups. In addition, T2DM patients with microalbuminuria showed lower serum adropin concentrations than those in patients with normoalbuminuria. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum adropin was correlated with decreased risk of developing T2DM and DN. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that serum adropin was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and ACR and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI and ACR were negatively correlated with serum adropin levels. Conclusion. Serum adropin concentrations are negatively associated with renal function. Adropin may be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN development. PMID:27546995

  15. Association of Serum Adropin Concentrations with Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenchao; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Adropin is a newly identified regulatory protein encoded by the Enho gene and is critically involved in energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. This study aims to determine the correlation of serum adropin concentrations with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods. This study consisted of 245 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 81 healthy subjects. Then T2DM patients were divided into normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria subgroups based on urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Results. T2DM patients showed significantly lower serum adropin concentrations than those in the controls. T2DM patients with macroalbuminuria had significantly decreased serum adropin concentrations compared with the other three groups. In addition, T2DM patients with microalbuminuria showed lower serum adropin concentrations than those in patients with normoalbuminuria. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum adropin was correlated with decreased risk of developing T2DM and DN. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that serum adropin was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and ACR and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI and ACR were negatively correlated with serum adropin levels. Conclusion. Serum adropin concentrations are negatively associated with renal function. Adropin may be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN development. PMID:27546995

  16. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  17. Serum Spot 14 concentration is negatively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chi, Yu-Chao; Han, Der-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spot 14 (S14) is a protein involved in fatty acid synthesis and was shown to be induced by thyroid hormone in rat liver. However, the presence of S14 in human serum and its relations with thyroid function status have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum S14 concentrations in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism and to evaluate the associations between serum S14 and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. We set up an immunoassay for human serum S14 concentrations and compared its levels between hyperthyroid and euthyroid subjects. Twenty-six hyperthyroid patients and 29 euthyroid individuals were recruited. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of S14 and fT4, TSH, or quartile of TSH. The hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum S14 levels than the euthyroid subjects (median [Q1, Q3]: 975 [669, 1612] ng/mL vs 436 [347, 638] ng/mL, P < 0.001). In univariate linear regression, the log-transformed S14 level (logS14) was positively associated with fT4 but negatively associated with creatinine (Cre), total cholesterol (T-C), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and TSH. The positive associations between logS14 and fT4 and the negative associations between logS14 and Cre, TG, T-C, or TSH remained significant after adjustment with sex and age. These associations were prominent in females but not in males. The logS14 levels were negatively associated with the TSH levels grouped by quartile (ß = −0.3020, P < 0.001). The association between logS14 and TSH quartile persisted after adjustment with sex and age (ß = −0.2828, P = 0.001). In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, only TSH grouped by quartile remained significantly associated with logS14 level. We developed an ELISA to measure serum S14 levels in human. Female patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum S14 levels

  18. Accurate prediction of kidney allograft outcome based on creatinine course in the first 6 months posttransplant.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, L; Hoerstrup, J; Budde, K; Reinke, P; Neumayer, H-H; Frei, U; Schlaefer, A

    2005-03-01

    Most attempts to predict early kidney allograft loss are based on the patient and donor characteristics at baseline. We investigated how the early posttransplant creatinine course compares to baseline information in the prediction of kidney graft failure within the first 4 years after transplantation. Two approaches to create a prediction rule for early graft failure were evaluated. First, the whole data set was analysed using a decision-tree building software. The software, rpart, builds classification or regression models; the resulting models can be represented as binary trees. In the second approach, a Hill-Climbing algorithm was applied to define cut-off values for the median creatinine level and creatinine slope in the period between day 60 and 180 after transplantation. Of the 497 patients available for analysis, 52 (10.5%) experienced an early graft loss (graft loss within the first 4 years after transplantation). From the rpart algorithm, a single decision criterion emerged: Median creatinine value on days 60 to 180 higher than 3.1 mg/dL predicts early graft failure (accuracy 95.2% but sensitivity = 42.3%). In contrast, the Hill-Climbing algorithm delivered a cut-off of 1.8 mg/dL for the median creatinine level and a cut-off of 0.3 mg/dL per month for the creatinine slope (sensitivity = 69.5% and specificity 79.0%). Prediction rules based on median and slope of creatinine levels in the first half year after transplantation allow early identification of patients who are at risk of loosing their graft early after transplantation. These patients may benefit from therapeutic measures tailored for this high-risk setting. PMID:15848516

  19. Determinants of serum zinc in a random population sample of four Belgian towns with different degrees of environmental exposure to cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan; Amery, Antoon; Bruaux, Pierre; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Claeys, FranÇoise; De Plaen, Pierre; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Lauwerys, Robert; Lijnen, Paul; Nick, Laurence; Remy, Annie Saint; Roels, Harry; Rondia, Désiré; Sartor, Francis

    1992-01-01

    This report investigated the distribution of serum zinc and the factors determining serum zinc concentration in a large random population sample. The 1977 participants (959 men and 1018 women), 20–80 years old, constituted a stratified random sample of the population of four Belgian districts, representing two areas with low and two with high environmental exposure to cadmium. For each exposure level, a rural and an urban area were selected. The serum concentration of zinc, frequently used as an index for zinc status in human subjects, was higher in men (13.1 μmole/L, range 6.5–23.0 μmole/L) than in women (12.6 μmole/L, range 6.3–23.2 μmole/L). In men, 20% of the variance of serum zinc was explained by age (linear and squared term, R = 0.29), diurnal variation (r = 0.29), and total cholesterol (r = 0.16). After adjustment for these covariates, a negative relationship was observed between serum zinc and both blood (r = −0.10) and urinary cadmium (r = −0.14). In women, 11% of the variance could be explained by age (linear and squared term, R = 0.15), diurnal variation in serum zinc (r = 0.27), creatinine clearance (r = −0.11), log γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (r = 0.08), cholesterol (r = 0.07), contraceptive pill intake (r = −0.07), and log serum ferritin (r = 0.06). Before and after adjustment for significant covariates, serum zinc was, on average, lowest in the two districts where the body burden of cadmium, as assessed by urinary cadmium excretion, was highest. These results were not altered when subjects exposed to heavy metals at work were excluded from analysis. PMID:1486857

  20. The Effects of Lead Exposure on Serum Uric Acid and Hyperuricemia in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Haijiang; Huang, Zhijun; Deng, Qihong; Li, Ying; Xiao, Ting; Ning, Xingping; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2015-08-18

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between blood lead levels and both serum uric acid and hyperuricemia in adult residents living within an area of China with lead pollution. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2120 subjects (1180 of whom were male) between the ages of 20 and 75 years who had undergone health examinations at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in a lead-polluted area of China between January 2013 and August 2014. Blood lead was positively correlated with serum uric acid in both males (r = 0.095, p = 0.001) and females (r = 0.134, p < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that for males, blood lead (p = 0.006), age (p = 0.001), current smoking (p = 0.012), education (p = 0.001), triglycerides (TG) (p < 0.001), and serum creatinine (p < 0.001) were independently associated with serum uric acid. For females, blood lead (p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.009), and TG (p < 0.001) were independently associated with serum uric acid. After multiple adjustments, blood lead was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia when female subjects were categorized into quartiles (for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile, odds ratio (OR) = 2.190; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.106-4.338; p = 0.025); however, no such association was observed for male subjects. Continuous lead exposure has an independent impact on serum uric acid for both males and females, although this impact is more pronounced for females than for males. Lead exposure is significantly associated with hyperuricemia for females but not for males.

  1. Creatinine adjustment of spot urine samples and 24 h excretion of iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-ichi; Kirk, Andrea B; Dyke, Jason V; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2008-12-15

    Creatinine (CR) adjustment is widely used for the estimation of urinary 24 h excretion from spot urine samples. We have compared CR-adjusted values for urinary iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate to measured 24 h excretion. The urine samples were collected from a cohort of 14 breastfeeding mothers with both spot samples and 24 h collection, 52 24 h and spot sample pairs where the 24 h CR value fell within the "normal" adult female CR excretion range of 0.6-1.6 g/day were considered for this analysis. In addition, a nonlactating female and a male subject provided all micturitions for 1 and 5 days, respectively. Creatinine was analyzed with a Jáffe reaction-based automated analyzer. Iodine and selenium were determined with induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Perchlorate and thiocyanate were measured with ion chromatography (IC)-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Creatinine-adjusted values were poor substitutes of the actual 24 h excretion values (average deviation +/-69, 78, 105, and 104% for iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate, respectively.). Over a 5 day period, the 24 h iodine excretion predicted based on creatinine adjustment of spot samples for the same individual deviated between -83.5 to +101% from the actual measured value, the minimum absolute error being 2.5%. Creatinine adjustment for estimation of 24 h excretion from spot samples was not effective for iodine, selenium, perchlorate, or thiocyanate.

  2. Effect of glucagon infusion on the renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, F J; Davila, E; Gardner, L B

    1978-10-01

    Recent data seem to support a tubular defect as the mechanism of the elevated renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis. Glucagon has been proposed by some to be an important factor in this phenomenon. To examine the role of glucagon as this "tubular dysfunction factor", we investigated the effect of intravenously infused glucagon on the fractional excretion of amylase and the tubular handling of a low molecular weight protein, beta2 microglobulin, in normal, healthy volunteers. At glucagon levels far in excess of those seen in pancreatitis, the clearance ratio of beta2 microglobulin relative to creatinine increased, whereas the clearance ratio of amylase relative to creatinine did not increase above the normal range. The dissociation between beta2 microglobulin clearance and amylase clearance allows one to question the theory that tubular dysfunction is the mechanism of the elevated renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis. Glucagon does not appear to be the sole factor responsible for the elevation of renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis.

  3. CREATININE DETERMINATION IN URINE BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD.

    PubMed

    Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Sawicki, Wojciech; Kokot, Zenon J

    2016-01-01

    Creatinine determination in urine is used to estimate the completeness of the 24-h urine collection, compensation for variable diuresis and as a preliminary step in protein profiling in urine. Despite the fact that a wide range of methods of measuring creatinine level in biofluids has been developed, many of them are adversely affected by interfering substances. A new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for creatinine determination in urine has been developed. Chromatographic separation was performed by applying C18 column and a gradient elution. Analyses were carried out on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source. The developed method was fully validated according to the international guidelines. The quantification range of the method was 5-1500 ng/mL, which corresponds to 1-300 mg/dL in urine. Limit of detection and quantitation were 2 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. Additionally, the comparison of creatinine determination by newly developed method to the colorimetric method was performed. The method enables the determination of creatinine in urine samples with a minimal sample preparation, excellent sensitivity and prominent selectivity. Since mass spectrometry allows to measure a number of compounds simultaneously, a future perspective would be to incorporate the determination of other clinically important compounds excreted in urine. PMID:27180423

  4. Technical note: variation in muscle mass in wild chimpanzees: application of a modified urinary creatinine method.

    PubMed

    Emery Thompson, Melissa; Muller, Martin N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2012-12-01

    Individual body size and composition are important variables for a variety of questions about the behavioral ecology and life histories of non-human primates. Standard methodologies for obtaining body mass involve either capture, which poses risks to the subject, or provisioning, which can disrupt the processes being studied. There are no methods currently available to assess body composition from living animals in the wild. Because of its derivation in muscle, the amount of creatinine that an individual excretes in 24 hours is a reliable and frequently used indicator of relative muscle mass in humans and laboratory animals. Although it is not feasible to collect 24-hour urine samples from wild primates, we apply here a simple method to approximate muscle mass variation from collections of spot urine samples. Specific gravity (SG), an alternative method for assessing urinary water content, is both highly correlated to creatinine and free of mass-dependent effects. Individuals with greater muscle mass should excrete more creatinine for a given SG. We examine this relationship in a dataset of 12,598 urine samples from wild chimpanzees in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. As expected from known differences in body composition, the slope of the relationship between SG and creatinine is significantly greater in adult males than adult females and in adults versus immature individuals. Growth curves generated through this method closely approximate published weight curves for wild chimpanzees. Consistent with the role of testosterone in muscle anabolism, urinary testosterone predicted relative creatinine excretion among adult male chimpanzees. PMID:23077085

  5. Urinary amylase / urinary creatinine ratio (uAm/uCr) - a less-invasive parameter for management of hyperamylasemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The serum level of amylase (sAm) is commonly used as a biochemical marker for diagnosis and management of pancreatic disorders. However, the use of the urine level of amylase (uAm) is limited in practice, because the diagnostic ability of uAm is inferior to that of sAm. In the present study, the possible concordance of uAm-rerated parameters with sAm was investigated, and evaluate the usefulness of uAm for management of hyperamylasemia. Methods From June 1995 to October 2009, 804 samples of both urine and blood were collected from 128 patients in order to measure the serum level of amylase (sAm) and the urine level of amylase (uAm) and creatinine (uCr). Concordance of parameters using uAm compared to sAm was assessed. Parameters used were uAm, amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR), and the ratio of uAm to uCr (uAm/uCr). Results uAm/uCr had the best correlation with sAm (r = 0.779, p < 0.001) compared to uAm (r = 0.620, p < 0.001) and to ACCR (r = 0.374, p < 0.001), when sAm was over the standard level. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of uAm/uCr (0.884) was significantly higher than that of uAm (0.766) and of ACCR (0.666) (p < 0.001 for each). The cutoff value of uAm/uCr was 569.8, with a sensitivity of 81.0% and a specificity of 83.1%. Conclusions The uAm/uCr ratio correlated with sAm, and may be an alternative to sAm for prediction of hyperamylasemia. Use of urine samples results in a decreased need for blood sampling, which is especially beneficial in pediatric patients. PMID:24330759

  6. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, Mayuko; Hara, Junko; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Shankle, William R; Tomita, Masaru

    2013-10-01

    Despite increasing global prevalence, the precise pathogenesis and terms for objective diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias remain controversial, and comprehensive understanding of the disease remains lacking. Here, we conducted metabolomic analysis of serum and saliva obtained from patients with neurodegenerative dementias (n = 10), including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobe dementia, and Lewy body disease, as well as from age-matched healthy controls (n = 9). Using CE-TOF-MS, six metabolites in serum (β-alanine, creatinine, hydroxyproline, glutamine, iso-citrate, and cytidine) and two in saliva (arginine and tyrosine) were significantly different between dementias and controls. Using multivariate analysis, serum was confirmed as a more efficient biological fluid for diagnosis compared to saliva; additionally, 45 metabolites in total were identified as candidate markers that could discriminate at least one pair of diagnostic groups from the healthy control group. These metabolites possibly provide an objective method for diagnosing dementia-type by multiphase screening. Moreover, diagnostic-type-dependent differences were observed in several tricarboxylic acid cycle compounds detected in serum, indicating that some pathways in glucose metabolism may be altered in dementia patients. This pilot study revealed novel alterations in metabolomic profiles between various neurodegenerative dementias, which would contribute to etiological investigations.

  7. The influence of hydrochlorothiazide and tripamide on serum and urinary amylase.

    PubMed

    Conrad, K A; Fagan, T C; Simons, J A

    1988-05-01

    Pancreatitis and asymptomatic elevations of serum amylase have been reported after therapy with thiazide diuretics. In the current study, the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and tripamide treatment on serum and urinary amylase excretion were investigated in 12 hypertensive volunteers. Two patients developed modest elevations of the serum amylase above the normal range after 12 weeks of treatment with hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg daily, but the mean serum amylase did not change. Hydrochlorothiazide did not produce a statistically significant increase in urinary amylase excretion but did reduce the ratio of salivary amylase/creatinine clearance in a two-hour urine collection. Tripamide 10 mg daily had no effect on serum or urinary amylase.

  8. Plasma exogenous creatinine clearance in clinically healthy cats: comparison with urinary exogenous creatinine clearance, tentative reference intervals and indexation to bodyweight.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, B S; Massal, M R; Nguyen, P; Grégoire, L L; Périgaud, A E; Concordet, D; Biourge, V; Lefebvre, H P

    2014-10-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered to be the best indicator of overall kidney function. The major objectives of this study were to compare plasma exogenous creatinine clearance (PECC) with a reference method, to establish reference intervals (RIs) for PECC and to assess the effects of indexation of GFR to bodyweight (BW) in cats. PECC was compared with urinary clearance of exogenous creatinine (UECC) in six clinically healthy domestic shorthair cats (experiment 1). Tentative RIs were determined according to current guidelines and the effects of indexation to BW and of covariables on GFR were assessed in 43 clinically healthy cats of various breeds (experiment 2). PECC was 15% higher than UECC (P <0.01), but the two estimates were strongly correlated (r(2)=0.97, P = 0.001). RIs for PECC were 6.4-21.3 mL/min or 1.2-4.9 mL/min/kg. The absolute (i.e. non-indexed) GFR value was not dependent on BW. Thus, indexation of GFR to BW in cats would not standardize the GFR value, but could introduce bias in clinical interpretation. Significant effects of breed, plasma protein concentration and plasma albumin concentration on GFR were demonstrated. Plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, when assessed separately, were also weakly correlated with GFR in healthy cats. These combined findings contribute to a better understanding of renal function assessment in cats.

  9. Evaluation of serum levels of essential trace elements in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis before and after treatment by age and gender.

    PubMed

    Pourfallah, F; Javadian, S; Zamani, Z; Saghiri, R; Sadeghi, S; Zarea, B; Mirkhani, F; Fatemi, N; Kordi, T

    2011-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of Zinc, Copper, Iron and Copper/Zinc ratio in the serum of adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Iran. Serum levels of Zinc and Copper were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and scrum iron concentration was measured by using an Auto Analyzer. The study group consisted of 50 pulmonary tuberculosis patients before treatment and after 6 months of anti-tubercular therapy. Levels of scrum Zn (p < 0.001) and Fe (p < 0.001) in TB patients were significantly increased after 6 months of anti-tubercular therapy. However, serum Cu concentration (p < 0.01) and Cu/Zn ratio (p < 0.05) were decreased after 6 months of anti-tubercular therapy. Some studies indicated a strong association of Zn, Cu, Fe and the Cu/Zn ratio with TB. In this study, we found remarkable change in Cu/Zn ratio. Some researchers mentioned that serum Cu/Zn ratio could be used as an important laboratory marker for diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. They also mentioned that trace element levels must be closely monitored during the process of disease. PMID:22097095

  10. Creatinine determination according to Jaffe—what does it stand for?

    PubMed Central

    Speeckaert, Marijn M.

    2011-01-01

    In 1886, Max Jaffe discovered a reaction of creatinine with picric acid in an alkaline environment. Although the manuscript describes the nature of a precipitate and does not deal with an analytical assay, Jaffe's landmark paper elucidated the basic principles of the creatinine determination method (originally developed by Otto Folin), which became immensely popular and has easily withstood the test of time. Despite the advent of the enzymatic creatinine analysis, the analytical method is still popular due to its simplicity and low cost. As there is no standard recipe for the ‘Jaffe’ method, much methodological variation has occurred over time. This lack of methodological standardization implies that even in the 21st century, improving the interchangeability of Jaffe results is still an issue. PMID:25984118

  11. Creatinine measurements often yielded false estimates of progression in chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Walser, M.; Drew, H.H.; LaFrance, N.D.

    1988-09-01

    In 9 of 22 observation periods (lasting an average of 15 months) in 17 patients with moderate to severe chronic renal failure (GFR 4 to 23 ml/min), rates of progression as estimated from the linear regression on time of 24-hour creatinine clearance (b1) differed significantly from rates of progression as estimated from the regression on time of urinary clearance of 99mTc-DTPA (b2), during all or part of the period of observation. b1 exceeded b2 in four cases and was less than b2 in the other five. Thus there were gradual changes in the fractional tubular secretion of creatinine in individual patients, in both directions. Owing to these changes, measurements of creatinine clearance gave erroneous impressions of the rate or existence of progression during all or a portion of the period of observation in nearly half of these patients. In the 22 studies as a group, using the entire periods of observation, b1 indicated significantly more rapid progression (by 0.18 +/- 0.06 ml/min/month, P less than 0.01) than did b2, and had a significantly greater variance. Measurements of progression based on the rate of change of reciprocal plasma creatinine (multiplied by an average rate of urinary creatinine excretion in each study) were equally misleading, even though less variable. We conclude that sequential creatinine measurements are often misleading as measures of progression and should, when feasible, be replaced by urinary clearance of isotopes in following patients with chronic renal failure.

  12. Raman spectroscopic approach to monitor the in vitro cyclization of creatine → creatinine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Singh, Pushkar; Tarcea, Nicolae; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2015-01-01

    The creatine → creatinine cyclization, an important metabolic phenomenon has been initiated in vitro at acidic pH and studied through Raman spectroscopic and DFT approach. The equilibrium composition of neutral, zwitterionic and protonated microspecies of creatine has been monitored with time as the reaction proceeds. Time series Raman spectra show clear signature of creatinine formation at pH 3 after ∼240 min at room temperature and reaction is faster at higher temperature. The spectra at pH 1 and pH 5 do not show such signature up to 270 min implying faster reaction rate at pH 3.

  13. Amylase: creatinine clearance ratio and urinary excretion of lysozyme in acute pancreatitis and acute duodenal perforation.

    PubMed

    Berger, G M; Cowlin, J; Turner, T J

    1976-09-18

    The amylase:creatinine clearance ratio in patients suffering from acute pancreatitis or acute duodenal perforation was higher than normal in both groups of patients. These findings cast doubt on the value of this parameter as a specific index of acute pancreatitis. The mechanism or mechanisms underlying the increased amylase excretion have not been determined. However, the markedly elevated urinary excretion of lysozyme observed in some patients suggests, by analogy, that diminished tubular reabsorption of amylase may contribute towards the elevated amylase:creatinine ratio.

  14. Effects of the type of dietary fat at two levels of vitamin E in Wistar male rats during development and aging. I. Life span, serum biochemical parameters and pathological changes.

    PubMed

    Porta, E A; Joun, N S; Nitta, R T

    1980-05-01

    This experiment was designed to study in rats the implications of the dietary type of fat at two levels of vitamin E on the life span as well as on several biochemical and anatomopathological age-related changes. For this purpose, six different isoenergetic diets containing 15% coconut oil (SFD), safflower oil (UFD) or a combination of both (CFD) with 2 or 200 mg% of dl-alpha-tocopherol were offered ad libitum to outbred Wistar male rats from weaning to senescence. The results indicated that up to 9--12 months the body weights of rats consuming the CFD or the UFD increased generally faster than those fed the SFD, and that all rats developed moderate degrees of obesity. Age-dependent changes in organ weights (kidneys, testes, spleen, brain, liver and heart) were unaffected by diet. Serum levels of vitamin E generally reflected the corresponding dietary levels, but were also influenced by the type of dietary fat. Serum cholesterol levels were not significantly affected by the type of diet or by age. Only transient hypotriglyceridemic and hypophospholipidemic effects of the UFD were observed and, while the levels of triglycerides decreased with age up to the 18th month followed by an increase at 24 months, the levels of serum phospholipids remained unchanged. Neither diet nor age modified the serum albumin/globulin ratios. While no differences in maximum life span were found between dietary groups, the 50% survival time of rats fed the UFD at high level of vitamin E was significantly longer than in all the other groups. This beneficial effect was related to postponement of the onset and reduction of incidence of malignant neoplasms, but was apparently not related to any particular influence on the incidence or severity of chronic nephropathy which practically developed in all rats. Various neoplastic, degenerative and inflammatory diseases encountered in rats dying during the course of the experiment were tabulated and compared with similar findings reported by others

  15. A Prospective Study to Assess Vancomycin Serum Concentrations inPediatric Patients with Current Dosing Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Arfa, Peyman; Karimi, Abdollah; Rafiei Tabatabaei, Sedigheh; Fahimzad, Alireza; Armin, Shahnaz; Sistanizad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing bacterial resistance to vancomycin, have caused the adult treatment guidelines to recommend higher trough concentrations based on the type and location of infectious disease. Although these recommendations are not specific to children, the values can be extrapolated. This prospective study was designed to evaluate efficacy of current vancomycin dosing recommendations to achieve therapeutic trough serum concentration in pediatric patients. Laboratory data, vancomycin dosing and subsequent serum concentrations of children in a community teaching pediatrics hospital were collected and analyzed. Trough serum levels were determined at steady state and compared with Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) 2011 guidelines for the treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) infections. In a prospective observational, cross-sectional study in a university medical center in Tehran, Iran, 50 patients, who received vancomycin for more than 4 doses, were recruited and their trough vancomycin level was determined. The mean age and creatinine clearance of patients were 5.47 ± 4.24 and 87.5 ± 31.25, respectively. Eleven (22%) patients received vancomycin at 40 mg/kg/day (low dose) and 39 (78%) at 60 mg/kg/day (high dose). Considering trough goals of 10-14 and 15-20 mg/L in low and high dose groups, serum levels in 91% (73% sub- therapeutics) and 85% (69% sub-therapeutics) of patients were not in recommended therapeutic range, respectively. This study has shown that current recommended vancomycin dosing regimens in pediatric patients (40-60 mg/kg/day), resulted in sub-therapeutic serum concentrations in our study population. PMID:27610175

  16. A Prospective Study to Assess Vancomycin Serum Concentrations inPediatric Patients with Current Dosing Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Arfa, Peyman; Karimi, Abdollah; Rafiei Tabatabaei, Sedigheh; Fahimzad, Alireza; Armin, Shahnaz; Sistanizad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing bacterial resistance to vancomycin, have caused the adult treatment guidelines to recommend higher trough concentrations based on the type and location of infectious disease. Although these recommendations are not specific to children, the values can be extrapolated. This prospective study was designed to evaluate efficacy of current vancomycin dosing recommendations to achieve therapeutic trough serum concentration in pediatric patients. Laboratory data, vancomycin dosing and subsequent serum concentrations of children in a community teaching pediatrics hospital were collected and analyzed. Trough serum levels were determined at steady state and compared with Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) 2011 guidelines for the treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) infections. In a prospective observational, cross-sectional study in a university medical center in Tehran, Iran, 50 patients, who received vancomycin for more than 4 doses, were recruited and their trough vancomycin level was determined. The mean age and creatinine clearance of patients were 5.47 ± 4.24 and 87.5 ± 31.25, respectively. Eleven (22%) patients received vancomycin at 40 mg/kg/day (low dose) and 39 (78%) at 60 mg/kg/day (high dose). Considering trough goals of 10-14 and 15-20 mg/L in low and high dose groups, serum levels in 91% (73% sub- therapeutics) and 85% (69% sub-therapeutics) of patients were not in recommended therapeutic range, respectively. This study has shown that current recommended vancomycin dosing regimens in pediatric patients (40-60 mg/kg/day), resulted in sub-therapeutic serum concentrations in our study population. PMID:27610175

  17. [The National Serum Bank].

    PubMed

    Magos-López, C; Sánchez-Villarreal, F; Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R

    1992-01-01

    A National Serum Bank was established to store sera obtained during the National Seroepidemiological Survey performed in Mexico in 1987. More than 70,000 serum samples were obtained from subjects of either sex 1-99 years of age in each of the 32 states of the country. The current collection of sera includes 28,704 male samples and 40,629 female samples. This paper describes the procedures for handling serum samples, including reception registry, storage and distribution to several laboratories for detection of measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, AIDS, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, brucella, salmonella, amoeba, toxoplasma, American trypanosomiasis and cysticercus. Determinations of total cholesterol were also made in order to describe its distribution and to identify the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia.

  18. The Effect of a Maternal Double Megadose of Vitamin A Supplement on Serum Levels of Retinol in Children Aged under Six Months

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Carmina Silva; Kruze, Ilma; Fernandes, Taciana; Andreto, Luciana Marques; Figueiroa, José Natal; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To measure concentrations of serum retinol in children after the use of maternal vitamin A double megadose supplements. Design. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting. The study was conducted at two maternity hospitals in the city of Recife, in the northeast region of Brazil between August 2007 and June 2009. Subjects and Methods. 276 children/mothers were recruited after birth and the women received a 200,000 IU capsule of vitamin A. After ten days they were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group received a second 200.000 IU capsule, while the other received a placebo. The concentrations of retinol in the serum of the children from each group were measured at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results. 173 children completed the study. There was no difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.514). The mean base retinol level was lower than that at four and six months (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The maternal double megadose supplement had no additional effect on the serum retinol levels of the children, although concentrations of retinol in the children rose in the first six months of life. This trial is registered with NCT00742937. PMID:24455219

  19. An Open Label Clinical Trial of a Peptide Treatment Serum and Supporting Regimen Designed to Improve the Appearance of Aging Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2016-09-01

    A 14-week single-center clinical usage study was conducted to test the efficacy of a peptide treatment serum and supporting skincare regimen in 29 women with mild to moderately photodamaged facial skin. The peptide treatment serum contained gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and various peptides with neurotransmitter inhibiting and cell signaling properties. It was hypothesized that the peptide treatment serum would ameliorate eye and facial expression lines including crow's feet and forehead lines. The efficacy of the supporting skincare regimen was also evaluated. An expert investigator examined the subjects at rest and at maximum smile. Additionally, the subjects completed self-assessment questionnaires. At week 14, the expert investigator found a statistically significant improvement in facial lines, facial wrinkles, eye lines, and eye wrinkles at rest when compared to baseline results. The expert investigator also found statistically significant improvement at week 14 in facial lines, eye lines, and eye wrinkles when compared to baseline results at maximum smile. In addition, there was continued highly statistically significant improvement in smoothness, softness, firmness, radiance, luminosity, and overall appearance at rest when compared to baseline results at the 14-week time point. The test regimen was well perceived by the subjects for efficacy and product attributes. The products were well tolerated with no adverse events.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1100-1106. PMID:27602972

  20. Initial dose of vancomycin based on body weight and creatinine clearance to minimize inadequate trough levels in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Maki, N; Ohkuchi, A; Tashiro, Y; Kim, M R; Le, M; Sakamoto, T; Matsubara, S; Hakamata, Y

    2012-10-01

    Our aims were to elucidate the factors that affected vancomycin (VCM) serum trough levels and to find the optimal initial dose based on creatinine clearance (CrCl) and body weight (BW) to minimize inadequate trough levels in a retrospective observational study among Japanese adults. One hundred and six inpatients, in whom VCM trough levels were measured after completing the third dosing, were consecutively recruited into our study in a tertiary hospital. We considered the frequency of <30% as low. In the generalized linear model, initial VCM total daily dose, CrCl, and BW were independent risk factors of VCM trough levels. In patients with CrCl ≥30 and <50 mL/min, 1 g/day yielded low frequencies of a trough level of ≥20 mcg/mL, regardless of BW. In patients with CrCl ≥50 mL/min, 2 g/day yielded low frequencies of a trough level of <10 mcg/mL in patients weighing <55 kg, but not in patients weighing ≥55 kg. Optimal VCM initial total daily dose may be 1 g/day in patients with CrCl ≥30 and <50 mL/min regardless of BW and 2 g/day in patients weighing <55 kg with CrCl ≥50 mL/min among Japanese adults.

  1. Urinary Uric Acid/Creatinine Ratio as a Marker of Mortality and Unfavorable Outcome in NICU-Admitted Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Nariman, Shahin; Mosayebi, Ziba; Sagheb, Setareh; Rastad, Hadith; Hosseininodeh, Seyyed Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background The survival of neonates who have been admitted to the NICU, especially premature infants with few mortality and morbidity, is the most important attitude. Objectives We presumed whether urinary uric acid/creatinine (UUA/Cr) ratio can be a marker of mortality and adverse outcome in neonates which were admitted to the NICU. Patients and Methods All preterm infants admitted to our NICU after birth from March 2014 to April 2015 were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. UUA/Cr was measured during the first day of life. The severity of diseases (indicated by the need for high set-up of mechanical ventilation, complications of prematurity, and duration of stay in the NICU) and neonatal death were considered to be the final unfavorable outcomes. The relationship between the Log-transformation (Ln) urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio and the Apgar score at the first and 5th minute after birth and the duration of stay were analyzed by using linear regression. Statistical analysis was done by using STATA version 11 (STATA Corp, TX, USA). A P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results A total of 362 preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 32.7 (± 3.9) weeks were admitted to the NICU, out of whom 64 (17.6%) had severe disease and 43 (11.8%) died. The mean UUA/Cr ratio was significantly higher in the admitted neonates (3.30 ± 1.95 vs. 1.36 ± 0.42. P = 0.0001). There was a negative correlation between the UUA/Cr ratio and the 1-minute Apgar score (r = -0.17, P = 0.006) and the 5-minute Apgar score (r = -0.19, P = 0.003). The 1-minute Apgar scores were negatively correlated with the outcome (OR = 0.68; P < 0.001) and the duration of stay (β = -.28; P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between 5-minute Apgar scores and the outcome. There was a significant positive correlation between the UUA/Cr ratio and an unfavorable outcome (OR = 1.24; CI %95: 1.06 to 1.43, P = 0.006) and increasing duration of stay (β = 0.17; P = 0

  2. Regulation of serum phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

  3. Association Between Hemodiafiltration and Hypoalbuminemia in Middle-Age Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Hu, Ching-Chih; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The advantage of hemodiafiltration (HDF) is well known. One of the disadvantages of HDF is loss of serum albumin, but this issue is still obscure. Some risk factors associated with mortality were age dependent. Studies on serum albumin/hypoalbuminemia and HDF in different age stratification were limited. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the role of HDF and other clinical variables on serum albumin values in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients of different age groups. We recruited a total of 1216 patients on MHD. Patients were divided into 4 groups by age stratification of youth (<30 years old), young-middle age (30–44 years old), middle age (45–64 years old), and old age (≥65  years old). Biochemical, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory parameters, and receiving HDF or not were recorded. The associations between age groups, HDF, and variables mentioned above were analyzed. Only in middle-age group, patients with HDF was significantly (P = 0.013) associated with serum albumin <4 g/dL. In middle-age group, a multivariate-forward logistic regression analysis showed that male sex (2.169 [1.029, 4.574], P = 0.042), inflammation (4.167 [2.043, 8.498], P < 0.001), cardiovascular disease (2.92 [1.019, 8.402], P = 0.046), serum creatinine level (0.639 [0.538, 0.758], P < 0.001), and cholesterol level (0.984 [0.975, 0.993], P = 0.001) were associated with serum albumin level <3.6 g/dL. Hepatitis C virus infection (1.911 [1.186, 3.077], P = 0.008), HDF (2.143 [1.298, 3.540], P = 0.003), inflammation (2.309 [1.549, 3.440], P < 0.001), use of arterio-venous fistula (0.518 [0.327, 0.820], P = 0.005), Kt/V (0.395 [0.193, 0.809], P = 0.011), nonanuria (0.542 [0.337, 0.870], P = 0.011), serum creatinine level (0.744 [0.669, 0.828], P < 0.001), and cholesterol level (0.993 [0.987, 0.998], P = 0.013) were associated with serum albumin level <4 g/dL. HDF can predict serum

  4. The role of creatinine and histidine in Benedict's qualitative test for reducing sugar in urine.

    PubMed

    Sur, B K; Shukla, R K; Agashe, V S

    1972-10-01

    The statement made in some standard textbooks that Benedict's qualitative test gives a green, yellow, or orange-red precipitate with pure solutions of glucose of varying strength has been shown to be incorrect. Pure solutions of glucose give only a bright red precipitate at all concentrations. These changes in the colour of the suspensions are observed with urinary glucose only. The difference in the action of glucose in water and in urine has been shown to be mostly due to creatinine and to a small extent to the histidine content of urine. The colour of the precipitate depends not only on the concentration of glucose but also on that of creatinine. An increase in concentration of creatinine tends to make the precipitate more yellow. Histidine has a similar though much smaller effect. Attention has been drawn to possible errors in the semi-quantitative assay of urinary glucose by Benedict's test arising out of variation in concentration of creatinine and histidine. PMID:4646301

  5. Mode of action of creatinine on colour of cuprous oxide precipitate in Benedict's qualitative sugar test.

    PubMed

    Sur, B K; Shukla, R K; Agashe, V S

    1972-10-01

    Creatinine appears to alter the colour and bulky nature of the cuprous oxide precipitate not by altering the chemical composition of the precipitate but by the physical process of retardation of the growth of newly formed yellow cuprous oxide crystals to large red crystals by adhering to their surface and blocking some sites for further crystal growth. PMID:4646302

  6. Biomarkers and creatinine in AKI: the trough of disillusionment or the slope of enlightenment?

    PubMed

    Endre, Zoltán H; Pickering, John W

    2013-10-01

    Assessment of acute kidney biomarkers against changes in plasma creatinine is beset by issues of heterogeneity of study cohorts and timing of sampling. Siew and colleagues attempt to minimize these issues in a case-control study of three biomarkers in the intensive care unit. The results highlight the inherent methodological difficulties and the need to reference structural injury biomarkers against more meaningful outcomes.

  7. Spectroscopic and structural study of the newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Sharma, Poornima; Mishra, Hirdyesh; Unnikrishnan, V K; Singh, Bachcha; Singh, Ranjan K

    2016-02-01

    Study of copper complex of creatinine and urea is very important in life science and medicine. In this paper, spectroscopic and structural study of a newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea has been discussed. Structural studies have been carried out using DFT calculations and spectroscopic analyses were carried out by FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence techniques. The copper complex of creatinine and the heteroligand complex were found to have much increased water solubility as compared to pure creatinine. The analysis of FT-IR and Raman spectra helps to understand the coordination properties of the two ligands and to determine the probable structure of the heteroligand complex. The LIBS spectra of the heteroligand complex reveal that the complex is free from other metal impurities. UV-visible absorption spectra and the fluorescence emission spectra of the aqueous solution of Cu-Crn-urea heteroligand complex at different solute concentrations have been analyzed and the complex is found to be rigid and stable in its monomeric form at very low concentrations.

  8. The role of creatinine and histidine in Benedict's qualitative test for reducing sugar in urine

    PubMed Central

    Sur, B. K.; Shukla, R. K.; Agashe, V. S.

    1972-01-01

    The statement made in some standard textbooks that Benedict's qualitative test gives a green, yellow, or orange-red precipitate with pure solutions of glucose of varying strength has been shown to be incorrect. Pure solutions of glucose give only a bright red precipitate at all concentrations. These changes in the colour of the suspensions are observed with urinary glucose only. The difference in the action of glucose in water and in urine has been shown to be mostly due to creatinine and to a small extent to the histidine content of urine. The colour of the precipitate depends not only on the concentration of glucose but also on that of creatinine. An increase in concentration of creatinine tends to make the precipitate more yellow. Histidine has a similar though much smaller effect. Attention has been drawn to possible errors in the semi-quantitative assay of urinary glucose by Benedict's test arising out of variation in concentration of creatinine and histidine. PMID:4646301

  9. Urine albumin to creatinine ratio: A marker of early endothelial dysfunction in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) is a useful predictor of cardiovascular (CV) events in adults. Its relationship to vascular function in children is not clear. We investigated whether UACR was related to insulin resistance and endothelial function, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis...

  10. Spectroscopic and structural study of the newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Sharma, Poornima; Mishra, Hirdyesh; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Singh, Bachcha; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2016-02-01

    Study of copper complex of creatinine and urea is very important in life science and medicine. In this paper, spectroscopic and structural study of a newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea has been discussed. Structural studies have been carried out using DFT calculations and spectroscopic analyses were carried out by FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence techniques. The copper complex of creatinine and the heteroligand complex were found to have much increased water solubility as compared to pure creatinine. The analysis of FT-IR and Raman spectra helps to understand the coordination properties of the two ligands and to determine the probable structure of the heteroligand complex. The LIBS spectra of the heteroligand complex reveal that the complex is free from other metal impurities. UV-visible absorption spectra and the fluorescence emission spectra of the aqueous solution of Cu-Crn-urea heteroligand complex at different solute concentrations have been analyzed and the complex is found to be rigid and stable in its monomeric form at very low concentrations.

  11. Specificity of increased amylase to creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lankisch, P G; Koop, H; Otto, J; Oberdieck, U; Winckler, K; Wolfrum, D I

    1977-01-01

    The amylase to creatinine clearance ratio was found to be normal in 11 of 33 patients with acute pancreatitis. The ratio was elevated in 10 of 19 patients with renal insufficiency. Thus, it does not seem to be a specific index in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

  12. Changes in Serum Biochemical Factors Associated with Opium Addiction after Addiction Desertion

    PubMed Central

    Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Dehyadegary, Elham; Shaikh-Aleslami, Azar; Mahmoodi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background The long time use of opium has some effects on serums biochemical factors, the determination of this variation is a new approach in understanding off addiction and relive of drug abuser health. Hence in this study, these indicators in person who were withdrawing of opium have been studied. Methods In this cross-sectional study bloods biochemical factors such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, and fibrinogen in three groups serum were studied: (1) Who had been permanent opium users more than 2 years (case). (2) Dependent person who has taken one month addiction withdrawal course (control). (3) A healthy group that had been demographically similar to the other groups. Findings According to these study findings, FBS serum level in the case group is lower than control group. Serum level of Na, creatinine, and blood triglyceride (TG) in case study are higher than group control. Concentration of potassium, Ca, UA, BUN, cholesterol, total serum protein, fibrinogen, and thrombin time in case study and group control showed no significant difference. Also, in withdrawing case serum level of Na, Ca, UA, BUN, creatinine, and TG significantly increase and thrombin time decrease. Conclusion According to this study not only the longtime use of opium but also opium with drawerin opium dependent people can change their serum biochemical factors. So recognition, treatment, and prevention of this change could be a new step in improving of health and condition of patients. PMID:25984281

  13. Serum Phosphorylated Neurofilament-Heavy Chain, a Potential Biomarker, is Associated With Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiaona; Zhang, Shuo; Zhao, Weiwei; Ye, Hongying; Yang, Yehong; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Miao, Qing; Hu, Renming; Li, Yiming; Lu, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Neurofilament (NF), one of the major axonal cytoskeletal proteins, plays a critical role in degenerative diseases in both the central and the peripheral nervous systems. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between serum phosphorylated neurofilament-heavy chain (pNF-H) and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in patients with type 2 diabetes.Serum pNF-H concentrations were measured by ELISA in hospitalized patients with and without DPN (n = 118). DPN was assessed by clinical symptoms, signs, and electromyography.Compared with the non-DPN group (311.98 [189.59-634.12] pg/mL), the confirmed group (605.99 [281.17-1332.78] pg/mL) patients had the higher serum pNF-H levels (P = 0.007). DPN was significantly correlated with C-peptide (r = -0.269), total cholesterol (TC) (r = 0.185), and pNF-H (r = 0.258). Serum pNF-H levels were independently associated with DPN (P = 0.004), even after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, TC, C-peptide, urinary albuminto/creatinine ratio, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Compared with pNF-H quartile 1 (referent), patients in quartile 3 (odds ratio [OR], 3.977; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.243-12.728; P = 0.021) and quartile 4 (OR, 10.488; 95% CI, 3.020-34.429; P = 0.000) had the higher risk of DPN after adjusting for the confounders.Serum pNF-H levels might be associated with the DPN, and the correlationship between serum pNF-H and DPN should be further studied.

  14. Serum Phosphorylated Neurofilament-Heavy Chain, a Potential Biomarker, is Associated With Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xiaona; Zhang, Shuo; Zhao, Weiwei; Ye, Hongying; Yang, Yehong; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Miao, Qing; Hu, Renming; Li, Yiming; Lu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neurofilament (NF), one of the major axonal cytoskeletal proteins, plays a critical role in degenerative diseases in both the central and the peripheral nervous systems. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between serum phosphorylated neurofilament-heavy chain (pNF-H) and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum pNF-H concentrations were measured by ELISA in hospitalized patients with and without DPN (n = 118). DPN was assessed by clinical symptoms, signs, and electromyography. Compared with the non-DPN group (311.98 [189.59–634.12] pg/mL), the confirmed group (605.99 [281.17–1332.78] pg/mL) patients had the higher serum pNF-H levels (P = 0.007). DPN was significantly correlated with C-peptide (r = −0.269), total cholesterol (TC) (r = 0.185), and pNF-H (r = 0.258). Serum pNF-H levels were independently associated with DPN (P = 0.004), even after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, TC, C-peptide, urinary albuminto/creatinine ratio, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Compared with pNF-H quartile 1 (referent), patients in quartile 3 (odds ratio [OR], 3.977; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.243–12.728; P = 0.021) and quartile 4 (OR, 10.488; 95% CI, 3.020–34.429; P = 0.000) had the higher risk of DPN after adjusting for the confounders. Serum pNF-H levels might be associated with the DPN, and the correlationship between serum pNF-H and DPN should be further studied. PMID:26554790

  15. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate ameliorates age-related spatial memory deterioration by increasing serum ketone body production as a complementary energy source for neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Yamamoto, Tomiya; Yaku, Keisuke; Hirota, Shiori; Takenaka, Shigeo; Kawabe, Kouichi; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2016-09-25

    1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) is naturally obtained from the rhizomes and seeds of Alpinia galangal. Here, we examined the effect of ACA on learning and memory in senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8). In mice that were fed a control diet containing 0.02% ACA for 25 weeks, the learning ability in the Morris water maze test was significantly enhanced in comparison with mice that were fed the control diet alone. In the Y-maze test, SAMP8 mice showed decreased spontaneous alterations in comparison with senescence-accelerated resistant/1 (SAMR1) mice, a homologous control, which was improved by ACA pretreatment. Serum metabolite profiles were obtained by GC-MS analysis, and each metabolic profile was plotted on a 3D score plot. Based upon the diagram, it can be seen that the distribution areas for the three groups were completely separate. Furthermore, the contents of β-hydroxybutyric acid and palmitic acid in the serum of SAMP8-ACA mice were higher than those of SAMP8-control mice and SAMR1-control mice. We also found that SAMR1 mice did not show histological abnormalities, whereas histological damage in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in SAMP8-control mice was observed. However, SAMP8-ACA mice were observed in a similar manner as SAMR1 mice. These findings confirm that ACA increases the serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyric acid and palmitic acid levels and thus these fuels might contribute to the maintenance of the cognitive performance of SAMP8 mice. PMID:27481192

  16. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate ameliorates age-related spatial memory deterioration by increasing serum ketone body production as a complementary energy source for neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Yamamoto, Tomiya; Yaku, Keisuke; Hirota, Shiori; Takenaka, Shigeo; Kawabe, Kouichi; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2016-09-25

    1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) is naturally obtained from the rhizomes and seeds of Alpinia galangal. Here, we examined the effect of ACA on learning and memory in senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8). In mice that were fed a control diet containing 0.02% ACA for 25 weeks, the learning ability in the Morris water maze test was significantly enhanced in comparison with mice that were fed the control diet alone. In the Y-maze test, SAMP8 mice showed decreased spontaneous alterations in comparison with senescence-accelerated resistant/1 (SAMR1) mice, a homologous control, which was improved by ACA pretreatment. Serum metabolite profiles were obtained by GC-MS analysis, and each metabolic profile was plotted on a 3D score plot. Based upon the diagram, it can be seen that the distribution areas for the three groups were completely separate. Furthermore, the contents of β-hydroxybutyric acid and palmitic acid in the serum of SAMP8-ACA mice were higher than those of SAMP8-control mice and SAMR1-control mice. We also found that SAMR1 mice did not show histological abnormalities, whereas histological damage in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in SAMP8-control mice was observed. However, SAMP8-ACA mice were observed in a similar manner as SAMR1 mice. These findings confirm that ACA increases the serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyric acid and palmitic acid levels and thus these fuels might contribute to the maintenance of the cognitive performance of SAMP8 mice.

  17. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    PubMed Central

    Rubaire-Akiiki, C.; Okello-Onen, J.; Nasinyama, G.W.; Vaarst, M.; Kabagambe, E. K.; Mwayi, W.; Musunga, D.; Wandukwa, W.

    2004-01-01

    Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60%) was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50%) were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified. Abbreviation: zone agro-ecological zone PMID:15861224

  18. Aging and episodic ozone exposure in Brown Norway rats: Effects on heart rate, core temperature, pulmonary function, and expression of serum biomarkers.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) is an air pollutant that is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The aged population is considered to be more sensitive to pollutants such as 03;however, relatively few studies have demonstrated increased susceptibility in aged or senescent animal m...

  19. Longitudinal associations of age, anthropometric and lifestyle factors with serum total insulin-like growth factor-I and IGF binding protein-3 levels in Black and White men: the CARDIA Male Hormone Study.

    PubMed

    Gapstur, Susan M; Kopp, Peter; Chiu, Brian C-H; Gann, Peter H; Colangelo, Laura A; Liu, Kiang

    2004-12-01

    Although several studies have assessed cross-sectional correlates of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), there are no longitudinal studies of the correlates of long-term changes in these measures. We examined the 8-year longitudinal associations of age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, physical activity, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and alcohol intake with serum total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations in 622 Black and 796 White male participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study who were ages 20 to 34 years at the time of the first IGF measurement. In generalized estimating equation analyses, IGF-I decreased by 5.6 and 5.9 ng/mL per year increase in age for Black and White men, respectively (P< 0.0001), and there was an age-related decline in IGFBP-3 that was stronger in Whites (P < 0.0001) than Blacks (P = 0.21). Average IGF-I (beta = -17.51 ng/mL) and IGFBP-3 (beta = -355.4 ng/mL) levels across all three exams were lower in Blacks than Whites (P < 0.0001). Increased BMI was associated with decreased IGF-I (P < 0.0002), but was not associated with IGFBP-3. There were no meaningful associations with waist circumference. Increased physical activity was associated with a decrease in IGFBP-3 (P < 0.05), but was not associated with IGF-I. In White men, there were weak inverse associations between the number of cigarettes smoked per day with IGF-I (P=0.15) and with IGFBP-3 (P = 0.19), and in Black men, increased alcohol intake was associated with a decrease in IGF-I (P = 0.011). In conclusion, these results support an age-related decline and Black-White difference in serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels. Importantly, they suggest that IGF-I and/or IGFBP-3 levels could be influenced by changes in BMI, and perhaps by physical activity, alcohol intake, and cigarette smoking.

  20. Co-immobilized glucose oxidase and β-galactosidase on bovine serum albumin coated allyl glycidyl ether (AGE)-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) copolymer as a biosensor for lactose determination in milk.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Lakshmi Swarnalatha; Dola, Sandhya Rani; Fadnavis, Nitin W; Addepally, Uma; Daniels, Siona; Ponrathnam, Surendra

    2014-10-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was adsorbed on allyl glycidyl ether (AGE)-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) copolymer with 25% crosslink density (AGE-25) at pH 8.0 (16% w/w). The amino, thiol and carboxylic acid functional groups available on protein coated surface were utilized for covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase and β-galactosidase, both independently, and in a step-wise manner on the same matrix, with no more than 10% loss of enzyme activity during immobilization. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking after immobilization provided stable enzyme preparations. The pH-optima of the immobilized enzymes were similar to those for free enzyme but their thermal stability was vastly improved. The co-immobilized enzyme support was used as a biosensor for determination of lactose in milk with excellent reproducibility and reusability.

  1. Creatinine and specific gravity normalization in biological monitoring of occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Jean-François; Lévesque, Martine; Huard, Mélanie; Drolet, Daniel; Lavoué, Jérôme; Tardif, Robert; Truchon, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    Reference values for the biological monitoring of occupational exposures are generally normalized on the basis of creatinine (CR) concentration or specific gravity (SG) to account for fluctuations in urine dilution. For instance, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(®)) uses a reference value of 1g/L for CR. The comparison of urinary concentrations of biomarkers between studies requires the adjustment of results based on a reference CR and/or SG value, although studies have suggested that age, sex, muscle mass, and time of the day can exert non-negligible influences on CR excretion, while SG appears to be less affected. The objective of this study was to propose reference values for urinary CR and SG based on the results of samples sent for analysis by occupational health practitioners to the laboratory of the Occupational Health and Safety Research Institute of Québec (IRSST). We analyzed a database containing 20,395 urinary sample results collected between 1985 and 2010. Linear mixed-effects models with worker as a random effect were used to estimate the influence of sex and collection period on urinary CR and SG. Median CR concentrations were 25-30% higher in men (1.6 g/L or 14.4 mmol/L) than in women (1.2 g/L or 10.2 mmol/L). Four percent of the samples for men and 12% for women were below the acceptable threshold for CR (4.4 mmol/L). For SG, 5% of samples for men and 12% for women were below the threshold of 1.010. The difference in SG levels between sexes was lower than for CR, with a median of 1.024 for men compared to 1.020 for women. Our results suggest that the normalization of reference values based on a standard CR value of 1 g/L as proposed by the ACGIH is a conservative approach. According to the literature, CR excretion is more influenced by physiological parameters than SG. We therefore suggest that correction based on SG should be favored in future studies involving the proposal of reference values for the

  2. Serum Concentrations of Antibodies against Outer Membrane Protein P6, Protein D, and T- and B-Cell Combined Antigenic Epitopes of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in Children and Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Chun-Zhen; Hu, Wei-Lin; Li, Jian-Ping; Hong, Li-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is one of the most common etiologies of acute otitis media, rhinosinusitis, and pneumonia. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are the main focus in new vaccine development against NTHi, as the H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine does not cover noncapsulated NTHi. The OMPs P6 and protein D are the most promising candidate antigens for an NTHi vaccine, and low antibody levels against them in serum may be correlated with infection caused by NTHi. In the current study, we measured the antibody titers against P6, protein D, and their T- and B-cell combined peptide epitopes in healthy individuals of different ages. We found that children <1 month old had the lowest antibody levels against NTHi P6, protein D, and their T- and B-cell combined antigenic epitopes. Antibody titers increased at ages 1 to 6 months, peaked at 7 months to 3 years, and remained high at 4 to 6 years. The antibody titers started to decrease after 6 years and were the lowest in the 21- to 30-year group. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) of T- and B-cell combined antigenic epitopes in P6 and protein D were positively correlated with those of the protein antigens. Among 12 peptides tested, P6-61, P6-123, and protein D-167 epitopes were better recognized than others in human serum. These findings might contribute to the development of an effective serotype-independent vaccine for H. influenzae. PMID:26677200

  3. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case-control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l(-1) (12-101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l(-1) (2.31-100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l(-1) (22.1-48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l(-1) (17.3-36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l(-1) (26.5-77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population. PMID:26909149

  4. Qing'E formula alleviates the aging process in D-galactose-induced aging mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, LIN; HUANG, FEI; SHI, HAILIAN; WU, HUI; ZHANG, BEIBEI; WU, XIAOJUN; WEI, XIAOHUI; WANG, ZHENGTAO

    2016-01-01

    Qing'E formula (QEF) is a clinically used prescription with four ingredients, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus, Juglandis Semen and Garlic Rhizoma, from the Song dynasty (10th century CE). The present study aimed to investigate the anti-aging effect and mechanisms of QEF on D-galactose-induced aging mice. A mouse subacute aging model was established by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose at the neck consecutively for 8 weeks. Motor activity and memory impairment of the mice were evaluated by the rotarod test and passive avoidance test, respectively. Serum and liver parameters were analyzed with biochemical kits. Hippocampal mRNA and protein expression levels were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. QEF administration significantly ameliorated the impaired motor and memory of aging mice. In the serum, QEF reduced blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and inhibited alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. In the liver, QEF increased the glutathione level, enhanced total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity, deceased NO and MDA production, and reduced NO synthase activity. In the hippocampus, QEF elevated gene expression levels of Klotho, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), forkhead box transcription factor O3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), insulin-like growth factor-1 and peroxiredoxin-3. QEF increased protein expression levels of Klotho and SIRT1, and decreased that of PGC-1α in the hippocampus. In conclusion, QEF attenuated the aging process in D-galactose-treated mice, which may be mediated through enhancing the antioxidants in the body, protecting renal and hepatic health, and balancing hippocampal expression levels of the longevity-related genes. PMID:27347412

  5. Association of high post-transplant soluble CD30 serum levels with chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Grenzi, Patricia C; Campos, Érika F; Tedesco-Silva, Hélio; Felipe, Claudia R; Franco, Marcello F; Soares, Maria Fernanda; Medina-Pestana, José Osmar; Gerbase-Delima, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of post-transplant soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels, isolated or in combination with of anti-HLA class II antibodies and of serum creatinine levels, with kidney graft loss due to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), and type of lesions in graft biopsies for cause. The study comprised 511 first kidney graft recipients, transplanted at a single center, with a graft functioning for at least 2.8 years. A single blood sample was collected from each patient. sCD30 levels were determined by ELISA, and HLA antibodies by Luminex assay. The minimum follow-up after testing was 9.3 years. High sCD30 levels, set at sCD30 ≥ 34.15 ng/mL, the presence of HLA class II antibodies, and serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL were independently associated with CAN-graft loss (P values <0.0001, 0.05, <0.0001, respectively), and the combined hazard ratio for CAN-graft loss was 20.2. Analyses of 166 biopsies for cause showed that high sCD30 levels and creatinine were independently associated with interstitial lesions. Post-transplant sCD30 serum levels, especially in conjunction with information regarding HLA class II antibodies and serum creatinine levels, provide valuable information regarding graft outcome and could be useful for the management of kidney transplant recipients.

  6. Influence of random urine albumin-creatinine ratio of pregnant women with hypertension during the gestation period on perinatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qian; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Ronghui; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Jingying; Wang, Lijuan; Guo, Yuanying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the random urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) of pregnant women with hypertension during the gestation period on perinatal outcome. A total of 6,758 pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension and proteinuria were randomly selected between September, 2009 and June, 2015 for the study. Kidney function, blood pressure, history of gravidity and parity, embryo number and the birth weight of the participants was determined. Logistic regression and paired data correlation analyses were carried out with kidney function, blood pressure, history of gravidity and parity, embryo number, birth weight, maternal age, labor presentation and other risk factors as the independent variables and the newborn APGAR score as the dependent variable. The results showed that random urine ACR was increased and negatively correlated with the APGAR score (OR=−0.095, P=0.017). In conclusion, the increased random urine ACR can influence the postpartum outcome. Early intervention of women of childbearing age in early pregnancy or before pregnancy can minimize the adverse complications of infants and mothers such as pregnancy hypertension syndrome, and improve the outcome of the pregnancy. PMID:27703509

  7. The effect of feeding, storage and anticoagulant on feline serum cystatin C.

    PubMed

    Ghys, L F E; Paepe, D; Lefebvre, H P; Taffin, E R L; Hesta, M; Delanghe, J R; Smets, P; Vandendriessche, V; Daminet, S

    2015-10-01

    Serum cystatin C (sCysC) is a possible marker for early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. In contrast with serum creatinine (sCr), feline sCysC is not affected by age, breed or sex. However, further biological and clinical validation is required. The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate if food intake and circadian rhythm affect feline sCysC; (2) to determine the stability of sCysC under different storage conditions, and (3) to investigate if plasma concentrations of CysC (pCysC) differed from sCysC. A crossover study with 10 healthy laboratory cats fed the same commercial dry food was performed to study the influence of feeding and diurnal variation. Storage effects and comparison of pCysC with sCysC were determined using healthy cats (n = 3 and n = 10, respectively) and cats with CKD (n= 4 and n = 17, respectively). A significant daily sCysC variation was seen. Pre- and postprandial sCysC and sCr concentrations did not change significantly. Serum CysC significantly increased during storage at room temperature. After freezing, sCysC significantly decreased after 5 and 12 months at both -20 °C and -72 °C. Plasma CysC was significantly lower than sCysC. These findings suggest that it is not mandatory to fast cats before evaluation of sCysC and sCr. Samples were stable during routinely used storage conditions. Based on these findings, freezing for more than 5 months is not recommended, although additional studies are required to evaluate the clinical relevance of decreased sCysC after prolonged storage. Plasma and serum CysC cannot be compared directly. PMID:26324637

  8. Estimating renal function in children: a new GFR-model based on serum cystatin C and body cell mass.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Borup

    2012-07-01

    This PhD thesis is based on four individual studies including 131 children aged 2-14 years with nephro-urologic disorders. The majority (72%) of children had a normal renal function (GFR > 82 ml/min/1.73 square metres), and only 8% had a renal function < 50% of the normal mean value. The present thesis´ main aims were: 1) to develop a more accurate GFR model based on a novel theory of body cell mass (BCM) and cystatin C (CysC); 2) to investigate the diagnostic performance in comparison to other models as well as serum CysC and creatinine; 3) to validate the new models precision and validity. The model´s diagnostic performance was investigated in study I as the ability to detect changes in renal function (total day-to-day variation), and in study IV as the ability to discriminate between normal and reduced function. The model´s precision and validity were indirectly evaluated in study II and III, and in study I accuracy was estimated by comparison to reference GFR. Several prediction models based on CysC or a combination of CysC and serum creatinine have been developed for predicting GFR in children. Despite these efforts to improve GFR estimates, no alternative to exogenous methods has been found and the Schwartz´s formula based on height, creatinine and an empirically derived constant is still recommended for GFR estimation in children. However, the inclusion of BCM as a possible variable in a CysC-based prediction model has not yet been explored. As CysC is produced at a constant rate from all nucleated cells we hypothesize that including BCM in a new prediction model will increase accuracy of the GFR estimate. Study I aimed at deriving the new GFR-prediction model based on the novel theory of CysC and BCM and comparing the performance to previously published models. The BCM-model took the form GFR (mL/min) = 10.2 × (BCM/CysC)E 0.40 × (height × body surface area/Crea)E 0.65. The model predicted 99% within ± 30% of reference GFR, and 67% within ±10%. This

  9. Serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor is influenced by erythropoietin treatment in peritoneal dialysis patients. (Grupo de Estudios Peritoneales de Madrid).

    PubMed

    del Peso, G; Selgas, R; Bajo, M A; Fernández de Castro, M; Aguilera, A; Cirugeda, A; Jiménez, C

    2000-01-01

    Some patients on long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) develop a hyperpermeability state, owing to peritoneal neoangiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent mitogen for endothelial cells, has been implicated in most diseases characterized by microvascular neoformation. Erythropoietin (EPO) is able to induce endothelial proliferation in vitro. Our aim was to elucidate whether VEGF serum levels are influenced by EPO treatment, and whether VEGF serum level maintains a relationship with peritoneal transport data. We analyzed serum levels of VEGF in 35 PD patients (18 males, 17 females). Mean age was 58 years, with a mean time on PD of 98 +/- 75 months. Of the 35 patients, 19 were on automated peritoneal dialysis, and 16 were on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Seven patients had diabetes. Peritoneal transport parameters were: urea mass transfer coefficient (MTC), 19.5 +/- 6.6 mL/min; creatinine MTC, 9.9 +/- 4.7 mL/min; net ultrafiltration, 491 +/- 166 mL per 4-hour dwell. Twenty seven patients were under therapy with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). Mean serum VEGF levels were 347 +/- 203 pg/mL (range 66-857 pg/mL), with most patients in the normal range (60-700 pg/mL). VEGF levels did not correlate with age, sex, primary renal disease, diabetes, type of PD, time on PD, peritonitis, and cumulative glucose load. We found no correlation with urea MTC, creatinine MTC, ultrafiltration rate, or protein effluent levels. However, a significant negative correlation with residual renal function was seen (r = -0.39, p < 0.05). Patients treated with rHuEPO showed significantly higher serum levels of VEGF than non treated patients (375 +/- 220 pg/mL vs 251 +/- 75 pg/mL, p < 0.05), although they had similar residual renal function. We conclude that increased serum VEGF levels are associated with EPO treatment. Consequently, VEGF might have a role in the EPO effects found in PD patients. Whether both agents are related to peritoneal

  10. Role of trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio in the differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatic disease.

    PubMed

    Farini, R; Fabris, C; del Favero, G; Bonvicini, P; de' Best, T; Piccoli, A; Baccaglini, U; Plebani, M; Pedrazzoli, S; Kind, R; Ceriotti, G; Naccarato, R

    1981-08-01

    Trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio--a recently proposed screening test for pancreatic cancer--was assessed in 45 subjects (17 control subjects, 15 patients with pancreatic cancer, and 13 with chronic pancreatitis). A statistically significant increase of the ratio was detected not only in pancreatic cancer, but also in chronic calcifying pancreatitis. Thus, the previously reported clinical usefulness of the test in pancreatic cancer diagnosis was not substantiated by the present data. Although not fully investigated as yet, reasons for an abnormal ratio are probably independent of the neoplastic or inflammatory nature of the pancreatic disease. Science renal enzyme excretion (alpha-glucosidase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, leucine aminopeptidase) was not found to be invariably elevated when trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio was increased, tubular damage cannot be assumed as constituting the only reason for an altered clearance ratio.

  11. Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio. A simple test to predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Aderka, D; Tene, M; Graff, E; Levo, Y

    1988-05-01

    The initial target of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity is the proximal tubule. Yet, no simple test is available to predict such toxicity. Taking advantage of the fact that amylase is filtered in the glomerulus and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules, we prospectively examined in 23 patients if changes in renal amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) can predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Eighteen of these patients had an initial creatinine clearance (rCcr) above 30 mL/min. Eleven of them (group A) had an ACCR above 3.5% (control 3% +/- 1.03%) and all exhibited an average reduction of 32.2% +/- 11.6% in rCcr following one week of gentamicin therapy. In contrast, only one of seven patients (group B) with an initial ACCR below 3.5% had a reduction, albeit transient, in rCcr. During gentamicin therapy, group A patients had a further increase in ACCR which was proportional to the reduction observed in rCcr (r = -.54). Our preliminary data suggest that ACCR may prove a simple and possibly a reliable predictor of kidney function deterioration during gentamicin therapy in patients with rCcr above 30 mL/min: patients with pretherapy ACCR above 3.5% may exhibit a deterioration in the creatinine clearance during the first week of therapy. For patients with pretherapy renal failure (rCcr less than 30 mL/min) the creatinine levels (but not the ACCR) seem to retain their significance in predicting and monitoring further renal function deterioration during aminoglycoside therapy.

  12. Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio. A simple test to predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Aderka, D; Tene, M; Graff, E; Levo, Y

    1988-05-01

    The initial target of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity is the proximal tubule. Yet, no simple test is available to predict such toxicity. Taking advantage of the fact that amylase is filtered in the glomerulus and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules, we prospectively examined in 23 patients if changes in renal amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) can predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Eighteen of these patients had an initial creatinine clearance (rCcr) above 30 mL/min. Eleven of them (group A) had an ACCR above 3.5% (control 3% +/- 1.03%) and all exhibited an average reduction of 32.2% +/- 11.6% in rCcr following one week of gentamicin therapy. In contrast, only one of seven patients (group B) with an initial ACCR below 3.5% had a reduction, albeit transient, in rCcr. During gentamicin therapy, group A patients had a further increase in ACCR which was proportional to the reduction observed in rCcr (r = -.54). Our preliminary data suggest that ACCR may prove a simple and possibly a reliable predictor of kidney function deterioration during gentamicin therapy in patients with rCcr above 30 mL/min: patients with pretherapy ACCR above 3.5% may exhibit a deterioration in the creatinine clearance during the first week of therapy. For patients with pretherapy renal failure (rCcr less than 30 mL/min) the creatinine levels (but not the ACCR) seem to retain their significance in predicting and monitoring further renal function deterioration during aminoglycoside therapy. PMID:2452611

  13. Relationship of Serum Vitamin D Concentrations and Allostatic Load as a Measure of Cumulative Biological Risk among the US Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Frei, Regina; Haile, Sarah R.; Mutsch, Margot; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The allostatic load (AL) index is a multi-systemic measure of physiologic dysregulation known to be associated with chronic exposure to stress and adverse health outcomes. We examined the relationship between AL and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in non-institutionalized US adults. Methods Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–94) were used to calculate two versions of AL including 9 biomarkers and another two with 14 biomarkers (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, serum cholesterol, serum HDL-cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin, sex-specific waist-to-hip ratio, serum albumin, and serum C-reactive protein for AL1, and, additionally body mass index, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, and serum herpes I & II antibodies for AL2), each set defined by predefined cut-offs or by quartiles. Serum vitamin D concentration was ranked into quartiles. Logistic regression, Poisson regression and linear regression were used to examine the association of serum 25(OH)D concentrations on AL, after adjusting for biological, physiological, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and health variables. Results Odds Ratios (OR) for high AL of the lowest 25(OH)D serum quartile were between 1.45 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.67) and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.39, 2.32) for the fully adjusted model, depending on AL version. Inverse relationships between vitamin D serum concentrations were observed for all AL versions and every adjustment. This relationship was consistent after stratification by sex, age or ethnic background. Sensitivity to low 25(OH)D concentrations was highest among the youngest group (20–39 years) with an OR of 2.11 (95% CI: 1.63, 2.73) for the lowest vitamin D quartile Q1. Conclusions Vitamin D had a consistent and statistically significant inverse association with all tested models of high AL, which remained consistent after adjusting for biological, socioeconomic, lifestyle and health variables. Our study

  14. Augmented renal clearance in septic and traumatized patients with normal plasma creatinine concentrations: identifying at-risk patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Improved methods to optimize drug dosing in the critically ill are urgently needed. Traditional prescribing culture involves recognition of factors that mandate dose reduction (such as renal impairment), although optimizing drug exposure, through more frequent or augmented dosing, represents an evolving strategy. Elevated creatinine clearance (CLCR) has been associated with sub-therapeutic antibacterial concentrations in the critically ill, a concept termed augmented renal clearance (ARC). We aimed to determine the prevalence of ARC in a cohort of septic and traumatized critically ill patients, while also examining demographic, physiological and illness severity characteristics that may help identify this phenomenon. Methods This prospective observational study was performed in a 30-bed tertiary level, university affiliated, adult intensive care unit. Consecutive traumatized and septic critically ill patients, receiving antibacterial therapy, with a plasma creatinine concentration ≤110 μmol/L, were eligible for enrolment. Pulse contour analysis (Vigileo / Flo Trac® system, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA), was used to provide continuous cardiac index (CI) assessment over a single six-hour dosing interval. Urinary CLCR measures were obtained concurrently. Results Seventy-one patients contributed data (sepsis n = 43, multi-trauma n = 28). Overall, 57.7% of the cohort manifested ARC, although there was a greater prevalence in trauma (85.7% versus 39.5%, P <0.001). In all patients, a weak correlation was noted between CI and CLCR (r = 0.346, P = 0.003). This was mostly driven by septic patients (r = 0.508, P = 0.001), as no correlation (r = -0.012, P = 0.951) was identified in trauma. Those manifesting ARC were younger (P <0.001), male (P = 0.012), with lower acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II (P= 0.008) and modified sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (P = 0.013), and higher cardiac indices (P = 0.013). In

  15. A Simpler Creatinine Index Can Predict Long-Term Survival in Chinese Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Chung-Wei; Hung, Szu-Chun; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Low lean body mass (LBM) is an indicator of malnutrition inflammation syndrome, which is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The creatinine index (CI) has been validated as a reliable method to estimate LBM and evaluate the protein-energy status of HD patients. However, the traditional creatinine index formula was complex. We sought to investigate the impact of CI derived from a new simple formula on Chinese HD patient outcomes. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 1269 patients who initiated HD between February 1981 and February 2012 and followed them until the end of February 2013. CI was calculated using the simple creatinine kinetic model (CKM) formula. Multiple linear regression analysis and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis were used to define independent variables and compare survival between groups. Results The 1269 HD patients were categorized into 3 groups according to the tertiles of calculated CI between men and women. Each group consisted of 423 patients (50.6% men, 49.4% women). Patients in the highest sex-specific tertile of CI had longer overall survival (HR, 0.46; P 0.002). BMI did not significantly associate with survival after adjustment (HR,0.99; P 0.613). Conclusions CI derived from the simple CKM formula serves as a good parameter than BMI to predict the survival of HD patients. The formula could extend its convenient use in clinical practice for HD patients. PMID:27780214

  16. Clinical evaluation of amylase-creatinine clearance ratio and amylase isoenzyme clearance in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Otsuki, M; Okano, K; Yamasaki, T; Baba, S

    1981-01-01

    Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) and amylase isoenzyme clearance were determined simultaneously in patients with chronic renal failure. ACCR in patients with compensated renal failure (3.5 +/- 0.4%) was not significantly different from normals (2.6 +/- 0.2%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure (6.7 +/- 0.4%) was significantly higher than that in normals. Clearance ratio of pancreatic isoamylase (Amylase-1) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 1/Ccr) in patients with both compensated (5.9 +/- 1.0%) and non-compensated (6.8 +/- 0.4%) renal failure was as high as that in patients with acute pancreatitis (6.6 +/- 0.5%). On the other hand, clearance ratio of salivary isoamylase (Amylase-3) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 3/CCr) in patients with compensated renal failure (1.5 +/- 0.3%) was almost the same as that in normals (2.1 +/- 0.1%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure was 5.9 +/- 0.7%, which was significantly higher than that in normals. The present study revealed that elevated ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function was due to the increase of the clearance ratio for both pancreatic and salivary amylase. These facts suggested that glomerular permeability and tubular reabsorption for pancreatic and salivary amylase might play an important role on ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function.

  17. Clinical evaluation of amylase-creatinine clearance ratio and amylase isoenzyme clearance in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Otsuki, M; Okano, K; Yamasaki, T; Baba, S

    1981-01-01

    Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) and amylase isoenzyme clearance were determined simultaneously in patients with chronic renal failure. ACCR in patients with compensated renal failure (3.5 +/- 0.4%) was not significantly different from normals (2.6 +/- 0.2%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure (6.7 +/- 0.4%) was significantly higher than that in normals. Clearance ratio of pancreatic isoamylase (Amylase-1) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 1/Ccr) in patients with both compensated (5.9 +/- 1.0%) and non-compensated (6.8 +/- 0.4%) renal failure was as high as that in patients with acute pancreatitis (6.6 +/- 0.5%). On the other hand, clearance ratio of salivary isoamylase (Amylase-3) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 3/CCr) in patients with compensated renal failure (1.5 +/- 0.3%) was almost the same as that in normals (2.1 +/- 0.1%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure was 5.9 +/- 0.7%, which was significantly higher than that in normals. The present study revealed that elevated ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function was due to the increase of the clearance ratio for both pancreatic and salivary amylase. These facts suggested that glomerular permeability and tubular reabsorption for pancreatic and salivary amylase might play an important role on ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function. PMID:6167484

  18. Possible association between serum alkaline phosphatase concentration and thoracicacute aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ming; Ding, Juan; Zhao, Long; Huang, Xiang; Ma, Ke-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of organic pyrophosphate. Accumulating data have demonstrated that the concentration of increased ALP is associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, and inflammation was complicated in the pathogenesis of acute aortic dissection (ADD). Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the relationship between serum ALP concentration and thoracic ADD. Methods: We retrieved demographic data and test results of biochemical data of 68 patients with thoracic ADD and 126 Non-thoracic ADD patients, retrospectively. Results: A total of 194 patients were divided into thoracic ADD groups and non-thoracic ADD groups. Age, creatinine(Cr) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were found to be statistical significance between the two groups. The mean ALP level was significantly higher in patients with thoracic ADD compared with Non-thoracic ADD patients (80.6±23.02 Vs. 65.9±16.49, P=0.001). Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses revealed a significantly association of ALP with thoracic ADD (OR=1.038, 95% CI: 1.015-1.062, P=0.001). In addition, HDL-C was negative associated with thoracic ADD in multiple logistic regression analyses after adjustment for age, sex and Cr (OR=-0.083, 95% CI: 0.012-0.560, P=0.011). Conclusions: The present study suggests that the level of serum ALP is associated with thoracic ADD, and serum ALP concentration may be apotential risk factor for thoracic ADD. PMID:26629214

  19. The Effect of the Antioxidant Drug “U-74389G” on Creatinine Levels during Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsompos, Constantinos; Panoulis, Constantinos; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Zografos, George; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this experimental study was to examine the effect of the antioxidant drug “U-74389G” on a rat model using an ischemia reperfusion protocol. The effect of U-74389G was studied biochemically by measuring mean blood creatinine levels. Materials and Methods Forty rats were used in the study. Creatinine levels were measured at 60 min of reperfusion (groups A and C) or at 120 min of reperfusion (groups B and D), where groups A and B were controls and groups C and D received U-74389G administration. Results U-74389G administration significantly decreased the predicted creatinine levels by 21.02 ± 5.06% (p = 0.0001). Reperfusion time non-significantly increased the predicted creatinine levels by 4.20 ± 6.12% (p = 0.4103). However, U-74389G administration and reperfusion time together produced a significant combined effect in decreasing the predicted creatinine levels by 11.69 ± 3.16% (p = 0.0005). Conclusion Independent of reperfusion time, U-74389G administration significantly decreased the creatinine levels in an ischemic rat model. This study demonstrates that short-term U-74389G administration improves renal function by increasing creatinine excretion. PMID:27390579

  20. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

  1. Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) among psychiatric out-patients in Sweden: relations with season, age, ethnic origin and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Humble, Mats B; Gustafsson, Sven; Bejerot, Susanne

    2010-07-01

    In a chart review at a psychiatric out-patient department, latitude 59.3 degrees N, a sample of patients with tests of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD) and plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) was collected, together with demographic data and psychiatric diagnoses. During 19 months, 117 patients were included. Their median 25-OHD was 45 nmol/l; considerably lower than published reports on Swedish healthy populations. Only 14.5% had recommended levels (over 75). In 56.4%, 25-OHD was under 50 nmol/l, which is related to several unfavourable health outcomes. Seasonal variation of 25-OHD was blunted. Patients with ADHD had unexpectedly low iPTH levels. Middle East, South-East Asian or African ethnic origin, being a young male and having a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia predicted low 25-OHD levels. Hence, the diagnoses that have been hypothetically linked to developmental (prenatal) vitamin D deficiency, schizophrenia and autism, had the lowest 25-OHD levels in this adult sample, supporting the notion that vitamin D deficiency may not only be a predisposing developmental factor but also relate to the adult patients' psychiatric state. This is further supported by the considerable psychiatric improvement that coincided with vitamin D treatment in some of the patients whose deficiency was treated. PMID:20214992

  2. Association of serum uric acid level with mortality and morbidity of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Reza; Ghaffari, Samad; Salehi, Rezvanieh; Mazani, Sarvin; Aghavali, Sharmin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Investigating the clinical impact of serum uric acid (UA) and its lowering agents on the complications and mortality of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) can open a new era in STEMI treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of on admission serum UA level on the mortality and morbidity of patients admitted with STEMI. Methods: A number of 608 patients with STEMI were enrolled in this study from December 21, 2012 until February 19, 2014. Patients were followed for 20 months. Male to female ratio was 2.53, and the mean age of patients was 62.6±13.4. The relationship between the level of UA and patients’ mortality and morbidity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), atrial and ventricular arrhythmia was analyzed. Results: Patients with high serum UA level had higher Killip class after STEMI (P=0.001). Mean LVEF was measured to be 39.5±9.6 in normal UA group and 34.6±11.6 in high UA group (P=0.001). In comparison with normal UA group, high UA group had significantly higher cTnI (2.68±0.09 vs 4.09±0.42, respectively, P=0.001), increased blood pressure (P=0.009), and higher atrial fibrillation (AF) occurrence (P=0.03), but no association was seen between ventricular tachycardia and serum UA level. Short term and midterm mortality were not different in two groups (P=0.44 and 0.31, respectively). Conclusion: In the current study, high serum UA level in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) was not associated with higher in-hospital or midterm mortality, but it was associated with lower LVEF, higher Killip class, elevated cTnI, creatinine, triglyceride, and higher AF. PMID:27489597

  3. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN. PMID:7787867

  4. Correlates of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a community-based study of middle-aged and older men and women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chi, Dalei; Nakano, Masataka; Yamamoto, Koji

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol with sex, age, body composition, and lifestyle related factor including dietary patterns, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity in a community-based sample from Mie prefecture, Japan. The study population comprised of 463 men (65.7+/-8.6 years) and 845 women (61.9+/-10.1 years) who participated in an annual healthy examination and a lifestyle related survey in 2001. Using factor analysis based on data from the lifestyle-related questionnaires, three dietary patterns were identified: prudent, Western, and high-salt dietary patterns. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that important predictors of higher HDL cholesterol levels were being female and a higher frequency of alcohol consumption. Less strongly related were age and a prudent dietary pattern. Smoking and body mass index (BMI) were strongly negatively related to HDL cholesterol levels. We suggested that efforts to reduce coronary heart disease risks focus on weight control and good daily lifestyles in middle-aged and older Japanese population.

  5. Consuming a buttermilk drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolk daily for 1 year increased plasma lutein but did not affect serum lipid or lipoprotein concentrations in adults with early signs of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    van der Made, Sanne M; Kelly, Elton R; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Kijlstra, Aize; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2014-09-01

    Dietary lutein intake is postulated to interfere with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Because egg yolk-derived lutein has a high bioavailability, long-term consumption of lutein-enriched eggs might be effective in preventing AMD development, but alternatively might increase cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we report the effect of 1-y daily consumption of a buttermilk drink containing 1.5 lutein-rich egg yolks on serum lipid and lipoprotein and plasma lutein concentrations. Additionally, subgroups that could potentially benefit the most from the intervention were identified. Men and women who had early signs of AMD in at least 1 eye, but were otherwise healthy, participated in a 1-y randomized, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. At the start of the study, 101 participants were included: 52 in the experimental (Egg) group and 49 in the control (Con) group. Final analyses were performed with 45 participants in the Egg group and 43 participants in the Con group. As expected, the increase in plasma lutein concentrations in the Egg group was 83% higher than that in the Con group (P < 0.001). Changes in serum total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, as well as the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, were not different between the 2 groups. Interestingly, participants classified as cholesterol absorbers had higher serum HDL cholesterol concentrations than participants classified as cholesterol synthesizers or participants with average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratios (P < 0.05) at baseline. In addition, cholesterol absorbers had a 229% higher increase in plasma lutein concentrations than participants who were classified as having an average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio upon consumption of the lutein-enriched egg yolk drink (P < 0.05). Moreover, the change in serum HDL cholesterol upon consumption was significantly different between these 3 groups (P < 0.05). We suggest that cholesterol absorbers particularly might benefit

  6. Multicenter Study of Creatinine- and/or Cystatin C-Based Equations for Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rates in Chinese Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Xue-mei; Yang, Yu-wei; Zeng, Ping; Guo, Xiu-zhi; Qin, Yan; Liu, Hong-chun; Han, Xing-min; Li, Yan-peng; Xu, Wei; Sun, Shu-yan; Wang, Li-qiang; Quan, Hui; Xia, Li-jun; Hu, Hong-zhang; Zhong, Fang-cai; Duan, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish equations for the estimation of glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) based on serum creatinine (SCr) and/or serum cystatin C (SCysC) in Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and to compare the new equations with both the reference GFR (rGFR) and the literature equations to evaluate their applicability. Methods The 788 Chinese CKD patients were randomly divided into two groups, the training group and the testing group, to establish new eGFR-formulas based on serum CysC and to validate the established formulas, respectively. 99mTc-DTPA clearance (as the rGFR), serum Cr, and serum CysC were determined for all patients, and GFR was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation (eGFR1), the MDRD formula (eGFR2), the CKD-EPI formulas (eGFR3, eGFR4), and the Chinese eGFR Investigation Collaboration formulas (eGFR5, eGFR6). The accuracy of each eGFR was compared with the rGFR. Results The training and testing groups' mean GFRs were 50.84±31.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 54.16±29.45 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The two newly developed eGFR formulas were fitted using iterative computation: and . Significant correlation was observed between each eGFR and the rGFR. However, proportional errors and constant errors were observed between rGFR and eGFR1, eGFR2, eGFR4, eGFR5 or eGFR6, and constant errors were observed between eGFR3 and rGFR, as revealed by the Passing & Bablok plot analysis. The Bland-Altman analysis illustrated that the 95% limits of agreement of all equations exceeded the previously accepted limits of <60 mL/min •1.73 m2, except the equations of eGFR7 and eGFR8. Conclusion The newly developed formulas, eGFR7 and eGFR8, provide precise and accurate GFR estimation using serum CysC detection alone or in combination with serum Cr detection. Differences in detection methods should be carefully considered when choosing literature eGFR equations to avoid misdiagnosis and mistreatment. PMID:23526939

  7. Spot urinary albumin-creatinine ratio predicts left ventricular hypertrophy in young hypertensive African-American men.

    PubMed

    Post, W S; Blumenthal, R S; Weiss, J L; Levine, D M; Thiemann, D R; Gerstenblith, G; Hill, M N

    2000-11-01

    Hypertensive patients with target organ damage are at increased cardiovascular risk, and should be treated most aggressively. The association between urinary albumin excretion and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in prior studies is inconsistent, and has not been described using a single, random spot urine specimen. Therefore, we evaluated the association between the urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and left ventricular (LV) mass and also tested the hypothesis that a simple random, single-void urine ACR would identify high risk young, hypertensive, African-American men. We measured echocardiographic LV mass and a random spot urinary ACR in 109 untreated, hypertensive, young, inner city, African-American men. The mean age was 41 +/- 6 years and the mean blood pressure (BP) was 157 +/- 19/107 +/- 13 mm Hg. Microalbuminuria (ACR 30 to 300 mg/g) was present in 22% of subjects. The ACR is higher in the men with LVH than in the men without LVH (P < .05). Increased ACR is a predictor of increased LV mass index (P < .003) using multiple linear regression. An ACR >30 mg/g has a sensitivity of 33% and a specificity of 82% for the diagnosis of echocardiographic LVH. In conclusion, elevated random spot ACR is a marker of increased LV mass, independent of BP, in young urban African-American men with hypertension, and may help to determine the aggressiveness of antihypertensive therapy in this high-risk group.

  8. Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Heger, Zbynek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Ondrak, Ales; Skoda, Jan; Zitka, Zdenek; Cernei, Natalia; Masarik, Michal; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we present a study focused on the determination of the influence of long-distance (53 km) bicycle riding on levels of chosen biochemical urinary and serum prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and sarcosine. Fourteen healthy participants with no evidence of prostate diseases, in the age range from 49-57 years with a median of 52 years, underwent physical exercise (mean race time of 150 ± 20 min, elevation increase of 472 m) and pre- and post-ride blood/urine sampling. It was found that bicycle riding resulted in elevated serum uric acid (p = 0.001, median 271.76 vs. 308.44 µmol/L pre- and post-ride, respectively), lactate (p = 0.01, median 2.98 vs. 4.8 mmol/L) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.01, 0.0-0.01 mg/L). It is noteworthy that our work supports the studies demonstrating an increased PSA after mechanical manipulation of the prostate. The subjects exhibited either significantly higher post-ride tPSA (p = 0.002, median 0.69 vs. 1.1 ng/mL pre- and post-ride, respectively) and fPSA (p = 0.028, median 0.25 vs. 0.35 ng/mL). Contrary to that, sarcosine levels were not significantly affected by physical exercise (p = 0.20, median 1.64 vs. 1.92 µmol/mL for serum sarcosine, and p = 0.15, median 0.02 µmol/mmol of creatinine vs. 0.01 µmol/mmol of creatinine for urinary sarcosine). Taken together, our pilot study provides the first evidence that the potential biomarker of PCa-sarcosine does not have a drawback by means of a bicycle riding-induced false positivity, as was shown in the case of PSA. PMID:26999116

  9. Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heger, Zbynek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Ondrak, Ales; Skoda, Jan; Zitka, Zdenek; Cernei, Natalia; Masarik, Michal; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we present a study focused on the determination of the influence of long-distance (53 km) bicycle riding on levels of chosen biochemical urinary and serum prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and sarcosine. Fourteen healthy participants with no evidence of prostate diseases, in the age range from 49–57 years with a median of 52 years, underwent physical exercise (mean race time of 150 ± 20 min, elevation increase of 472 m) and pre- and post-ride blood/urine sampling. It was found that bicycle riding resulted in elevated serum uric acid (p = 0.001, median 271.76 vs. 308.44 µmol/L pre- and post-ride, respectively), lactate (p = 0.01, median 2.98 vs. 4.8 mmol/L) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.01, 0.0–0.01 mg/L). It is noteworthy that our work supports the studies demonstrating an increased PSA after mechanical manipulation of the prostate. The subjects exhibited either significantly higher post-ride tPSA (p = 0.002, median 0.69 vs. 1.1 ng/mL pre- and post-ride, respectively) and fPSA (p = 0.028, median 0.25 vs. 0.35 ng/mL). Contrary to that, sarcosine levels were not significantly affected by physical exercise (p = 0.20, median 1.64 vs. 1.92 µmol/mL for serum sarcosine, and p = 0.15, median 0.02 µmol/mmol of creatinine vs. 0.01 µmol/mmol of creatinine for urinary sarcosine). Taken together, our pilot study provides the first evidence that the potential biomarker of PCa—sarcosine does not have a drawback by means of a bicycle riding-induced false positivity, as was shown in the case of PSA. PMID:26999116

  10. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Rosita; Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima Dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were studied; results were compared according to diabetes treatment and with persons without diabetes. TSH, FT4, antithyroperoxidase, fasting glucose, and HbA1c were measured. Results and Discussion. 6.4% of patients with diabetes had hypothyroidism, a higher prevalence compared with persons without diabetes (5.1%), but lower than observed in many studies. The use of age-specific TSH reference interval (RI) could explain this difference. Patients taking metformin (MTF) had TSH (showed in medians) slightly lower (2.8 mU/L) than those not on MTF (3.3 mU/L), p < 0.05. MTF doses influenced TSH levels. Conclusions. The use of specific TSH RI could avoid the misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism in elderly with diabetes. Patients in use of MTF as single drug had lower TSH than those using other medications and persons without diabetes. PMID:27403442

  11. Serum Levels of Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Among Vaccinated Population Aged 1 to 18 Years in Ahvaz City Southwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Norouzirad, Reza; Shakurnia, Abdol Hussein; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Serajian, Amirarsalan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The duration of protection following primary series vaccination against hepatitis B is unknown in children and adolescents. It has been shown that the level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibodies (anti HBs Ab) declines over years after vaccination. Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term immunity against hepatitis B virus infection among children and adolescents who had received a complete hepatitis B vaccination series during infancy. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the - anti-HBsAb levels of 840 vaccinated children and adolescents were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Hepatitis B seroprotection rates (anti HBsAb ≥ 10 IU/L) among vaccinated children and adolescents aged 1 and 18 years were 90% and 48.9%, respectively. The declining trend of geometric mean titer of anti-HBsAb levels was observed as changed from 272.3 IU/L to 94.1 IU/L in 1 and 18-year-old population, respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between age and anti-HBsAb levels (r = - 0.220, P = 0.0001). Conclusions: The results showed a declining trend in anti-HBsAb titers over the time after vaccination against hepatitis B virus in our region. Further studies are warranted to establish the need for a booster dose in cases that are at risk of hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:24497878

  12. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were studied; results were compared according to diabetes treatment and with persons without diabetes. TSH, FT4, antithyroperoxidase, fasting glucose, and HbA1c were measured. Results and Discussion. 6.4% of patients with diabetes had hypothyroidism, a higher prevalence compared with persons without diabetes (5.1%), but lower than observed in many studies. The use of age-specific TSH reference interval (RI) could explain this difference. Patients taking metformin (MTF) had TSH (showed in medians) slightly lower (2.8 mU/L) than those not on MTF (3.3 mU/L), p < 0.05. MTF doses influenced TSH levels. Conclusions. The use of specific TSH RI could avoid the misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism in elderly with diabetes. Patients in use of MTF as single drug had lower TSH than those using other medications and persons without diabetes. PMID:27403442

  13. Higher serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate protects against the onset of depression in the elderly: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA)

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Teodoro, Luis H; de Oliveira, Cesar; Walters, Kate; Carvalho, Livia A

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the major causes of disability worldwide, but the complete etiology of depression is not fully understood. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated form DHEA(S) have been associated with mood and healthy aging. Associations with mental illness over the middle to late years of life have not yet been extensively investigated in large, western community-dwelling samples. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low DHEA(S) levels are associated with the development of depressive symptoms in a large longitudinal cohort study of older men and women. We assessed data from English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) to evaluate the association of DHEA(S) levels and depressive symptoms measured by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Scale (CES-D) at baseline (n = 3083) and at 4-year follow-up (n = 3009). At baseline, there was an inverse association between DHEA(S) and depressive symptoms (B = −0.252, p = 0.014). Adjustments for physical illnesses, impairments in cognitive function and health behaviors abolished this association (p = 0.109) at baseline. Decreased DHEA(S) levels at baseline also predicted incident depression at 4-year follow-up (B = −0.332, p < 0.001). In conclusion, higher DHEA(S) levels were associated with reduced risk of developing depressive symptoms in both men and women. PMID:26600009

  14. Loss of tubular creatinine secretion as the only sign of tubular proximal cell dysfunction in light chain proximal tubulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stehlé, Thomas; Vignon, Marguerite; Flamant, Martin; Figueres, Marie-Lucile; Rabant, Marion; Rodenas, Anita; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Arnulf, Bertrand; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Light chain proximal tubulopathy (LCPT) is a rare disease, characterized by cytoplasmic inclusions of light chain (usually kappa) immunoglobulins. Clinical presentation is usually a Fanconi syndrome. The proximal tubular dysfunction can be incomplete, and exceptional cases of LCPT without any tubular dysfunction have even been described. Here, we report a case of LCPT in which the only sign of proximal tubulopathy is the absence of secretion of creatinine, as assessed by the simultaneous measurement of renal clearance of creatinine and 51CrEDTA. The loss of tubular creatinine secretion as a sign of tubular proximal cell dysfunction ought to be identified in patients with light chain proximal tubulopathy as it leads to a clinically relevant underestimation of GFR by the creatinine-derived equations. The prevalence and prognostic significance of this particular proximal tubular damage in LCPT remain to be determined. PMID:27367983

  15. Association of serum pentraxin 3 concentrations with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Jietao; Hu, Wenchao

    2016-08-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a member of a superfamily of conserved proteins, attenuates renal damage in diabetic mice. This study aims to determine whether serum PTX3 concentrations are correlated with the presence of diabetic nephropathy (DN). A total of 160 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 54 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Patients with T2DM were divided into three groups in accordance with the levels of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Serum PTX3 concentrations were determined using an ELISA kit. Serum PTX3 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with T2DM compared with the controls. Patients with T2DM with macroalbuminuria showed higher serum PTX3 concentrations compared with the other three groups. However, there were no significant differences of serum PTX3 concentrations between patients with T2DM with normoalbuminuria and microalbuminuria. Furthermore, a simple regression analysis has shown that serum PTX3 concentrations in patients with T2DM were negatively correlated with body mass index, and positively correlated with blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and UAE. Serum PTX3 concentrations are correlated with DN.

  16. Serum uric acid is inversely proportional to estimated stroke volume and cardiac output in a large sample of pharmacologically untreated subjects: data from the Brisighella Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Rosticci, Martina; Parini, Angelo; Baronio, Cristina; D'Addato, Sergio; Borghi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    Serum uric acid is representative for xanthine-oxidase, the key enzyme involved in the production of uric acid, which is up-regulated in the failing heart, and may play an important role in the pathophysiologic process that leads to heart failure. In our study, we investigated the relation between stroke volume, cardiac output and serum uric acid in a large sample of overall healthy pharmacologically untreated subjects. The Brisighella Heart Study included 2,939 men and women between the ages of 14-84 without prior coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular disease who were not taking antihypertensive therapy at baseline. For this study, we selected 734 adult subjects enrolled in the last Brisighella population survey not taking antihypertensive, antidiabetic, lipid-lowering and uric acid-lowering drugs, and who were also not affected by chronic heart failure or by gout. The main predictors of cardiac functionality parameters were mean arterial pressure (MAP), HR, SUA and age (all p < 0.001), while gender, BMI, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, physical activity and smoking habit were not significantly associated (all p > 0.05). In particular, there is a strong relation between estimated cardiac output and serum uric acid (B = -0.219, p < 0.001) and between stroke volume and serum uric acid (B = -3.684, p < 0.001). These observations might have an impact on future considerations about serum uric acid as an early inexpensive marker of heart function decline in the general population. PMID:24214336

  17. Estimating renal function in children: a new GFR-model based on serum cystatin C and body cell mass.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Borup

    2012-07-01

    This PhD thesis is based on four individual studies including 131 children aged 2-14 years with nephro-urologic disorders. The majority (72%) of children had a normal renal function (GFR > 82 ml/min/1.73 square metres), and only 8% had a renal function < 50% of the normal mean value. The present thesis´ main aims were: 1) to develop a more accurate GFR model based on a novel theory of body cell mass (BCM) and cystatin C (CysC); 2) to investigate the diagnostic performance in comparison to other models as well as serum CysC and creatinine; 3) to validate the new models precision and validity. The model´s diagnostic performance was investigated in study I as the ability to detect changes in renal function (total day-to-day variation), and in study IV as the ability to discriminate between normal and reduced function. The model´s precision and validity were indirectly evaluated in study II and III, and in study I accuracy was estimated by comparison to reference GFR. Several prediction models based on CysC or a combination of CysC and serum creatinine have been developed for predicting GFR in children. Despite these efforts to improve GFR estimates, no alternative to exogenous methods has been found and the Schwartz´s formula based on height, creatinine and an empirically derived constant is still recommended for GFR estimation in children. However, the inclusion of BCM as a possible variable in a CysC-based prediction model has not yet been explored. As CysC is produced at a constant rate from all nucleated cells we hypothesize that including BCM in a new prediction model will increase accuracy of the GFR estimate. Study I aimed at deriving the new GFR-prediction model based on the novel theory of CysC and BCM and comparing the performance to previously published models. The BCM-model took the form GFR (mL/min) = 10.2 × (BCM/CysC)E 0.40 × (height × body surface area/Crea)E 0.65. The model predicted 99% within ± 30% of reference GFR, and 67% within ±10%. This

  18. Renal Drug Dosage Adjustment According to Estimated Creatinine Clearance in Hospitalized Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Altunbas, Gokhan; Yazc, Mehmet; Solak, Yalcin; Gul, Enes E; Kayrak, Mehmet; Kaya, Zeynettin; Akilli, Hakan; Aribas, Alpay; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Yazc, Raziye; Ozdemir, Kurtulus

    2016-01-01

    It is of clinical importance to determine creatinine clearance and adjust doses of prescribed drugs accordingly in patients with heart failure to prevent untoward effects. There is a scarcity of studies in the literature investigating this issue particularly in patients with heart failure, in whom many have impaired kidney function. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of awareness of medication prescription as to creatinine clearance in patients hospitalized with heart failure. Patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of heart failure were retrospectively evaluated. Among screened charts, patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <40% and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≤50 mL/min were included in the analysis. The medications and respective doses prescribed at discharge were recorded. Medications requiring renal dose adjustment were determined and evaluated for appropriate dosing according to eGFR. A total of 388 patients with concomitant heart failure and renal dysfunction were included in the study. The total number of prescribed medications was 2808 and 48.3% (1357 medications) required renal dose adjustment. Of the 1357 medications, 12.6% (171 medications) were found to be inappropriately prescribed according to eGFR. The most common inappropriately prescribed medications were famotidine, metformin, perindopril, and ramipril. A significant portion of medications used in heart failure requires dose adjustment. Our results showed that in a typical cohort of patients with heart failure, many drugs are prescribed at inappropriately high doses according to creatinine clearance. Awareness should be increased among physicians caring for patients with heart failure to prevent adverse events related to medications.

  19. To Bind or to Let Loose: Effectiveness of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate in Decreasing Serum Potassium

    PubMed Central

    Sandal, Shaifali; Karachiwala, Hatim; Noviasky, John; Wang, Dongliang; Elliott, William C.; Lehmann, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in decreasing serum potassium has recently been questioned due to the lack of documented effectiveness. Methods. A retrospective cohort analysis of all hospitalized patients who received sodium polystyrene sulfonate over four months was performed. The change in serum potassium was noted over a period of 24 hours. Patients who received any other form of potassium-altering drug or treatment were excluded. Results. The administration of sodium polystyrene sulfonate reduced serum potassium by 16.7% (P < 0.001) as compared to the baseline serum potassium over a period of 24 hours. During this same time, no change in serum creatinine was identified (P = 0.73). In addition, there was no correlation between potassium and creatinine change (r2 = 0.0004 and P = 0.99). Patients with higher initial serum potassium (≥5.6 mEq/L) reduced their potassium concentration 4% more than those with initial serum potassium of <5.6 mEq/L; however, this reduction did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.32). There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of 15 gm and 30 gm resin preparation (P = 0.54). Thirteen deaths were noted in our cohort, of which one death was due to ischemic colitis. Conclusion. We conclude that sodium polystyrene sulfonate is effective in lowering serum potassium. PMID:23476770

  20. Specific gravity as an alternative to creatinine for estimating urine concentration in captive and wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Samples.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Stephanie F; Breakey, Alicia A; Beuerlein, Melanie M; Bribiescas, Richard G

    2009-02-01

    The measurement of hormones in urine has become a widely used technique in primatology. Because urine concentration varies according to fluid intake, concentration must be measured in each sample collected, and hormone values are always expressed per unit of concentration. Traditionally, creatinine has been used as a concentration index, but some studies in humans have shown that creatinine varies among populations and even within and between individuals within a population, and that it begins to degrade after just one freeze-thaw cycle. In addition, creatinine measurement is relatively time-consuming and expensive and creates hazardous waste. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that specific gravity, or the ratio of the density of a sample to that of water, is highly correlated with creatinine measurement in urine samples collected from captive chimpanzees at the New Iberia Research Center in Louisiana and wild chimpanzees at the Ngogo study site in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. We found that specific gravity and creatinine were highly correlated in both captive (N=124) and wild (N=13) chimpanzee samples, and that specific gravity measurement was robust to actual and simulated transport conditions and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. We recommend that researchers consider specific gravity measurement as a preferable alternative to creatinine measurement in their studies of primate endocrinology.

  1. A simple and rapid creatinine sensing via DLS selectivity, using calix[4]arene thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sutariya, Pinkesh G; Pandya, Alok; Lodha, Anand; Menon, Shobhana K

    2016-01-15

    A new, simple, ultra-sensitive and selective approach has been reported for the "on spot" colorimetric detection of creatinine based on calix[4]arene functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with excellent discrimination in the presence of other biomolecules. The lower detection limit of the method is 2.16nM. The gold nanoparticles and p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene were synthesized by microwave assisted method. Specifically, in our study, we used dynamic light scattering (DLS) which is a powerful method for the determination of small changes in particle size, improved selectivity and sensitivity of the creatinine detection system over colorimetric method. The nanoassembly is characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), DLS, UV-vis and ESI-MS spectroscopy, which demonstrates the binding affinity due its ability of hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction between -NH group of creatinine and pSDSC4. It exhibits fast response time (<60s) to creatinine and has long shelf-life (>5 weeks). The developed pSDSC4-AuNPs based creatinine biosensor will be established as simple, reliable and accurate tool for the determination of creatinine in human urine samples.

  2. Determination of renal clearances of amylase/creatinine with chromogenic and enzymatic methods.

    PubMed

    Hohenwallner, W; Wimmer, E; Sommer, R

    1979-12-01

    Urinary amylase was estimated by chromogenic (amylochrome Roche) as well as enzymatic methods (SKI and Beckman: substrate starch and substrate maltotetraose respectively). Random and timed urines (24 hour collections) were analysed. Clearances of amylase gave different results dependent upon the amylase-test used and the glomerular filtration rate. Correlation between chromogenic and enzymatic methods (starch as substrate) was poor. The ratio of amylase and creatinine clearance was used to test different methods. Reference values for this ratio for the amylochrome method (N = 106) were 2.85 +/- 0.99% and for the Beckman-DS method (N = 60) 2.82 +/- 0.87%.

  3. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio and tubular proteinuria in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lankisch, P G; Wolfrum, D I; Koop, H; Winckler, K

    1979-01-01

    Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (CAm/CCr), urinary protein concentration and urinary protein pattern were studied in 102 samples from 27 patients with acute pancreatitis and in 46 controls. Raised CAm/CCr, proteinuria and a tubular protein pattern were present in 74, 56 and 96% of the patients, respectively. However, CAm/CCr and proteinuria and CAm/CCr and tubular protein pattern were not correlated. These results do not support the suggestion that an elevated CAm/CCr in acute pancreatitis is due to generalized tubular protein reabsorption failure presenting with tubular proteinuria.

  4. Prolonged winter undernutrition and the interpretation of urinary allantoin: creatinine ratios in ungulates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.G.; Kerr, K.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    2000-01-01

    The urinary allantoin:creatinine (A:C) ratio (expressed in micromoles of allantoin to micromoles of creatinine) has shown potential as an index of recent winter energy intake in preliminary controlled studies of elk (Cervus elaphus) involving mild condition deterioration (up to 11% loss of body mass). To ensure reliable nutritional assessments of free-ranging cervids by measuring A:C ratios of urine in snow, it is essential to extend this work. We assessed the effect of moderate and severe winter nutritional restriction on urinary A:C ratios of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) that lost up to 32% body mass and related these ratios to metabolizable energy intake (MEI), body-mass loss, and other reported nutritional indicators. Deer in the control group were fed a low-protein, low-energy diet ad libitum, whereas deer in the treatment group were fed restricted amounts of the same diet. MEI was below the winter maintenance requirement for all deer, but was lower (P = 0.029) in treatment deer than in control deer. Percent body-mass loss differed between the two groups as the study progressed, and represented the full range of physiological tolerance (0-32% loss). Mean A:C ratios of control deer, which lost up to 17.4% body mass, showed a slight increasing (P = 0.086) trend, whereas initially similar A:C ratios of severely restricted deer increased (P = 0.0002) markedly by the eighth week (0.52 vs. 0.09 |mol:|mol). The urinary A:C ratio was not related (P = 0.839) to recent (2 days prior to urine sampling) MEI, but there was a marginally significant relation (r2 = 0.42, P = 0.110) between the A:C ratio and cumulative percent mass loss. The urinary A:C ratio was directly related to urinary urea nitrogen: creatinine (r2 = 0.59, P < 0.0001) and 3-methylhistidine:creatinine (r2 = 0.43, P < 0.0001) ratios. This study confirms that elevated and increasing A:C ratios may be due either to increasing energy intake or to accelerated tissue catabolism and

  5. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Noda, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Kato, Nobumasa

    2013-11-15

    Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10–12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009–2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06) μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adult females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83–3.41 ng/dL, 0.01–27.4 μIU/mL and 16.4–54.4 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected. -- Highlights: • Pyrethroid exposure and thyroid hormone status was examined in pregnant women. • Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as a biomarker of exposure. • Iodine nutrition, age and other covariates were included

  6. Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio Associated With Hearing Impairment Among Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yunji; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, June; Lee, Joo Kyung; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Chung-Woo; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) with hearing impairment among diabetic adults in Korea. The study was based on data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012. Participants were 1206 diabetic adults, aged over 19 years, who completed audiometric testing supervised by nationally certified clinicians. Hearing impairment was defined in three grades: no hearing impairment (pure-tone average 0–25 dB), slight hearing impairment (26–40 dB), and disabling hearing impairment (>40 dB) in the better ear at frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Using logistic regression, risk of hearing impairment was assessed after having controlled for confounding factors. Higher levels of ACR and lower levels of eGFR correlated with an increase in percentage of disabling hearing impairment both unilaterally and bilaterally (P < 0.001). Controlling for possible confounding covariates, odds ratios for hearing impairment showed tendency to increase in higher ACR groups (P for trend = 0.029). Similar pattern was examined between eGFR and hearing impairment (P for trend = 0.006). Odds ratios were 1.981 (1.146, 3.424) for ACR Q4 and 2.773 (1.286, 5.983) for eGFR < 60 mL/min. Fall in eGFR and rise in ACR correlated with severity of hearing impairment. The association existed independently of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, new onset of diabetes, education, income, mental stress, noise exposure, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:27124027

  7. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Ho, Wen-Chao; Caffrey, James L.; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  8. Evaluation of serum Resistin in children with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamshary, Abd El-Hamid Salah; El-Shaaer, Osama Saad; Soliman, Doaa Refaay; El-Mashad, Ghada Mohamed; Hussien, Ahmed Ibraheem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High serum resistin levels are associated with the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objectives of this study were to determine the serum concentrations of resistin in children that present with chronic renal failure (CRF) and end stage renal disease (ESRD), in order to examine the impact of hemodialysis (HD) on serum resistin levels, and to determine if a correlation exists between resistin and growth retardation in patients with CRF. Methods This case control study was undertaken in the pediatric hemodialysis unit of the Benha and Menoufia University hospitals from April 2014 to March 2015. The case group consisted of 50 patients with CRF aged from 6–18 years (25 of them under HD and 25 of them under conservative treatment) and 30 healthy children who constituted the control group. Urea, creatinine, and serum resistin were measured before and after the HD session for patients with CRF who are already under HD. Results A highly significant difference was found between the resistin levels in the two groups with mean level of 20.2 ± 7.58 ng/ml in the patient case group as compared to 4.9 ± 1.72 ng/ml in the control group. This highly significant difference found in the resistin level differed according to the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stage of progression as patients on regular HD had resistin levels with a mean of 24.6 ± 7.28 ng/ml while the CKD patients under conservative treatment have resistin level mean of 15.6 ± 4.72 ng/ml. there was a highly significant difference in resistin levels before HD (mean = 24.6 ± 7.28) and after hemodialysis (mean = 14.7 ± 5.2). Conclusion Patients with CRF experienced higher than normal resistin levels as compared to the case control group and it was found that patients on HD had more elevated levels of resistin than did those patients who were on conservative treatment. HD treatments were found to be capable of lowering a patient’s resistin levels. A highly significant negative correlation

  9. Evaluation of serum Resistin in children with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamshary, Abd El-Hamid Salah; El-Shaaer, Osama Saad; Soliman, Doaa Refaay; El-Mashad, Ghada Mohamed; Hussien, Ahmed Ibraheem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High serum resistin levels are associated with the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objectives of this study were to determine the serum concentrations of resistin in children that present with chronic renal failure (CRF) and end stage renal disease (ESRD), in order to examine the impact of hemodialysis (HD) on serum resistin levels, and to determine if a correlation exists between resistin and growth retardation in patients with CRF. Methods This case control study was undertaken in the pediatric hemodialysis unit of the Benha and Menoufia University hospitals from April 2014 to March 2015. The case group consisted of 50 patients with CRF aged from 6–18 years (25 of them under HD and 25 of them under conservative treatment) and 30 healthy children who constituted the control group. Urea, creatinine, and serum resistin were measured before and after the HD session for patients with CRF who are already under HD. Results A highly significant difference was found between the resistin levels in the two groups with mean level of 20.2 ± 7.58 ng/ml in the patient case group as compared to 4.9 ± 1.72 ng/ml in the control group. This highly significant difference found in the resistin level differed according to the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stage of progression as patients on regular HD had resistin levels with a mean of 24.6 ± 7.28 ng/ml while the CKD patients under conservative treatment have resistin level mean of 15.6 ± 4.72 ng/ml. there was a highly significant difference in resistin levels before HD (mean = 24.6 ± 7.28) and after hemodialysis (mean = 14.7 ± 5.2). Conclusion Patients with CRF experienced higher than normal resistin levels as compared to the case control group and it was found that patients on HD had more elevated levels of resistin than did those patients who were on conservative treatment. HD treatments were found to be capable of lowering a patient’s resistin levels. A highly significant negative correlation

  10. Compared with the intake of commercial vegetable juice, the intake of fresh fruit and komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis) juice mixture reduces serum cholesterol in middle-aged men: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vegetables and fruits are rich in vitamins, minerals and, dietary fiber and contribute to the prevention and improvement of obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, inadequate intake of vegetable and fruit is a concern in Japan. We therefore produced a juice mixture of fresh fruit and komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis: B. rapa) with the aim to investigate the effects of this juice mixture on anthropometric data, blood parameters, and dietary intake differences. Methods This study was performed as a single blind and randomized controlled trial. Subjects were 16 men (mean age, 46.4 ± 7.1 years), and they were divided into two groups (control group and intervention group). The intervention group consumed the juice mixture of fresh fruit and B. rapa. The control group consumed commercial vegetable juice. Subjects consumed juice twice a day throughout the weekday, for 4 weeks. We prepared both juices with an equivalent energy balance. Results Weight and body mass index (BMI) of the control group after 4 weeks were significantly increased compared with baseline values. Serum total cholesterol (T-Chol) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Chol) of the intervention group after 4 weeks were significantly reduced compared with baseline values. Furthermore, intake of total vegetables and fruits were significantly increased compared with baseline values in both groups. Conclusions Both vegetable juices contributed to improved intake of total vegetables and fruit. Compared with the intake of commercial vegetable juice, the intake of fresh fruit and B. rapa juice is highly effective in reducing serum cholesterol. Short-term intake of fresh fruit and B. rapa juice was shown to enhance cholesterol metabolism. PMID:24961537

  11. Serum chemistry of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Grant, W E

    1984-04-01

    Values of serum biochemistry were obtained for 33 adult (16 male and 17 female) and six juvenile (four male and two female) collared peccaries collected by trapping and drugging animals from southern Texas during the period July through September 1982. Only cholesterol and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations differed significantly with respect to sex. Juvenile peccaries had significantly lower concentrations of total protein and globulins, but had higher concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and calcium, and a higher albumin/globulin ratio than did adults. Effects of method of capture on biochemical attributes of serum from five gunshot and nine trapped adult peccaries collected from a single herd during March 1983 also were examined. Trapped peccaries had significantly higher levels of serum urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, glucose, and chloride concentrations. Levels of uric acid, calcium, and potassium were significantly lower among the trapped animals.

  12. Serum Thiols as a Biomarker of Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Lalwani, Pritesh; de Souza, Giselle Katiane Bonfim Bacelar; de Lima, Domingos Savio Nunes; Passos, Luiz Fernando Souza; Boechat, Antonio Luiz; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2015-01-01

    Lupus Nephritis (LN) develops in more than half of the Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) patients. However, lack of reliable, specific biomarkers for LN hampers clinical management of patients and impedes development of new therapeutics. The goal of this study was to investigate whether oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with SLE is predictive of renal pathology. Serum biochemical and oxidative stress markers were measured in patients with inactive lupus, active lupus with and without nephritis and compared to healthy control group. To assess the predictive performance of biomarkers, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and cut-offs were used to identify SLE patients with nephritis. We observed an increased oxidative stress response in all SLE patients compared to healthy controls. Among the several biomarkers tested, serum thiols had a significant inverse association with SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Interestingly, thiols were able too aptly differentiate between SLE patients with and without renal pathology, and serum thiol levels were not affected by immunosuppressive drug therapy. The decreased thiols in SLE correlated significantly with serum creatinine and serum C3 levels. Further retrospective evaluation using serum creatinine or C3 levels in combination with thiol’s cutoff values from ROC analysis, we could positively predict chronicity of renal pathology in SLE patients. In summary, serum thiols emerge as an inexpensive and reliable indicator of LN, which may not only help in early identification of renal pathology but also aid in the therapeutic management of the disease, in developing countries with resource poor settings. PMID:25799079

  13. Kidney ageing and renal excretion of amylase.

    PubMed

    Brohée, D; Rondelez, L; Bain, H; de Maertelaer, V

    1982-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) was determined in 180 patients, age range 18-93 years. An inverse correlation was found between ACCR and creatinine clearance (r = -0.40, p less than 0.001) in keeping with the known inverse relationship between the sieving fraction of macromolecules and the glomerular filtration rate. The fractional clearance of amylase was not significantly affected by amylasemia nor by age when the creatinine clearance was also considered in a multiple regression analysis. No increase in ACCR was observed in patients with low molecular weight proteinuria or with induced urine dilution. The authors assume that the tubular reabsorption of amylase is minimal and that the enhancement of ACCR in the elderly mainly reflects modifications in the glomerular filtration dynamics.

  14. Kidney ageing and renal excretion of amylase.

    PubMed

    Brohée, D; Rondelez, L; Bain, H; de Maertelaer, V

    1982-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) was determined in 180 patients, age range 18-93 years. An inverse correlation was found between ACCR and creatinine clearance (r = -0.40, p less than 0.001) in keeping with the known inverse relationship between the sieving fraction of macromolecules and the glomerular filtration rate. The fractional clearance of amylase was not significantly affected by amylasemia nor by age when the creatinine clearance was also considered in a multiple regression analysis. No increase in ACCR was observed in patients with low molecular weight proteinuria or with induced urine dilution. The authors assume that the tubular reabsorption of amylase is minimal and that the enhancement of ACCR in the elderly mainly reflects modifications in the glomerular filtration dynamics. PMID:6186575

  15. Association of serum uric acid with incident atrial fibrillation (from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities [ARIC] study).

    PubMed

    Tamariz, Leonardo; Agarwal, Sunil; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Chamberlain, Alanna M; Prineas, Ronald; Folsom, Aaron R; Ambrose, Marietta; A